WorldWideScience

Sample records for oblique contractional orogens

  1. Granite ascent and emplacement during contractional deformation in convergent orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Solar, Gary S.

    1998-09-01

    Based on a case study in the Central Maine Belt of west-central Maine, U.S.A., it is proposed that crustal-scale shear zone systems provide an effective focussing mechanism for transfer of granite melt through the crust in convergent orogens. During contractional deformation, flow of melt in crustal materials at depths below the brittle-plastic transition is coupled with plastic deformation of these materials. The flow is driven by pressure gradients generated by buoyancy forces and tectonic stresses. Within the oblique-reverse Central Maine Belt shear zone system, stromatic migmatite and concordant to weakly discordant irregular granite sheets occur in zones of higher strain, which suggests percolative flow of melt to form the migmatite leucosomes and viscous flow of melt channelized in sheet-like bodies, possibly along fractures. Cyclic fluctuations of melt pressure may cause instantaneous changes in the effective permeability of the flow network if self-propagating melt-filled tensile and/or dilatant shear fractures are produced due to melt-enhanced embrittlement. Inhomogeneous migmatite and schlieric granite occur in zones of lower strain, which suggests migration of partially-molten material through these zones en masse by granular flow, and channelized flow of melt carrying entrained residue. Founded on the Central Maine Belt case study, we develop a model of melt extraction and ascent using the driving forces, stress conditions and crustal rheologies in convergent, especially transpressive orogens. Ascent of melt becomes inhibited with decreasing depth as the solidus is approached. For intermediate a(H 2O) muscovite-dehydration melting, the water-saturated solidus occurs between 400 and 200 MPa, near the brittle-plastic transition during high- T-low- P metamorphism, where the balance of forces favors (sub-) horizontal fracture propagation. Emplacement of melt may be accommodated by ductile flow and/or stoping of wall rock, and inflation may be accommodated

  2. Oblique-Length Contraction Factor in the Special Theory of Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarandache F.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper one generalizes the Lorentz Contraction Factor for the case when the lengths are moving at an oblique angle with respect to the motion direction. One shows that the angles of the moving relativistic objects are distorted.

  3. Ultrasound evaluation of muscle thickness changes in the external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles considering the influence of posture and muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Tomoaki; Abe, Yota; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate muscle thickness changes in the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles between the neutral position and trunk rotation, under a state of rest without voluntary contractions, and isometric contractions to both sides with resistance of 50% of the maximum trunk rotation strength. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 21 healthy young men. [Methods] Muscle thickness changes in the EO, IO, and TrA in each position and state were evaluated by ultrasound. The range of motion at maximum trunk rotation and the maximum strength of trunk rotation were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] In the neutral position and at 50% trunk rotation to the right side, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased with resistance. In both states, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased at 50% trunk rotation to the right side. [Conclusion] The muscular contractions of the IO and TrA were stronger during ipsilateral rotation than in the neutral position and with resistance than at rest. Moreover, the muscular contraction was strongest in the resistive state during ipsilateral rotation.

  4. Sediment provenance in contractional orogens: The detrital zircon record from modern rivers in the Andean fold-thrust belt and foreland basin of western Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, Tomas N.; Horton, Brian K.; McKenzie, N. Ryan; Stockli, Daniel F.; Odlum, Margaret L.

    2017-12-01

    This study analyzes detrital zircon U-Pb age populations from Andean rivers to assess whether active synorogenic sedimentation accurately records proportional contributions from varied bedrock source units across different drainage areas. Samples of modern river sand were collected from west-central Argentina (28-33°S), where the Andes are characterized by active uplift and deposition in diverse contractional provinces, including (1) hinterland, (2) wedge-top, (3) proximal foreland, and (4) distal broken foreland basin settings. Potential controls on sediment provenance were evaluated by comparing river U-Pb age distributions with predicted age spectra generated by a sediment mixing model weighted by relative catchment exposure (outcrop) areas for different source units. Several statistical measures (similarity, likeness, and cross-correlation) are employed to compare how well the area-weighted model predicts modern river age populations. (1) Hinterland basin provenance is influenced by local relief generated along thrust-bounded ranges and high zircon fertility of exposed crystalline basement. (2) Wedge-top (piggyback) basin provenance is controlled by variable lithologic durability among thrust-belt bedrock sources and recycled basin sediments. (3) Proximal foreland (foredeep) basin provenance of rivers and fluvial megafans accurately reflect regional bedrock distributions, with limited effects of zircon fertility and lithologic durability in large (>20,000 km2) second-order drainage systems. (4) In distal broken segments of the foreland basin, regional provenance signatures from thrust-belt and hinterland areas are diluted by local contributions from foreland basement-cored uplifts.

  5. Earthquake activity along the Himalayan orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, L.; Mori, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates formed the Himalayas, the largest orogenic belt on the Earth. The entire region accommodates shallow earthquakes, while intermediate-depth earthquakes are concentrated at the eastern and western Himalayan syntaxis. Here we investigate the focal depths, fault plane solutions, and source rupture process for three earthquake sequences, which are located at the western, central and eastern regions of the Himalayan orogenic belt. The Pamir-Hindu Kush region is located at the western Himalayan syntaxis and is characterized by extreme shortening of the upper crust and strong interaction of various layers of the lithosphere. Many shallow earthquakes occur on the Main Pamir Thrust at focal depths shallower than 20 km, while intermediate-deep earthquakes are mostly located below 75 km. Large intermediate-depth earthquakes occur frequently at the western Himalayan syntaxis about every 10 years on average. The 2015 Nepal earthquake is located in the central Himalayas. It is a typical megathrust earthquake that occurred on the shallow portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). Many of the aftershocks are located above the MHT and illuminate faulting structures in the hanging wall with dip angles that are steeper than the MHT. These observations provide new constraints on the collision and uplift processes for the Himalaya orogenic belt. The Indo-Burma region is located south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, where the strike of the plate boundary suddenly changes from nearly east-west at the Himalayas to nearly north-south at the Burma Arc. The Burma arc subduction zone is a typical oblique plate convergence zone. The eastern boundary is the north-south striking dextral Sagaing fault, which hosts many shallow earthquakes with focal depth less than 25 km. In contrast, intermediate-depth earthquakes along the subduction zone reflect east-west trending reverse faulting.

  6. Surface electromyography activity of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles during forced expiration in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kenichi; Nonaka, Koji; Ogaya, Shinya; Ogi, Atsushi; Matsunaka, Chiaki; Horie, Jun

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to characterize rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscle activity in healthy adults under expiratory resistance using surface electromyography. We randomly assigned 42 healthy adult subjects to 3 groups: 30%, 20%, and 10% maximal expiratory intraoral pressure (PEmax). After measuring 100% PEmax and muscle activity during 100% PEmax, the activity and maximum voluntary contraction of each muscle during the assigned experimental condition were measured. At 100% PEmax, the external oblique (pinternal oblique (pexternal oblique (pinternal oblique (pexternal oblique: pinternal oblique: p<0.01). The abdominal oblique muscles are the most active during forced expiration. Moreover, 30% PEmax is the minimum intensity required to achieve significant, albeit very slight, muscle activity during expiratory resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Washburn County had ortho/oblique photography flight done in April of 2009. Pictometry was contracted for the project., Published in 2009, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Washburn County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2009. Washburn County had ortho/oblique photography flight done in April of 2009. Pictometry...

  8. Neogene to recent contraction and basin inversion along the Nubia-Iberia boundary in SW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Adrià; Fernández, Oscar; Terrinha, Pedro; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2017-02-01

    The SW of Iberia is currently undergoing compression related to the convergence between Nubia and Iberia. Multiple compressive structures, and their related seismic activity, have been documented along the diffuse Nubia-Iberia plate boundary, including the Gorringe bank west of the Gulf of Cadiz, and the Betic-Rif orogen to the east. Despite seismic activity indicating a dominant compressive stress along the Algarve margin in the Gulf of Cadiz, the structures at the origin of this seismicity remain elusive. This paper documents the contractional structures that provide linkage across the Gulf of Cadiz and play a major role in defining the present-day seismicity and bathymetry of this area. The structures described in this paper caused the Neogene inversion of the Jurassic oblique passive margin that formed between the central Atlantic and the Ligurian Tethys. This example of a partially inverted margin provides insights into the factors that condition the inversion of passive margins.

  9. Analogue modeling of rotational orogenic wedges: implications for the Neogene structural evolution of the Southern Central Andes (33°-35°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, S. S.; Farías, M.; Pinto, L.; Yagupsky, D. L.; Guzman, C.; Charrier, R.

    2017-12-01

    Structural evolution of the southernmost Central Andes is a major subject of debate. Overall vergence within the range and how intra-continental subduction prompts Andean orogeny are controversial topics. Between 33°-35° S, strike of the western slope main structures shifts southwards, from N-S to NNE-SSW, defining the Maipo Orocline. Likely, width of the Principal Cordillera increases southwards. Despite, a progressive southward decrease in orogenic volume has been determined for the segment. To understand such latitudinal variations, and to provide explanations for overall vergence, we carry out analogue models of contractional wedges to explore upper-crustal thrust system development with a progressive variation of the convergence vector. The model setup consisted of a fixed plate on which a mobile plate generated a velocity discontinuity. The upper-crust was simulated using low-cohesive quartz sand. The mobile plate was fixed at its northern end to a pivot, thus progressively incrementing shortening and the obliquity of convergence southwards. PIV photogrammetry recorded wedge evolution. A classical doubly-vergent wedge was formed, consisting of a steep 35° dipping, static thrust on the retro-side, an uplifted core, and an incipient forward-breaking, 25° critically tapered imbricated thrust fan on the pro-side, wider (in plan-view) where the imposed shortening reached the maximum. The resulting wedge is reminiscent of: the steep western Andean slope, in which the bordering thrust has maintained its present position during the Neogene; and the east-vergent fold-and-thrust belt of the eastern slope. The asymmetrical doubly vergence of the model suggests west-directed subduction of the South American continent beneath the orogen. The southward width increase is geometrically comparable to the natural analogue, yet we observe a flat contrast with orogenic shortening and volume estimates for the region. This can be attributed to the fact that uplift and erosion

  10. Spatial evolution of Zagros collision zone in Kurdistan, NW Iran: constraints on Arabia-Eurasia oblique convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Shahriar; Yassaghi, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Stratigraphy, detailed structural mapping and a crustal-scale cross section across the NW Zagros collision zone provide constraints on the spatial evolution of oblique convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates since the Late Cretaceous. The Zagros collision zone in NW Iran consists of the internal Sanandaj-Sirjan, Gaveh Rud and Ophiolite zones and the external Bisotoun, Radiolarite and High Zagros zones. The Main Zagros Thrust is the major structure of the Zagros suture zone. Two stages of oblique deformation are recognized in the external part of the NW Zagros in Iran. In the early stage, coexisting dextral strike-slip and reverse dominated domains in the Radiolarite zone developed in response to deformation partitioning due to oblique convergence. Dextral-reverse faults in the Bisotoun zone are also compatible with oblique convergence. In the late stage, deformation partitioning occurred during southeastward propagation of the Zagros orogeny towards its foreland resulting in synchronous development of orogen-parallel strike-slip and thrust faults. It is proposed that the first stage was related to Late Cretaceous oblique obduction, while the second stage resulted from Cenozoic collision. The Cenozoic orogen-parallel strike-slip component of Zagros oblique convergence is not confined to the Zagros suture zone (Main Recent Fault) but also occurred in the external part (Marekhil-Ravansar fault system). Thus, it is proposed that oblique convergence of Arabian and Eurasian plates in Zagros collision zone initiated with oblique obduction in the Late Cretaceous followed by oblique collision in the late Tertiary, consistent with global plate reconstructions.

  11. Orogenic, Ophiolitic, and Abyssal Peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodinier, J.-L.; Godard, M.

    2003-12-01

    "Tectonically emplaced" mantle rocks include subcontinental, suboceanic, and subarc mantle rocks that were tectonically exhumed from the upper mantle and occur:(i) as dispersed ultramafic bodies, a few meters to kilometers in size, in suture zones and mountain belts (i.e., the "alpine," or "orogenic" peridotite massifs - De Roever (1957), Thayer (1960), Den Tex (1969));(ii) as the lower ultramafic section of large (tens of kilometers) ophiolite or island arc complexes, obducted on continental margins (e.g., the Oman Ophiolite and the Kohistan Arc Complex - Coleman (1971), Boudier and Coleman (1981), Burg et al. (1998));(iii) exhumed above the sea level in ocean basins (e.g., Zabargad Island in the Red Sea, St. Paul's islets in the Atlantic and Macquarie Island in the southwestern Pacific - Tilley (1947), Melson et al. (1967), Varne and Rubenach (1972), Bonatti et al. (1981)).The "abyssal peridotites" are samples from the oceanic mantle that were dredged on the ocean floor, or recovered from drill cores (e.g., Bonatti et al., 1974; Prinz et al., 1976; Hamlyn and Bonatti, 1980).Altogether, tectonically emplaced and abyssal mantle rocks provide insights into upper mantle compositions and processes that are complementary to the information conveyed by mantle xenoliths (See Chapter 2.05). They provide coverage to vast regions of the Earth's upper mantle that are sparsely sampled by mantle xenoliths, particularly in the ocean basins and beneath passive continental margins, back-arc basins, and oceanic island arcs.Compared with mantle xenoliths, a disadvantage of some tectonically emplaced mantle rocks for representing mantle compositions is that their original geodynamic setting is not exactly known and their significance is sometimes a subject of speculation. For instance, the provenance of orogenic lherzolite massifs (subcontinental lithosphere versus upwelling asthenosphere) is still debated (Menzies and Dupuy, 1991, and references herein), as is the original setting

  12. Reaching to virtual targets: The oblique effect reloaded in 3-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspiris-Rousellis, Christos; Siettos, Constantinos I; Evdokimidis, Ioannis; Smyrnis, Nikolaos

    2017-02-20

    Perceiving and reproducing direction of visual stimuli in 2-D space produces the visual oblique effect, which manifests as increased precision in the reproduction of cardinal compared to oblique directions. A second cognitive oblique effect emerges when stimulus information is degraded (such as when reproducing stimuli from memory) and manifests as a systematic distortion where reproduced directions close to the cardinal axes deviate toward the oblique, leading to space expansion at cardinal and contraction at oblique axes. We studied the oblique effect in 3-D using a virtual reality system to present a large number of stimuli, covering the surface of an imaginary half sphere, to which subjects had to reach. We used two conditions, one with no delay (no-memory condition) and one where a three-second delay intervened between stimulus presentation and movement initiation (memory condition). A visual oblique effect was observed for the reproduction of cardinal directions compared to oblique, which did not differ with memory condition. A cognitive oblique effect also emerged, which was significantly larger in the memory compared to the no-memory condition, leading to distortion of directional space with expansion near the cardinal axes and compression near the oblique axes on the hemispherical surface. This effect provides evidence that existing models of 2-D directional space categorization could be extended in the natural 3-D space. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Seismic anisotropies of the Songshugou peridotites (Qinling orogen, central China) and their seismic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Jung, Haemyeong; Song, Shuguang

    2018-01-01

    Though extensively studied, the roles of olivine crystal preferred orientations (CPOs or fabrics) in affecting the seismic anisotropies in the Earth's upper mantle are rather complicated and still not fully known. In this study, we attempted to address this issue by analyzing the seismic anisotropies [e.g., P-wave anisotropy (AVp), S-wave polarization anisotropy (AVs), radial anisotropy (ξ), and Rayleigh wave anisotropy (G)] of the Songshugou peridotites (dunite dominated) in the Qinling orogen in central China, based on our previously reported olivine CPOs. The seismic anisotropy patterns of olivine aggregates in our studied samples are well consistent with the prediction for their olivine CPO types; and the magnitude of seismic anisotropies shows a striking positive correlation with equilibrium pressure and temperature (P-T) conditions. Significant reductions of seismic anisotropies (AVp, max. AVs, and G) are observed in porphyroclastic dunite compared to coarse- and fine-grained dunites, as the results of olivine CPO transition (from A-/D-type in coarse-grained dunite, through AG-type-like in porphyroclastic dunite, to B-type-like in fine-grained dunite) and strength variation (weakening: A-/D-type → AG-type-like; strengthening: AG-type-like → B-type-like) during dynamic recrystallization. The transition of olivine CPOs from A-/D-type to B-/AG-type-like in the forearc mantle may weaken the seismic anisotropies and deviate the fast velocity direction and the fast S-wave polarization direction from trench-perpendicular to trench-oblique direction with the cooling and aging of forearc mantle. Depending on the size and distribution of the peridotite body such as the Songshugou peridotites, B- and AG-type-like olivine CPOs can be an additional (despite minor) local contributor to the orogen-parallel fast velocity direction and fast shear-wave polarization direction in the orogenic crust such as in the Songshugou area in Qinling orogen.

  14. Spatial evolution of Zagros collision zone in Kurdistan - NW Iran, constraints for Arabia-Eurasia oblique convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, S.; Yassaghi, A.

    2015-09-01

    Stratigraphy, detailed structural mapping and crustal scale cross section of the NW Zagros collision zone evolved during convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates were conducted to constrain the spatial evolution of the belt oblique convergence since Late Cretaceous. Zagros orogeny in NW Iran consists of the Sanandaj-Sirjan, Gaveh Rud and ophiolite zones as internal, and Bisotoun, Radiolarite and High Zagros zones as external parts. The Main Zagros Thrust is known as major structures of the Zagros suture zone. Two stages of deformation are recognized in the external parts of Zagros. In the early stage, presence of dextrally deformed domains beside the reversely deformed domains in the Radiolarite zone as well as dextral-reverse faults in both Bisotoun and Radiolarite zones demonstrates partitioning of the dextral transpression. In the late stage, southeastward propagation of the Zagros orogeny towards its foreland resulted in synchronous development of orogen-parallel strike-slip and pure thrust faults. It is proposed that the first stage related to the late Cretaceous oblique obduction, and the second stage is resulted from Cenozoic collision. Cenozoic orogen-parallel strike-slip component of Zagros oblique faulting is not confined to the Zagros suture zone (Main Recent) but also occurred in the more external part (Marekhil-Ravansar fault system). Thus, it is proposed that oblique convergence of Arabia-Eurasia plates occurred in Zagros collision zone since the Late Cretaceous.

  15. Metamorphic complexes in accretionary orogens: Insights from the Beishan collage, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongfang; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Han, Chunming; Yang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    The sources of ancient zircons and the tectonic attributions and origins of metamorphic complexes in Phanerozoic accretionary orogens have long been difficult issues. Situated between the Tianshan and Inner Mongolia orogens, the Beishan orogenic collage (BOC) plays a pivotal role in understanding the accretionary processes of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), particularly the extensive metamorphic and high-strained complexes on the southern margin. Despite their importance in understanding the basic architecture of the southern CAOB, little consensus has been reached on their ages and origins. Our new structural, LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data from the Baidunzi, Shibandun, Qiaowan and Wutongjing metamorphic complexes resolve current controversial relations. The metamorphic complexes have varied lithologies and structures. Detrital zircons from five para-metamorphic rocks yield predominantly Phanerozoic ages with single major peaks at ca. 276 Ma, 286 Ma, 427 Ma, 428 Ma and 461 Ma. Two orthogneisses have weighted mean ages of 294 ± 2 Ma and 304 ± 2 Ma with no Precambrian inherited zircons. Most Phanerozoic zircons show positive εHf(t) values indicating significant crustal growth in the Ordovician, Silurian and Permian. The imbricated fold-thrust deformation style combined with diagnostic zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic data demonstrate that the metamorphic rocks developed in a subduction-accretion setting on an arc or active continental margin. This setting and conclusion are supported by the nearby occurrence of Ordovician-Silurian adakites, Nb-rich basalts, Carboniferous-Permian ophiolitic mélanges, and trench-type turbidites. Current data do not support the presence of a widespread Precambrian basement in the evolution of the BOC; the accretionary processes may have continued to the early Permian in this part of the CAOB. These relationships have meaningful implications for the interpretation of the tectonic attributions and origins of other

  16. Deformation correlations, stress field switches and evolution of an orogenic intersection: The Pan-African Kaoko-Damara orogenic junction, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Goscombe

    2017-11-01

    transtensional reactivation of shear zones in the Kaoko Belt. Principle compressive stress switched from NW–SE to NNW–SSE shortening in both Kaoko and Damara Belts at this time. This marks the start of Congo-Kalahari stress field overwhelming the waning Rio De La Plata-Congo stress field, and from this time forward contraction across the Damara Belt generated the stress field governing subsequent low-strain events in the Kaoko Belt. (2 A sudden switch to E–W directed shortening at ∼508 Ma is interpreted as a far-field effect imposed on the Damara Orogenic System, most plausibly from arc obduction along the orogenic margin of Gondwana (Ross-Delamerian Orogen. (3 This imposed stress field established a N–S extension direction exploited by decompression melts, switch to vertical shortening, and triggered gravitational collapse and extension of the thermally weakened hot orogen core at ∼505 Ma, producing an extensional metamorphic core complex across the Central Zone.

  17. Late-orogenic mantle garnet pyroxenites evidence mantle refertilization during exhumation of orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazot, G.; France, L.; Kornprobst, J.; Dallai, L.; Vannucci, R.

