WorldWideScience

Sample records for occupant motion sensors

  1. Image-based occupancy sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Luigi Gentile; Brackney, Larry

    2015-05-19

    An image-based occupancy sensor includes a motion detection module that receives and processes an image signal to generate a motion detection signal, a people detection module that receives the image signal and processes the image signal to generate a people detection signal, a face detection module that receives the image signal and processes the image signal to generate a face detection signal, and a sensor integration module that receives the motion detection signal from the motion detection module, receives the people detection signal from the people detection module, receives the face detection signal from the face detection module, and generates an occupancy signal using the motion detection signal, the people detection signal, and the face detection signal, with the occupancy signal indicating vacancy or occupancy, with an occupancy indication specifying that one or more people are detected within the monitored volume.

  2. Motion sensor technologies in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bratitsis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to raise a discussion regarding motion sensor technologies, mainly seen as peripherals of contemporary video game consoles, by examining their exploitation within educational context. An overview of the existing literature is presented, while attempting to categorize the educational approaches which involve motion sensor technologies, in two parts. The first one concerns the education of people with special needs. The utilization of motion sensor technologies, incorporated by game consoles, in the education of such people is examined. The second one refers to various educational approaches in regular education, under which not so many research approaches, but many teaching ideas can be found. The aim of the paper is to serve as a reference point for every individual/group, willing to explore the Sensor-Based Games Based Learning (SBGBL research area, by providing a complete and structured literature review.

  3. Application of inertial sensors for motion analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Soha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our results on the application of various inertial sensors for motion analysis. After the introduction of different sensor types (accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetic field sensor, we discuss the possible data collection and transfer techniques using embedded signal processing and wireless data communication methods [1,2]. Special consideration is given to the interpretation of accelerometer readings, which contains both the static and dynamic components, and is affected by the orientation and rotation of the sensor. We will demonstrate the possibility to decompose these components for quasiperiodic motions. Finally we will demonstrate the application of commercially available devices (Wii sensor, Kinect sensor, mobile phone for motion analysis applications.

  4. Smart office lighting control using occupancy sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Linnartz, J.-P.; Tjalkens, T.J.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, despite the use of efficient LED lighting, lighting consumes a considerable amount of energy. To reduce the energy consumption, many office lighting systems are equipped with occupancy sensors. Since these sensors have a limited reliability in detecting presence, usually very conservative

  5. Stretch sensors for human body motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ben; Gisby, Todd; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Sensing motion of the human body is a difficult task. From an engineers' perspective people are soft highly mobile objects that move in and out of complex environments. As well as the technical challenge of sensing, concepts such as comfort, social intrusion, usability, and aesthetics are paramount in determining whether someone will adopt a sensing solution or not. At the same time the demands for human body motion sensing are growing fast. Athletes want feedback on posture and technique, consumers need new ways to interact with augmented reality devices, and healthcare providers wish to track recovery of a patient. Dielectric elastomer stretch sensors are ideal for bridging this gap. They are soft, flexible, and precise. They are low power, lightweight, and can be easily mounted on the body or embedded into clothing. From a commercialisation point of view stretch sensing is easier than actuation or generation - such sensors can be low voltage and integrated with conventional microelectronics. This paper takes a birds-eye view of the use of these sensors to measure human body motion. A holistic description of sensor operation and guidelines for sensor design will be presented to help technologists and developers in the space.

  6. Wearable Sensor Networks for Motion Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Arsenault

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the development of a full body sensor-based motion tracking system that functions through wearable inertial sensors. The system is comprised of a total of ten wearable sensors and maps the player's motions to an on-screen character in real-time. A hierarchical skeletal model was implemented that allows players to navigate and interact with the virtual world without the need of a hand-held controller. To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, a simple virtual reality game was created. As a wearable system, the ability for the users to engage in activities while not being tied to a camera system, or being forced indoors presents a significant opportunity for mobile entertainment, augmented reality and interactive systems that use the body as a significant form of input. This paper outlines the key developments necessary to implement such a system.

  7. Wireless motion sensor network for monitoring motion in a process, wireless sensor node, reasoning node, and feedback and/or actuation node for such wireless motion sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Marin Perianu, Raluca; Marin Perianu, Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Wireless motion sensor network for monitoring motion in a process comprising at least one wireless sensor node for measuring at least one physical quantity related to motion or orientation, feature extraction means for deriving a feature for the measured quantities, a wireless transmitter connected

  8. Gait Recognition Using Wearable Motion Recording Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davrondzhon Gafurov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an alternative approach, where gait is collected by the sensors attached to the person's body. Such wearable sensors record motion (e.g. acceleration of the body parts during walking. The recorded motion signals are then investigated for person recognition purposes. We analyzed acceleration signals from the foot, hip, pocket and arm. Applying various methods, the best EER obtained for foot-, pocket-, arm- and hip- based user authentication were 5%, 7%, 10% and 13%, respectively. Furthermore, we present the results of our analysis on security assessment of gait. Studying gait-based user authentication (in case of hip motion under three attack scenarios, we revealed that a minimal effort mimicking does not help to improve the acceptance chances of impostors. However, impostors who know their closest person in the database or the genders of the users can be a threat to gait-based authentication. We also provide some new insights toward the uniqueness of gait in case of foot motion. In particular, we revealed the following: a sideway motion of the foot provides the most discrimination, compared to an up-down or forward-backward directions; and different segments of the gait cycle provide different level of discrimination.

  9. Occupation times distribution for Brownian motion on graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Desbois, J

    2002-01-01

    Considering a Brownian motion on a general graph, we study the joint law for the occupation times on all the bonds. In particular, we show that the Laplace transform of this distribution can be expressed as the ratio of two determinants. We give two formulations, with arc or vertex matrices, for this result and discuss a simple example. (letter to the editor)

  10. Motion compensation for structured light sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Debjani; Mertz, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    In order for structured light methods to work outside, the strong background from the sun needs to be suppressed. This can be done with bandpass filters, fast shutters, and background subtraction. In general this last method necessitates the sensor system to be stationary during data taking. The contribution of this paper is a method to compensate for the motion if the system is moving. The key idea is to use video stabilization techniques that work even if the illuminator is switched on and off from one frame to another. We used OpenCV functions and modules to implement a robust and efficient method. We evaluated it under various conditions and tested it on a moving robot outdoors. We will demonstrate that one can not only do 3D reconstruction under strong ambient light, but that it is also possible to observe optical properties of the objects in the environment.

  11. Motion Artifact Quantification and Sensor Fusion for Unobtrusive Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Hoog Antink

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensors integrated into objects of everyday life potentially allow unobtrusive health monitoring at home. However, since the coupling of sensors and subject is not as well-defined as compared to a clinical setting, the signal quality is much more variable and can be disturbed significantly by motion artifacts. One way of tackling this challenge is the combined evaluation of multiple channels via sensor fusion. For robust and accurate sensor fusion, analyzing the influence of motion on different modalities is crucial. In this work, a multimodal sensor setup integrated into an armchair is presented that combines capacitively coupled electrocardiography, reflective photoplethysmography, two high-frequency impedance sensors and two types of ballistocardiography sensors. To quantify motion artifacts, a motion protocol performed by healthy volunteers is recorded with a motion capture system, and reference sensors perform cardiorespiratory monitoring. The shape-based signal-to-noise ratio SNR S is introduced and used to quantify the effect on motion on different sensing modalities. Based on this analysis, an optimal combination of sensors and fusion methodology is developed and evaluated. Using the proposed approach, beat-to-beat heart-rate is estimated with a coverage of 99.5% and a mean absolute error of 7.9 ms on 425 min of data from seven volunteers in a proof-of-concept measurement scenario.

  12. Motion Artifact Quantification and Sensor Fusion for Unobtrusive Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoog Antink, Christoph; Schulz, Florian; Walter, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Sensors integrated into objects of everyday life potentially allow unobtrusive health monitoring at home. However, since the coupling of sensors and subject is not as well-defined as compared to a clinical setting, the signal quality is much more variable and can be disturbed significantly by motion artifacts. One way of tackling this challenge is the combined evaluation of multiple channels via sensor fusion. For robust and accurate sensor fusion, analyzing the influence of motion on different modalities is crucial. In this work, a multimodal sensor setup integrated into an armchair is presented that combines capacitively coupled electrocardiography, reflective photoplethysmography, two high-frequency impedance sensors and two types of ballistocardiography sensors. To quantify motion artifacts, a motion protocol performed by healthy volunteers is recorded with a motion capture system, and reference sensors perform cardiorespiratory monitoring. The shape-based signal-to-noise ratio SNRS is introduced and used to quantify the effect on motion on different sensing modalities. Based on this analysis, an optimal combination of sensors and fusion methodology is developed and evaluated. Using the proposed approach, beat-to-beat heart-rate is estimated with a coverage of 99.5% and a mean absolute error of 7.9 ms on 425 min of data from seven volunteers in a proof-of-concept measurement scenario. PMID:29295594

  13. Motion Artifact Quantification and Sensor Fusion for Unobtrusive Health Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoog Antink, Christoph; Schulz, Florian; Leonhardt, Steffen; Walter, Marian

    2017-12-25

    Sensors integrated into objects of everyday life potentially allow unobtrusive health monitoring at home. However, since the coupling of sensors and subject is not as well-defined as compared to a clinical setting, the signal quality is much more variable and can be disturbed significantly by motion artifacts. One way of tackling this challenge is the combined evaluation of multiple channels via sensor fusion. For robust and accurate sensor fusion, analyzing the influence of motion on different modalities is crucial. In this work, a multimodal sensor setup integrated into an armchair is presented that combines capacitively coupled electrocardiography, reflective photoplethysmography, two high-frequency impedance sensors and two types of ballistocardiography sensors. To quantify motion artifacts, a motion protocol performed by healthy volunteers is recorded with a motion capture system, and reference sensors perform cardiorespiratory monitoring. The shape-based signal-to-noise ratio SNR S is introduced and used to quantify the effect on motion on different sensing modalities. Based on this analysis, an optimal combination of sensors and fusion methodology is developed and evaluated. Using the proposed approach, beat-to-beat heart-rate is estimated with a coverage of 99.5% and a mean absolute error of 7.9 ms on 425 min of data from seven volunteers in a proof-of-concept measurement scenario.

  14. Measuring indoor occupancy in intelligent buildings using the fusion of vision sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dixin; Guan, Xiaohong; Du, Youtian; Zhao, Qianchuan

    2013-01-01

    In intelligent buildings, practical sensing systems designed to gather indoor occupancy information play an indispensable role in improving occupant comfort and energy efficiency. In this paper, we propose a novel method for occupancy measurement based on the video surveillance now widely used in buildings. In our method, we analyze occupant detection both at the entrance and inside the room. A two-stage static detector is presented based on both appearances and shapes to find the human heads in rooms, and motion-based technology is used for occupant detection at the entrance. To model the change of occupancy and combine the detection results from multiple vision sensors located at entrances and inside rooms for more accurate occupancy estimation, we propose a dynamic Bayesian network-based method. The detection results of each vision sensor play the role of evidence nodes of this network, and thus, we can estimate the true occupancy at time t using the evidence prior to (and including) time t. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. (paper)

  15. Threats of Password Pattern Leakage Using Smartwatch Motion Recognition Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihun Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the development of Internet of Things (IoT technologies, wearable markets have been growing rapidly. Smartwatches can be said to be the most representative product in wearable markets, and involve various hardware technologies in order to overcome the limitations of small hardware. Motion recognition sensors are a representative example of those hardware technologies. However, smartwatches and motion recognition sensors that can be worn by users may pose security threats of password pattern leakage. In the present paper, passwords are inferred through experiments to obtain password patterns inputted by users using motion recognition sensors, and verification of the results and the accuracy of the results is shown.

  16. Activity Recognition Invariant to Sensor Orientation with Wearable Motion Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtman, Aras; Barshan, Billur

    2017-08-09

    Most activity recognition studies that employ wearable sensors assume that the sensors are attached at pre-determined positions and orientations that do not change over time. Since this is not the case in practice, it is of interest to develop wearable systems that operate invariantly to sensor position and orientation. We focus on invariance to sensor orientation and develop two alternative transformations to remove the effect of absolute sensor orientation from the raw sensor data. We test the proposed methodology in activity recognition with four state-of-the-art classifiers using five publicly available datasets containing various types of human activities acquired by different sensor configurations. While the ordinary activity recognition system cannot handle incorrectly oriented sensors, the proposed transformations allow the sensors to be worn at any orientation at a given position on the body, and achieve nearly the same activity recognition performance as the ordinary system for which the sensor units are not rotatable. The proposed techniques can be applied to existing wearable systems without much effort, by simply transforming the time-domain sensor data at the pre-processing stage.

  17. Ground-based transmission line conductor motion sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.L.; Milano, U.

    1988-01-01

    A ground-based-conductor motion-sensing apparatus is provided for remotely sensing movement of electric-power transmission lines, particularly as would occur during the wind-induced condition known as galloping. The apparatus is comprised of a motion sensor and signal-generating means which are placed underneath a transmission line and will sense changes in the electric field around the line due to excessive line motion. The detector then signals a remote station when a conditioning of galloping is sensed. The apparatus of the present invention is advantageous over the line-mounted sensors of the prior art in that it is easier and less hazardous to install. The system can also be modified so that a signal will only be given when particular conditions, such as specific temperature range, large-amplitude line motion, or excessive duration of the line motion, are occurring

  18. A triboelectric motion sensor in wearable body sensor network for human activity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Huang; Xian Li; Ye Sun

    2016-08-01

    The goal of this study is to design a novel triboelectric motion sensor in wearable body sensor network for human activity recognition. Physical activity recognition is widely used in well-being management, medical diagnosis and rehabilitation. Other than traditional accelerometers, we design a novel wearable sensor system based on triboelectrification. The triboelectric motion sensor can be easily attached to human body and collect motion signals caused by physical activities. The experiments are conducted to collect five common activity data: sitting and standing, walking, climbing upstairs, downstairs, and running. The k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) clustering algorithm is adopted to recognize these activities and validate the feasibility of this new approach. The results show that our system can perform physical activity recognition with a successful rate over 80% for walking, sitting and standing. The triboelectric structure can also be used as an energy harvester for motion harvesting due to its high output voltage in random low-frequency motion.

  19. DAVID: A new video motion sensor for outdoor perimeter applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    To be effective, a perimeter intrusion detection system must comprise both sensor and rapid assessment components. The use of closed circuit television (CCTV) to provide the rapid assessment capability, makes possible the use of video motion detection (VMD) processing as a system sensor component. Despite it's conceptual appeal, video motion detection has not been widely used in outdoor perimeter systems because of an inability to discriminate between genuine intrusions and numerous environmental effects such as cloud shadows, wind motion, reflections, precipitation, etc. The result has been an unacceptably high false alarm rate and operator work-load. DAVID (Digital Automatic Video Intrusion Detector) utilizes new digital signal processing techniques to achieve a dramatic improvement in discrimination performance thereby making video motion detection practical for outdoor applications. This paper begins with a discussion of the key considerations in implementing an outdoor video intrusion detection system, followed by a description of the DAVID design in light of these considerations

  20. Inertial navigation sensor integrated motion analysis for autonomous vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry; Bhanu, Bir

    1992-01-01

    Recent work on INS integrated motion analysis is described. Results were obtained with a maximally passive system of obstacle detection (OD) for ground-based vehicles and rotorcraft. The OD approach involves motion analysis of imagery acquired by a passive sensor in the course of vehicle travel to generate range measurements to world points within the sensor FOV. INS data and scene analysis results are used to enhance interest point selection, the matching of the interest points, and the subsequent motion-based computations, tracking, and OD. The most important lesson learned from the research described here is that the incorporation of inertial data into the motion analysis program greatly improves the analysis and makes the process more robust.

  1. Wearable sensor system for human localization and motion capture

    OpenAIRE

    Zihajehzadeh, Shaghayegh

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in MEMS wearable inertial/magnetic sensors and mobile computing have fostered a dramatic growth of interest for ambulatory human motion capture (MoCap). Compared to traditional optical MoCap systems such as the optical systems, inertial (i.e. accelerometer and gyroscope) and magnetic sensors do not require external fixtures such as cameras. Hence, they do not have in-the-lab measurement limitations and thus are ideal for ambulatory applications. However, due to the manufacturi...

  2. Analysis of Indoor Rowing Motion using Wearable Inertial Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, S.; Shoaib, M.; Geerlings, Stephen; Buit, Lennart; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this exploratory work the motion of rowers is analyzed while rowing on a rowing machine. This is performed using inertial sensors that measure the orientation at several positions on the body. Using these measurements, this work provides a preliminary analysis of the differences between

  3. Manipulation and controlled amplification of Brownian motion of microcantilever sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Adosh; Cherian, Suman; Hedden, David; Thundat, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Microcantilevers, such as those used in atomic force microscopy, undergo Brownian motion due to mechanical thermal noise. The root mean square amplitude of the Brownian motion of a cantilever typically ranges from 0.01--0.1 nm, which limits its use in practical applications. Here we describe a technique by which the Brownian amplitude and the Q factor in air and water can be amplified by three and two orders of magnitude, respectively. This technique is similar to a positive feedback oscillator, wherein the Brownian motion of the vibrating cantilever controls the frequency output of the oscillator. This technique can be exploited to improve sensitivity of microcantilever-based chemical and biological sensors, especially for sensors in liquid environments

  4. Early Improper Motion Detection in Golf Swings Using Wearable Motion Sensors: The First Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stančin, Sara; Tomažič, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a golf swing to detect improper motion in the early phase of the swing. Led by the desire to achieve a consistent shot outcome, a particular golfer would (in multiple trials) prefer to perform completely identical golf swings. In reality, some deviations from the desired motion are always present due to the comprehensive nature of the swing motion. Swing motion deviations that are not detrimental to performance are acceptable. This analysis is conducted using a golfer's leading arm kinematic data, which are obtained from a golfer wearing a motion sensor that is comprised of gyroscopes and accelerometers. Applying the principal component analysis (PCA) to the reference observations of properly performed swings, the PCA components of acceptable swing motion deviations are established. Using these components, the motion deviations in the observations of other swings are examined. Any unacceptable deviations that are detected indicate an improper swing motion. Arbitrarily long observations of an individual player's swing sequences can be included in the analysis. The results obtained for the considered example show an improper swing motion in early phase of the swing, i.e., the first part of the backswing. An early detection method for improper swing motions that is conducted on an individual basis provides assistance for performance improvement. PMID:23752563

  5. Mobile user identity sensing using the motion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xi; Feng, Tao; Xu, Lei; Shi, Weidong

    2014-05-01

    Employing mobile sensor data to recognize user behavioral activities has been well studied in recent years. However, to adopt the data as a biometric modality has rarely been explored. Existing methods either used the data to recognize gait, which is considered as a distinguished identity feature; or segmented a specific kind of motion for user recognition, such as phone picking-up motion. Since the identity and the motion gesture jointly affect motion data, to fix the gesture (walking or phone picking-up) definitively simplifies the identity sensing problem. However, it meanwhile introduces the complexity from gesture detection or requirement on a higher sample rate from motion sensor readings, which may draw the battery fast and affect the usability of the phone. In general, it is still under investigation that motion based user authentication in a large scale satisfies the accuracy requirement as a stand-alone biometrics modality. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to use the motion sensor readings for user identity sensing. Instead of decoupling the user identity from a gesture, we reasonably assume users have their own distinguishing phone usage habits and extract the identity from fuzzy activity patterns, represented by a combination of body movements whose signals in chains span in relative low frequency spectrum and hand movements whose signals span in relative high frequency spectrum. Then Bayesian Rules are applied to analyze the dependency of different frequency components in the signals. During testing, a posterior probability of user identity given the observed chains can be computed for authentication. Tested on an accelerometer dataset with 347 users, our approach has demonstrated the promising results.

  6. FPGA-Based Embedded Motion Estimation Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyi Wei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate real-time motion estimation is very critical to many computer vision tasks. However, because of its computational power and processing speed requirements, it is rarely used for real-time applications, especially for micro unmanned vehicles. In our previous work, a FPGA system was built to process optical flow vectors of 64 frames of 640×480 image per second. Compared to software-based algorithms, this system achieved much higher frame rate but marginal accuracy. In this paper, a more accurate optical flow algorithm is proposed. Temporal smoothing is incorporated in the hardware structure which significantly improves the algorithm accuracy. To accommodate temporal smoothing, the hardware structure is composed of two parts: the derivative (DER module produces intermediate results and the optical flow computation (OFC module calculates the final optical flow vectors. Software running on a built-in processor on the FPGA chip is used in the design to direct the data flow and manage hardware components. This new design has been implemented on a compact, low power, high performance hardware platform for micro UV applications. It is able to process 15 frames of 640×480 image per second and with much improved accuracy. Higher frame rate can be achieved with further optimization and additional memory space.

  7. Extraction and Analysis of Respiratory Motion Using Wearable Inertial Sensor System during Trunk Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Gaidhani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory activity is an essential vital sign of life that can indicate changes in typical breathing patterns and irregular body functions such as asthma and panic attacks. Many times, there is a need to monitor breathing activity while performing day-to-day functions such as standing, bending, trunk stretching or during yoga exercises. A single IMU (inertial measurement unit can be used in measuring respiratory motion; however, breathing motion data may be influenced by a body trunk movement that occurs while recording respiratory activity. This research employs a pair of wireless, wearable IMU sensors custom-made by the Department of Electrical Engineering at San Diego State University. After appropriate sensor placement for data collection, this research applies principles of robotics, using the Denavit-Hartenberg convention, to extract relative angular motion between the two sensors. One of the obtained relative joint angles in the “Sagittal” plane predominantly yields respiratory activity. An improvised version of the proposed method and wearable, wireless sensors can be suitable to extract respiratory information while performing sports or exercises, as they do not restrict body motion or the choice of location to gather data.

  8. Motion Sensor Reactivity in Physically Active Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether young adults changed their physical activity (PA) behavior when wearing motion sensors. PA patterns of 119 young adults (M age = 20.82 years, SD = 1.50, M body mass index = 23.93 kg/m[superscript 2] , SD = 4.05) were assessed during 2 consecutive weeks. In Week 1, participants wore an accelerometer.…

  9. Feasibility study of patient motion monitoring using tactile array sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Dong Su; Cho, Min Seok; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon; Suh, Tae Suk; Kim, Si Yong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate patient pretreatment set-up error and intra-fraction motion using the tactile array sensors (Pressure Profile Systems Inc, Los Angeles, CA) which could measure distributed pressure profiles along the contacting surface and to check a feasibility of the sensor (tactile array sensor) in the patient motion monitoring. Laser alignment and optical camera based monitoring system are very useful for reduce patient set-up error but these systems could not monitor the blind area like patient's back position. Actually after patient alignment using laser or optical monitoring system, it was assumed that there is no error in the patient's back position (pressure profile distribution). But if an error occurs in the patient's back position, it will affect the radiation therapy accuracy. In spite of optical motion monitoring or using the immobilization tool, distributed pressure profiles of patient's back position was changed during inter and intra-fraction. For more accurate patient set-up, blind area (patient's back) monitoring was necessary. We expect that the proposed method will be very useful for make up for the weakness of optical monitoring method

  10. Feasibility study of patient motion monitoring using tactile array sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Dong Su; Cho, Min Seok; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Si Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate patient pretreatment set-up error and intra-fraction motion using the tactile array sensors (Pressure Profile Systems Inc, Los Angeles, CA) which could measure distributed pressure profiles along the contacting surface and to check a feasibility of the sensor (tactile array sensor) in the patient motion monitoring. Laser alignment and optical camera based monitoring system are very useful for reduce patient set-up error but these systems could not monitor the blind area like patient's back position. Actually after patient alignment using laser or optical monitoring system, it was assumed that there is no error in the patient's back position (pressure profile distribution). But if an error occurs in the patient's back position, it will affect the radiation therapy accuracy. In spite of optical motion monitoring or using the immobilization tool, distributed pressure profiles of patient's back position was changed during inter and intra-fraction. For more accurate patient set-up, blind area (patient's back) monitoring was necessary. We expect that the proposed method will be very useful for make up for the weakness of optical monitoring method.

  11. Revealing Occupancy Patterns in Office Buildings Through the use of Annual Occupancy Sensor Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Duarte; Kevin Van Den Wymelenberg; Craig Rieger

    2013-06-01

    Energy simulation programs like DOE-2 and EnergyPlus are tools that have been proven to aid with energy calculations to predict energy use in buildings. Some inputs to energy simulation models are relatively easy to find, including building size, orientation, construction materials, and HVAC system size and type. Others vary with time (e.g. weather and occupancy) and some can be a challenge to estimate in order to create an accurate simulation. In this paper, the analysis of occupancy sensor data for a large commercial, multi-tenant office building is presented. It details occupancy diversity factors for private offices and summarizes the same for open offices, hallways, conference rooms, break rooms, and restrooms in order to better inform energy simulation parameters. Long-term data were collected allowing results to be presented to show variations of occupancy diversity factors in private offices for time of day, day of the week, holidays, and month of the year. The diversity factors presented differ as much as 46% from those currently published in ASHRAE 90.1 2004 energy cost method guidelines, a document referenced by energy modelers regarding occupancy diversity factors for simulations. This may result in misleading simulation results and may introduce inefficiencies in the final equipment and systems design.

  12. Feedback control of occupant motion during a crash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesseling, R.J.; Steinbuch, M.; Veldpaus, F.E.; Klisch, T.

    2006-01-01

    Passive in-vehicle safety systems such as the air bag and the belt restrain the occupant during a crash. However, often their behavior is not optimal in terms of occupant injuries. This paper discusses an approach to design an ideal restraint system. The problem is formulated as a feedback tracking

  13. Naturalistic driving study of rear seat child occupants: Quantification of head position using a Kinect™ sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Kim, Jinyong; Loeb, Helen; Kuo, Jonny; Koppel, Sjaan; Bohman, Katarina; Charlton, Judith L

    2016-09-01

    Restraint performance is evaluated using anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) positioned in prescribed, optimal seating positions. Anecdotally, humans-children in particular-assume a variety of positions that may affect restraint performance. Naturalistic driving studies (NDSs), where cameras and other data acquisition systems are placed in a vehicle used by participants during their regular transportation, offer means to collect these data. To date, these studies have used conventional video and analysis methods and, thus, analyses have largely been qualitative. This article describes a recently completed NDS of child occupants in which their position was monitored using a Kinect sensor to quantify their head position throughout normal, everyday driving trips. A study vehicle was instrumented with a data acquisition system to measure vehicle dynamics, a set of video cameras, and a Kinect sensor providing 3D motion capture at 1 Hz of the rear seat occupants. Participant families used the vehicle for all driving trips over 2 weeks. The child occupants' head position was manually identified via custom software from each Kinect color image. The 3D head position was then extracted and its distribution summarized by seat position (left, rear, center) and restraint type (forward-facing child restraint system [FFCRS], booster seat, seat belt). Data from 18 families (37 child occupants) resulted in 582 trips (with children) for analysis. The average age of the child occupants was 45.6 months and 51% were male. Twenty-five child occupants were restrained in FFCRS, 9 in booster seats, and 3 in seat belts. As restraint type moved from more to less restraint (FFCRS to booster seat to seat belt), the range of fore-aft head position increased: 218, 244, and 340 mm on average, respectively. This observation was also true for left-right movement for every seat position. In general, those in the center seat position demonstrated a smaller range of head positions. For the first

  14. On-Line Detection and Segmentation of Sports Motions Using a Wearable Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosuk Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In sports motion analysis, observation is a prerequisite for understanding the quality of motions. This paper introduces a novel approach to detect and segment sports motions using a wearable sensor for supporting systematic observation. The main goal is, for convenient analysis, to automatically provide motion data, which are temporally classified according to the phase definition. For explicit segmentation, a motion model is defined as a sequence of sub-motions with boundary states. A sequence classifier based on deep neural networks is designed to detect sports motions from continuous sensor inputs. The evaluation on two types of motions (soccer kicking and two-handed ball throwing verifies that the proposed method is successful for the accurate detection and segmentation of sports motions. By developing a sports motion analysis system using the motion model and the sequence classifier, we show that the proposed method is useful for observation of sports motions by automatically providing relevant motion data for analysis.

  15. On-Line Detection and Segmentation of Sports Motions Using a Wearable Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woosuk; Kim, Myunggyu

    2018-03-19

    In sports motion analysis, observation is a prerequisite for understanding the quality of motions. This paper introduces a novel approach to detect and segment sports motions using a wearable sensor for supporting systematic observation. The main goal is, for convenient analysis, to automatically provide motion data, which are temporally classified according to the phase definition. For explicit segmentation, a motion model is defined as a sequence of sub-motions with boundary states. A sequence classifier based on deep neural networks is designed to detect sports motions from continuous sensor inputs. The evaluation on two types of motions (soccer kicking and two-handed ball throwing) verifies that the proposed method is successful for the accurate detection and segmentation of sports motions. By developing a sports motion analysis system using the motion model and the sequence classifier, we show that the proposed method is useful for observation of sports motions by automatically providing relevant motion data for analysis.

  16. Human-motion energy harvester for autonomous body area sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, M.; Boisseau, S.; Perez, M.; Gasnier, P.; Willemin, J.; Ait-Ali, I.; Perraud, S.

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports on a method to optimize an electromagnetic energy harvester converting the low-frequency body motion and aimed at powering wireless body area sensors. This method is based on recorded accelerations, and mechanical and transduction models that enable an efficient joint optimization of the structural parameters. An optimized prototype of 14.8 mmØ × 52 mm, weighting 20 g, has generated up to 4.95 mW in a resistive load when worn at the arm during a run, and 6.57 mW when hand-shaken. Among the inertial electromagnetic energy harvesters reported so far, this one exhibits one of the highest power densities (up to 730 μW cm-3). The energy harvester was finally used to power a bluetooth low energy wireless sensor node with accelerations measurements at 25 Hz.

  17. Relative Vessel Motion Tracking using Sensor Fusion, Aruco Markers, and MRU Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondre Sanden Tordal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach for estimating the relative motion between two moving offshore vessels. The method is based on a sensor fusion algorithm including a vision system and two motion reference units (MRUs. The vision system makes use of the open-source computer vision library OpenCV and a cube with Aruco markers placed onto each of the cube sides. The Extended Quaternion Kalman Filter (EQKF is used for bad pose rejection for the vision system. The presented sensor fusion algorithm is based on the Indirect Feedforward Kalman Filter for error estimation. The system is self-calibrating in the sense that the Aruco cube can be placed in an arbitrary location on the secondary vessel. Experimental 6-DOF results demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed sensor fusion method compared with the internal joint sensors of two Stewart platforms and the industrial robot. The standard deviation error was found to be 31mm or better when the Arcuo cube was placed at three different locations.

  18. Wearable Stretch Sensors for Motion Measurement of the Wrist Joint Based on Dielectric Elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Li, Mingyu; Mei, Tao; McCoul, David; Qin, Shihao; Zhao, Zhanfeng; Zhao, Jianwen

    2017-11-23

    Motion capture of the human body potentially holds great significance for exoskeleton robots, human-computer interaction, sports analysis, rehabilitation research, and many other areas. Dielectric elastomer sensors (DESs) are excellent candidates for wearable human motion capture systems because of their intrinsic characteristics of softness, light weight, and compliance. In this paper, DESs were applied to measure all component motions of the wrist joints. Five sensors were mounted to different positions on the wrist, and each one is for one component motion. To find the best position to mount the sensors, the distribution of the muscles is analyzed. Even so, the component motions and the deformation of the sensors are coupled; therefore, a decoupling method was developed. By the decoupling algorithm, all component motions can be measured with a precision of 5°, which meets the requirements of general motion capture systems.

  19. Improving pulse oximetry accuracy by removing motion artifacts from photoplethysmograms using relative sensor motion: a preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijshoff, R.W.C.G.R.; Mischi, M.; Woerlee, P.H.; Aarts, R.M.; Van Huffel, S.; Naelaers, G.; Caicedo, A.; Bruley, D.F.; Harrison, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    To expand applicability of pulse oximetry in low-acuity ambulatory settings, the impact of motion on extracted parameters as saturation (SpO2) and pulse rate (PR) needs to be reduced. We hypothesized that sensor motion relative to the skin can be used as an artifact reference in a correlation

  20. Full-wave receiver architecture for the homodyne motion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Peter C; Dallum, Gregory E; Welsh, Patrick A; Romero, Carlos E

    2013-11-19

    A homodyne motion sensor or detector based on ultra-wideband radar utilizes the entire received waveform through implementation of a voltage boosting receiver. The receiver includes a receiver input and a receiver output. A first diode is connected to the receiver output. A first charge storage capacitor is connected from between the first diode and the receiver output to ground. A second charge storage capacitor is connected between the receiver input and the first diode. A second diode is connected from between the second charge storage capacitor and the first diode to ground. The dual diode receiver performs voltage boosting of a RF signal received at the receiver input, thereby enhancing receiver sensitivity.

  1. Full-wave receiver architecture for the homodyne motion sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugen, Peter C.; Dallum, Gregory E.; Welsh, Patrick A.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2015-09-29

    A homodyne motion sensor or detector based on ultra-wideband radar utilizes the entire received waveform through implementation of a voltage boosting receiver. The receiver includes a receiver input and a receiver output. A first diode is connected to the receiver output. A first charge storage capacitor is connected from between the first diode and the receiver output to ground. A second charge storage capacitor is connected between the receiver input and the first diode. A second diode is connected from between the second charge storage capacitor and the first diode to ground. The dual diode receiver performs voltage boosting of a RF signal received at the receiver input, thereby enhancing receiver sensitivity.

  2. Multi-Sensor Methods for Mobile Radar Motion Capture and Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Robert

    Remote sensing has many applications, including surveying and mapping, geophysics exploration, military surveillance, search and rescue and counter-terrorism operations. Remote sensor systems typically use visible image, infrared or radar sensors. Camera based image sensors can provide high spatial resolution but are limited to line-of-sight capture during daylight. Infrared sensors have lower resolution but can operate during darkness. Radar sensors can provide high resolution motion measurements, even when obscured by weather, clouds and smoke and can penetrate walls and collapsed structures constructed with non-metallic materials up to 1 m to 2 m in depth depending on the wavelength and transmitter power level. However, any platform motion will degrade the target signal of interest. In this dissertation, we investigate alternative methodologies to capture platform motion, including a Body Area Network (BAN) that doesn't require external fixed location sensors, allowing full mobility of the user. We also investigated platform stabilization and motion compensation techniques to reduce and remove the signal distortion introduced by the platform motion. We evaluated secondary ultrasonic and radar sensors to stabilize the platform resulting in an average 5 dB of Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) improvement. We also implemented a Digital Signal Processing (DSP) motion compensation algorithm that improved the SIR by 18 dB on average. These techniques could be deployed on a quadcopter platform and enable the detection of respiratory motion using an onboard radar sensor.

  3. Sensor Fusion - Sonar and Stereo Vision, Using Occupancy Grids and SIFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plascencia, Alfredo; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2006-01-01

    to the occupied and empty regions. SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) feature descriptors are  interpreted using gaussian probabilistic error models. The use of occupancy grids is proposed for representing the sonar  as well as the features descriptors readings. The Bayesian estimation approach is applied...... to update the sonar and the SIFT descriptors' uncertainty grids. The sensor fusion yields a significant reduction in the uncertainty of the occupancy grid compared to the individual sensor readings....

  4. Wireless Occupancy Sensors for Lighting Controls: An Applications Guide for Federal Facility Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-15

    This guide provides federal facility managers with an overview of the energy savings potential of wireless lighting occupancy sensors for various room types, cost considerations, key steps to successful installation of wireless sensors, pros and cons of various technology options, light source considerations, and codes and standards.

  5. 1 kHz 2D Visual Motion Sensor Using 20 × 20 Silicon Retina Optical Sensor and DSP Microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Chii; Yang, MinHao; Steiner, Andreas; Moeckel, Rico; Delbruck, Tobi

    2015-04-01

    Optical flow sensors have been a long running theme in neuromorphic vision sensors which include circuits that implement the local background intensity adaptation mechanism seen in biological retinas. This paper reports a bio-inspired optical motion sensor aimed towards miniature robotic and aerial platforms. It combines a 20 × 20 continuous-time CMOS silicon retina vision sensor with a DSP microcontroller. The retina sensor has pixels that have local gain control and adapt to background lighting. The system allows the user to validate various motion algorithms without building dedicated custom solutions. Measurements are presented to show that the system can compute global 2D translational motion from complex natural scenes using one particular algorithm: the image interpolation algorithm (I2A). With this algorithm, the system can compute global translational motion vectors at a sample rate of 1 kHz, for speeds up to ±1000 pixels/s, using less than 5 k instruction cycles (12 instructions per pixel) per frame. At 1 kHz sample rate the DSP is 12% occupied with motion computation. The sensor is implemented as a 6 g PCB consuming 170 mW of power.

  6. Ferroelectric Zinc Oxide Nanowire Embedded Flexible Sensor for Motion and Temperature Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Ho; Park, Dae Hoon; Jung, Joo-Yun; Lee, Min Hyung; Nah, Junghyo

    2017-03-22

    We report a simple method to realize multifunctional flexible motion sensor using ferroelectric lithium-doped ZnO-PDMS. The ferroelectric layer enables piezoelectric dynamic sensing and provides additional motion information to more precisely discriminate different motions. The PEDOT:PSS-functionalized AgNWs, working as electrode layers for the piezoelectric sensing layer, resistively detect a change of both movement or temperature. Thus, through the optimal integration of both elements, the sensing limit, accuracy, and functionality can be further expanded. The method introduced here is a simple and effective route to realize a high-performance flexible motion sensor with integrated multifunctionalities.

  7. Use of Occupancy Sensors in LED Parking Lot and Garage Applications: Early Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael; Royer, Michael P.; Sullivan, Greg P.

    2012-11-07

    Occupancy sensor systems are gaining traction as an effective technological approach to reducing energy use in exterior commercial lighting applications. Done correctly, occupancy sensors can substantially enhance the savings from an already efficient lighting system. However, this technology is confronted by several potential challenges and pitfalls that can leave a significant amount of the prospective savings on the table. This report describes anecdotal experiences from field installations of occupancy sensor controlled light-emitting diode (LED) lighting at two parking structures and two parking lots. The relative levels of success at these installations reflect a marked range of potential outcomes: from an additional 76% in energy savings to virtually no additional savings. Several issues that influenced savings were encountered in these early stage installations and are detailed in the report. Ultimately, care must be taken in the design, selection, and commissioning of a sensor-controlled lighting installation, else the only guaranteed result may be its cost.

  8. Phase coded, micro-power impulse radar motion sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    A motion sensing, micro-power impulse radar MIR impresses on the transmitted signal, or the received pulse timing signal, one or more frequencies lower than the pulse repetition frequency, that become intermediate frequencies in a ''IF homodyne'' receiver. Thus, many advantages of classical RF receivers can be thereby be realized with ultra-wide band radar. The sensor includes a transmitter which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal at a nominal pulse repetition frequency. A receiver samples echoes of the sequence of electromagnetic pulses from objects within the field with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The relative timing of the transmit timing signal and the receive timing signal is modulated between a first relative delay and a second relative delay at an intermediate frequency, causing the receiver to sample the echoes such that the time between transmissions of pulses in the sequence and samples by the receiver is modulated at the intermediate frequency. Modulation may be executed by modulating the pulse repetition frequency which drives the transmitter, by modulating the delay circuitry which controls the relative timing of the sample strobe, or by modulating amplitude of the transmitted pulses. The electromagnetic pulses will have a nominal center frequency related to pulse width, and the first relative delay and the second relative delay between which the timing signals are modulated, differ by less than the nominal pulse width, and preferably by about one-quarter wavelength at the nominal center frequency of the transmitted pulses. 5 figs

  9. Sensitive and Flexible Polymeric Strain Sensor for Accurate Human Motion Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hassan; Razmjou, Amir; Ebrahimi Warkiani, Majid; Kottapalli, Ajay; Asadnia, Mohsen

    2018-02-01

    Flexible electronic devices offer the capability to integrate and adapt with human body. These devices are mountable on surfaces with various shapes, which allow us to attach them to clothes or directly onto the body. This paper suggests a facile fabrication strategy via electrospinning to develop a stretchable, and sensitive poly (vinylidene fluoride) nanofibrous strain sensor for human motion monitoring. A complete characterization on the single PVDF nano fiber has been performed. The charge generated by PVDF electrospun strain sensor changes was employed as a parameter to control the finger motion of the robotic arm. As a proof of concept, we developed a smart glove with five sensors integrated into it to detect the fingers motion and transfer it to a robotic hand. Our results shows that the proposed strain sensors are able to detect tiny motion of fingers and successfully run the robotic hand.

  10. Reflections on Students’ Projects with Motion Sensor Technologies in a Problem-Based Learning Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga; Triantafyllidis, George

    2014-01-01

    Game-based learning (GBL) has been applied in many fields to enhance learning motivations. In recent years, motion sensor technologies have been also introduced in GBL with the aim of using active, physical modalities to facilitate the learning process, while fostering social development...... and collaboration (when these activities involve more than one student at a time). The approaches described in literature, which used motion sensors in GBL, cover a broad spectrum of educational fields. These approaches investigated the effect of learning games using motion sensors on the development of specific...... skills or on the learning experience. This paper presents our experiences on the educational use of motion sensor technologies. Our research was conducted at the department of Medialogy in Aalborg University Copenhagen. Aalborg University applies a problem-based, project-organized model of teaching...

  11. Patient cloth with motion recognition sensors based on flexible piezoelectric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngsu Cha; Kihyuk Nam; Doik Kim

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce a patient cloth for position monitoring using motion recognition sensors based on flexible piezoelectric materials. The motion recognition sensors are embedded in three parts, which are the knee, hip and back, in the patient cloth. We use polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as the flexible piezoelectric material for the sensors. By using the piezoelectric effect of the PVDF, we detect electrical signals when the cloth is bent or extended. We analyze the sensing values for our human motions by processing the sensor outputs in a custom-made program. Specifically, we focus on the transitions between standing and sitting, and sitting knee extension and supine position, which are important motions for patient monitoring.

  12. Weigh-in-Motion Sensor and Controller Operation and Performance Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This research project utilized statistical inference and comparison techniques to compare the performance of different Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) sensors. First, we analyzed test-vehicle data to perform an accuracy check of the results reported by the sen...

  13. Camera-marker and inertial sensor fusion for improved motion tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roetenberg, D.; Veltink, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    A method for combining a camera-marker based motion analysis system with miniature inertial sensors is proposed. It is used to fill gaps of optical data and can increase the data rate of the optical system.

  14. Sensitive and Flexible Polymeric Strain Sensor for Accurate Human Motion Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Khan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Flexible electronic devices offer the capability to integrate and adapt with human body. These devices are mountable on surfaces with various shapes, which allow us to attach them to clothes or directly onto the body. This paper suggests a facile fabrication strategy via electrospinning to develop a stretchable, and sensitive poly (vinylidene fluoride nanofibrous strain sensor for human motion monitoring. A complete characterization on the single PVDF nano fiber has been performed. The charge generated by PVDF electrospun strain sensor changes was employed as a parameter to control the finger motion of the robotic arm. As a proof of concept, we developed a smart glove with five sensors integrated into it to detect the fingers motion and transfer it to a robotic hand. Our results shows that the proposed strain sensors are able to detect tiny motion of fingers and successfully run the robotic hand.

  15. The Use of Wearable Inertial Motion Sensors in Human Lower Limb Biomechanics Studies: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Yan Chan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wearable motion sensors consisting of accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetic sensors are readily available nowadays. The small size and low production costs of motion sensors make them a very good tool for human motions analysis. However, data processing and accuracy of the collected data are important issues for research purposes. In this paper, we aim to review the literature related to usage of inertial sensors in human lower limb biomechanics studies. A systematic search was done in the following search engines: ISI Web of Knowledge, Medline, SportDiscus and IEEE Xplore. Thirty nine full papers and conference abstracts with related topics were included in this review. The type of sensor involved, data collection methods, study design, validation methods and its applications were reviewed.

  16. The use of wearable inertial motion sensors in human lower limb biomechanics studies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Chan, Yue-Yan

    2010-01-01

    Wearable motion sensors consisting of accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetic sensors are readily available nowadays. The small size and low production costs of motion sensors make them a very good tool for human motions analysis. However, data processing and accuracy of the collected data are important issues for research purposes. In this paper, we aim to review the literature related to usage of inertial sensors in human lower limb biomechanics studies. A systematic search was done in the following search engines: ISI Web of Knowledge, Medline, SportDiscus and IEEE Xplore. Thirty nine full papers and conference abstracts with related topics were included in this review. The type of sensor involved, data collection methods, study design, validation methods and its applications were reviewed.

  17. Cardiopulmonary Response to Videogaming: Slaying Monsters Using Motion Sensor Versus Joystick Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jeffrey D; Sherman, Michael S; Heiman-Patterson, Terry

    2014-10-01

    Replacing physical activity with videogaming has been implicated in causing obesity. Studies have shown that using motion-sensing controllers with activity-promoting videogames expends energy comparable to aerobic exercise; however, effects of motion-sensing controllers have not been examined with traditional (non-exercise-promoting) videogames. We measured indirect calorimetry and heart rate in 14 subjects during rest and traditional videogaming using motion sensor and joystick controllers. Energy expenditure was higher while subjects were playing with the motion sensor (1.30±0.32 kcal/kg/hour) than with the joystick (1.07±0.26 kcal/kg/hour; Pvideogaming averaged 15.7 percent of predicted maximum for the motion sensor and 11.8 percent of maximum for the joystick. Minute ventilation was higher playing with the motion sensor (10.7±3.5 L/minute) than with the joystick (8.6±1.8 L/minute; Pvideogaming, rather than a result of exercise. We conclude that using a motion sensor with traditional videogames does not provide adequate energy expenditure to provide cardiovascular conditioning.

  18. Using the Scroll Wheel on a Wireless Mouse as a Motion Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard S.; Wilson, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Since its inception in the mid-80s, the computer mouse has undergone several design changes. As the mouse has evolved, physicists have found new ways to utilize it as a motion sensor. For example, the rollers in a mechanical mouse have been used as pulleys to study the motion of a magnet moving through a copper tube as a quantitative demonstration…

  19. Self-adapted and tunable graphene strain sensors for detecting both subtle and large human motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lu-Qi; Wang, Dan-Yang; Tian, He; Ju, Zhen-Yi; Liu, Ying; Pang, Yu; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2017-06-22

    Conventional strain sensors rarely have both a high gauge factor and a large strain range simultaneously, so they can only be used in specific situations where only a high sensitivity or a large strain range is required. However, for detecting human motions that include both subtle and large motions, these strain sensors can't meet the diverse demands simultaneously. Here, we come up with laser patterned graphene strain sensors with self-adapted and tunable performance for the first time. A series of strain sensors with either an ultrahigh gauge factor or a preferable strain range can be fabricated simultaneously via one-step laser patterning, and are suitable for detecting all human motions. The strain sensors have a GF of up to 457 with a strain range of 35%, or have a strain range of up to 100% with a GF of 268. Most importantly, the performance of the strain sensors can be easily tuned by adjusting the patterns of the graphene, so that the sensors can meet diverse demands in both subtle and large motion situations. The graphene strain sensors show significant potential in applications such as wearable electronics, health monitoring and intelligent robots. Furthermore, the facile, fast and low-cost fabrication method will make them possible and practical to be used for commercial applications in the future.

  20. Complex Human Activity Recognition Using Smartphone and Wrist-Worn Motion Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shoaib, M.; Bosch, S.; Durmaz, O.; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The position of on-body motion sensors plays an important role in human activity recognition. Most often, mobile phone sensors at the trouser pocket or an equivalent position are used for this purpose. However, this position is not suitable for recognizing activities that involve hand gestures, such

  1. User-Independent Motion State Recognition Using Smartphone Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fuqiang; Kealy, Allison; Khoshelham, Kourosh; Shang, Jianga

    2015-12-04

    The recognition of locomotion activities (e.g., walking, running, still) is important for a wide range of applications like indoor positioning, navigation, location-based services, and health monitoring. Recently, there has been a growing interest in activity recognition using accelerometer data. However, when utilizing only acceleration-based features, it is difficult to differentiate varying vertical motion states from horizontal motion states especially when conducting user-independent classification. In this paper, we also make use of the newly emerging barometer built in modern smartphones, and propose a novel feature called pressure derivative from the barometer readings for user motion state recognition, which is proven to be effective for distinguishing vertical motion states and does not depend on specific users' data. Seven types of motion states are defined and six commonly-used classifiers are compared. In addition, we utilize the motion state history and the characteristics of people's motion to improve the classification accuracies of those classifiers. Experimental results show that by using the historical information and human's motion characteristics, we can achieve user-independent motion state classification with an accuracy of up to 90.7%. In addition, we analyze the influence of the window size and smartphone pose on the accuracy.