    2008-12-01

    The petrological and geochemical study of garnet bearing pyroxenites from four localities (FMC, Morocco, Jordan, Cameroon) demonstrates that these rocks are cumulates crystallised in the lithospheric mantle domain. Metamorphic reactions, exsolutions and trace elements WR analysis demonstrate that their crystallisation pressure ranges between 1 and 2GPa (30 to 60km). The elaboration of the PTt paths for the studied samples attests of important movements in the respective lithospheres. Replaced in the geodynamical contexts, the samples are interpreted to represent the crystallisation of melts formed during exhumation of orogenic domains. Radiogenic isotopes (Sr-Nd) show that in a very same region, the samples are isotopicaly heterogeneous but are similar to the respective regional lithosphere. Initial isotopic ratios lead to propose that the FMC samples have crystallised at the end of the Hercynian orogen and that the samples from the other localities (Morocco, Jordan and Cameroon) have crystallised at the end of the Pan-African orogen. After recalculation at the crystallisation time, the isotopic compositions are in good agreement with the respective regional lithosphere ones and so samples of this study could represent the product of the melting of these lithospheres. The analyses of oxygen stable isotopes allow to precise the model; they show that twelve of the samples come from the melting of a lherzolitic mantle and that the four others come from the melting of a heterogeneous mantle formed of lherzolites and eclogites. The presence of some hydrous minerals such as amphiboles and micas and the trace elements WR analyses show that some of the samples were affected by a late metasomatic event. Results of our study show that thermal relaxation following orogenic events lead to the crystallisation of pyroxenites in the lithosphere. The presence of lage amounts of mantle pyroxenites in old orogenic regions confers physical and chemical particularities to these

  18. Mantle refertilization and magmatism in old orogenic regions: The role of late-orogenic pyroxenites

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Lydéric; Chazot, Gilles; Kornprobst, Jacques; Dallai, Luigi; Vannucci, Riccardo; Grégoire, Michel; Bertrand, Hervé; Boivin, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Pyroxenites and garnet pyroxenites are mantle heterogeneities characterized by a lower solidus temperature than the enclosing peridotites; it follows that they are preferentially involved during magma genesis. Constraining their origin, composition, and the interactions they underwent during their subsequent evolution is therefore essential to discuss the sources of magmatism in a given area. Pyroxenites could represent either recycling of crustal rocks in mantle domains or mantle originated rocks (formed either by olivine consuming melt-rock reactions or by crystal fractionation). Petrological and geochemical (major and trace elements, Sr-Nd and O isotopes) features of xenoliths from various occurrences (French Massif-Central, Jordan, Morocco and Cameroon) show that these samples represent cumulates crystallized during melt percolation at mantle conditions. They formed in mantle domains at pressures of 1-2 GPa during post-collisional magmatism (possibly Hercynian for the French Massif-Central, and Panafrican for Morocco, Jordan and Cameroon). The thermal re-equilibration of lithospheric domains, typical of the late orogenic exhumation stages, is also recorded by the samples. Most of the samples display a metasomatic overprint that may be either inherited or likely linked to the recent volcanic activity that occurred in the investigated regions. The crystallization of pyroxenites during late orogenic events has implications for the subsequent evolution of the mantle domains. The presence of large amounts of mantle pyroxenites in old orogenic regions indeed imparts peculiar physical and chemical characteristics to these domains. Among others, the global solidus temperature of the whole lithospheric domain will be lowered; in turn, this implies that old orogenic regions are refertilized zones where magmatic activity would be enhanced.

  19. Document segmentation via oblique cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jeremy; Branzan-Albu, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel solution for the layout segmentation of graphical elements in Business Intelligence documents. We propose a generalization of the recursive X-Y cut algorithm, which allows for cutting along arbitrary oblique directions. An intermediate processing step consisting of line and solid region removal is also necessary due to presence of decorative elements. The output of the proposed segmentation is a hierarchical structure which allows for the identification of primitives in pie and bar charts. The algorithm was tested on a database composed of charts from business documents. Results are very promising.

  20. Differential growth of the northern Tibetan margin: evidence for oblique stepwise rise of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Shi, Wenbei; Zhang, Weibin; Wu, Lin; Yang, Liekun; Wang, Yinzhi; Zhu, Rixiang

    2017-01-01

    Models of how high elevations formed across Tibet predict: (a) the continuous thickening of a “viscous sheet”; (b) time-dependent, oblique stepwise growth; and (c) synchronous deformation across Tibet that accompanied collision. Our new observations may shed light on this issue. Here, we use 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He thermochronology from massifs in the hanging walls of thrust structures along the Kunlun Belt, the first-order orogenic range at the northern Tibetan margin, to elucidate the exhumation history. The results show that these massifs, and hence the plateau margin, were subject to slow, steady exhumation during the Early Cenozoic, followed by a pulse of accelerated exhumation during 40–35 Ma. The exhumation rate increases westward (from ~0.22 to 0.34 and 0.5 mm/yr). The two-fold increase in exhumation in the western part (0.5 mm/yr) compared to the eastern part suggests westward increases in exhumation and compressional stress along the Kunlun Belt. We relate these observations to the mechanisms responsible for the oblique stepwise rise of Tibet. After collision, oblique subduction beneath Kunlun caused stronger compressional deformation in the western part than in the eastern part, resulting in differential growth and lateral extrusion. PMID:28117351

  1. Tectonic controls of Holocene erosion in a glaciated orogen

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Byron A.; Ehlers, Todd A.

    2018-01-01

    Recent work has highlighted a strong, worldwide, glacial impact of orogen erosion rates over the last 2 Ma. While it may be assumed that glaciers increased erosion rates when active, the degree to which past glaciations influence Holocene erosion rates through the adjustment of topography is not known. In this study, we investigate the influence of long-term tectonic and post-glacial topographic controls on erosion in a glaciated orogen, the Olympic Mountains, USA. We present 14 new 10Be and ...

  2. Metallogenic relationships to tectonic evolution - the Lachlan Orogen, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierlein, Frank P.; Gray, David R.; Foster, David A.

    2002-08-01

    Placing ore formation within the overall tectonic framework of an evolving orogenic system provides important constraints for the development of plate tectonic models. Distinct metallogenic associations across the Palaeozoic Lachlan Orogen in SE Australia are interpreted to be the manifestation of interactions between several microplates and three accretionary complexes in an oceanic back-arc setting. In the Ordovician, significant orogenic gold deposits formed within a developing accretionary wedge along the Pacific margin of Gondwana. At the same time, major porphyry Cu-Au systems formed in an oceanic island arc outboard of an evolved magmatic arc that, in turn, gave rise to granite-related Sn-W deposits in the Early Silurian. During the ongoing evolution of the orogen in the Late Silurian to Early Devonian, sediment-hosted Cu-Au and Pb-Zn deposits formed in short-lived intra-arc basins, whereas a developing fore-arc system provided the conditions for the formation of several volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits. Inversion of these basins and accretion to the Australian continental margin triggered another pulse of orogenic gold mineralisation during the final consolidation of the orogenic belt in the Middle to Late Devonian.

  3. Spatial and temporal distribution of the orogenic gold deposits in the Late Palaeozoic Variscides and Southern Tianshan: How orogenic are they?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boorder, H. de

    2012-01-01

    A principal uncertainty in models of orogenic ore deposits concerns their ages relative to orogenic processes. The yardstick of the relation has resided, loosely, in the peak of metamorphism. Age estimates in the Variscides and Tianshan indicate that most orogenic ore deposits were formed in the

  4. What Can Modern River Profiles Tell Us about Orogenic Processes and Orogen Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, K. X.

    2008-12-01

    Numerous lines of evidence from theory, numerical simulations, and physical experiments suggest that orogen evolution is strongly coupled to atmospheric processes through the interrelationships among climate, topography, and erosion rate. In terms of orogenic processes and orogen evolution, these relationships are most important at the regional scale (mean topographic gradient, mean relief above surrounding plains) largely because crustal deformation is most sensitive to erosional unloading averaged over sufficiently long wavelengths. For this reason, and because above moderate erosion rates (> 0.2 mm/yr) hillslope form becomes decoupled from erosion rate, attention has focused on the river network, and even on particularly large rivers. We now have data that demonstrates a monotonic relationship between erosion rate and the channel steepness index (slope normalized for differences in drainage area) in a variety of field settings. Consequently, study of modern river profiles can yield useful information on recent and on-going patterns of rock uplift. It is not yet possible, however, to quantitatively isolate expected climatic and lithologic influences on this relationship. A combination of field studies and theoretical analyses are beginning to reveal the timescale of landscape response, and thus the topographic memory of past conditions. At orogen scale, river profile response to a change in rock uplift rate is on the order of 1-10 Myr. Because of these long response times, the modern profiles of large rivers and their major tributaries can potentially preserve an interpretable record of rock uplift rates since the Miocene and are insensitive to short-term climatic fluctuations. Only significant increases in rock uplift rate, however, are likely to leave a clear topographic signature. Strategies have been developed to differentiate between temporal and spatial (tectonic, climatic, or lithologic) influences on channel profile form, especially where spatially

  5. Origin and structure of major orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz

    2016-04-01

    The formation of major exhumed strike-slip faults represents one of the most important dynamic processes affecting the evolution of the Earth's lithosphere and surface. Detailed models of the potential initiation and properties and architecture of orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip faults and how these relate to exhumation are rare. In this study, we deal with key properties controlling the development of major exhumed strike-slip fault systems, which are equivalent to the deep crustal sections of active across fault zones. We also propose two dominant processes for the initiation of orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip faults: (1) pluton-controlled and (2) metamorphic core complex-controlled strike-slip faults. In these tectonic settings, the initiation of faults occurs by rheological weakening along hot-to-cool contacts and guides the overall displacement and ultimate exhumation. These processes result in a specific thermal and structural architecture of such faults. These types of strike-slip dominated fault zones are often subparallel to mountain ranges and expose a wide variety of mylonitic, cataclastic and non-cohesive fault rocks, which were formed at different structural levels of the crust during various stages of faulting. The high variety of distinctive fault rocks is a potential evidence for recognition of these types of strike-slip faults. Exhumation of mylonitic rocks is, therefore, a common feature of such reverse oblique-slip strike-slip faults, implying major transtensive and/or transpressive processes accompanying pure strike-slip motion during exhumation. Some orogen-scale strike-slip faults nucleate and initiate along rheologically weak zones, e.g. at granite intrusions, zones of low-strength minerals, thermally weakened crust due to ascending fluids, and lateral borders of hot metamorphic core complexes. A further mechanism is the juxtaposition of mechanically strong mantle lithosphere to hot asthenosphere in continental transform faults (e.g., San

  6. Strike-slip faults offshore southern Taiwan: implications for the oblique arc-continent collision processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Shi-Chie; Liu, Char-Shine; Lundberg, Neil; Reed, Donald L.

    1997-06-01

    Taiwan is the site of present-day oblique arc-continent collision between the Luzon arc of the Philippine Sea plate and the Chinese continental margin. The major structural pattern revealed from marine geophysical studies in the area offshore southern Taiwan is that of a doubly-vergent orogenic belt, bounded by significant zones of thrusting on the west and east of the submarine accretionary wedge. Due to the oblique collision process, strike-slip faults could play an important role in this convergent domain. Topographic lineaments revealed from new digital bathymetry data and seismic reflection profiles confirm the existence of three sets of strike-slip faults in the collision-subduction zone offshore southern Taiwan: the N-S-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults within the Luzon volcanic arc, the NE-SW-trending right-lateral strike-slip faults across the accretionary wedge, and the NNE-SSW-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults lie in the frontal portion of the accretionary wedge. These strike-slip faults overprint pre-existing folds and thrusts and may convert into oblique thrusts or thrusts as the forearc blocks accrete to the mountain belt. A bookshelf rotation model is used to explain the observed geometrical relationships of these strike-slip fault systems. Based on this model, the counter-clockwise rotation of the forearc blocks in the area offshore southern Taiwan could have caused extrusion of the accretionary wedge material into the forearc basin. The originally continuous forearc basin is thus deformed into several closed and separate proto-collisional basins such as the Southern Longitudinal Trough and Taitung Trough. A tectonic evolution model which emphasizes on the development of various structures at different stages of the oblique arc-continent collision for the Taiwan mountain belt is proposed.

  7. Oblique photon expansion of QED structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahine, C.

    1986-01-01

    In the oblique photon expansion, the collinear part of photon emission is summed up to all orders in perturbation theory. The number of oblique or non-collinear photons is the expansion order. Unlike in perturbation theory, every term of the expansion is both infrared finite and gauge invariant. The zero oblique photon contribution to the electromagnetic structure tensor in QED is computed in detail. The behaviors of the structure functions F1 and F2 are discussed in the soft and ultra-soft limits

  8. 3-D Numerical Modelling of Oblique Continental Collisions with ASPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatun, L.; Pysklywec, R.

    2017-12-01

    Among the fundamental types of tectonic plate boundaries, continent-continent collision is least well understood. Deformation of the upper and middle crustal layers can be inferred from surface structures and geophysical imaging, but the fate of lower crustal rocks and mantle lithosphere is not well resolved. Previous research suggests that shortening of mantle lithosphere generally may be occurring by either: 1) a distributed thickening with a formation of a Raleigh-Tailor (RT) type instability (possibly accompanied with lithospheric folding); or 2) plate-like subduction, which can be one- or two-sided, with or without delamination and slab break-off; a combination of both could be taking place too. 3-D features of the orogens such as along-trench material transfer, bounding subduction zones can influence the evolution of the collision zone significantly. The current study was inspired by South Island of New Zealand - a young collision system where a block of continental crust is being shortened by the relative Australian-Pacific plate motion. The collision segment of the plate boundary is relatively small ( 800 km), and is bounded by oppositely verging subduction zones to the North and South. Here, we present results of 3-D forward numerical modelling of continental collision to investigate some of these processes. To conduct the simulations, we used ASPECT - a highly parallel community-developed code based on the Finite Element method. Model setup for three different sets of models featured 2-D vertical across strike, 3-D with periodic front and back walls, and 3-D with open front and back walls, with velocities prescribed on the left and right faces. We explored the importance of values of convergent velocity, strike-slip velocity and their ratio, which defines the resulting velocity direction relative to the plate boundary (obliquity). We found that higher strike-slip motion promotes strain localization, weakens the lithosphere close to the plate boundary and

  9. Ionospheric Oblique Incidence Soundings by Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The oblique incidence sweep-frequency ionospheric sounding technique uses the same principle of operation as the vertical incidence sounder. The primary difference...

  10. Thermal transport in oblique finned microminichannels

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yan; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Lee, Yong Jiun

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this book is to introduce and give an overview of a novel, easy, and highly effective heat transfer augmentation technique for single-phase micro/minichannel heat sink. The specific objectives of the volume are to: Introduce a novel planar oblique fin microchannel and cylindrical oblique fin minichannel heat sink design using passive heat transfer enhancement techniques  Investigate the thermal transport in both planar and cylindrical oblique fin structures through numerical simulation and systematic experimental studies. Evaluate the feasibility of employing the proposed solution in cooling non-uniform heat fluxes and hotspot suppression Conduct the similarity analysis and parametric study to obtain empirical correlations to evaluate the total heat transfer rate of the oblique fin heat sink Investigate the flow mechanism and optimize the dimensions of cylindrical oblique fin heat sink Investigate the influence of edge effect on flow and temperature uniformity in these oblique fin chan...

  11. Banking contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Durčáková, Klára

    2010-01-01

    Resumé - Bank Contracts Bank Contracts are an integral part of our everyday lives. Citizen and bussines entities used bank contracts very often. Despite this fact we can't find legal definition in the Czech law. Banking contracts understand contracts that are signed by banks in their business activities and obligations under these contracts arise. While the banking contracts have been widely used, in Czech law there is not too much literature and judgements abou this issue. Lack of legislatio...

  12. Oblique convergence and the lobate mountain belts of western Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Saad S. B.; Davis, Dan M.

    1997-01-01

    The thin-skinned structures of the Pakistani convergent margin have formed as a consequence of the relative motion between India and Eurasia. Most of the resultant motion is being accommodated along or near the current edge of the Eurasian plate: the southwest-northeast striking Chaman fault zone. It has been observed at oblique margins that the total plate motion is resolved into a component parallel to the margin, accommodated through strike-slip faulting, and a component normal to the margin taken up as contraction. However, the orientations of structures along the Pakistani convergent margin in and around the Sulaiman lobe and Sulaiman Range cannot be explained simply by resolving the plate motion vector into components normal and parallel to the plate boundary. Our modeling suggests that the complex juxtaposition of strike-slip faults with thrust faults of various orientations can be explained by the presence of a block centered upon the Katawaz basin that translates along the southwest-northeast structural barrier of the Chaman fault zone, moving with respect to both Eurasia and India. As this relatively rigid block moves northeastward relative to Asia, it causes deformation of the sedimentary cover and is responsible for much of the structural complexity in the Pakistani foreland. Our simple model explains several first-order features of this oblique margin, such as the eastward-facing Sulaiman Range, the strike-slip Kingri fault (located between the Sulaiman lobe and Sulaiman Range), and the reentrant at Sibi. This leads us to conclude that very complex structural and geometric relationships at oblique convergent plate boundaries can result from the accommodation of strain with simple initial geometric constraints.

  13. Strain histories from the eastern Central Range of Taiwan: A record of advection through a collisional orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondro, Claire A.; Fisher, Donald; Yeh, En-Chao

    2017-05-01

    In the eastern Central Range of Taiwan there is a regional variation in the orientation of maximum finite stretch across the slate belt, with down-dip maximum stretch found in the western Central Range and along-strike maximum stretch in the eastern Central Range. Incremental strain histories from syntectonic fibers in pyrite pressure shadows indicate a progressive change in extension direction from down dip to along strike during deformation, there is a corresponding temporal variation in stretching direction shown in samples from the eastern edge of the Central Range, a pattern that mimics the regional west-to-east spatial variation. These observed temporal and spatial strain distributions are used to evaluate the kinematics associated with slaty cleavage development during advection through the Taiwan orogenic system. The subduction zone beneath the island of Taiwan is influenced by two types of obliquity that have the potential to generate the observed along-strike stretching. First, the plate motion vector of the Philippine Sea plate relative to the Eurasian plate is slightly oblique to the regional strike of the mountain range, which could result in partitioning of strike slip shearing into the interior of the collision. Second, the north-south Luzon volcanic arc on the Philippine Sea Plate is obliquely oriented relative to the northeast-southwest edge of the Eurasian continental margin, which could result in lateral extrusion of the ductile core of the range. Incremental strain histories in cleavage-parallel samples represent a time-for-space equivalence where the stretching direction is fixed relative to the position within the mountain belt architecture (e.g., the topographic divide), and temporal variations in the eastern central Range reflect lateral advection through the strain field in response to accretionary and erosional fluxes. Incremental strain histories in cleavage perpendicular samples show both clockwise and counter-clockwise rotation of

  14. Seismological Constraints on Lithospheric Evolution in the Appalachian Orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, K. M.; Hopper, E.; Hawman, R. B.; Wagner, L. S.

    2017-12-01

    Crust and mantle structures beneath the Appalachian orogen, recently resolved by seismic data from the EarthScope SESAME Flexible Array and Transportable Array, provide new constraints on the scale and style of the Appalachian collision and subsequent lithospheric evolution. In the southern Appalachians, imaging with Sp and Ps phases reveals the final (Alleghanian) suture between the crusts of Laurentia and the Gondwanan Suwannee terrane as a low angle (Kellogg, 2017) isostatic arguments indicate crustal thicknesses were 15-25 km larger at the end of the orogeny, indicating a thick crustal root across the region. The present-day residual crustal root beneath the Blue Ridge mountains is estimated to have a density contrast with the mantle of only 104±20 kg/m3. This value is comparable to other old orogens but lower than values typical of young or active orogens, indicating a loss of lower crustal buoyancy over time. At mantle depths, the negative shear velocity gradient that marks the transition from lithosphere to asthenosphere, as illuminated by Sp phases, varies across the Appalachian orogen. This boundary is shallow beneath the northeastern U.S. and in the zone of Eocene volcanism in Virginia, where low velocity anomalies occur in the upper mantle. These correlations suggest recent active lithosphere-asthenosphere interaction.

  15. Superior oblique luxation and trochlear luxation as new concepts in superior oblique muscle weakening surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mombaerts, I.; Koornneef, L.; Everhard-Halm, Y. S.; Hughes, D. S.; Maillette de Buy Wenniger-Prick, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    We used superior oblique luxation and trochlear luxation as new surgical procedures to treat acquired Brown's syndrome and superior oblique muscle overaction. We studied nine patients (11 eyes) who underwent trochlear surgery between 1988 and 1993. Four patients had acquired Brown's syndrome and

  16. Optically sectioned imaging by oblique plane microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Lin, Ziduo; Lyon, Alex R.; MacLeod, Ken T.; Dunsby, Chris

    2011-03-01

    Oblique Plane Microscopy (OPM) is a light sheet microscopy technique that combines oblique illumination with correction optics that tilt the focal plane of the collection system. OPM can be used to image conventionally mounted specimens on coverslips or tissue culture dishes and has low out-of-plane photobleaching and phototoxicity. No moving parts are required to achieve an optically sectioned image and so high speed optically sectioned imaging is possible. The first OPM results obtained using a high NA water immersion lens on a commercially available inverted microscope frame are presented, together with a measurement of the achievable optical resolution.

  17. Effects of squats accompanied by hip joint adduction on the selective activity of the vastus medialis oblique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyong, In Hyouk

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effective selective activation method of the vastus medialis oblique for knee joint stabilization in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy college students (9 males, 6 females); mean age, height, and weight: 22.2 years, 167.8 cm, and 61.4 kg, respectively) participated. The knee angle was held at 60°. Muscle activities were measured once each during an ordinary squat and a squat accompanied by hip joint adduction. The muscle activities of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis were measured by electromyography for five seconds while maintaining 60° knee flexion. Electromyography signals were obtained at a sampling rate of 1,000 Hz and band pass filtering at 20-50 Hz. The obtained raw root mean square was divided by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction and expressed as a percentage. The selective activity of the vastus medialis oblique was assessed according to the muscle activity ratio of the vastus medialis oblique to the vastus lateralis. [Results] The activity ratio of the vastus medialis oblique was higher during a squat with hip joint adduction than without. [Conclusion] A squat accompanied by hip joint adduction is effective for the selective activation of the vastus medialis oblique.

  18. Angled oblique sagittal MR imaging of rotator cuff tears: comparison with standard oblique sagittal images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuite, M.J.; Asinger, D.; Orwin, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To compare the accuracy for diagnosing rotator cuff tears of oblique coronal images supplemented with standard oblique sagittal images versus thinner-section angled oblique sagittal images.Design and patients. The study included 75 consecutive patients who had a shoulder MR scan followed by arthroscopy. MR images included oblique coronal, oblique sagittal (4 mm thick, 1 mm interslice gap), and angled oblique sagittal (3 mm/0.2 mm) images perpendicular to the lateral cuff. A musculoskeletal staff radiologist and fellow separately evaluated the cuff for tears on the oblique coronal images supplemented with either the oblique sagittal or the angled sagittal images.Results. For distinguishing a cuff tear from no tear, the staff radiologist had an accuracy of 0.76 (95% confidence interval: 0.67, 0.85) with the standard sagittal set, and 0.88 (0.80, 0.95) with the angled set (P=0.04). There was a nonsignificant improvement in accuracy for the fellow, calculated as 0.73 (0.63, 0.83) on the standard sagittal set and 0.76 (0.67, 0.85) on the angled set. Both readers also improved their diagnostic accuracy for partial-thickness tears with the angled set, although the improvement was statistically significant only for the staff radiologist.Conclusion. There is a slight improvement in accuracy for diagnosing rotator cuff tears, particularly partial-thickness tears, for the more experienced radiologist using thinner-section angled oblique sagittal images. These images may be useful as a supplemental sequence in patients where it is important to identify partial-thickness tears accurately. (orig.)

  19. Angled oblique sagittal MR imaging of rotator cuff tears: comparison with standard oblique sagittal images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, M J; Asinger, D; Orwin, J F [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Madison, WI (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Objective. To compare the accuracy for diagnosing rotator cuff tears of oblique coronal images supplemented with standard oblique sagittal images versus thinner-section angled oblique sagittal images.Design and patients. The study included 75 consecutive patients who had a shoulder MR scan followed by arthroscopy. MR images included oblique coronal, oblique sagittal (4 mm thick, 1 mm interslice gap), and angled oblique sagittal (3 mm/0.2 mm) images perpendicular to the lateral cuff. A musculoskeletal staff radiologist and fellow separately evaluated the cuff for tears on the oblique coronal images supplemented with either the oblique sagittal or the angled sagittal images.Results. For distinguishing a cuff tear from no tear, the staff radiologist had an accuracy of 0.76 (95% confidence interval: 0.67, 0.85) with the standard sagittal set, and 0.88 (0.80, 0.95) with the angled set (P=0.04). There was a nonsignificant improvement in accuracy for the fellow, calculated as 0.73 (0.63, 0.83) on the standard sagittal set and 0.76 (0.67, 0.85) on the angled set. Both readers also improved their diagnostic accuracy for partial-thickness tears with the angled set, although the improvement was statistically significant only for the staff radiologist.Conclusion. There is a slight improvement in accuracy for diagnosing rotator cuff tears, particularly partial-thickness tears, for the more experienced radiologist using thinner-section angled oblique sagittal images. These images may be useful as a supplemental sequence in patients where it is important to identify partial-thickness tears accurately. (orig.)

  20. Obliquity Modulation of the Incoming Solar Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Shou; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Based on a basic principle of orbital resonance, we have identified a huge deficit of solar radiation induced by the combined amplitude and frequency modulation of the Earth's obliquity as possibly the causal mechanism for ice age glaciation. Including this modulation effect on solar radiation, we have performed model simulations of climate change for the past 2 million years. Simulation results show that: (1) For the past 1 million years, temperature fluctuation cycles were dominated by a 100-Kyr period due to amplitude-frequency resonance effect of the obliquity; (2) From 2 to 1 million years ago, the amplitude-frequency interactions. of the obliquity were so weak that they were not able to stimulate a resonance effect on solar radiation; (3) Amplitude and frequency modulation analysis on solar radiation provides a series of resonance in the incoming solar radiation which may shift the glaciation cycles from 41-Kyr to 100-Kyr about 0.9 million years ago. These results are in good agreement with the marine and continental paleoclimate records. Thus, the proposed climate response to the combined amplitude and frequency modulation of the Earth's obliquity may be the key to understanding the glaciation puzzles in paleoclimatology.

  1. A note on oblique water entry

    KAUST Repository

    Moore, M. R.; Howison, S. D.; Ockendon, J. R.; Oliver, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    A minor error in Howison et al. (J. Eng. Math. 48:321-337, 2004) obscured the fact that the points at which the free surface turns over in the solution of the Wagner model for the oblique impact of a two-dimensional body are directly related

  2. Oblique-Flying-Wing Supersonic Transport Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Velden, Alexander J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Oblique-flying-wing supersonic airplane proposed as possible alternative to B747B (or equivalent). Tranports passengers and cargo as fast as twice speed of sound at same cost as current subsonic transports. Flies at same holding speeds as present supersonic transports but requires only half takeoff distance.

  3. A case of dorsal oblique fingertip amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shinsuke; Tatebe, Masahiro; Morita, Akimasa; Yoneda, Hidemasa; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    This study reports successful finger replantation in a patient with a dorsal oblique fingertip amputation. When repairing this unique type of injury, an evaluation of the remaining vessels is more useful for successful replantation than the anatomical zone classification. We propose that Kasai's classification is appropriate for guiding treatment.

  4. A case of dorsal oblique fingertip amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Shinsuke; Tatebe, Masahiro; Morita, Akimasa; Yoneda, Hidemasa; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study reports successful finger replantation in a patient with a dorsal oblique fingertip amputation. When repairing this unique type of injury, an evaluation of the remaining vessels is more useful for successful replantation than the anatomical zone classification. We propose that Kasai?s classification is appropriate for guiding treatment.

  5. Orientation Strategies for Aerial Oblique Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, A.; Moré, J.

    2012-07-01

    Oblique aerial images become more and more distributed to fill the gap between vertical aerial images and mobile mapping systems. Different systems are on the market. For some applications, like texture mapping, precise orientation data are required. One point is the stable interior orientation, which can be achieved by stable camera systems, the other a precise exterior orientation. A sufficient exterior orientation can be achieved by a large effort in direct sensor orientation, whereas minor errors in the angles have a larger effect than in vertical imagery. The more appropriate approach is by determine the precise orientation parameters by photogrammetric methods using an adapted aerial triangulation. Due to the different points of view towards the object the traditional aerotriangulation matching tools fail, as they produce a bunch of blunders and require a lot of manual work to achieve a sufficient solution. In this paper some approaches are discussed and results are presented for the most promising approaches. We describe a single step approach with an aerotriangulation using all available images; a two step approach with an aerotriangulation only of the vertical images plus a mathematical transformation of the oblique images using the oblique cameras excentricity; and finally the extended functional model for a bundle block adjustment considering the mechanical connection between vertical and oblique images. Beside accuracy also other aspects like efficiency and required manual work have to be considered.

  6. Oblique patterned etching of vertical silicon sidewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Burckel, D.; Finnegan, Patrick S.; David Henry, M.; Resnick, Paul J.; Jarecki, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    A method for patterning on vertical silicon surfaces in high aspect ratio silicon topography is presented. A Faraday cage is used to direct energetic reactive ions obliquely through a patterned suspended membrane positioned over the topography. The technique is capable of forming high-fidelity pattern (100 nm) features, adding an additional fabrication capability to standard top-down fabrication approaches.

  7. Simple Way of Generating Oblique Impact

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Jan; Dvořáková, Pavla; Veselý, Eduard

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2007), s. 28-32 ISSN 0732-8818 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : oblique impact * exploding wire * holography Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery Impact factor: 0.400, year: 2007

  8. Injury risk functions for frontal oblique collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andricevic, Nino; Junge, Mirko; Krampe, Jonas

    2018-03-09

    The objective of this article was the construction of injury risk functions (IRFs) for front row occupants in oblique frontal crashes and a comparison to IRF of nonoblique frontal crashes from the same data set. Crashes of modern vehicles from GIDAS (German In-Depth Accident Study) were used as the basis for the construction of a logistic injury risk model. Static deformation, measured via displaced voxels on the postcrash vehicles, was used to calculate the energy dissipated in the crash. This measure of accident severity was termed objective equivalent speed (oEES) because it does not depend on the accident reconstruction and thus eliminates reconstruction biases like impact direction and vehicle model year. Imputation from property damage cases was used to describe underrepresented low-severity crashes-a known shortcoming of GIDAS. Binary logistic regression was used to relate the stimuli (oEES) to the binary outcome variable (injured or not injured). IRFs for the oblique frontal impact and nonoblique frontal impact were computed for the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) 2+ and 3+ levels for adults (18-64 years). For a given stimulus, the probability of injury for a belted driver was higher in oblique crashes than in nonoblique frontal crashes. For the 25% injury risk at MAIS 2+ level, the corresponding stimulus for oblique crashes was 40 km/h but it was 64 km/h for nonoblique frontal crashes. The risk of obtaining MAIS 2+ injuries is significantly higher in oblique crashes than in nonoblique crashes. In the real world, most MAIS 2+ injuries occur in an oEES range from 30 to 60 km/h.

  9. Inferior Oblique Overaction: Anterior Transposition Versus Myectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavi, Zhale; Feizi, Mohadeseh; Behradfar, Narges; Yaseri, Mehdi; Sayanjali, Shima; Motevaseli, Tahmine; Sabbaghi, Hamideh; Faghihi, Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    To compare the efficacy of inferior oblique myectomy and anterior transposition for correcting inferior oblique overaction (IOOA). This retrospective study was conducted on 56 patients with IOOA who had either myectomy or anterior transposition of the inferior oblique muscle from 2010 to 2015. The authors compared preoperative and postoperative inferior oblique muscle function grading (-4 to +4) as the main outcome measure and vertical and horizontal deviation, dissociated vertical deviation (DVD), and A- and V-pattern between the two surgical groups as secondary outcomes. A total of 99 eyes of 56 patients with a mean age of 5.9 ± 6.5 years were included (47 eyes in the myectomy group and 52 eyes in the anterior transposition group). There were no differences in preoperative best corrected visual acuity, amblyopia, spherical equivalent, and primary versus secondary IOOA between the two groups. Both surgical procedures were effective in reducing IOOA and satisfactory results were similar between the two groups: 61.7% and 67.3% in the myectomy and anterior transposition groups, respectively (P = .56). After adjustment for the preoperative DVD, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups postoperatively. The preoperative hypertropia was 6 to 14 and 6 to 18 prism diopters (PD) in the myectomy and anterior transposition groups, respectively. After surgery, no patient had a vertical deviation greater than 5 PD. Both the inferior oblique myectomy and anterior transposition procedures are effective in reducing IOOA with similar satisfactory results. DVD and hypertropia were also corrected similarly by these two surgical procedures. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54(4):232-237.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Orogenic structural inheritance and rifted passive margin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Mora, Claudio A.; Huismans, Ritske S.

    2016-04-01

    Structural inheritance is related to mechanical weaknesses in the lithosphere due to previous tectonic events, e.g. rifting, subduction and collision. The North and South Atlantic rifted passive margins that formed during the breakup of Western Gondwana, are parallel to the older Caledonide and the Brasiliano-Pan-African orogenic belts. In the South Atlantic, 'old' mantle lithospheric fabric resulting from crystallographic preferred orientation of olivine is suggested to play a role during rifted margin formation (Tommasi and Vauchez, 2001). Magnetometric and gravimetric mapping of onshore structures in the Camamu and Almada basins suggest that extensional faults are controlled by two different directions of inherited older Brasiliano structures in the upper lithosphere (Ferreira et al., 2009). In the South Atlantic Campos Basin, 3D seismic data indicate that inherited basement structures provide a first order control on basin structure (Fetter, 2009). Here we investigate the role of structural inheritance on the formation of rifted passive margins with high-resolution 2D thermo-mechanical numerical experiments. The numerical domain is 1200 km long and 600 km deep and represents the lithosphere and the sublithospheric mantle. Model experiments were carried out by creating self-consistent orogenic inheritance where a first phase of orogen formation is followed by extension. We focus in particular on the role of varying amount of orogenic shortening, crustal rheology, contrasting styles of orogen formation on rifted margin style, and the time delay between orogeny and subsequent rifted passive formation. Model results are compared to contrasting structural styles of rifted passive margin formation as observed in the South Atlantic. Ferreira, T.S., Caixeta, J.M., Lima, F.D., 2009. Basement control in Camamu and Almada rift basins. Boletim de Geociências da Petrobrás 17, 69-88. Fetter, M., 2009. The role of basement tectonic reactivation on the structural evolution

  11. Dynamic Settings and Interactions between Basin Subsidence and Orogeny in Zhoukou Depression and Dabie Orogenic Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the geo-dynamic setting and the relation between orogenic uplift and basin subsidence in the inland Zhoukou depression and Dabie orogenic belt. Since the Mesozoic the evolution of Zhoukou depression can be divided into three stages: (1) foreland basin, (2) transitional stage, (3) fault depression. Formation and variations of basin were not only related to the orogenesis, but also consistent with the orogenic uplift.

  12. Inferior oblique weakening surgery on ocular torsion in congenital superior oblique palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinho Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate changes in fundus excyclotorsion after inferior oblique myectomy or myotomy.METHODS:The records of 21 patients undergoing strabismus surgery by a single surgeon between 2009 and 2012 were examined. Only patients who had undergone an inferior oblique myectomy or myotomy, with or without horizontal rectus muscle surgery, were evaluated. Digital fundus photographs were obtained, and the angle formed by a horizontal line passing through the optic disc center and a reference line connecting the foveola and optic disc center was measured. Associated clinical factors examined include age at the time of surgery, presence or absence of a head tilt, degree of preoperative vertical deviation, torsional angle, inferior oblique muscle overaction/superior oblique muscle underaction, and surgery laterality. Whether the procedure was performed alone or in combination with a horizontal rectus muscle surgery was also examined.RESULTS:Mean preoperative torsional angle was 12.0±6.4°, which decreased to 6.9±5.7° after surgery (P<0.001, paired t-test. Torsional angle also decreased from 15.1±7.0° to 6.2±4.3° in the myectomy group (P<0.001, paired t-test but there were no significant changes in the myotomy group (P=0.093, Wilcoxon signed rank test. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that preoperative torsional angle, degree of inferior oblique overaction, and age at surgery independently and significantly affected postoperative torsional angle.CONCLUSION:Mean torsional angle decreased after inferior oblique myectomy. Degree of preoperative torsional angle, inferior oblique overaction, and age at surgery influence postoperative torsional angle.

  13. Comparative study of unilateral versus bilateral inferior oblique recession/anteriorization in unilateral inferior oblique overaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Attiat M; Kassem, Rehab R

    2018-05-01

    To compare the effect of, and the rate of subsequent development of iatrogenic antielevation syndrome after, unilateral versus bilateral inferior oblique graded recession-anteriorization to treat unilateral inferior oblique overaction. Thirty-four patients with unilateral inferior oblique overaction were included in a randomized prospective study. Patients were equally divided into 2 groups. Group UNI underwent unilateral, group BI bilateral, inferior oblique graded recession-anteriorization. A successful outcome was defined as orthotropia, or within 2 ∆ of a residual hypertropia, in the absence of signs of antielevation syndrome, residual inferior oblique overaction, V-pattern, dissociated vertical deviation, or ocular torticollis. A successful outcome was achieved in 11 (64.7%) and 13 (76.5%) patients in groups UNI and BI, respectively (p = 0.452). Antielevation syndrome was diagnosed as the cause of surgical failure in 6 (35.3%) and 2 (11.8%) patients, in groups UNI and BI, respectively (p = 0.106). The cause of surgical failure in the other 2 patients in group BI was due to persistence of ocular torticollis and hypertropia in a patient with superior oblique palsy and a residual V-pattern and hypertropia in the other patient. The differences between unilateral and bilateral inferior oblique graded recession-anteriorization are insignificant. Unilateral surgery has a higher tendency for the subsequent development of antielevation syndrome. Bilateral surgery may still become complicated by antielevation syndrome, although at a lower rate. In addition, bilateral surgery had a higher rate of undercorrection. Further studies on a larger sample are encouraged.

  14. Characterization of Oblique Dual Frame Pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Eldar, Yonina

    2006-01-01

    Given a frame for a subspace W of a Hilbert space H, we consider all possible families of oblique dual frame vectors on an appropriately chosen subspace V. In place of the standard description, which involves computing the pseudoinverse of the frame operator, we develop an alternative characteriz...... for the case of shift-invariant spaces with a single generator. The theory is also adapted to the standard frame setting in which the original and dual frames are defined on the same space. Copyright (C) 2006 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved.......Given a frame for a subspace W of a Hilbert space H, we consider all possible families of oblique dual frame vectors on an appropriately chosen subspace V. In place of the standard description, which involves computing the pseudoinverse of the frame operator, we develop an alternative...

  15. Magnetization reversal mechanisms under oblique magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntallis, N.; Efthimiadis, K.G., E-mail: kge@auth.gr

    2017-03-01

    In this work finite element micromagnetic simulations were performed in order to study the reversal mechanisms of spherical ferromagnetic particles with uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy, when they are magnetized along an oblique direction with respect to the anisotropy axis. Magnetization loops are taken in different directions of external magnetic field, at different anisotropy constants and particle sizes. In the simulation results, the three reversal mechanisms (coherent, curling and domains) are observed and new phenomena arise due to the action of oblique magnetic fields. Moreover, the dependence of the critical fields with respect to the angle of the external field is presented. - Highlights: • Finite element micromagnetic simulation of the three different reversal mechanisms. • For the curling mechanism, the new phenomenon is the rotation of the vortex. • In the domain reversal mechanism, the formed domain wall is smaller than 180°. • In soft ferromagnetic particles a rearrangement of the magnetic domains is observed.

  16. Obliquely propagating dust-density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piel, A.; Arp, O.; Klindworth, M.; Melzer, A.

    2008-01-01

    Self-excited dust-density waves are experimentally studied in a dusty plasma under microgravity. Two types of waves are observed: a mode inside the dust volume propagating in the direction of the ion flow and another mode propagating obliquely at the boundary between the dusty plasma and the space charge sheath. The dominance of oblique modes can be described in the frame of a fluid model. It is shown that the results fom the fluid model agree remarkably well with a kinetic electrostatic model of Rosenberg [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996)]. In the experiment, the instability is quenched by increasing the gas pressure or decreasing the dust density. The critical pressure and dust density are well described by the models

  17. Flow control for oblique shock wave reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Giepman, R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Shock wave-boundary layer interactions are prevalent in many aerospace applications that involve transonic or supersonic flows. Such interactions may lead to boundary layer separation, flow unsteadiness and substantial losses in the total pressure. Flow control techniques can help to mitigate these adverse effects and stabilize the interaction. This thesis focuses on passive flow control techniques for oblique shock wave reflections on flat plates and presents experimental results for both la...

  18. Truncation correction for oblique filtering lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Stefan; Hornegger, Joachim; Lauritsch, Guenter; Dennerlein, Frank; Noo, Frederic

    2008-01-01

    State-of-the-art filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithms often define the filtering operation to be performed along oblique filtering lines in the detector. A limited scan field of view leads to the truncation of those filtering lines, which causes artifacts in the final reconstructed volume. In contrast to the case where filtering is performed solely along the detector rows, no methods are available for the case of oblique filtering lines. In this work, the authors present two novel truncation correction methods which effectively handle data truncation in this case. Method 1 (basic approach) handles data truncation in two successive preprocessing steps by applying a hybrid data extrapolation method, which is a combination of a water cylinder extrapolation and a Gaussian extrapolation. It is independent of any specific reconstruction algorithm. Method 2 (kink approach) uses similar concepts for data extrapolation as the basic approach but needs to be integrated into the reconstruction algorithm. Experiments are presented from simulated data of the FORBILD head phantom, acquired along a partial-circle-plus-arc trajectory. The theoretically exact M-line algorithm is used for reconstruction. Although the discussion is focused on theoretically exact algorithms, the proposed truncation correction methods can be applied to any FBP algorithm that exposes oblique filtering lines.