  2. User-Independent Motion State Recognition Using Smartphone Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Gu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of locomotion activities (e.g., walking, running, still is important for a wide range of applications like indoor positioning, navigation, location-based services, and health monitoring. Recently, there has been a growing interest in activity recognition using accelerometer data. However, when utilizing only acceleration-based features, it is difficult to differentiate varying vertical motion states from horizontal motion states especially when conducting user-independent classification. In this paper, we also make use of the newly emerging barometer built in modern smartphones, and propose a novel feature called pressure derivative from the barometer readings for user motion state recognition, which is proven to be effective for distinguishing vertical motion states and does not depend on specific users’ data. Seven types of motion states are defined and six commonly-used classifiers are compared. In addition, we utilize the motion state history and the characteristics of people’s motion to improve the classification accuracies of those classifiers. Experimental results show that by using the historical information and human’s motion characteristics, we can achieve user-independent motion state classification with an accuracy of up to 90.7%. In addition, we analyze the influence of the window size and smartphone pose on the accuracy.

  3. Recommended survey designs for occupancy modelling using motion-activated cameras: insights from empirical wildlife data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Shannon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Motion-activated cameras are a versatile tool that wildlife biologists can use for sampling wild animal populations to estimate species occurrence. Occupancy modelling provides a flexible framework for the analysis of these data; explicitly recognizing that given a species occupies an area the probability of detecting it is often less than one. Despite the number of studies using camera data in an occupancy framework, there is only limited guidance from the scientific literature about survey design trade-offs when using motion-activated cameras. A fuller understanding of these trade-offs will allow researchers to maximise available resources and determine whether the objectives of a monitoring program or research study are achievable. We use an empirical dataset collected from 40 cameras deployed across 160 km2 of the Western Slope of Colorado, USA to explore how survey effort (number of cameras deployed and the length of sampling period affects the accuracy and precision (i.e., error of the occupancy estimate for ten mammal and three virtual species. We do this using a simulation approach where species occupancy and detection parameters were informed by empirical data from motion-activated cameras. A total of 54 survey designs were considered by varying combinations of sites (10–120 cameras and occasions (20–120 survey days. Our findings demonstrate that increasing total sampling effort generally decreases error associated with the occupancy estimate, but changing the number of sites or sampling duration can have very different results, depending on whether a species is spatially common or rare (occupancy = ψ and easy or hard to detect when available (detection probability = p. For rare species with a low probability of detection (i.e., raccoon and spotted skunk the required survey effort includes maximizing the number of sites and the number of survey days, often to a level that may be logistically unrealistic for many studies. For common

  4. Motion camera based on a custom vision sensor and an FPGA architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Estrada, Miguel

    1998-09-01

    A digital camera for custom focal plane arrays was developed. The camera allows the test and development of analog or mixed-mode arrays for focal plane processing. The camera is used with a custom sensor for motion detection to implement a motion computation system. The custom focal plane sensor detects moving edges at the pixel level using analog VLSI techniques. The sensor communicates motion events using the event-address protocol associated to a temporal reference. In a second stage, a coprocessing architecture based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) computes the time-of-travel between adjacent pixels. The FPGA allows rapid prototyping and flexible architecture development. Furthermore, the FPGA interfaces the sensor to a compact PC computer which is used for high level control and data communication to the local network. The camera could be used in applications such as self-guided vehicles, mobile robotics and smart surveillance systems. The programmability of the FPGA allows the exploration of further signal processing like spatial edge detection or image segmentation tasks. The article details the motion algorithm, the sensor architecture, the use of the event- address protocol for velocity vector computation and the FPGA architecture used in the motion camera system.

  5. 3D Measurement of Forearm and Upper Arm during Throwing Motion using Body Mounted Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Hideharu; Sagawa, Koichi; Kuroshima, Kouta; Tsukamoto, Toshiaki; Urita, Kazutaka; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki

    The aim of this study is to propose the measurement method of three-dimensional (3D) movement of forearm and upper arm during pitching motion of baseball using inertial sensors without serious consideration of sensor installation. Although high accuracy measurement of sports motion is achieved by using optical motion capture system at present, it has some disadvantages such as the calibration of cameras and limitation of measurement place. Whereas the proposed method for 3D measurement of pitching motion using body mounted sensors provides trajectory and orientation of upper arm by the integration of acceleration and angular velocity measured on upper limb. The trajectory of forearm is derived so that the elbow joint axis of forearm corresponds to that of upper arm. Spatial relation between upper limb and sensor system is obtained by performing predetermined movements of upper limb and utilizing angular velocity and gravitational acceleration. The integration error is modified so that the estimated final position, velocity and posture of upper limb agree with the actual ones. The experimental results of the measurement of pitching motion show that trajectories of shoulder, elbow and wrist estimated by the proposed method are highly correlated to those from the motion capture system within the estimation error of about 10 [%].

  6. Wearable inertial sensors in swimming motion analysis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Magalhaes, Fabricio Anicio; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Gatta, Giorgio; Fantozzi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The use of contemporary technology is widely recognised as a key tool for enhancing competitive performance in swimming. Video analysis is traditionally used by coaches to acquire reliable biomechanical data about swimming performance; however, this approach requires a huge computational effort, thus introducing a delay in providing quantitative information. Inertial and magnetic sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers, have been recently introduced to assess the biomechanics of swimming performance. Research in this field has attracted a great deal of interest in the last decade due to the gradual improvement of the performance of sensors and the decreasing cost of miniaturised wearable devices. With the aim of describing the state of the art of current developments in this area, a systematic review of the existing methods was performed using the following databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, IEEE Xplore, Google Scholar, Scopus and Science Direct. Twenty-seven articles published in indexed journals and conference proceedings, focusing on the biomechanical analysis of swimming by means of inertial sensors were reviewed. The articles were categorised according to sensor's specification, anatomical sites where the sensors were attached, experimental design and applications for the analysis of swimming performance. Results indicate that inertial sensors are reliable tools for swimming biomechanical analyses.

  7. Second Interim Report on the Installation and Evaluation of Weigh-In-Motion Utilizing Quartz-Piezo Sensor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the sensor survivability, accuracy and reliability of quartz-piezoelectric weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensors under actual traffic conditions in Connecticut's environment. This second interim report provides a s...

  8. The instantaneous linear motion information measurement method based on inertial sensors for ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Huang, Jing; Gao, Chen; Quan, Wei; Li, Ming; Zhang, Yanshun

    2018-05-01

    Ship instantaneous line motion information is the important foundation for ship control, which needs to be measured accurately. For this purpose, an instantaneous line motion measurement method based on inertial sensors is put forward for ships. By introducing a half-fixed coordinate system to realize the separation between instantaneous line motion and ship master movement, the instantaneous line motion acceleration of ships can be obtained with higher accuracy. Then, the digital high-pass filter is applied to suppress the velocity error caused by the low frequency signal such as schuler period. Finally, the instantaneous linear motion displacement of ships can be measured accurately. Simulation experimental results show that the method is reliable and effective, and can realize the precise measurement of velocity and displacement of instantaneous line motion for ships.

  9. A Study on the Performance of Low Cost MEMS Sensors in Strong Motion Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanırcan, Gulum; Alçık, Hakan; Kaya, Yavuz; Beyen, Kemal

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances in sensors have helped the growth of local networks. In recent years, many Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS)-based accelerometers have been successfully used in seismology and earthquake engineering projects. This is basically due to the increased precision obtained in these downsized instruments. Moreover, they are cheaper alternatives to force-balance type accelerometers. In Turkey, though MEMS-based accelerometers have been used in various individual applications such as magnitude and location determination of earthquakes, structural health monitoring, earthquake early warning systems, MEMS-based strong motion networks are not currently available in other populated areas of the country. Motivation of this study comes from the fact that, if MEMS sensors are qualified to record strong motion parameters of large earthquakes, a dense network can be formed in an affordable price at highly populated areas. The goals of this study are 1) to test the performance of MEMS sensors, which are available in the inventory of the Institute through shake table tests, and 2) to setup a small scale network for observing online data transfer speed to a trusted in-house routine. In order to evaluate the suitability of sensors in strong motion related studies, MEMS sensors and a reference sensor are tested under excitations of sweeping waves as well as scaled earthquake recordings. Amplitude response and correlation coefficients versus frequencies are compared. As for earthquake recordings, comparisons are carried out in terms of strong motion(SM) parameters (PGA, PGV, AI, CAV) and elastic response of structures (Sa). Furthermore, this paper also focuses on sensitivity and selectivity for sensor performances in time-frequency domain to compare different sensing characteristics and analyzes the basic strong motion parameters that influence the design majors. Results show that the cheapest MEMS sensors under investigation are able to record the mid

  10. Direct and indirect measures of speech articulator motions using low power EM sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T; Burnett, G; Gable, T; Holzrichter, J F; Ng, L

    1999-01-01

    Low power Electromagnetic (EM) Wave sensors can measure general properties of human speech articulator motions, as speech is produced. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). Experiments have demonstrated extremely accurate pitch measurements ( and lt; 1 Hz per pitch cycle) and accurate onset of voiced speech. Recent measurements of pressure-induced tracheal motions enable very good spectra and amplitude estimates of a voiced excitation function. The use of the measured excitation functions and pitch synchronous processing enable the determination of each pitch cycle of an accurate transfer function and, indirectly, of the corresponding articulator motions. In addition, direct measurements have been made of EM wave reflections from articulator interfaces, including jaw, tongue, and palate, simultaneously with acoustic and glottal open/close signals. While several types of EM sensors are suitable for speech articulator measurements, the homodyne sensor has been found to provide good spatial and temporal resolution for several applications

  11. ShakeMapple : tapping laptop motion sensors to map the felt extents of an earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, Remy; McGilvary, Gary; Kamb, Linus

    2010-05-01

    There is a significant pool of untapped sensor resources available in portable computer embedded motion sensors. Included primarily to detect sudden strong motion in order to park the disk heads to prevent damage to the disks in the event of a fall or other severe motion, these sensors may also be tapped for other uses as well. We have developed a system that takes advantage of the Apple Macintosh laptops' embedded Sudden Motion Sensors to record earthquake strong motion data to rapidly build maps of where and to what extent an earthquake has been felt. After an earthquake, it is vital to understand the damage caused especially in urban environments as this is often the scene for large amounts of damage caused by earthquakes. Gathering as much information from these impacts to determine where the areas that are likely to be most effected, can aid in distributing emergency services effectively. The ShakeMapple system operates in the background, continuously saving the most recent data from the motion sensors. After an earthquake has occurred, the ShakeMapple system calculates the peak acceleration within a time window around the expected arrival and sends that to servers at the EMSC. A map plotting the felt responses is then generated and presented on the web. Because large-scale testing of such an application is inherently difficult, we propose to organize a broadly distributed "simulated event" test. The software will be available for download in April, after which we plan to organize a large-scale test by the summer. At a specified time, participating testers will be asked to create their own strong motion to be registered and submitted by the ShakeMapple client. From these responses, a felt map will be produced representing the broadly-felt effects of the simulated event.

  12. The lucky image-motion prediction for simple scene observation based soft-sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Su, Yun; Hu, Bin

    2015-08-01

    High resolution is important to earth remote sensors, while the vibration of the platforms of the remote sensors is a major factor restricting high resolution imaging. The image-motion prediction and real-time compensation are key technologies to solve this problem. For the reason that the traditional autocorrelation image algorithm cannot meet the demand for the simple scene image stabilization, this paper proposes to utilize soft-sensor technology in image-motion prediction, and focus on the research of algorithm optimization in imaging image-motion prediction. Simulations results indicate that the improving lucky image-motion stabilization algorithm combining the Back Propagation Network (BP NN) and support vector machine (SVM) is the most suitable for the simple scene image stabilization. The relative error of the image-motion prediction based the soft-sensor technology is below 5%, the training computing speed of the mathematical predication model is as fast as the real-time image stabilization in aerial photography.

  13. New portable sensor system for rotation seismic motion measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brokešová, J.; Málek, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 8 (2010), 084501 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/0925 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : rotation al seismology * sensor system Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.598, year: 2010

  14. Spatio-Temporal Constrained Human Trajectory Generation from the PIR Motion Detector Sensor Network Data: A Geometric Algebra Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhaoyuan; Yuan, Linwang; Luo, Wen; Feng, Linyao; Lv, Guonian

    2015-12-30

    Passive infrared (PIR) motion detectors, which can support long-term continuous observation, are widely used for human motion analysis. Extracting all possible trajectories from the PIR sensor networks is important. Because the PIR sensor does not log location and individual information, none of the existing methods can generate all possible human motion trajectories that satisfy various spatio-temporal constraints from the sensor activation log data. In this paper, a geometric algebra (GA)-based approach is developed to generate all possible human trajectories from the PIR sensor network data. Firstly, the representation of the geographical network, sensor activation response sequences and the human motion are represented as algebraic elements using GA. The human motion status of each sensor activation are labeled using the GA-based trajectory tracking. Then, a matrix multiplication approach is developed to dynamically generate the human trajectories according to the sensor activation log and the spatio-temporal constraints. The method is tested with the MERL motion database. Experiments show that our method can flexibly extract the major statistical pattern of the human motion. Compared with direct statistical analysis and tracklet graph method, our method can effectively extract all possible trajectories of the human motion, which makes it more accurate. Our method is also likely to provides a new way to filter other passive sensor log data in sensor networks.

  15. Spatio-Temporal Constrained Human Trajectory Generation from the PIR Motion Detector Sensor Network Data: A Geometric Algebra Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyuan Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Passive infrared (PIR motion detectors, which can support long-term continuous observation, are widely used for human motion analysis. Extracting all possible trajectories from the PIR sensor networks is important. Because the PIR sensor does not log location and individual information, none of the existing methods can generate all possible human motion trajectories that satisfy various spatio-temporal constraints from the sensor activation log data. In this paper, a geometric algebra (GA-based approach is developed to generate all possible human trajectories from the PIR sensor network data. Firstly, the representation of the geographical network, sensor activation response sequences and the human motion are represented as algebraic elements using GA. The human motion status of each sensor activation are labeled using the GA-based trajectory tracking. Then, a matrix multiplication approach is developed to dynamically generate the human trajectories according to the sensor activation log and the spatio-temporal constraints. The method is tested with the MERL motion database. Experiments show that our method can flexibly extract the major statistical pattern of the human motion. Compared with direct statistical analysis and tracklet graph method, our method can effectively extract all possible trajectories of the human motion, which makes it more accurate. Our method is also likely to provides a new way to filter other passive sensor log data in sensor networks.

  16. Hand Motion Classification Using a Multi-Channel Surface Electromyography Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human hand has multiple degrees of freedom (DOF for achieving high-dexterity motions. Identifying and replicating human hand motions are necessary to perform precise and delicate operations in many applications, such as haptic applications. Surface electromyography (sEMG sensors are a low-cost method for identifying hand motions, in addition to the conventional methods that use data gloves and vision detection. The identification of multiple hand motions is challenging because the error rate typically increases significantly with the addition of more hand motions. Thus, the current study proposes two new methods for feature extraction to solve the problem above. The first method is the extraction of the energy ratio features in the time-domain, which are robust and invariant to motion forces and speeds for the same gesture. The second method is the extraction of the concordance correlation features that describe the relationship between every two channels of the multi-channel sEMG sensor system. The concordance correlation features of a multi-channel sEMG sensor system were shown to provide a vast amount of useful information for identification. Furthermore, a new cascaded-structure classifier is also proposed, in which 11 types of hand gestures can be identified accurately using the newly defined features. Experimental results show that the success rate for the identification of the 11 gestures is significantly high.

  17. Hand motion classification using a multi-channel surface electromyography sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xueyan; Liu, Yunhui; Lv, Congyi; Sun, Dong

    2012-01-01

    The human hand has multiple degrees of freedom (DOF) for achieving high-dexterity motions. Identifying and replicating human hand motions are necessary to perform precise and delicate operations in many applications, such as haptic applications. Surface electromyography (sEMG) sensors are a low-cost method for identifying hand motions, in addition to the conventional methods that use data gloves and vision detection. The identification of multiple hand motions is challenging because the error rate typically increases significantly with the addition of more hand motions. Thus, the current study proposes two new methods for feature extraction to solve the problem above. The first method is the extraction of the energy ratio features in the time-domain, which are robust and invariant to motion forces and speeds for the same gesture. The second method is the extraction of the concordance correlation features that describe the relationship between every two channels of the multi-channel sEMG sensor system. The concordance correlation features of a multi-channel sEMG sensor system were shown to provide a vast amount of useful information for identification. Furthermore, a new cascaded-structure classifier is also proposed, in which 11 types of hand gestures can be identified accurately using the newly defined features. Experimental results show that the success rate for the identification of the 11 gestures is significantly high.

  18. Ultrasensitive, passive and wearable sensors for monitoring human muscle motion and physiological signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Feng; Yi, Changrui; Liu, Shichang; Wang, Yan; Liu, Lacheng; Liu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Xuming; Wang, Li

    2016-03-15

    Flexible sensors have attracted more and more attention as a fundamental part of anthropomorphic robot research, medical diagnosis and physical health monitoring. Here, we constructed an ultrasensitive and passive flexible sensor with the advantages of low cost, lightness and wearability, electric safety and reliability. The fundamental mechanism of the sensor is based on triboelectric effect inducing electrostatic charges on the surfaces between two different materials. Just like a plate capacitor, current will be generated while the distance or size of the parallel capacitors changes caused by the small mechanical disturbance upon it and therefore the output current/voltage will be produced. Typically, the passive sensor unambiguously monitors muscle motions including hand motion from stretch-clench-stretch, mouth motion from open-bite-open, blink and respiration. Moreover, this sensor records the details of the consecutive phases in a cardiac cycle of the apex cardiogram, and identify the peaks including percussion wave, tidal wave and diastolic wave of the radial pulse wave. To record subtle human physiological signals including radial pulsilogram and apex cardiogram with excellent signal/noise ratio, stability and reproducibility, the sensor shows great potential in the applications of medical diagnosis and daily health monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Obstacle-avoiding robot with IR and PIR motion sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Omar, Z.; Suaibun, S.

    2016-10-01

    Obstacle avoiding robot was designed, constructed and programmed which may be potentially used for educational and research purposes. The developed robot will move in a particular direction once the infrared (IR) and the PIR passive infrared (PIR) sensors sense a signal while avoiding the obstacles in its path. The robot can also perform desired tasks in unstructured environments without continuous human guidance. The hardware was integrated in one application board as embedded system design. The software was developed using C++ and compiled by Arduino IDE 1.6.5. The main objective of this project is to provide simple guidelines to the polytechnic students and beginners who are interested in this type of research. It is hoped that this robot could benefit students who wish to carry out research on IR and PIR sensors.

  20. Sensor Based Motion Tracking and Recognition in Martial Arts Training

    OpenAIRE

    Agojo, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    In various martial arts, competitors are interested in quantifying and categorising techniques which are exercised during training. The implementation of embedded systems into training gear, especially a portable wireless body worn system, based on inertial sensors, facilitates the quantification and categorisation of forces and accelerations involved during the training of martial arts. The scope of this paper is to give a brief overview of contemporary technology and devices, describe key m...

  1. Inertial Sensor-Based Motion Analysis of Lower Limbs for Rehabilitation Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongyang Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hemiplegic rehabilitation state diagnosing performed by therapists can be biased due to their subjective experience, which may deteriorate the rehabilitation effect. In order to improve this situation, a quantitative evaluation is proposed. Though many motion analysis systems are available, they are too complicated for practical application by therapists. In this paper, a method for detecting the motion of human lower limbs including all degrees of freedom (DOFs via the inertial sensors is proposed, which permits analyzing the patient’s motion ability. This method is applicable to arbitrary walking directions and tracks of persons under study, and its results are unbiased, as compared to therapist qualitative estimations. Using the simplified mathematical model of a human body, the rotation angles for each lower limb joint are calculated from the input signals acquired by the inertial sensors. Finally, the rotation angle versus joint displacement curves are constructed, and the estimated values of joint motion angle and motion ability are obtained. The experimental verification of the proposed motion detection and analysis method was performed, which proved that it can efficiently detect the differences between motion behaviors of disabled and healthy persons and provide a reliable quantitative evaluation of the rehabilitation state.

  2. Smart Sensor-Based Motion Detection System for Hand Movement Training in Open Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinyao; Byrns, Simon; Cheng, Irene; Zheng, Bin; Basu, Anup

    2017-02-01

    We introduce a smart sensor-based motion detection technique for objective measurement and assessment of surgical dexterity among users at different experience levels. The goal is to allow trainees to evaluate their performance based on a reference model shared through communication technology, e.g., the Internet, without the physical presence of an evaluating surgeon. While in the current implementation we used a Leap Motion Controller to obtain motion data for analysis, our technique can be applied to motion data captured by other smart sensors, e.g., OptiTrack. To differentiate motions captured from different participants, measurement and assessment in our approach are achieved using two strategies: (1) low level descriptive statistical analysis, and (2) Hidden Markov Model (HMM) classification. Based on our surgical knot tying task experiment, we can conclude that finger motions generated from users with different surgical dexterity, e.g., expert and novice performers, display differences in path length, number of movements and task completion time. In order to validate the discriminatory ability of HMM for classifying different movement patterns, a non-surgical task was included in our analysis. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach had 100 % accuracy in discriminating between expert and novice performances. Our proposed motion analysis technique applied to open surgical procedures is a promising step towards the development of objective computer-assisted assessment and training systems.

  3. Magnetic distortion in motion labs, implications for validating inertial magnetic sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, W.H.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Baten, C.T.M.; Helm, F.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Ambulatory 3D orientation estimation with Inertial Magnetic Sensor Units (IMU's) use the earth magnetic field. The magnitude of distortion in orientation in a standard equipped motion lab and its effect on the accuracy of the orientation estimation with IMU's is addressed. Methods:

  4. Magnetic distortion in motion labs, implications for validating inertial magnetic sensors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, W.H. de; Veeger, H.E.; Baten, C.T.; Helm, F.C.T. van der

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambulatory 3D orientation estimation with Inertial Magnetic Sensor Units (IMU's) use the earth magnetic field. The magnitude of distortion in orientation in a standard equipped motion lab and its effect on the accuracy of the orientation estimation with IMU's is addressed. METHODS:

  5. The cooperative voltage sensor motion that gates a potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Medha; Kurtz, Lisa; Tombola, Francesco; Isacoff, Ehud

    2005-01-01

    The four arginine-rich S4 helices of a voltage-gated channel move outward through the membrane in response to depolarization, opening and closing gates to generate a transient ionic current. Coupling of voltage sensing to gating was originally thought to operate with the S4s moving independently from an inward/resting to an outward/activated conformation, so that when all four S4s are activated, the gates are driven to open or closed. However, S4 has also been found to influence the cooperative opening step (Smith-Maxwell et al., 1998a), suggesting a more complex mechanism of coupling. Using fluorescence to monitor structural rearrangements in a Shaker channel mutant, the ILT channel (Ledwell and Aldrich, 1999), that energetically isolates the steps of activation from the cooperative opening step, we find that opening is accompanied by a previously unknown and cooperative movement of S4. This gating motion of S4 appears to be coupled to the internal S6 gate and to two forms of slow inactivation. Our results suggest that S4 plays a direct role in gating. While large transmembrane rearrangements of S4 may be required to unlock the gating machinery, as proposed before, it appears to be the gating motion of S4 that drives the gates to open and close.

  6. Complex Human Activity Recognition Using Smartphone and Wrist-Worn Motion Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, Muhammad; Bosch, Stephan; Incel, Ozlem Durmaz; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J M

    2016-03-24

    The position of on-body motion sensors plays an important role in human activity recognition. Most often, mobile phone sensors at the trouser pocket or an equivalent position are used for this purpose. However, this position is not suitable for recognizing activities that involve hand gestures, such as smoking, eating, drinking coffee and giving a talk. To recognize such activities, wrist-worn motion sensors are used. However, these two positions are mainly used in isolation. To use richer context information, we evaluate three motion sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope and linear acceleration sensor) at both wrist and pocket positions. Using three classifiers, we show that the combination of these two positions outperforms the wrist position alone, mainly at smaller segmentation windows. Another problem is that less-repetitive activities, such as smoking, eating, giving a talk and drinking coffee, cannot be recognized easily at smaller segmentation windows unlike repetitive activities, like walking, jogging and biking. For this purpose, we evaluate the effect of seven window sizes (2-30 s) on thirteen activities and show how increasing window size affects these various activities in different ways. We also propose various optimizations to further improve the recognition of these activities. For reproducibility, we make our dataset publicly available.

  7. Highly Stretchable and Transparent Microfluidic Strain Sensors for Monitoring Human Body Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sun Geun; Koo, Hyung-Jun; Chang, Suk Tai

    2015-12-16

    We report a new class of simple microfluidic strain sensors with high stretchability, transparency, sensitivity, and long-term stability with no considerable hysteresis and a fast response to various deformations by combining the merits of microfluidic techniques and ionic liquids. The high optical transparency of the strain sensors was achieved by introducing refractive-index matched ionic liquids into microfluidic networks or channels embedded in an elastomeric matrix. The microfluidic strain sensors offer the outstanding sensor performance under a variety of deformations induced by stretching, bending, pressing, and twisting of the microfluidic strain sensors. The principle of our microfluidic strain sensor is explained by a theoretical model based on the elastic channel deformation. In order to demonstrate its capability of practical usage, the simple-structured microfluidic strain sensors were performed onto a finger, wrist, and arm. The highly stretchable and transparent microfluidic strain sensors were successfully applied as potential platforms for distinctively monitoring a wide range of human body motions in real time. Our novel microfluidic strain sensors show great promise for making future stretchable electronic devices.

  8. DESIGN REVIEW OF CAD MODELS USING A NUI LEAP MOTION SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GÎRBACIA Florin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural User Interfaces (NUI is a relatively new area of research that aims to develop humancomputer interfaces, natural and intuitive, using voice commands, hand movements and gesture recognition, similar to communication between people which also implies body language and gestures. In this paper is presented a natural designed workspace which acquires the user's motion using a Leap Motion sensor and visualizes the CAD models using a CAVE-like 3D visualisation system. The user can modify complex CAD models using bimanual gesture commands in a 3D virtual environment. The developed bimanual gestures for rotate, pan, zoom and explode are presented. From the conducted experiments is established that Leap Motion NUI sensor provides an intuitive tool for design review of CAD models, performed even by users with no experience in CAD systems and virtual environments.

  9. Six-Degree-of-Freedom Sensor Fish Design: Governing Equations and Motion Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Richmond, Marshall C.; Simmons, Carver S.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2004-08-19

    The Sensor Fish device is being used at Northwest hydropower projects to better understand the conditions fish experience during passage through hydroturbines and other dam bypass alternatives. Since its initial development in 1997, the Sensor Fish has undergone numerous design changes to improve its function and extend the range of its use. The most recent Sensor Fish design, the three degree of freedom (3DOF) device, has been used successfully to characterize the environment fish experience when passing through turbines, in spill, or in engineered fish bypass facilities at dams. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of redesigning the current 3DOF Sensor Fish device package to improve its field performance. Rate gyros will be added to the new six degree of freedom (6DOF) device so that it will be possible to observe the six linear and angular accelerations of the Sensor Fish as it passes the dam. Before the 6DOF Sensor Fish device can be developed and deployed, governing equations of motion must be developed in order to understand the design implications of instrument selection and placement within the body of the device. In this report, we describe a fairly general formulation for the coordinate systems, equations of motion, force and moment relationships necessary to simulate the 6DOF movement of an underwater body. Some simplifications are made by considering the Sensor Fish device to be a rigid, axisymmetric body. The equations of motion are written in the body-fixed frame of reference. Transformations between the body-fixed and interial reference frames are performed using a formulation based on quaternions. Force and moment relationships specific to the Sensor Fish body are currently not available. However, examples of the trajectory simulations using the 6DOF equations are presented using existing low and high-Reynolds number force and moment correlations. Animation files for the test cases are provided in an attached CD. The next

  10. Six-degree-of-freedom Sensor Fish design - Governing equations and motion modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richmond, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Simmons, C. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The Sensor Fish device is being used at Northwest hydropower projects to better understand the conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines and other dam bypass alternatives. Since its initial development in 1997, the Sensor Fish has undergone numerous design changes to improve its function and extend the range of its use. The most recent Sensor Fish design, the three degree of freedom (3DOF) device, has been used successfully to characterize the environment fish experience when passing through turbines, in spill, or in engineered fish bypass facilities at dams. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of redesigning the current 3DOF Sensor Fish device package to improve its field performance. Rate gyros will be added to the new six degree of freedom (6DOF) device so that it will be possible to observe the six linear and angular accelerations of the Sensor Fish as it passes the dam. Before the 6DOF Sensor Fish device can be developed and deployed, governing equations of motion must be developed in order to understand the design implications of instrument selection and placement within the body of the device. The report describes a fairly general formulation for the coordinate systems, equations of motion, force and moment relationships necessary to simulate the 6DOF movement of an underwater body.

  11. Model-based identification of motion sensor placement for tracking retraction and elongation of the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yikun K; Nash, Martyn P; Pullan, Andrew J; Kieser, Jules A; Röhrle, Oliver

    2013-04-01

    Electromagnetic articulography (EMA) is designed to track facial and tongue movements. In practice, the EMA sensors for tracking the movement of the tongue's surface are placed heuristically. No recommendation exists. Within this paper, a model-based approach providing a mathematical analysis and a computational-based recommendation for the placement of sensors, which is based on the tongue's envelope of movement, is proposed. For this purpose, an anatomically detailed Finite Element (FE) model of the tongue has been employed to determine the envelope of motion for retraction and elongation using a forward simulation. Two optimality criteria have been proposed to identify a set of optimal sensor locations based on the pre-computed envelope of motion. The first one is based on the assumption that locations exhibiting large displacements contain the most information regarding the tongue's movement and are less susceptible to measurement errors. The second one selects sensors exhibiting each the largest displacements in the anterior-posterior, superior-inferior, medial-lateral and overall direction. The quality of the two optimality criteria is analysed based on their ability to deduce from the respective sensor locations the corresponding muscle activation parameters of the relevant muscle fibre groups during retraction and elongation by solving the corresponding inverse problem. For this purpose, a statistical analysis has been carried out, in which sensor locations for two different modes of deformation have been subjected to typical measurement errors. Then, for tongue retraction and elongation, the expectation value, the standard deviation, the averaged bias and the averaged coefficient of variation have been computed based on 41 different error-afflicted sensor locations. The results show that the first optimality criteria is superior to the second one and that the averaged bias and averaged coefficient of variation decrease when the number of sensors is

  12. Preliminary evaluation of a nest usage sensor to detect double nest occupations of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Agazzi, Alessandro; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-26

    Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens' welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage "sensor", based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices.

  13. Study on robot motion control for intelligent welding processes based on the laser tracking sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Qian; Tang, Chen; Wang, Ju

    2017-06-01

    A robot motion control method is presented for intelligent welding processes of complex spatial free-form curve seams based on the laser tracking sensor. First, calculate the tip position of the welding torch according to the velocity of the torch and the seam trajectory detected by the sensor. Then, search the optimal pose of the torch under constraints using genetic algorithms. As a result, the intersection point of the weld seam and the laser plane of the sensor is within the detectable range of the sensor. Meanwhile, the angle between the axis of the welding torch and the tangent of the weld seam meets the requirements. The feasibility of the control method is proved by simulation.

  14. AN OPTIMALIZATION OF NATURAL LIGHTING BY APPLYING AUTOMATIC LIGHTING USING MOTION SENSOR AND LUX SENSOR FOR HISTORICAL OLD BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeful Bahri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the problems that occurs within city centres, particularly within capital cities, is the existence of many historical old buildings. Historical old buildings within city centres, that have abandoned for years because of their condition, suffer from a lack of utilities, infrastructure and facilities [2][3]. These conditions occur because of low levels of maintenance arising as a consequence of a lack of finance of the owner of a building, be they government or private sector. To solve the problem of abandoned historical old buildings, the concept of adaptive reuse can be adopted and applied. This concept of adaptive reuse may continously cover the cost of building maintenance. The adaptive reuse concept usually covers the interior of a building and its utilities, though the need for utilities depends on the function of a building [4]. By adopting a concept of adaptive reuse, new building functions will be designed as the needs and demand of the market dictate, and which is appropriate for feasibility study. One utility element that has to be designed for historical old buildings is the provision of lighting within a building. To minimize the cost of building maintenance, one of the solutions is to optimize natural lighting and to minimize the use of artificial lighting such as lamps. This paper will discuss the extent to which artificial lighting can be minimized by using automatic lighting; the automatic lighting types discussed in this paper are lighting controlled by motion sensor and lux sensor. Keywords: Natural lighting, automatic lighting, motion sensor, lux sensor, historical old buildings ABSTRAK Salah satu permasalahan yang muncul dalam sebuah kota metropolitan, khususnya sebuah ibukota adalah keberadaan dari banyaknya bangunan-bangunan tua bersejarah. Bangunan-bangunan tua bersejarah dalam sebuah kota besar terutama yang diabaikan selama bertahun-tahun biasanya disebabkan karena kondisinya yang menua, minimnya utilitas

  15. Demosaicking for full motion video 9-band SWIR sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaev, Andrey V.; Rawhouser, Marjorie; Kutteruf, Mary R.; Yetzbacher, Michael K.; DePrenger, Michael J.; Novak, Kyle M.; Miller, Corey A.; Miller, Christopher W.

    2014-05-01

    Short wave infrared (SWIR) spectral imaging systems are vital for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) applications because of their abilities to autonomously detect targets and classify materials. Typically the spectral imagers are incapable of providing Full Motion Video (FMV) because of their reliance on line scanning. We enable FMV capability for a SWIR multi-spectral camera by creating a repeating pattern of 3x3 spectral filters on a staring focal plane array (FPA). In this paper we present the imagery from an FMV SWIR camera with nine discrete bands and discuss image processing algorithms necessary for its operation. The main task of image processing in this case is demosaicking of the spectral bands i.e. reconstructing full spectral images with original FPA resolution from spatially subsampled and incomplete spectral data acquired with the choice of filter array pattern. To the best of author's knowledge, the demosaicking algorithms for nine or more equally sampled bands have not been reported before. Moreover all existing algorithms developed for demosaicking visible color filter arrays with less than nine colors assume either certain relationship between the visible colors, which are not valid for SWIR imaging, or presence of one color band with higher sampling rate compared to the rest of the bands, which does not conform to our spectral filter pattern. We will discuss and present results for two novel approaches to demosaicking: interpolation using multi-band edge information and application of multi-frame super-resolution to a single frame resolution enhancement of multi-spectral spatially multiplexed images.

  16. Noncontact ballistic motion measurement using a fiber-optic confocal sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafir, E.; Berkovic, G.; Horovitz, Y.; Appelbaum, G.; Moshe, E.; Horovitz, E.; Skutelski, A.; Werdiger, M.; Perelmutter, L.; Sudai, M.

    2007-01-01

    A fiber-optic confocal sensor for noncontact ballistic measurements is described. Determination of motion at velocities of 1.7 km/s with an uncertainty as small as ±0.3% is demonstrated for both a projectile and a free-surface target. The fibers detect the passage of the object at their conjugate image points created by low F/ optics. This results in an output signal comprising a train of sharp pulses each precisely identifying when the ballistic object traverses an image point. Since the ballistic object does not contact the sensor at the time of imaging, the measurements do not perturb the motion, enabling multi-fragment measurement, as well as repetitive measurements of the same object point

  17. Performance Evaluation of an Indoor Positioning Scheme Using Infrared Motion Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqiang Jing

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT for Smart Environments (SE is a new scenario that collects useful information and provides convenient services to humans via sensing and wireless communications. Infra-Red (IR motion sensors have recently been widely used for indoor lighting because they allow the system to detect whether a human is inside or outside the sensors’ range. In this paper, the performance of a position estimation scheme based on IR motion sensor is evaluated in an indoor SE. The experimental results show that we can track the dynamic position of a pedestrian in straight moving model as well as two dimensional models. Experimental results also show that higher performance in accuracy and dynamic tracking in real indoor environment can be achieved without other devices.

  18. Finger-tapping motion analysis in cervical myelopathy by magnetic-sensor tapping device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Toshitada; Hosono, Noboru; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Makino, Takahiro; Kandori, Akihiko; Fuji, Takeshi

    2013-08-01

    Case-control study. The purpose of this study is to determine finger motion of patients with cervical myelopathy during finger-tapping cycles. A major symptom of patients with compressive cervical myelopathy is finger clumsiness. Therefore, understanding finger motion is prerequisite in assessing the severity of myelopathy. The popular grip-and-release test evaluates only the number of motion cycles, which is insufficient to fully describe complex finger motion. Forty-three patients with cervical myelopathy and 41 healthy controls tapped their index fingers against their thumbs as rapidly as possible for 30 seconds and the motion was recorded by a magnetic-sensor coil attached to the nail surface. Output signals were stored in a computer, which automatically calculated tapping frequency, distance moved, ratio of opening/closing velocity and the SD of the tapping interval. The SD of the tapping interval was significantly greater and all other measures were significantly smaller in patients with cervical myelopathy, than in healthy controls. All indices significantly improved after surgical decompression of the cervical spine. Distance moved (Pearson correlation coefficient: r=0.590, Ptapping interval (r=-0.451; P=0.002) were significantly correlated with the Japanese Orthopedic Association score (neurological scale). The quantitative evaluation of finger paralysis was performed by this tapping device. Speed and regularity in repetitive motion of fingers were correlated with the severity of cervical myelopathy.

  19. Motion-related resource allocation in dynamic wireless visual sensor network environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsenou, Angeliki V; Kondi, Lisimachos P; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates quality-driven cross-layer optimization for resource allocation in direct sequence code division multiple access wireless visual sensor networks. We consider a single-hop network topology, where each sensor transmits directly to a centralized control unit (CCU) that manages the available network resources. Our aim is to enable the CCU to jointly allocate the transmission power and source-channel coding rates for each node, under four different quality-driven criteria that take into consideration the varying motion characteristics of each recorded video. For this purpose, we studied two approaches with a different tradeoff of quality and complexity. The first one allocates the resources individually for each sensor, whereas the second clusters them according to the recorded level of motion. In order to address the dynamic nature of the recorded scenery and re-allocate the resources whenever it is dictated by the changes in the amount of motion in the scenery, we propose a mechanism based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm, combined with two restarting schemes that either exploit the previously determined resource allocation or conduct a rough estimation of it. Experimental simulations demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approaches.

  20. Commercial Motion Sensor Based Low-Cost and Convenient Interactive Treadmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghyun Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Interactive treadmills were developed to improve the simulation of overground walking when compared to conventional treadmills. However, currently available interactive treadmills are expensive and inconvenient, which limits their use. We propose a low-cost and convenient version of the interactive treadmill that does not require expensive equipment and a complicated setup. As a substitute for high-cost sensors, such as motion capture systems, a low-cost motion sensor was used to recognize the subject’s intention for speed changing. Moreover, the sensor enables the subject to make a convenient and safe stop using gesture recognition. For further cost reduction, the novel interactive treadmill was based on an inexpensive treadmill platform and a novel high-level speed control scheme was applied to maximize performance for simulating overground walking. Pilot tests with ten healthy subjects were conducted and results demonstrated that the proposed treadmill achieves similar performance to a typical, costly, interactive treadmill that contains a motion capture system and an instrumented treadmill, while providing a convenient and safe method for stopping.

  1. Leveraging Two Kinect Sensors for Accurate Full-Body Motion Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiquan Gao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate motion capture plays an important role in sports analysis, the medical field and virtual reality. Current methods for motion capture often suffer from occlusions, which limits the accuracy of their pose estimation. In this paper, we propose a complete system to measure the pose parameters of the human body accurately. Different from previous monocular depth camera systems, we leverage two Kinect sensors to acquire more information about human movements, which ensures that we can still get an accurate estimation even when significant occlusion occurs. Because human motion is temporally constant, we adopt a learning analysis to mine the temporal information across the posture variations. Using this information, we estimate human pose parameters accurately, regardless of rapid movement. Our experimental results show that our system can perform an accurate pose estimation of the human body with the constraint of information from the temporal domain.

  2. Omni-Purpose Stretchable Strain Sensor Based on a Highly Dense Nanocracking Structure for Whole-Body Motion Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyungkook; Hong, Seong Kyung; Kim, Min Seo; Cho, Seong J; Lim, Geunbae

    2017-12-06

    Here, we report an omni-purpose stretchable strain sensor (OPSS sensor) based on a nanocracking structure for monitoring whole-body motions including both joint-level and skin-level motions. By controlling and optimizing the nanocracking structure, inspired by the spider sensory system, the OPSS sensor is endowed with both high sensitivity (gauge factor ≈ 30) and a wide working range (strain up to 150%) under great linearity (R 2 = 0.9814) and fast response time (sensor has advantages of being extremely simple, patternable, integrated circuit-compatible, and reliable in terms of reproducibility. Using the OPSS sensor, we detected various human body motions including both moving of joints and subtle deforming of skin such as pulsation. As specific medical applications of the sensor, we also successfully developed a glove-type hand motion detector and a real-time Morse code communication system for patients with general paralysis. Therefore, considering the outstanding sensing performances, great advantages of the fabrication process, and successful results from a variety of practical applications, we believe that the OPSS sensor is a highly suitable strain sensor for whole-body motion monitoring and has potential for a wide range of applications, such as medical robotics and wearable healthcare devices.

  3. Transparent and stretchable strain sensors based on metal nanowire microgrids for human motion monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ji Hwan; Ha, Sung-Hun; Kim, Jong-Man

    2018-04-01

    Optical transparency is increasingly considered as one of the most important characteristics required in advanced stretchable strain sensors for application in body-attachable systems. In this paper, we present an entirely solution-processed fabrication route to highly transparent and stretchable resistive strain sensors based on silver nanowire microgrids (AgNW-MGs). The AgNW-MG strain sensors are readily prepared by patterning the AgNWs on a stretchable substrate into a MG geometry via a mesh-template-assisted contact-transfer printing. The MG has a unique architecture comprising the AgNWs and can be stretched to ɛ = 35%, with high gauge factors of ˜6.9 for ɛ = 0%-30% and ˜41.1 for ɛ = 30%-35%. The sensor also shows a high optical transmittance of 77.1% ± 1.5% (at 550 nm) and stably maintains the remarkable optical performance even at high strains. In addition, the sensor responses are found to be highly reversible with negligible hysteresis and are reliable even under repetitive stretching-releasing cycles (1000 cycles at ɛ = 10%). The practicality of the AgNW-MG strain sensor is confirmed by successfully monitoring a wide range of human motions in real time after firmly laminating the device onto various body parts.

  4. Use of Finite Elements Analysis for a Weigh-in-Motion Sensor Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Goanta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available High speed weigh-in-motion (WIM sensors are utilized as components of complex traffic monitoring and measurement systems. They should be able to determine the weights on wheels, axles and vehicle gross weights, and to help the classification of vehicles (depending on the number of axles. WIM sensors must meet the following main requirements: good accuracy, high endurance, low price and easy installation in the road structure. It is not advisable to use cheap materials in constructing these devices for lower prices, since the sensors are normally working in harsh environmental conditions such as temperatures between –40 °C and +70 °C, dust, temporary water immersion, shocks and vibrations. Consequently, less expensive manufacturing technologies are recommended. Because the installation cost in the road structure is high and proportional to the WIM sensor cross section (especially with its thickness, the device needs to be made as flat as possible. The WIM sensor model presented and analyzed in this paper uses a spring element equipped with strain gages. Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA, the authors have attempted to obtain a more sensitive, reliable, lower profile and overall cheaper elastic element for a new WIM sensor.

  5. Fabrication and Analysis Signal Optical Fiber Sensor Based On Bend Loss for Weight in Motion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftah Syukron, Ahmad; Marzuki, Ahmad; Setyawan, Ary

    2017-11-01

    Road network plays very important role in economic development. Overweight is one of the main factors contributing to road damage. To minimize this factor, road authority has to make sure that all vehicles operate in according to maximum vehicle regulation set by the government. The one solution can use from this problem is Weight in motion (WIM) technology. WIM technology allows measuring vehicle weight quickly. The sensor is one of the important components in the WIM system. This paper presents a model of WIM fiber sensor work based on bend loss. Fiber sensor has made by coiling optical fiber. Coiling optical fiber has managed in the elliptical shape rubber coil. Rubber coil then is planted in the pad of sensor. The principle of this sensor is a detecting of the shift light intensity output of optical fiber when the vehicles a passing through on fiber sensor. Loading was carried out using loaded truck model. Data was carried out with variations of load and load positions in the truck. The results can be concluded that the shift light intensity is greater with the more shift loads. The loader of the truck has also resulted in the greater loss. Loads in the truck distributed on the axles due to the position of loads.

  6. Motion Sensors and Transducers to Navigate an Intelligent Mechatronic Platform for Outdoor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail G. PAPOUTSIDAKIS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The initial goal of this project is to investigate if different sensor types and their attached transducers can support everyday human needs. Nowadays, there is a constant need to automate many time consuming applications not only in industrial environments but also in smaller scale applications, therefore robotics is a field that continuously tracks research interest. The area of human assistance by machines in everyday needs, continues to grow and to keep users interest very high. "Mechatronics" differ from Robotics in terms of integrated electronics, the advantage of being easily re-programmable and more over the versatility of hosting all kind of sensor types, sensor networks, transducers and actuators. In this research project, such an integrated autonomous device will be presented, focusing around the use of sensors and their feedback signals for proximity, position, motion, distance, placement and finally navigation. The ultimate sensor type choice for the task as well as all transducers signals management will also be highlighted. An up-to-date technology microcontroller will host all the above information and moreover move the mechatronic platform via motor actuators. The control algorithm which will be designed for the application is responsible for receiving all feedback signals, processing them and safely navigate the system in order to undertake its mission. The project scenario, the necessary electronic equipment and the controller design method will be highlighted in the following paragraphs of this document. Conclusions and results of sensor usage, platform's performance and problems solutions, forms the rest of this paper body.

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of a Nest Usage Sensor to Detect Double Nest Occupations of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens’ welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage “sensor”, based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices.

  8. Technical and dosimetric aspects of respiratory gating using a pressure-sensor motion monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X. Allen; Stepaniak, Christopher; Gore, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This work introduces a gating technique that uses 4DCT to determine gating parameters and to plan gated treatment, and employs a Siemens linear accelerator to deliver the gated treatment. Because of technology incompatibility, the 4DCT scanner (LightSpeed, GE) and the Siemens accelerator require two different motion-monitoring systems. The motion monitoring system (AZ-773V, Anzai Med.) used for the gated delivery utilizes a pressure sensor to detect the external respiratory motion (pressure change) in real time. Another system (RPM, Varian) used for the 4DCT scanner (LightSpeed, GE) is based on an infrared camera to detect motion of external markers. These two motion monitoring systems (RPM and Anzai systems) were found to correlate well with each other. The depth doses and profile measured for gated delivery (with a duty cycle of 25% or 50%) were found to agree within 1.0% with those measured for ungated delivery, indicating that gating did not significantly alter beam characteristics. The measurement verified also that the MU linearity and beam output remained unchanged (within 0.3%). A practical method of using 4DCT to plan a gated treatment was developed. The duty cycle for either phase or amplitude gating can be determined based on 4DCT with consideration of set-up error and delivery efficiency. The close-loop measurement involving the entire gating process (imaging, planning, and delivery) showed that the measured isodose distributions agreed with those intended, validating the accuracy and reliability of the gating technique. Based these observations, we conclude that the gating technique introduced in this work, integrating Siemens linear accelerator and Anzai pressure sensor device with GE/Varian RPM 4DCT, is reliable and effective, and it can be used clinically to account for respiratory motion during radiation therapy

  9. Optical and Acoustic Sensor-Based 3D Ball Motion Estimation for Ball Sport Simulators †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Woo Seo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of the motion of ball-shaped objects is essential for the operation of ball sport simulators. In this paper, we propose an estimation system for 3D ball motion, including speed and angle of projection, by using acoustic vector and infrared (IR scanning sensors. Our system is comprised of three steps to estimate a ball motion: sound-based ball firing detection, sound source localization, and IR scanning for motion analysis. First, an impulsive sound classification based on the mel-frequency cepstrum and feed-forward neural network is introduced to detect the ball launch sound. An impulsive sound source localization using a 2D microelectromechanical system (MEMS microphones and delay-and-sum beamforming is presented to estimate the firing position. The time and position of a ball in 3D space is determined from a high-speed infrared scanning method. Our experimental results demonstrate that the estimation of ball motion based on sound allows a wider activity area than similar camera-based methods. Thus, it can be practically applied to various simulations in sports such as soccer and baseball.

  10. Movement Behaviour of Traditionally Managed Cattle in the Eastern Province of Zambia Captured Using Two-Dimensional Motion Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubaba, Caesar H; Hidano, Arata; Welburn, Susan C; Revie, Crawford W; Eisler, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional motion sensors use electronic accelerometers to record the lying, standing and walking activity of cattle. Movement behaviour data collected automatically using these sensors over prolonged periods of time could be of use to stakeholders making management and disease control decisions in rural sub-Saharan Africa leading to potential improvements in animal health and production. Motion sensors were used in this study with the aim of monitoring and quantifying the movement behaviour of traditionally managed Angoni cattle in Petauke District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. This study was designed to assess whether motion sensors were suitable for use on traditionally managed cattle in two veterinary camps in Petauke District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. In each veterinary camp, twenty cattle were selected for study. Each animal had a motion sensor placed on its hind leg to continuously measure and record its movement behaviour over a two week period. Analysing the sensor data using principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that the majority of variability in behaviour among studied cattle could be attributed to their behaviour at night and in the morning. The behaviour at night was markedly different between veterinary camps; while differences in the morning appeared to reflect varying behaviour across all animals. The study results validate the use of such motion sensors in the chosen setting and highlight the importance of appropriate data summarisation techniques to adequately describe and compare animal movement behaviours if association to other factors, such as location, breed or health status are to be assessed.

  11. The Effects of Applying Game-Based Learning to Webcam Motion Sensor Games for Autistic Students' Sensory Integration Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun-Hsien; Lou, Shi-Jer; Tsai, Huei-Yin; Shih, Ru-Chu

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of applying game-based learning to webcam motion sensor games for autistic students' sensory integration training for autistic students. The research participants were three autistic students aged from six to ten. Webcam camera as the research tool wad connected internet games to engage in motion sensor…

  12. Design of Dual-Mode Local Oscillators Using CMOS Technology for Motion Detection Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Keum-Won; Lee, Jeong-Yun; Kim, Jeong-Geun; Baek, Donghyun

    2018-04-01

    Recently, studies have been actively carried out to implement motion detecting sensors by applying radar techniques. Doppler radar or frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar are mainly used, but each type has drawbacks. In Doppler radar, no signal is detected when the movement is stopped. Also, FMCW radar cannot function when the detection object is near the sensor. Therefore, by implementing a single continuous wave (CW) radar for operating in dual-mode, the disadvantages in each mode can be compensated for. In this paper, a dual mode local oscillator (LO) is proposed that makes a CW radar operate as a Doppler or FMCW radar. To make the dual-mode LO, a method that controls the division ratio of the phase locked loop (PLL) is used. To support both radar mode easily, the proposed LO is implemented by adding a frequency sweep generator (FSG) block to a fractional-N PLL. The operation mode of the LO is determined by according to whether this block is operating or not. Since most radar sensors are used in conjunction with microcontroller units (MCUs), the proposed architecture is capable of dual-mode operation by changing only the input control code. In addition, all components such as VCO, LDO, and loop filter are integrated into the chip, so complexity and interface issues can be solved when implementing radar sensors. Thus, the proposed dual-mode LO is suitable as a radar sensor.

  13. Sensor-based balance training with motion feedback in people with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Michael; Sabbagh, Marwan; Lin, Ivy; Morgan, Pharah; Grewal, Gurtej S; Mohler, Jane; Coon, David W; Najafi, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Some individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) experience not only cognitive deficits but also a decline in motor function, including postural balance. This pilot study sought to estimate the feasibility, user experience, and effects of a novel sensor-based balance training program. Patients with amnestic MCI (mean age 78.2 yr) were randomized to an intervention group (IG, n = 12) or control group (CG, n = 10). The IG underwent balance training (4 wk, twice a week) that included weight shifting and virtual obstacle crossing. Real-time visual/audio lower-limb motion feedback was provided from wearable sensors. The CG received no training. User experience was measured by a questionnaire. Postintervention effects on balance (center of mass sway during standing with eyes open [EO] and eyes closed), gait (speed, variability), cognition, and fear of falling were measured. Eleven participants (92%) completed the training and expressed fun, safety, and helpfulness of sensor feedback. Sway (EO, p = 0.04) and fear of falling (p = 0.02) were reduced in the IG compared to the CG. Changes in other measures were nonsignificant. Results suggest that the sensor-based training paradigm is well accepted in the target population and beneficial for improving postural control. Future studies should evaluate the added value of the sensor-based training compared to traditional training.

  14. Design of Dual-Mode Local Oscillators Using CMOS Technology for Motion Detection Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keum-Won Ha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, studies have been actively carried out to implement motion detecting sensors by applying radar techniques. Doppler radar or frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW radar are mainly used, but each type has drawbacks. In Doppler radar, no signal is detected when the movement is stopped. Also, FMCW radar cannot function when the detection object is near the sensor. Therefore, by implementing a single continuous wave (CW radar for operating in dual-mode, the disadvantages in each mode can be compensated for. In this paper, a dual mode local oscillator (LO is proposed that makes a CW radar operate as a Doppler or FMCW radar. To make the dual-mode LO, a method that controls the division ratio of the phase locked loop (PLL is used. To support both radar mode easily, the proposed LO is implemented by adding a frequency sweep generator (FSG block to a fractional-N PLL. The operation mode of the LO is determined by according to whether this block is operating or not. Since most radar sensors are used in conjunction with microcontroller units (MCUs, the proposed architecture is capable of dual-mode operation by changing only the input control code. In addition, all components such as VCO, LDO, and loop filter are integrated into the chip, so complexity and interface issues can be solved when implementing radar sensors. Thus, the proposed dual-mode LO is suitable as a radar sensor.

  15. Experimenting relations between artists and scientists : the appropriation of motion sensors by dancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne MARTIN-JUCHAT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We want to show here how recent innovations called Motion Capture, still being tested in laboratory on their potential uses, invite us to change our way to relate to the “technique”. We don’t want to question what the technique does to the social, nor what the social structures does to the technique, but we want to highlight the shifting principles that define interactions between technologies and humans. We therefore underline how using these motion sensors gives birth to different human modes of being present, co-present, or in a sensory and thymic interaction with technology. This article is based on experimental use tests, convoking both artists and engineers, questioning differently the relationship between technology, human and the interaction order. Our result is to question how using and being with these motion sensors, as a dancer, displace epistemological oppositions such as person/machine. It finally sheds light on how some others classical models can move, especially the semiotic decomposition of interaction processes and status.

  16. Calibrating airborne measurements of airspeed, pressure and temperature using a Doppler laser air-motion sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Cooper

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A new laser air-motion sensor measures the true airspeed with a standard uncertainty of less than 0.1 m s−1 and so reduces uncertainty in the measured component of the relative wind along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft to about the same level. The calculated pressure expected from that airspeed at the inlet of a pitot tube then provides a basis for calibrating the measurements of dynamic and static pressure, reducing standard uncertainty in those measurements to less than 0.3 hPa and the precision applicable to steady flight conditions to about 0.1 hPa. These improved measurements of pressure, combined with high-resolution measurements of geometric altitude from the global positioning system, then indicate (via integrations of the hydrostatic equation during climbs and descents that the offset and uncertainty in temperature measurement for one research aircraft are +0.3 ± 0.3 °C. For airspeed, pressure and temperature, these are significant reductions in uncertainty vs. those obtained from calibrations using standard techniques. Finally, it is shown that although the initial calibration of the measured static and dynamic pressures requires a measured temperature, once calibrated these measured pressures and the measurement of airspeed from the new laser air-motion sensor provide a measurement of temperature that does not depend on any other temperature sensor.

  17. Every Move You Make: Exploring Practical Issues in Smartphone Motion Sensor Fingerprinting and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Anupam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to track users’ activities across different websites and visits is a key tool in advertising and surveillance. The HTML5 DeviceMotion interface creates a new opportunity for such tracking via fingerprinting of smartphone motion sensors. We study the feasibility of carrying out such fingerprinting under real-world constraints and on a large scale. In particular, we collect measurements from several hundred users under realistic scenarios and show that the state-of-the-art techniques provide very low accuracy in these settings. We then improve fingerprinting accuracy by changing the classifier as well as incorporating auxiliary information. We also show how to perform fingerprinting in an open-world scenario where one must distinguish between known and previously unseen users.

  18. Measuring Accurate Body Parameters of Dressed Humans with Large-Scale Motion Using a Kinect Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidan Du

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-contact human body measurement plays an important role in surveillance, physical healthcare, on-line business and virtual fitting. Current methods for measuring the human body without physical contact usually cannot handle humans wearing clothes, which limits their applicability in public environments. In this paper, we propose an effective solution that can measure accurate parameters of the human body with large-scale motion from a Kinect sensor, assuming that the people are wearing clothes. Because motion can drive clothes attached to the human body loosely or tightly, we adopt a space-time analysis to mine the information across the posture variations. Using this information, we recover the human body, regardless of the effect of clothes, and measure the human body parameters accurately. Experimental results show that our system can perform more accurate parameter estimation on the human body than state-of-the-art methods.

  19. A Mobile Motion Analysis System Using Intertial Sensors for Analysis of Lower Limb Prosthetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, John Kyle P [ORNL; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL; Farquhar, Ethan [ORNL; Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Soldiers returning from the global war on terror requiring lower leg prosthetics generally have different concerns and requirements than the typical lower leg amputee. These subjects are usually young, wish to remain active and often desire to return to active military duty. As such, they demand higher performance from their prosthetics, but are at risk for chronic injury and joint conditions in their unaffected limb. Motion analysis is a valuable tool in assessing the performance of new and existing prosthetic technologies as well as the methods in fitting these devices to both maximize performance and minimize risk of injury for the individual soldier. We are developing a mobile, low-cost motion analysis system using inertial measurement units (IMUs) and two custom force sensors that detect ground reaction forces and moments on both the unaffected limb and prosthesis. IMUs were tested on a robot programmed to simulate human gait motion. An algorithm which uses a kinematic model of the robot and an extended Kalman filter (EKF) was used to convert the rates and accelerations from the gyro and accelerometer into joint angles. Compared to encoder data from the robot, which was considered the ground truth in this experiment, the inertial measurement system had a RMSE of <1.0 degree. Collecting kinematic and kinetic data without the restrictions and expense of a motion analysis lab could help researchers, designers and prosthetists advance prosthesis technology and customize devices for individuals. Ultimately, these improvements will result in better prosthetic performance for the military population.

  20. Cardiac and Respiratory Parameter Estimation Using Head-mounted Motion-sensitive Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hernandez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the feasibility of using motion-sensitive sensors embedded in Google Glass, a head-mounted wearable device, to robustly measure physiological signals of the wearer. In particular, we develop new methods to use Glass’s accelerometer, gyroscope, and camera to extract pulse and respiratory waves of 12 participants during a controlled experiment. We show it is possible to achieve a mean absolute error of 0.82 beats per minute (STD: 1.98 for heart rate and 0.6 breaths per minute (STD: 1.19 for respiration rate when considering different observation windows and combinations of sensors. Moreover, we show that a head-mounted gyroscope sensor shows improved performance versus more commonly explored sensors such as accelerometers and demonstrate that a head-mounted camera is a novel and promising method to capture the physiological responses of the wearer. These findings included testing across sitting, supine, and standing postures before and after physical exercise.

  1. Observations of Near-Field Rotational Motions from Oklahoma Seismicity using Applied Technology Associate Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringler, A. T.; Anthony, R. E.; Holland, A. A.; Wilson, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing rotational motions from moderate-sized earthquakes in the near-field has the potential to improve earthquake engineering and seismic gradiometry by better characterizing the rotational component of the seismic wavefield, but has remained challenging due to the limited development of portable, low-noise rotational sensors. Here, we test Applied Technology Associate (ATA) Proto-Seismic Magnetohydrodynamic (SMHD) three-component rotational rate sensors at Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL) for self-noise and sensitivity before deploying them at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) temporary aftershock station OK38 in Waynoka, Oklahoma. The sensors have low self-noise levels below 2 Hz, making them ideal to record local rotations. From April 11, 2017 to June 6, 2017 we recorded the translational and rotational motions of over 155 earthquakes of ML≥2.0 within 2 degrees of the station. Using the recorded events we compare Peak Ground Velocity (PGV) with Peak Ground Rotation Rate (PG). For example, we measured a maximal PG of 0.00211 radians/s and 0.00186 radians/s for the horizontal components of the two rotational sensors during the Mwr=4.2 event on May 13, 2017 which was 0.5 km from that station. Similarly, our PG for the vertical rotational components were 0.00112 radians/s and 0.00085 radians/s. We also measured Peak Ground Rotations (PGω) as a function of seismic moment, as well as mean vertical Power Spectral Density (PSD) with mean horizontal PSD power levels. We compute apparent phase velocity directly from the rotational data, which may have may improve estimates of local site effects. Finally, by comparing various rotational and translational components we look at potential implications for estimating local event source parameters, which may help in identifying phenomena such as repeating earthquakes by using differences in the rotational components correlation.

  2. Performance Analysis of Motion-Sensor Behavior for User Authentication on Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Shen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing trend of using smartphones as personal computing platforms to access and store private information has stressed the demand for secure and usable authentication mechanisms. This paper investigates the feasibility and applicability of using motion-sensor behavior data for user authentication on smartphones. For each sample of the passcode, sensory data from motion sensors are analyzed to extract descriptive and intensive features for accurate and fine-grained characterization of users’ passcode-input actions. One-class learning methods are applied to the feature space for performing user authentication. Analyses are conducted using data from 48 participants with 129,621 passcode samples across various operational scenarios and different types of smartphones. Extensive experiments are included to examine the efficacy of the proposed approach, which achieves a false-rejection rate of 6.85% and a false-acceptance rate of 5.01%. Additional experiments on usability with respect to passcode length, sensitivity with respect to training sample size, scalability with respect to number of users, and flexibility with respect to screen size were provided to further explore the effectiveness and practicability. The results suggest that sensory data could provide useful authentication information, and this level of performance approaches sufficiency for two-factor authentication on smartphones. Our dataset is publicly available to facilitate future research.

  3. Performance Analysis of Motion-Sensor Behavior for User Authentication on Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chao; Yu, Tianwen; Yuan, Sheng; Li, Yunpeng; Guan, Xiaohong

    2016-03-09

    The growing trend of using smartphones as personal computing platforms to access and store private information has stressed the demand for secure and usable authentication mechanisms. This paper investigates the feasibility and applicability of using motion-sensor behavior data for user authentication on smartphones. For each sample of the passcode, sensory data from motion sensors are analyzed to extract descriptive and intensive features for accurate and fine-grained characterization of users' passcode-input actions. One-class learning methods are applied to the feature space for performing user authentication. Analyses are conducted using data from 48 participants with 129,621 passcode samples across various operational scenarios and different types of smartphones. Extensive experiments are included to examine the efficacy of the proposed approach, which achieves a false-rejection rate of 6.85% and a false-acceptance rate of 5.01%. Additional experiments on usability with respect to passcode length, sensitivity with respect to training sample size, scalability with respect to number of users, and flexibility with respect to screen size were provided to further explore the effectiveness and practicability. The results suggest that sensory data could provide useful authentication information, and this level of performance approaches sufficiency for two-factor authentication on smartphones. Our dataset is publicly available to facilitate future research.

  4. Concordance of Motion Sensor and Clinician-Rated Fall Risk Scores in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, Julie

    2017-12-01

    As the older adult population in the United States continues to grow, developing reliable, valid, and practical methods for identifying fall risk is a high priority. Falls are prevalent in older adults and contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality rates and rising health costs. Identifying at-risk older adults and intervening in a timely manner can reduce falls. Conventional fall risk assessment tools require a health professional trained in the use of each tool for administration and interpretation. Motion sensor technology, which uses three-dimensional cameras to measure patient movements, is promising for assessing older adults' fall risk because it could eliminate or reduce the need for provider oversight. The purpose of this study was to assess the concordance of fall risk scores as measured by a motion sensor device, the OmniVR Virtual Rehabilitation System, with clinician-rated fall risk scores in older adult outpatients undergoing physical rehabilitation. Three standardized fall risk assessments were administered by the OmniVR and by a clinician. Validity of the OmniVR was assessed by measuring the concordance between the two assessment methods. Stability of the OmniVR fall risk ratings was assessed by measuring test-retest reliability. The OmniVR scores showed high concordance with the clinician-rated scores and high stability over time, demonstrating comparability with provider measurements.

  5. Performance Analysis of Motion-Sensor Behavior for User Authentication on Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chao; Yu, Tianwen; Yuan, Sheng; Li, Yunpeng; Guan, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    The growing trend of using smartphones as personal computing platforms to access and store private information has stressed the demand for secure and usable authentication mechanisms. This paper investigates the feasibility and applicability of using motion-sensor behavior data for user authentication on smartphones. For each sample of the passcode, sensory data from motion sensors are analyzed to extract descriptive and intensive features for accurate and fine-grained characterization of users’ passcode-input actions. One-class learning methods are applied to the feature space for performing user authentication. Analyses are conducted using data from 48 participants with 129,621 passcode samples across various operational scenarios and different types of smartphones. Extensive experiments are included to examine the efficacy of the proposed approach, which achieves a false-rejection rate of 6.85% and a false-acceptance rate of 5.01%. Additional experiments on usability with respect to passcode length, sensitivity with respect to training sample size, scalability with respect to number of users, and flexibility with respect to screen size were provided to further explore the effectiveness and practicability. The results suggest that sensory data could provide useful authentication information, and this level of performance approaches sufficiency for two-factor authentication on smartphones. Our dataset is publicly available to facilitate future research. PMID:27005626

  6. Inertial sensors as measurement tools of elbow range of motion in gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, G; Turpin, JM; Marteu, A; Sakarovitch, C; Teboul, B; Boscher, L; Brocker, P; Robert, P; Guerin, O

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Musculoskeletal system deterioration among the aging is a major reason for loss of autonomy and directly affects the quality of life of the elderly. Articular evaluation is part of physiotherapeutic assessment and helps in establishing a precise diagnosis and deciding appropriate therapy. Reference instruments are valid but not easy to use for some joints. The main goal of our study was to determine reliability and intertester reproducibility of the MP-BV, an inertial sensor (the MotionPod® [MP]) combined with specific software (BioVal [BV]), for elbow passive range-of-motion measurements in geriatrics. Methods This open, monocentric, randomized study compared inertial sensor to inclinometer in patients hospitalized in an acute, post-acute, and long-term-care gerontology unit. Results Seventy-seven patients (mean age 83.5±6.4 years, sex ratio 1.08 [male/female]) were analyzed. The MP-BV was reliable for each of the three measurements (flexion, pronation, and supination) for 24.3% (CI 95% 13.9–32.8) of the patients. Separately, the percentages of reliable measures were 59.7% (49.2–70.5) for flexion, 68.8% (58.4–79.5) for pronation, and 62.3% (51.2–73.1) for supination. The intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.15 (0.07–0.73), 0.46 (0.27–0.98), and 0.50 (0.31–40 0.98) for flexion, pronation, and supination, respectively. Conclusion This study shows the convenience of the MP-BV in terms of ease of use and of export of measured data. However, this instrument seems less reliable and valuable compared to the reference instruments used to measure elbow range of motion in gerontology. PMID:25759568

  7. A geophone wireless sensor network for investigating glacier stick-slip motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Kirk; Hart, Jane K.; Basford, Philip J.; Bragg, Graeme M.; Ward, Tyler; Young, David S.

    2017-08-01

    We have developed an innovative passive borehole geophone system, as part of a wireless environmental sensor network to investigate glacier stick-slip motion. The new geophone nodes use an ARM Cortex-M3 processor with a low power design capable of running on battery power while embedded in the ice. Only data from seismic events was stored, held temporarily on a micro-SD card until they were retrieved by systems on the glacier surface which are connected to the internet. The sampling rates, detection and filtering levels were determined from a field trial using a standard commercial passive seismic system. The new system was installed on the Skalafellsjökull glacier in Iceland and provided encouraging results. The results showed that there was a relationship between surface melt water production and seismic event (ice quakes), and these occurred on a pattern related to the glacier surface melt-water controlled velocity changes (stick-slip motion). Three types of seismic events were identified, which were interpreted to reflect a pattern of till deformation (Type A), basal sliding (Type B) and hydraulic transience (Type C) associated with stick-slip motion.

  8. Flexible and multi-directional piezoelectric energy harvester for self-powered human motion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ook; Pyo, Soonjae; Oh, Yongkeun; Kang, Yunsung; Cho, Kyung-Ho; Choi, Jungwook; Kim, Jongbaeg

    2018-03-01

    A flexible piezoelectric strain energy harvester that is responsive to multi-directional input forces produced by various human motions is proposed. The structure of the harvester, which includes a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) bump, facilitates the effective conversion of strain energy, produced by input forces applied in random directions, into electrical energy. The structural design of the PDMS bump and frame as well as the slits in the piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film provide mechanical flexibility and enhance the strain induced in the PVDF film under input forces applied at various angles. The amount and direction of the strain induced in PVDF can be changed by the direction of the applied force; thus, the generated output power can be varied. The measured maximum output peak voltage is 1.75, 1.29, and 0.98 V when an input force of 4 N (2 Hz) is applied at angles of 0°, 45°, and 90°, and the corresponding maximum output power is 0.064, 0.026, and 0.02 μW, respectively. Moreover, the harvester stably generates output voltage over 1.4 × 104 cycles. Thus, the proposed harvester successfully identifies and converts strain energy produced by multi-directional input forces by various human motions into electrical energy. We demonstrate the potential utility of the proposed flexible energy harvester as a self-powered human motion sensor for wireless healthcare systems.

  9. Motion-sensor fusion-based gesture recognition and its VLSI architecture design for mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenping; Liu, Leibo; Yin, Shouyi; Hu, Siqi; Tang, Eugene Y.; Wei, Shaojun

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid proliferation of smartphones and tablets, various embedded sensors are incorporated into these platforms to enable multimodal human-computer interfaces. Gesture recognition, as an intuitive interaction approach, has been extensively explored in the mobile computing community. However, most gesture recognition implementations by now are all user-dependent and only rely on accelerometer. In order to achieve competitive accuracy, users are required to hold the devices in predefined manner during the operation. In this paper, a high-accuracy human gesture recognition system is proposed based on multiple motion sensor fusion. Furthermore, to reduce the energy overhead resulted from frequent sensor sampling and data processing, a high energy-efficient VLSI architecture implemented on a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA board is also proposed. Compared with the pure software implementation, approximately 45 times speed-up is achieved while operating at 20 MHz. The experiments show that the average accuracy for 10 gestures achieves 93.98% for user-independent case and 96.14% for user-dependent case when subjects hold the device randomly during completing the specified gestures. Although a few percent lower than the conventional best result, it still provides competitive accuracy acceptable for practical usage. Most importantly, the proposed system allows users to hold the device randomly during operating the predefined gestures, which substantially enhances the user experience.

  10. An Embodied Multi-Sensor Fusion Approach to Visual Motion Estimation Using Unsupervised Deep Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamwell, E Jared; Nothwang, William D; Perlis, Donald

    2018-05-04

    Aimed at improving size, weight, and power (SWaP)-constrained robotic vision-aided state estimation, we describe our unsupervised, deep convolutional-deconvolutional sensor fusion network, Multi-Hypothesis DeepEfference (MHDE). MHDE learns to intelligently combine noisy heterogeneous sensor data to predict several probable hypotheses for the dense, pixel-level correspondence between a source image and an unseen target image. We show how our multi-hypothesis formulation provides increased robustness against dynamic, heteroscedastic sensor and motion noise by computing hypothesis image mappings and predictions at 76⁻357 Hz depending on the number of hypotheses being generated. MHDE fuses noisy, heterogeneous sensory inputs using two parallel, inter-connected architectural pathways and n (1⁻20 in this work) multi-hypothesis generating sub-pathways to produce n global correspondence estimates between a source and a target image. We evaluated MHDE on the KITTI Odometry dataset and benchmarked it against the vision-only DeepMatching and Deformable Spatial Pyramids algorithms and were able to demonstrate a significant runtime decrease and a performance increase compared to the next-best performing method.

  11. Motion behaviour of magneto-sensitive elastomers controlled by an external magnetic field for sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, T.I., E-mail: tatiana.volkova@tu-ilmenau.de [Technische Universität Ilmenau, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical Mechanics Group, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Böhm, V., E-mail: valter.boehm@tu-ilmenau.de [Technische Universität Ilmenau, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical Mechanics Group, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Kaufhold, T., E-mail: tobias.kaufhold@tu-ilmenau.de [Technische Universität Ilmenau, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical Mechanics Group, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Popp, J., E-mail: jana.popp@tu-ilmenau.de [Technische Universität Ilmenau, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical Mechanics Group, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Becker, F., E-mail: felix.becker@tu-ilmenau.de [Technische Universität Ilmenau, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical Mechanics Group, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Borin, D.Yu., E-mail: dmitry.borin@tu-dresden.de [Technische Universität Dresden, Magnetofluiddynamics, Measuring and Automation Technology, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Stepanov, G.V., E-mail: gstepanov@mail.ru [State Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Organoelement Compounds, 105118 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zimmermann, K., E-mail: klaus.zimmermann@tu-ilmenau.de [Technische Universität Ilmenau, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical Mechanics Group, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    The development of sensor systems with a complex adaptive regulation of the operating sensitivity and behaviour is an actual scientific and technical challenge. Smart materials like magneto-sensitive elastomers (MSE) are seen as one potential solution for this problem, since their mechanical properties may be controlled by external magnetic fields. The present paper deals with the investigation of elastic and damping properties of MSE containing magnetically soft particles under the influence of a uniform magnetic field. Based on the measurement of the first eigenfrequency of free bending vibrations of a fixed beam, the effective Young's modulus is evaluated theoretically and also numerically using Finite Element Method. It is shown that this parameter, as well as the first eigenfrequency of the beam, increases monotonically with the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. The results are aimed to develop an acceleration sensor with adaptive magnetically controllable sensitivity range for the detection of external mechanical stimuli of the environment. - Highlights: • The motion behaviour of magneto-sensitive elastomers (MSE) with magnetically soft particles is investigated. • The first eigenfrequency of free bending vibrations of an MSE beam can be controlled by a uniform magnetic field. • Based on the experimental results, the effective Young's modulus of the system is evaluated theoretically and numerically. • The Young's modulus increases monotonically with the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. • The controlled mechanical compliance of MSE may be used for development of sensor systems with adaptive sensitivity range.

  12. Wearable motion sensors to continuously measure real-world physical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobkin, Bruce H

    2013-12-01

    Rehabilitation for sensorimotor impairments aims to improve daily activities, walking, exercise, and motor skills. Monitoring of practice and measuring outcomes, however, is usually restricted to laboratory-based procedures and self-reports. Mobile health devices may reverse these confounders of daily care and research trials. Wearable, wireless motion sensor data, analyzed by activity pattern-recognition algorithms, can describe the type, quantity, and quality of mobility-related activities in the community. Data transmission from the sensors to a cell phone and the Internet enable continuous monitoring. Remote access to laboratory quality data about walking speed, duration and distance, gait asymmetry and smoothness of movements, as well as cycling, exercise, and skills practice, opens new opportunities to engage patients in progressive, personalized therapies with feedback about the performance. Clinical trial designs will be able to include remote verification of the integrity of complex physical interventions and compliance with practice, as well as capture repeated, ecologically sound, ratio scale outcome measures. Given the progressively falling cost of miniaturized wearable gyroscopes, accelerometers, and other physiologic sensors, as well as inexpensive data transmission, sensing systems may become as ubiquitous as cell phones for healthcare. Neurorehabilitation can develop these mobile health platforms for daily care and clinical trials to improve exercise and fitness, skills learning, and physical functioning.

  13. Second order limit laws for occupation times of the fractional Brownian motion

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fangjun

    2013-01-01

    We prove second order limit laws for (additive) functionals of the $d$-dimensional fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index $H=\\frac{1}{d}$, using the method of moments, extending the Kallianpur-Robbins law.

  14. Semi-automated, occupationally safe immunofluorescence microtip sensor for rapid detection of Mycobacterium cells in sputum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinnosuke Inoue

    Full Text Available An occupationally safe (biosafe sputum liquefaction protocol was developed for use with a semi-automated antibody-based microtip immunofluorescence sensor. The protocol effectively liquefied sputum and inactivated microorganisms including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while preserving the antibody-binding activity of Mycobacterium cell surface antigens. Sputum was treated with a synergistic chemical-thermal protocol that included moderate concentrations of NaOH and detergent at 60°C for 5 to 10 min. Samples spiked with M. tuberculosis complex cells showed approximately 10(6-fold inactivation of the pathogen after treatment. Antibody binding was retained post-treatment, as determined by analysis with a microtip immunosensor. The sensor correctly distinguished between Mycobacterium species and other cell types naturally present in biosafe-treated sputum, with a detection limit of 100 CFU/mL for M. tuberculosis, in a 30-minute sample-to-result process. The microtip device was also semi-automated and shown to be compatible with low-cost, LED-powered fluorescence microscopy. The device and biosafe sputum liquefaction method opens the door to rapid detection of tuberculosis in settings with limited laboratory infrastructure.

  15. Application of inertial sensors and flux-gate magnetometer to real-time human body motion capture

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, William.

    1996-01-01

    Human body tracking for synthetic environment interface has become a significant human- computer interface challenge. There are several different types of motion capture systems currently available. Inherent problems, most resulting from the use of artificially-generated source signals, plague these systems. A proposed motion capture system is being developed at the Naval Postgraduate School which utilizes a combination of inertial sensors to overcome these difficulties. However, the current ...

  16. Correlation between the respiratory waveform measured using a respiratory sensor and 3D tumor motion in gated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunashima, Yoshikazu; Sakae, Takeji; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Kagei, Kenji; Terunuma, Toshiyuki; Nohtomi, Akihiro; Akine, Yasuyuki

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between the respiratory waveform measured using a respiratory sensor and three-dimensional (3D) tumor motion. Methods and materials: A laser displacement sensor (LDS: KEYENCE LB-300) that measures distance using infrared light was used as the respiratory sensor. This was placed such that the focus was in an area around the patient's navel. When the distance from the LDS to the body surface changes as the patient breathes, the displacement is detected as a respiratory waveform. To obtain the 3D tumor motion, a biplane digital radiography unit was used. For the tumor in the lung, liver, and esophagus of 26 patients, the waveform was compared with the 3D tumor motion. The relationship between the respiratory waveform and the 3D tumor motion was analyzed by means of the Fourier transform and a cross-correlation function. Results: The respiratory waveform cycle agreed with that of the cranial-caudal and dorsal-ventral tumor motion. A phase shift observed between the respiratory waveform and the 3D tumor motion was principally in the range 0.0 to 0.3 s, regardless of the organ being measured, which means that the respiratory waveform does not always express the 3D tumor motion with fidelity. For this reason, the standard deviation of the tumor position in the expiration phase, as indicated by the respiratory waveform, was derived, which should be helpful in suggesting the internal margin required in the case of respiratory gated radiotherapy. Conclusion: Although obtained from only a few breathing cycles for each patient, the correlation between the respiratory waveform and the 3D tumor motion was evident in this study. If this relationship is analyzed carefully and an internal margin is applied, the accuracy and convenience of respiratory gated radiotherapy could be improved by use of the respiratory sensor.Thus, it is expected that this procedure will come into wider use

  17. Extraction of bowing parameters from violin performance combining motion capture and sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonderwaldt, E; Demoucron, M

    2009-11-01

    A method is described for measurement of a complete set of bowing parameters in violin performance. Optical motion capture was combined with sensors for accurate measurement of the main bowing parameters (bow position, bow velocity, bow acceleration, bow-bridge distance, and bow force) as well as secondary control parameters (skewness, inclination, and tilt of the bow). In addition, other performance features (moments of on/off in bow-string contact, string played, and bowing direction) were extracted. Detailed descriptions of the calculations of the bowing parameters, features, and calibrations are given. The described system is capable of measuring all bowing parameters without disturbing the player, allowing for detailed studies of musically relevant aspects of bow control and coordination of bowing parameters in bowed-string instrument performance.

  18. A Low Cost Matching Motion Estimation Sensor Based on the NIOS II Microprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the implementation of a matching-based motion estimation sensor on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and NIOS II microprocessor applying a C to Hardware (C2H acceleration paradigm. The design, which involves several matching algorithms, is mapped using Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI technology. These algorithms, as well as the hardware implementation, are presented here together with an extensive analysis of the resources needed and the throughput obtained. The developed low-cost system is practical for real-time throughput and reduced power consumption and is useful in robotic applications, such as tracking, navigation using an unmanned vehicle, or as part of a more complex system.

  19. RGO-coated elastic fibres as wearable strain sensors for full-scale detection of human motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Qing; Wang, Qi; Zang, Siyao; Mao, Guoming; Zhang, Jinnan; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we chose highly-elastic fabric fibres as the functional carrier and then simply coated the fibres with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using plasma treatment, dip coating and hydrothermal reduction steps, finally making a wearable strain sensor. As a result, the full-scale detection of human motions, ranging from bending joints to the pulse beat, has been achieved by these sensors. Moreover, high sensitivity, good stability and excellent repeatability were realized. The good sensing performances and economical fabrication process of this wearable strain sensor have strengthened our confidence in practical applications in smart clothing, smart fabrics, healthcare, and entertainment fields.

  20. Biomechanical model-based displacement estimation in micro-sensor motion capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, X L; Sun, S Y; Wu, J K; Zhang, Z Q; 3 Building, 21 Heng Mui Keng Terrace (Singapore))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS), 02-02-10 I3 Building, 21 Heng Mui Keng Terrace (Singapore))" >Wong, W C

    2012-01-01

    In micro-sensor motion capture systems, the estimation of the body displacement in the global coordinate system remains a challenge due to lack of external references. This paper proposes a self-contained displacement estimation method based on a human biomechanical model to track the position of walking subjects in the global coordinate system without any additional supporting infrastructures. The proposed approach makes use of the biomechanics of the lower body segments and the assumption that during walking there is always at least one foot in contact with the ground. The ground contact joint is detected based on walking gait characteristics and used as the external references of the human body. The relative positions of the other joints are obtained from hierarchical transformations based on the biomechanical model. Anatomical constraints are proposed to apply to some specific joints of the lower body to further improve the accuracy of the algorithm. Performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with an optical motion capture system. The method is also demonstrated in outdoor and indoor long distance walking scenarios. The experimental results demonstrate clearly that the biomechanical model improves the displacement accuracy within the proposed framework. (paper)

  1. A Novel Model-Based Driving Behavior Recognition System Using Motion Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minglin Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a novel driving behavior recognition system based on a specific physical model and motion sensory data is developed to promote traffic safety. Based on the theory of rigid body kinematics, we build a specific physical model to reveal the data change rule during the vehicle moving process. In this work, we adopt a nine-axis motion sensor including a three-axis accelerometer, a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis magnetometer, and apply a Kalman filter for noise elimination and an adaptive time window for data extraction. Based on the feature extraction guided by the built physical model, various classifiers are accomplished to recognize different driving behaviors. Leveraging the system, normal driving behaviors (such as accelerating, braking, lane changing and turning with caution and aggressive driving behaviors (such as accelerating, braking, lane changing and turning with a sudden can be classified with a high accuracy of 93.25%. Compared with traditional driving behavior recognition methods using machine learning only, the proposed system possesses a solid theoretical basis, performs better and has good prospects.

  2. High-Performance Motion Estimation for Image Sensors with Video Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhi Xu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is important to reduce the time cost of video compression for image sensors in video sensor network. Motion estimation (ME is the most time-consuming part in video compression. Previous work on ME exploited intra-frame data reuse in a reference frame to improve the time efficiency but neglected inter-frame data reuse. We propose a novel inter-frame data reuse scheme which can exploit both intra-frame and inter-frame data reuse for ME in video compression (VC-ME. Pixels of reconstructed frames are kept on-chip until they are used by the next current frame to avoid off-chip memory access. On-chip buffers with smart schedules of data access are designed to perform the new data reuse scheme. Three levels of the proposed inter-frame data reuse scheme are presented and analyzed. They give different choices with tradeoff between off-chip bandwidth requirement and on-chip memory size. All three levels have better data reuse efficiency than their intra-frame counterparts, so off-chip memory traffic is reduced effectively. Comparing the new inter-frame data reuse scheme with the traditional intra-frame data reuse scheme, the memory traffic can be reduced by 50% for VC-ME.

  3. Reduction of Motion Artifacts and Improvement of R Peak Detecting Accuracy Using Adjacent Non-Intrusive ECG Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minho Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-intrusive electrocardiogram (ECG monitoring has many advantages: easy to measure and apply in daily life. However, motion noise in the measured signal is the major problem of non-intrusive measurement. This paper proposes a method to reduce the noise and to detect the R peaks of ECG in a stable manner in a sitting arrangement using non-intrusive sensors. The method utilizes two capacitive ECG sensors (cECGs to measure ECG, and another two cECGs located adjacent to the sensors for ECG are added to obtain the information on motion. Then, active noise cancellation technique and the motion information are used to reduce motion noise. To verify the proposed method, ECG was measured indoors and during driving, and the accuracy of the detected R peaks was compared. After applying the method, the sum of sensitivity and positive predictivity increased 8.39% on average and 26.26% maximally in the data. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the motion noise was reduced and that more reliable R peak positions could be obtained by the proposed method. The robustness of the new ECG measurement method will elicit benefits to various health care systems that require noninvasive heart rate or heart rate variability measurements.

  4. A novel sensor for two-degree-of-freedom motion measurement of linear nanopositioning stage using knife edge displacement sensing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, Abolfazl; Jeon, Seongkyul; Stepanick, Christopher K.; Lee, ChaBum

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a novel method for measuring two-degree-of-freedom (DOF) motion of flexure-based nanopositioning systems based on optical knife-edge sensing (OKES) technology, which utilizes the interference of two superimposed waves: a geometrical wave from the primary source of light and a boundary diffraction wave from the secondary source. This technique allows for two-DOF motion measurement of the linear and pitch motions of nanopositioning systems. Two capacitive sensors (CSs) are used for a baseline comparison with the proposed sensor by simultaneously measuring the motions of the nanopositioning system. The experimental results show that the proposed sensor closely agrees with the fundamental linear motion of the CS. However, the two-DOF OKES technology was shown to be approximately three times more sensitive to the pitch motion than the CS. The discrepancy in the two sensor outputs is discussed in terms of measuring principle, linearity, bandwidth, control effectiveness, and resolution.

  5. Development of Gravity Acceleration Measurement Using Simple Harmonic Motion Pendulum Method Based on Digital Technology and Photogate Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulkifli; Afandi, Zurian; Yohandri

    2018-04-01

    Development of gravitation acceleration measurement using simple harmonic motion pendulum method, digital technology and photogate sensor has been done. Digital technology is more practical and optimizes the time of experimentation. The pendulum method is a method of calculating the acceleration of gravity using a solid ball that connected to a rope attached to a stative pole. The pendulum is swung at a small angle resulted a simple harmonic motion. The measurement system consists of a power supply, Photogate sensors, Arduino pro mini and seven segments. The Arduino pro mini receives digital data from the photogate sensor and processes the digital data into the timing data of the pendulum oscillation. The calculation result of the pendulum oscillation time is displayed on seven segments. Based on measured data, the accuracy and precision of the experiment system are 98.76% and 99.81%, respectively. Based on experiment data, the system can be operated in physics experiment especially in determination of the gravity acceleration.

  6. Gesture Recognition from Data Streams of Human Motion Sensor Using Accelerated PSO Swarm Search Feature Selection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human motion sensing technology gains tremendous popularity nowadays with practical applications such as video surveillance for security, hand signing, and smart-home and gaming. These applications capture human motions in real-time from video sensors, the data patterns are nonstationary and ever changing. While the hardware technology of such motion sensing devices as well as their data collection process become relatively mature, the computational challenge lies in the real-time analysis of these live feeds. In this paper we argue that traditional data mining methods run short of accurately analyzing the human activity patterns from the sensor data stream. The shortcoming is due to the algorithmic design which is not adaptive to the dynamic changes in the dynamic gesture motions. The successor of these algorithms which is known as data stream mining is evaluated versus traditional data mining, through a case of gesture recognition over motion data by using Microsoft Kinect sensors. Three different subjects were asked to read three comic strips and to tell the stories in front of the sensor. The data stream contains coordinates of articulation points and various positions of the parts of the human body corresponding to the actions that the user performs. In particular, a novel technique of feature selection using swarm search and accelerated PSO is proposed for enabling fast preprocessing for inducing an improved classification model in real-time. Superior result is shown in the experiment that runs on this empirical data stream. The contribution of this paper is on a comparative study between using traditional and data stream mining algorithms and incorporation of the novel improved feature selection technique with a scenario where different gesture patterns are to be recognized from streaming sensor data.

  7. A High-Speed Vision-Based Sensor for Dynamic Vibration Analysis Using Fast Motion Extraction Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashan Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of image sensor and optics enables the application of vision-based techniques to the non-contact dynamic vibration analysis of large-scale structures. As an emerging technology, a vision-based approach allows for remote measuring and does not bring any additional mass to the measuring object compared with traditional contact measurements. In this study, a high-speed vision-based sensor system is developed to extract structure vibration signals in real time. A fast motion extraction algorithm is required for this system because the maximum sampling frequency of the charge-coupled device (CCD sensor can reach up to 1000 Hz. Two efficient subpixel level motion extraction algorithms, namely the modified Taylor approximation refinement algorithm and the localization refinement algorithm, are integrated into the proposed vision sensor. Quantitative analysis shows that both of the two modified algorithms are at least five times faster than conventional upsampled cross-correlation approaches and achieve satisfactory error performance. The practicability of the developed sensor is evaluated by an experiment in a laboratory environment and a field test. Experimental results indicate that the developed high-speed vision-based sensor system can extract accurate dynamic structure vibration signals by tracking either artificial targets or natural features.

  8. Correlated nucleon motion and fractional occupation of orbitals in sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb

    CERN Document Server

    De Witt-Huberts, P K A

    1999-01-01

    The low-energy states of nearly closed-shell nuclei can be interpreted as having quasi-particles in single-particle orbitals. The difference between physical particle and quasi particle, resulting from correlations, is quantified by the quasi-hole strength z that represents the probability of the quasi-particle being a physical particle. We present empirical evidence from quasi-free proton knockout with electrons for a substantially quenched z-value for the 3s orbital in sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb. With z values derived from (e,e'p) and elastic electron-scattering data the absolute occupation for the 3s orbital in sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb is derived. Results from both theory and experiment imply that only approx 2/3 of the nucleons act as independent particles bound in an average potential.

  9. Correlated nucleon motion and fractional occupation of orbitals in 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Witt Huberts, Peter K.A.

    1999-01-01

    The low-energy states of nearly closed-shell nuclei can be interpreted as having quasi-particles in single-particle orbitals. The difference between physical particle and quasi particle, resulting from correlations, is quantified by the quasi-hole strength z that represents the probability of the quasi-particle being a physical particle. We present empirical evidence from quasi-free proton knockout with electrons for a substantially quenched z-value for the 3s orbital in 208 Pb. With z values derived from (e,e'p) and elastic electron-scattering data the absolute occupation for the 3s orbital in 208 Pb is derived. Results from both theory and experiment imply that only ∼ 2/3 of the nucleons act as independent particles bound in an average potential

  10. Comparative analysis of respiratory motion tracking using Microsoft Kinect v2 sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Evan; Snyder, Michael

    2018-05-01

    To present and evaluate a straightforward implementation of a marker-less, respiratory motion-tracking process utilizing Kinect v2 camera as a gating tool during 4DCT or during radiotherapy treatments. Utilizing the depth sensor on the Kinect as well as author written C# code, respiratory motion of a subject was tracked by recording depth values obtained at user selected points on the subject, with each point representing one pixel on the depth image. As a patient breathes, specific anatomical points on the chest/abdomen will move slightly within the depth image across pixels. By tracking how depth values change for a specific pixel, instead of how the anatomical point moves throughout the image, a respiratory trace can be obtained based on changing depth values of the selected pixel. Tracking these values was implemented via marker-less setup. Varian's RPM system and the Anzai belt system were used in tandem with the Kinect to compare respiratory traces obtained by each using two different subjects. Analysis of the depth information from the Kinect for purposes of phase- and amplitude-based binning correlated well with the RPM and Anzai systems. Interquartile Range (IQR) values were obtained comparing times correlated with specific amplitude and phase percentages against each product. The IQR time spans indicated the Kinect would measure specific percentage values within 0.077 s for Subject 1 and 0.164 s for Subject 2 when compared to values obtained with RPM or Anzai. For 4DCT scans, these times correlate to less than 1 mm of couch movement and would create an offset of 1/2 an acquired slice. By tracking depth values of user selected pixels within the depth image, rather than tracking specific anatomical locations, respiratory motion can be tracked and visualized utilizing the Kinect with results comparable to that of the Varian RPM and Anzai belt. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of

  11. A New Calibration Methodology for Thorax and Upper Limbs Motion Capture in Children Using Magneto and Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ricci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in wearable sensor technologies for motion capture have produced devices, mainly based on magneto and inertial measurement units (M-IMU, that are now suitable for out-of-the-lab use with children. In fact, the reduced size, weight and the wireless connectivity meet the requirement of minimum obtrusivity and give scientists the possibility to analyze children’s motion in daily life contexts. Typical use of magneto and inertial measurement units (M-IMU motion capture systems is based on attaching a sensing unit to each body segment of interest. The correct use of this setup requires a specific calibration methodology that allows mapping measurements from the sensors’ frames of reference into useful kinematic information in the human limbs’ frames of reference. The present work addresses this specific issue, presenting a calibration protocol to capture the kinematics of the upper limbs and thorax in typically developing (TD children. The proposed method allows the construction, on each body segment, of a meaningful system of coordinates that are representative of real physiological motions and that are referred to as functional frames (FFs. We will also present a novel cost function for the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm, to retrieve the rotation matrices between each sensor frame (SF and the corresponding FF. Reported results on a group of 40 children suggest that the method is repeatable and reliable, opening the way to the extensive use of this technology for out-of-the-lab motion capture in children.

  12. Barriers to the Adoption of Wearable Sensors in the Workplace: A Survey of Occupational Safety and Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Mark C; Sesek, Richard F; Cavuoto, Lora A

    2018-05-01

    To gather information on the (a) types of wearable sensors, particularly personal activity monitors, currently used by occupational safety and health (OSH) professionals; (b) potential benefits of using such technologies in the workplace; and (c) perceived barriers preventing the widespread adoption of wearable sensors in industry. Wearable sensors are increasingly being promoted as a means to improve employee health and well-being, and there is mounting evidence supporting their use as exposure assessment and personal health tools. Despite this, many workplaces have been hesitant to adopt these technologies. An electronic survey was emailed to 28,428 registered members of the American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) and 1,302 professionals certified by the Board of Certification in Professional Ergonomics (BCPE). A total of 952 valid responses were returned. Over half of respondents described being in favor of using wearable sensors to track OSH-related risk factors and relevant exposure metrics at their respective workplaces. However, barriers including concerns regarding employee privacy/confidentiality of collected data, employee compliance, sensor durability, the cost/benefit ratio of using wearables, and good manufacturing practice requirements were described as challenges precluding adoption. The broad adoption of wearable technologies appears to depend largely on the scientific community's ability to successfully address the identified barriers. Investigators may use the information provided to develop research studies that better address OSH practitioner concerns and help technology developers operationalize wearable sensors to improve employee health and well-being.

  13. Improved Hip-Based Individual Recognition Using Wearable Motion Recording Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon; Bours, Patrick

    In todays society the demand for reliable verification of a user identity is increasing. Although biometric technologies based on fingerprint or iris can provide accurate and reliable recognition performance, they are inconvenient for periodic or frequent re-verification. In this paper we propose a hip-based user recognition method which can be suitable for implicit and periodic re-verification of the identity. In our approach we use a wearable accelerometer sensor attached to the hip of the person, and then the measured hip motion signal is analysed for identity verification purposes. The main analyses steps consists of detecting gait cycles in the signal and matching two sets of detected gait cycles. Evaluating the approach on a hip data set consisting of 400 gait sequences (samples) from 100 subjects, we obtained equal error rate (EER) of 7.5% and identification rate at rank 1 was 81.4%. These numbers are improvements by 37.5% and 11.2% respectively of the previous study using the same data set.

  14. Using a Motion Sensor-Equipped Smartphone to Facilitate CT-Guided Puncture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Masaaki; Watanabe, Ryouhei; Koyano, Yasuhiro; Sugata, Shigenori; Takeda, Yukie; Nakamura, Seiji; Akamune, Akihisa; Tsuda, Takaharu; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2017-01-01

    PurposeTo demonstrate the use of “Smart Puncture,” a smartphone application to assist conventional CT-guided puncture without CT fluoroscopy, and to describe the advantages of this application.Materials and MethodsA puncture guideline is displayed by entering the angle into the application. Regardless of the angle at which the device is being held, the motion sensor ensures that the guideline is displayed at the appropriate angle with respect to gravity. The angle of the smartphone’s liquid crystal display (LCD) is also detected, preventing needle deflection from the CT slice image. Physicians can perform the puncture procedure by advancing the needle using the guideline while the smartphone is placed adjacent to the patient. In an experimental puncture test using a sponge as a target, the target was punctured at 30°, 50°, and 70° when the device was tilted to 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°, respectively. The punctured target was then imaged with a CT scan, and the puncture error was measured.ResultsThe mean puncture error in the plane parallel to the LCD was less than 2°, irrespective of device tilt. The mean puncture error in the sagittal plane was less than 3° with no device tilt. However, the mean puncture error tended to increase when the tilt was increased.ConclusionThis application can transform a smartphone into a valuable tool that is capable of objectively and accurately assisting CT-guided puncture procedures.