  19. Occurrence and significance of blueschist in the southern Lachlan Orogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaggiari, C.V.; Gray, D.R.; Foster, D.A.; Fanning, C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Serpentinite/talc-matrix melanges, bearing blocks of blueschist metavolcanics, occur within the Heathcote and Governor Fault Zones of the southern Lachlan Orogen. In the Heathcote Fault Zone, serpentinite-matrix melange consists of blocks or small pods of boninite, andesite, ultramafic rocks, chert and volcanogenic sandstone variably metamorphosed to prehnite-pumpellyite, greenschist, or greenschist to blueschist facies. In the Governor Fault Zone, blueschist metavolcanics occur as blocks within serpentinite/talc matrix that is interleaved with prehnite-pumpellyite to greenschist facies, intermediate pressure slate and phyllite. Ar/Ar dating of white mica from slaty mud-matrix (broken formation) indicates that the main fabric development occurred at 446 ± 2 Ma. U-Pb (SHRIMP) dating of titanite from blueschists in the Governor Fault Zone indicates that metamorphism occurred at approximately 450 Ma, close to the time of melange formation. Previously published, Ar/Ar dating of white mica from phyllite and biotite from metadiorite in the Heathcote Fault Zone suggest that blueschist metamorphism occurred at a similar time. These ages are supported by field relationships. Illite crystallinity and b 0 data from white mica, and the preservation of blueschist blocks indicate that these fault zones maintained low temperatures both during and after intermediate- to high-pressure metamorphism. Occurrences of blueschists in the Arthur Lineament of the Tyennan (Delamerian) Orogen in Tasmania, and in the New England Orogen, have different ages, and in conjunction with the occurrences described here, suggest that subduction-accretion processes contributed significantly to the development of the Tasmanides from Cambrian through to Carboniferous times. Copyright (2002) Geological Society of Australia

  20. Asymmetric gravitational spreading - Analogue experiments on the Svecofennian orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkilä, Kaisa; Korja, Annakaisa; Koyi, Hemin; Eklund, Olav

    2015-04-01

    Over-thickened orogenic crust may suffer from rheological, gravitational and topographical unbalancing resulting in discharging via gravitational spreading. If the thickened orogen is also hot, then increased temperature may reduce the viscosity of the crust that may induce large-scale horizontal flow. The effect of flow on the crustal architecture has previously been modeled with symmetric two-way spreading or asymmetric one- or two-way spreading (like channel flow) experiments. Most models do not take into account of the contrasting mechanical properties of the juxtaposed terranes. We have made analogue experiments to study gravitational one-way spreading and the interplay between two crustal blocks with contrasting rheological properties. The models are 3 cm thick replicas of 60 km thick crust. They have three horizontal layers representing strong lower, weak middle and brittle upper crust. The models have cuts to study the effect of inherited crustal-scale weakness zones. The experiments have been conducted within a large centrifuge in the Hans Ramberg Tectonic Laboratory at Uppsala University. The analogue models propose that asymmetric, unilateral flow has different effect on the contrasting crustal units, in both horizontal and vertical directions. The laterally heterogeneous crust flows towards the direction of extension, and it rotates and extends the pre-existing weakness zones. The weakness zones facilitate exhumation and they increase strain rate. The weakness zones split the crust into subblocks, which stretch individually and which may show signatures of compression or rotation. The changes in thickness of the model reflect changes in the layers, which may thin or thicken depending on the mechanical properties of crustal layers. A consequence of this the total amount of flattening is less than the model extension. The results are compared to geophysical and geological data from Precambrian Svecofennian orogen in Fennoscandia. The comparison suggest

  1. Double elevator weakening for unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy with ipsilateral superior rectus contracture and lax superior oblique tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif O

    2012-06-01

    In unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy, a large hypertropia is sometimes associated with ipsilateral contracture of the superior rectus muscle and apparent overaction of the contralateral superior oblique. Ipsilateral double elevator weakening is one surgical approach; however, this procedure could compromise supraduction. We report a series of three consecutive patients who underwent ipsilateral superior rectus and inferior oblique recessions for unilateral superior oblique palsy. Intraoperatively, all three patients were found to have a lax ipsilateral superior oblique tendon. Postoperatively, all three patients had satisfactory correction of the hypertropia and abnormal head position with minimal supraduction defect. This procedure seems to be an acceptable initial surgical option for treating congenital superior oblique muscle palsy with ipsilateral contracture of the superior rectus muscle, even when the ipsilateral superior oblique tendon is lax. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Paleozoic Japan-type subduction-accretion system in the Beishan orogenic collage, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongfang; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Han, Chunming; Tian, Zhonghua

    2015-05-01

    Magmatic arcs ascribed to oceanic lithosphere subduction played a dominant role in the construction of the accretionary Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The Beishan orogenic collage, situated between the Tianshan Orogen to the west and the Inner Mongolia Orogen to the east, is a key area to understanding the subduction and accretionary processes of the southern CAOB. However, the nature of magmatic arcs in the Beishan and the correlation among different tectonic units along the southern CAOB are highly ambiguous. In order to investigate the subduction-accretion history of the Beishan and put a better spatial and temporal relationship among the tectonic belts along the southern CAOB, we carried out detailed field-based structural geology and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb geochronological as well as geochemical studies along four cross-sections across crucial litho-tectonic units in the central segment of the Beishan, mainly focusing on the metamorphic assemblages and associated plutons and volcanic rocks. The results show that both the plutonic and volcanic rocks have geochemical characteristics similar to those of subduction-related rocks, which favors a volcanic arc setting. Zircons from all the plutonic rocks yield Phanerozoic ages and the plutons have crystallization ages ranging from 464 ± 2 Ma to 398 ± 3 Ma. Two volcanic-sedimentary rocks yield zircons with a wide age range from Phanerozoic to Precambrian with the youngest age peaks at 441 Ma and 446 Ma, estimated to be the time of formation of the volcanic rocks. These new results, combined with published data on ophiolitic mélanges from the central segment of the Beishan, favor a Japan-type subduction-accretion system in the Cambrian to Carboniferous in this part of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The Xichangjing-Niujuanzi ophiolite probably represents a major suture zone separating different tectonic units across the Beishan orogenic collage, while the Xiaohuangshan-Jijitaizi ophiolitic mélange may represent a

  3. What happens along the flank and corner of a continental indenter? Insights from the easternmost Himalayan orogen and constraints on the models of the India-Asia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haproff, P. J.; Yin, A.; Zuza, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Investigations of continental collisions often focus on thrust belts oriented perpendicular to the plate-convergence direction and exclude belts that bound the flanks of a continental indenter despite being crucial to understanding the collisional process. Research of the Himalayan orogen, for example, has mostly centered on the east-trending thrust belt between the eastern and western syntaxes, resulting in inadequate examination of the north-trending Indo-Burma Ranges located along the eastern margin of India. To better understand the development of the entire Himalayan orogenic system, we conducted field mapping across the Northern Indo-Burma Range (NIBR), situated at the intersection of the eastern Himalaya and Indo-Burma Ranges. Our research shows that major lithologic units and thrust faults of the Himalaya extend to the NIBR, suggesting a shared geologic evolution. The structural framework of the NIBR consists of a southwest-directed thrust belt cored by a hinterland-dipping duplex, like the Himalaya. However, the Northern Indo-Burma orogen is distinct based on (1) the absence of the Tethyan Himalayan Sequence and southern Gangdese batholith, (2) the absence of the South Tibetan detachment, (3) crustal shortening greater than 80%, (4) an incredibly narrow orogen width of 7-33 km, (5) exposure of an ophiolitic mélange complex as a klippe, (6) and right-slip shear along the active range-bounding thrust fault. Furthermore, lithospheric deformation along the flank and northeast corner of India is characterized by right-slip transpression partitioned between the thrust belt and right-slip faults. Such a regime is interpreted to accommodate both contraction and clockwise rotation of Tibetan lithosphere around India, consistent with existing continuum deformation and rotation models.

  4. Geochemical evidence for Paleozoic crustal growth and tectonic conversion in the Northern Beishan Orogenic Belt, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu; Zong, Keqing; He, Zhenyu; Klemd, Reiner; Jiang, Hongying; Zhang, Wen; Liu, Yongsheng; Hu, Zhaochu; Zhang, Zeming

    2018-03-01

    The Beishan Orogenic Belt is located in the central southernmost part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), which plays a key role in understanding the formation and evolution of the CAOB. Granitoids are the documents of crustal and tectonic evolution in orogenic belts. However, little is known regarding the petrogenesis and geodynamic setting of the widely distributed Paleozoic granitoids in the Northern Beishan Orogenic Belt (NBOB). The present study reveals significant differences concerning the petrogenesis and tectonic setting of early and late Paleozoic granitoids from the NBOB. The early Paleozoic granitoids from the 446-430 Ma Hongliuxia granite complex of the Mazongshan unit and the 466-428 Ma Shibanjing complex of the Hanshan unit show classic I-type granite affinities as revealed by the relative enrichment of LILEs and LREEs, pronounced depletions of Nb, Ta and Ti and the abundant presence of hornblende. Furthermore, they are characterized by strongly variable zircon εHf(t) values between - 16.7 and + 12.8 and evolved plagioclase Sr isotopic compositions of 0.7145-0.7253, indicating the involvement of both juvenile and ancient continental crust in the magma source. Thus, we propose that the early Paleozoic granitoids in the NBOB were generated in a subduction-related continental arc setting. In contrast, the late Paleozoic 330-281 Ma granitoids from the Shuangjingzi complex of the Hanshan unit exhibit positive zircon εHf(t) values between + 5.8 and + 13.2 and relatively depleted plagioclase Sr isotopic compositions of 0.7037-0.7072, indicating that they were mainly formed by remelting of juvenile crust. Thus, an intra-plate extensional setting is proposed to have occurred during formation of the late Paleozoic granitoids. Therefore, between the early and late Paleozoic, the magma sources of the NBOB granitoids converted from the reworking of both juvenile and ancient crusts during a subduction-induced compressional setting to the remelting of

  5. Polymorphic Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, João Filipe; Greenberg, Michael; Igarashi, Atsushi; Pierce, Benjamin C.

    Manifest contracts track precise properties by refining types with predicates - e.g., {x : Int |x > 0 } denotes the positive integers. Contracts and polymorphism make a natural combination: programmers can give strong contracts to abstract types, precisely stating pre- and post-conditions while hiding implementation details - for example, an abstract type of stacks might specify that the pop operation has input type {x :α Stack |not ( empty x )} . We formalize this combination by defining FH, a polymorphic calculus with manifest contracts, and establishing fundamental properties including type soundness and relational parametricity. Our development relies on a significant technical improvement over earlier presentations of contracts: instead of introducing a denotational model to break a problematic circularity between typing, subtyping, and evaluation, we develop the metatheory of contracts in a completely syntactic fashion, omitting subtyping from the core system and recovering it post facto as a derived property.

  6. Administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete understanding of the importance and essence of this institution as well as the need for its complete legal regulation.

  7. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  8. Administrative contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete u...

  9. Natural Vibration of a Beam with a Breathing Oblique Crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijiang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method is proposed to calculate the natural frequency of a cantilever beam with a breathing oblique crack. A double-linear-springs-model is developed in the modal analysis process to describe the breathing oblique crack, and the breathing behaviour of the oblique crack is objectively simulated. The finite element method (FEM analysis software ABAQUS is used to calculate the geometric correction factors when the cracked plate is subjected to a pure bending moment at different oblique crack angles and relative depths. The Galerkin method is applied to simplify the cracked beam to a single degree of freedom system, allowing the natural frequency of the beam with the breathing oblique crack to be calculated. Compared with the natural frequencies of the breathing oblique cracked beam obtained using the ABAQUS FEM method, the proposed analytical method exhibits a high computational accuracy, with a maximum error of only 4.65%.

  10. A note on oblique water entry

    KAUST Repository

    Moore, M. R.

    2012-10-02

    A minor error in Howison et al. (J. Eng. Math. 48:321-337, 2004) obscured the fact that the points at which the free surface turns over in the solution of the Wagner model for the oblique impact of a two-dimensional body are directly related to the turnover points in the equivalent normal impact problem. This note corrects some of the earlier results given in Howison et al. (J. Eng. Math. 48:321-337, 2004) and discusses the implications for the applicability of the Wagner model. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. Flow and sediment transport across oblique channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Madsen, Erik Østergaard; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    A 3D numerical investigation of flow across channels aligned obliquely to the main flow direction has been conducted. The applied numerical model solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations using the k-ε model for turbulence closure on a curvilinear grid. Three momentum equations...... are solved, but the computational domain is 2D due to a uniformity along the channel alignment. Two important flow features arise when the flow crosses the channel: (i) the flow will be refracted in the direction of the channel alignment. This may be described by a depth-averaged model. (ii) due to shear...

  12. Subwavelength image manipulation through oblique and herringbone layered acoustic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chunhui; Jia, Han; Ke, Manzhu; Li, Yixiang; Liu, Zhengyou

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an oblique and a herringbone layered acoustic structure are experimentally and theoretically demonstrated to manipulate acoustic subwavelength images. An imaging resolution of less than one tenth of a wavelength is achieved with both optimized systems, and lateral image shift has been realized by an oblique layered system. The thicknesses of both the oblique and the herringbone layered acoustic systems are largely reduced through utilizing the oblique or herringbone wave propagation path instead of the vertical wave propagation path in the rectangular layered planar acoustic system. With smaller size and subwavelength image manipulation, the acoustic systems are more favourable for practical application. (paper)

  13. Critical elements in Carlin, epithermal, and orogenic gold deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Simmons, Stuart F.

    2016-01-01

    Carlin, epithermal, and orogenic gold deposits, today mined almost exclusively for their gold content, have similar suites of anomalous trace elements that reflect similar low-salinity ore fluids and thermal conditions of metal transport and deposition. Many of these trace elements are commonly referred to as critical or near-critical elements or metals and have been locally recovered, although typically in small amounts, by historic mining activities. These elements include As, Bi, Hg, In, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, and W. Most of these elements are now solely recovered as by-products from the milling of large-tonnage, base metal-rich ore deposits, such as porphyry and volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits.A combination of dominance of the world market by a single country for a single commodity and a growing demand for many of the critical to near-critical elements could lead to future recovery of such elements from select epithermal, orogenic, or Carlin-type gold deposits. Antimony continues to be recovered from some orogenic gold deposits and tellurium could potentially be a primary commodity from some such deposits. Tellurium and indium in sphalerite-rich ores have been recovered in the past and could be future commodities recovered from epithermal ores. Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada are enriched in and may be a future source for As, Hg, Sb, and/or Tl. Some of the Devonian carbonaceous host rocks in the Carlin districts are sufficiently enriched in many trace elements, including Hg, Se, and V, such that they also could become resources. Thallium may be locally enriched to economic levels in Carlin-type deposits and it has been produced from Carlin-like deposits elsewhere in the world (e.g., Alsar, southern Macedonia; Lanmuchang, Guizhou province, China). Mercury continues to be recovered from shallow-level epithermal deposits, as well as a by-product of many Carlin-type deposits where refractory ore is roasted to oxidize carbon and pyrite, and mercury is then

  14. Oblique whistler instability in the earth's foreshock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sentman, D.D.; Thomsen, M.F.; Gary, S.P.; Feldman, W.C.; Hoppe, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The linear Vlasov stability properties of electron velocity distributions, similar to those observed in the upstream foreshock region in association with obliquely propagating whistler waves at approximately 1 Hz, are studied. These distributions are modeled by a sum of bi-Maxwellians with drift speeds parallel to the magnetic field B. We find such distributions to be stable to modes with wavevectors k parallel to B but unstable to whistler waves propagating obliquely to the magnetic field. The frequencies and wavelengths of these unstable modes agree well with those of whistlers observed upstream of the earth's bow shock. The free energy source driving the instability is a region of positive parallel slope partialf/sub e//partialv/sub parallel/>0 at large pitch angles (about 85 0 ) and intermediate energies (about 20 eV), probably corresponding to the solar wind electrons magnetostatically reflected from the magnetic ramp of the bow shock. The whistlers grow via electromagnetic Landau resonance with this free energy source

  15. Application of three-dimensional CT reconstruction technology on inferior oblique muscle in congenital superior oblique palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the viability of the morphology of inferior oblique muscle observed stereoscopically using 3-dimensional CT reconstruction technique. METHODS: This control study included of 29 cases which were clinically diagnosed with monocular congenital superior oblique palsy, examined by dimensional CT. The images of the inferior oblique muscle were reconstructed by Mimics software. 3D digital images on the basis of CT scanning data of the individuals were established. Observing the morphology of binocular inferior oblique muscle by self-controlled design, we compared the maximum transverse diameter of inferior oblique muscle of paralyzed eye with non-paralyzed one. We chose 5% as the significant level.RESULTS: The reconstructed results of 3-dimensional CT scan showed that not all of the inferior oblique abdominal muscle of paralyzed eyes were thinner than that of the non-paralyzed eye in maximum transverse diameter of cross-sectional area. The maximum transverse diameter of inferior oblique muscle was measured. The average maximum transverse diameter of the paralyzed eye was 6.797±1.083mm and the non-paralyzed eye was 6.507±0.848mm. The maximum transverse diameter of inferior oblique muscle of paralyzed eye did not, however, differ significantly from the normal(P>0.05. CONCLUSION: The three-dimensional CT reconstruction technology can be used for preoperative evaluation of the morphology of inferior oblique muscle.

  16. Oblique and lateral impact response of the PMHS thorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Joshua M; Herriott, Rodney G; McFadden, Joseph D; Donnelly, Bruce R; Bolte, John H

    2006-11-01

    This study characterizes the PMHS thoracic response to blunt impact in oblique and lateral directions. A significant amount of data has been collected from lateral impacts conducted on human cadavers. Substantially less data has been collected from impacts that are anterior of lateral in an oblique direction. In the past, data collected from the handful of oblique impact studies were considered to be similar enough to the data from purely lateral impacts such that the oblique data were combined with data from lateral impacts. Defining the biomechanical response of the PMHS thorax to oblique impact is of great importance in side impact vehicle crashes where the loading is often anterior-oblique in direction. Data in this study was obtained from a chestband placed on the thorax at the level of impact to measure thoracic deflection. Two low energy impacts were conducted on each of seven subjects at 2.5 m/s, with one lateral impact and one oblique impact to opposite sides of each PMHS. Data was normalized using the Mertz-Viano method for a two mass system to allow for inter-subject comparisons. Force versus deflection response corridors were generated for the two impact types using an objective mathematical approach and compared to one another. Results were also compared to existing data for oblique and lateral thoracic impacts. The oblique thoracic response in low speed pendulum impacts was found to be different than the lateral thoracic response, in terms of force and deflection. Specifically, the lateral force was greater than the oblique force, and oblique deflection greater than lateral deflection for equal energy impacts.

  17. Reworked crustal of early Paleozoic WuYi Orogen revealed by receiver function data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Duan, Y.; Tian, X.; Zhao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Intraplate orogenic belt, which occurs at the rigid and undeformable plate interiors, is a distinct new type of orogen rather than an interplate or plate marginal orogenic belt, whose deformation occurs exclusively at plate margins. Therefore, intraplate orogenic belts are the most obvious exception to the plate-tectonic paradigm, they are uncommon in Earth's history. The early Paleozoic Wuyi orogen in South China is one of the few examples of intraplate orogen, and is a key to understanding the process of intraplate orogenesis and global early Paleozoic geodynamics. In this study, we select teleseismic records from 45 mobile linear seismic stations deployed in Wuyi Mountain and 58 permanent stations setting in Jiangxi and Fujian provinces, from January 2011 to December 2012, and calculate the crustal thickness and average crustal Vp/Vs ratio using the H-κ stacking method. The main results include the following: 1) the crustal average Poission's ratio shows an increase tendency from land to sea, the interior of Wuyi orogen belt with an low ration less than 0.23, and the coastline with high ration which is up to 0.28, which indicate a very heterogeneous crustal structure and composition in Wuyi orogen and coast belt. 2) the crustal thickness ranges 28-34 km and shows a tendency of thinning from inland to coast in the region of SE China margin, which maight mean the eastern Eurasia lithospheric is extension and thinning induced by the subducted paleo-Pacific slab. To conclusion, we assume that Wuyi orogen experienced upper crustal thickening, lower crust and lithosphere delamination during the early Paleozoic orogeny, and lithosphere extension in Mesozoic. This research is founded by the Natural Science Foundation of China (41174052 and 41604048).

  18. Role of mantle dynamics in rebuilding the Tianshan Orogenic Belt in NW China: A seismic tomographic investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chuansong; Santosh, M.

    2018-05-01

    The Tianshan orogenic belt, Junggar terrane and Altai terrane are located at the southwestern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Here, we investigate the velocity structure beneath the Xinjiang region in NW China, which includes the Tarim terrane, Tianshan orogenic belt, Junggar terrane and Altai terrane with a view to evaluate the mantle dynamics based on teleseismic data recorded by 103 seismic stations. Our tomographic results show both high and low velocity perturbations beneath the Tianshan orogenic belt. We suggest that the high velocity perturbations beneath this orogenic belt might represent the northward subducted lithosphere of the Tarim Basin and the southward subducted lithosphere of the Junggar Basin. The low velocity structure beneath the Tianshan orogenic belt might represent asthenosphere upwelling that triggered the extensive magmatism which contributed to rebuilding of the Tianshan orogenic belt.