  15. Using a Motion Sensor-Equipped Smartphone to Facilitate CT-Guided Puncture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Masaaki, E-mail: masaaki314@gmail.com [Matsuyama Shimin Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Watanabe, Ryouhei; Koyano, Yasuhiro [Matsuyama Shimin Hospital, Department of Surgery (Japan); Sugata, Shigenori; Takeda, Yukie [Ehime Prefectural Imabari Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Nakamura, Seiji; Akamune, Akihisa [Matsuyama Shimin Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Tsuda, Takaharu; Mochizuki, Teruhito [Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    PurposeTo demonstrate the use of “Smart Puncture,” a smartphone application to assist conventional CT-guided puncture without CT fluoroscopy, and to describe the advantages of this application.Materials and MethodsA puncture guideline is displayed by entering the angle into the application. Regardless of the angle at which the device is being held, the motion sensor ensures that the guideline is displayed at the appropriate angle with respect to gravity. The angle of the smartphone’s liquid crystal display (LCD) is also detected, preventing needle deflection from the CT slice image. Physicians can perform the puncture procedure by advancing the needle using the guideline while the smartphone is placed adjacent to the patient. In an experimental puncture test using a sponge as a target, the target was punctured at 30°, 50°, and 70° when the device was tilted to 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°, respectively. The punctured target was then imaged with a CT scan, and the puncture error was measured.ResultsThe mean puncture error in the plane parallel to the LCD was less than 2°, irrespective of device tilt. The mean puncture error in the sagittal plane was less than 3° with no device tilt. However, the mean puncture error tended to increase when the tilt was increased.ConclusionThis application can transform a smartphone into a valuable tool that is capable of objectively and accurately assisting CT-guided puncture procedures.

  16. Inertial sensors as measurement tools of elbow range of motion in gerontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacco G

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available G Sacco,1–3,* JM Turpin,3,4,* A Marteu,5 C Sakarovitch,6 B Teboul,2 L Boscher,4,5 P Brocker,4 P Robert,1–3 O Guerin2,3,7 1Memory Center, Claude Pompidou Institut, Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital of Nice, Nice, France; 2Centre d’Innovation et d’Usages en Santé (CIU-S, University Hospital of Nice, Cimiez Hospital, Nice, France; 3CoBTeK Cognition Behaviour Technology EA 7276, Research Center Edmond and Lily Safra, Nice Sophia-Antipolis University, Nice, France; 4Rehabilitation Unit, Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital of Nice, Cimiez Hospital, Nice, France; 5Rehabilitation Unit, Department of Neurosciences, University Hospital of Nice, L’Archet Hospital, Nice, France; 6Department of Clinical Research and Innovation, University Hospital of Nice, Cimiez Hospital, Nice, France; 7Acute Geriatrics Unit, Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital of Nice, Cimiez Hospital, Nice, France *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and purpose: Musculoskeletal system deterioration among the aging is a major reason for loss of autonomy and directly affects the quality of life of the elderly. Articular evaluation is part of physiotherapeutic assessment and helps in establishing a precise diagnosis and deciding appropriate therapy. Reference instruments are valid but not easy to use for some joints. The main goal of our study was to determine reliability and intertester reproducibility of the MP-BV, an inertial sensor (the MotionPod® [MP] combined with specific software (BioVal [BV], for elbow passive range-of-motion measurements in geriatrics. Methods: This open, monocentric, randomized study compared inertial sensor to inclinometer in patients hospitalized in an acute, post-acute, and long-term-care gerontology unit. Results: Seventy-seven patients (mean age 83.5±6.4 years, sex ratio 1.08 [male/female] were analyzed. The MP-BV was reliable for each of the three measurements (flexion, pronation, and

  17. Wireless wearable range-of-motion sensor system for upper and lower extremity joints: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Yogaprakash; Yen, Shih-Cheng; Tay, Arthur; Lee, Wangwei; Gao, Fan; Zhao, Ziyi; Li, Jingze; Hon, Benjamin; Tian-Ma Xu, Tim; Cheong, Angela; Koh, Karen; Ng, Yee-Sien; Chew, Effie; Koh, Gerald

    2015-02-01

    Range-of-motion (ROM) assessment is a critical assessment tool during the rehabilitation process. The conventional approach uses the goniometer which remains the most reliable instrument but it is usually time-consuming and subject to both intra- and inter-therapist measurement errors. An automated wireless wearable sensor system for the measurement of ROM has previously been developed by the current authors. Presented is the correlation and accuracy of the automated wireless wearable sensor system against a goniometer in measuring ROM in the major joints of upper (UEs) and lower extremities (LEs) in 19 healthy subjects and 20 newly disabled inpatients through intra (same) subject comparison of ROM assessments between the sensor system against goniometer measurements by physical therapists. In healthy subjects, ROM measurements using the new sensor system were highly correlated with goniometry, with 95% of differences sensor system were also highly correlated with goniometry, with 95% of the differences being < 20° and 25° for most movements in the major joints of UE and LE, respectively.

  18. The Effect of Flexible Pavement Mechanics on the Accuracy of Axle Load Sensors in Vehicle Weigh-in-Motion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnos, Piotr; Rys, Dawid

    2017-09-07

    Weigh-in-Motion systems are tools to prevent road pavements from the adverse phenomena of vehicle overloading. However, the effectiveness of these systems can be significantly increased by improving weighing accuracy, which is now insufficient for direct enforcement of overloaded vehicles. Field tests show that the accuracy of Weigh-in-Motion axle load sensors installed in the flexible (asphalt) pavements depends on pavement temperature and vehicle speeds. Although this is a known phenomenon, it has not been explained yet. The aim of our study is to fill this gap in the knowledge. The explanation of this phenomena which is presented in the paper is based on pavement/sensors mechanics and the application of the multilayer elastic half-space theory. We show that differences in the distribution of vertical and horizontal stresses in the pavement structure are the cause of vehicle weight measurement errors. These studies are important in terms of Weigh-in-Motion systems for direct enforcement and will help to improve the weighing results accuracy.

  19. Impact of Sliding Window Length in Indoor Human Motion Modes and Pose Pattern Recognition Based on Smartphone Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaojing Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition (HAR is essential for understanding people’s habits and behaviors, providing an important data source for precise marketing and research in psychology and sociology. Different approaches have been proposed and applied to HAR. Data segmentation using a sliding window is a basic step during the HAR procedure, wherein the window length directly affects recognition performance. However, the window length is generally randomly selected without systematic study. In this study, we examined the impact of window length on smartphone sensor-based human motion and pose pattern recognition. With data collected from smartphone sensors, we tested a range of window lengths on five popular machine-learning methods: decision tree, support vector machine, K-nearest neighbor, Gaussian naïve Bayesian, and adaptive boosting. From the results, we provide recommendations for choosing the appropriate window length. Results corroborate that the influence of window length on the recognition of motion modes is significant but largely limited to pose pattern recognition. For motion mode recognition, a window length between 2.5–3.5 s can provide an optimal tradeoff between recognition performance and speed. Adaptive boosting outperformed the other methods. For pose pattern recognition, 0.5 s was enough to obtain a satisfactory result. In addition, all of the tested methods performed well.

  20. A Comparative Study of Physiological Monitoring with a Wearable Opto-Electronic Patch Sensor (OEPS for Motion Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alzahrani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study in physiological monitoring between a wearable opto-electronic patch sensor (OEPS comprising a three-axis Microelectromechanical systems (MEMs accelerometer (3MA and commercial devices. The study aims to effectively capture critical physiological parameters, for instance, oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiration rate and heart rate variability, as extracted from the pulsatile waveforms captured by OEPS against motion artefacts when using the commercial probe. The protocol involved 16 healthy subjects and was designed to test the features of OEPS, with emphasis on the effective reduction of motion artefacts through the utilization of a 3MA as a movement reference. The results show significant agreement between the heart rates from the reference measurements and the recovered signals. Significance of standard deviation and error of mean yield values of 2.27 and 0.65 beats per minute, respectively; and a high correlation (0.97 between the results of the commercial sensor and OEPS. T, Wilcoxon and Bland-Altman with 95% limit of agreement tests were also applied in the comparison of heart rates extracted from these sensors, yielding a mean difference (MD: 0.08. The outcome of the present work incites the prospects of OEPS on physiological monitoring during physical activities.

  1. Large-Area All-Textile Pressure Sensors for Monitoring Human Motion and Physiological Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengmeng; Pu, Xiong; Jiang, Chunyan; Liu, Ting; Huang, Xin; Chen, Libo; Du, Chunhua; Sun, Jiangman; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-11-01

    Wearable pressure sensors, which can perceive and respond to environmental stimuli, are essential components of smart textiles. Here, large-area all-textile-based pressure-sensor arrays are successfully realized on common fabric substrates. The textile sensor unit achieves high sensitivity (14.4 kPa -1 ), low detection limit (2 Pa), fast response (≈24 ms), low power consumption (sensor is demonstrated to be able to recognize finger movement, hand gestures, acoustic vibrations, and real-time pulse wave. Furthermore, large-area sensor arrays are successfully fabricated on one textile substrate to spatially map tactile stimuli and can be directly incorporated into a fabric garment for stylish designs without sacrifice of comfort, suggesting great potential in smart textiles or wearable electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. High Sensitivity, Wearable, Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors Based on Irregular Microhump Structures and Its Applications in Body Motion Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongrong; Wang, Shan; Zeng, Jifang; Ren, Xiaochen; Chee, Adrian J Y; Yiu, Billy Y S; Chung, Wai Choi; Yang, Yong; Yu, Alfred C H; Roberts, Robert C; Tsang, Anderson C O; Chow, Kwok Wing; Chan, Paddy K L

    2016-07-01

    A pressure sensor based on irregular microhump patterns has been proposed and developed. The devices show high sensitivity and broad operating pressure regime while comparing with regular micropattern devices. Finite element analysis (FEA) is utilized to confirm the sensing mechanism and predict the performance of the pressure sensor based on the microhump structures. Silicon carbide sandpaper is employed as the mold to develop polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microhump patterns with various sizes. The active layer of the piezoresistive pressure sensor is developed by spin coating PSS on top of the patterned PDMS. The devices show an averaged sensitivity as high as 851 kPa(-1) , broad operating pressure range (20 kPa), low operating power (100 nW), and fast response speed (6.7 kHz). Owing to their flexible properties, the devices are applied to human body motion sensing and radial artery pulse. These flexible high sensitivity devices show great potential in the next generation of smart sensors for robotics, real-time health monitoring, and biomedical applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Development of a real-time monitoring system for intra-fractional motion in intracranial treatment using pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inata, Hiroki; Araki, Fujio; Kuribayashi, Yuta; Hamamoto, Yasushi; Nakayama, Shigeki; Sodeoka, Noritaka; Kiriyama, Tetsukazu; Nishizaki, Osamu

    2015-09-21

    This study developed a dedicated real-time monitoring system to detect intra-fractional head motion in intracranial radiotherapy using pressure sensors. The dedicated real-time monitoring system consists of pressure sensors with a thickness of 0.6 mm and a radius of 9.1 mm, a thermoplastic mask, a vacuum pillow, and a baseplate. The four sensors were positioned at superior-inferior and right-left sides under the occipital area. The sampling rate of pressure sensors was set to 5 Hz. First, we confirmed that the relationship between the force and the displacement of the vacuum pillow follows Hook's law. Next, the spring constant for the vacuum pillow was determined from the relationship between the force given to the vacuum pillow and the displacement of the head, detected by Cyberknife target locating system (TLS) acquisitions in clinical application. Finally, the accuracy of our system was evaluated by using the 2  ×  2 confusion matrix. The regression lines between the force, y, and the displacement, x, of the vacuum pillow were given by y = 3.8x, y = 4.4x, and y = 5.0x when the degree of inner pressure was  -12 kPa,-20 kPa, and  -27 kPa, respectively. The spring constant of the vacuum pillow was 1.6 N mm(-1) from the 6D positioning data of a total of 2999 TLS acquisitions in 19 patients. Head motions of 1 mm, 1.5 mm, and 2 mm were detected in real-time with the accuracies of 67%, 84%, and 89%, respectively. Our system can detect displacement of the head continuously during every interval of TLS with a resolution of 1-2 mm without any radiation exposure.

  4. Modular finger and hand motion capturing system based on inertial and magnetic sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtin Markus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of hand posture and kinematics is increasingly important in various fields. This includes the rehabilitation of stroke survivors with restricted hand function. This paper presents a modular, ambulatory measurement system for the assement of the remaining hand function and for closed-loop controlled therapy. The device is based on inertial sensors and utilizes up to five interchangeable sensor strips to achieve modularity and to simplify the sensor attachment. We introduce the modular hardware design and describe algorithms used to calculate the joint angles. Measurements with two experimental setups demonstrate the feasibility and the potential of such a tracking device.

  5. Motion Planning and Task Assignment for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Cooperating with Unattended Ground Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-24

    constraints on its motion. This problem was formalized as the Dubins travelling salesman problem (TSP). In the second phase of the research we have...given constraints on its motion. This problem was formalized as the Dubins travelling salesman problem (TSP). The contributions of the study in the...assumptions were made on the magnitude of the intercity distances. The two algorithms complement each other in terms of their range of applicability

  6. Installation and evaluation of weigh-in-motion utilizing quartz-piezo sensor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    The objective of the research study was: to install a quartz-piezo based WIM system, and to : determine sensor survivability, accuracy and reliability under actual traffic conditions in : Connecticuts environment. If the systems prove dependable a...

  7. Semi-flocking algorithm for motion control of mobile sensors in large-scale surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semnani, Samaneh Hosseini; Basir, Otman A

    2015-01-01

    The ability of sensors to self-organize is an important asset in surveillance sensor networks. Self-organize implies self-control at the sensor level and coordination at the network level. Biologically inspired approaches have recently gained significant attention as a tool to address the issue of sensor control and coordination in sensor networks. These approaches are exemplified by the two well-known algorithms, namely, the Flocking algorithm and the Anti-Flocking algorithm. Generally speaking, although these two biologically inspired algorithms have demonstrated promising performance, they expose deficiencies when it comes to their ability to maintain simultaneous robust dynamic area coverage and target coverage. These two coverage performance objectives are inherently conflicting. This paper presents Semi-Flocking, a biologically inspired algorithm that benefits from key characteristics of both the Flocking and Anti-Flocking algorithms. The Semi-Flocking algorithm approaches the problem by assigning a small flock of sensors to each target, while at the same time leaving some sensors free to explore the environment. This allows the algorithm to strike balance between robust area coverage and target coverage. Such balance is facilitated via flock-sensor coordination. The performance of the proposed Semi-Flocking algorithm is examined and compared with other two flocking-based algorithms once using randomly moving targets and once using a standard walking pedestrian dataset. The results of both experiments show that the Semi-Flocking algorithm outperforms both the Flocking algorithm and the Anti-Flocking algorithm with respect to the area of coverage and the target coverage objectives. Furthermore, the results show that the proposed algorithm demonstrates shorter target detection time and fewer undetected targets than the other two flocking-based algorithms.

  8. Identifying and tracking pedestrians based on sensor fusion and motion stability predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musleh, Basam; García, Fernando; Otamendi, Javier; Armingol, José Maria; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    The lack of trustworthy sensors makes development of Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) applications a tough task. It is necessary to develop intelligent systems by combining reliable sensors and real-time algorithms to send the proper, accurate messages to the drivers. In this article, an application to detect and predict the movement of pedestrians in order to prevent an imminent collision has been developed and tested under real conditions. The proposed application, first, accurately measures the position of obstacles using a two-sensor hybrid fusion approach: a stereo camera vision system and a laser scanner. Second, it correctly identifies pedestrians using intelligent algorithms based on polylines and pattern recognition related to leg positions (laser subsystem) and dense disparity maps and u-v disparity (vision subsystem). Third, it uses statistical validation gates and confidence regions to track the pedestrian within the detection zones of the sensors and predict their position in the upcoming frames. The intelligent sensor application has been experimentally tested with success while tracking pedestrians that cross and move in zigzag fashion in front of a vehicle.

  9. Identifying and Tracking Pedestrians Based on Sensor Fusion and Motion Stability Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo de la Escalera

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of trustworthy sensors makes development of Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS applications a tough task. It is necessary to develop intelligent systems by combining reliable sensors and real-time algorithms to send the proper, accurate messages to the drivers. In this article, an application to detect and predict the movement of pedestrians in order to prevent an imminent collision has been developed and tested under real conditions. The proposed application, first, accurately measures the position of obstacles using a two-sensor hybrid fusion approach: a stereo camera vision system and a laser scanner. Second, it correctly identifies pedestrians using intelligent algorithms based on polylines and pattern recognition related to leg positions (laser subsystem and dense disparity maps and u-v disparity (vision subsystem. Third, it uses statistical validation gates and confidence regions to track the pedestrian within the detection zones of the sensors and predict their position in the upcoming frames. The intelligent sensor application has been experimentally tested with success while tracking pedestrians that cross and move in zigzag fashion in front of a vehicle.

  10. Recent progress of flexible and wearable strain sensors for human-motion monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Gang; Huang, Wei; Shao, Jinjun; Dong, Xiaochen

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of human artificial intelligence and the inevitably expanding markets, the past two decades have witnessed an urgent demand for the flexible and wearable devices, especially the flexible strain sensors. Flexible strain sensors, incorporated the merits of stretchability, high sensitivity and skin-mountable, are emerging as an extremely charming domain in virtue of their promising applications in artificial intelligent realms, human-machine systems and health-care devices. In this review, we concentrate on the transduction mechanisms, building blocks of flexible physical sensors, subsequently property optimization in terms of device structures and sensing materials in the direction of practical applications. Perspectives on the existing challenges are also highlighted in the end. Project supported by the NNSF of China (Nos. 61525402, 61604071), the Key University Science Research Project of Jiangsu Province (No. 15KJA430006), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (No. BK20161012).

  11. Autonomous underwater vehicle motion tracking using a Kalman filter for sensor fusion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Holtzhausen, S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available it will be shown how a Kalman Filter is used to estimate the position of an autonomous vehicle in a three dimensional space. The Kalman filter is used to estimate movement and position using measurements from multiple sensors...

  12. Highly flexible self-powered sensors based on printed circuit board technology for human motion detection and gesture recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Ho, Hsi-Chun

    2016-03-04

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new integration of printed circuit board (PCB) technology-based self-powered sensors (PSSs) and direct-write, near-field electrospinning (NFES) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) micro/nano fibers (MNFs) as source materials. Integration with PCB technology is highly desirable for affordable mass production. In addition, we systematically investigate the effects of electrodes with intervals in the range of 0.15 mm to 0.40 mm on the resultant PSS output voltage and current. The results show that at a strain of 0.5% and 5 Hz, a PSS with a gap interval 0.15 mm produces a maximum output voltage of 3 V and a maximum output current of 220 nA. Under the same dimensional constraints, the MNFs are massively connected in series (via accumulation of continuous MNFs across the gaps ) and in parallel (via accumulation of parallel MNFs on the same gap) simultaneously. Finally, encapsulation in a flexible polymer with different interval electrodes demonstrated that electrical superposition can be realized by connecting MNFs collectively and effectively in serial/parallel patterns to achieve a high current and high voltage output, respectively. Further improvement in PSSs based on the effect of cooperativity was experimentally realized by rolling-up the device into a cylindrical shape, resulting in a 130% increase in power output due to the cooperative effect. We assembled the piezoelectric MNF sensors on gloves, bandages and stockings to fabricate devices that can detect different types of human motion, including finger motion and various flexing and extensions of an ankle. The firmly glued PSSs were tested on the glove and ankle respectively to detect and harvest the various movements and the output voltage was recorded as ∼1.5 V under jumping movement (one PSS) and ∼4.5 V for the clenched fist with five fingers bent concurrently (five PSSs). This research shows that piezoelectric MNFs not only have a huge impact on harvesting various external

  13. Highly flexible self-powered sensors based on printed circuit board technology for human motion detection and gesture recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Ho, Hsi-Chun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new integration of printed circuit board (PCB) technology-based self-powered sensors (PSSs) and direct-write, near-field electrospinning (NFES) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) micro/nano fibers (MNFs) as source materials. Integration with PCB technology is highly desirable for affordable mass production. In addition, we systematically investigate the effects of electrodes with intervals in the range of 0.15 mm to 0.40 mm on the resultant PSS output voltage and current. The results show that at a strain of 0.5% and 5 Hz, a PSS with a gap interval 0.15 mm produces a maximum output voltage of 3 V and a maximum output current of 220 nA. Under the same dimensional constraints, the MNFs are massively connected in series (via accumulation of continuous MNFs across the gaps ) and in parallel (via accumulation of parallel MNFs on the same gap) simultaneously. Finally, encapsulation in a flexible polymer with different interval electrodes demonstrated that electrical superposition can be realized by connecting MNFs collectively and effectively in serial/parallel patterns to achieve a high current and high voltage output, respectively. Further improvement in PSSs based on the effect of cooperativity was experimentally realized by rolling-up the device into a cylindrical shape, resulting in a 130% increase in power output due to the cooperative effect. We assembled the piezoelectric MNF sensors on gloves, bandages and stockings to fabricate devices that can detect different types of human motion, including finger motion and various flexing and extensions of an ankle. The firmly glued PSSs were tested on the glove and ankle respectively to detect and harvest the various movements and the output voltage was recorded as ∼1.5 V under jumping movement (one PSS) and ∼4.5 V for the clenched fist with five fingers bent concurrently (five PSSs). This research shows that piezoelectric MNFs not only have a huge impact on harvesting various external

  14. Seismic Input Motion Determined from a Surface-Downhole Pair of Sensors: A Constrained Deconvolution Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dino Bindi; Stefano Parolai; M. Picozzi; A. Ansal

    2010-01-01

    We apply a deconvolution approach to the problem of determining the input motion at the base of an instrumented borehole using only a pair of recordings, one at the borehole surface and the other at its bottom. To stabilize the bottom-tosurface spectral ratio, we apply an iterative regularization algorithm that allows us to constrain the solution to be positively defined and to have a finite time duration. Through the analysis of synthetic data, we show that the method is capab...

  15. An FPGA-Based Omnidirectional Vision Sensor for Motion Detection on Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Y. Mori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the development of an integrated hardware/software sensor system for moving object detection and distance calculation, based on background subtraction algorithm. The sensor comprises a catadioptric system composed by a camera and a convex mirror that reflects the environment to the camera from all directions, obtaining a panoramic view. The sensor is used as an omnidirectional vision system, allowing for localization and navigation tasks of mobile robots. Several image processing operations such as filtering, segmentation and morphology have been included in the processing architecture. For achieving distance measurement, an algorithm to determine the center of mass of a detected object was implemented. The overall architecture has been mapped onto a commercial low-cost FPGA device, using a hardware/software co-design approach, which comprises a Nios II embedded microprocessor and specific image processing blocks, which have been implemented in hardware. The background subtraction algorithm was also used to calibrate the system, allowing for accurate results. Synthesis results show that the system can achieve a throughput of 26.6 processed frames per second and the performance analysis pointed out that the overall architecture achieves a speedup factor of 13.78 in comparison with a PC-based solution running on the real-time operating system xPC Target.

  16. Screen printing of a capacitive cantilever-based motion sensor on fabric using a novel sacrificial layer process for smart fabric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yang; Torah, Russel; Yang, Kai; Beeby, Steve; Tudor, John

    2013-01-01

    Free-standing cantilevers have been fabricated by screen printing sacrificial and structural layers onto a standard polyester cotton fabric. By printing additional conductive layers, a complete capacitive motion sensor on fabric using only screen printing has been fabricated. This type of free-standing structure cannot currently be fabricated using conventional fabric manufacturing processes. In addition, compared to conventional smart fabric fabrication processes (e.g. weaving and knitting), screen printing offers the advantages of geometric design flexibility and the ability to simultaneously print multiple devices of the same or different designs. Furthermore, a range of active inks exists from the printed electronics industry which can potentially be applied to create many types of smart fabric. Four cantilevers with different lengths have been printed on fabric using a five-layer structure with a sacrificial material underneath the cantilever. The sacrificial layer is subsequently removed at 160 °C for 30 min to achieve a freestanding cantilever above the fabric. Two silver electrodes, one on top of the cantilever and the other on top of the fabric, are used to capacitively detect the movement of the cantilever. In this way, an entirely printed motion sensor is produced on a standard fabric. The motion sensor was initially tested on an electromechanical shaker rig at a low frequency range to examine the linearity and the sensitivity of each design. Then, these sensors were individually attached to a moving human forearm to evaluate more representative results. A commercial accelerometer (Microstrain G-link) was mounted alongside for comparison. The printed sensors have a similar motion response to the commercial accelerometer, demonstrating the potential of a printed smart fabric motion sensor for use in intelligent clothing applications. (paper)

  17. Screen printing of a capacitive cantilever-based motion sensor on fabric using a novel sacrificial layer process for smart fabric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yang; Torah, Russel; Yang, Kai; Beeby, Steve; Tudor, John

    2013-07-01

    Free-standing cantilevers have been fabricated by screen printing sacrificial and structural layers onto a standard polyester cotton fabric. By printing additional conductive layers, a complete capacitive motion sensor on fabric using only screen printing has been fabricated. This type of free-standing structure cannot currently be fabricated using conventional fabric manufacturing processes. In addition, compared to conventional smart fabric fabrication processes (e.g. weaving and knitting), screen printing offers the advantages of geometric design flexibility and the ability to simultaneously print multiple devices of the same or different designs. Furthermore, a range of active inks exists from the printed electronics industry which can potentially be applied to create many types of smart fabric. Four cantilevers with different lengths have been printed on fabric using a five-layer structure with a sacrificial material underneath the cantilever. The sacrificial layer is subsequently removed at 160 °C for 30 min to achieve a freestanding cantilever above the fabric. Two silver electrodes, one on top of the cantilever and the other on top of the fabric, are used to capacitively detect the movement of the cantilever. In this way, an entirely printed motion sensor is produced on a standard fabric. The motion sensor was initially tested on an electromechanical shaker rig at a low frequency range to examine the linearity and the sensitivity of each design. Then, these sensors were individually attached to a moving human forearm to evaluate more representative results. A commercial accelerometer (Microstrain G-link) was mounted alongside for comparison. The printed sensors have a similar motion response to the commercial accelerometer, demonstrating the potential of a printed smart fabric motion sensor for use in intelligent clothing applications.

  18. A Temperature Compensation Method for Piezo-Resistive Pressure Sensor Utilizing Chaotic Ions Motion Algorithm Optimized Hybrid Kernel LSSVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A piezo-resistive pressure sensor is made of silicon, the nature of which is considerably influenced by ambient temperature. The effect of temperature should be eliminated during the working period in expectation of linear output. To deal with this issue, an approach consists of a hybrid kernel Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM optimized by a chaotic ions motion algorithm presented. To achieve the learning and generalization for excellent performance, a hybrid kernel function, constructed by a local kernel as Radial Basis Function (RBF kernel, and a global kernel as polynomial kernel is incorporated into the Least Squares Support Vector Machine. The chaotic ions motion algorithm is introduced to find the best hyper-parameters of the Least Squares Support Vector Machine. The temperature data from a calibration experiment is conducted to validate the proposed method. With attention on algorithm robustness and engineering applications, the compensation result shows the proposed scheme outperforms other compared methods on several performance measures as maximum absolute relative error, minimum absolute relative error mean and variance of the averaged value on fifty runs. Furthermore, the proposed temperature compensation approach lays a foundation for more extensive research.

  19. 3D Orthogonal Woven Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Effective Biomechanical Energy Harvesting and as Self-Powered Active Motion Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kai; Deng, Jianan; Zi, Yunlong; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Xu, Cheng; Zou, Haiyang; Ding, Wenbo; Dai, Yejing; Gu, Bohong; Sun, Baozhong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-10-01

    The development of wearable and large-area energy-harvesting textiles has received intensive attention due to their promising applications in next-generation wearable functional electronics. However, the limited power outputs of conventional textiles have largely hindered their development. Here, in combination with the stainless steel/polyester fiber blended yarn, the polydimethylsiloxane-coated energy-harvesting yarn, and nonconductive binding yarn, a high-power-output textile triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with 3D orthogonal woven structure is developed for effective biomechanical energy harvesting and active motion signal tracking. Based on the advanced 3D structural design, the maximum peak power density of 3D textile can reach 263.36 mW m -2 under the tapping frequency of 3 Hz, which is several times more than that of conventional 2D textile TENGs. Besides, its collected power is capable of lighting up a warning indicator, sustainably charging a commercial capacitor, and powering a smart watch. The 3D textile TENG can also be used as a self-powered active motion sensor to constantly monitor the movement signals of human body. Furthermore, a smart dancing blanket is designed to simultaneously convert biomechanical energy and perceive body movement. This work provides a new direction for multifunctional self-powered textiles with potential applications in wearable electronics, home security, and personalized healthcare. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A Temperature Compensation Method for Piezo-Resistive Pressure Sensor Utilizing Chaotic Ions Motion Algorithm Optimized Hybrid Kernel LSSVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Hu, Guoqing; Zhou, Yonghong; Zou, Chong; Peng, Wei; Alam Sm, Jahangir

    2016-10-14

    A piezo-resistive pressure sensor is made of silicon, the nature of which is considerably influenced by ambient temperature. The effect of temperature should be eliminated during the working period in expectation of linear output. To deal with this issue, an approach consists of a hybrid kernel Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) optimized by a chaotic ions motion algorithm presented. To achieve the learning and generalization for excellent performance, a hybrid kernel function, constructed by a local kernel as Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel, and a global kernel as polynomial kernel is incorporated into the Least Squares Support Vector Machine. The chaotic ions motion algorithm is introduced to find the best hyper-parameters of the Least Squares Support Vector Machine. The temperature data from a calibration experiment is conducted to validate the proposed method. With attention on algorithm robustness and engineering applications, the compensation result shows the proposed scheme outperforms other compared methods on several performance measures as maximum absolute relative error, minimum absolute relative error mean and variance of the averaged value on fifty runs. Furthermore, the proposed temperature compensation approach lays a foundation for more extensive research.

  1. A novel motion sensor-driven control system for FES-assisted walking after spinal cord injury: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, Gustavo P; Russold, Michael F; Fornusek, Che; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Smith, Richard M; Davis, Glen M

    2016-11-01

    This pilot study reports the development of a novel closed-loop (CL) FES-gait control system, which employed a finite-state controller that processed kinematic feedback from four miniaturized motion sensors. This strategy automated the control of knee extension via quadriceps and gluteus stimulation during the stance phase of gait on the supporting leg, and managed the stimulation delivered to the common peroneal nerve (CPN) during swing-phase on the contra-lateral limb. The control system was assessed against a traditional open-loop (OL) system on two sensorimotor 'complete' paraplegic subjects. A biomechanical analysis revealed that the closed-loop control of leg swing was efficient, but without major advantages compared to OL. CL automated the control of knee extension during the stance phase of gait and for this reason was the method of preference by the subjects. For the first time, a feedback control system with a simplified configuration of four miniaturized sensors allowed the addition of instruments to collect the data of multiple physiological and biomechanical variables during FES-evoked gait. In this pilot study of two sensorimotor complete paraplegic individuals, CL ameliorated certain drawbacks of current OL systems - it required less user intervention and accounted for the inter-subject differences in their stimulation requirements. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sampling optimization for high-speed weigh-in-motion measurements using in-pavement strain-based sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Huang, Ying; Bridgelall, Raj; Palek, Leonard; Strommen, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Weigh-in-motion (WIM) measurement has been widely used for weight enforcement, pavement design, freight management, and intelligent transportation systems to monitor traffic in real-time. However, to use such sensors effectively, vehicles must exit the traffic stream and slow down to match their current capabilities. Hence, agencies need devices with higher vehicle passing speed capabilities to enable continuous weight measurements at mainline speeds. The current practices for data acquisition at such high speeds are fragmented. Deployment configurations and settings depend mainly on the experiences of operation engineers. To assure adequate data, most practitioners use very high frequency measurements that result in redundant samples, thereby diminishing the potential for real-time processing. The larger data memory requirements from higher sample rates also increase storage and processing costs. The field lacks a sampling design or standard to guide appropriate data acquisition of high-speed WIM measurements. This study develops the appropriate sample rate requirements as a function of the vehicle speed. Simulations and field experiments validate the methods developed. The results will serve as guidelines for future high-speed WIM measurements using in-pavement strain-based sensors. (paper)

  3. Open source platform for collaborative construction of wearable sensor datasets for human motion analysis and an application for gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, César; González, Manuel A; Hernández, Carmen; Vegas, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    Nearly every practical improvement in modeling human motion is well founded in a properly designed collection of data or datasets. These datasets must be made publicly available for the community could validate and accept them. It is reasonable to concede that a collective, guided enterprise could serve to devise solid and substantial datasets, as a result of a collaborative effort, in the same sense as the open software community does. In this way datasets could be complemented, extended and expanded in size with, for example, more individuals, samples and human actions. For this to be possible some commitments must be made by the collaborators, being one of them sharing the same data acquisition platform. In this paper, we offer an affordable open source hardware and software platform based on inertial wearable sensors in a way that several groups could cooperate in the construction of datasets through common software suitable for collaboration. Some experimental results about the throughput of the overall system are reported showing the feasibility of acquiring data from up to 6 sensors with a sampling frequency no less than 118Hz. Also, a proof-of-concept dataset is provided comprising sampled data from 12 subjects suitable for gait analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sampling optimization for high-speed weigh-in-motion measurements using in-pavement strain-based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Huang, Ying; Bridgelall, Raj; Palek, Leonard; Strommen, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Weigh-in-motion (WIM) measurement has been widely used for weight enforcement, pavement design, freight management, and intelligent transportation systems to monitor traffic in real-time. However, to use such sensors effectively, vehicles must exit the traffic stream and slow down to match their current capabilities. Hence, agencies need devices with higher vehicle passing speed capabilities to enable continuous weight measurements at mainline speeds. The current practices for data acquisition at such high speeds are fragmented. Deployment configurations and settings depend mainly on the experiences of operation engineers. To assure adequate data, most practitioners use very high frequency measurements that result in redundant samples, thereby diminishing the potential for real-time processing. The larger data memory requirements from higher sample rates also increase storage and processing costs. The field lacks a sampling design or standard to guide appropriate data acquisition of high-speed WIM measurements. This study develops the appropriate sample rate requirements as a function of the vehicle speed. Simulations and field experiments validate the methods developed. The results will serve as guidelines for future high-speed WIM measurements using in-pavement strain-based sensors.

  5. Feasibility study of patient motion monitoring by using tactile array sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Kang, Seong-Hee; Kim, Dong-Su; Cho, Min-Seok; Kim, Kyeong-Hyeon; Suh, Tae-Suk; Kim, Siyong

    2015-07-01

    An ideal alignment method based on the external anatomical surface of the patient should consider the entire region of interest. However, optical-camera-based systems cannot blindly monitor such areas as the patient's back, for example. Furthermore, collecting enough information to correct the associated deformation error is impossible. The study aim is to propose a new patient alignment method using tactile array sensors that can measure the distributed pressure profiles along the contact surface. The TactArray system includes one sensor, a signal-conditioning device (USB drive/interface electronics, power supply, and cables), and a PC. The tactile array sensor was placed between the patient's back and the treatment couch, and the deformations at different location on the patient's back were evaluated. Three healthy male volunteers were enrolled in this study, and pressure profile distributions (PPDs) were obtained with and without immobilization. After the initial pretreatment setup using the laser alignment system, the PPD of the patient's back was acquired. The results were obtained at four different times and included a reference PPD dataset. The contact area and the center-of-pressure value were also acquired based on the PPD data for a more elaborate quantitative data analysis. To evaluate the clinical feasibility of using the proposed alignment method for reducing the deformation error, we implemented a real-time self-correction procedure. Despite the initial alignment, we confirmed that PPD variations existed in both cases of the volunteer studies (with and without the use of the immobilization tool). Additionally, we confirmed that the contact area and the center of pressure varied in both cases, and those variations were observed in all three volunteers. With the proposed alignment method and the real-time selfcorrection procedure, the deformation error was significantly reduced. The proposed alignment method can be used to account for the limitation of

  6. Independent motion control of a tower crane through wireless sensor and actuator networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumboulis, Fotis N; Kouvakas, Nikolaos D; Giannaris, George L; Vouyioukas, Demosthenes

    2016-01-01

    The problem of independent control of the performance variables of a tower crane through a wireless sensor and actuator network is investigated. The complete nonlinear mathematical model of the tower crane is developed. Based on appropriate data driven norms an accurate linear approximant of the system, including an upper bound of the communication delays, is derived. Using this linear approximant, a dynamic measurable output multi delay controller for independent control of the performance outputs of the system is proposed. The controller performs satisfactory despite the nonlinearities of the model and the communication delays of the wireless network. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Significant Change Spotting for Periodic Human Motion Segmentation of Cleaning Tasks Using Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Chun Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of the aging population is rapidly increasing around the world, which will cause stress on society and healthcare systems. In recent years, advances in technology have created new opportunities for automatic activities of daily living (ADL monitoring to improve the quality of life and provide adequate medical service for the elderly. Such automatic ADL monitoring requires reliable ADL information on a fine-grained level, especially for the status of interaction between body gestures and the environment in the real-world. In this work, we propose a significant change spotting mechanism for periodic human motion segmentation during cleaning task performance. A novel approach is proposed based on the search for a significant change of gestures, which can manage critical technical issues in activity recognition, such as continuous data segmentation, individual variance, and category ambiguity. Three typical machine learning classification algorithms are utilized for the identification of the significant change candidate, including a Support Vector Machine (SVM, k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN, and Naive Bayesian (NB algorithm. Overall, the proposed approach achieves 96.41% in the F1-score by using the SVM classifier. The results show that the proposed approach can fulfill the requirement of fine-grained human motion segmentation for automatic ADL monitoring.

  8. Wi-Fi and GSM Based Motion Sensor for Home Security System Apllication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzaimy Jusoh, Mohamad; Jamali, Muhammad Firdaus Bin; Zainal Abidin, Ahmad Faizal bin; Asari Sulaiman, Ahmad; Fahmi Hussin, Mohamad

    2015-11-01

    The Wi-Fi and GSM based home security system is a system designed to reduce the high rates of crimes in most personal housing. The overall project consists of three major parts; the input part that consists of sensors, the software part that operates the entire hardware structure, and the output part, which consists of camera, alarm system, and micro secure digital (SD) data storage card. It is based on the principle of infrared radiation generated by a human body heat which trigger the passive infrared (PIR) sensor. The microcontroller processes the received signal, then trigger the buzzer alarm, camera and alerts the home owner through an SMS. Once triggered, the camera will capture the image of the intruder and the image will be saved in SD card. As alert to the user (away), the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) will send the Short Message Service (SMS) from the device to the user's mobile phone. The image will be sent to Dropbox data cloud storage via Wi-Fi for further clarification. The prototype was successfully developed, tested and has been installed at residential area in Taman Cahaya Alam, Section U12, Shah Alam, Malaysia.

  9. Identification of Object Dynamics Using Hand Worn Motion and Force Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk G. Kortier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging microelectromechanical system (MEMS-based sensors become much more applicable for on-body measurement purposes lately. Especially, the development of a finger tip-sized tri-axial force sensor gives the opportunity to measure interaction forces between the human hand and environmental objects. We have developed a new prototype device that allows simultaneous 3D force and movement measurements at the finger and thumb tips. The combination of interaction forces and movements makes it possible to identify the dynamical characteristics of the object being handled by the hand. With this device attached to the hand, a subject manipulated mass and spring objects under varying conditions. We were able to identify and estimate the weight of two physical mass objects (0.44 kg: 29 . 3 % ± 18 . 9 % and 0.28 kg: 19 . 7 % ± 10 . 6 % and the spring constant of a physical spring object ( 16 . 3 % ± 12 . 6 % . The system is a first attempt to quantify the interactions of the hand with the environment and has many potential applications in rehabilitation, ergonomics and sports.

  10. Ground Motion Analysis of Co-Located DAS and Seismometer Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. F.; Fratta, D.; Lord, N. E.; Lancelle, C.; Thurber, C. H.; Zeng, X.; Parker, L.; Chalari, A.; Miller, D.; Feigl, K. L.; Team, P.

    2016-12-01

    The PoroTomo research team deployed 8700-meters of Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) cable in a shallow trench and 400-meters in a borehole at Brady Hot Springs, Nevada in March 2016 together with an array of 246, three-component geophones. The seismic sensors occupied a natural laboratory 1500 x 500 x 400 meters overlying the Brady geothermal field. The DAS cable was laid out in three parallel zig-zag lines with line segments approximately 100-meters in length and geophones were spaced at approximately 50-m intervals. In several line segments, geophones were co-located within one meter of the DAS cable. Both DAS and the conventional geophones recorded continuously over 15 days. A large Vibroseis truck (T-Rex) provided the seismic source at approximately 250 locations outside and within the array. The Vibroseis protocol called for excitation in one vertical and two orthogonal horizontal directions at each location. For each mode, three, 5-to-80-Hz upsweeps were made over 20 seconds. In addition, a moderate-sized earthquake with a local magnitude of 4.3 was recorded on March 21, 2016. Its epicenter was approximately 150-km away. Several DAS line segments with co-located geophone stations were used to test relationships between the strain rate recorded by DAS and ground velocity recorded by the geophones.

  11. Flexible and Compressible PEDOT:PSS@Melamine Conductive Sponge Prepared via One-Step Dip Coating as Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor for Human Motion Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yichun; Yang, Jack; Tolle, Charles R; Zhu, Zhengtao

    2018-05-09

    Flexible and wearable pressure sensor may offer convenient, timely, and portable solutions to human motion detection, yet it is a challenge to develop cost-effective materials for pressure sensor with high compressibility and sensitivity. Herein, a cost-efficient and scalable approach is reported to prepare a highly flexible and compressible conductive sponge for piezoresistive pressure sensor. The conductive sponge, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)@melamine sponge (MS), is prepared by one-step dip coating the commercial melamine sponge (MS) in an aqueous dispersion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Due to the interconnected porous structure of MS, the conductive PEDOT:PSS@MS has a high compressibility and a stable piezoresistive response at the compressive strain up to 80%, as well as good reproducibility over 1000 cycles. Thereafter, versatile pressure sensors fabricated using the conductive PEDOT:PSS@MS sponges are attached to the different parts of human body; the capabilities of these devices to detect a variety of human motions including speaking, finger bending, elbow bending, and walking are evaluated. Furthermore, prototype tactile sensory array based on these pressure sensors is demonstrated.

  12. Using motion-sensor camera technology to infer seasonal activity and thermal niche of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Augustine, Benjamin; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Delaney, David F.; Sinervo, Barry; Murphy, Mason O.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Briggs, Jessica R.; Cooper, Robert J.; Price, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between environmental variables and wildlife activity is an important part of effective management. The desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), an imperiled species of arid environments in the southwest US, may have increasingly restricted windows for activity due to current warming trends. In summer 2013, we deployed 48 motion sensor cameras at the entrances of tortoise burrows to investigate the effects of temperature, sex, and day of the year on the activity of desert tortoises. Using generalized estimating equations, we found that the relative probability of activity was associated with temperature (linear and quadratic), sex, and day of the year. Sex effects showed that male tortoises are generally more active than female tortoises. Temperature had a quadratic effect, indicating that tortoise activity was heightened at a range of temperatures. In addition, we found significant support for interactions between sex and day of the year, and sex and temperature as predictors of the probability of activity. Using our models, we were able to estimate air temperatures and times (days and hours) that were associated with maximum activity during the study. Because tortoise activity is constrained by environmental conditions such as temperature, it is increasingly vital to conduct studies on how tortoises vary their activity throughout the Sonoran Desert to better understand the effects of a changing climate.

  13. A Multi-Channel Opto-Electronic Sensor to Accurately Monitor Heart Rate against Motion Artefact during Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alzahrani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the use of a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor (OEPS to effectively monitor critical physiological parameters whilst preventing motion artefact as increasingly demanded by personal healthcare. The aim of this work was to study how to capture the heart rate (HR efficiently through a well-constructed OEPS and a 3-axis accelerometer with wireless communication. A protocol was designed to incorporate sitting, standing, walking, running and cycling. The datasets collected from these activities were processed to elaborate sport physiological effects. t-test, Bland-Altman Agreement (BAA, and correlation to evaluate the performance of the OEPS were used against Polar and Mio-Alpha HR monitors. No differences in the HR were found between OEPS, and either Polar or Mio-Alpha (both p > 0.05; a strong correlation was found between Polar and OEPS (r: 0.96, p < 0.001; the bias of BAA 0.85 bpm, the standard deviation (SD 9.20 bpm, and the limits of agreement (LOA from −17.18 bpm to +18.88 bpm. For the Mio-Alpha and OEPS, a strong correlation was found (r: 0.96, p < 0.001; the bias of BAA 1.63 bpm, SD 8.62 bpm, LOA from −15.27 bpm to +18.58 bpm. These results demonstrate the OEPS to be capable of carrying out real time and remote monitoring of heart rate.

  14. Highly stretchable strain sensor based on polyurethane substrate using hydrogen bond-assisted laminated structure for monitoring of tiny human motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Zhao, Yunong; Wang, Yang; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yangyang; Liu, Ping; Liu, Caixia; Zhang, Yugang

    2018-03-01

    Strain sensors used as flexible and wearable electronic devices have improved prospects in the fields of artificial skin, robotics, human-machine interfaces, and healthcare. This work introduces a highly stretchable fiber-based strain sensor with a laminated structure made up of a graphene nanoplatelet layer and a carbon black/single-walled carbon nanotube synergetic conductive network layer. An ultrathin, flexible, and elastic two-layer polyurethane (PU) yarn substrate was successively deposited by a novel chemical bonding-based layered dip-coating process. These strain sensors demonstrated high stretchability (˜350%), little hysteresis, and long-term durability (over 2400 cycles) due to the favorable tensile properties of the PU substrate. The linearity of the strain sensor could reach an adjusted R-squared of 0.990 at 100% strain, which is better than most of the recently reported strain sensors. Meanwhile, the strain sensor exhibited good sensibility, rapid response, and a lower detection limit. The lower detection limit benefited from the hydrogen bond-assisted laminated structure and continuous conductive path. Finally, a series of experiments were carried out based on the special features of the PU strain sensor to show its capacity of detecting and monitoring tiny human motions.

  15. Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Pigorsch, Enrico

    1997-01-01

    This is the 5th edition of the Metra Martech Directory "EUROPEAN CENTRES OF EXPERTISE - SENSORS." The entries represent a survey of European sensors development. The new edition contains 425 detailed profiles of companies and research institutions in 22 countries. This is reflected in the diversity of sensors development programmes described, from sensors for physical parameters to biosensors and intelligent sensor systems. We do not claim that all European organisations developing sensors are included, but this is a good cross section from an invited list of participants. If you see gaps or omissions, or would like your organisation to be included, please send details. The data base invites the formation of effective joint ventures by identifying and providing access to specific areas in which organisations offer collaboration. This issue is recognised to be of great importance and most entrants include details of collaboration offered and sought. We hope the directory on Sensors will help you to find the ri...

  16. Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, H. [PBI-Dansensor A/S (Denmark); Toft Soerensen, O. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept. (Denmark)

    1999-10-01

    A new type of ceramic oxygen sensors based on semiconducting oxides was developed in this project. The advantage of these sensors compared to standard ZrO{sub 2} sensors is that they do not require a reference gas and that they can be produced in small sizes. The sensor design and the techniques developed for production of these sensors are judged suitable by the participating industry for a niche production of a new generation of oxygen sensors. Materials research on new oxygen ion conducting conductors both for applications in oxygen sensors and in fuel was also performed in this project and finally a new process was developed for fabrication of ceramic tubes by dip-coating. (EHS)

  17. Experimental Study of the Information Signal of Combined Shock, Tilt, and Motion Sensor Based on the 3-Axis MEMS-Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Vasyukov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern car alarm systems are equipped with smart sensors implemented using various physical principles. These sensors have to ensure high reliability and validity of monitored parameters with a lack of false operations. First of all, shock sensor, which is a part of, essentially, entire alarm systems, as well as tilt and motion sensors are referred to the smart sensors.Shock sensors with the sensitive elements (SE of piezoelectric, microphone, and electromagnetic types possess a number of the essential shortcomings caused by the type of SE. It is, first of all, a narrow band of the sensitive elements, which does not allow true differentiation of shocks to the autobody from false actions, as well as a various sensitivity of sensors depending on the SE axis orientation.Tilt sensors of electromagnetic type implemented as separate devices were seldom used because of their high cost and imperfect characteristics. Though there is still a need for such sensors. The specified shortcomings can be hardly overcome through improvement of sensitive element hangers of considered sensors. The use of the three-axial accelerometers made by MEMS technology seems to be the most perspective here.The article presents results of pilot studies of the accelerations reached when auto-body is under shock and a car is inclined and runs. When measuring, the test board STM32F3DISCOVERY with the MEMS accelerometer LSM303DLHS is used. A level of noise and vibrations has been analysed when mounting a board on the plastic panel of the car and when operating the engine in the range from 700 to 4000 rpm. The article presents accelerations implemented under the following conditions: light shocks in different parts of the auto-body (wing, trunk, hood; strong shock (closing a door; slow and fast acceleration to the speed of 20 km/h with the subsequent braking and passage of obstacles such as "sleeping policemen".Research results enabled us to make justification for selecting the

  18. [Occupational health studies on airport transport workers. I. Results of ergonomic time and motion studies (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutenfranz, J; Löwenthal, I; Kylian, H; Klimmer, F; Flöring, R; Gärtner, K H; Brockmann, W

    1980-01-01

    Loading and unloading of aircrafts involves lifting, moving, and carrying of heavy cargo in unfavourable body positions and in narrow spaces. This transport work was subjected to an investigation in a big airport. Forty-three male transport workers and foremen were studied during 46 total shifts. The type of activity was recorded by using the standardized procedure, the so-called "Arbeitswissenschaftliches Erhebungsverfahren zur Tätigkeitsanalyse" (AET). For time and motion analysis, body positions were recorded by continuous observation during the total shift. For typical activities the energy expenditure was determined. The strain caused by transport work was estimated by recording the heart rate with a portable cardiocorder during the total shift. The results show that both dynamic and static work are involved in the loading and unloading of aircrafts. The heart rate varied characteristically according to the body position and to type of activity. The body position was mainly determined by the height of the bellies (from 0.61-1.97 m) of different aircrafts. An additional influence due to weight carrying could be observed only in body positions with low energy expenditure. Recommendations for changing the height of the bellies or to the appropriate selection of workers were made.

  19. Ultra-Fine Scale Spatially-Integrated Mapping of Habitat and Occupancy Using Structure-From-Motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip McDowall

    Full Text Available Organisms respond to and often simultaneously modify their environment. While these interactions are apparent at the landscape extent, the driving mechanisms often occur at very fine spatial scales. Structure-from-Motion (SfM, a computer vision technique, allows the simultaneous mapping of organisms and fine scale habitat, and will greatly improve our understanding of habitat suitability, ecophysiology, and the bi-directional relationship between geomorphology and habitat use. SfM can be used to create high-resolution (centimeter-scale three-dimensional (3D habitat models at low cost. These models can capture the abiotic conditions formed by terrain and simultaneously record the position of individual organisms within that terrain. While coloniality is common in seabird species, we have a poor understanding of the extent to which dense breeding aggregations are driven by fine-scale active aggregation or limited suitable habitat. We demonstrate the use of SfM for fine-scale habitat suitability by reconstructing the locations of nests in a gentoo penguin colony and fitting models that explicitly account for conspecific attraction. The resulting digital elevation models (DEMs are used as covariates in an inhomogeneous hybrid point process model. We find that gentoo penguin nest site selection is a function of the topography of the landscape, but that nests are far more aggregated than would be expected based on terrain alone, suggesting a strong role of behavioral aggregation in driving coloniality in this species. This integrated mapping of organisms and fine scale habitat will greatly improve our understanding of fine-scale habitat suitability, ecophysiology, and the complex bi-directional relationship between geomorphology and habitat use.

  20. Quantitative Approach Based on Wearable Inertial Sensors to Assess and Identify Motion and Errors in Techniques Used during Training of Transfers of Simulated c-Spine-Injured Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Lebel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with suspected spinal cord injuries undergo numerous transfers throughout treatment and care. Effective c-spine stabilization is crucial to minimize the impacts of the suspected injury. Healthcare professionals are trained to perform those transfers using simulation; however, the feedback on the manoeuvre is subjective. This paper proposes a quantitative approach to measure the efficacy of the c-spine stabilization and provide objective feedback during training. Methods. 3D wearable motion sensors are positioned on a simulated patient to capture the motion of the head and trunk during a training scenario. Spatial and temporal indicators associated with the motion can then be derived from the signals. The approach was developed and tested on data obtained from 21 paramedics performing the log-roll, a transfer technique commonly performed during prehospital and hospital care. Results. In this scenario, 55% of the c-spine motion could be explained by the difficulty of rescuers to maintain head and trunk alignment during the rotation part of the log-roll and their difficulty to initiate specific phases of the motion synchronously. Conclusion. The proposed quantitative approach has the potential to be used for personalized feedback during training sessions and could even be embedded into simulation mannequins to provide an innovative training solution.

  1. Clinically acceptable agreement between the ViMove wireless motion sensor system and the Vicon motion capture system when measuring lumbar region inclination motion in the sagittal and coronal planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mjøsund, Hanne Leirbekk; Boyle, Eleanor; Kjær, Per

    2017-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: We found a clinically acceptable level of agreement between these two methods for measuring standing lumbar inclination motion in these two cardinal movement planes. Further research should investigate the ViMove system's ability to measure lumbar motion in more complex 3D functional movements...

  2. Ultra-Precision Measurement and Control of Angle Motion in Piezo-Based Platforms Using Strain Gauge Sensors and a Robust Composite Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Bai, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Da-Li; Wu, Zhi-Gang

    2013-01-01

    The measurement and control strategy of a piezo-based platform by using strain gauge sensors (SGS) and a robust composite controller is investigated in this paper. First, the experimental setup is constructed by using a piezo-based platform, SGS sensors, an AD5435 platform and two voltage amplifiers. Then, the measurement strategy to measure the tip/tilt angles accurately in the order of sub-μrad is presented. A comprehensive composite control strategy design to enhance the tracking accuracy with a novel driving principle is also proposed. Finally, an experiment is presented to validate the measurement and control strategy. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed measurement and control strategy provides accurate angle motion with a root mean square (RMS) error of 0.21 μrad, which is approximately equal to the noise level. PMID:23860316

  3. Ultra-Precision Measurement and Control of Angle Motion in Piezo-Based Platforms Using Strain Gauge Sensors and a Robust Composite Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Wu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The measurement and control strategy of a piezo-based platform by using strain gauge sensors (SGS and a robust composite controller is investigated in this paper. First, the experimental setup is constructed by using a piezo-based platform, SGS sensors, an AD5435 platform and two voltage amplifiers. Then, the measurement strategy to measure the tip/tilt angles accurately in the order of sub-μrad is presented. A comprehensive composite control strategy design to enhance the tracking accuracy with a novel driving principle is also proposed. Finally, an experiment is presented to validate the measurement and control strategy. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed measurement and control strategy provides accurate angle motion with a root mean square (RMS error of 0.21 μrad, which is approximately equal to the noise level.

  4. Understanding Keystroke Dynamics for Smartphone Users Authentication and Keystroke Dynamics on Smartphones Built-In Motion Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungu Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal Identification Numbers (PINs and pattern drawing have been used as common authentication methods especially on smartphones. Such methods, however, are very vulnerable to the shoulder surfing attack. Thus, keystroke dynamics that authenticate legitimate users based on their typing manner have been studied for years. However, many of the studies have focused on PC keyboard keystrokes. More studies on mobile and smartphones keystroke dynamics are warranted; as smartphones make progress in both hardware and software, features from smartphones have been diversified. In this paper, using various features including keystroke data such as time interval and motion data such as accelerometers and rotation values, we evaluate features with motion data and without motion data. We also compare 5 formulas for motion data, respectively. We also demonstrate that opposite gender match between a legitimate user and impostors has influence on authenticating by our experiment results.

  5. Applications of fiber optics sensors in weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems for monitoring truck weights on pavements and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    The main objective of this project was to investigate emerging technologies and to establish criteria for evaluating fiber optic sensors used to measure actual dynamic loads on pavements and structures. The dynamic load of particular interest for thi...

  6. A new energy-harvesting device system for wireless sensors, adaptable to on-site monitoring of MR damper motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Miao; Peng, Youxiang; Wang, Siqi; Fu, Jie; Choi, S B

    2014-01-01

    Under extreme service conditions in vehicle suspension systems, some defects exist in the hardening, bodying, and poor temperature stability of magnetorheological (MR) fluid. These defects can cause weak and even invalid performance in the MR fluid damper (MR damper for short). To ensure the effective validity of the practical applicability of the MR damper, one must implement an online state-monitoring sensor to monitor several performance factors, such as acceleration. In this empirical work, we propose a new energy-harvesting device system for the wireless sensor system of an MR damper. The monitoring sensor system consists of several components, such as an energy-harvesting device, energy-management circuit, and wireless sensor node. The electrical energy harvested from the kinetic energy of the MR fluid that flows within the MR damper can be automatically charged and discharged with the help of an energy-management circuit for the wireless sensor node. After verifying good performance from each component, an experimental apparatus is built to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed self-powered wireless sensor system. The measured results of pressure, temperature, and acceleration data within the MR damper clearly demonstrate the practical applicability of monitoring the operating work states of the MR damper when it is subjected to sinusoidal excitation. (technical note)

  7. Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Gleeson, Helen; Dierking, Ingo; Grieve, Bruce; Woodyatt, Christopher; Brimicombe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An electrical temperature sensor (10) comprises a liquid crystalline material (12). First and second electrically conductive contacts (14), (16), having a spaced relationship there between, contact the liquid crystalline material (12). An electric property measuring device is electrically connected to the first and second contacts (14), (16) and is arranged to measure an electric property of the liquid crystalline material (12). The liquid crystalline material (12) has a transition temperatur...

  8. Rotaphone, a Self-Calibrated Six-Degree-of-Freedom Seismic Sensor and Its Strong-Motion Records

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brokešová, J.; Málek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 5 (2013), s. 737-744 ISSN 0895-0695 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/0925; GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : rotational seismology * sensor * six-degree-of-freedom Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.268, year: 2013

  9. Occupational Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  10. Real-Time Power-Efficient Integration of Multi-Sensor Occupancy Grid on Many-Core

    OpenAIRE

    Rakotovao , Tiana; Mottin , Julien; Puschini , Diego; Laugier , Christian

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Safe Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) will emerge when comprehensive perception systems will be successfully integrated into vehicles. Advanced perception algorithms, estimating the position and speed of every obstacle in the environment by using data fusion from multiple sensors, were developed for AV prototypes. Computational requirements of such application prevent their integration into AVs on current low-power embedded hardware. However, recent emerging many-core archite...

  11. An Analysis of the Precision and Reliability of the Leap Motion Sensor and Its Suitability for Static and Dynamic Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Guna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of an evaluation of the performance of the Leap Motion Controller with the aid of a professional, high-precision, fast motion tracking system. A set of static and dynamic measurements was performed with different numbers of tracking objects and configurations. For the static measurements, a plastic arm model simulating a human arm was used. A set of 37 reference locations was selected to cover the controller’s sensory space. For the dynamic measurements, a special V-shaped tool, consisting of two tracking objects maintaining a constant distance between them, was created to simulate two human fingers. In the static scenario, the standard deviation was less than 0.5 mm. The linear correlation revealed a significant increase in the standard deviation when moving away from the controller. The results of the dynamic scenario revealed the inconsistent performance of the controller, with a significant drop in accuracy for samples taken more than 250 mm above the controller’s surface. The Leap Motion Controller undoubtedly represents a revolutionary input device for gesture-based human-computer interaction; however, due to its rather limited sensory space and inconsistent sampling frequency, in its current configuration it cannot currently be used as a professional tracking system.

  12. An analysis of the precision and reliability of the leap motion sensor and its suitability for static and dynamic tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guna, Jože; Jakus, Grega; Pogačnik, Matevž; Tomažič, Sašo; Sodnik, Jaka

    2014-02-21

    We present the results of an evaluation of the performance of the Leap Motion Controller with the aid of a professional, high-precision, fast motion tracking system. A set of static and dynamic measurements was performed with different numbers of tracking objects and configurations. For the static measurements, a plastic arm model simulating a human arm was used. A set of 37 reference locations was selected to cover the controller's sensory space. For the dynamic measurements, a special V-shaped tool, consisting of two tracking objects maintaining a constant distance between them, was created to simulate two human fingers. In the static scenario, the standard deviation was less than 0.5 mm. The linear correlation revealed a significant increase in the standard deviation when moving away from the controller. The results of the dynamic scenario revealed the inconsistent performance of the controller, with a significant drop in accuracy for samples taken more than 250 mm above the controller's surface. The Leap Motion Controller undoubtedly represents a revolutionary input device for gesture-based human-computer interaction; however, due to its rather limited sensory space and inconsistent sampling frequency, in its current configuration it cannot currently be used as a professional tracking system.

  13. Optimization of CMOS image sensor utilizing variable temporal multisampling partial transfer technique to achieve full-frame high dynamic range with superior low light and stop motion capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Salman; Smith, Craig; Armstrong, Frank; Barnard, Gerrit; Schneider, Alex; Guidash, Michael; Vogelsang, Thomas; Endsley, Jay

    2018-03-01

    Differential binary pixel technology is a threshold-based timing, readout, and image reconstruction method that utilizes the subframe partial charge transfer technique in a standard four-transistor (4T) pixel CMOS image sensor to achieve a high dynamic range video with stop motion. This technology improves low light signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by up to 21 dB. The method is verified in silicon using a Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company's 65 nm 1.1 μm pixel technology 1 megapixel test chip array and is compared with a traditional 4 × oversampling technique using full charge transfer to show low light SNR superiority of the presented technology.

  14. Exploiting Performance of Different Low-Cost Sensors for Small Amplitude Oscillatory Motion Monitoring: Preliminary Comparisons in View of Possible Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Benedetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of low amplitude oscillatory motion detection through different low-cost sensors: a LIS3LV02DQ MEMS accelerometer, a Microsoft Kinect v2 range camera, and a uBlox 6 GPS receiver. Several tests were performed using a one-direction vibrating table with different oscillation frequencies (in the range 1.5–3 Hz and small challenging amplitudes (0.02 m and 0.03 m. A Mikrotron EoSens high-resolution camera was used to give reference data. A dedicated software tool was developed to retrieve Kinect v2 results. The capabilities of the VADASE algorithm were employed to process uBlox 6 GPS receiver observations. In the investigated time interval (in the order of tens of seconds the results obtained indicate that displacements were detected with the resolution of fractions of millimeters with MEMS accelerometer and Kinect v2 and few millimeters with uBlox 6. MEMS accelerometer displays the lowest noise but a significant bias, whereas Kinect v2 and uBlox 6 appear more stable. The results suggest the possibility of sensor integration both for indoor (MEMS accelerometer + Kinect v2 and for outdoor (MEMS accelerometer + uBlox 6 applications and seem promising for structural monitoring applications.

  15. An Enhanced Error Model for EKF-Based Tightly-Coupled Integration of GPS and Land Vehicle's Motion Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamat, Tashfeen B; Atia, Mohamed M; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2015-09-22

    Reduced inertial sensor systems (RISS) have been introduced by many researchers as a low-cost, low-complexity sensor assembly that can be integrated with GPS to provide a robust integrated navigation system for land vehicles. In earlier works, the developed error models were simplified based on the assumption that the vehicle is mostly moving on a flat horizontal plane. Another limitation is the simplified estimation of the horizontal tilt angles, which is based on simple averaging of the accelerometers' measurements without modelling their errors or tilt angle errors. In this paper, a new error model is developed for RISS that accounts for the effect of tilt angle errors and the accelerometer's errors. Additionally, it also includes important terms in the system dynamic error model, which were ignored during the linearization process in earlier works. An augmented extended Kalman filter (EKF) is designed to incorporate tilt angle errors and transversal accelerometer errors. The new error model and the augmented EKF design are developed in a tightly-coupled RISS/GPS integrated navigation system. The proposed system was tested on real trajectories' data under degraded GPS environments, and the results were compared to earlier works on RISS/GPS systems. The findings demonstrated that the proposed enhanced system introduced significant improvements in navigational performance.

  16. Development and Validation of the Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) Version 5 Containing Multiple 1D Muscles for Estimating Occupant Motions with Muscle Activation During Side Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Masami; Nakahira, Yuko

    2015-11-01

    Accurate prediction of occupant head kinematics is critical for better understanding of head/face injury mechanisms in side impacts, especially far-side occupants. In light of the fact that researchers have demonstrated that muscle activations, especially in neck muscles, can affect occupant head kinematics, a human body finite element (FE) model that considers muscle activation is useful for predicting occupant head kinematics in real-world automotive accidents. In this study, we developed a human body FE model called the THUMS (Total HUman Model for Safety) Version 5 that contains 262 one-dimensional (1D) Hill-type muscle models over the entire body. The THUMS was validated against 36 series of PMHS (Post Mortem Human Surrogate) and volunteer test data in this study, and 16 series of PMHS and volunteer test data on side impacts are presented. Validation results with force-time curves were also evaluated quantitatively using the CORA (CORrelation and Analysis) method. The validation results suggest that the THUMS has good biofidelity in the responses of the regional or full body for side impacts, but relatively poor biofidelity in its local level of responses such as brain displacements. Occupant kinematics predicted by the THUMS with a muscle controller using 22 PID (Proportional-Integral- Derivative) controllers were compared with those of volunteer test data on low-speed lateral impacts. The THUMS with muscle controller reproduced the head kinematics of the volunteer data more accurately than that without muscle activation, although further studies on validation of torso kinematics are needed for more accurate predictions of occupant head kinematics.

  17. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2015-06-07

    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  18. Application Of FA Sensor 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seon Ho

    1993-03-01

    This book introduces FA sensor from basic to making system, which includes light sensor like photo diode and photo transistor, photo electricity sensor, CCD type image sensor, MOS type image sensor, color sensor, cds cell, and optical fiber scope. It also deals with direct election position sensor such as proximity switch, differential motion, linear scale of photo electricity type, and magnet scale, rotary sensor with summary of rotary encoder, rotary encoder types and applications, flow sensor, and sensing technology.

  19. Tracking and Counting Motion for Monitoring Food Intake Based-On Depth Sensor and UDOO Board: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Muhammad Fuad bin; Norzali Haji Mohd, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Technology is all about helping people, which created a new opportunity to take serious action in managing their health care. Moreover, Obesity continues to be a serious public health concern in the Malaysia and continuing to rise. Obesity has been a serious health concern among people. Nearly half of Malaysian people overweight. Most of dietary approach is not tracking and detecting the right calorie intake for weight loss, but currently used tools such as food diaries require users to manually record and track the food calories, making them difficult for daily use. We will be developing a new tool that counts the food intake bite by monitoring hand gesture and face jaw motion movement of caloric intake. The Bite count method showed a good significant that can lead to a successful weight loss by simply monitoring the bite taken during eating. The device used was Kinect Xbox One which used a depth camera to detect the motion on person hand and face during food intake. Previous studies showed that most of the method used to count bite device is worn type. The recent trend is now going towards non-wearable devices due to the difficulty when wearing devices and it has high false alarm ratio. The proposed system gets data from the Kinect that will be monitoring the hand and face gesture of the user while eating. Then, the gesture of hand and face data is sent to the microcontroller board to recognize and start counting bite taken by the user. The system recognizes the patterns of bite taken from user by following the algorithm of basic eating type either using hand or chopstick. This system can help people who are trying to follow a proper way to reduce overweight or eating disorders by monitoring their meal intake and controlling eating rate.

  20. Validity of a combined heart rate and motion sensor for the measurement of free-living energy expenditure in very active individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Diana A; Silva, Analiza M; Matias, Catarina N; Magalhães, João P; Fields, David A; Minderico, Cláudia S; Ekelund, Ulf; Sardinha, Luís B

    2014-07-01

    The correct assessment of energy expenditure in very active individuals is important to ensure that dietary energy intake is sufficient. We aimed to validate a combined heart rate (HR) and motion sensor in estimating total (TEE) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) in males and females with high physical activity levels. Cross-sectional. Doubly-labelled water (DLW) was used to assess 7-day TEE in 12 male and female elite junior basketball players, aged 16-17 years. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was assessed with indirect calorimetry and AEE was calculated (AEE=TEE-RMR-0.1×TEE). Simultaneously, TEE and AEE were measured by combined HR and motion sensing. Individual HR calibration was performed with step-test. TEE and AEE were estimated from accelerometry and HR with individual (ACC+HRstep) and group calibration (ACC+HRgroup). No mean differences were found between TEE and AEE from the ACC+HRstep and ACC+HRgroup with DLW. TEE values (kJ/day) from ACC+HRgroup and ACC+HRstep explained TEE from DLW by ∼60% and 53%, respectively whereas AEE (kJ/day) estimated by ACC+HRgroup and ACC+HRstep explained 53% and 41% of the variability of AEE from the reference method. Concordance correlation coefficients for TEE and AEE using ACC+HRgroup were 0.74 and 0.69, correspondingly while for ACC+HRstep values of 0.69 and 0.45 were found. Large limits of agreement were found for TEE and AEE using both ACC+HRgroup and ACC+HRstep. ACC+HR models are a valid alternative to estimate TEE but not AEE in a group of highly active individuals however the considerable rate of equipment failure (∼50%) limits its usefulness. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhancement of absorption and resistance of motion utilizing a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor to effectively monitor physiological signs during sport exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Abdullah; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Barrett, Laura; Esliger, Dale; Hayes, Matthew; Akbare, Shafique; Achart, Jérôme; Kuoch, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    This study presents an effective engineering approach for human vital signs monitoring as increasingly demanded by personal healthcare. The aim of this work is to study how to capture critical physiological parameters efficiently through a well-constructed electronic system and a robust multi-channel opto-electronic patch sensor (OEPS), together with a wireless communication. A unique design comprising multi-wavelength illumination sources and a rapid response photo sensor with a 3-axis accelerometer enables to recover pulsatile features, compensate motion and increase signal-to-noise ratio. An approved protocol with designated tests was implemented at Loughborough University a UK leader in sport and exercise assessment. The results of sport physiological effects were extracted from the datasets of physical movements, i.e. sitting, standing, waking, running and cycling. t-test, Bland-Altman and correlation analysis were applied to evaluate the performance of the OEPS system against Acti-Graph and Mio-Alpha.There was no difference in heart rate measured using OEPS and both Acti-Graph and Mio-Alpha (both p<0.05). Strong correlations were observed between HR measured from the OEPS and both the Acti-graph and Mio-Alpha (r = 0.96, p<0.001). Bland-Altman analysis for the Acti-Graph and OEPS found the bias 0.85 bpm, the standard deviation 9.20 bpm, and the limits of agreement (LOA) -17.18 bpm to +18.88 bpm for lower and upper limits of agreement respectively, for the Mio-Alpha and OEPS the bias is 1.63 bpm, standard deviation SD8.62 bpm, lower and upper limits of agreement, - 15.27 bpm and +18.58 bpm respectively. The OEPS demonstrates a real time, robust and remote monitoring of cardiovascular function.

  2. Piezoelectrically and triboelectrically hybridized self-powered sensor with applications to smart window and human motion detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiin-Kuen Fuh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid generator, derived from the concurrent adoption of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle, called a Hybridized Self-Powered sensor (HSPS. A new integration of print circuit board (PCB technology-based piezoelectric generator (PG concurrently adopted the direct-write, near-field electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF nano/micro-fibers as piezoelectric source materials. On the other hand, triboelectric nanogenerators have the advantages of a high output performance with a simple structure which is also concurrently combined with the PG. The working mechanism of the HSPS includes the PCB-based substrate mounted with parallel aligned piezoelectric PVDF fibers in planar configuration which first bended and generated the electric potential via the effect of piezoelectricity. In what follows, the deformation of a cylindrical rolled-up piezoelectric structure is exercised, and finally, the triboelectric contact of Cu and PTFE layers is physically rubbed against each other with a separation to induce the triboelectric potential. This hybridized generator with a double domed shape design simultaneously combines piezoelectric output and triboelectric output and offers a built-in spacer with automatically spring back capability, which produces a peak output voltage of 100 V, a current of 4 μA, and a maximum power output of 450 nW. A self-powered smart window system was experimentally driven through finger-induced strain of HSPS, showing the optical properties with reversibly tunable transmittances. This research is a substantial advancement in the field of piezoelectric PVDF fibers integration toward the practical application of the whole self-powered system.

  3. Piezoelectrically and triboelectrically hybridized self-powered sensor with applications to smart window and human motion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Li, Shan-Chien; Chen, Chun-Yu

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid generator, derived from the concurrent adoption of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle, called a Hybridized Self-Powered sensor (HSPS). A new integration of print circuit board (PCB) technology-based piezoelectric generator (PG) concurrently adopted the direct-write, near-field electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nano/micro-fibers as piezoelectric source materials. On the other hand, triboelectric nanogenerators have the advantages of a high output performance with a simple structure which is also concurrently combined with the PG. The working mechanism of the HSPS includes the PCB-based substrate mounted with parallel aligned piezoelectric PVDF fibers in planar configuration which first bended and generated the electric potential via the effect of piezoelectricity. In what follows, the deformation of a cylindrical rolled-up piezoelectric structure is exercised, and finally, the triboelectric contact of Cu and PTFE layers is physically rubbed against each other with a separation to induce the triboelectric potential. This hybridized generator with a double domed shape design simultaneously combines piezoelectric output and triboelectric output and offers a built-in spacer with automatically spring back capability, which produces a peak output voltage of 100 V, a current of 4 μA, and a maximum power output of 450 nW. A self-powered smart window system was experimentally driven through finger-induced strain of HSPS, showing the optical properties with reversibly tunable transmittances. This research is a substantial advancement in the field of piezoelectric PVDF fibers integration toward the practical application of the whole self-powered system.

  4. Sensing Movement: Microsensors for Body Motion Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansong Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of body posture and motion is an important physiological function that can keep the body in balance. Man-made motion sensors have also been widely applied for a broad array of biomedical applications including diagnosis of balance disorders and evaluation of energy expenditure. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art sensing components utilized for body motion measurement. The anatomy and working principles of a natural body motion sensor, the human vestibular system, are first described. Various man-made inertial sensors are then elaborated based on their distinctive sensing mechanisms. In particular, both the conventional solid-state motion sensors and the emerging non solid-state motion sensors are depicted. With their lower cost and increased intelligence, man-made motion sensors are expected to play an increasingly important role in biomedical systems for basic research as well as clinical diagnostics.

  5. Using Co-located Rotational and Translational Ground-Motion Sensors to Characterize Seismic Scattering in the P-Wave Coda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrand, J.; Abbott, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    We present data and analysis of a seismic data collect at the site of a historical underground nuclear explosion at Yucca Flat, a sedimentary basin on the Nevada National Security Site, USA. The data presented here consist of active-source, six degree-of-freedom seismic signals. The translational signals were collected with a Nanometrics Trillium Compact Posthole seismometer and the rotational signals were collected with an ATA Proto-SMHD, a prototype rotational ground motion sensor. The source for the experiment was the Seismic Hammer (a 13,000 kg weight-drop), deployed on two-kilometer, orthogonal arms centered on the site of the nuclear explosion. By leveraging the fact that compressional waves have no rotational component, we generated a map of subsurface scattering and compared the results to known subsurface features. To determine scattering intensity, signals were cut to include only the P-wave and its coda. The ratio of the time-domain signal magnitudes of angular velocity and translational acceleration were sectioned into three time windows within the coda and averaged within each window. Preliminary results indicate an increased rotation/translation ratio in the vicinity of the explosion-generated chimney, suggesting mode conversion of P-wave energy to S-wave energy at that location. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  6. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the venture business assisting type regional consortium - Minor business creation base type. Development of 1-chip multifunctional motion sensor and its application to intelligent module; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. 1 chip gata takino undo sensor no kaihatsu to intelligent module eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The aim is to embody an intelligent micromodule for sensing bodily motions. For this purpose, technologies were established for high accuracy/high aspect ratio etching of crystals and for detecting angular velocity and acceleration, and a 1-chip multifunctional motion sensor was developed. The results of the efforts are briefly described below. A 1-chip multifunctional motion sensor (device size: 16 times 6 times 0.3mm) was developed, capable of simultaneously detecting uniaxial acceleration and uniaxial angular velocity, and an operating circuit was established for the detection. Using the 1-chip multifunctional motion sensor, a wrist watch type intelligent module was developed, capable of discriminating between various patterns of human behavior (walking, jogging, desk work, etc.). An intelligent module and the host computer were connected by wire or radio enabling the real-time observation of a patient's kinetic behavior, and this helped develop an application program allowing the quantification of the rate of recovery of patients undergoing rehabilitation. Using an intelligent module, an application program was developed enabling a laryngeal patient to establish communication by a physical action in case of emergency. (NEDO)

  7. Berlin in Motion: Interprofessional teaching and learning for students in the fields of medicine, occupational therapy, physiotherapy and nursing (INTER-M-E-P-P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Annerose; Heinze, Cornelia; Höppner, Heidi; Behrend, Ronja; Czakert, Judith; Hitzblech, Tanja; Kaufmann, Ina; Maaz, Asja; Räbiger, Jutta; Peters, Harm

    2016-01-01

    The Berlin project "Interprofessional teaching and learning in medicine, occupational therapy, physiotherapy and nursing" (INTER-M-E-P-P) pursues the goal of developing and testing interprofessional courses in an exemplary manner, and then implement these into their regular study programs. Under the direction of a steering committee of the participating institutions, professions and status groups, interprofessional courses were designed, carried out and evaluated. Specific to this project are the participation of students in the steering committee, and the accompanying of external supervision. The evaluation integrates the perspectives of all project participants, and combines quantitative and qualitative methods. INTER-M-E-P-P established cooperative structures between the participating universities and programs. Three courses were designed, taught and evaluated in an interprofessional manner. The various curricula, organizational patterns and locations of the study paths led to a great need for resources in regard to planning and implementation. This process can be made difficult by any stereotypes or preconceptions inherent to those doing the planning; however, under external supervision, the individual professional viewpoints can still be broadened and enriched. A sustainable implementation of interprofessional education into the curricula of health science study programs is currently complicated by barriers such as different geographical locations and differing university regulations concerning study and testing. Implementation will require long-term support at the university as well as at political levels.

  8. Occupational cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book aims to review the occurrence and causes of occupational cancer and is aimed at assisting medical and safety staff, management and health and safety representatives. It is presented in the following chapters: 1) Epidemiological method 2) Agents causing occupationally induced cancer, including radiation 3) Occupations associated with risk of cancer 4) Aetiology of cancer 5) Control of occupationally induced cancer, research, prevention, legislation, national and international bodies, control of specific occupational carcinogens, including irradiation. (U.K.)

  9. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  10. Identifying Best Bet Entry-Level Selection Measures for US Air Force Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) Pilot and Sensor Operator (SO) Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    occupations (pilots, combat system operators, air battle managers) (Carretta, 2008; Carretta & Ree, 2003; Olea & Ree, 1994). This body of knowledge...Ergonomics, 50(7), 1064-1091. O’Hare, D. (1997). Cognitive ability determinants of elite pilot performance. Human Factors, 39, 540-552. Olea

  11. Occupational rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Maria M; Slavin, Raymond G

    2003-05-01

    This article aims to define occupational rhinitis, classify its various causes, review the steps in its diagnosis, and describe its nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic principles of management. Occupational rhinitis frequently coexists with asthma but also occurs alone. Although it does not have the same impact as occupational asthma, occupational rhinitis causes distress, discomfort, and work inefficiency. By concentrating on the patient's workplace, the clinician has an opportunity to practice preventive medicine: to recognize substances in the patient's micro- and macroenvironment that are causing the problems and then to intervene by altering the environment or removing the patient from the environment.

  12. Stretch Sensor Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for determining stretch values and movement of body parts, e.g. a foot, by analysing stretch data from a stretch sensor. By analysing data from the stretch sensor it is possible to determine stretch samples which are associated with particular motion phases...

  13. Occupational Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

  14. Occupational cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choril, A.C.; McCracken, W.J.; Dowd, E.C.; Stewart, Charles; Burton, D.F.; Dyer, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the experience of the Workmen's Compensation Board of Ontario in identifying cases of cancer that could be attributed to occupational hazards. Workers' claims for compensation are allowed if there is reasonable medical evidence that their cancer was caused by exposure to risk factors associated with their occupation. Details of the types of cancers associated with specific carcinogens or fields of employment are discussed. About 50% of the cases were related to exposure in particular industrial operations that functioned for relatively brief periods. The number of deaths from cancer identified as being caused by occupational factors is compared with the total for cancer from all causes in Ontario during the period 1971 through 1975. Although all workers eligible for compensation may not have been identified, the data suggest that less than 1% is presently caused by occupational factors

  15. Occupational Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... November 3, 2015 Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies ... Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 ...

  16. Occupational health

    CERN Document Server

    Fingret, Dr Ann

    2013-01-01

    Offers a comprehensive view of health and safety issues at work. An invaluable resource for managers, personnel professionals and occupational health practitioners. Recommended by the Institute of Personnel Management.

  17. Occupational cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, N.

    1987-01-01

    Cancer resulting from occupational exposure is now receiving major attention, focusing on identification, regulation, and control of cancer-causing agents. Such cancer can result from exposure to chemicals and ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Extended exposure (often years) and an extended latent period of perhaps decades may intervene before tumor appearance. Although the actual extent of occupational cancer is in debate, estimates have ranged from 4 to 15 per cent of all cancer

  18. Occupational health

    OpenAIRE

    Coosemans, R.

    1997-01-01

    Health at work and healthy work environments are among the most valuable assets of individuals, communities and countries. Nowadays, new broader approach is promoted, recognizing the fact that occupational health is a key, but not a unique element of workers’ health. Workers health is a public health approach to resolving the health problems of working populations including all determinants of health recognized as targets of risk management. It focuses on primary prevention of occupational an...

  19. Computationally efficient video restoration for Nyquist sampled imaging sensors combining an affine-motion-based temporal Kalman filter and adaptive Wiener filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucci, Michael; Hardie, Russell C; Barnard, Kenneth J

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we present a computationally efficient video restoration algorithm to address both blur and noise for a Nyquist sampled imaging system. The proposed method utilizes a temporal Kalman filter followed by a correlation-model based spatial adaptive Wiener filter (AWF). The Kalman filter employs an affine background motion model and novel process-noise variance estimate. We also propose and demonstrate a new multidelay temporal Kalman filter designed to more robustly treat local motion. The AWF is a spatial operation that performs deconvolution and adapts to the spatially varying residual noise left in the Kalman filter stage. In image areas where the temporal Kalman filter is able to provide significant noise reduction, the AWF can be aggressive in its deconvolution. In other areas, where less noise reduction is achieved with the Kalman filter, the AWF balances the deconvolution with spatial noise reduction. In this way, the Kalman filter and AWF work together effectively, but without the computational burden of full joint spatiotemporal processing. We also propose a novel hybrid system that combines a temporal Kalman filter and BM3D processing. To illustrate the efficacy of the proposed methods, we test the algorithms on both simulated imagery and video collected with a visible camera.

  20. Passive infrared motion sensing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    In the last 10 years passive IR based (8--12 microns) motion sensing has matured to become the dominant method of volumetric space protection and surveillance. These systems currently cost less than $25 to produce and yet use traditionally expensive IR optics, filters, sensors and electronic circuitry. This IR application is quite interesting in that the volumes of systems produced and the costs and performance level required prove that there is potential for large scale commercial applications of IR technology. This paper will develop the basis and principles of operation of a staring motion sensor system using a technical approach. A model for the motion of the target is developed and compared to the background. The IR power difference between the target and the background as well as the optical requirements are determined from basic principles and used to determine the performance of the system. Low cost reflective and refractive IR optics and bandpass IR filters are discussed. The pyroelectric IR detector commonly used is fully discussed and characterized. Various schemes for ''false alarms'' have been developed and are also explained. This technology is also used in passive IR based motion sensors for other applications such as lighting control. These applications are also discussed. In addition the paper will discuss new developments in IR surveillance technology such as the use of linear motion sensing arrays. This presentation can be considered a ''primer'' on the art of Passive IR Motion Sensing as applied to Surveillance Technology

  1. Neuro-Inspired Spike-Based Motion: From Dynamic Vision Sensor to Robot Motor Open-Loop Control through Spike-VITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Perez-Peña

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a complete spike-based architecture: from a Dynamic Vision Sensor (retina to a stereo head robotic platform. The aim of this research is to reproduce intended movements performed by humans taking into account as many features as possible from the biological point of view. This paper fills the gap between current spike silicon sensors and robotic actuators by applying a spike processing strategy to the data flows in real time. The architecture is divided into layers: the retina, visual information processing, the trajectory generator layer which uses a neuroinspired algorithm (SVITE that can be replicated into as many times as DoF the robot has; and finally the actuation layer to supply the spikes to the robot (using PFM. All the layers do their tasks in a spike-processing mode, and they communicate each other through the neuro-inspired AER protocol. The open-loop controller is implemented on FPGA using AER interfaces developed by RTC Lab. Experimental results reveal the viability of this spike-based controller. Two main advantages are: low hardware resources (2% of a Xilinx Spartan 6 and power requirements (3.4 W to control a robot with a high number of DoF (up to 100 for a Xilinx Spartan 6. It also evidences the suitable use of AER as a communication protocol between processing and actuation.

  2. Neuro-Inspired Spike-Based Motion: From Dynamic Vision Sensor to Robot Motor Open-Loop Control through Spike-VITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Peña, Fernando; Morgado-Estevez, Arturo; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Jimenez-Fernandez, Angel; Gomez-Rodriguez, Francisco; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Lopez-Coronado, Juan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a complete spike-based architecture: from a Dynamic Vision Sensor (retina) to a stereo head robotic platform. The aim of this research is to reproduce intended movements performed by humans taking into account as many features as possible from the biological point of view. This paper fills the gap between current spike silicon sensors and robotic actuators by applying a spike processing strategy to the data flows in real time. The architecture is divided into layers: the retina, visual information processing, the trajectory generator layer which uses a neuroinspired algorithm (SVITE) that can be replicated into as many times as DoF the robot has; and finally the actuation layer to supply the spikes to the robot (using PFM). All the layers do their tasks in a spike-processing mode, and they communicate each other through the neuro-inspired AER protocol. The open-loop controller is implemented on FPGA using AER interfaces developed by RTC Lab. Experimental results reveal the viability of this spike-based controller. Two main advantages are: low hardware resources (2% of a Xilinx Spartan 6) and power requirements (3.4 W) to control a robot with a high number of DoF (up to 100 for a Xilinx Spartan 6). It also evidences the suitable use of AER as a communication protocol between processing and actuation. PMID:24264330

  3. An Enhanced Error Model for EKF-Based Tightly-Coupled Integration of GPS and Land Vehicle’s Motion Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamat, Tashfeen B.; Atia, Mohamed M.; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2015-01-01

    Reduced inertial sensor systems (RISS) have been introduced by many researchers as a low-cost, low-complexity sensor assembly that can be integrated with GPS to provide a robust integrated navigation system for land vehicles. In earlier works, the developed error models were simplified based on the assumption that the vehicle is mostly moving on a flat horizontal plane. Another limitation is the simplified estimation of the horizontal tilt angles, which is based on simple averaging of the accelerometers’ measurements without modelling their errors or tilt angle errors. In this paper, a new error model is developed for RISS that accounts for the effect of tilt angle errors and the accelerometer’s errors. Additionally, it also includes important terms in the system dynamic error model, which were ignored during the linearization process in earlier works. An augmented extended Kalman filter (EKF) is designed to incorporate tilt angle errors and transversal accelerometer errors. The new error model and the augmented EKF design are developed in a tightly-coupled RISS/GPS integrated navigation system. The proposed system was tested on real trajectories’ data under degraded GPS environments, and the results were compared to earlier works on RISS/GPS systems. The findings demonstrated that the proposed enhanced system introduced significant improvements in navigational performance. PMID:26402680

  4. 29 CFR 1921.5 - Motions and requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motions and requests. 1921.5 Section 1921.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT Prehearing Procedures § 1921.5 Motions and requests. Motions or requests shall...

  5. Foldable and portable triboelectric-electromagnetic generator for scavenging motion energy and as a sensitive gas flow sensor for detecting breath personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaona; Liu, Guanlin; Chen, Lin; Li, Wenlong; Xi, Yi; Shi, Haofei; Hu, Chenguo

    2015-11-01

    An easily foldable and portable triboelectric-electromagnetic generator (TEMG) based on two polymer/Al layers and one copper coil has been designed to harvest ambient mechanical energy, where the copper coil is used both as a spring to achieve contact and separation of triboelectric layers and as a circuit to collect electromagnetic-induced electricity. The output performance of the TEMG is approximately reproducible after being folded many times. The working mechanism is discussed. The output performance of individual triboelectric generator (TEG) and electromagnetic generator (EMG) are systematically investigated. The maximum output current, voltage, and power are obtained to be 32.2 μA, 500 V, and 2 mW for the TEG, and 4.04 mA, 30 mV, and 15.8 μW for the EMG, respectively. The TEG with a higher internal resistance can be used as a current source, while the EMG with a lower resistance can be used as a voltage source. It can be used as a mobile light source via integrating the TEMG in clothes or bags, and as a self-powered gas flow sensor for detecting respiratory rate, which has a potential application in medical diagnoses. The simple structure and easy portability of the TEMG could be used widely in daily life to harvest ambient energy for electronic devices.

  6. Foldable and portable triboelectric-electromagnetic generator for scavenging motion energy and as a sensitive gas flow sensor for detecting breath personality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Xiaona; Liu, Guanlin; Chen, Lin; Li, Wenlong; Xi, Yi; Hu, Chenguo; Shi, Haofei

    2015-01-01

    An easily foldable and portable triboelectric-electromagnetic generator (TEMG) based on two polymer/Al layers and one copper coil has been designed to harvest ambient mechanical energy, where the copper coil is used both as a spring to achieve contact and separation of triboelectric layers and as a circuit to collect electromagnetic-induced electricity. The output performance of the TEMG is approximately reproducible after being folded many times. The working mechanism is discussed. The output performance of individual triboelectric generator (TEG) and electromagnetic generator (EMG) are systematically investigated. The maximum output current, voltage, and power are obtained to be 32.2 μA, 500 V, and 2 mW for the TEG, and 4.04 mA, 30 mV, and 15.8 μW for the EMG, respectively. The TEG with a higher internal resistance can be used as a current source, while the EMG with a lower resistance can be used as a voltage source. It can be used as a mobile light source via integrating the TEMG in clothes or bags, and as a self-powered gas flow sensor for detecting respiratory rate, which has a potential application in medical diagnoses. The simple structure and easy portability of the TEMG could be used widely in daily life to harvest ambient energy for electronic devices. (paper)

  7. Dedicated Filter for Robust Occupancy Grid Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KS Nagla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensor based perception of the environment is an emerging area of the mobile robot research where sensors play a pivotal role. For autonomous mobile robots, the fundamental requirement is the convergent of the range information in to high level internal representation. Internal representation in the form of occupancy grid is commonly used in autonomous mobile robots due to its various advantages. There are several sensors such as vision sensor, laser rage finder, and ultrasonic and infrared sensors etc. play roles in mapping. However the sensor information failure, sensor inaccuracies, noise, and slow response are the major causes of an error in the mapping. To improve the reliability of the mobile robot mapping multisensory data fusion is considered as an optimal solution. This paper presents a novel architecture of sensor fusion frame work in which a dedicated filter (DF is proposed to increase the robustness of the occupancy grid for indoor environment. The technique has been experimentally verified for different indoor test environments. The proposed configuration shows improvement in the occupancy grid with the implementation of dedicated filters.

  8. Hand Gesture Recognition with Leap Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Youchen; Liu, Shenglan; Feng, Lin; Chen, Menghui; Wu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    The recent introduction of depth cameras like Leap Motion Controller allows researchers to exploit the depth information to recognize hand gesture more robustly. This paper proposes a novel hand gesture recognition system with Leap Motion Controller. A series of features are extracted from Leap Motion tracking data, we feed these features along with HOG feature extracted from sensor images into a multi-class SVM classifier to recognize performed gesture, dimension reduction and feature weight...

  9. Analysing Harmonic Motions with an iPhone's Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Ahmet; Temiz, Burak Kagan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an experiment for analysing harmonic motion using an iPhone's (or iPad's) magnetometer. This experiment consists of the detection of magnetic field variations obtained from an iPhone's magnetometer sensor. A graph of harmonic motion is directly displayed on the iPhone's screen using the "Sensor Kinetics"…

  10. A Universal Vacant Parking Slot Recognition System Using Sensors Mounted on Off-the-Shelf Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Kyu Suhr

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An automatic parking system is an essential part of autonomous driving, and it starts by recognizing vacant parking spaces. This paper proposes a method that can recognize various types of parking slot markings in a variety of lighting conditions including daytime, nighttime, and underground. The proposed method can readily be commercialized since it uses only those sensors already mounted on off-the-shelf vehicles: an around-view monitor (AVM system, ultrasonic sensors, and in-vehicle motion sensors. This method first detects separating lines by extracting parallel line pairs from AVM images. Parking slot candidates are generated by pairing separating lines based on the geometric constraints of the parking slot. These candidates are confirmed by recognizing their entrance positions using line and corner features and classifying their occupancies using ultrasonic sensors. For more reliable recognition, this method uses the separating lines and parking slots not only found in the current image but also found in previous images by tracking their positions using the in-vehicle motion-sensor-based vehicle odometry. The proposed method was quantitatively evaluated using a dataset obtained during the day, night, and underground, and it outperformed previous methods by showing a 95.24% recall and a 97.64% precision.

  11. Microsoft Kinect Sensor Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billie, Glennoah

    2011-01-01

    My summer project evaluates the Kinect game sensor input/output and its suitability to perform as part of a human interface for a spacecraft application. The primary objective is to evaluate, understand, and communicate the Kinect system's ability to sense and track fine (human) position and motion. The project will analyze the performance characteristics and capabilities of this game system hardware and its applicability for gross and fine motion tracking. The software development kit for the Kinect was also investigated and some experimentation has begun to understand its development environment. To better understand the software development of the Kinect game sensor, research in hacking communities has brought a better understanding of the potential for a wide range of personal computer (PC) application development. The project also entails the disassembly of the Kinect game sensor. This analysis would involve disassembling a sensor, photographing it, and identifying components and describing its operation.

  12. Motion sickness and tilts of the inertial force environment : Active suspension systems vs. active passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golding, J. F.; van der Bles, W.; Bos, J. E.; Haynes, T.; Gresty, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Maneuvering in vehicles exposes occupants to low frequency forces (<1 Hz) which can provoke motion sickness. Hypothesis: Aligning with the tilting inertial resultant (gravity + imposed horizontal acceleration: gravito-inertial force (GIF)) may reduce motion sickness when tilting is

  13. Occupational hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Paz-Fuchs, Amir; Ronen, Yaël

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an analysis and a critique of the law governing the employment relationship between Israeli employers and Palestinian employees in industries operating in the West Bank. \\ud \\ud Through an analysis of Israeli jurisprudence it highlights the intersection among different areas of law: choice of law, public international law (in particular the law of occupation), and labor law. The article explores the tensions that this intersection creates: first, between the importance t...

  14. Ultra-wideband radar sensors and networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Jr., Richard R; Nekoogar, Faranak; Haugen, Peter C

    2013-08-06

    Ultra wideband radar motion sensors strategically placed in an area of interest communicate with a wireless ad hoc network to provide remote area surveillance. Swept range impulse radar and a heart and respiration monitor combined with the motion sensor further improves discrimination.

  15. Occupation: nurse; occupational hazard: radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickson, K.

    1984-01-01

    The work of the occupational health nurses at the Pickering Generating Station is described. A staff of two nurses teach first aid and safety, practice an emergency plan, and monitor personnel for minimum health standards for radiation workers. Special attention is paid to problems which might be aggravated by radiation, such as skin complaints, respiratory diseases, emotional stability, or phobias regarding heights, plastic suits, or radiation itself. Procedures used in treating contaminated personnel are outlined

  16. Occupation: nurse; occupational hazard: radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickson, K

    1984-03-01

    The work of the occupational health nurses at the Pickering Generating Station is described. A staff of two nurses teach first aid and safety, practice an emergency plan, and monitor personnel for minimum health standards for radiation workers. Special attention is paid to problems which might be aggravated by radiation, such as skin complaints, respiratory diseases, emotional stability, or phobias regarding heights, plastic suits, or radiation itself. Procedures used in treating contaminated personnel are outlined.

  17. Feasibility of Using Low-Cost Motion Capture for Automated Screening of Shoulder Motion Limitation after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriya Gritsenko

    Full Text Available To determine if a low-cost, automated motion analysis system using Microsoft Kinect could accurately measure shoulder motion and detect motion impairments in women following breast cancer surgery.Descriptive study of motion measured via 2 methods.Academic cancer center oncology clinic.20 women (mean age = 60 yrs were assessed for active and passive shoulder motions during a routine post-operative clinic visit (mean = 18 days after surgery following mastectomy (n = 4 or lumpectomy (n = 16 for breast cancer.Participants performed 3 repetitions of active and passive shoulder motions on the side of the breast surgery. Arm motion was recorded using motion capture by Kinect for Windows sensor and on video. Goniometric values were determined from video recordings, while motion capture data were transformed to joint angles using 2 methods (body angle and projection angle.Correlation of motion capture with goniometry and detection of motion limitation.Active shoulder motion measured with low-cost motion capture agreed well with goniometry (r = 0.70-0.80, while passive shoulder motion measurements did not correlate well. Using motion capture, it was possible to reliably identify participants whose range of shoulder motion was reduced by 40% or more.Low-cost, automated motion analysis may be acceptable to screen for moderate to severe motion impairments in active shoulder motion. Automatic detection of motion limitation may allow quick screening to be performed in an oncologist's office and trigger timely referrals for rehabilitation.