  19. 33 CFR 118.90 - Bridges crossing channel obliquely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bridges crossing channel obliquely. 118.90 Section 118.90 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.90 Bridges crossing channel obliquely. Bridges...

  20. Reduced Oblique Effect in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoeva, Olga V.; Davletshina, Maria A.; Orekhova, Elena V.; Galuta, Ilia A.; Stroganova, Tatiana A.

    2016-01-01

    People are very precise in the discrimination of a line orientation relative to the cardinal (vertical and horizontal) axes, while their orientation discrimination sensitivity along the oblique axes is less refined. This difference in discrimination sensitivity along cardinal and oblique axes is called the “oblique effect.” Given that the oblique effect is a basic feature of visual processing with an early developmental origin, its investigation in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) may shed light on the nature of visual sensory abnormalities frequently reported in this population. We examined line orientation sensitivity along oblique and vertical axes in a sample of 26 boys with ASD (IQ > 68) and 38 typically developing (TD) boys aged 7–15 years, as well as in a subsample of carefully IQ-matched ASD and TD participants. Children were asked to detect the direction of tilt of a high-contrast black-and-white grating relative to vertical (90°) or oblique (45°) templates. The oblique effect was reduced in children with ASD as compared to TD participants, irrespective of their IQ. This reduction was due to poor orientation sensitivity along the vertical axis in ASD children, while their ability to discriminate line orientation along the oblique axis was unaffected. We speculate that this deficit in sensitivity to vertical orientation may reflect disrupted mechanisms of early experience-dependent learning that takes place during the critical period for orientation selectivity. PMID:26834540

  1. The oblique cord of the forearm in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; O'Neil, James T; Key, Christopher D; Zarzour, Jessica G; Fulghum, Sarah B; Kim, Eugenia J; Lyerly, Michael J; Shoja, Mohammadali M; George Salter, E; Jerry Oakes, W

    2007-05-01

    There is minimal and often conflicting data in the literature regarding the oblique cord of the forearm. The current study seeks to elucidate further the anatomy of this structure of the upper extremity. In adult cadavers, the oblique cord was observed for and, when found, measurements were made of it. Ranges of motion were carried out while observation of the oblique cord was made. An oblique cord was found on 52.6% of sides. Gantzer's muscle was found on 55% of sides and, when present, had attachment into the oblique cord on five sides. The oblique cord was present on 13 sides with a Gantzer's muscle. Of the 20 sides with an oblique cord, no Gantzer's muscle was found on 10. The mean length of the oblique cord was 3.4 cm. In the majority of specimens, this cord tapered from proximal to distal. The proximal, middle, and distal widths of this structure had means 9, 7, and 4 mm, respectively. The oblique cord was found to travel approximately 45 degrees from a line drawn through the ulna and more or less traveled perpendicular to the insertion site of the bicipital tendon. This ligament was lax in the neutral position and with pronation became lax in all specimens. The oblique cord progressively became taut with increased supination from the neutral position and was maximally taut with the forearm fully supinated. Tautness of this cord was also found with distal distraction of the radius. Following the transection of the oblique cord, no discernable difference was observed in regard to maximal supination of the forearm or distal distraction of the radius. No obvious instability of the proximal forearm was found following transection of the oblique cord. Functionally, although the oblique cord may resist supination, it is unlikely that this structure affords significant stability to the proximal forearm, as it was often absent, of a very small caliber, and based on our observations, following its transection, the amount of supination of the forearm did not increase

  2. Thermal self-focusing at oblique incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.; McCrory, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    Thermal self-focusing at oblique incidence has been investigated in two-dimensional line-focus geometry using the Eulerian hydrodynamics simulation code SAGE. The laser beam interacts with a long-scale-length preformed plasma with an expontial density profiele. Questions to be addressed include: (1) What happens when a self-focusing channel reaches the turning point of the incident rays, and (2) Does the unabsorbed light return in the specular direction or back along the channel. A comparison is also made between thermal self-focusing at normal incidence in cylindrical and line-focus geometries: in cylindrical geometry the self-focusing mechanism is enhanced by the relative ease with which plasma may be expelled from a small cylindrical channel

  3. Wafer scale oblique angle plasma etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckel, David Bruce; Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.; Finnegan, Patrick Sean

    2017-05-23

    Wafer scale oblique angle etching of a semiconductor substrate is performed in a conventional plasma etch chamber by using a fixture that supports a multiple number of separate Faraday cages. Each cage is formed to include an angled grid surface and is positioned such that it will be positioned over a separate one of the die locations on the wafer surface when the fixture is placed over the wafer. The presence of the Faraday cages influences the local electric field surrounding each wafer die, re-shaping the local field to be disposed in alignment with the angled grid surface. The re-shaped plasma causes the reactive ions to follow a linear trajectory through the plasma sheath and angled grid surface, ultimately impinging the wafer surface at an angle. The selected geometry of the Faraday cage angled grid surface thus determines the angle at with the reactive ions will impinge the wafer.

  4. Characterization of Oblique Dual Frame Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Ole

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a frame for a subspace of a Hilbert space , we consider all possible families of oblique dual frame vectors on an appropriately chosen subspace . In place of the standard description, which involves computing the pseudoinverse of the frame operator, we develop an alternative characterization which in some cases can be computationally more efficient. We first treat the case of a general frame on an arbitrary Hilbert space, and then specialize the results to shift-invariant frames with multiple generators. In particular, we present explicit versions of our general conditions for the case of shift-invariant spaces with a single generator. The theory is also adapted to the standard frame setting in which the original and dual frames are defined on the same space.

  5. CALIBRATION PROCEDURES ON OBLIQUE CAMERA SETUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kemper

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beside the creation of virtual animated 3D City models, analysis for homeland security and city planning, the accurately determination of geometric features out of oblique imagery is an important task today. Due to the huge number of single images the reduction of control points force to make use of direct referencing devices. This causes a precise camera-calibration and additional adjustment procedures. This paper aims to show the workflow of the various calibration steps and will present examples of the calibration flight with the final 3D City model. In difference to most other software, the oblique cameras are used not as co-registered sensors in relation to the nadir one, all camera images enter the AT process as single pre-oriented data. This enables a better post calibration in order to detect variations in the single camera calibration and other mechanical effects. The shown sensor (Oblique Imager is based o 5 Phase One cameras were the nadir one has 80 MPIX equipped with a 50 mm lens while the oblique ones capture images with 50 MPix using 80 mm lenses. The cameras are mounted robust inside a housing to protect this against physical and thermal deformations. The sensor head hosts also an IMU which is connected to a POS AV GNSS Receiver. The sensor is stabilized by a gyro-mount which creates floating Antenna –IMU lever arms. They had to be registered together with the Raw GNSS-IMU Data. The camera calibration procedure was performed based on a special calibration flight with 351 shoots of all 5 cameras and registered the GPS/IMU data. This specific mission was designed in two different altitudes with additional cross lines on each flying heights. The five images from each exposure positions have no overlaps but in the block there are many overlaps resulting in up to 200 measurements per points. On each photo there were in average 110 well distributed measured points which is a satisfying number for the camera calibration. In a first

  6. Contract Renewal Information - all Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Portfolio datasets (section 8 contracts) - The information has been compiled from multiple data sources within FHA or its contractors. HUD oversees more...

  7. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  8. Metal mobility during metamorphism and formation of orogenic gold deposits: Insights from the Dalradian of Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Orogenic gold deposits occur within metamorphic belts throughout the world and have through time represented the source for over 25% of the world’s gold production. Although orogenic gold deposits are of great economic importance, controversies exist on the subject of fluid and metal sources and there have been few studies of gold´s distribution and mobility outside of large economic deposits. Research made by Pitcairn et al. (2006), on the Mesozoic Otago and Alpine schists of New Zealand, ob...

  9. Agile Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2014-01-01

    with “endless” re-negotiation of the requirements; you need a more flexible way to develop IS. A new way of coping with many changes is to use an agile development approach and a fixed budget and resources contract. This paper presents an example case. We analyse the case and design a guideline for how......When you have stable and non-ambiguous requirements then a classic contract for IS between a supplier and a public sector institution based on a requirements specification may be well suited. However, if you have to accept many changes or have ambiguous requirements then you may end up...... to implement a fixed budget and resources contract in the public sector. The guideline includes elements to cope with challenges in a tender process such as transparency, criteria for supplier selection, and live assessment of resource skills and capabilities, as well as achieving the flexibility for change...

  10. Turnkey contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langetepe, G.

    1977-01-01

    To make energy available economically and in sufficient quantity is a main point for the future of an industrial and more for a developing country. The investment costs and the availability of a power plant and in particular for a nuclear power plant are the most significant factors in the economic operation of the plant. In the phase before signing the contract the essential decisions are made with high influence in the economic operation and the availability of the plant. A turn-key contract offers good possibilities to minimize the risks referring a) the plant quality and functionality, b) the plant investment cost, c) the plant completion date, d) the handling of the licensing procedures, e) the availability of the operation. The lecture mentions the points which are of high influence for a successful erection and operation period and which must be clarified before signing the contract between the buyer and supplier of the plant. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Oblique-view mamography: adequacy for screening. Work in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, B.B.; Kirkpatrick, A.E.; Roberts, M.M.; Duffy, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    Single oblique-view mammography has been recommended for screening purposes. The authors present data indicating that using the oblique view only can allow 11% of cancers to remain undetected. The smallest and potentially curable cancers are most likely to be overlooked in this way; any possible benefit of screening is thereby reduced. Data are also presented to show that 39% of women may require other views, for reasons not necessarily related to cancer detection. It is therefore recommended that all women have four-view mammography (oblique plus craniocaudal views of each breast) at their first screening visit

  12. Radiation transport modelling for the interpretation of oblique ECE measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denk Severin S.

    2017-01-01

    Since radiation transport modelling is required for the interpretation of oblique ECE diagnostics we present in this paper an extended forward model that supports oblique lines of sight. To account for the refraction of the line of sight, ray tracing in the cold plasma approximation was added to the model. Furthermore, an absorption coefficient valid for arbitrary propagation was implemented. Using the revised model it is shown that for the oblique ECE Imaging diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade there can be a significant difference between the cold resonance position and the point from which most of the observed radiation originates.

  13. Geology and metallogeny of the Ar Rayn terrane, eastern Arabian shield: Evolution of a Neoproterozoic continental-margin arc during assembly of Gondwana within the East African orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebrich, J.L.; Al-Jehani, A. M.; Siddiqui, A.A.; Hayes, T.S.; Wooden, J.L.; Johnson, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    characteristics of the Ar Rayn terrane are analogous to the Andean continental margin of Chile, with opposite subduction polarity. The Ar Rayn terrane represents a continental margin arc that lay above a west-dipping subduction zone along a continental block represented by the Afif composite terrane. The concentration of epithermal, porphyry Cu and IOCG mineral systems, of central arc affiliation, along the AAF suggests that the AAF is not an ophiolitic suture zone, but originated as a major intra-arc fault that localized magmatism and mineralization. West-directed oblique subduction and ultimate collision with a land mass from the east (East Gondwana?) resulted in major transcurrent displacement along the AAF, bringing the eastern part of the arc terrane to its present exposed position, juxtaposed across the AAF against a back-arc basin assemblage represented by the Abt schist of the Ad Dawadimi terrane. Our findings indicate that arc formation and accretionary processes in the Arabian shield were still ongoing into the latest Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran), to about 620-600 Ma, and lead us to conclude that evolution of the Ar Rayn terrane (arc formation, accretion, syn- to postorogenic plutonism) defines a final stage of assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent along the northeastern margin of the East African orogen. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Temporal constraints on the kinematics of the destabilization of an orogen : syn- to post-orogenic extensional collapse of the Northern Aegean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, A.L.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Mediterranean region is situated at the interface of the African and Eurasian plates and has been shaped by the Alpine Orogeny and the subsequent post-orogenic extension during the convergence and collision of the African and Eurasian plates. Numerous tectonic studies have focussed on the role

  15. Temporal constraints on the kinematics of the destabilization of an orogen : syn- to post-orogenic extensional collapse of the Northern Aegean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, A.L.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Mediterranean region is situated at the interface of the African and Eurasian plates and has been shaped by the Alpine Orogeny and the subsequent post-orogenic extension during the convergence and collision of the African and Eurasian plates. Numerous tectonic studies have focussed on the

  16. Camere aeree oblique: sistemi, applicazioni e prospettive future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Remondino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of oblique imagery has become a standard for many civil and mapping applications, thanks to the development of airborne digital multi-camera systems, as proposed by many companies. The indisputable virtue of oblique photography lies in its simplicity of interpretation and understanding for inexperienced users allowing their use of oblique images in very different applications, such as building detection and reconstruction, building structural damage classification, road land updating and administration services, etc. We report an overview of the actual oblique commercial systems and the workflow for the automated orientation and dense matching of large image blocks. Perspectives, potentialities, pitfalls and suggestions for achieving satisfactory results are given too.

  17. Climate Dynamics and Hysteresis at Low and High Obliquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colose, C.; Del Genio, A. D.; Way, M.

    2017-12-01

    We explore the large-scale climate dynamics at low and high obliquity for an Earth-like planet using the ROCKE-3D (Resolving Orbital and Climate Keys of Earth and Extraterrestrial Environments with Dynamics) 3-D General Circulation model being developed at NASA GISS as part of the Nexus for Exoplanet System Science (NExSS) initiative. We highlight the role of ocean heat storage and transport in determining the seasonal cycle at high obliquity, and describe the large-scale circulation and resulting regional climate patterns using both aquaplanet and Earth topographical boundary conditions. Finally, we contrast the hysteresis structure to varying CO2 concentration for a low and high obliquity planet near the outer edge of the habitable zone. We discuss the prospects for habitability for a high obliquity planet susceptible to global glaciation.

  18. Oblique Multi-Camera Systems - Orientation and Dense Matching Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupnik, E.; Nex, F.; Remondino, F.

    2014-03-01

    The use of oblique imagery has become a standard for many civil and mapping applications, thanks to the development of airborne digital multi-camera systems, as proposed by many companies (Blomoblique, IGI, Leica, Midas, Pictometry, Vexcel/Microsoft, VisionMap, etc.). The indisputable virtue of oblique photography lies in its simplicity of interpretation and understanding for inexperienced users allowing their use of oblique images in very different applications, such as building detection and reconstruction, building structural damage classification, road land updating and administration services, etc. The paper reports an overview of the actual oblique commercial systems and presents a workflow for the automated orientation and dense matching of large image blocks. Perspectives, potentialities, pitfalls and suggestions for achieving satisfactory results are given. Tests performed on two datasets acquired with two multi-camera systems over urban areas are also reported.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging in congenital superior oblique palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Miho; Kondo, Nagako; Awaya, Shinobu; Nomura, Hideki; Yagasaki, Teiji.

    1996-01-01

    MRI examinations were carried out on the defined congenital superior oblique palsy in order to distinguish the congenital and acquired palsies. Subjects were 19 patients diagnosed as congenital and their MRI images of 3 or 5 mm-thick coronary slice were taken. The volume of the oblique muscle was calculated from the images and a comparison was made between the diseased and healthy normal sides. The oblique muscle volume at the diseased side was found reduced in most of congenital superior oblique palsy patients. The reduction was observed even at childhood and was thus considered to be a malformation. Further, it is conceivable that the palsy could be caused by the abnormality in the central nervous system as well as by the present anatomical abnormality. (K.H.)

  20. Continental Growth and Recycling in Convergent Orogens with Large Turbidite Fans on Oceanic Crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben D. Goscombe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Convergent plate margins where large turbidite fans with slivers of oceanic basement are accreted to continents represent important sites of continental crustal growth and recycling. Crust accreted in these settings is dominated by an upper layer of recycled crustal and arc detritus (turbidites underlain by a layer of tectonically imbricated upper oceanic crust and/or thinned continental crust. When oceanic crust is converted to lower continental crust it represents a juvenile addition to the continental growth budget. This two-tiered accreted crust is often the same thickness as average continental crustal and is isostatically balanced near sea level. The Paleozoic Lachlan Orogen of eastern Australia is the archetypical example of a tubidite-dominated accretionary orogeny. The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Damaran Orogen of SW Africa is similar to the Lachlan Orogen except that it was incorporated into Gondwana via a continent-continent collision. The Mesozoic Rangitatan Orogen of New Zealand illustrates the transition of convergent margin from a Lachlan-type to more typical accretionary wedge type orogen. The spatial and temporal variations in deformation, metamorphism, and magmatism across these orogens illustrate how large volumes of turbidite and their relict oceanic basement eventually become stable continental crust. The timing of deformation and metamorphism recorded in these rocks reflects the crustal thickening phase, whereas post-tectonic magmatism constrains the timing of chemical maturation and cratonization. Cratonization of continental crust is fostered because turbidites represent fertile sources for felsic magmatism. Recognition of similar orogens in the Proterozoic and Archean is important for the evaluation of crustal growth models, particularly for those based on detrital zircon age patterns, because crustal growth by accretion of upper oceanic crust or mafic underplating does not readily result in the addition of voluminous zircon

  1. Effects of Extreme Obliquity Variations on the Habitability of Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J. C.; Barnes, R.; Domagal-Goldman, S.; Breiner, J.; Quinn, T. R.; Meadows, V. S.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the impact of obliquity variations on planetary habitability in hypothetical systems with high mutual inclination. We show that large-amplitude, high-frequency obliquity oscillations on Earth-like exoplanets can suppress the ice-albedo feedback, increasing the outer edge of the habitable zone. We restricted our exploration to hypothetical systems consisting of a solar-mass star, an Earth-mass planet at 1 AU, and 1 or 2 larger planets. We verified that these systems are stable for 108 years with N-body simulations and calculated the obliquity variations induced by the orbital evolution of the Earth-mass planet and a torque from the host star. We ran a simplified energy balance model on the terrestrial planet to assess surface temperature and ice coverage on the planet's surface, and we calculated differences in the outer edge of the habitable zone for planets with rapid obliquity variations. For each hypothetical system, we calculated the outer edge of habitability for two conditions: (1) the full evolution of the planetary spin and orbit and (2) the eccentricity and obliquity fixed at their average values. We recovered previous results that higher values of fixed obliquity and eccentricity expand the habitable zone, but we also found that obliquity oscillations further expand habitable orbits in all cases. Terrestrial planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone may be more likely to support life in systems that induce rapid obliquity oscillations as opposed to fixed-spin planets. Such planets may be the easiest to directly characterize with space-borne telescopes.

  2. The Oblique Basis Method from an Engineering Point of View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueorguiev, V G

    2012-01-01

    The oblique basis method is reviewed from engineering point of view related to vibration and control theory. Examples are used to demonstrate and relate the oblique basis in nuclear physics to the equivalent mathematical problems in vibration theory. The mathematical techniques, such as principal coordinates and root locus, used by vibration and control theory engineers are shown to be relevant to the Richardson - Gaudin pairing-like problems in nuclear physics.

  3. Effects of extreme obliquity variations on the habitability of exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J C; Barnes, R; Domagal-Goldman, S; Breiner, J; Quinn, T R; Meadows, V S

    2014-04-01

    We explore the impact of obliquity variations on planetary habitability in hypothetical systems with high mutual inclination. We show that large-amplitude, high-frequency obliquity oscillations on Earth-like exoplanets can suppress the ice-albedo feedback, increasing the outer edge of the habitable zone. We restricted our exploration to hypothetical systems consisting of a solar-mass star, an Earth-mass planet at 1 AU, and 1 or 2 larger planets. We verified that these systems are stable for 10(8) years with N-body simulations and calculated the obliquity variations induced by the orbital evolution of the Earth-mass planet and a torque from the host star. We ran a simplified energy balance model on the terrestrial planet to assess surface temperature and ice coverage on the planet's surface, and we calculated differences in the outer edge of the habitable zone for planets with rapid obliquity variations. For each hypothetical system, we calculated the outer edge of habitability for two conditions: (1) the full evolution of the planetary spin and orbit and (2) the eccentricity and obliquity fixed at their average values. We recovered previous results that higher values of fixed obliquity and eccentricity expand the habitable zone, but we also found that obliquity oscillations further expand habitable orbits in all cases. Terrestrial planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone may be more likely to support life in systems that induce rapid obliquity oscillations as opposed to fixed-spin planets. Such planets may be the easiest to directly characterize with space-borne telescopes.