  18. Feasibility of Using Low-Cost Motion Capture for Automated Screening of Shoulder Motion Limitation after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Valeriya; Dailey, Eric; Kyle, Nicholas; Taylor, Matt; Whittacre, Sean; Swisher, Anne K

    2015-01-01

    To determine if a low-cost, automated motion analysis system using Microsoft Kinect could accurately measure shoulder motion and detect motion impairments in women following breast cancer surgery. Descriptive study of motion measured via 2 methods. Academic cancer center oncology clinic. 20 women (mean age = 60 yrs) were assessed for active and passive shoulder motions during a routine post-operative clinic visit (mean = 18 days after surgery) following mastectomy (n = 4) or lumpectomy (n = 16) for breast cancer. Participants performed 3 repetitions of active and passive shoulder motions on the side of the breast surgery. Arm motion was recorded using motion capture by Kinect for Windows sensor and on video. Goniometric values were determined from video recordings, while motion capture data were transformed to joint angles using 2 methods (body angle and projection angle). Correlation of motion capture with goniometry and detection of motion limitation. Active shoulder motion measured with low-cost motion capture agreed well with goniometry (r = 0.70-0.80), while passive shoulder motion measurements did not correlate well. Using motion capture, it was possible to reliably identify participants whose range of shoulder motion was reduced by 40% or more. Low-cost, automated motion analysis may be acceptable to screen for moderate to severe motion impairments in active shoulder motion. Automatic detection of motion limitation may allow quick screening to be performed in an oncologist's office and trigger timely referrals for rehabilitation.

  19. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  20. Sensor Integration Using State Estimators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Means for including very different types of sensors using one single unit are described. Accumulated data are represented using an updatable dynamic model, a Kalman filter. The scheme handles common phenomena such as skewed sampling, finite resolution measurements and information delays. Included is an example where 3D motion information is collected by one or more vision sensors.

  1. Inertial Motion Capture Costume Design Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Szczęsna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a scalable, wearable multi-sensor system for motion capture based on inertial measurement units (IMUs. Such a unit is composed of accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer. The final quality of an obtained motion arises from all the individual parts of the described system. The proposed system is a sequence of the following stages: sensor data acquisition, sensor orientation estimation, system calibration, pose estimation and data visualisation. The construction of the system’s architecture with the dataflow programming paradigm makes it easy to add, remove and replace the data processing steps. The modular architecture of the system allows an effortless introduction of a new sensor orientation estimation algorithms. The original contribution of the paper is the design study of the individual components used in the motion capture system. The two key steps of the system design are explored in this paper: the evaluation of sensors and algorithms for the orientation estimation. The three chosen algorithms have been implemented and investigated as part of the experiment. Due to the fact that the selection of the sensor has a significant impact on the final result, the sensor evaluation process is also explained and tested. The experimental results confirmed that the choice of sensor and orientation estimation algorithm affect the quality of the final results.

  2. Sensor network infrastructure for a home care monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Filippo; Ullberg, Jonas; Stimec, Ales; Furfari, Francesco; Karlsson, Lars; Coradeschi, Silvia

    2014-02-25

    This paper presents the sensor network infrastructure for a home care system that allows long-term monitoring of physiological data and everyday activities. The aim of the proposed system is to allow the elderly to live longer in their home without compromising safety and ensuring the detection of health problems. The system offers the possibility of a virtual visit via a teleoperated robot. During the visit, physiological data and activities occurring during a period of time can be discussed. These data are collected from physiological sensors (e.g., temperature, blood pressure, glucose) and environmental sensors (e.g., motion, bed/chair occupancy, electrical usage). The system can also give alarms if sudden problems occur, like a fall, and warnings based on more long-term trends, such as the deterioration of health being detected. It has been implemented and tested in a test environment and has been deployed in six real homes for a year-long evaluation. The key contribution of the paper is the presentation of an implemented system for ambient assisted living (AAL) tested in a real environment, combining the acquisition of sensor data, a flexible and adaptable middleware compliant with the OSGistandard and a context recognition application. The system has been developed in a European project called GiraffPlus.

  3. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chi Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants’ information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans’ intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It’s also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  4. Motion Detection Implementation on a Game Using Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Putra Gozali

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of advanced gaming technology, we can play the game with so many tools or platforms such as console games, PC games, mobile games and handheld games. The disadvantage of those games is the difficulty to connect additional sensors to the PC computer. Large power requirements will also be a constraint. Besides, the size of the PC could be a weakness that makes it difficult to carry and play anytime. Raspberry is a small computer that can be added with motion detection sensors. By using the raspberry, the researchers managed to create a game "Crows Adventure" that uses motion detection sensor as the controller. Some of the sensors used in the game is UDS Sensor ( Ultrasonic Sensor disctance and touch sensors are applied to smarthphone to control the game. This allows the use of sensors in making more varied games by using raspberry devices.

  5. BOES: Building Occupancy Estimation System using sparse ambient vibration monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shijia; Bonde, Amelie; Jing, Jie; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Pei; Noh, Hae Young

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we present a room-level building occupancy estimation system (BOES) utilizing low-resolution vibration sensors that are sparsely distributed. Many ubiquitous computing and building maintenance systems require fine-grained occupancy knowledge to enable occupant centric services and optimize space and energy utilization. The sensing infrastructure support for current occupancy estimation systems often requires multiple intrusive sensors per room, resulting in systems that are both costly to deploy and difficult to maintain. To address these shortcomings, we developed BOES. BOES utilizes sparse vibration sensors to track occupancy levels and activities. Our system has three major components. 1) It extracts features that distinguish occupant activities from noise prone ambient vibrations and detects human footsteps. 2) Using a sequence of footsteps, the system localizes and tracks individuals by observing changes in the sequences. It uses this tracking information to identify when an occupant leaves or enters a room. 3) The entering and leaving room information are combined with detected individual location information to update the room-level occupancy state of the building. Through validation experiments in two different buildings, our system was able to achieve 99.55% accuracy for event detection, less than three feet average error for localization, and 85% accuracy in occupancy counting.

  6. Research in biomechanics of occupant protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A I; Yang, K H

    1995-04-01

    This paper discusses the biomechanical bases for occupant protection against frontal and side impact. Newton's Laws of Motion are used to illustrate the effect of a crash on restrained and unrestrained occupants, and the concept of ride down is discussed. Occupant protection through the use of energy absorbing materials is described, and the mechanism of injury of some of the more common injuries is explained. The role of the three-point belt and the airbag in frontal protection is discussed along with the potential injuries that can result from the use of these restraint systems. Side impact protection is more difficult to attain but some protection can be derived from the use of padding or a side impact airbag. It is concluded that the front seat occupants are adequately protected against frontal impact if belts are worn in an airbag equipped vehicle. Side impact protection may not be uniform in all vehicles.

  7. INS integrated motion analysis for autonomous vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry; Bazakos, Mike

    1991-01-01

    The use of inertial navigation system (INS) measurements to enhance the quality and robustness of motion analysis techniques used for obstacle detection is discussed with particular reference to autonomous vehicle navigation. The approach to obstacle detection used here employs motion analysis of imagery generated by a passive sensor. Motion analysis of imagery obtained during vehicle travel is used to generate range measurements to points within the field of view of the sensor, which can then be used to provide obstacle detection. Results obtained with an INS integrated motion analysis approach are reviewed.

  8. Analysing harmonic motions with an iPhone’s magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Ahmet; Kağan Temiz, Burak

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an experiment for analysing harmonic motion using an iPhone’s (or iPad’s) magnetometer. This experiment consists of the detection of magnetic field variations obtained from an iPhone’s magnetometer sensor. A graph of harmonic motion is directly displayed on the iPhone’s screen using the Sensor Kinetics application. Data from this application was analysed with Eureqa software to establish the equation of the harmonic motion. Analyses show that the use of an iPhone’s magnetometer to analyse harmonic motion is a practical and effective method for small oscillations and frequencies less than 15-20 Hz.

  9. Post Occupancy Evaluation of 23 Newly Renovated Apartments in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    systems. All the ventilation units are equipped with parallel plate cross flow heat exchangers. The analysis in present article is based on the measured indoor quality parameters as well as energy consumptions. Among four different types of ventilation systems, Type 1 is a traditional decentralized...... ventilation system which works only on two speeds i.e. high airflow rates when kitchen exhaust is on otherwise nominal airflow rates. Type 2 ventilation systems are the decentralized ventilation system with motion sensors in hallways, humidity sensors in rooms and kitchen exhaust hood sensors. Type 3...... ventilation system is a centralized ventilation system with the motion sensors in hallways and toilets, humidity sensors in each room, and kitchen exhaust hood sensors. Type 4 ventilation system is a centralized ventilation system with only kitchen exhaust hood sensor. Type 2, Type 3 and Type 4 ventilation...

  10. Taste sensor; Mikaku sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-03-05

    This paper introduces a taste sensor having a lipid/polymer membrane to work as a receptor of taste substances. The paper describes the following matters: this sensor uses a hollow polyvinyl chloride rod filled with KCl aqueous solution, and placed with silver and silver chloride wires, whose cross section is affixed with a lipid/polymer membrane as a lipid membrane electrode to identify taste from seven or eight kinds of response patterns of electric potential output from the lipid/polymer membrane; measurements of different substances presenting acidic taste, salty taste, bitter taste, sweet taste and flavor by using this sensor identified clearly each taste (similar response is shown to a similar taste even if the substances are different); different responses are indicated on different brands of beers; from the result of measuring a great variety of mineral waters, a possibility was suggested that this taste sensor could be used for water quality monitoring sensors; and application of this taste sensor may be expected as a maturation control sensor for Japanese sake (wine) and miso (bean paste) manufacturing. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Laboratory Approaches to Studying Occupants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Andreas; Andersen, Rune; Zhang, Hui

    2018-01-01

    is high and a large number of physical, physiological, and psychological quantities can be monitored. This chapter gives an overview of various types of test facilities in the world and their main features in terms of experimental opportunities. It then presents typical technical equipment and sensor......Laboratories offer the possibility to study occupant behavior in a very detailed manner. A wide range of indoor environmental scenarios can be simulated under precisely controlled conditions, and human subjects can be selected based on pre-defined criteria. The degree of control over experiments...

  12. Illumination adaptation with rapid-response color sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinchi; Wang, Quan; Boyer, Kim L.

    2014-09-01

    Smart lighting solutions based on imaging sensors such as webcams or time-of-flight sensors suffer from rising privacy concerns. In this work, we use low-cost non-imaging color sensors to measure local luminous flux of different colors in an indoor space. These sensors have much higher data acquisition rate and are much cheaper than many o_-the-shelf commercial products. We have developed several applications with these sensors, including illumination feedback control and occupancy-driven lighting.

  13. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Berger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect—an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  14. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christopher C; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect-an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  15. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen eAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  16. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  17. Group-based Motion Detection for Energy-Efficient Localisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Cotillon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Long-term outdoor localization remains challenging due to the high energy profiles of GPS modules. Duty cycling the GPS module combined with inertial sensors can improve energy consumption. However, inertial sensors that are kept active all the time can also drain mobile node batteries. This paper proposes duty cycling strategies for inertial sensors to maintain a target position accuracy and node lifetime. We present a method for duty cycling motion sensors according to features of movement events, and evaluate its energy and accuracy profile for an empirical data trace of cattle movement. We further introduce the concept of group-based duty cycling, where nodes that cluster together can share the burden of motion detection to reduce their duty cycles. Our evaluation shows that both variants of motion sensor duty cycling yield up to 78% improvement in overall node power consumption, and that the group-based method yields an additional 20% power reduction during periods of low mobility.

  18. Advanced Sensor Platform to Evaluate Manloads For Exploration Suit Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Shane; Pierce, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Space suit manloads are defined as the outer bounds of force that the human occupant of a suit is able to exert onto the suit during motion. They are defined on a suit-component basis as a unit of maximum force that the suit component in question must withstand without failure. Existing legacy manloads requirements are specific to the suit architecture of the EMU and were developed in an iterative fashion; however, future exploration needs dictate a new suit architecture with bearings, load paths, and entry capability not previously used in any flight suit. No capability currently exists to easily evaluate manloads imparted by a suited occupant, which would be required to develop requirements for a flight-rated design. However, sensor technology has now progressed to the point where an easily-deployable, repeatable and flexible manloads measuring technique could be developed leveraging recent advances in sensor technology. INNOVATION: This development positively impacts schedule, cost and safety risk associated with new suit exploration architectures. For a final flight design, a comprehensive and accurate man loads requirements set must be communicated to the contractor; failing that, a suit design which does not meet necessary manloads limits is prone to failure during testing or worse, during an EVA, which could cause catastrophic failure of the pressure garment posing risk to the crew. This work facilitates a viable means of developing manloads requirements using a range of human sizes & strengths. OUTCOME / RESULTS: Performed sensor market research. Highlighted three viable options (primary, secondary, and flexible packaging option). Designed/fabricated custom bracket to evaluate primary option on a single suit axial. Manned suited manload testing completed and general approach verified.

  19. Occupational hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001048.htm Occupational hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Occupational hearing loss is damage to the inner ear from noise ...

  20. Evaluation of the RACON 15000 microwave motion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A series of tests was performed on the RACON 15000 motion detection system. The primary objectives of these tests were to determine sensor detection patterns and to quantitate the effects of intruder velocity. System susceptibility to fluorescent lights, oscillatory motion, and environmental factors was also examined

  1. Conserved linear dynamics of single-molecule Brownian motion

    KAUST Repository

    Serag, Maged F.

    2017-06-06

    Macromolecular diffusion in homogeneous fluid at length scales greater than the size of the molecule is regarded as a random process. The mean-squared displacement (MSD) of molecules in this regime increases linearly with time. Here we show that non-random motion of DNA molecules in this regime that is undetectable by the MSD analysis can be quantified by characterizing the molecular motion relative to a latticed frame of reference. Our lattice occupancy analysis reveals unexpected sub-modes of motion of DNA that deviate from expected random motion in the linear, diffusive regime. We demonstrate that a subtle interplay between these sub-modes causes the overall diffusive motion of DNA to appear to conform to the linear regime. Our results show that apparently random motion of macromolecules could be governed by non-random dynamics that are detectable only by their relative motion. Our analytical approach should advance broad understanding of diffusion processes of fundamental relevance.

  2. Conserved linear dynamics of single-molecule Brownian motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serag, Maged F.; Habuchi, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    Macromolecular diffusion in homogeneous fluid at length scales greater than the size of the molecule is regarded as a random process. The mean-squared displacement (MSD) of molecules in this regime increases linearly with time. Here we show that non-random motion of DNA molecules in this regime that is undetectable by the MSD analysis can be quantified by characterizing the molecular motion relative to a latticed frame of reference. Our lattice occupancy analysis reveals unexpected sub-modes of motion of DNA that deviate from expected random motion in the linear, diffusive regime. We demonstrate that a subtle interplay between these sub-modes causes the overall diffusive motion of DNA to appear to conform to the linear regime. Our results show that apparently random motion of macromolecules could be governed by non-random dynamics that are detectable only by their relative motion. Our analytical approach should advance broad understanding of diffusion processes of fundamental relevance.

  3. Conserved linear dynamics of single-molecule Brownian motion

    KAUST Repository

    Serag, Maged F.; Habuchi, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Macromolecular diffusion in homogeneous fluid at length scales greater than the size of the molecule is regarded as a random process. The mean-squared displacement (MSD) of molecules in this regime increases linearly with time. Here we show that non-random motion of DNA molecules in this regime that is undetectable by the MSD analysis can be quantified by characterizing the molecular motion relative to a latticed frame of reference. Our lattice occupancy analysis reveals unexpected sub-modes of motion of DNA that deviate from expected random motion in the linear, diffusive regime. We demonstrate that a subtle interplay between these sub-modes causes the overall diffusive motion of DNA to appear to conform to the linear regime. Our results show that apparently random motion of macromolecules could be governed by non-random dynamics that are detectable only by their relative motion. Our analytical approach should advance broad understanding of diffusion processes of fundamental relevance.

  4. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under

  5. Development of esMOCA Biomechanic, Motion Capture Instrumentation for Biomechanics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendra, A.; Akhmad, S.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to build motion capture instruments using inertial measurement unit sensors to assist in the analysis of biomechanics. Sensors used are accelerometer and gyroscope. Estimation of orientation sensors is done by digital motion processing in each sensor nodes. There are nine sensor nodes attached to the upper limbs. This sensor is connected to the pc via a wireless sensor network. The development of kinematics and inverse dynamamic models of the upper limb is done in simulink simmechanic. The kinematic model receives streaming data of sensor nodes mounted on the limbs. The output of the kinematic model is the pose of each limbs and visualized on display. The dynamic inverse model outputs the reaction force and reaction moment of each joint based on the limb motion input. Model validation in simulink with mathematical model of mechanical analysis showed results that did not differ significantly

  6. Development and Experimental Investigations of Motion Detection Module for Smart Lighting System

    OpenAIRE

    Matveev, I.; Siemens, E.; Yurchenko, Aleksey Vasilievich; Kuznetsov, D.

    2016-01-01

    This work considers motion sensors as parts of the smart lighting system on basis of Beaglebone microcomputer. Detection system is designed for the smart lighting system. Experimental investigations of the detection system were made with different motion sensors. Based on the results comparative analysis was performed and optimal conditions for the detection system operation were found.

  7. DexterNet: An Open Platform for Heterogeneous Body Sensor Networks and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-19

    motion, ECG PC, PDA 802.15.4 No No ALARM-NET pulse oximetry STARGATE Bluetooth No Yes [19] motion, ECG PDA, PC 802.11 (temperature, light, PIR) DexterNet...motion, ECG PDA 802.15.4 Yes Possible via SPINE EIP, GPS PC (e.g., air pollution sensor) MICAz, SHIMMER uses MICAz sensors and STARGATE to relay the

  8. Reducing a solar-assisted air-conditioning system’s energy consumption by applying real-time occupancy sensors and chilled water storage tanks throughout the summer: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiek, S.; Batlles, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We present an innovative occupancy and chilled water storage-based operation mode. • This mode was implemented to the solar-assisted air-conditioning system. • It permits to save 42% of total electrical energy during one cooling period. • It allows storing the excess cooling capacity of the absorption chiller. • It prevents the sudden start/stop (on/off cycles) of the absorption chiller. - Abstract: This study describes an innovative occupancy and chilled-water storage-based operation sequence implemented in a solar-assisted air-conditioning system. The core purpose of this solar-assisted air-conditioning system is to handle the cooling and heating load of the Solar Energy Research Centre (CIESOL), thus minimising its environmental impact. In this study, the cooling mode was investigated with special attention focused on the chilled-water storage circuit. The critical concern is that the solar-assisted air-conditioning system should always operate considering the actual load conditions, not using an abstract maximum load that is predetermined during the system’s design process, which can lead to energy waste during periods of low occupancy. Thus, the fundamental problem is to identify the optimum operation sequence for the solar-assisted air-conditioning system that provides the best energy performance. The significance of this work lies in the demonstration of a new operation strategy that utilises real-time occupancy monitoring and chilled-water storage tanks to improve the efficiency of solar-assisted air-conditioning systems, thereby reducing their electricity consumption. Adopting this strategy resulted in a large energy-saving potential. The results demonstrate that during one cooling period, it is possible to conserve approximately 42% of the total electrical energy consumed by the system prior to the adoption of this operation strategy

  9. Motion in radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This review considers the management of motion in photon radiation therapy. An overview is given of magnitudes and variability of motion of various structures and organs, and how the motion affects images by producing artifacts and blurring. Imaging of motion is described, including 4DCT and 4DPE...

  10. A wearable 3D motion sensing system integrated with a Bluetooth smart phone application: A system level overview

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Shamim, Atif

    2018-01-01

    description of a wearable 3D motion sensor. The sensing mechanism is based upon well-established magnetic and inertial measurement unit (MIMU), which integrates accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer data. Two sensor boards have been integrated within a

  11. Sensor Network Disposition Facing the Task of Multisensor Cross Cueing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to build the sensor network facing the task of multisensor crossing cueing, the requirements of initiating cueing and being cued are analyzed. Probability theory is used when building models, then probability of sensor cueing in the case of target moving is given, and, after that, the best distance between two sensors is calculated. The operational environment is described by normal distribution function. In the process of distributing sensor network, their elements, operational environment demand of cueing, and the probability of sensor network coverage are considered; then the optimization algorithm of sensor network based on hypothesis testing theory is made. The simulation result indicates that the algorithm can make sensor network which is required. On the basis of that, the two cases, including targets that make linear motion and orbit motion, are used to test the performance of the sensor network, which show that the sensor network can make uninterrupted detection on targets through multisensor cross cuing.

  12. Advanced Sensor Platform to Evaluate Manloads for Exploration Suit Architectures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space suit manloads are defined as the outer bounds of force that the human occupant of a suit is able to exert onto the suit during motion. They are defined on a...

  13. MuSeSe - A multisensor armchair for unobtrusive vital sign estimation and motion artifact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antink, Christoph Hoog; Leonhardt, Steffen; Schulz, Florian; Walter, Marian

    2017-07-01

    Unobtrusive vital sign estimation with sensors integrated into objects of everyday living can substantially advance the field of remote monitoring. At the same time, motion artifacts cause severe problems and have to be dealt with. Here, the fusion of multimodal sensor data is a promising approach. In this paper, we present an armchair equipped with capacitively coupled electrocardiogram, two types of ballistocardiographic sensors, photoplethysmographic and two high-frequency impedance sensors. In addition, a video-based sensor for motion analysis is integrated. Using a defined motion protocol, the feasibility of the system is demonstrated in a self-experimentation. Moreover, the influence of different movements on different modalities is analyzed. Finally, robust beat-to-beat interval estimation demonstrates the benefits of multimodal sensor fusion for vital sign estimation in the presence of motion artifacts.

  14. Motion Transplantation Techniques: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Basten, Ben; Egges, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, researchers have developed several techniques for transplanting motions. These techniques transplant a partial auxiliary motion, possibly defined for a small set of degrees of freedom, on a base motion. Motion transplantation improves motion databases' expressiveness and

  15. CONVERGING REDUNDANT SENSOR NETWORK INFORMATION FOR IMPROVED BUILDING CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale K. Tiller; Gregor P. Henze

    2004-11-01

    Knowing how many people occupy a building, and where they are located, is a key component of building energy management and security. Commercial, industrial and residential buildings often incorporate systems used to determine occupancy, however, current sensor technology and control algorithms limit the effectiveness of both energy management and security systems. This topical report describes results from the first phase of a project to design, implement, validate, and prototype new technologies to monitor occupancy, control indoor environment services, and promote security in buildings. Phase I of the project focused on instrumentation and data collection. In this project phase a new occupancy detection system was developed, commissioned and installed in a sample of private offices and open-plan office workstations. Data acquisition systems were developed and deployed to collect data on space occupancy profiles. Analysis tools based on Bayesian probability theory were applied to the occupancy data generated by the sensor network. The inference of primary importance is a probability distribution over the number of occupants and their locations in a building, given past and present sensor measurements. Inferences were computed for occupancy and its temporal persistence in individual offices as well as the persistence of sensor status. The raw sensor data were also used to calibrate the sensor belief network, including the occupancy transition matrix used in the Markov model, sensor sensitivity, and sensor failure models. This study shows that the belief network framework can be applied to the analysis of data streams from sensor networks, offering significant benefits to building operation compared to current practice.

  16. An Overview of Centralised Middleware Components for Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Onderwater (Martijn)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractSensors are increasingly becoming part of our daily lives: motion detection, lighting control, environmental monitoring, and keeping track of energy consumption all rely on sensors. Combining data from this wide variety of sensors will result in new and innovative applications. However,

  17. Human motion sensing and recognition a fuzzy qualitative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Honghai; Ji, Xiaofei; Chan, Chee Seng; Khoury, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the latest exciting advances in human motion sensing and recognition, from the theoretical development of fuzzy approaches to their applications. The topics covered include human motion recognition in 2D and 3D, hand motion analysis with contact sensors, and vision-based view-invariant motion recognition, especially from the perspective of Fuzzy Qualitative techniques. With the rapid development of technologies in microelectronics, computers, networks, and robotics over the last decade, increasing attention has been focused on human motion sensing and recognition in many emerging and active disciplines where human motions need to be automatically tracked, analyzed or understood, such as smart surveillance, intelligent human-computer interaction, robot motion learning, and interactive gaming. Current challenges mainly stem from the dynamic environment, data multi-modality, uncertain sensory information, and real-time issues. These techniques are shown to effectively address the ...

  18. Inference for occupancy and occupancy dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Allan F.; Bailey, Larissa L.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the estimation of occupancy as a state variable to assess the status of, and track changes in, species distributions when sampling with camera traps. Much of the recent interest in occupancy estimation and modeling originated from the models developed by MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2003), although similar methods were developed independently (Azuma et al. 1990; Bayley and Petersen 2001; Nichols and Karanth, 2002; Tyre et al. 2003), all of which deal with species occurrence information and imperfect detection. Less than a decade after these publications, the modeling and estimation of species occurrence and occupancy dynamics have increased significantly. Special features of scientific journals have explored innovative uses of detection–nondetection data with occupancy models (Vojta 2005), and an entire volume has synthesized the use and application of occupancy estimation methods (MacKenzie et al. 2006). Reviews of the topical concepts, philosophical considerations, and various sampling designs that can be used for occupancy estimation are now readily available for a range of audiences (MacKenzie and Royle 2005; MacKenzie et al. 2006; Bailey et al. 2007; Royle and Dorazio 2008; Conroy and Carroll 2009; Kendall and White 2009; Hines et al. 2010; Link and Barker 2010). As a result, it would be pointless here to recast all that these publications have so eloquently articulated, but that said, a review of any scientific topic requires sufficient context and relevant background information, especially when relatively new methodologies and techniques such as occupancy estimation and camera traps are involved. This is especially critical in a digital age where new information is published at warp speed, making it increasingly difficult to stay abreast of theoretical advances and research developments.

  19. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE AND COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Else Toft

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common disease. The main risk factor is smoking although 15% of the COPD cases are expected to be preventable if the occupational exposures from vapour, gas, dust, and fume were eliminated; the population attributable fraction (PAF). The thesis...... addresses the association between occupational exposure and COPD in a population-based cohort of Danes aged 45-84-years. 4717 participants were included at baseline and 2624 at the four year follow-up. COPD was defined by spirometry and the occupational exposure was based on specialist defined jobs...... and questionnaires. The main occupational exposure was organic dust and 49% reported no lifetime occupational exposure. The results suggest occupational exposures to be associated to COPD also in never smokers and women. We found an exposure-response relation in the cross sectional analyses. The results...

  20. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built

  1. Engineering workstation: Sensor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, M; Sweet, B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the engineering workstation is to provide an environment for rapid prototyping and evaluation of fusion and image processing algorithms. Ideally, the algorithms are designed to optimize the extraction of information that is useful to a pilot for all phases of flight operations. Successful design of effective fusion algorithms depends on the ability to characterize both the information available from the sensors and the information useful to a pilot. The workstation is comprised of subsystems for simulation of sensor-generated images, image processing, image enhancement, and fusion algorithms. As such, the workstation can be used to implement and evaluate both short-term solutions and long-term solutions. The short-term solutions are being developed to enhance a pilot's situational awareness by providing information in addition to his direct vision. The long term solutions are aimed at the development of complete synthetic vision systems. One of the important functions of the engineering workstation is to simulate the images that would be generated by the sensors. The simulation system is designed to use the graphics modeling and rendering capabilities of various workstations manufactured by Silicon Graphics Inc. The workstation simulates various aspects of the sensor-generated images arising from phenomenology of the sensors. In addition, the workstation can be used to simulate a variety of impairments due to mechanical limitations of the sensor placement and due to the motion of the airplane. Although the simulation is currently not performed in real-time, sequences of individual frames can be processed, stored, and recorded in a video format. In that way, it is possible to examine the appearance of different dynamic sensor-generated and fused images.

  2. A Method for Testing the Dynamic Accuracy of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Magnetic, Angular Rate, and Gravity (MARG) Sensors for Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) and Human Motion Tracking Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    swinging, while the game software translates these actions into on-screen game play. Games like tennis , golf, bowling, fishing and more are controlled...reality, as in [20], sensors may be placed on the wrists, elbows , shoulders, head, and elsewhere to track the orientation of the individual. When...below. When pointing an arm or a rifle, the elbow or shoulder act as the pivot and the arm or rifle may swing horizontally about that point. These

  3. Converging Redundant Sensor Network Information for Improved Building Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale Tiller; D. Phil; Gregor Henze; Xin Guo

    2007-09-30

    This project investigated the development and application of sensor networks to enhance building energy management and security. Commercial, industrial and residential buildings often incorporate systems used to determine occupancy, but current sensor technology and control algorithms limit the effectiveness of these systems. For example, most of these systems rely on single monitoring points to detect occupancy, when more than one monitoring point could improve system performance. Phase I of the project focused on instrumentation and data collection. During the initial project phase, a new occupancy detection system was developed, commissioned and installed in a sample of private offices and open-plan office workstations. Data acquisition systems were developed and deployed to collect data on space occupancy profiles. Phase II of the project demonstrated that a network of several sensors provides a more accurate measure of occupancy than is possible using systems based on single monitoring points. This phase also established that analysis algorithms could be applied to the sensor network data stream to improve the accuracy of system performance in energy management and security applications. In Phase III of the project, the sensor network from Phase I was complemented by a control strategy developed based on the results from the first two project phases: this controller was implemented in a small sample of work areas, and applied to lighting control. Two additional technologies were developed in the course of completing the project. A prototype web-based display that portrays the current status of each detector in a sensor network monitoring building occupancy was designed and implemented. A new capability that enables occupancy sensors in a sensor network to dynamically set the 'time delay' interval based on ongoing occupant behavior in the space was also designed and implemented.

  4. Attention and apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, T; Treisman, A

    1994-01-01

    Two dissociations between short- and long-range motion in visual search are reported. Previous research has shown parallel processing for short-range motion and apparently serial processing for long-range motion. This finding has been replicated and it has also been found that search for short-range targets can be impaired both by using bicontrast stimuli, and by prior adaptation to the target direction of motion. Neither factor impaired search in long-range motion displays. Adaptation actually facilitated search with long-range displays, which is attributed to response-level effects. A feature-integration account of apparent motion is proposed. In this theory, short-range motion depends on specialized motion feature detectors operating in parallel across the display, but subject to selective adaptation, whereas attention is needed to link successive elements when they appear at greater separations, or across opposite contrasts.

  5. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  6. Motion compensated digital tomosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Reijden, Anneke; van Herk, Marcel; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a limited angle image reconstruction method for cone beam projections that offers patient surveillance capabilities during VMAT based SBRT delivery. Motion compensation (MC) has the potential to mitigate motion artifacts caused by respiratory motion, such as blur. The

  7. Marketing occupational health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, M J; Harris, J C

    1981-01-01

    A very basic part of marketing success is determining areas of your business in which you have a competitive advantage. In drafting a marketing plan for the Denver Clinic, the competitive advantages group practices have in the area of occupational health were quickly realized. This competitive edge is presented along with the Denver Clinic's marketing strategies and plans to capitalize on occupational healthcare advantages.

  8. The Heath Occupational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Career development programs must identify occupational needs of adults. A model based on Maslow's hierarchy develops occupational questions related to individual motivations (physiology, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization). Individual needs are then compared with characteristics and benefits of proposed jobs, companies, or careers. (SK)

  9. Leadership and Occupational Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickle, Fred E.; Scott, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    In a leadership position, it is important to understand what stress is and how it affects others. In an occupational setting, stressors vary according to personality types, gender, and occupational rank. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the foundations of stress and to explore how personality characteristics influence stress.…

  10. Occupational Stress among Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Larry M.; Kagan, Dona M.

    1987-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the degree to which occupational stress among teachers could be attributed to personal characteristics of the individuals themselves. The first study developed dispositional stress scales. The second examined correlations between these scales, occupational stress scales, and teachers' attitudes toward…

  11. CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KINGMA, J

    1994-01-01

    The causes of occupational injuries (N = 2,365) were investigated. Accidents with machinery and hand tools were the two main causes (49.9%). 89% of the patients with occupational injuries were male. The highest risk group were in the age category of 19 years or less (51.9%). This age group also

  12. Occupational stress among dentists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    2011-01-01

    Dentists report a high degree of occupational stress.(Cooper, Mallinger, and Kahn, 1978;Coster, Carstens, and Harris, 1987;DiMatteo, Shugars, and Hays, 1993;Hakeberg et al., 1992;Möller and Spangenberg, 1996;Moore, 2000;Myers and Myers, 2004;O'Shea, Corah, and Ayer, 1984) This chapter reviews...... the literature of studies that elaborate on the circumstances of occupational stress of dentists. These will include the frequency of occurrence of occupational stress among dentists in several countries, frequency and intensity of identified stressors specific to dentistry, as well as the consequences...... of this occupational stress. The literature on consequences includes effects on dentists' physical health, personal and occupational performance, including "burnout" phenomena, as well as topics of alcohol or substance abuse and reports of suicidal behaviour among dentists. One specific and less conventionally...

  13. Occupational skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, V; Aalto-Korte, K; Alfonso, J H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Work-related skin diseases (WSD) are caused or worsened by a professional activity. Occupational skin diseases (OSD) need to fulfil additional legal criteria which differ from country to country. OSD range amongst the five most frequently notified occupational diseases (musculoskeletal...... diseases, neurologic diseases, lung diseases, diseases of the sensory organs, skin diseases) in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To retrieve information and compare the current state of national frameworks and pathways to manage patients with occupational skin disease with regard to prevention, diagnosis, treatment...... in Science and Technology (COST) Action TD 1206 (StanDerm) (www.standerm.eu). RESULTS: Besides a national health service or a statutory health insurance, most European member states implemented a second insurance scheme specifically geared at occupational diseases [insurance against occupational risks...

  14. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Axel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational and environmental health. The complexity of modern industrial processes has dramatically changed over the past years and today's areas include effects of atmospheric pollution, carcinogenesis, biological monitoring, ergonomics, epidemiology, product safety and health promotion. We hope that the launch of the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology will aid in the advance of these important areas of research bringing together multi-disciplinary research findings.

  15. Application of Optical Flow Sensors for Dead Reckoning, Heading Reference, Obstacle Detection, and Obstacle Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    motion tracking and one sensor for object detection in association with an Arduino microcontroller , we built an indoor ground robot capable of...one sensor for motion tracking and one sensor for object detection in association with an Arduino microcontroller , we built an indoor ground robot...the vehicle from the generated data delivered by the optical sensor to an Arduino microcontroller . The microcontroller controls the speed, heading

  16. Semantic Mapping and Motion Planning with Turtlebot Roomba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, Rizwan Aslam; Ali, Syed M Usman

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we have successfully demonstrated the semantic mapping and motion planning experiments on Turtlebot Robot using Microsoft Kinect in ROS environment. Moreover, we have also performed the comparative studies on various sampling based motion planning algorithms with Turtlebot in Open Motion Planning Library. Our comparative analysis revealed that Expansive Space Trees (EST) surmounted all other approaches with respect to memory occupation and processing time. We have also tried to summarize the related concepts of autonomous robotics which we hope would be helpful for beginners

  17. Smoothing Motion Estimates for Radar Motion Compensation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Simple motion models for complex motion environments are often not adequate for keeping radar data coherent. Eve n perfect motion samples appli ed to imperfect models may lead to interim calculations e xhibiting errors that lead to degraded processing results. Herein we discuss a specific i ssue involving calculating motion for groups of pulses, with measurements only available at pulse-group boundaries. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report was funded by General A tomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Mission Systems under Cooperative Re search and Development Agre ement (CRADA) SC08/01749 between Sandia National Laboratories and GA-ASI. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affilia te of privately-held General Atomics, is a leading manufacturer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) systems, radars, and electro-optic and rel ated mission systems, includin g the Predator(r)/Gray Eagle(r)-series and Lynx(r) Multi-mode Radar.

  18. Uncertainty Prediction in Passive Target Motion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    Number 15/152,696 Filing Date 12 May 2016 Inventor John G. Baylog et al Address any questions concerning this matter to the Office of...300118 1 of 25 UNCERTAINTY PREDICTION IN PASSIVE TARGET MOTION ANALYSIS STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein...at an unknown location and following an unknown course relative to an observer 12. Observer 12 has a sensor array such as a passive sonar or radar

  19. The Occupations of Literacy: Occupational Therapy's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolek Clark, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Nationally, student proficiency in reading and writing is very low and requires ongoing focus from state and local agencies. With almost 25% of occupational therapists working in early intervention and school settings (AOTA, 2015), their role of facilitating literacy (e.g., reading, writing, speaking and listening) is critical. Occupational…

  20. Sensors, Volume 4, Thermal Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Jorg; Ricolfi, Teresio

    1996-12-01

    'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This volume describes the construction and applicational aspects of thermal sensors while presenting a rigorous treatment of the underlying physical principles. It provides a unique overview of the various categories of sensors as well as of specific groups, e.g. temperature sensors (resistance thermometers, thermocouples, and radiation thermometers), noise and acoustic thermometers, heat-flow and mass-flow sensors. Specific facettes of applications are presented by specialists from different fields including process control, automotive technology and cryogenics. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialists and newcomers, researchers and developers.

  1. Curves from Motion, Motion from Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    De linearum curvarum cum lineis rectis comparatione dissertatio geometrica - an appendix to a treatise by de Lalouv~re (this was the only publication... correct solution to the problem of motion in the gravity of a permeable rotating Earth, considered by Torricelli (see §3). If the Earth is a homogeneous...in 1686, which contains the correct solution as part of a remarkably comprehensive theory of orbital motions under centripetal forces. It is a

  2. Using Human Motion Intensity as Input for Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Gade, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    of a town square, human occupancy and motion intensities are used to generate situated or topologies presenting new adaptive methods for urban design. These methods incorporate local or as design drivers for canopy, pavement and furniture layout. The urban design solution may be congured due to various...

  3. Structural motion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This innovative volume provides a systematic treatment of the basic concepts and computational procedures for structural motion design and engineering for civil installations. The authors illustrate the application of motion control to a wide spectrum of buildings through many examples. Topics covered include optimal stiffness distributions for building-type structures, the role of damping in controlling motion, tuned mass dampers, base isolation systems, linear control, and nonlinear control. The book's primary objective is the satisfaction of motion-related design requirements, such as restrictions on displacement and acceleration. The book is ideal for practicing engineers and graduate students. This book also: ·         Broadens practitioners' understanding of structural motion control, the enabling technology for motion-based design ·         Provides readers the tools to satisfy requirements of modern, ultra-high strength materials that lack corresponding stiffness, where the motion re...

  4. Bed occupancy monitoring: data processing and clinician user interface design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Melanie; Joshi, Vilas; Goubran, Rafik; Knoefel, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Unobtrusive and continuous monitoring of patients, especially at their place of residence, is becoming a significant part of the healthcare model. A variety of sensors are being used to monitor different patient conditions. Bed occupancy monitoring provides clinicians a quantitative measure of bed entry/exit patterns and may provide information relating to sleep quality. This paper presents a bed occupancy monitoring system using a bed pressure mat sensor. A clinical trial was performed involving 8 patients to collect bed occupancy data. The trial period for each patient ranged from 5-10 weeks. This data was analyzed using a participatory design methodology incorporating clinician feedback to obtain bed occupancy parameters. The parameters extracted include the number of bed exits per night, the bed exit weekly average (including minimum and maximum), the time of day of a particular exit, and the amount of uninterrupted bed occupancy per night. The design of a clinical user interface plays a significant role in the acceptance of such patient monitoring systems by clinicians. The clinician user interface proposed in this paper was designed to be intuitive, easy to navigate and not cause information overload. An iterative design methodology was used for the interface design. The interface design is extendible to incorporate data from multiple sensors. This allows the interface to be part of a comprehensive remote patient monitoring system.

  5. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  6. Expressing eMotions Through Participation in Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Bathje MS, OTR/L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cover of the Winter 2013 Open Journal of Occupational Therapy, titled Miles eMOTION, was created by Miles Scharfenberg, an 18-year-old young man with multiple developmental impairments. Miles’ story and his artwork provide a reflection on the ways in which creativity and art can enhance the lives of people with disabilities and their families. Miles’ art exists because of his drive toward engagement and participation in life, but also essential is his mother’s commitment to providing opportunities for him to be creative. The Miles eMOTION series of paintings can inspire occupational therapists, families, caregivers, and people with disabilities to incorporate art making as a part of their occupational profile

  7. Mobile Motion Capture--MiMiC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbert, Simeon D; Jaiswal, Tushar; Harley, Linda R; Vaughn, Tyler W; Baranak, Andrew S

    2013-01-01

    The low cost, simple, robust, mobile, and easy to use Mobile Motion Capture (MiMiC) system is presented and the constraints which guided the design of MiMiC are discussed. The MiMiC Android application allows motion data to be captured from kinematic modules such as Shimmer 2r sensors over Bluetooth. MiMiC is cost effective and can be used for an entire day in a person's daily routine without being intrusive. MiMiC is a flexible motion capture system which can be used for many applications including fall detection, detection of fatigue in industry workers, and analysis of individuals' work patterns in various environments.

  8. Occupational skin cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawkrodger, D.J. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dermatology

    2004-10-01

    Skin cancer due to occupation is more common than is generally recognized, although it is difficult to obtain an accurate estimate of its prevalence. Over the past two centuries, occupational skin cancers have particularly been due to industrial exposure of men (it seems more so than women) to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons (e.g. from coal tar products) or to arsenic. Industrial processes have improved in most Western countries to limit this type of exposure, but those with outdoor occupations are still exposed to solar ultraviolet irradiation without this being widely recognized as an industrial hazard. Ionizing radiation such as X-rays can also cause skin cancer. Occupational skin cancers often resemble skin tumours found in non-occupational subjects, e.g. basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, but some pre-malignant lesions can be more specific and point to an occupational origin, e.g. tar keratoses or arsenical keratoses. An uncommon but well-recognized cause of occupational skin cancer is that which results from scar formation following an industrial burn. In the future it will be necessary to focus on preventative measures, e.g. for outdoor workers, the need to cover up in the sun and use sun protective creams and a campaign for earlier recognition of skin cancers, which are usually curable if treated in their early stages.

  9. BURNOUT AND OCCUPATIONAL PARTICIPATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Hakan; Huri, Meral; Bağış, Nilsun; Başıbüyük, Onur; Şahin, Sedef; Umaroğlu, Mutlu; Orhan, Kaan

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of burnout and occupational participation limitation among dental students in a dental school in Turkey. Four hundred fifty-eight dental students (females=153; males=305) were included in the study. The age range varied from 17-to-38 years. Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Version (MBI-SV) and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) were used to gather data. Descriptive analyses, t-test, and Kruskall-Wallis test for independent groups were used for data analyses. The results indicated that 26% of all the students have burnout in terms of emotional exhaustion (25%), cynicism (18%), and academic efficacy (14%). The results showed that burnout is statistically significant in relation to demographics (pstudents showed considerably decreased occupational performance and satisfaction scores, which suggested occupational participation limitations. Occupational performance and satisfaction scores were inversely correlated with emotional exhaustion and cynicism, while directly correlated with reduced academic efficacy (pburnout and occupational participation limitation can be seen among dental students. Students with burnout may also have occupational participation limitation. Enriching dental education programs with different psychological strategies may be useful for education of healthy dentists and improve the quality of oral and dental health services.

  10. Motion sickness and tilts of the inertial force environment: active suspension systems vs. active passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golding, J.F.; Bles, W.; Bos, J.E.; Haynes, T.; Gresty, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Maneuvering in vehicles exposes occupants to low frequency forces (<1 Hz) which can provoke motion sickness. Hypothesis: Aligning with the tilting inertial resultant (gravity + imposed horizontal acceleration: gravito-inertial force (GIF)) may reduce motion sickness when tilting is either 'active'

  11. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  12. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Omran, Hesham; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Salama, Khaled N.

    2015-01-01

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  13. Sensor web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Kevin A. (Inventor); Jackson, Shannon P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A Sensor Web formed of a number of different sensor pods. Each of the sensor pods include a clock which is synchronized with a master clock so that all of the sensor pods in the Web have a synchronized clock. The synchronization is carried out by first using a coarse synchronization which takes less power, and subsequently carrying out a fine synchronization to make a fine sync of all the pods on the Web. After the synchronization, the pods ping their neighbors to determine which pods are listening and responded, and then only listen during time slots corresponding to those pods which respond.

  14. Occupational Mortality, Background on

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    in England and Wales from 1851 to 1979–1983, and these studies have provided key data on social inequalities in health. Death certificate studies have been used for identification of occupational groups with high excess risks from specific diseases. Follow-up studies require linkage of individual records......The study of occupational mortality involves the systematic tabulation of mortality by occupational or socioeconomic groups. Three main methods are used to conduct these studies: cross-sectional studies, death certificate studies, and follow-up studies. Cross-sectional studies were undertaken...

  15. Gossip and Occupational Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysman, Alexander R.

    1976-01-01

    Defines the transmission of gossip as an essential social process reflecting a shared group membership and discusses the ways in which gossip supports ideologies held by members of a specific occupation. (MH)

  16. Occupancy and Occupants’ Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Carlucci, Salvatore; Andersen, Rune

    2018-01-01

    to study, measure, and ultimately model. The categories are physiological, individual, environmental, and spatial adjustments. Third, a list of adaptive and non-adaptive triggers together with contextual factors that could influence occupant behavior is presented. Individual elements are further grouped...... into physical environmental, physiological, psychological, and social aspects. Finally, a comprehensive table of studies related to occupant behavior and the corresponding significant and non-significant predictors, based on an extensive literature review, is shown. This table highlights areas of research where......Occupants’ presence and actions within the built environment are crucial aspects related to understanding variations in energy use. Within this chapter, first, a nomenclature for the field of research dealing with occupants in buildings is defined. This nomenclature distinguishes between occupants...

  17. Occupational lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlow, Bryant

    2011-01-01

    Chest radiography and high-resolution computed tomography are indispensable tools in the detection, classification and characterization of occupational lung diseases that are caused by inhaling mineral particles such as asbestos, silicon-containing rock dust and other tissue-damaging antigens, nanomaterials and toxins. Radiographic evidence of occupational lung disease is interpreted with a patient's clinical signs and symptoms and a detailed occupational history in mind because of high variability in radiographic findings. This Directed Reading reviews the history, epidemiology, functional anatomy, pathobiology and medical diagnostic imaging of occupational lung diseases associated with inhalation of fine particulates in the workplace. This article is a Directed Reading. Your access to Directed Reading quizzes for continuing education credit is determined by your CE preference. For access to other quizzes, go to www.asrt.org/store.

  18. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in buildings is influenced by several factors related to the building properties and the building controls, some of them highly connected to the behaviour of their occupants.In this paper, a definition of items referring to occupant behaviour related to the building control...... systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...

  19. Adapting Parameterized Motions using Iterative Learning and Online Collision Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Johan Sund; Sørensen, Lars Carøe; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2018-01-01

    utilizing Gaussian Process learning. This allows for motion parameters to be optimized using real world trials which incorporate all uncertainties inherent in the assembly process without requiring advanced robot and sensor setups. The result is a simple and straightforward system which helps the user...... automatically find robust and uncertainty-tolerant motions. We present experiments for an assembly case showing both detection and learning in the real world and how these combine to a robust robot system....

  20. Adaptive cancellation of motion artifact in wearable biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Rasoul; Nourani, Mehrdad; Panahi, Issa

    2012-01-01

    The performance of wearable biosensors is highly influenced by motion artifact. In this paper, a model is proposed for analysis of motion artifact in wearable photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors. Using this model, we proposed a robust real-time technique to estimate fundamental frequency and generate a noise reference signal. A Least Mean Square (LMS) adaptive noise canceler is then designed and validated using our synthetic noise generator. The analysis and results on proposed technique for noise cancellation shows promising performance.

  1. Hand VR Exergame for Occupational Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Saskia; Uribe-Quevedo, Alvaro; Kapralos, Bill

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use and ubiquity of mobile computing technologies such as smartphones, tablets, laptops and portable gaming consoles has led to an increase in musculoskeletal disorders due to overuse, bad posture, repetitive movements, fixed postures and physical de-conditioning caused by low muscular demands while using (and over-using) these devices. In this paper we present the development of a hand motion-based virtual reality-based exergame for occupational health purposes that allows the user to perform simple exercises using a cost-effective non-invasive motion capture device to help overcome and prevent some of the muskoloskeletal problems associated with the over-use of keyboards and mobile devices.

  2. Chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section

  3. Occupational choice and values.

    OpenAIRE

    Kantas, A.

    1985-01-01

    It is suggested that psychological and sociological approaches to occupational choice can be linked together by employment of three concepts: work salience, values and motivation. Employing Vroom's (1964) cognitive model of motivation occupational choice was examined as a value attainment process. The subjects were 225 male pupils of two different school complexes in Athens, Greece. They were asked to respond to a work salience questionnaire and to rank order a set of ...