  4. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  5. Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  6. Effects of oblique muscle surgery on the rectus muscle pulley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okanobu, Hirotaka; Kono, Reika; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the position of rectus muscle pulleys in Japanese eyes and to evaluate the effect of oblique muscle surgery on rectus muscle pulleys. Quasi-coronal plane MRI was used to determine area centroids of the 4 rectus muscles. The area centroids of the rectus muscles were transformed to 2-dimensional coordinates to represent pulley positions. The effects of oblique muscle surgery on the rectus muscle pulley positions in the coronal plane were evaluated in 10 subjects with cyclovertical strabismus and, as a control, pulley locations in 7 normal Japanese subjects were calculated. The mean positions of the rectus muscle pulleys in the coronal plane did not significantly differ from previous reports on normal populations, including Caucasians. There were significant positional shifts of the individual horizontal and vertical rectus muscle pulleys in 3 (100%) patients with inferior oblique advancement, but not in eyes with inferior oblique recession and superior oblique tendon advancement surgery. The surgical cyclorotatory effect was significantly correlated with the change in the angle of inclination formed by the line connecting the vertical rectus muscles (p=0.0234), but weakly correlated with that of the horizontal rectus muscles. The most important factor that affects the pulley position is the amount of ocular torsion, not the difference in surgical procedure induced by oblique muscle surgery. (author)

  7. Contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, P.

    2006-01-01

    The current state of the electric power industry in Ontario was discussed with particular reference to the procurement of contracts and why the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) must be contracting to resolve many of Ontario's electricity issues. As Ontario increasingly relies on imports and natural gas-fired generation, the price of electricity continues to rise given that supply is at a low level. In addition to the generation gap, there are also several transmission constrained areas in Ontario, particularly in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The OPA announced 2 projects totalling 1900 MW to relieve congestion. According to the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO), the total potential opportunity for new generation by 2015 is about 5,000 to 7,000 megawatts. OPA is expected to launch procurement processes for up to 1000 MW of cogeneration, 250 MW of province-wide conservation initiatives, 1900 MW of generation in the western part of the GTA, and 600 MW of generation in downtown Toronto. New nuclear capacity is also anticipated in addition to renewables and conservation/demand management (CDM) initiatives. The OPA's competitive procurement processes will include requests for expressions of interest, requests for qualifications and requests for proposals. The challenge of balancing the technical complexities and realities of procuring generation assets with the need for a fair procurement process was discussed. Contracts will be designed to react to market signals and will include 3 styles: tariff style, tolling style and standard offer contract. OPA will make every effort to balance generator and ratepayer interests. 6 figs

  8. Deformation of the Songshugou ophiolite in the Qinling orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengsi; Dong, Yunpeng

    2017-04-01

    The Qinling orogen, middle part of the China Central Orogenic Belt, is well documented that was constructed by multiple convergences and subsequent collisions between the North China and South China Blocks mainly based on geochemistry and geochronology of ophiolites, magmatic rocks as well as sedimentary reconstruction. However, this model is lack of constraints from deformation of subduction/collision. The Songshugou ophiolite outcropped to the north of the Shangdan suture zone represents fragments of oceanic crust and upper mantle. Previous works have revealed that the ophiolite was formed at an ocean ridge and then emplaced in the northern Qinling belt. Hence, deformation of the ophiolite would provide constraints for the rifting and subduction processes. The ophiolite consists chiefly of metamorphosed mafic and ultramafic rocks. The ultramafic rocks contain coarse dunite, dunitic mylonite and harzburgite, with minor diopsidite veins. The mafic rocks are mainly amphibolite, garnet amphibolite and amphibole schist, which are considered to be eclogite facies and retrograde metamorphosed oceanic crust. Amphibole grains in the mafic rocks exhibit a strong shape-preferred orientation parallel to the foliation, which is also parallel to the lithologic contacts between mafic and ultramafic rocks. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analyses show strong olivine crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) in dunite including A-, B-, and C-types formed by (010)[100], (010)[001] and (100)[001] dislocation slip systems, respectively. A-type CPO suggests high temperature plastic deformation in the upper mantle. In comparison, B-type may be restricted to regions with significantly high water content and high differential stress, and C-type may also be formed in wet condition with lower differential stress. Additionally, the dunite evolved into amphibolite facies metamorphism with mineral assemblages of olivine + talc + anthophyllite. Assuming a pressure of 1.5 GPa

  9. Some aspects of the role of rift inheritance on Alpine-type orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugend, Julie; Manatschal, Gianreto; Mohn, Geoffroy; Chevrot, Sébastien

    2017-04-01

    Processes commonly recognized as fundamental for the formation of collisional orogens include oceanic subduction, arc-continent and continent-continent collision. As collisional belts result from the closure of oceanic basins and subsequent inversion of former rifted margins, their formation and evolution may also in theory be closely interlinked with the initial architecture of the former rifted margins. This assumption is indeed more likely to be applicable in the case of Alpine-type orogens, mainly controlled by mechanical processes and mostly devoid of arc-related magmatism. More and more studies from present-day magma-poor rifted margins illustrate the complex evolution of hyperextended domains (i.e. severely thinned continental crust (images across the Pyrenees (PYROPE) and the Alps (CIFALPS) reveal a surprisingly comparable present-day overall crustal and lithospheric structure. Based on the comparison between the two orogens we discuss: (1) the nature and depth of decoupling levels inherited from hyperextension; (2) the implications for restorations and interpretations of orogenic roots (former hyperextended domains vs. lower crust only); and (3) the nature and major role of buttresses in controlling the final stage of collisional processes. Eventually, we discuss the variability of the role of rift-inheritance in building Alpine-type orogens. The Pyrenees seem to represent one extreme, where rift-inheritance is important at different stages of collisional processes. In contrast, in the Alps the role of rift-inheritance is subtler, likely because of its more complex and polyphase compressional deformation history.

  10. Retractable Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Barbanera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In calculi for modelling communication protocols, internal and external choices play dual roles. Two external choices can be viewed naturally as dual too, as they represent an agreement between the communicating parties. If the interaction fails, the past agreements are good candidates as points where to roll back, in order to take a different agreement. We propose a variant of contracts with synchronous rollbacks to agreement points in case of deadlock. The new calculus is equipped with a compliance relation which is shown to be decidable.

  11. Neodymium and strontium isotope study of ophiolite and orogenic lherzolite petrogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, P.; Allegre, C.J.; Paris-7 Univ., 75

    1980-01-01

    Neodymium isotopic analyses have been measured on nine ophiolites and four orogenic lherzolites. Epsilonsub(Nd) varies from +12 to +3 in the ophiolites and from +18 to +2 in the orogenic lherzolites. The majority of the analyses plot on a epsilonsub(Nd)-epsilonsub(Sr) correlation line as defined by Nd and Sr isotopic analyses of oceanic basalts. However, certain ophiolitic and lherzolitic samples exhibit high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios and as such lie to the right of the correlation line towards seawater compositions. From these data one can postulate several origins for ophiolites including that of mid-ocean ridges and ocean islands. If the orogenic lherzolites are interpreted as representative of the mantle occurring below active ridges a more complex model is required involving mantle heterogeneity and multi-episodic chemical fractionation starting prior to 2 Ga ago. (orig.)

  12. Controls of structural inheritance on orogenic curvature and foreland basin sedimentation: Insights from the Przemyśl area, Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaniawski, Rafał; Mazzoli, Stefano; Jankowski, Leszek

    2017-10-01

    Orogenic curvatures can have various origins and are widely debated worldwide. In the Poland-Ukraine border area, the Outer Western Carpathians are characterized by a marked curvature. The origin of this curvature was analysed by integrating stratigraphic information with structural constraints and anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data. Hangingwall frontal ramp domains are characterized by a relatively simple deformation dominated by layer-parallel shortening and folding around a regional NW-SE trending axis, recorded by an AMS lineation with a similar trend. On the other hand, the N-S trending hangingwall oblique ramp domain is characterized by maximum AMS axes recording transpressional strain either dominated by simple shear (sub-horizontal AMS lineation) or pure shear (steeply plunging AMS lineation) components. Early Miocene basin inversion with two distinct depocentres created a number of different detachment surfaces and thickness variations for the sedimentary successions involved in thrusting. The main depocentre of the Lower-Middle Miocene foredeep was originally located in the recess area of the curved Carpathian front. On the other hand, the occurrence of a salient to the west resulted in the axial zone of the foreland flexure being filled with allochthonous units, thereby dramatically reducing the accommodation space for foredeep sediments in this area. Our results suggest that thrust-belt geometry was controlled by the inherited Mesozoic extensional basin architecture.

  13. Accretionary and collisional orogenesis in the south domain of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Keda; Long, Xiaoping; Chen, Huayong; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2018-03-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) was the result of long-lived multi-stage tectonic evolution, including Proterozoic to Paleozoic accretion and collision, Mesozoic intracontinental modification, and Cenozoic rapid deformation and uplift. The accretionary and collisional orogenesis of its early history generated a huge orogenic collage consisting of diverse tectonic units including island arcs, ophiolites, accretionary prisms, seamounts, oceanic plateaus and micro-continents. These incorporated orogenic components preserved valuable detailed information on orogenic process and continental crust growth, which make the CAOB a key region to understanding of continental evolution, mantle-crust interaction and associated mineralization. The western CAOB refers to the west region in North Xinjiang of China and circum-Balkash of Kazakhstan, with occurrences of the spectacular Kazakhstan orocline and its surrounding mountain belts. Because orogenic fabrics of this part mostly preserve their original features caused by the interactions among the southern Siberian active margin in the north and the Tarim Craton in the south, the western CAOB can be regarded as an ideal region to study the processes of the accretionary and collisional orogenesis and associated mineralization. Since a large number of researchers have been working on this region, research advances bloom strikingly in a short-time period. Therefore, we, in this special issue, focus on these new study advances on the south domain of the western CAOB, including the Kazakhstan collage system, Tianshan orogenic belt and Beishan region, and it is anticipated that this issue can draw more attention from the international research groups to be interested in the studies on orogenesis of the CAOB.

  14. The giant Jiaodong gold province: The key to a unified model for orogenic gold deposits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I. Groves

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the term orogenic gold deposit has been widely accepted for all gold-only lode-gold deposits, with the exception of Carlin-type deposits and rare intrusion-related gold systems, there has been continuing debate on their genesis. Early syngenetic models and hydrothermal models dominated by meteoric fluids are now clearly unacceptable. Magmatic-hydrothermal models fail to explain the genesis of orogenic gold deposits because of the lack of consistent spatially – associated granitic intrusions and inconsistent temporal relationships. The most plausible, and widely accepted, models involve metamorphic fluids, but the source of these fluids is hotly debated. Sources within deeper segments of the supracrustal successions hosting the deposits, the underlying continental crust, and subducted oceanic lithosphere and its overlying sediment wedge all have their proponents. The orogenic gold deposits of the giant Jiaodong gold province of China, in the delaminated North China Craton, contain ca. 120 Ma gold deposits in Precambrian crust that was metamorphosed over 2000 million years prior to gold mineralization. The only realistic source of fluid and gold is a subducted oceanic slab with its overlying sulfide-rich sedimentary package, or the associated mantle wedge. This could be viewed as an exception to a general metamorphic model where orogenic gold has been derived during greenschist- to amphibolite-facies metamorphism of supracrustal rocks: basaltic rocks in the Precambrian and sedimentary rocks in the Phanerozoic. Alternatively, if a holistic view is taken, Jiaodong can be considered the key orogenic gold province for a unified model in which gold is derived from late-orogenic metamorphic devolatilization of stalled subduction slabs and oceanic sediments throughout Earth history. The latter model satisfies all geological, geochronological, isotopic and geochemical constraints but the precise mechanisms of auriferous fluid release, like many

  15. Assessment Of An Oblique ECE Diagnostic For ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.; Harvey, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    A systematic disagreement between the electron temperature measured by electron cyclotron emission (TECE) and laser Thomson scattering (TTS), that increases with TECE, is observed in JET and TFTR plasmas, such that TECE ∼1.2 TTS when TECE ∼10 keV. The disagreement is consistent with a non-Maxwellian distortion in the bulk electron momentum distribution. ITER is projected to operate with Te(0) ∼ 20-40 keV so the disagreement between TECE and TTS could be > 50%, with significant physics implications. The GENRAY ray tracing code predicts that a two-view ECE system, with perpendicular and moderately oblique viewing antennas, would be sufficient to reconstruct a two-temperature bulk distribution. If the electron momentum distribution remains Maxwellian the moderately oblique view could still be used to measure Te(R). A viewing dump will not be required for the oblique view and plasma refraction will be minimal. The oblique view has a similar radial resolution to the perpendicular view, but with some reduction in radial coverage. Oblique viewing angles of up to 20 o can be implemented without a major revision to the front end of the existing ITER ECE diagnostic design.

  16. Inferior oblique muscle paresis as a sign of myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Yehoshua; Ben-David, Merav; Nemet, Arie Y

    2016-03-01

    Myasthenia gravis may affect any of the six extra-ocular muscles, masquerading as any type of ocular motor pathology. The frequency of involvement of each muscle is not well established in the medical literature. This study was designed to determine whether a specific muscle or combination of muscles tends to be predominantly affected. This retrospective review included 30 patients with a clinical diagnosis of myasthenia gravis who had extra-ocular muscle involvement with diplopia at presentation. The diagnosis was confirmed by at least one of the following tests: Tensilon test, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, thymoma on chest CT scan, or suggestive electromyography. Frequency of involvement of each muscle in this cohort was inferior oblique 19 (63.3%), lateral rectus nine (30%), superior rectus four (13.3%), inferior rectus six (20%), medial rectus four (13.3%), and superior oblique three (10%). The inferior oblique was involved more often than any other muscle (pmyasthenia gravis can be difficult, because the disease may mimic every pupil-sparing pattern of ocular misalignment. In addition diplopia caused by paresis of the inferior oblique muscle is rarely encountered (other than as a part of oculomotor nerve palsy). Hence, when a patient presents with vertical diplopia resulting from an isolated inferior oblique palsy, myasthenic etiology should be highly suspected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Quick and Affine Invariance Matching Method for Oblique Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIAO Xiongwu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a quick, affine invariance matching method for oblique images. It calculated the initial affine matrix by making full use of the two estimated camera axis orientation parameters of an oblique image, then recovered the oblique image to a rectified image by doing the inverse affine transform, and left over by the SIFT method. We used the nearest neighbor distance ratio(NNDR, normalized cross correlation(NCC measure constraints and consistency check to get the coarse matches, then used RANSAC method to calculate the fundamental matrix and the homography matrix. And we got the matches that they were interior points when calculating the homography matrix, then calculated the average value of the matches' principal direction differences. During the matching process, we got the initial matching features by the nearest neighbor(NN matching strategy, then used the epipolar constrains, homography constrains, NCC measure constrains and consistency check of the initial matches' principal direction differences with the calculated average value of the interior matches' principal direction differences to eliminate false matches. Experiments conducted on three pairs of typical oblique images demonstrate that our method takes about the same time as SIFT to match a pair of oblique images with a plenty of corresponding points distributed evenly and an extremely low mismatching rate.

  18. Types of contracts and contracting procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijl, N.A. van

    1977-01-01

    Contracting for a nuclear power plant can be carried out in many different ways, from a bilateral agreement between two countries to an international open bidding competition. Also the kind of contracts (turnkey, split-package or multi-contract type) are discussed with their pros and cons as well as the contracting procedures which can be followed to come to the conclusion of a contract. (orig.) [de

  19. The crustal structures from Wuyi-Yunkai orogen to Taiwan orogen: the onshore-offshore wide-angle seismic experiment of TAIGER and ATSEE projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuochen, H.; Kuo, N. Y. W.; Wang, C. Y.; Jin, X.; Cai, H. T.; Lin, J. Y.; Wu, F. T.; Yen, H. Y.; Huang, B. S.; Liang, W. T.; Okaya, D. A.; Brown, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    The crustal structure is key information for understanding the tectonic framework and geological evolution in the southeastern China and its adjacent area. In this study, we integrated the data sets from the TAIGER and ATSEE projects to resolve onshore-offshore deep crustal seismic profiles from the Wuyi-Yunkai orogen to the Taiwan orogen in southeastern China. Totally, there are three seismic profiles resolved and the longest profile is 850 km. Unlike 2D and 3D first arrival travel-time tomography from previous studies, we used both refracted and reflected phases (Pg, Pn, PcP, and PmP) to model the crustal structures and the crustal reflectors. 40 shots, 2 earthquakes, and about 1,950 stations were used and 15,319 arrivals were picked among three transects. As a result, the complex crustal evolution since Paleozoic era are shown, which involved the closed Paleozoic rifted basin in central Fujian, the Cenozoic extension due to South China sea opening beneath the coastline of southern Fujian, and the on-going collision of the Taiwan orogen.

  20. Research On The Measure Method Of Oblique Pinhole Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Yu-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many special advantages in measuring the diameter of blind and deep holes with a capacitive probe, there are still some challenges for the measurement of a oblique pinhole parameters because the measuring device is inconvenient to stretch into the oblique pinhole exactly. A five-dimensional measurement system was adopted in the paper which included a capacitive sensor probe and a three-coordinate measuring machine to accomplish the measurement for oblique pinholes. With the help of the three-dimensional coordinates measured from the pinhole axis, we put forward a comprehensive method of combining the projection method and the least squares method together for fitting spatial straight line to obtain the optimal equation of the spacial axis. Finally, a reliable and entire measurement system was set up.

  1. HOT STARS WITH HOT JUPITERS HAVE HIGH OBLIQUITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon; Fabrycky, Daniel; Johnson, John Asher

    2010-01-01

    We show that stars with transiting planets for which the stellar obliquity is large are preferentially hot (T eff > 6250 K). This could explain why small obliquities were observed in the earliest measurements, which focused on relatively cool stars drawn from Doppler surveys, as opposed to hotter stars that emerged more recently from transit surveys. The observed trend could be due to differences in planet formation and migration around stars of varying mass. Alternatively, we speculate that hot-Jupiter systems begin with a wide range of obliquities, but the photospheres of cool stars realign with the orbits due to tidal dissipation in their convective zones, while hot stars cannot realign because of their thinner convective zones. This in turn would suggest that hot Jupiters originate from few-body gravitational dynamics and that disk migration plays at most a supporting role.

  2. Recent progress of obliquely deposited thin films for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Itoh, Tadayoshi; Taga, Yasunori

    1999-06-01

    More than 10 years ago, birefringent films of metal oxides were formed by oblique vapor deposition and investigated with a view of their application to optical retardation plates. The retardation function of the films was explained in terms of the birefringence caused by the characteristic anisotropic nanostructure inside the films. These films are now classified in the genre of the so-called sculptured thin films. However, the birefringent films thus prepared are not yet industrialized even now due to the crucial lack of the durability and the yield of products. In this review paper, we describe the present status of application process of the retardation films to the information systems such as compact disc and digital versatile disc devices with a special emphasis on the uniformity of retardation properties in a large area and the stability of the optical properties of the obliquely deposited thin films. Finally, further challenges for wide application of the obliquely deposited thin films are also discussed.

  3. Study of obliquely deposited thin cobalt films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmaja, W.; Kozlowski, W.; Balcerski, J.; Kowalczyk, P.J.; Grobelny, J.; Cichomski, M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The paper reports simultaneously on the magnetic domain structure of obliquely deposited thin cobalt films (40 nm and 100 nm thick) and their morphological structure. Such studies are in fact rare (Refs. cited in the paper). → Moreover, to our knowledge, observations of the morphological structure of these films have not yet been carried out simultaneously by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). → The films of both thicknesses were found to have uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy. → The magnetic microstructure of the films 40 nm thick was composed of domains running and magnetized predominantly in the direction perpendicular to the incidence plane of the vapor beam. → As the film thickness was changed from 40 nm to 100 nm, the magnetic anisotropy was observed to change from the direction perpendicular to parallel with respect to the incidence plane. → Thanks to the application of TEM and AFM, complementary information on the morphological structure of the films could be obtained. → In comparison with TEM images, AFM images revealed grains larger in size and slightly elongated in the direction perpendicular rather than parallel to the incidence plane. → These experimental findings clearly show that surface diffusion plays an important role in the process of film growth. → For the films 40 nm thick, the alignment of columnar grains in the direction perpendicular to the incidence plane was observed. → This correlates well with the magnetic domain structure of these films. → For the films 100 nm thick, the perpendicular alignment of columnar grains could also be found, although in fact with larger difficulty. → TEM studies showed that the films consisted mainly of the hexagonal close-packed (HCP) crystalline structure, but no preferred crystallographic orientation of the grains could be detected for the films of both thicknesses. → For the films 100 nm thick, the alignment of

  4. Pelvic digital subtraction catheter angiography-Are routine oblique projections necessary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rane, Neil; Imam, Atique; Foley, Peter; Timmons, Grace; Uberoi, Raman

    2011-01-01

    The oblique projection is used widely in imaging of the lower vascular tree. Much of the evidence justifying the oblique projection is anecdotal. This study compares the sensitivity of the anteroposterior (AP) projection alone in lower limb vascular catheter angiography to that combined with the oblique projection. 110 digitally subtracted angiograms were analysed initially on AP and subsequently on oblique views. Oblique imaging increases confidence, demonstrates stenoses not seen on AP and changes the diagnosis. This supports the use of the oblique projection in lower limb vascular interventional imaging.

  5. Oblique lumbar spine radiographs: importance in young patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libson, E.; Bloom, R.A.; Dinari, G.; Robin, G.C.

    1984-04-01

    Spondylolysis is a direct precursor of spondylolisthesis and can lead to crippling back pain. Of 1,743 patients surveyed, including 936 who were asymptomatic and 807 with back pain, 165 (including 91 who were asymptomatic and 74 with back pain) had spondylolysis, which was seen only on oblique lumbar views in 20% of cases. Because of the high false-negative rate of AP and lateral views, oblique views are essential in children and young adults. As spondylolysis is rare above L3, radiographs can be limited to L3-S1. Significantly less spondylolysis was seen in persons older than 30 with back pain usually caused by disk degeneration.

  6. Oblique lumbar spine radiographs: importance in young patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libson, E.; Bloom, R.A.; Dinari, G.; Robin, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Spondylolysis is a direct precursor of spondylolisthesis and can lead to crippling back pain. Of 1,743 patients surveyed, including 936 who were asymptomatic and 807 with back pain, 165 (including 91 who were asymptomatic and 74 with back pain) had spondylolysis, which was seen only on oblique lumbar views in 20% of cases. Because of the high false-negative rate of AP and lateral views, oblique views are essential in children and young adults. As spondylolysis is rare above L3, radiographs can be limited to L3-S1. Significantly less spondylolysis was seen in persons older than 30 with back pain usually caused by disk degeneration

  7. ACCURACY OF MEASUREMENTS IN OBLIQUE AERIAL IMAGES FOR URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ostrowski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Oblique aerial images have been a source of data for urban areas for several years. However, the accuracy of measurements in oblique images during this time has been limited to a single meter due to the use of direct -georeferencing technology and the underlying digital elevation model. Therefore, oblique images have been used mostly for visualization purposes. This situation changed in recent years as new methods, which allowed for a higher accuracy of exterior orientation, were developed. Current developments include the process of determining exterior orientation and the previous but still crucial process of tie point extraction. Progress in this area was shown in the ISPRS/EUROSDR Benchmark on Multi-Platform Photogrammetry and is also noticeable in the growing interest in the use of this kind of imagery. The higher level of accuracy in the orientation of oblique aerial images that has become possible in the last few years should result in a higher level of accuracy in the measurements of these types of images. The main goal of this research was to set and empirically verify the accuracy of measurements in oblique aerial images. The research focused on photogrammetric measurements composed of many images, which use a high overlap within an oblique dataset and different view angles. During the experiments, two series of images of urban areas were used. Both were captured using five DigiCam cameras in a Maltese cross configuration. The tilt angles of the oblique cameras were 45 degrees, and the position of the cameras during flight used a high grade GPS/INS navigation system. The orientation of the images was set using the Pix4D Mapper Pro software with both measurements of the in-flight camera position and the ground control points (measured with GPS RTK technology. To control the accuracy, check points were used (which were also measured with GPS RTK technology. As reference data for the whole study, an area of the city-based map was used

  8. Cosmic-ray shock acceleration in oblique MHD shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, G. M.; Drury, L. OC.; Volk, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    A one-dimensional, steady-state hydrodynamical model of cosmic-ray acceleration at oblique MHD shocks is presented. Upstream of the shock the incoming thermal plasma is subject to the adverse pressure gradient of the accelerated particles, the J x B force, as well as the thermal gas pressure gradient. The efficiency of the acceleration of cosmic-rays at the shock as a function of the upstream magnetic field obliquity and upstream plasma beta is investigated. Astrophysical applications of the results are briefly discussed.

  9. 'Extra-regional' strike-slip fault systems in Chile and Alaska: the North Pacific Rim orogenic Stream vs. Beck's Buttress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, T. F.; Scholl, D. W.; Fitzgerald, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    The ~2000 km long Denali Fault System (DFS) of Alaska is an example of an extra-regional strike-slip fault system that terminates in a zone of widely-distributed deformation. The ~1200 km long Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ) of Patagonia (southern Chile) is another. Both systems are active, having undergone large-magnitude seismic rupture is 2002 (DFS) and 2007 (LOFZ). Both systems appear to be long-lived: the DFS juxtaposes terranes that docked in at least early Tertiary time, whilst the central LOFZ appears to also record early Tertiary or Mesozoic deformation. Both fault systems comprise a relatively well-defined central zone where individual fault traces can be identified from topographic features or zones of deformed rock. In both cases the proximal and distal traces are much more diffuse tributary and distributary systems of individual, branching fault traces. However, since their inception the DFS and LOFZ have followed very different evolutionary paths. Copious Alaskan paleomagnetic data are consistent with vertical axis small block rotation, long-distance latitudinal translation, and a recently-postulated tectonic extrusion towards a distributary of subordinate faults that branch outward towards the Aleution subduction zone (the North Pacific Rim orogenic Stream; see Redfield et al., 2007). Paleomagnetic data from the LOFZ region are consistent with small block rotation but preclude statistically-significant latitudinal transport. Limited field data from the southernmost LOFZ suggest that high-angle normal and reverse faults dominate over oblique to strike-slip structures. Rather than the high-angle oblique 'slivering regime' of the southeasternmost DFS, the initiation of the LOFZ appears to occur across a 50 to 100 km wide zone of brittly-deformed granitic and gneissic rock characterized by bulk compression and vertical pathways of exhumation. In both cases, relative plate motions are consistent with the hypothetical style, and degree, of offset, leading

  10. Variability of orogenic magmatism during Mediterranean-style continental collisions : A numerical modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrić, N.; Vogt, K.; Matenco, L.; Cvetković, V.; Cloetingh, S.; Gerya, T.

    The relationship between magma generation and the tectonic evolution of orogens during subduction and subsequent collision requires self-consistent numerical modelling approaches predicting volumes and compositions of the produced magmatic rocks. Here, we use a 2D magmatic-thermomechanical numerical

  11. Kinematics of post-orogenic extension and exhumation of the Taku Schist, NE Peninsular Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Md Ali, M.A.; Willingshofer, E.; Matenco, L.; Francois, T.; Daanen, T.P.; Ng, T.F.; Taib, N.I.; Shuib, M.K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies imply that the formation and evolution of many SE Asian basins was driven by extensional detachments or systems of low-angle normal faults that created significant crustal exhumation in their footwalls. In this context, the architecture of the Triassic Indosinian orogen

  12. Post-collisional magmatism in the central East African Orogen: The Maevarano Suite of north Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, K.M.; Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Key, R.M.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Tucker, R.D.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.

    2010-01-01

    Late tectonic, post-collisional granite suites are a feature of many parts of the Late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO), where they are generally attributed to late extensional collapse of the orogen, accompanied by high heat flow and asthenospheric uprise. The Maevarano Suite comprises voluminous plutons which were emplaced in some of the tectonostratigraphic terranes of northern Madagascar, in the central part of the EAO, following collision and assembly during a major orogeny at ca. 550 Ma. The suite comprises three main magmatic phases: a minor early phase of foliated gabbros, quartz diorites, and granodiorites; a main phase of large batholiths of porphyritic granitoids and charnockites; and a late phase of small-scale plutons and sheets of monzonite, syenite, leucogranite and microgranite. The main phase intrusions tend to be massive, but with variably foliated margins. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data show that the whole suite was emplaced between ca. 537 and 522 Ma. Geochemically, all the rocks of the suite are enriched in the LILE, especially K, and the LREE, but are relatively depleted in Nb, Ta and the HREE. These characteristics are typical of post-collisional granitoids in the EAO and many other orogenic belts. It is proposed that the Maevarano Suite magmas were derived by melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle that had been enriched in the LILE during earlier subduction events. The melting occurred during lithospheric delamination, which was associated with extensional collapse of the East African Orogen. ?? 2009 Natural Environment Research Council.

  13. The Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogenic system: correlation and evolution of tectonic units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, S.M.; Bernoulli, D.; Fügenschuh, B.; Matenco, L.C.; Schefer, S.; Schuster, R.; Tischler, M.; Ustaszewski, K.

    2008-01-01

    A correlation of tectonic units of the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic system of orogens, including the substrate of the Pannonian and Transylvanian basins, is presented in the form of a map. Combined with a series of crustal-scale cross sections this correlation of tectonic units yields a clearer

  14. An isotopic perspective on growth and differentiation of Proterozoic orogenic crust: From subduction magmatism to cratonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Simon P.; Korhonen, Fawna J.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Cliff, John B.; Belousova, Elena A.; Sheppard, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The in situ chemical differentiation of continental crust ultimately leads to the long-term stability of the continents. This process, more commonly known as 'cratonization', is driven by deep crustal melting with the transfer of those melts to shallower regions resulting in a strongly chemically stratified crust, with a refractory, dehydrated lower portion overlain by a complementary enriched upper portion. Since the lower to mid portions of continental crust are rarely exposed, investigation of the cratonization process must be through indirect methods. In this study we use in situ Hf and O isotope compositions of both magmatic and inherited zircons from several felsic magmatic suites in the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia to highlight the differentiation history (i.e. cratonization) of this portion of late Archean to Proterozoic orogenic crust. The Capricorn Orogen shows a distinct tectonomagmatic history that evolves from an active continental margin through to intracratonic reworking, ultimately leading to thermally stable crust that responds similarly to the bounding Archean Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons. The majority of magmatic zircons from the main magmatic cycles have Hf isotopic compositions that are generally more evolved than CHUR, forming vertical arrays that extend to moderately radiogenic compositions. Complimentary O isotope data, also show a significant variation in composition. However, combined, these data define not only the source components from which the magmas were derived, but also a range of physio-chemical processes that operated during magma transport and emplacement. These data also identify a previously unknown crustal reservoir in the Capricorn Orogen.

  15. Magnetic fabric transposition in folded granite sills in Variscan orogenic wedge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Závada, Prokop; Calassou, T.; Schulmann, K.; Hrouda, F.; Štípská, P.; Hasalová, Pavlína; Míková, J.; Magna, T.; Mixa, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 94, January (2017), s. 166-183 ISSN 0191-8141 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15632S Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : orogenic sill * AMS fabric * folding Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.408, year: 2016

  16. The Russian-Kazakh Altai orogen: An overview and main debatable issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Safonova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews previous and recently obtained geological, stratigraphic and geochronological data on the Russian-Kazakh Altai orogen, which is located in the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB, between the Kazakhstan and Siberian continental blocks. The Russian-Kazakh Altai is a typical Pacific-type orogen, which represents a collage of oceanic, accretionary, fore-arc, island-arc and continental margin terranes of different ages separated by strike-slip faults and thrusts. Evidence for this comes from key indicative rock associations, such as boninite- and turbidite (graywacke-bearing volcanogenic-sedimentary units, accreted pelagic chert, oceanic islands and plateaus, MORB-OIB-protolith blueschists. The three major tectonic domains of the Russian-Kazakh Altai are: (1 Altai-Mongolian terrane (AMT; (2 subduction-accretionary (Rudny Altai, Gorny Altai and collisional (Kalba-Narym terranes; (3 Kurai, Charysh-Terekta, North-East, Irtysh and Char suture-shear zones (SSZ. The evolution of this orogen proceeded in five major stages: (i late Neoproterozoic–early Paleozoic subduction-accretion in the Paleo-Asian Ocean; (ii Ordovician–Silurian passive margin; (iii Devonian–Carboniferous active margin and collision of AMT with the Siberian continent; (iv late Paleozoic closure of the PAO and coeval collisional magmatism; (v Mesozoic post-collisional deformation and anarogenic magmatism, which created the modern structural collage of the Russian-Kazakh Altai orogen. The major still unsolved problem of Altai geology is origin of the Altai-Mongolian terrane (continental versus active margin, age of Altai basement, proportion of juvenile and recycled crust and origin of the middle Paleozoic units of the Gorny Altai and Rudny Altai terranes.

  17. Stereotactic biopsy of cerebellar lesions: straight versus oblique frame positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick-Weller, Johanna; Brawanski, Nina; Dinc, Nazife; Behmanesh, Bedjahn; Kammerer, Sara; Dubinski, Daniel; Seifert, Volker; Marquardt, Gerhard; Weise, Lutz

    2017-10-26

    Biospies of brain lesions with unknown entity are an everyday procedure among many neurosurgical departments. Biopsies can be performed frame-guided or frameless. However, cerebellar lesions are a special entity with a more complex approach. All biopsies in this study were performed stereotactically frame guided. Therefore, only biopsies of cerebellar lesions were included in this study. We compared whether the frame was attached straight versus oblique and we focused on diagnostic yield and complication rate. We evaluated 20 patients who underwent the procedure between 2009 and 2017. Median age was 56.5 years. 12 (60%) Patients showed a left sided lesion, 6 (30%) showed a lesion in the right cerebellum and 2 (10%) patients showed a midline lesion. The stereotactic frame was mounted oblique in 12 (60%) patients and straight in 8 (40%) patients. Postoperative CT scan showed small, clinically silent blood collection in two (10%) of the patients, one (5%) patient showed haemorrhage, which caused a hydrocephalus. He received an external ventricular drain. In both patients with small haemorrhage the frame was positioned straight, while in the patient who showed a larger haemorrhage the frame was mounted oblique. In all patients a final histopathological diagnosis was established. Cerebellar lesions of unknown entity can be accessed transcerebellar either with the stereotactic frame mounted straight or oblique. Also for cerebellar lesions the procedure shows a high diagnostic yield with a low rate of severe complications, which need further treatment.

  18. Analysis of Torque Measurements on Films with Oblique Anistropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelmann, Leon; Kambersky, Vladimir; Lodder, J.C.; Popma, T.J.A.

    1993-01-01

    A measurement method is discussed to determine the magnetic anisotropy energy in a sample without assuming an a priori model for the origins of the anisotropy. The measurement procedure involves torque measurements in five different planes. Since it is especially useful for films with an oblique

  19. Oblique water entry of a three dimensional body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scolan Yves-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the oblique water entry of a three dimensional body is considered. Wagner theory is the theoretical framework. Applications are discussed for an elliptic paraboloid entering an initially flat free surface. A dedicated experimental campaign yields a data base for comparisons. In the present analysis, pressure, force and dynamics of the wetted surface expansion are assessed.

  20. Residual symptoms after surgery for unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caca, Ihsan; Sahin, Alparslan; Cingu, Abdullah; Ari, Seyhmus; Akbas, Umut

    2012-01-01

    To establish the surgical results and residual symptoms in 48 cases with unilateral congenital superior oblique muscle palsy that had surgical intervention to the vertical muscles alone. Myectomy and concomitant disinsertion of the inferior oblique (IO) muscle was performed in 38 cases and myectomy and concomitant IO disinsertion and recession of the superior rectus muscle in the ipsilateral eye was performed in 10 cases. The preoperative and postoperative vertical deviation values and surgical results were compared. Of the patients who had myectomy and concomitant IO disinsertion, 74% achieved an "excellent" result, 21% a "good" result, and 5% a "poor" result postoperatively. The difference in deviation between preoperative and postoperative values was statistically significant (P < .001). Of the patients who had myectomy and concomitant inferior oblique disinsertion and ipsilateral superior rectus recession, 50% achieved an "excellent" result, 20% a "good" result, and 30% a "poor" result postoperatively. The difference in deviation between preoperative and postoperative values was statistically significant (P < .001). Both procedures are effective and successful in patients with superior oblique muscle palsy, but a secondary surgery may be required. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Analyzing RCD30 Oblique Performance in a Production Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, M. E.; Kornus, W.; Magariños, A.; Pla, M.

    2016-06-01

    In 2014 the Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya (ICGC) decided to incorporate digital oblique imagery in its portfolio in response to the growing demand for this product. The reason can be attributed to its useful applications in a wide variety of fields and, most recently, to an increasing interest in 3d modeling. The selection phase for a digital oblique camera led to the purchase of the Leica RCD30 Oblique system, an 80MPixel multispectral medium-format camera which consists of one Nadir camera and four oblique viewing cameras acquiring images at an off-Nadir angle of 35º. The system also has a multi-directional motion compensation on-board system to deliver the highest image quality. The emergence of airborne oblique cameras has run in parallel to the inclusion of computer vision algorithms into the traditional photogrammetric workflows. Such algorithms rely on having multiple views of the same area of interest and take advantage of the image redundancy for automatic feature extraction. The multiview capability is highly fostered by the use of oblique systems which capture simultaneously different points of view for each camera shot. Different companies and NMAs have started pilot projects to assess the capabilities of the 3D mesh that can be obtained using correlation techniques. Beyond a software prototyping phase, and taking into account the currently immature state of several components of the oblique imagery workflow, the ICGC has focused on deploying a real production environment with special interest on matching the performance and quality of the existing production lines based on classical Nadir images. This paper introduces different test scenarios and layouts to analyze the impact of different variables on the geometric and radiometric performance. Different variables such as flight altitude, side and forward overlap and ground control point measurements and location have been considered for the evaluation of aerial triangulation and

  2. ANALYZING RCD30 OBLIQUE PERFORMANCE IN A PRODUCTION ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Soler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2014 the Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya (ICGC decided to incorporate digital oblique imagery in its portfolio in response to the growing demand for this product. The reason can be attributed to its useful applications in a wide variety of fields and, most recently, to an increasing interest in 3d modeling. The selection phase for a digital oblique camera led to the purchase of the Leica RCD30 Oblique system, an 80MPixel multispectral medium-format camera which consists of one Nadir camera and four oblique viewing cameras acquiring images at an off-Nadir angle of 35º. The system also has a multi-directional motion compensation on-board system to deliver the highest image quality. The emergence of airborne oblique cameras has run in parallel to the inclusion of computer vision algorithms into the traditional photogrammetric workflows. Such algorithms rely on having multiple views of the same area of interest and take advantage of the image redundancy for automatic feature extraction. The multiview capability is highly fostered by the use of oblique systems which capture simultaneously different points of view for each camera shot. Different companies and NMAs have started pilot projects to assess the capabilities of the 3D mesh that can be obtained using correlation techniques. Beyond a software prototyping phase, and taking into account the currently immature state of several components of the oblique imagery workflow, the ICGC has focused on deploying a real production environment with special interest on matching the performance and quality of the existing production lines based on classical Nadir images. This paper introduces different test scenarios and layouts to analyze the impact of different variables on the geometric and radiometric performance. Different variables such as flight altitude, side and forward overlap and ground control point measurements and location have been considered for the evaluation of aerial

  3. Fold superimposition in the Permian groups in the central Beishan orogenic collage (northwestern China): highlights for the late evolution of the Altaids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhonghua, Tian; Wenjiao, Xiao; Yehua, Shan

    2013-04-01

    The southernmost part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) or Altaids (Sengör and Burtman, 1993; Xiao et al., 2009), a rare and magnificent example of mesoscopic fold superimposition, involving the Permian sandstone, slightly to mildly metamorphosed clastic rocks, is well exposed in the central Beishan Orogenic Collage (BOC). We provide a detailed description of the morphological features of this phenomenon, based on an enormous amount of structural data collected during recent twice field mapping in the study area. Two phases of folds are readily distinguishable both in satellite image (Fig.la) and our own field map (Fig.1b). Fold is tight to close, N-S-trending in the first phase (F1), and open and E-W-trending in the second phase (F2). The first phase upright folds were refolded into a smaller number of (F2), whose axial planes and axes are vertical or subvertical. They plunge gentle to moderately in the former and moderately to steeply in the latter. Their interference is in general categorized as Ramsay's (Ramsay, 1967) type 2 or Ghosh's third/fourth mode based on the value of initial tightness. However, from east to west there exists a slight variation of a zigzag to crescent to mushroom interference pattern. This subtle variation corresponds with the westward increases of the F2 interlimb angle and of the percentage of coarse-grain clastic rocks, suggesting its dependence upon the F2 deformation and the lithology. Axial slaty cleavages (S1) and associated dip-slip slickensides are more abundant in the first phase. Cleavages and strike-slip slickensides related to the seconding refolding are also occurred in the area. Finally, according to the petrological, geochemical and geochronological data, we conclude that the deformation history of the superposed folds were associated with the late evolution in the BOC. In the late Permian, the fold superimposition occurred in sedimentary rocks deposited in a Permian back-arc basin. The basin was intensely

  4. Seismic Slip on an Oblique Detachment Fault at Low Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecke, S. U.; Steely, A. N.; Evans, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    Pseudotachylytes are one of the few accepted indicators of seismic slip along ancient faults. Low-angle normal faults have produced few large earthquakes in historic times and low-angle normal faults (detachment faults) are typically severely misoriented relative to a vertical maximum compressive stress. As a result many geoscientists question whether low-angle normal faults produce earthquakes at low angles. Relationships in southern California show that a major low-angle normal-oblique fault slipped at low angles and produced large earthquakes. The exhumed Late Cenozoic West Salton detachment fault preserves spectacular fault- related pseudotachylytes along its fault plane and injected into its hanging wall and footwall. Composite pseudotachylyte zones are up to 1.25 m thick and persists over lateral distances of at least 10's of meters. Pseudotachylyte is common in most thin sections of damaged fault rocks with more than 20% (by volume) of cataclasite. We recognized the presence of original melt using numerous criteria: abundant spherulites in thin sections, injection structures at both the thin-section and outcrop scale, black aphanitic textures, quenched vein margins, variations in microcrystallite textures and/or size with respect to the vein margin, and glassy textures in hand sample. Multiple earthquakes are inferred to produce the layered "stratigraphy" in some exposures of pseudotachylytes. We infer that the West Salton detachment fault formed and slipped at low angles because it nearly perfectly reactivates a Cretaceous ductile thrust system at the half km scale and dips between 10 and 45 degrees. The about 30 degree NNE dip of the detachment fault on the north side of Yaqui Ridge is likely steeper than its dip during detachment slip because there is local steepening on the flanks of the Yaqui Ridge antiform in a contractional stepover of a crosscutting Quaternary San Felipe dextral fault zone. These relationships indicate a low dip on the detachment

  5. Structure of the Kaoko Belt, Namibia: progressive evolution of a classic transpressional orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goscombe, Ben; Hand, Martin; Gray, David

    2003-07-01

    The Kaoko Belt portion of the Damara Orogen, Namibia, is the deeply eroded core of a sinistral transpressional orogen that has half-flower structure geometry centred on the major, 4-5-km-wide Purros Mylonite Zone. Formed between the Congo Craton in the east and Rio De La Plata Craton in Brazil, the Kaoko Belt represents the northern coastal arm of a triple junction within the Pan-African Orogenic System. Consisting of reworked Archaean, Palaeoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic basement and a cover of Neoproterozoic Damara Sequence, the Kaoko Belt can be sub-divided structurally into three parallel NNW-trending zones. The Eastern Kaoko Zone comprises sub-greenschist facies shelf carbonates that have been uprightly folded. The Central Kaoko Zone contains a slope and deep basin facies succession that has experienced intense deformation, including pervasive reworking of basement into large-scale east-vergent nappes. The Western Kaoko Zone is predominantly deep basin facies of high metamorphic grade intruded by numerous granites. It has experienced intense wrench-style deformation with formation of upright isoclines and steep, crustal-scale shear zones. The Kaoko Belt evolved through three distinct phases of a protracted Pan-African Orogeny in the late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian. (1) An early Thermal Phase (M 1) was responsible for pervasive partial melting and granite emplacement in the Western Kaoko Zone from 656 Ma. (2) The Transpressional Phase produced the geometry of the belt by progressive sinistral shearing between 580 and 550 Ma. Deformation was continuously progressive through two stages and involved both temporal and spatial migration of deformation outwards towards the margin. The early strike-slip Wrench-Stage produced a high-strain L-S fabric by sub-horizontal transport. Deformation became progressively more transpressive, with high-angle convergence and flattening strains during the Convergent-Stage. In this stage, strike-slip movements evolved through

  6. Accuracy Potential and Applications of MIDAS Aerial Oblique Camera System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, M.