  4. Occupational health in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón, Tania; Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Baron, Sherry; Hernández, Sendy

    2002-01-01

    The authors discuss the maquiladoras and child labor, and offer an overview of the history of occupational safety and health in Mexico that covers laws and regulations, social security, unions, and enforcement of legislation. The organization and structure of the various institutions responsible for occupational safety and health (OSH), as well as administrative procedures, are described. This article concludes with a list of the new challenges for OSH in Mexico.

  5. Radiation protection: occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The basis of the occupational exposure limit of 50 mSv recommended by the ICRP is questioned. New dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the fact that the dose-response curve may be non-linear and that the relative risk model may be applicable, are some of the arguments advanced to support a reduction in the occupational exposure dose limits. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  6. Occupational exposures. Annex H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annex focuses on significant changes in the pattern of occupational exposure which have appeared since the 1972 and 1962 reports, and presents information on trends or particular causes of high exposures. A further objective is to clarify the reasons for which the Committee requires data on occupational exposure, and to suggest areas in which better data collection or analysis may be performed. Data are also reviewed on accidents involving the exposure of workers to substantial radiation doses.

  7. Occupational health in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Aw, Tar-Ching; Jefferelli, Shamsul Bahrin

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a detailed examination of Malaysian occupational health agencies and their roles in formulating and enforcing standards, promoting occupational health and safety (OSH), and providing advisory services. Available OSH training is described, and the need for policies and personnel in various industries is outlined. Further, the authors discuss how international models and collaboration have influenced Malaysian OSH, and how some successes can be repeated and failures remedied.

  8. Tuberculosis as occupational disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto; Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico infectólogo tropicalista magister en Epidemiología Clínica.

    2014-01-01

    There is enough evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupational disease among healthcare workers. In Peru, there are regulations granting employment rights regarding tuberculosis as an occupational disease, such as healthcare coverage for temporary or permanent disability. However, these rights have not been sufficiently socialized. This study presents information on the risk of acquiring tuberculosis in the workplace, and a review of the evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupationa...

  9. Motion and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Infeld, Leopold

    1960-01-01

    Motion and Relativity focuses on the methodologies, solutions, and approaches involved in the study of motion and relativity, including the general relativity theory, gravitation, and approximation.The publication first offers information on notation and gravitational interaction and the general theory of motion. Discussions focus on the notation of the general relativity theory, field values on the world-lines, general statement of the physical problem, Newton's theory of gravitation, and forms for the equation of motion of the second kind. The text then takes a look at the approximation meth

  10. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  11. Occupational stressors in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nikpeyma

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsNursing provides a wide range of potential workplace stressors as it is  a profession that requires a high level of skill, teamworking in a variety of situations and provision  of 24-hour delivery of care .Occupational stress is a major factor of Staff sickness an  absenteeism.This study investigates the main occupational stressors in nursing profession in the  hope of identification and reducing it.MethodsIn this study a questionnaire consisting of three parts:demoghraphic data,the nurses  background and questions about occupational stress from Revised index fulfilled by 140 nurses.ResultsLack of reward for work well done(48/6%, Heavy workload(46/4% ,lack of Participation in decisions (39/3% , poor Control of work place(38/4%and lack of job  development (36/4% have been the main sources of Occupational stress for nurses.chronic  diseases, Night Shift working and working hours were positively associated with occupstional  stress.Conclusion Analysis indicated that effects of work factors on occupational stress are more than demoghraphic data. The findings of this study can assist health service organisations to provide an attractive working climate in order to decrease side effects and consequences of occupational stress. Furthermore, understanding this situation can help to develop coping strategies in order to reduce work-related stress.

  12. Occupational health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrikow, B; Algranti, E; Buschinelli, J T; Morrone, L C

    1997-01-01

    Brazil is a recently industrialised country with marked contrasts in social and economic development. The availability of public/private services in its different regions also varies. Health indicators follow these trends. Occupational health is a vast new field, as in other developing countries. Occupational medicine is a required subject in graduation courses for physicians. Specialisation courses for university graduated professionals have more than 700 hours of lectures and train occupational health physicians, safety engineers and nursing staff. At the technical level, there are courses with up to 1300 hours for the training of safety inspectors. Until 1986 about 19,000 occupational health physicians, 18,000 safety engineers and 51,000 safety inspectors had been officially registered. Although in its infancy, postgraduation has attracted professionals at university level, through residence programmes as well as masters and doctors degrees, whereby at least a hundred good-quality research studies have been produced so far. Occupational health activities are controlled by law. Undertakings with higher risks and larger number of employees are required to hire specialised technical staff. In 1995 the Ministry of Labour demanded programmes of medical control of occupational health (PCMSO) for every worker as well as a programme of prevention of environmental hazards (PPRA). This was considered as a positive measure for the improvement of working conditions and health at work. Physicians specialising in occupational medicine are the professionals more often hired by the enterprises. Reference centres (CRSTs) for workers' health are connected to the State or City Health Secretariat primary health care units. They exist in more populated areas and are accepted by workers as the best way to accomplish the diagnosis of occupational diseases. There is important participation by the trade unions in the management of these reference centres. For 30 years now employers

  13. Population Health and Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapy practitioners play an important role in improving the health of populations through the development of occupational therapy interventions at the population level and through advocacy to address occupational participation and the multiple determinants of health. This article defines and explores population health as a concept and describes the appropriateness of occupational therapy practice in population health. Support of population health practice as evidenced in the official documents of the American Occupational Therapy Association and the relevance of population health for occupational therapy as a profession are reviewed. Recommendations and directions for the future are included related to celebration of the achievements of occupational therapy practitioners in the area of population health, changes to the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework and educational accreditation standards, and the importance of supporting, recognizing, rewarding, and valuing occupational therapy practitioners who assume roles in which direct care is not their primary function. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  14. Occupational Experience, Mobility, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Fane

    In this paper we present how occupational tenure relates to wage growth and occupational mobility in Danish data. We show that the Danish data produces qualitatively similar results as found in U.S. data with respect to an increase in average wages when experience in an occupation increases. In a...... also is true for workers switching occupation and rm. After ve years of experience in an occupation the average probability of switching any type of occupation, including occupation and rm switches, has fallen from 25% to 12%........ In a sample of full time private employed, the first five years of experience in an occupation increases average wages with 8% to 15%, conditional on rm and industry tenure. We further show that the probability of switching occupation declines with experience in the occupation and that the declining hazard...

  15. AMA Conferences 2015. SENSOR 2015. 17th international conference on sensors and measurement technology. IRS2 2015. 14th international conference on infrared sensors and systems. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This meeting paper contains presentations of two conferences: SENSOR 2015 and IRS 2 (= International conference on InfraRed Sensors and systems). The first part of SENSOR 2015 contains the following chapters: (A) SENSOR PRINCIPLES: A.1: Mechanical sensors; A.2: Optical sensors; A.3: Ultrasonic sensors; A.4: Microacoustic sensors; A.5: Magnetic sensors; A.6: Impedance sensors; A.7: Gas sensors; A.8: Flow sensors; A.9: Dimensional measurement; A.10: Temperature and humidity sensors; A.11: Chemosensors; A.12: Biosensors; A.13: Embedded sensors; A.14: Sensor-actuator systems; (B) SENSOR TECHNOLOGY: B.1: Sensor design; B.2: Numerical simulation of sensors; B.3: Sensor materials; B.4: MEMS technology; B.5: Micro-Nano-Integration; B.6: Packaging; B.7: Materials; B.8: Thin films; B.9: Sensor production; B.10: Sensor reliability; B.11: Calibration and testing; B.12: Optical fibre sensors. (C) SENSOR ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION: C.1: Sensor electronics; C.2: Sensor networks; C.3: Wireless sensors; C.4: Sensor communication; C.5: Energy harvesting; C.6: Measuring systems; C.7: Embedded systems; C.8: Self-monitoring and diagnosis; (D) APPLICATIONS: D.1: Medical measuring technology; D.2: Ambient assisted living; D.3: Process measuring technology; D.4: Automotive; D.5: Sensors in energy technology; D.6: Production technology; D.7: Security technology; D.8: Smart home; D.9: Household technology. The second part with the contributions of the IRS 2 2015 is structured as follows: (E) INFRARED SENSORS: E.1: Photon detectors; E.2: Thermal detectors; E.3: Cooled detectors; E.4: Uncooled detectors; E.5: Sensor modules; E.6: Sensor packaging. (G) INFRARED SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS: G.1: Thermal imaging; G.2: Pyrometry / contactless temperature measurement; G.3: Gas analysis; G.4: Spectroscopy; G.5: Motion control and presence detection; G.6: Security and safety monitoring; G.7: Non-destructive testing; F: INFRARED SYSTEM COMPONENTS: F.1: Infrared optics; F.2: Optical modulators; F.3

  16. Stroboscopic Goggles for Reduction of Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.

    2005-01-01

    A device built around a pair of electronic shutters has been demonstrated to be effective as a prototype of stroboscopic goggles or eyeglasses for preventing or reducing motion sickness. The momentary opening of the shutters helps to suppress a phenomenon that is known in the art as retinal slip and is described more fully below. While a number of different environmental factors can induce motion sickness, a common factor associated with every known motion environment is sensory confusion or sensory mismatch. Motion sickness is a product of misinformation arriving at a central point in the nervous system from the senses from which one determines one s spatial orientation. When information from the eyes, ears, joints, and pressure receptors are all in agreement as to one s orientation, there is no motion sickness. When one or more sensory input(s) to the brain is not expected, or conflicts with what is anticipated, the end product is motion sickness. Normally, an observer s eye moves, compensating for the anticipated effect of motion, in such a manner that the image of an object moving relatively to an observer is held stationary on the retina. In almost every known environment that induces motion sickness, a change in the gain (in the signal-processing sense of gain ) of the vestibular system causes the motion of the eye to fail to hold images stationary on the retina, and the resulting motion of the images is termed retinal slip. The present concept of stroboscopic goggles or eyeglasses (see figure) is based on the proposition that prevention of retinal slip, and hence, the prevention of sensory mismatch, can be expected to reduce the tendency toward motion sickness. A device according to this concept helps to prevent retinal slip by providing snapshots of the visual environment through electronic shutters that are brief enough that each snapshot freezes the image on each retina. The exposure time for each snapshot is less than 5 ms. In the event that a higher

  17. Virtual Sensors for Advanced Controllers in Rehabilitation Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancisidor, Aitziber; Zubizarreta, Asier; Cabanes, Itziar; Portillo, Eva; Jung, Je Hyung

    2018-03-05

    In order to properly control rehabilitation robotic devices, the measurement of interaction force and motion between patient and robot is an essential part. Usually, however, this is a complex task that requires the use of accurate sensors which increase the cost and the complexity of the robotic device. In this work, we address the development of virtual sensors that can be used as an alternative of actual force and motion sensors for the Universal Haptic Pantograph (UHP) rehabilitation robot for upper limbs training. These virtual sensors estimate the force and motion at the contact point where the patient interacts with the robot using the mathematical model of the robotic device and measurement through low cost position sensors. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed virtual sensors, they have been implemented in an advanced position/force controller of the UHP rehabilitation robot and experimentally evaluated. The experimental results reveal that the controller based on the virtual sensors has similar performance to the one using direct measurement (less than 0.005 m and 1.5 N difference in mean error). Hence, the developed virtual sensors to estimate interaction force and motion can be adopted to replace actual precise but normally high-priced sensors which are fundamental components for advanced control of rehabilitation robotic devices.

  18. Virtual Sensors for Advanced Controllers in Rehabilitation Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitziber Mancisidor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to properly control rehabilitation robotic devices, the measurement of interaction force and motion between patient and robot is an essential part. Usually, however, this is a complex task that requires the use of accurate sensors which increase the cost and the complexity of the robotic device. In this work, we address the development of virtual sensors that can be used as an alternative of actual force and motion sensors for the Universal Haptic Pantograph (UHP rehabilitation robot for upper limbs training. These virtual sensors estimate the force and motion at the contact point where the patient interacts with the robot using the mathematical model of the robotic device and measurement through low cost position sensors. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed virtual sensors, they have been implemented in an advanced position/force controller of the UHP rehabilitation robot and experimentally evaluated. The experimental results reveal that the controller based on the virtual sensors has similar performance to the one using direct measurement (less than 0.005 m and 1.5 N difference in mean error. Hence, the developed virtual sensors to estimate interaction force and motion can be adopted to replace actual precise but normally high-priced sensors which are fundamental components for advanced control of rehabilitation robotic devices.

  19. Direct training of robots using a positional deviation sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Dessen, Fredrik

    1988-01-01

    A device and system for physically guiding a manipulator through its task is described. The device consists of inductive, contact-free positional deviation sensors, enabling the rcbot to track a motion marker. Factors limiting the tracking performance are the kinematics of the sensor device and the bartdwidth of the servo system. Means for improving it includes the use of optimal motion coordination and force and velocity feedback. This enables real-time manual training o...

  20. Projectile Motion Hoop Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Connor; Dunn, Amy; Armstrong, Zachary; Adams, Wendy K.

    2018-01-01

    Projectile motion is a common phenomenon that is used in introductory physics courses to help students understand motion in two dimensions. Authors have shared a range of ideas for teaching this concept and the associated kinematics in "The Physics Teacher" ("TPT"); however, the "Hoop Challenge" is a new setup not…

  1. Temporal logic motion planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seotsanyana, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...

  2. Aristotle, Motion, and Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jane

    Aristotle rejects a world vision of changing reality as neither useful nor beneficial to human life, and instead he reaffirms both change and eternal reality, fuses motion and rest, and ends up with "well-behaved" changes. This concept of motion is foundational to his world view, and from it emerges his theory of knowledge, philosophy of…

  3. Automotive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Jiri; Illing, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Sensors are an essential component of most electronic systems in the car. They deliver input parameters for comfort features, engine and emission control as well as for the active and passive safety systems. New technologies such as silicon micromachining play an important role for the introduction of these sensors in all vehicle classes. The importance and use of these sensor technologies in today"s automotive applications will be shown in this article. Finally an outlook on important current developments and new functions in the car will be given.

  4. Piezoceramic Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, Valeriy

    2011-01-01

    This book presents the latest and complete information about various types of piezosensors. A sensor is a converter of the measured physical size to an electric signal. Piezoelectric transducers and sensors are based on piezoelectric effects. They have proven to be versatile tools for the measurement of various processes. They are used for quality assurance, process control and for research and development in many different industries. In each area of application specific requirements to the parameters of transducers and sensors are developed. This book presents the fundamentals, technical des

  5. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  6. Occupational health offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosbie, A.; Davies, F.

    2002-07-01

    The proceedings contain the 29 papers presented at the conference plus the opening address from the chair of the Health and Safety Commission. The papers in the first session were concerned with policy, strategy and leadership and included a perspective from the offshore industry advisory committee, details of a health planning tool for occupational health assurance and lessons from occupational health management in the offshore sector. The two sessions on the second day dealt with occupational health in the offshore design process and case studies involving physical, chemical and biological agents. Topics included the need to consider occupational health when designing offshore installations, the development of a human factors engineering strategy in petrochemical engineering projects, measuring occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals, implementation of the noise at work regulations, hand arm vibration syndrome and issues with potable water maintenance. The two sessions on the third day were concerned with human factors and psychological health, and well-being and fitness for duty. Topics covered included circadian adaption to shift change in offshore shift workers, managing stress in the offshore environment, the role of employee assistance programmes in organisational stress management, health care and first aid (the revised ACOP), well-being at work, the medical and physical fitness of offshore emergency response rescue team members, the impact of health surveillance and promotion of offshore accident rates, and the implication of safety and heath of the aging of the workforce ion the Norwegian offshore industry.

  7. Zoonoses as occupational diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Battelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses are discussed as occupational diseases, with special reference to animal husbandry and related activities. After quoting some historical references, occupational zoonoses are examined in relation to the evolution of the concept of occupational zoonosis, the involvement of the World Health Organization in this field, their socio-economic significance, the principal working activities, zoonoses of greatest importance (with special reference to the Mediterranean region, the evaluation of damage and risks. An outline is made of the transmission of zoonoses from farm workers to animals and the biological hazards from the environment. The present situation of occupational zoonoses and related risks in industrialised and traditional farming activities are presented and the importance of some emerging and re-emerging zoonoses for the health of workers is highlighted. The author concludes by stressing that the prevention of occupational zoonoses must be implemented jointly by both veterinary and medical services through preventive measures and epidemiological surveillance of human and animal health, risk evaluation, diagnosis of infections and prompt reporting. It is hoped that the future will offer better inter-disciplinary collaboration and that legislation will be timely and better tailored to safeguard working health and safety.

  8. Using Sensors to Study Home Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding home activities is important in social research to study aspects of home life, e.g., energy-related practices and assisted living arrangements. Common approaches to identifying which activities are being carried out in the home rely on self-reporting, either retrospectively (e.g., interviews, questionnaires, and surveys or at the time of the activity (e.g., time use diaries. The use of digital sensors may provide an alternative means of observing activities in the home. For example, temperature, humidity and light sensors can report on the physical environment where activities occur, while energy monitors can report information on the electrical devices that are used to assist the activities. One may then be able to infer from the sensor data which activities are taking place. However, it is first necessary to calibrate the sensor data by matching it to activities identified from self-reports. The calibration involves identifying the features in the sensor data that correlate best with the self-reported activities. This in turn requires a good measure of the agreement between the activities detected from sensor-generated data and those recorded in self-reported data. To illustrate how this can be done, we conducted a trial in three single-occupancy households from which we collected data from a suite of sensors and from time use diaries completed by the occupants. For sensor-based activity recognition, we demonstrate the application of Hidden Markov Models with features extracted from mean-shift clustering and change points analysis. A correlation-based feature selection is also applied to reduce the computational cost. A method based on Levenshtein distance for measuring the agreement between the activities detected in the sensor data and that reported by the participants is demonstrated. We then discuss how the features derived from sensor data can be used in activity recognition and how they relate to activities recorded in time

  9. Optischer Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenburg, A.; Hutter, F.; Edelhaeuser, R.

    1992-01-01

    WO 2010040565 A1 UPAB: 20100506 NOVELTY - The integrated optical sensor comprises a first waveguide (4), a second waveguide (5) optically coupled to the first waveguide via a directional coupler, a substrate, which carries the first and the second waveguides, a single waveguide coupled with a light source, and an output waveguide coupled with a light-sensitive element. The sensor has a functional surface in the region of the directional coupler for depositing or deposition of the substance to...

  10. Wireless sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Vincent E.; Howell, JR, Layton N.; Mee, David K.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2016-02-09

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting a target material. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon exposure to vapor or liquid from the target material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The target material is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the changes in the tensile stress.

  11. Occupational injuries in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Arrayed, A; Hamza, A

    1995-10-01

    A study was conducted to show the problem of occupational injuries in Bahrain and try to highlight some solutions that may help to prevent or reduce workplace hazards. The data for occupational injuries between 1988 to 1991 from the social insurance records were reviewed and analysed. The data were summarized, grouped and tabulated according to age, sex, nationality, work place, type of injuries, cause and site of injury. Data were analysed statistically, frequencies were computed and results represented graphically. The study shows that there was a decline in the number of injuries in 1990 and 1991 due to a slow-down of economic activities in general in the Arabian Gulf region during the Gulf War. It also shows that Asian workers are at a high risk of occupational injuries.

  12. Measuring site occupancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Williamson, James

    2014-01-01

    occupancy of the modification site. We show that, on one hand, heavily modified cysteines are not necessarily involved in the response to oxidative stress. On the other hand residues with low modification level can be dramatically affected by mild oxidative imbalance. We make use of high resolution mass...... peptides corresponding to 90 proteins. Only 6 modified peptides changed significantly under mild oxidative stress. Quantitative information allowed us to determine relative modification site occupancy of each identified modified residue and pin point heavily modified ones. The method proved to be precise...... and sensitive enough to detect and quantify endogenous levels of oxidative stress on proteome-wide scale and brings a new perspective on the role of the modification site occupancy in cellular redox response....

  13. Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.L.; Fitzgerald, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360 degree field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator

  14. Occupational reproductive health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkins, K; Kerr, M J

    1993-01-01

    The potentially harmful effects on women of certain workplace exposures are widely appreciated, and steps to control these have included legislative efforts such as right-to-know laws of well as corporate policies mandating selective restriction of fertile women, which are illegal under federal civil rights laws. This chapter reviews the various occupational health risks reproductive women face in the workplace but also considers the effects of other genetic, medical, social, infectious, and environmental factors which may be of even greater concern than most occupational factors.

  15. Integrals of motion in the many-body localized phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ros

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We construct a complete set of quasi-local integrals of motion for the many-body localized phase of interacting fermions in a disordered potential. The integrals of motion can be chosen to have binary spectrum {0,1}, thus constituting exact quasiparticle occupation number operators for the Fermi insulator. We map the problem onto a non-Hermitian hopping problem on a lattice in operator space. We show how the integrals of motion can be built, under certain approximations, as a convergent series in the interaction strength. An estimate of its radius of convergence is given, which also provides an estimate for the many-body localization–delocalization transition. Finally, we discuss how the properties of the operator expansion for the integrals of motion imply the presence or absence of a finite temperature transition.

  16. Automated Measurement and Verification and Innovative Occupancy Detection Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Phillip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bruce, Nordman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, Rich [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Page, Janie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lanzisera, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Granderson, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-27

    In support of DOE’s sensors and controls research, the goal of this project is to move toward integrated building to grid systems by building on previous work to develop and demonstrate a set of load characterization measurement and evaluation tools that are envisioned to be part of a suite of applications for transactive efficient buildings, built upon data-driven load characterization and prediction models. This will include the ability to include occupancy data in the models, plus data collection and archival methods to include different types of occupancy data with existing networks and a taxonomy for naming these data within a Volttron agent platform.

  17. A Self-Powered Insole for Human Motion Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhou Han

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biomechanical energy harvesting is a feasible solution for powering wearable sensors by directly driving electronics or acting as wearable self-powered sensors. A wearable insole that not only can harvest energy from foot pressure during walking but also can serve as a self-powered human motion recognition sensor is reported. The insole is designed as a sandwich structure consisting of two wavy silica gel film separated by a flexible piezoelectric foil stave, which has higher performance compared with conventional piezoelectric harvesters with cantilever structure. The energy harvesting insole is capable of driving some common electronics by scavenging energy from human walking. Moreover, it can be used to recognize human motion as the waveforms it generates change when people are in different locomotion modes. It is demonstrated that different types of human motion such as walking and running are clearly classified by the insole without any external power source. This work not only expands the applications of piezoelectric energy harvesters for wearable power supplies and self-powered sensors, but also provides possible approaches for wearable self-powered human motion monitoring that is of great importance in many fields such as rehabilitation and sports science.

  18. Evaluation of the AN/GSS-20 motion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A series of tests was performed on the AN/GSS-20 motion detection system. The primary objectives of these tests were to determine sensor detection patterns and to quantitate the effects of intruder velocity. System susceptibility to environmental factors was also examined

  19. Numerical Calculation for Whirling Motion of a Centrifugal Blood Pump with Conical Spiral Groove Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemaru, Daichi; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi

    2010-06-01

    Whirling motion of a pump impeller was calculated for the centrifugal blood pump with Conical Spiral Groove Bearings to get a criterion for the instability of impeller whirling motion. The motion of the centrifugal blood pump impeller was calculated based on a spring damping model, and unsteady flow in the pump was computed using the commercial CFD package ANSYS CFX. Also the whirling motion of rotating impeller was measured using two displacement sensors fixed to the blood pump casing. The numerical calculations were done for the blood pump impeller with conical spiral groove bearings, and impeller whirling motion was evaluated.

  20. Dataset: Multi Sensor-Orientation Movement Data of Goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Jacob Wilhelm

    2018-01-01

    This is a labeled dataset. Motion data were collected from six sensor nodes that were fixed with different orientations to a collar around the neck of goats. These six sensor nodes simultaneously, with different orientations, recorded various activities performed by the goat. We recorded the

  1. Can earthquake source inversion benefit from rotational ground motion observations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, H.; Donner, S.; Reinwald, M.; Bernauer, M.; Wassermann, J. M.; Fichtner, A.

    2015-12-01

    With the prospects of instruments to observe rotational ground motions in a wide frequency and amplitude range in the near future we engage in the question how this type of ground motion observation can be used to solve seismic inverse problems. Here, we focus on the question, whether point or finite source inversions can benefit from additional observations of rotational motions. In an attempt to be fair we compare observations from a surface seismic network with N 3-component translational sensors (classic seismometers) with those obtained with N/2 6-component sensors (with additional colocated 3-component rotational motions). Thus we keep the overall number of traces constant. Synthetic seismograms are calculated for known point- or finite-source properties. The corresponding inverse problem is posed in a probabilistic way using the Shannon information content as a measure how the observations constrain the seismic source properties. The results show that with the 6-C subnetworks the source properties are not only equally well recovered (even that would be benefitial because of the substantially reduced logistics installing N/2 sensors) but statistically significant some source properties are almost always better resolved. We assume that this can be attributed to the fact the (in particular vertical) gradient information is contained in the additional rotational motion components. We compare these effects for strike-slip and normal-faulting type sources. Thus the answer to the question raised is a definite "yes". The challenge now is to demonstrate these effects on real data.

  2. Relaxation processes in rotational motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broglia, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    At few MeV above the yrast line the normally strong correlations among γ-ray energies in a rotational sequence become weaker. This observation can be interpreted as evidence for the damping of rotational motion in hot nuclei. It seems possible to relate the spreading width of the E2-rotational decay strength to the spread in frequency Δω 0 of rotational bands. The origin of these fluctuations is found in: (1) fluctuations in the occupation of special single-particle orbits which contribute a significant part of the total angular momentum; and (2) fluctuations in the moment of inertia induced by vibrations of the nuclear shape. Estimates of Δω 0 done making use of the hundred-odd known discrete rotational bands in the rare-earth region lead, for moderate spin and excitation energies (I ≅ 30 and U ≅ 3 to 4 MeV), to rotational spreading widths of the order of 60 to 160 keV in overall agreement with the data. 24 refs

  3. Toying with Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a variety of activities that support the development of an understanding of Newton's laws of motion. Activities use toy cars, mobile roads, and a seat-of-nails. Includes a scoring rubric. (DDR)

  4. Projectile Motion Hoop Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Connor; Dunn, Amy; Armstrong, Zachary; Adams, Wendy K.

    2018-04-01

    Projectile motion is a common phenomenon that is used in introductory physics courses to help students understand motion in two dimensions. Authors have shared a range of ideas for teaching this concept and the associated kinematics in The Physics Teacher; however, the "Hoop Challenge" is a new setup not before described in TPT. In this article an experiment is illustrated to explore projectile motion in a fun and challenging manner that has been used with both high school and university students. With a few simple materials, students have a vested interest in being able to calculate the height of the projectile at a given distance from its launch site. They also have an exciting visual demonstration of projectile motion when the lab is over.

  5. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sickness, especially when pregnant, menstruating, or on hormones. Race/ethnicity—Asians may be more susceptible to motion ... it, sitting in the front seat of a car or bus, sitting over the wing of an ...

  6. Dizziness and Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that extends into the inner ear can completely destroy both the hearing and equilibrium function of that ... motion sickness: •Do not read while traveling •Avoid sitting in the rear seat •Do not sit in ...

  7. Motion Sickness: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com. Accessed July 29, 2017. Priesol AJ. Motion sickness. https://www.uptodate.com/content/search. Accessed July 29, 2017. Brunette GW, et al. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2018. New York, N. ...

  8. A wearable 3D motion sensing system integrated with a Bluetooth smart phone application: A system level overview

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2018-01-02

    An era of ubiquitous motion sensing has just begun. All electronic gadgets ranging from game consoles to mobile phones have some sort of motion sensors in them. In contrast to rigid motion sensing systems, this paper presents a system level description of a wearable 3D motion sensor. The sensing mechanism is based upon well-established magnetic and inertial measurement unit (MIMU), which integrates accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer data. Two sensor boards have been integrated within a wearable arm sleeve to capture 3D orientation of the human arm. The sensors have been interfaced with a Bluetooth transceiver chip, which transmits data to a mobile phone app using standard Bluetooth protocol. An android mobile phone app has been developed to display the human arm motion in real time.

  9. Occupant Controlled Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadóttir, Ásta

    2011-01-01

    preferences for correlated colour temperature (CCT). The results suggest that the method of adjustment, previously used in the lighting literature, is not adequate to generalize about occupant preferences for illuminance or CCT. Factors that influence occupants’ lighting preference when applying the method...

  10. Occupational Burnout among Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Mary; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Outlines stages of occupational burnout (enthusiasm, stagnation, frustration, apathy) and begins empirical assessment of burnout syndrome among librarians and other information professionals. Results of pilot survey conducted at one-day conference on reference service using two measures (Staff Burnout Scale for Health Professionals, projective…

  11. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for ... Occupational therapists might: help kids work on fine motor skills so they ... maintain positive behaviors in all environments (e.g., instead of hitting ...

  12. Hospitality Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.

    This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…

  13. Sensor fusion for mobile robot navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, M.; Zhu, X.; Kalata, P.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review techniques for sensor fusion in robot navigation, emphasizing algorithms for self-location. These find use when the sensor suite of a mobile robot comprises several different sensors, some complementary and some redundant. Integrating the sensor readings, the robot seeks to accomplish tasks such as constructing a map of its environment, locating itself in that map, and recognizing objects that should be avoided or sought. The review describes integration techniques in two categories: low-level fusion is used for direct integration of sensory data, resulting in parameter and state estimates; high-level fusion is used for indirect integration of sensory data in hierarchical architectures, through command arbitration and integration of control signals suggested by different modules. The review provides an arsenal of tools for addressing this (rather ill-posed) problem in machine intelligence, including Kalman filtering, rule-based techniques, behavior based algorithms and approaches that borrow from information theory, Dempster-Shafer reasoning, fuzzy logic and neural networks. It points to several further-research needs, including: robustness of decision rules; simultaneous consideration of self-location, motion planning, motion control and vehicle dynamics; the effect of sensor placement and attention focusing on sensor fusion; and adaptation of techniques from biological sensor fusion

  14. Evaluation of the Johnson AG-1007-7 (G-7) microwave motion detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    A series of tests was performed on the Johnson Model AG-1007-7 motion detection system. The primary objectives of these tests were to determine sensor detection patterns and to quantitate the effects of intruder velocity. System susceptibility to fluorescent lights, oscillatory motion, and environmental factors was also examined.

  15. Evaluation of the Johnson AG-1007-7 (G-7) microwave motion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A series of tests was performed on the Johnson Model AG-1007-7 motion detection system. The primary objectives of these tests were to determine sensor detection patterns and to quantitate the effects of intruder velocity. System susceptibility to fluorescent lights, oscillatory motion, and environmental factors was also examined

  16. Evaluation of the peak MA-6600L microwave motion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    A series of tests was performed on the Peak MA-6600L motion detection system. The primary objectives of these tests were to determine sensor detection patterns and to quantitate the effects of intruder velocity. System susceptibility to fluorescent lights, oscillatory motion, and environmental factors was also examined

  17. Visual Motion Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-15

    displace- ment limit for motion in random dots," Vision Res., 24, 293-300. Pantie , A. & K. Turano (1986) "Direct comparisons of apparent motions...Hicks & AJ, Pantie (1978) "Apparent movement of successively generated subjec. uve figures," Perception, 7, 371-383. Ramachandran. V.S. & S.M. Anstis...thanks think deaf girl until world uncle flag home talk finish short thee our screwdiver sonry flower wrCstlir~g plan week wait accident guilty tree

  18. Coupled transverse motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    The magnetic field in an accelerator or a storage ring is usually so designed that the horizontal (x) and the vertical (y) motions of an ion are uncoupled. However, because of imperfections in construction and alignment, some small coupling is unavoidable. In this lecture, we discuss in a general way what is known about the behaviors of coupled motions in two degrees-of-freedom. 11 refs., 6 figs

  19. Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Oyvind; Würtz, Else Toft; Aasen, Tor Børvig

    2014-01-01

    Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures....

  20. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Instagram RSS Subscribe Occupational Safety and Health Administration English | Spanish MENU OSHA English | Spanish Search A ... STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210 800- ...

  1. Occupational Therapy's Role with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Occupational Therapy’s Role with Autism Autism is a lifelong condition associated with a varied course from early childhood through adulthood. Occupational therapy practitioners are distinctly qualified to ...

  2. Mission Critical Occupation (MCO) Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Agencies report resource data and targets for government-wide mission critical occupations and agency specific mission critical and/or high risk occupations. These...

  3. Occupational causes of male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens P E

    2013-01-01

    To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function.......To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function....

  4. Demonstration of MPV Sensor at Yuma Proving Ground, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    test plot in Ashland, OR, where magnetic soils have shown to have a significant effect on EMI sensors ( Pasion et al., 2008). The recorded signal...sensors was also investigated during that survey as part of SERDP MM-1573 (PI: Len Pasion , Sky Research). The MPV offers possibilities to defeat...of magnetic soils (Lhomme et al., 2008; Pasion et al., 2008). The MPV response due to sensor motion and topography over magnetic soil is predicable

  5. A Review of Various Security Protocols in Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Anupma Sangwan; Deepti Sindhu; Kulbir Singh

    2011-01-01

    Sensor networks are highly distributed networks of small, lightweight wireless sensor nodes, deployed in large numbers to monitor the environment or system by the measurement of physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, or relative humidity, sound, vibration, motion or pollutants, at different locations. A WSN [1] is composed of a large number of low-cost sensor nodes (SNs) and one or several base stations (BS) or destination nodes. SNs are typically small wireless devices with limit...

  6. Occupational protein contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaud, Annick; Poreaux, Claire; Penven, Emmanuelle; Waton, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is generally caused by haptens but can also be induced by proteins causing mainly immunological contact urticaria (ICU); chronic hand eczema in the context of protein contact dermatitis (PCD). In a monocentric retrospective study, from our database, only 31 (0.41%) of patients with contact dermatitis had positive skin tests with proteins: 22 had occupational PCD, 3 had non-occupational PCD, 5 occupational ICU and 1 cook had a neutrophilic fixed food eruption (NFFE) due to fish. From these results and analysis of literature, the characteristics of PCD can be summarized as follows. It is a chronic eczematous dermatitis, possibly exacerbated by work, suggestive if associated with inflammatory perionyxix and immediate erythema with pruritis, to be investigated when the patient resumes work after a period of interruption. Prick tests with the suspected protein-containing material are essential, as patch tests have negative results. In case of multisensitisation revealed by prick tests, it is advisable to analyse IgE against recombinant allergens. A history of atopy, found in 56 to 68% of the patients, has to be checked for. Most of the cases are observed among food-handlers but PCD can also be due to non-edible plants, latex, hydrolysed proteins or animal proteins. Occupational exposure to proteins can thus lead to the development of ICU. Reflecting hypersensitivity to very low concentrations of allergens, investigating ICU therefore requires caution and prick tests should be performed with a diluted form of the causative protein-containing product. Causes are food, especially fruit peel, non-edible plants, cosmetic products, latex, animals.

  7. Radiation protection in occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The document is a training manual for physicians entering the field of occupational medicine for radiation workers. Part 1 contains the general principles for the practice of occupational health, namely health surveillance and the role of the occupational physician in the workplace, and Part 2 provides the essential facts necessary to understand the basic principles of radiation physics, radiobiology, dosimetry and radiation effects which form the basis for occupational radiation health

  8. On-body inertial sensor location recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenk, D.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Goaied, Salma; Baten, Christian T.M.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and past research: In previous work we presented an algorithm for automatically identifying the body segment to which an inertial sensor is attached during walking [1]. Using this method, the set-up of inertial motion capture systems becomes easier and attachment errors are avoided. The

  9. Laser Truss Sensor for Segmented Telescope Phasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duncan T.; Lay, Oliver P.; Azizi, Alireza; Erlig, Herman; Dorsky, Leonard I.; Asbury, Cheryl G.; Zhao, Feng

    2011-01-01

    A paper describes the laser truss sensor (LTS) for detecting piston motion between two adjacent telescope segment edges. LTS is formed by two point-to-point laser metrology gauges in a crossed geometry. A high-resolution (distribution can be optimized using the range-gated metrology (RGM) approach.

  10. Interactions between motion and form processing in the human visual system

    OpenAIRE

    Mather, G.; Pavan, A.; Bellacosa Marotti, R.; Campana, G.; Casco, C.

    2013-01-01

    The predominant view of motion and form processing in the human visual system assumes that these two attributes are handled by separate and independent modules. Motion processing involves filtering by direction-selective sensors, followed by integration to solve the aperture problem. Form processing involves filtering by orientation-selective and size-selective receptive fields, followed by integration to encode object shape. It has long been known that motion signals can influence form proce...

  11. Radiation sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.L.; Geronime, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation sensor and thermocouple, respectively, which can be used for reactor in-core instrumentation. The radiation sensor consists of an inconel conductor wire and rhodium emitter wire, the thermocouple of two intertwined alumel or chromel wires. Both are arranged in the center of a metal tube relative to which they are separated by an insulator made of SiO 2 fibers. This insulator is first introduced as a loose fabric between the radiation sensor and the thermocouple, respectively, and the metal tube and then compacted to a density of 35-73% of pure SiO 2 by drawing the tube. There is no need for soldering or welding. The insulation resistivity at room temperature ist between 10 14 and 10 15 ohms. (ORU) [de

  12. Water Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Mike Morris, former Associate Director of STAC, formed pHish Doctor, Inc. to develop and sell a pH monitor for home aquariums. The monitor, or pHish Doctor, consists of a sensor strip and color chart that continually measures pH levels in an aquarium. This is important because when the level gets too high, ammonia excreted by fish is highly toxic; at low pH, bacteria that normally break down waste products stop functioning. Sales have run into the tens of thousands of dollars. A NASA Tech Brief Technical Support Package later led to a salt water version of the system and a DoE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant for development of a sensor for sea buoys. The company, now known as Ocean Optics, Inc., is currently studying the effects of carbon dioxide buildup as well as exploring other commercial applications for the fiber optic sensor.

  13. An ultrasensitive strain sensor with a wide strain range based on graphene armour scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Fan; Tao, Lu-Qi; Pang, Yu; Tian, He; Ju, Zhen-Yi; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2018-06-12

    An ultrasensitive strain sensor with a wide strain range based on graphene armour scales is demonstrated in this paper. The sensor shows an ultra-high gauge factor (GF, up to 1054) and a wide strain range (ε = 26%), both of which present an advantage compared to most other flexible sensors. Moreover, the sensor is developed by a simple fabrication process. Due to the excellent performance, this strain sensor can meet the demands of subtle, large and complex human motion monitoring, which indicates its tremendous application potential in health monitoring, mechanical control, real-time motion monitoring and so on.

  14. Schroedinger operators - geometric estimates in terms of the occupation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demuth, M.; Kirsch, W.; McGillivray, I.

    1995-01-01

    The difference of Schroedinger and Dirichlet semigroups is expressed in terms of the Laplace transform of the Brownian motion occupation time. This implies quantitative upper and lower bounds for the operator norms of the corresponding resolvent differences. One spectral theoretical consequence is an estimate for the eigenfunction for a Schroedinger operator in a ball where the potential is given as a cone indicator function. 12 refs

  15. Effects of Age and Gender on Hand Motion Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Lok Au

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Wearable and wireless motion sensor devices have facilitated the automated computation of speed, amplitude, and rhythm of hand motion tasks. The aim of this study is to determine if there are any biological influences on these kinematic parameters. Methods. 80 healthy subjects performed hand motion tasks twice for each hand, with movements measured using a wireless motion sensor device (Kinesia, Cleveland Medical Devices Inc., Cleveland, OH. Multivariate analyses were performed with age, gender, and height added into the model. Results. Older subjects performed poorer in finger tapping (FT speed (r=0.593, p<0.001, hand-grasp (HG speed (r=0.517, p<0.001, and pronation-supination (PS speed (r=0.485, p<0.001. Men performed better in FT rhythm p<0.02, HG speed p<0.02, HG amplitude p<0.02, and HG rhythm p<0.05. Taller subjects performed better in the speed and amplitude components of FT p<0.02 and HG tasks p<0.02. After multivariate analyses, only age and gender emerged as significant independent factors influencing the speed but not the amplitude and rhythm components of hand motion tasks. Gender exerted an independent influence only on HG speed, with better performance in men p<0.05. Conclusions. Age, gender, and height are not independent factors influencing the amplitude and rhythm components of hand motion tasks. The speed component is affected by age and gender differences.

  16. Design and characterization of in-plane MEMS yaw rate sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we present the design and characterization of a vibratory yaw rate MEMS sensor that uses in-plane motion for both actuation and sensing. The design criterion for the rate sensor is based on a high sensitivity and low bandwidth. The required sensitivity of the yaw rate sensor is attained by using the inplane ...

  17. Miniature Biometric Sensor Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falker, John; Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald; Hanson, Andrea; Cooper, Tommy; Downs, Meghan; Flint, Stephanie; Reyna, Baraquiel; Simon, Cory; Wilt, Grier

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring (HRM) is a critical need during exploration missions. Unlike the four separate systems used on ISS today, the single HRM system should perform as a diagnostic tool, perform well during exercise or high level activity, and be suitable for use during EVA. Currently available HRM technologies are dependent on uninterrupted contact with the skin and are prone to data drop-out and motion artifact when worn in the spacesuit or during exercise. Here, we seek an alternative to the chest strap and electrode based sensors currently in use on ISS today. This project aims to develop a single, high performance, robust biosensor with focused efforts on improved heart rate data quality collection during high intensity activity such as exercise or EVA.

  18. Simulated earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, E.H.; Gasparini, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews current methods for generating synthetic earthquake ground motions. Emphasis is on the special requirements demanded of procedures to generate motions for use in nuclear power plant seismic response analysis. Specifically, very close agreement is usually sought between the response spectra of the simulated motions and prescribed, smooth design response spectra. The features and capabilities of the computer program SIMQKE, which has been widely used in power plant seismic work are described. Problems and pitfalls associated with the use of synthetic ground motions in seismic safety assessment are also pointed out. The limitations and paucity of recorded accelerograms together with the widespread use of time-history dynamic analysis for obtaining structural and secondary systems' response have motivated the development of earthquake simulation capabilities. A common model for synthesizing earthquakes is that of superposing sinusoidal components with random phase angles. The input parameters for such a model are, then, the amplitudes and phase angles of the contributing sinusoids as well as the characteristics of the variation of motion intensity with time, especially the duration of the motion. The amplitudes are determined from estimates of the Fourier spectrum or the spectral density function of the ground motion. These amplitudes may be assumed to be varying in time or constant for the duration of the earthquake. In the nuclear industry, the common procedure is to specify a set of smooth response spectra for use in aseismic design. This development and the need for time histories have generated much practical interest in synthesizing earthquakes whose response spectra 'match', or are compatible with a set of specified smooth response spectra

  19. Occupational Therapy's Role in Cancer Survivorship as a Chronic Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Mary Frances; Newman, Robin; Longpré, Sheila M; Polo, Katie M

    Improved medical care has resulted in a documented increase in cancer survivors in the United States. Cancer survivors face challenges in participation across all facets of life as a result of the cancer and subsequent cancer treatments. Long-term and late-term sequelae can result in impairments in neurological systems, decreased stamina, loss of range of motion, and changes in sensation and cognition. These impairments are often long lasting, which categorizes cancer survivorship as a chronic condition. This categorization presents treatment challenges, especially in creating rehabilitation and habilitation service options that support cancer survivors. Occupational therapy provides a unique focus that can benefit cancer survivors as they face limitations in participation in all aspects of daily living. Research, advocacy, and education efforts are needed to focus on the specific rehabilitation and habilitation needs of cancer survivors to increase access to occupational therapy's distinct value. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  20. Telecommuting: Occupational health considerations for employee health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, M L

    2000-06-01

    1. Information technology has moved "work" out of a centralized location. Employees who telecommute pose significant challenges and considerations for the practice of occupational health nursing. 2. Employer and employee benefits associated with telecommuting are reportedly associated with high levels of job satisfaction. However, the occupational health and safety risks of this new work environment need to be fully assessed and understood. 3. The ergonomic controls to minimize the risk of repetitive motion injuries are the same for both office and home locations. Additional attention need to be paid to implementing risk controls for other physical hazards and psychosocial considerations, as well as personal safety and security issues. 4. The scope of occupational health nursing practice needs to remain dynamic, recognizing the impact new technologies have on the workplace, to continue to meet the needs of the changing workplace.

  1. Resistive flex sensors: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saggio, Giovanni; Riillo, Francesco; Sbernini, Laura; Quitadamo, Lucia Rita

    2016-01-01

    Resistive flex sensors can be used to measure bending or flexing with relatively little effort and a relatively low budget. Their lightness, compactness, robustness, measurement effectiveness and low power consumption make these sensors useful for manifold applications in diverse fields. Here, we provide a comprehensive survey of resistive flex sensors, taking into account their working principles, manufacturing aspects, electrical characteristics and equivalent models, useful front-end conditioning circuitry, and physic-bio-chemical aspects. Particular effort is devoted to reporting on and analyzing several applications of resistive flex sensors, related to the measurement of body position and motion, and to the implementation of artificial devices. In relation to the human body, we consider the utilization of resistive flex sensors for the measurement of physical activity and for the development of interaction/interface devices driven by human gestures. Concerning artificial devices, we deal with applications related to the automotive field, robots, orthosis and prosthesis, musical instruments and measuring tools. The presented literature is collected from different sources, including bibliographic databases, company press releases, patents, master’s theses and PhD theses. (topical review)

  2. Resistive flex sensors: a survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggio, Giovanni; Riillo, Francesco; Sbernini, Laura; Quitadamo, Lucia Rita

    2016-01-01

    Resistive flex sensors can be used to measure bending or flexing with relatively little effort and a relatively low budget. Their lightness, compactness, robustness, measurement effectiveness and low power consumption make these sensors useful for manifold applications in diverse fields. Here, we provide a comprehensive survey of resistive flex sensors, taking into account their working principles, manufacturing aspects, electrical characteristics and equivalent models, useful front-end conditioning circuitry, and physic-bio-chemical aspects. Particular effort is devoted to reporting on and analyzing several applications of resistive flex sensors, related to the measurement of body position and motion, and to the implementation of artificial devices. In relation to the human body, we consider the utilization of resistive flex sensors for the measurement of physical activity and for the development of interaction/interface devices driven by human gestures. Concerning artificial devices, we deal with applications related to the automotive field, robots, orthosis and prosthesis, musical instruments and measuring tools. The presented literature is collected from different sources, including bibliographic databases, company press releases, patents, master’s theses and PhD theses.

  3. Flexible Piezoelectric Sensor-Based Gait Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsu Cha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most motion recognition research has required tight-fitting suits for precise sensing. However, tight-suit systems have difficulty adapting to real applications, because people normally wear loose clothes. In this paper, we propose a gait recognition system with flexible piezoelectric sensors in loose clothing. The gait recognition system does not directly sense lower-body angles. It does, however, detect the transition between standing and walking. Specifically, we use the signals from the flexible sensors attached to the knee and hip parts on loose pants. We detect the periodic motion component using the discrete time Fourier series from the signal during walking. We adapt the gait detection method to a real-time patient motion and posture monitoring system. In the monitoring system, the gait recognition operates well. Finally, we test the gait recognition system with 10 subjects, for which the proposed system successfully detects walking with a success rate over 93 %.

  4. Practical Use Technique of Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Gyu Seop

    1985-11-01

    This book tells of practical use technology of sensor, introducing the recent trend of sensor for electronic industry, IC temperature sensor, radiation temperature sensor of surface acoustic wave, optical fiber temperature sensor, a polyelectrolyte film humidity sensor, semiconductor pressure sensor for industrial instrumentation, silicon integration pressure sensor, thick film humidity sensor and its application, photo sensor reflection type, and color sensor. It also deals with sensor for FA, sensor for a robot and sensor for the chemical industry.

  5. Practical Use Technique of Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Gyu Seop

    1985-11-15

    This book tells of practical use technology of sensor, introducing the recent trend of sensor for electronic industry, IC temperature sensor, radiation temperature sensor of surface acoustic wave, optical fiber temperature sensor, a polyelectrolyte film humidity sensor, semiconductor pressure sensor for industrial instrumentation, silicon integration pressure sensor, thick film humidity sensor and its application, photo sensor reflection type, and color sensor. It also deals with sensor for FA, sensor for a robot and sensor for the chemical industry.

  6. Trajectory of coronary motion and its significance in robotic motion cancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattin, Philippe; Dave, Hitendu; Grünenfelder, Jürg; Szekely, Gabor; Turina, Marko; Zünd, Gregor

    2004-05-01

    To characterize remaining coronary artery motion of beating pig hearts after stabilization with an 'Octopus' using an optical remote analysis technique. Three pigs (40, 60 and 65 kg) underwent full sternotomy after receiving general anesthesia. An 8-bit high speed black and white video camera (50 frames/s) coupled with a laser sensor (60 microm resolution) were used to capture heart wall motion in all three dimensions. Dopamine infusion was used to deliberately modulate cardiac contractility. Synchronized ECG, blood pressure, airway pressure and video data of the region around the first branching point of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery after Octopus stabilization were captured for stretches of 8 s each. Several sequences of the same region were captured over a period of several minutes. Computerized off-line analysis allowed us to perform minute characterization of the heart wall motion. The movement of the points of interest on the LAD ranged from 0.22 to 0.81 mm in the lateral plane (x/y-axis) and 0.5-2.6 mm out of the plane (z-axis). Fast excursions (>50 microm/s in the lateral plane) occurred corresponding to the QRS complex and the T wave; while slow excursion phases (movement of the coronary artery after stabilization appears to be still significant. Minute characterization of the trajectory of motion could provide the substrate for achieving motion cancellation for existing robotic systems. Velocity plots could also help improve gated cardiac imaging.

  7. Optimal full motion video registration with rigorous error propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolloff, John; Hottel, Bryant; Doucette, Peter; Theiss, Henry; Jocher, Glenn

    2014-06-01

    Optimal full motion video (FMV) registration is a crucial need for the Geospatial community. It is required for subsequent and optimal geopositioning with simultaneous and reliable accuracy prediction. An overall approach being developed for such registration is presented that models relevant error sources in terms of the expected magnitude and correlation of sensor errors. The corresponding estimator is selected based on the level of accuracy of the a priori information of the sensor's trajectory and attitude (pointing) information, in order to best deal with non-linearity effects. Estimator choices include near real-time Kalman Filters and batch Weighted Least Squares. Registration solves for corrections to the sensor a priori information for each frame. It also computes and makes available a posteriori accuracy information, i.e., the expected magnitude and correlation of sensor registration errors. Both the registered sensor data and its a posteriori accuracy information are then made available to "down-stream" Multi-Image Geopositioning (MIG) processes. An object of interest is then measured on the registered frames and a multi-image optimal solution, including reliable predicted solution accuracy, is then performed for the object's 3D coordinates. This paper also describes a robust approach to registration when a priori information of sensor attitude is unavailable. It makes use of structure-from-motion principles, but does not use standard Computer Vision techniques, such as estimation of the Essential Matrix which can be very sensitive to noise. The approach used instead is a novel, robust, direct search-based technique.

  8. A Framework for Occupancy Tracking in a Building via Structural Dynamics Sensing of Footstep Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D. Poston

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Counting the number of occupants in building areas over time—occupancy tracking—provides valuable information for responding to emergencies, optimizing thermal conditions or managing personnel. This capability is distinct from tracking individual building occupants as they move within a building, has lower complexity than conventional tracking algorithms require, and avoids privacy concerns that tracking individuals may pose. The approach proposed here is a novel combination of data analytics applied to measurements from a building’s structural dynamics sensors (e.g., accelerometers or geophones. Specifically, measurements of footstep-generated structural waves provide evidence of occupancy in a building area. These footstep vibrations can be distinguished from other vibrations, and, once identified, the footsteps can be located. These locations, in turn, form the starting point of estimating occupancy in an area. In order to provide a meaningful occupancy count, however, it is first necessary to associate discrete footsteps with individuals. The proposed framework incorporates a tractable algorithm for this association task. The proposed algorithms operate online, updating occupancy count over time as new footsteps are detected. Experiments with measurements from a public building illustrate the operation of the proposed framework. This approach offers an advantage over others based on conventional technologies by avoiding the cost of a separate sensor system devoted to occupancy tracking.

  9. Interpretation of Fermion system equilibration by energy fluid motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S.

    1990-01-01

    We study the equilibration of fermion system with the help of both linear and non-linear master equations which are originated from the extended time-dependent Hartree-Fock equation of motion. We show how the non-linear master equation for nucleon occupation number transforms into the Navier-Stokes type of one dimensional equation for non-stationary flow of a compressible and viscous fluid. Physical consequences of these equations are investigated by providing illustrative examples

  10. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  11. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder

  12. Gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  13. Near-Field Ground Motion Modal versus Wave Propagation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Cichowicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The response spectrum generally provides a good estimate of the global displacement and acceleration demand of far-field ground motion on a structure. However, it does not provide accurate information on the local shape or internal deformation of the response of the structure. Near-field pulse-like ground motion will propagate through the structure as waves, causing large, localized deformation. Therefore, the response spectrum alone is not a sufficient representation of near-field ground motion features. Results show that the drift-response technique based on a continuous shear-beam model has to be employed here to estimate structure-demand parameters when structure is exposed to the pulse like ground motion. Conduced modeling shows limited applicability of the drift spectrum based on the SDOF approximation. The SDOF drift spectrum approximation can only be applied to structures with smaller natural periods than the dominant period of the ground motion. For periods larger than the dominant period of ground motion the SDOF drift spectra model significantly underestimates maximum deformation. Strong pulse-type motions are observed in the near-source region of large earthquakes; however, there is a lack of waveforms collected from small earthquakes at very close distances that were recorded underground in mines. The results presented in this paper are relevant for structures with a height of a few meters, placed in an underground excavation. The strong ground motion sensors recorded mine-induced earthquakes in a deep gold mine, South Africa. The strongest monitored horizontal ground motion was caused by an event of magnitude 2 at a distance of 90 m with PGA 123 m/s2, causing drifts of 0.25%–0.35%. The weak underground motion has spectral characteristics similar to the strong ground motion observed on the earth's surface; the drift spectrum has a maximum value less than 0.02%.

  14. Education and Occupational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnes, Geraint; Freguglia, Ricardo; Spricigo, Gisele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamic relationship between policies related to educational provision and both educational participation and occupational outcomes in Brazil, using PNAD and RAIS-Migra data. Design/methodology/approach: Outcomes are examined using: static...... multinomial logit analysis, and structural dynamic discrete choice modelling. The latter approach, coupled with the quality of the RAIS-Migra data source, allows the authors to evaluate the education policy impacts over time. Findings: The main results show that the education level raises the propensity...... that the individual will be in formal sector work or still in education, and reduces the probability of the other outcomes. Transition into non-manual formal sector work following education may, however, occur via a spell of manual work. Originality/value: This is the first study of occupational destination...

  15. Occupational dose constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, Paulo Fernando Lavalle; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    The revision process of the international radiological protection regulations has resulted in the adoption of new concepts, such as practice, intervention, avoidable and restriction of dose (dose constraint). The latter deserving of special mention since it may involve reducing a priori of the dose limits established both for the public and to individuals occupationally exposed, values that can be further reduced, depending on the application of the principle of optimization. This article aims to present, with clarity, from the criteria adopted to define dose constraint values to the public, a methodology to establish the dose constraint values for occupationally exposed individuals, as well as an example of the application of this methodology to the practice of industrial radiography

  16. Occupational safety motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete

    2010-01-01

    Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally....... At the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking whether...... or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is validated...

  17. Embracing Creativity in Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen, MOT, OTR/L

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jen Gash, an occupational therapist and creativity coach living in the UK, provided the cover art for the winter 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. The picture is titled “Over the Exe.” Jen uses her inspiration of the Kawa River model in this painting. The painting is of her husband and daughter standing where the river meets the sea. This is a metaphoric representation of rejoining the greater collective. In addition, Jen has a passion for occupational therapists to encompass creativity. A core aspect of occupational therapy is the multi-dimensional concept of occupations; it allows for occupational therapists to incorporate creativity into daily practice. Jen’s goal is for occupational therapy to embrace its creative theoretical roots.

  18. Perspective on occupational mortality risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Occupational risks to radiation workers are compared with other occupational risks on the basis of lost life expectancy (LLE) in a full working lifetime. Usual comparisons with National Safety Council accident death statistics for various industry categories are shown to be unfair because the latter average over a variety of particular industries and occupations within each industry. Correcting for these problems makes some common occupations in some industries 20-50 times more dangerous due to accidents alone than being a radiation worker. If more exposed subgroups of radiation workers are compared with more dangerous subgroups of other occupations, these ratios are maintained. Since radiation causes disease rather than acute injury, a wide range effort is made to estimate average loss of life expectancy from occupational disease; the final estimate for this is 500 days. The average American worker loses more than an order of magnitude more life expectancy from occupational disease than the average radiation worker loses from radiation induced cancer. (author)

  19. Occupational open globe injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, U; Vasnaik, A; Battu, R R; Kurian, M; George, S

    2001-03-01

    Occupational ocular trauma is an important cause of acquired monocular blindness in a rapidly industrialising country like India. Knowledge of the epidemiology of occupational eye injuries is essential to formulate viable industrial safety measures. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with occupational open globe injuries between 1994 and 1998. We documented the circumstances of the injuries, their clinical findings and the use of appropriate protective eyewear at the time of the injury. The visual acuity 6 months after the injury was the final outcome measure. In this study period we examined 43 patients with open globe injuries sustained at the work place. Thirty-four (79.1%) patients were young males. The iron and steel industry accounted for 19 (44.2%) cases while 8 (18.6%) patients each were from the agricultural, mining and other small scale industrial sectors. At the time of the injury, 33 (76.7%) were not wearing the recommended protective eyewear and 6 (13.9%) were under the influence of alcohol. The injuries were mild in 6 (13.9%), moderate in 18 (41.9%) and severe in 19 (44.2%) patients. At the end of 6 months, 2 (4.7%) patients had a visual acuity of 6/12 or better, 4 (9.3%) had a visual acuity of 6/18 to 6/60 and 29 (67.4.%) had a vision of eyewear and alcohol-free environment at the work place is likely to reduce the incidence of severe occupational open globe injuries.

  20. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Jovanovic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

  1. AIDS and Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Garrós, MC

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available "When my first hospitalization took place, I must recognize I was plunged into the mistake of identifying AIDS with death, together with the depression, uneasiness, unsecurity and the feeling of inability to plan my life in the short and long term to the point of refusing in my mind to organize things as simple as future holidays or improvements at home".Thanks to retroviral treatments, the initially mortal HIV/AIDS infection has become a chronic disease as it can be today thediabetes, allowing objectives in the short, medium and long term. Here is where the occupational therapy operates as an instrument to improve, keep or rehabilitate the occupational areas of this group which has a series of special features to be borne in mind when working with them.I seek to reflect my 8 months experience working as an occupational therapist in a Refuge Centre for AIDS ill people, and how throughout this experience I changed several of my initial approaches and working methods too.

  2. Ground motion predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loux, P C [Environmental Research Corporation, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  3. Method through motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary scenography often consists of video-projected motion graphics. The field is lacking in academic methods and rigour: descriptions and models relevant for the creation as well as in the analysis of existing works. In order to understand the phenomenon of motion graphics in a scenographic...... construction as a support to working systematically practice-led research project. The design model is being developed through design laboratories and workshops with students and professionals who provide feedback that lead to incremental improvements. Working with this model construction-as-method reveals...... context, I have been conducting a practice-led research project. Central to the project is construction of a design model describing sets of procedures, concepts and terminology relevant for design and studies of motion graphics in spatial contexts. The focus of this paper is the role of model...

  4. Ground motion predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loux, P.C.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  5. Polymer Optical Fiber Sensor and the Prediction of Sensor Response Utilizing Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroglu, Derya

    The global market researches showed that there is a growing trend in the field of polymer optical fiber (POF) and POF sensors. Telecommunications, medicine, defense, aerospace, and automotive are the application areas of fiber optic sensors, where the automotive industry is the most promising application area for innovations in the field of POF sensors. The POF sensors in automobiles are particularly for detection of seat occupancy, and intelligent pedestrian protection systems. This dissertation investigates graded index perfluorinated polymer optical fiber as an intensity modulated intrinsic sensor for application in automotive seat occupancy sensing. Since a fiber optic sensor has a high bandwidth, is small in size, is lightweight, and is immune to electromagnetic interference (EMI) it offers higher performance than that of its electrical based counterparts such as strain gauge, elastomeric bladder, and resistive sensor systems. This makes the fiber optic sensor a potential suitable material for seat occupancy sensing. A textile-based fiber optic sensor was designed to be located in the area beneath the typical seated human's thighs. The pressure interval under which the proposed POF sensor design could perform well was found to be between 0.18 and 0.21 N/cm2, where perfluorinated (PF) graded index (GI) POF (62.5/750 mum) was used as the POF material. In addition, the effect of the automotive seat covering including face material (fabric) and foam backing to the sensor's performance was analyzed. The face fabric structure and the thickness of foam backing were not found to be significant factors to change the sensor results. A research study, survey, was conducted of which purpose was to better understand market demands in terms of sensor performance characteristics for automotive seat weight sensors, as a part of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) House of Quality analysis. The companies joined the survey agreed on the first 5 most important sensor

  6. Occupational Health in Mountainous Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhusupov, Kenesh O; Colosio, Claudio; Tabibi, Ramin; Sulaimanova, Cholpon T

    2015-01-01

    In the period of transition from a centralized economy to the market economy, occupational health services in Kyrgyzstan have survived through dramatic, detrimental changes. It is common for occupational health regulations to be ignored and for basic occupational health services across many industrial enterprises and farms to be neglected. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the present situation and challenges facing occupational health services in Kyrgyzstan. The transition from centralized to the market economy in Kyrgyzstan has led to increased layoffs of workers and unemployment. These threats are followed by increased workload, and the health and safety of workers becomes of little concern. Private employers ignore occupational health and safety; consequently, there is under-reporting of occupational diseases and accidents. The majority of enterprises, especially those of small or medium size, are unsanitary, and the health status of workers remains largely unknown. The low official rates of occupational diseases are the result of data being deliberately hidden; lack of coverage of working personnel by medical checkups; incompetent management; and the poor quality of staff, facilities, and equipment. Because Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country, the main environmental and occupational factor of enterprises is hypoxia. Occupational health specialists have greatly contributed to the development of occupational medicine in the mountains through science and practice. The enforcement of existing strong occupational health legislation and increased financing of occupational health services are needed. The maintenance of credible health monitoring and effective health services for workers, re-establishment of medical services and sanitary-hygienic laboratories in industrial enterprises, and support for scientific investigations on occupational risk assessment will increase the role of occupational health services in improving the health of the working population

  7. Arm Motion Recognition and Exercise Coaching System for Remote Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arm motion recognition and its related applications have become a promising human computer interaction modal due to the rapid integration of numerical sensors in modern mobile-phones. We implement a mobile-phone-based arm motion recognition and exercise coaching system that can help people carrying mobile-phones to do body exercising anywhere at any time, especially for the persons that have very limited spare time and are constantly traveling across cities. We first design improved k-means algorithm to cluster the collecting 3-axis acceleration and gyroscope data of person actions into basic motions. A learning method based on Hidden Markov Model is then designed to classify and recognize continuous arm motions of both learners and coaches, which also measures the action similarities between the persons. We implement the system on MIUI 2S mobile-phone and evaluate the system performance and its accuracy of recognition.

  8. Leap Motion development essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Spiegelmock, Mischa

    2013-01-01

    This book is a fast-paced guide with practical examples that aims to help you understand and master the Leap Motion SDK.This book is for developers who are either involved in game development or who are looking to utilize Leap Motion technology in order to create brand new user interaction experiences to distinguish their products from the mass market. You should be comfortable with high-level languages and object-oriented development concepts in order to get the most out of this book.

  9. Motion field estimation for a dynamic scene using a 3D LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingquan; Zhang, Liang; Mao, Qingzhou; Zou, Qin; Zhang, Pin; Feng, Shaojun; Ochieng, Washington

    2014-09-09

    This paper proposes a novel motion field estimation method based on a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor for motion sensing for intelligent driverless vehicles and active collision avoidance systems. Unlike multiple target tracking methods, which estimate the motion state of detected targets, such as cars and pedestrians, motion field estimation regards the whole scene as a motion field in which each little element has its own motion state. Compared to multiple target tracking, segmentation errors and data association errors have much less significance in motion field estimation, making it more accurate and robust. This paper presents an intact 3D LiDAR-based motion field estimation method, including pre-processing, a theoretical framework for the motion field estimation problem and practical solutions. The 3D LiDAR measurements are first projected to small-scale polar grids, and then, after data association and Kalman filtering, the motion state of every moving grid is estimated. To reduce computing time, a fast data association algorithm is proposed. Furthermore, considering the spatial correlation of motion among neighboring grids, a novel spatial-smoothing algorithm is also presented to optimize the motion field. The experimental results using several data sets captured in different cities indicate that the proposed motion field estimation is able to run in real-time and performs robustly and effectively.

  10. Motion Field Estimation for a Dynamic Scene Using a 3D LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingquan Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel motion field estimation method based on a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR sensor for motion sensing for intelligent driverless vehicles and active collision avoidance systems. Unlike multiple target tracking methods, which estimate the motion state of detected targets, such as cars and pedestrians, motion field estimation regards the whole scene as a motion field in which each little element has its own motion state. Compared to multiple target tracking, segmentation errors and data association errors have much less significance in motion field estimation, making it more accurate and robust. This paper presents an intact 3D LiDAR-based motion field estimation method, including pre-processing, a theoretical framework for the motion field estimation problem and practical solutions. The 3D LiDAR measurements are first projected to small-scale polar grids, and then, after data association and Kalman filtering, the motion state of every moving grid is estimated. To reduce computing time, a fast data association algorithm is proposed. Furthermore, considering the spatial correlation of motion among neighboring grids, a novel spatial-smoothing algorithm is also presented to optimize the motion field. The experimental results using several data sets captured in different cities indicate that the proposed motion field estimation is able to run in real-time and performs robustly and effectively.

  11. Interactions between motion and form processing in the human visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, George; Pavan, Andrea; Bellacosa Marotti, Rosilari; Campana, Gianluca; Casco, Clara

    2013-01-01

    The predominant view of motion and form processing in the human visual system assumes that these two attributes are handled by separate and independent modules. Motion processing involves filtering by direction-selective sensors, followed by integration to solve the aperture problem. Form processing involves filtering by orientation-selective and size-selective receptive fields, followed by integration to encode object shape. It has long been known that motion signals can influence form processing in the well-known Gestalt principle of common fate; texture elements which share a common motion property are grouped into a single contour or texture region. However, recent research in psychophysics and neuroscience indicates that the influence of form signals on motion processing is more extensive than previously thought. First, the salience and apparent direction of moving lines depends on how the local orientation and direction of motion combine to match the receptive field properties of motion-selective neurons. Second, orientation signals generated by "motion-streaks" influence motion processing; motion sensitivity, apparent direction and adaptation are affected by simultaneously present orientation signals. Third, form signals generated by human body shape influence biological motion processing, as revealed by studies using point-light motion stimuli. Thus, form-motion integration seems to occur at several different levels of cortical processing, from V1 to STS.

  12. Interactions between motion and form processing in the human visual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George eMather

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The predominant view of motion and form processing in the human visual system assumes that these two attributes are handled by separate and independent modules. Motion processing involves filtering by direction-selective sensors, followed by integration to solve the aperture problem. Form processing involves filtering by orientation-selective and size-selective receptive fields, followed by integration to encode object shape. It has long been known that motion signals can influence form processing in the well-known Gestalt principle of common fate; texture elements which share a common motion property are grouped into a single contour or texture region. However recent research in psychophysics and neuroscience indicates that the influence of form signals on motion processing is more extensive than previously thought. First, the salience and apparent direction of moving lines depends on how the local orientation and direction of motion combine to match the receptive field properties of motion-selective neurons. Second, orientation signals generated by ‘motion-streaks’ influence motion processing; motion sensitivity, apparent direction and adaptation are affected by simultaneously present orientation signals. Third, form signals generated by human body shape influence biological motion processing, as revealed by studies using point-light motion stimuli. Thus form-motion integration seems to occur at several different levels of cortical processing, from V1 to STS.

  13. Efficient Kinect Sensor-Based Reactive Path Planning Method for Autonomous Mobile Robots in Dynamic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuvshinjargal, Doopalam; Lee, Deok Jin [Kunsan National University, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, an efficient dynamic reactive motion planning method for an autonomous vehicle in a dynamic environment is proposed. The purpose of the proposed method is to improve the robustness of autonomous robot motion planning capabilities within dynamic, uncertain environments by integrating a virtual plane-based reactive motion planning technique with a sensor fusion-based obstacle detection approach. The dynamic reactive motion planning method assumes a local observer in the virtual plane, which allows the effective transformation of complex dynamic planning problems into simple stationary ones proving the speed and orientation information between the robot and obstacles. In addition, the sensor fusion-based obstacle detection technique allows the pose estimation of moving obstacles using a Kinect sensor and sonar sensors, thus improving the accuracy and robustness of the reactive motion planning approach. The performance of the proposed method was demonstrated through not only simulation studies but also field experiments using multiple moving obstacles in hostile dynamic environments.

  14. Efficient Kinect Sensor-Based Reactive Path Planning Method for Autonomous Mobile Robots in Dynamic Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuvshinjargal, Doopalam; Lee, Deok Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient dynamic reactive motion planning method for an autonomous vehicle in a dynamic environment is proposed. The purpose of the proposed method is to improve the robustness of autonomous robot motion planning capabilities within dynamic, uncertain environments by integrating a virtual plane-based reactive motion planning technique with a sensor fusion-based obstacle detection approach. The dynamic reactive motion planning method assumes a local observer in the virtual plane, which allows the effective transformation of complex dynamic planning problems into simple stationary ones proving the speed and orientation information between the robot and obstacles. In addition, the sensor fusion-based obstacle detection technique allows the pose estimation of moving obstacles using a Kinect sensor and sonar sensors, thus improving the accuracy and robustness of the reactive motion planning approach. The performance of the proposed method was demonstrated through not only simulation studies but also field experiments using multiple moving obstacles in hostile dynamic environments

  15. Restoration of non-uniform exposure motion blurred image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuanhong; Xu, Tingfa; Wang, Ningming; Liu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    Restoring motion-blurred image is the key technologies in the opto-electronic detection system. The imaging sensors such as CCD and infrared imaging sensor, which are mounted on the motion platforms, quickly move together with the platforms of high speed. As a result, the images become blur. The image degradation will cause great trouble for the succeeding jobs such as objects detection, target recognition and tracking. So the motion-blurred images must be restoration before detecting motion targets in the subsequent images. On the demand of the real weapon task, in order to deal with targets in the complex background, this dissertation uses the new theories in the field of image processing and computer vision to research the new technology of motion deblurring and motion detection. The principle content is as follows: 1) When the prior knowledge about degradation function is unknown, the uniform motion blurred images are restored. At first, the blur parameters, including the motion blur extent and direction of PSF(point spread function), are estimated individually in domain of logarithmic frequency. The direction of PSF is calculated by extracting the central light line of the spectrum, and the extent is computed by minimizing the correction between the fourier spectrum of the blurred image and a detecting function. Moreover, in order to remove the strip in the deblurred image, windows technique is employed in the algorithm, which makes the deblurred image clear. 2) According to the principle of infrared image non-uniform exposure, a new restoration model for infrared blurred images is developed. The fitting of infrared image non-uniform exposure curve is performed by experiment data. The blurred images are restored by the fitting curve.

  16. A respiratory monitoring device based on clavicular motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, D G; Aspinall, R; Patel, M K; Lang, P-O; Sinclair, A J

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory rate is one of the key vital signs yet unlike temperature, heart rate or blood pressure, there is no simple and low cost measurement device for medical use. Here we discuss the development of a respiratory sensor based upon clavicular motion and the findings of a pilot study comparing respiratory rate readings derived from clavicular and thoracic motion with an expiratory breath flow reference sensor. Simultaneously sampled data from resting volunteers (n = 8) was analysed to determine the location of individual breaths in the data set and from these, breath periods and frequency were calculated. Clavicular sensor waveforms were found to be more consistent and of greater amplitude than those from the thoracic device, demonstrating good alignment with the reference waveform. On comparing breath by breath periods a close agreement was observed with the reference, with mean clavicular respiratory rate R 2 values of 0.89 (lateral) and 0.98 (longitudinal-axis). This pilot study demonstrates the viability of clavicular respiratory sensing. The sensor is unobtrusive, unaffected by bioelectrical or electrode problems and easier to determine and more consistent than thoracic motion sensing. With relatively basic signal conditioning and processing requirements, it could provide an ideal platform for a low-cost respiratory monitor. (note)

  17. Highly sensitive strain sensors based on fragmentized carbon nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Fang, Xiaoliang; Tan, Jianping; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun; Xuan, Fuzhen

    2018-06-08

    Wearable strain sensors based on nanomaterial/elastomer composites have potential applications in flexible electronic skin, human motion detection, human-machine interfaces, etc. In this research, a type of high performance strain sensors has been developed using fragmentized carbon nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane (CNT/PDMS) composites. The CNT/PDMS composites were ground into fragments, and a liquid-induced densification method was used to fabricate the strain sensors. The strain sensors showed high sensitivity with gauge factors (GFs) larger than 200 and a broad strain detection range up to 80%, much higher than those strain sensors based on unfragmentized CNT/PDMS composites (GF sensors is ascribed to the sliding of individual fragmentized-CNT/PDMS-composite particles during mechanical deformation, which causes significant resistance change in the strain sensors. The strain sensors can differentiate mechanical stimuli and monitor various human body motions, such as bending of the fingers, human breathing, and blood pulsing.

  18. Semiconductor sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor sensors have been around since the 1950s and today, every high energy physics experiment has one in its repertoire. In Lepton as well as Hadron colliders, silicon vertex and tracking detectors led to the most amazing physics and will continue doing so in the future. This contribution tries to depict the history of these devices exemplarily without being able to honor all important developments and installations. The current understanding of radiation damage mechanisms and recent R and D topics demonstrating the future challenges and possible technical solutions for the SLHC detectors are presented. Consequently semiconductor sensor candidates for an LHC upgrade and a future linear collider are also briefly introduced. The work presented here is a collage of the work of many individual silicon experts spread over several collaborations across the world.

  19. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    . This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  20. Motion of magnetotactic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, D.M.S.; Barros, H.G. de P.L. de.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic moments for different magnetotactic microorganisms are obtained by electron microscopy analyses and studies of motion by optical microscopy. The results are analysed in terms of a model due to C.Bean. The considerations presented suggest that magnetotaxy is an efficient mechanism for orientation only if the time for reorientation is smaller than the cycles of environmental perturbations. (Author) [pt

  1. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei; Gregson, James; Heide, Felix; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non

  2. Markerless Motion Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis; Czarowicz, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the Associated Technologies aspect of the ICDVRAT event. Two industry leading markerless motion capture systems are examined that offer advancement in the field of rehabilitation. Residing at each end of the cost continuum, technical differences such as 3D versus 360 ...

  3. Motion sensing energy controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saphir, M.E.; Reed, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A moving object sensing processor responsive to slowly varying motions of a human being or other moving object in a zone of interest employs high frequency pulse modulated non-visible radiation generated by a radiation generating source, such as an LED, and detected by a detector sensitive to radiation of a preselected wavelength which generates electrical signals representative of the reflected radiation received from the zone of interest. The detectorsignals are processed to normalize the base level and remove variations due to background level changes, and slowly varying changes in the signals are detected by a bi-polar threshold detector. The control signals generated by the threshold detector in response to slowly varying motion are used to control the application of power to a utilization device, such as a set of fluoroescent lights in a room, the power being applied in response to detection of such motion and being automatically terminated in the absence of such motion after a predetermined time period established by a settable incrementable counter

  4. Algebraic Description of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidon, William C.

    1974-01-01

    An algebraic definition of time differentiation is presented and used to relate independent measurements of position and velocity. With this, students can grasp certain essential physical, geometric, and algebraic properties of motion and differentiation before undertaking the study of limits. (Author)

  5. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, A.

    1977-01-01

    History is surveyed of the development of the theory of rotational states in nuclei. The situation in the 40's when ideas formed of the collective states of a nucleus is evoked. The general rotation theory and the relation between the single-particle and rotational motion are briefly discussed. Future prospects of the rotation theory development are indicated. (I.W.)

  6. Motion Control with Vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir. Dick van Schenk Brill; Ir Peter Boots

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the work that is done by a group of I3 students at Philips CFT in Eindhoven, Netherlands. I3 is an initiative of Fontys University of Professional Education also located in Eindhoven. The work focuses on the use of computer vision in motion control. Experiments are done with

  7. Superluminal motion (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykin, G. B.; Romanets, E. A.

    2012-06-01

    Prior to the development of Special Relativity, no restrictions were imposed on the velocity of the motion of particles and material bodies, as well as on energy transfer and signal propagation. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, it was shown that a charge that moves at a velocity faster than the speed of light in an optical medium, in particular, in vacuum, gives rise to impact radiation, which later was termed the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation. Shortly after the development of Special Relativity, some researchers considered the possibility of superluminal motion. In 1923, the Soviet physicist L.Ya. Strum suggested the existence of tachyons, which, however, have not been discovered yet. Superluminal motions can occur only for images, e.g., for so-called "light spots," which were considered in 1972 by V.L. Ginzburg and B.M. Bolotovskii. These spots can move with a superluminal phase velocity but are incapable of transferring energy and information. Nevertheless, these light spots may induce quite real generation of microwave radiation in closed waveguides and create the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation in vacuum. In this work, we consider various paradoxes, illusions, and artifacts associated with superluminal motion.

  8. A Harmonic Motion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

  9. Choosing a Motion Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of three types of motion detectors: Doppler radar, infrared, and ultrasonic wave, and how they are used on school buses to prevent students from being killed by their own school bus. Other safety devices cited are bus crossing arms and a camera monitor system. (MLF)

  10. Load sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder forming 30-60% by volume of the composite, and wherein the PZT powder forms 40-50% by volume of the composite.

  11. Image Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Jerram, Paul; Stefanov, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    An image sensor of the type for providing charge multiplication by impact ionisation has plurality of multiplication elements. Each element is arranged to receive charge from photosensitive elements of an image area and each element comprises a sequence of electrodes to move charge along a transport path. Each of the electrodes has an edge defining a boundary with a first electrode, a maximum width across the charge transport path and a leading edge that defines a boundary with a second elect...

  12. Optischer Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenburg, A.; Fischer, A.

    1995-01-01

    An optical sensor (1) comprising an integrated optical arrangement has a waveguide (4) and at least one defraction grating (5) arranged in this waveguide. Light can launched into the waveguide via the defraction grating. In the reflection area of defraction grating, part of the light is dispersed through the waveguide at the beam angle for which the launch conditions and thus the defraction in the waveguide are fulfilled, so that, at this angle, a dark line (14) occurs whose position is evalu...

  13. Gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorogan, V.; Korotchenkov, Gh.; Vieru, T.; Prodan, I.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to the gas sensors on base of metal-oxide films (SnO, InO), which may be used for enviromental control, in the fireextinguishing systema etc. The gas includes an insulating substrate, an active layer, a resistive layer with ohmic contacts. The resistive layer has two or more regions with dofferent resistances , and on the active layer are two or more pairs of ohmic contacts

  14. Novel activity classification and occupancy estimation methods for intelligent HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Rajib; Kusy, Brano; Wall, Josh; Hu, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Reductions in HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) energy consumption can be achieved by limiting heating in the winter or cooling in the summer. However, the resulting low thermal comfort of building occupants may lead to an override of the HVAC control, which revokes its original purpose. This has led to an increased interest in modeling and real-time tracking of location, activity, and thermal comfort of building occupants for HVAC energy management. While thermal comfort is well understood, it is difficult to measure in real-time environments where user context changes dynamically. Encouragingly, plethora of sensors available on smartphone unleashes the opportunity to measure user contexts in real-time. An important contextual information for measuring thermal comfort is Metabolism rate, which changes based on current physical activities. To measure physical activity, we develop an activity classifier, which achieves 10% higher accuracy compared to Support Vector Machine and k-Nearest Neighbor. Office occupancy is another contextual information for energy-efficient HVAC control. Most of the phone based occupancy estimation techniques will fail to determine occupancy when phones are left at desk while sitting or attending meetings. We propose a novel sensor fusion method to detect if a user is near the phone, which achieves more than 90% accuracy. Determining activity and occupancy our proposed algorithms can help maintaining thermal comfort while reducing HVAC energy consumptions. - Highlights: • We propose activity and occupancy detection for efficient HVAC control. • Activity classifier achieves 10% higher accuracy than SVM and kNN. • For occupancy detection we propose a novel sensor fusion method. • Using Weighted Majority Voting we fuse microphone and accelerometer data on phone. • We achieve more than 90% accuracy in detecting occupancy.

  15. Human-computer interface glove using flexible piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Youngsu; Seo, Jeonggyu; Kim, Jun-Sik; Park, Jung-Min

    2017-05-01

    In this note, we propose a human-computer interface glove based on flexible piezoelectric sensors. We select polyvinylidene fluoride as the piezoelectric material for the sensors because of advantages such as a steady piezoelectric characteristic and good flexibility. The sensors are installed in a fabric glove by means of pockets and Velcro bands. We detect changes in the angles of the finger joints from the outputs of the sensors, and use them for controlling a virtual hand that is utilized in virtual object manipulation. To assess the sensing ability of the piezoelectric sensors, we compare the processed angles from the sensor outputs with the real angles from a camera recoding. With good agreement between the processed and real angles, we successfully demonstrate the user interaction system with the virtual hand and interface glove based on the flexible piezoelectric sensors, for four hand motions: fist clenching, pinching, touching, and grasping.

  16. Standard compliant communication of motion data in a telemonitoring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piro, Neltje Emma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interoperability is regarded as one of the key factors for the high acceptance of a telemonitoring system. In a general telemonitoring scenario for motion tracking, data recorded by inertial sensors should be sent from the patient's home to a central server for medical assessment by a physician. The objective of this work is to elaborate a concept on how continuously measured motion data can be transferred according to the guidelines of the and, and which adaptations are reasonable to achieve high efficiency.For the communication between sensor systems and a smartphone, the X73 standards family was applied. To cover the interface between the smartphone and a central information system, the proposed Version 2.6 was used as message exchange format. Because we are dealing with continually measured data, the HL7 message construction is oriented towards the . Two variants of the transmission of binary motion data with an HL7 message were implemented. An evaluation with regard to relevant criteria led to the decision to use REST-based web services for message transport instead of the SOAP-based variant proposed by the Continua Design Guidelines.To summarize, the developed approach uses extended standards for the transmission of motion data. The detailed results can support other work groups with comparable implementation needs. In order to achieve a fully interoperable system, the communication of motion data should be included in the guidelines of IHE and Continua Health Alliance, since motion sensors can be used in various monitoring scenarios such as in patients with multiple sclerosis or for rehabilitation in general.

  17. Prevalence of occupational disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhouse, M.L.

    1976-12-01

    When discussing the prevalence of occupational disease, both the prescribed diseases and the diseases where occupation has an important etiological component should be considered. Available statistics indicate that there has been a substantial improvement in the control of important prescribed diseases such as lead poisoning and pneumoconiosis. In the United Kingdom in 1900 there were 1000 cases of lead poisoning with 38 fatalities. This number decreased to 49 cases in 1956 when the number again increased due to a change from clinical diagnosis to diagnosis on biochemical evidence. The number of cases of coal workers' pneumoconiosis has declined since the 1950s but the number of coal miners has also been reduced by more than /sup 1///sub 3/. Industrial dermatitis is still a considerable problem. Vibration induced white fingers was mentioned as a disease with a very large occupational component but which for a variety of reasons is not prescribed for industrial injury benefit. Illnesses due to injuries to the back, to sciatica, disc disease or lumbago cause a very large amount of sickness and are often associated with heavy manual labor particularly if an awkward posture has to be adopted for the job. The average absence after a back injury in the London Docks was 61 days. Chronic bronchitis is the biggest single cause of sickness absence. Many studies have shown that the etiology is multifactorial but that hard physical work and a dusty environment in the work place are important adverse factors. Improved control of the working environment and methods of work may influence the development of chronic disease in the older worker.

  18. The energy saving potential of occupancy-based lighting control strategies in open-plan offices: the influence of occupancy patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, C.; van de Voort, T.; Rosemann, A.L.P.

    2018-01-01

    Occupancy-based lighting control strategies have been proven to be effective in diminishing offices’ energy consumption. These strategies have typically worked by controlling lighting at the room level but, recently, lighting systems have begun to be equipped with sensors on a more fine-grained

  19. Accompanied consultations in occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J; Hobson, H; Sharp, R

    2016-04-01

    Accompanied consultations are often reported as difficult by occupational physicians but have not been studied in the occupational health setting. To collect information about accompanied consultations and the impact of the companion on the consultation. We collected data on all accompanied consultations by two occupational physicians working in a private sector occupational health service over the course of 16 months. Accompanied consultations were matched to non-accompanied consultations for comparison. We collected data on 108 accompanied consultations. Accompanied consultations were more likely to be connected with ill health retirement (P Occupational health practitioners may benefit from better understanding of accompanied consultations and guidance on their management. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. In-motion, non-contact rail temperature measurement sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Preventing track buckling incidents (Figure 1) is important to the railroad industry. Track materials, rail steel, for example, experience thermal expansion, which refers to the increase in a materials volume as its temperature rises. Thermal expa...

  1. Application of a Leap Motion Sensor for Improved Drone Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    gas , and mineral exploration,  Domestic surveillance,  Policing activities by law enforcement agencies,  Forest fire detection,  Precision...search and rescue missions,  Security of pipelines , power lines, coastline and borders monitoring for illegal immigration and imports,  Delivery...5.71 3.9 inches Motor Type Brush Motors Material Plastic, Metal Power Source Electric Remote Distance 10 - 12 meters Control Channels 3

  2. Optimal Sensor-Based Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicle Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    FLS system designed for use on the NPS REMUS 100 AUV, for example, was designed with multiple blazed arrays mounted at a permanent tilt angle of VDE ... VDE . 116 Figure 5.6 Fraction of single-vehicle VDE simulations with feasible trajectories. 116 Figure 5.7 Average single-vehicle search performance...103 Table 5.1 Simulation parameters for Nt analysis (free parameters in bold). . 110 Table 5.2 Simulation parameters for VDE analysis (free parameters

  3. Gentrification and Occupancy Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Jakob; Wolkenstein, Gregor Fabio

    2018-01-01

    What, if anything, is wrong with gentrification? This paper addresses this question from the perspective of normative political theory. We argue that gentrification is a wrong insofar as it involves a violation of city-dwellers occupancy rights. We distinguish these rights from other forms...... of territorial rights, and discuss the different implications of the argument for urban governance. If we agree on the ultimate importance of being able to pursue one’s located life-plans, the argument goes, we must also agree on limiting the impact on gentrification on people’s lives. Limiting gentrification...

  4. Gentrification and Occupancy Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Jakob; Wolkenstein, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    What, if anything, is wrong with gentrification? This paper addresses this question from the perspective of normative political theory. We argue that gentrification is a wrong insofar as it involves a violation of city-dwellers occupancy rights. We distinguish these rights from other forms...... of territorial rights, and discuss the different implications of the argument for urban governance. If we agree on the ultimate importance of being able to pursue one’s located life-plans, the argument goes, we must also agree on limiting the impact on gentrification on people’s lives. Limiting gentrification’s...... impact, however, does not entail halting processes of gentrification once and for all....

  5. Small pitch pixel sensors for the CMS Phase II upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069790

    2016-01-01

    The CMS collaboration has undertaken two sensor R\\&D programs on thin n-in-p planar and 3D silicon sensor technologies. To cope with the increase in instantaneous luminosity, the pixel area has to be reduced to approximately 2500 $\\mu$m$^{2}$ to keep the occupancy at the percent level. Suggested pixel cell geometries to match this requirement are {50$\\times$50 }$\\mu$...

  6. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of occupational exposure is presented. Concepts and quantities used for radiation protection are explained as well as the ICRP system of dose limitation. The risks correlated to the limits are discussed. However, the actual exposure are often much lower than the limits and the average risk in radiation work is comparable with the average risk in other safe occupations. Actual exposures in various occupations are presented and discussed. (author)

  7. Occupational cancer. 4. enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, M.

    1991-01-01

    In the fourth, supplementary edition work related cancer illnesses which from 1978 to 1990 were recognized by the Industrial Professional Associations as occupational diseases are described. This covers: Type of occupational disease, organs affected, causal substances, hazardous professions. In addition, for every occupational-disease, detailed data are presented, e.g. latency periods and ages at death. 16 carcinogenic substances and substance classes are considered in this catalogue including ionizing radiation. (orig./MG) [de

  8. PET motion correction using PRESTO with ITK motion estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Melissa [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Science Faculty of University of Lisbon (Portugal); Caldeira, Liliana; Scheins, Juergen [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany); Matela, Nuno [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Science Faculty of University of Lisbon (Portugal); Kops, Elena Rota; Shah, N Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    The Siemens BrainPET scanner is a hybrid MRI/PET system. PET images are prone to motion artefacts which degrade the image quality. Therefore, motion correction is essential. The library PRESTO converts motion-corrected LORs into highly accurate generic projection data [1], providing high-resolution PET images. ITK is an open-source software used for registering multidimensional data []. ITK provides motion estimation necessary to PRESTO.

  9. PET motion correction using PRESTO with ITK motion estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Melissa; Caldeira, Liliana; Scheins, Juergen; Matela, Nuno; Kops, Elena Rota; Shah, N Jon

    2014-01-01

    The Siemens BrainPET scanner is a hybrid MRI/PET system. PET images are prone to motion artefacts which degrade the image quality. Therefore, motion correction is essential. The library PRESTO converts motion-corrected LORs into highly accurate generic projection data [1], providing high-resolution PET images. ITK is an open-source software used for registering multidimensional data []. ITK provides motion estimation necessary to PRESTO.

  10. Time-frequency analysis of human motion during rhythmic exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omkar, S N; Vyas, Khushi; Vikranth, H N

    2011-01-01

    Biomechanical signals due to human movements during exercise are represented in time-frequency domain using Wigner Distribution Function (WDF). Analysis based on WDF reveals instantaneous spectral and power changes during a rhythmic exercise. Investigations were carried out on 11 healthy subjects who performed 5 cycles of sun salutation, with a body-mounted Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) as a motion sensor. Variance of Instantaneous Frequency (I.F) and Instantaneous Power (I.P) for performance analysis of the subject is estimated using one-way ANOVA model. Results reveal that joint Time-Frequency analysis of biomechanical signals during motion facilitates a better understanding of grace and consistency during rhythmic exercise.

  11. Adaptive Motion Planning in Bin-Picking with Object Uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Thomas Fridolin; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Miró, Jaime Valls

    2017-01-01

    Doing motion planning for bin-picking with object uncertainties requires either a re-grasp of picked objects or an online sensor system. Using the latter is advantageous in terms of computational time, as no time is wasted doing an extra pick and place action. It does, however, put extra...... requirements on the motion planner, as the target position may change on-the-fly. This paper solves that problem by using a state adjusting Partial Observable Markov Decision Process, where the state space is modified between runs, to better fit earlier solved problems. The approach relies on a set...

  12. [News on occupational contact dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépy, Marie-Noëlle; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda

    2014-03-01

    Contact dermatitis--irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis and protein contact dermatitis--are the most common occupational skin diseases, most often localized to the hands. Contact urticaria is rarer The main occupational irritants are wet work, detergents and disinfectants, cutting oils, and solvents. The main occupational allergens are rubber additives, metals (chromium, nickel, cobalt), plastics (epoxy resins, acrylic), biocides and plants. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination, medical history and allergy testing. For a number of irritating or sensitizing agents, irritant or allergic dermatitis can be notified as occupational diseases. The two main prevention measures are reducing skin contact with irritants and complete avoidance of skin contact with offending allergens.

  13. [Drugs and occupational accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratzke, H; Albers, C

    1996-02-01

    In a case of a fatal occupational accident (construction worker, fall from roof, urine test positive for cocaine and THC, e.g. cannabis) the question arised to what extent those drug-related occupational accidents occur. In the literature only few cases, mainly dealing with cannabis influence, have been reported, however, a higher number is suspected. Cocaine and other stimulating drugs (amphetamine) are more often used to increase physical fitness. By direct or indirect interference with vigilance these compounds may provoke accidents. Due to the lack of a legal basis proving of the influence of drugs at the working place is still very limited, although highly sensitive chemical-toxicological assay procedures are available to detect even the chronic abuse (in hair). In the general conditions of accident insurances a compensation is excluded when alcohol is involved, but drugs are not mentioned. It is indeed difficult to establish a concentration limit for drugs like that existing for alcohol (1.1%). In each case the assay of the drug involved and exact knowledge of its specific effects is in an essential prerequisite to prove the causal relationship.

  14. Multi-User Low Intrusive Occupancy Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Azkario Rizky; Widyawan, Widyawan; Lazovik, Alexander; Aiello, Marco

    2018-03-06

    Smart spaces are those that are aware of their state and can act accordingly. Among the central elements of such a state is the presence of humans and their number. For a smart office building, such information can be used for saving energy and safety purposes. While acquiring presence information is crucial, using sensing techniques that are highly intrusive, such as cameras, is often not acceptable for the building occupants. In this paper, we illustrate a proposal for occupancy detection which is low intrusive; it is based on equipment typically available in modern offices such as room-level power-metering and an app running on workers' mobile phones. For power metering, we collect the aggregated power consumption and disaggregate the load of each device. For the mobile phone, we use the Received Signal Strength (RSS) of BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) nodes deployed around workspaces to localize the phone in a room. We test the system in our offices. The experiments show that sensor fusion of the two sensing modalities gives 87-90% accuracy, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Multi-User Low Intrusive Occupancy Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyawan, Widyawan; Lazovik, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Smart spaces are those that are aware of their state and can act accordingly. Among the central elements of such a state is the presence of humans and their number. For a smart office building, such information can be used for saving energy and safety purposes. While acquiring presence information is crucial, using sensing techniques that are highly intrusive, such as cameras, is often not acceptable for the building occupants. In this paper, we illustrate a proposal for occupancy detection which is low intrusive; it is based on equipment typically available in modern offices such as room-level power-metering and an app running on workers’ mobile phones. For power metering, we collect the aggregated power consumption and disaggregate the load of each device. For the mobile phone, we use the Received Signal Strength (RSS) of BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) nodes deployed around workspaces to localize the phone in a room. We test the system in our offices. The experiments show that sensor fusion of the two sensing modalities gives 87–90% accuracy, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:29509693

  16. Multi-User Low Intrusive Occupancy Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azkario Rizky Pratama

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Smart spaces are those that are aware of their state and can act accordingly. Among the central elements of such a state is the presence of humans and their number. For a smart office building, such information can be used for saving energy and safety purposes. While acquiring presence information is crucial, using sensing techniques that are highly intrusive, such as cameras, is often not acceptable for the building occupants. In this paper, we illustrate a proposal for occupancy detection which is low intrusive; it is based on equipment typically available in modern offices such as room-level power-metering and an app running on workers’ mobile phones. For power metering, we collect the aggregated power consumption and disaggregate the load of each device. For the mobile phone, we use the Received Signal Strength (RSS of BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy nodes deployed around workspaces to localize the phone in a room. We test the system in our offices. The experiments show that sensor fusion of the two sensing modalities gives 87–90% accuracy, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. The effect of occupational meaningfulness on occupational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Ivtzan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Existing research lacks a scholarly consensus on how to define and validly measure ‘meaningful work’ (e.g., Rosso, Dekas & Wrzesniewski, 2010. The following correlational study highlights the value of investigating meaningfulness in the context of occupational commitment. The study hypothesizes that occupational commitment is positively correlated with occupational meaningfulness, where meaningfulness is defined as the extent to which people’s occupations contribute to personal meaning in life. One-hundred and fifty-six full-time office based UK workers completed an online questionnaire including 18 questions measuring levels of occupational commitment (Meyer, Allen & Smith, 1993, in addition to six novel items measuring occupational meaningfulness. The results supported the hypothesis and also showed that the affective sub-type of occupational commitment had the highest correlation with occupational meaningfulness. Such results exhibit the importance of finding meaning at work, as well as the relevance of this to one’s level of commitment to his or her job. This paper argues that individuals should consider OM before choosing to take a specific role, whereas organizations ought to consider the OM of their potential candidates before recruiting them into a role. Possible directions for future research directions are also discussed.

  18. Occupational Mental Health, Labor Accidents and Occupational Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveillan, F. Pedro

    1973-01-01

    The article discusses the relationship between mental health and labor accidents as it pertains to accident prevention, treatment of accident victims, and their rehabilitation. It also comments briefly on mental health and occupational diseases and the scope of the field of occupational mental health from a Chilean perspective. (AG)

  19. Occupation and the relevance of primatology to occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, W

    1993-06-01

    The adaptive functions of occupation during the phylogenetic history of the human species and the ontogenetic development of individual primates re examined through a review of relevant research of wild and captive nonhuman primates. This review suggests that the effectiveness of occupation as a therapeutic medium throughout life span development is fundamentally tied to humankind's phylogenetic history. It is accordingly argued that there is considerable justification to maintain occupational therapy's historical commitment to therapeutic occupation as the profession's primary treatment modality. To support this commitment, questions to guide practice and research are identified that emanate from the primate literature and that are highly germane to the therapeutic process in occupational therapy. These questions address: (a) the relationship between the press of the various environments in which occupational therapists practice and subsequent opportunities availed to patients for engagement in occupation; (b) the relationship between the extent to which patients are or are not empowered to exert real control over their use of time and their eventual development of disabling conditions; and (c) the therapeutic efficacy of occupation as compared with other treatment approaches that are not comparably holistic.

  20. Ground motion effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume, J A [John A. Blume and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)