    2012-07-01

    Airborne oblique cameras such as Fairchild T-3A were initially used for military reconnaissance in 30s. A modern professional digital oblique camera such as MIDAS (Multi-camera Integrated Digital Acquisition System) is used to generate lifelike three dimensional to the users for visualizations, GIS applications, architectural modeling, city modeling, games, simulators, etc. Oblique imagery provide the best vantage for accessing and reviewing changes to the local government tax base, property valuation assessment, buying & selling of residential/commercial for better decisions in a more timely manner. Oblique imagery is also used for infrastructure monitoring making sure safe operations of transportation, utilities, and facilities. Sanborn Mapping Company acquired one MIDAS from TrackAir in 2011. This system consists of four tilted (45 degrees) cameras and one vertical camera connected to a dedicated data acquisition computer system. The 5 digital cameras are based on the Canon EOS 1DS Mark3 with Zeiss lenses. The CCD size is 5,616 by 3,744 (21 MPixels) with the pixel size of 6.4 microns. Multiple flights using different camera configurations (nadir/oblique (28 mm/50 mm) and (50 mm/50 mm)) were flown over downtown Colorado Springs, Colorado. Boresight fights for 28 mm nadir camera were flown at 600 m and 1,200 m and for 50 mm nadir camera at 750 m and 1500 m. Cameras were calibrated by using a 3D cage and multiple convergent images utilizing Australis model. In this paper, the MIDAS system is described, a number of real data sets collected during the aforementioned flights are presented together with their associated flight configurations, data processing workflow, system calibration and quality control workflows are highlighted and the achievable accuracy is presented in some detail. This study revealed that the expected accuracy of about 1 to 1.5 GSD (Ground Sample Distance) for planimetry and about 2 to 2.5 GSD for vertical can be achieved. Remaining systematic

  7. ACCURACY POTENTIAL AND APPLICATIONS OF MIDAS AERIAL OBLIQUE CAMERA SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Madani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Airborne oblique cameras such as Fairchild T-3A were initially used for military reconnaissance in 30s. A modern professional digital oblique camera such as MIDAS (Multi-camera Integrated Digital Acquisition System is used to generate lifelike three dimensional to the users for visualizations, GIS applications, architectural modeling, city modeling, games, simulators, etc. Oblique imagery provide the best vantage for accessing and reviewing changes to the local government tax base, property valuation assessment, buying & selling of residential/commercial for better decisions in a more timely manner. Oblique imagery is also used for infrastructure monitoring making sure safe operations of transportation, utilities, and facilities. Sanborn Mapping Company acquired one MIDAS from TrackAir in 2011. This system consists of four tilted (45 degrees cameras and one vertical camera connected to a dedicated data acquisition computer system. The 5 digital cameras are based on the Canon EOS 1DS Mark3 with Zeiss lenses. The CCD size is 5,616 by 3,744 (21 MPixels with the pixel size of 6.4 microns. Multiple flights using different camera configurations (nadir/oblique (28 mm/50 mm and (50 mm/50 mm were flown over downtown Colorado Springs, Colorado. Boresight fights for 28 mm nadir camera were flown at 600 m and 1,200 m and for 50 mm nadir camera at 750 m and 1500 m. Cameras were calibrated by using a 3D cage and multiple convergent images utilizing Australis model. In this paper, the MIDAS system is described, a number of real data sets collected during the aforementioned flights are presented together with their associated flight configurations, data processing workflow, system calibration and quality control workflows are highlighted and the achievable accuracy is presented in some detail. This study revealed that the expected accuracy of about 1 to 1.5 GSD (Ground Sample Distance for planimetry and about 2 to 2.5 GSD for vertical can be achieved. Remaining

  8. Phase analysis of regional and global ventricular contraction patterns in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tokuji; Koyama, Takao; Ichikawa, Takehiko

    1989-01-01

    Multigated blood pool scintigraphy was performed in 20 normal subjects and 39 patients with various intraventricular conduction abnormalities, including 25 patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Cardiac imaging was performed in the modified left anterior oblique, right anterior oblique, and left lateral projections. In WPW syndrome, early contraction sites which were not seen in normal subjects were detected at the ventricular base in phase images. These anomalous early contraction sites disappeared after successful suppression of conduction through an accessory pathway by intravenous procainamide. These sites are believed to correspond to the location of the bundle of Kent and were consistent with the electrocardiographic findings. Phase mapping is a suitable noninvasive method to locate the position of the bundle of Kent and evaluate the ventricular contraction pattern in WPW syndrome and other intraventricular conduction abnormalities. (author)

  9. Motor mechanisms of vertical fusion in individuals with superior oblique paresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Ananth V; Walker, Mark; Steffen, Heimo; Guyton, David L; Zee, David S

    2002-06-01

    We wanted to determine the mechanisms of motor vertical fusion in patients with superior oblique paresis and to correlate these mechanisms with surgical outcomes. Ten patients with superior oblique paresis underwent 3-axis, bilateral, scleral search coil eye movement recordings. Eye movements associated with fusion were analyzed. Six patients had decompensated congenital superior oblique paresis and 4 had acquired superior oblique paresis. All patients with acquired superior oblique paresis relied predominantly on the vertical rectus muscles for motor fusion. Patients with congenital superior oblique paresis were less uniform in their mechanisms for motor fusion: 2 patients used predominantly the oblique muscles, 2 patients used predominantly the vertical recti, and 2 patients used predominantly the superior oblique in the hyperdeviated eye and the superior rectus in the hypodeviated eye. The last 2 patients developed the largest changes in torsional eye alignment relative to changes in vertical eye alignment and were the only patients to develop symptomatic surgical overcorrections. There are 3 different mechanisms for vertical fusion in individuals with superior oblique paresis, with the predominant mechanism being the vertical recti. A subset of patients with superior oblique paresis uses predominantly the superior oblique muscle in the hyperdeviated paretic eye and the superior rectus muscle in the fellow eye for fusion. This results in intorsion of both eyes, causing a large change in torsional alignment. The consequent cyclodisparity, in addition to the existing vertical deviation, may make fusion difficult. The differing patterns of vertical fusional vergence may have implications for surgical treatment.

  10. Oblique Alfvén instabilities driven by compensated currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malovichko, P. [Main Astronomical Observatory, NASU, Kyiv (Ukraine); Voitenko, Y.; De Keyser, J., E-mail: voitenko@oma.be [Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence, Space Physics Division, Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Ringlaan-3-Avenue Circulaire, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-01-10

    Compensated-current systems created by energetic ion beams are widespread in space and astrophysical plasmas. The well-known examples are foreshock regions in the solar wind and around supernova remnants. We found a new oblique Alfvénic instability driven by compensated currents flowing along the background magnetic field. Because of the vastly different electron and ion gyroradii, oblique Alfvénic perturbations react differently on the currents carried by the hot ion beams and the return electron currents. Ultimately, this difference leads to a non-resonant aperiodic instability at perpendicular wavelengths close to the beam ion gyroradius. The instability growth rate increases with increasing beam current and temperature. In the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock, the instability growth time can drop below 10 proton cyclotron periods. Our results suggest that this instability can contribute to the turbulence and ion acceleration in space and astrophysical foreshocks.

  11. Oblique Alfvén instabilities driven by compensated currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malovichko, P.; Voitenko, Y.; De Keyser, J.

    2014-01-01

    Compensated-current systems created by energetic ion beams are widespread in space and astrophysical plasmas. The well-known examples are foreshock regions in the solar wind and around supernova remnants. We found a new oblique Alfvénic instability driven by compensated currents flowing along the background magnetic field. Because of the vastly different electron and ion gyroradii, oblique Alfvénic perturbations react differently on the currents carried by the hot ion beams and the return electron currents. Ultimately, this difference leads to a non-resonant aperiodic instability at perpendicular wavelengths close to the beam ion gyroradius. The instability growth rate increases with increasing beam current and temperature. In the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock, the instability growth time can drop below 10 proton cyclotron periods. Our results suggest that this instability can contribute to the turbulence and ion acceleration in space and astrophysical foreshocks.

  12. Numerical simulation of hydrodynamic performance of ship under oblique conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Zhiming

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper is intended to study the viscous flow field around a ship under oblique conditions and provide a research basis for ship maneuverability. [Methods] Using commercial software STRA-CCM+, the SST k-ω turbulence model is selected to predict the hydrodynamic performance of the KVLCC2 model at different drift angles, and predict the hull flow field. The pressure distribution of the ship model at different drift angles is observed and the vortex shedding of the ship's hull and constraint streamlines on the hull's surface are also observed. [Results] The results show that numerical simulation can satisfy the demands of engineering application in the prediction of the lateral force, yaw moment and hull surface pressure distribution of a ship. [Conclusions] The research results of this paper can provide valuable references for the study of the flow separation phenomenon under oblique conditions.

  13. Nonlinear damping of oblique whistler mode waves through Landau resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Y.; Omura, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Nonlinear trapping of electrons through Landau resonance is a characteristic dynamics in oblique whistler-mode wave particle interactions. The resonance velocity of the Landau resonance at quasi-parallel propagation becomes very close to the parallel group velocity of whistler-mode wave at frequency around 0.5 Ωe, causing a long distance of resonant interaction and strong acceleration of resonant electrons [1]. We demonstrate these effective accelerations for electrons with high equatorial pitch angle ( > 60°) by test particle simulations with parameters for the Earth's inner magnetosphere at L=5. In the simulations, we focus on slightly oblique whistler mode waves with wave normal angle 10.1002/2016JA023255.

  14. Morphological development of coasts at very oblique wave incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dorthe Pia; Deigaard, Rolf; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on one distinct feature to be found on coasts exposed to a very oblique wave incidence, namely an accumulating spit. That is a spit where no retreat of the shoreline is going on along the spit. This requires a monotonically decreasing sediment transport capacity from the updrift...... that such a spit grows without changing its shape i.e. an equilibrium form emerge if the coast is exposed to a constant wave climate. During experiments conducted in a wave tank where a uniform stretch of coast was exposed to waves approaching at a very oblique angle an accumulating spit was formed at the down......-drift end of the coast. The spits approached equilibrium forms when constant wave climates were applied. The sediment transport around the spit has been investigated by two-dimensional models. The characteristic length scale for the equilibrium form depends linearly on the width of the surf zone...

  15. Deformation Partitioning: The Missing Link Between Outcrop-Scale Observations And Orogen-Scale Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, S.; Paterson, S. R.; Jiang, D.; Miller, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Structural studies of orogenic deformation fields are mostly based on small-scale structures ubiquitous in field exposures, hand samples, and under microscopes. Relating deformation histories derived from such structures to changing lithospheric-scale deformation and boundary conditions is not trivial due to vast scale separation (10-6 107 m) between characteristic lengths of small-scale structures and lithospheric plates. Rheological heterogeneity over the range of orogenic scales will lead to deformation partitioning throughout intervening scales of structural development. Spectacular examples of structures documenting deformation partitioning are widespread within hot (i.e., magma-rich) orogens such as the well-studied central Sierra Nevada and Cascades core of western North America: (1) deformation partitioned into localized, narrow, triclinic shear zones separated by broad domains of distributed pure shear at micro- to 10 km scales; (2) deformation partitioned between plutons and surrounding metamorphic host rocks as shown by pluton-wide magmatic fabrics consistently oriented differently than coeval host rock fabrics; (3) partitioning recorded by different fabric intensities, styles, and orientations established from meter-scale grid mapping to 100 km scale domainal analyses; and (4) variations in the causes of strain and kinematics within fold-dominated domains. These complex, partitioned histories require synthesized mapping, geochronology, and structural data at all scales to evaluate partitioning and in the absence of correct scaling can lead to incorrect interpretations of histories. Forward modeling capable of addressing deformation partitioning in materials containing multiple scales of rheologically heterogeneous elements of varying characteristic lengths provides the ability to upscale the large synthesized datasets described above to plate-scale tectonic processes and boundary conditions. By comparing modeling predictions from the recently developed

  16. The susceptibility of large river basins to orogenic and climatic drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedke, Hanna; Wittmann, Hella; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm

    2017-04-01

    Large rivers are known to buffer pulses in sediment production driven by changes in climate as sediment is transported through lowlands. Our new dataset of in situ cosmogenic nuclide concentration and chemical composition of 62 sandy bedload samples from the world largest rivers integrates over 25% of Earth's terrestrial surface, distributed over a variety of climatic zones across all continents, and represents the millennial-scale denudation rate of the sediment's source area. We can show that these denudation rates do not respond to climatic forcing, but faithfully record orogenic forcing, when analyzed with respective variables representing orogeny (strain rate, relief, bouguer anomaly, free-air anomaly), and climate (runoff, temperature, precipitation) and basin properties (floodplain response time, drainage area). In contrast to this orogenic forcing of denudation rates, elemental bedload chemistry from the fine-grained portion of the same samples correlates with climate-related variables (precipitation, runoff) and floodplain response times. It is also well-known from previous compilations of river-gauged sediment loads that the short-term basin-integrated sediment export is also climatically controlled. The chemical composition of detrital sediment shows a climate control that can originate in the rivers source area, but this signal is likely overprinted during transfer through the lowlands because we also find correlation with floodplain response times. At the same time, cosmogenic nuclides robustly preserve the orogenic forcing of the source area denudation signal through of the floodplain buffer. Conversely, previous global compilations of cosmogenic nuclides in small river basins show the preservation of climate drivers in their analysis, but these are buffered in large lowland rivers. Hence, we can confirm the assumption that cosmogenic nuclides in large rivers are poorly susceptible to climate changes, but are at the same time highly suited to detect

  17. Nature and provenance of the Beishan Complex, southernmost Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rongguo; Li, Jinyi; Xiao, Wenjiao; Zhang, Jin

    2018-03-01

    The ages and origins of metasedimentary rocks, which were previously mapped as Precambrian, are critical in rebuilding the orogenic process and better understanding the Phanerozoic continental growth in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The Beishan Complex was widely distributed in the southern Beishan Orogenic Collage, southernmost CAOB, and their ages and tectonic affinities are still in controversy. The Beishan Complex was previously proposed as fragments drifted from the Tarim Craton, Neoproterozoic Block or Phanerozoic accretionary complex. In this study, we employ detrital zircon age spectra to constrain ages and provenances of metasedimentary sequences of the Beishan Complex in the Chuanshanxun area. The metasedimentary rocks here are dominated by zircons with Paleoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic age ( 1160-2070 Ma), and yield two peak ages at 1454 and 1760 Ma. One sample yielded a middle Permian peak age (269 Ma), which suggests that the metasedimentary sequences were deposited in the late Paleozoic. The granitoid and dioritic dykes, intruding into the metasedimentary sequences, exhibit zircon U-Pb ages of 268 and 261 Ma, respectively, which constrain the minimum deposit age of the metasedimentary sequences. Zircon U-Pb ages of amphibolite (274 and 216 Ma) indicate that they might be affected by multi-stage metamorphic events. The Beishan Complex was not a fragment drifted from the Tarim Block or Dunhuang Block, and none of cratons or blocks surrounding Beishan Orogenic Collage was the sole material source of the Beishan Complex due to obviously different age spectra. Instead, 1.4 Ga marginal accretionary zones of the Columbia supercontinent might have existed in the southern CAOB, and may provide the main source materials for the sedimentary sequences in the Beishan Complex.

  18. Recent advances about of the orogenic modern belt (1000-500 M.A.) in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, J.

    1989-01-01

    Progress in lithologic, structural, tectonic and geo tectonic data about a 1000-500 m.y.orogenic belt developed at the East of Uruguay, arrived in the 80, are here described. Conclusions are mainly based on the 1/100.000 scale geologic map of a 6000 sq. km comprised between Sierra Ballena, Sierra de Animas, Pan de Azucar and Mariscala. These new data clearly states the lithological distribution and contribute to guide strategic prospect ion.

  19. Advection endash diffusion past a strip. II. Oblique incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knessl, C.; Keller, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Advection and diffusion of particles past an impenetrable strip is considered when the strip is oblique to the advection or drift velocity. The particle concentration p(x,y) is determined asymptotically for large values of vL/D, where v is the drift velocity, D is the diffusion coefficient, and 2L is the width of the strip. The results complement those of Part I, which treated a strip normal to the drift velocity. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  20. Bursts of electron waves modulated by oblique ion waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boswell, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental evidence is presented which shows small packets of electron plasma waves modulated by large amplitude obliquely propagating non-linear ion plasma waves. Very often the whole system is modulated by an oscillation near the ion gyro frequency or its harmonics. The ion waves seem to be similar to those measured in the current carrying auroral plasma. These results suggest that the generation of ion and electron waves in the auroral plasma may be correlated

  1. 3D MODEL GENERATION USING OBLIQUE IMAGES ACQUIRED BY UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lingua

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many studies revealed the advantages of using airborne oblique images for obtaining improved 3D city models (including façades and building footprints. Here the acquisition and use of oblique images from a low cost and open source Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV for the 3D high-level-of-detail reconstruction of historical architectures is evaluated. The critical issues of such acquisitions (flight planning strategies, ground control points distribution, etc. are described. Several problems should be considered in the flight planning: best approach to cover the whole object with the minimum time of flight; visibility of vertical structures; occlusions due to the context; acquisition of all the parts of the objects (the closest and the farthest with similar resolution; suitable camera inclination, and so on. In this paper a solution is proposed in order to acquire oblique images with one only flight. The data processing was realized using Structure-from-Motion-based approach for point cloud generation using dense image-matching algorithms implemented in an open source software. The achieved results are analysed considering some check points and some reference LiDAR data. The system was tested for surveying a historical architectonical complex: the “Sacro Mo nte di Varallo Sesia” in north-west of Italy. This study demonstrates that the use of oblique images acquired from a low cost UAV system and processed through an open source software is an effective methodology to survey cultural heritage, characterized by limited accessibility, need for detail and rapidity of the acquisition phase, and often reduced budgets.

  2. Effect of bilateral superior oblique split lengthening on torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Jethani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Superior oblique split lengthening (SOSL is done for weakening of superior oblique. It corrects the superior oblique overaction (SOOA and A pattern. Its effect on the torsion of the eye is not known. We present our data on the effect of this particular procedure on torsion. Materials and Methods: We did a study of 16 patients (32 eyes who underwent bilateral SOSL and compared the disc foveal angle (DFA preoperatively and postoperatively. The split lengthening was done from 4 mm to 7 mm depending upon the overaction of superior oblique. Results: The mean age was 15.3 ± 8.4 years. Mean preoperative DFA in the right eye (RE was −3.9° and in the left eye (LE was −2.9°. Mean postoperative DFA in RE was 0.2° and in LE was 0.9°. The mean change in the DFA for RE was 4.1° ± 1.3° and for LE was 3.8° ± 1.2°. All the patients were aligned horizontally within 6 prism diopter and no pattern and no diplopia postoperatively. The A pattern was corrected in all the patient postsurgery. For each mm of surgery, an improvement of 0.8° was seen in the DFA. Conclusion: We report the effect of SOSL on torsion. The SOSL reduces intorsion postsurgery and is, therefore, a valuable procedure in SOOA where both pattern and in torsion needs to be corrected.

  3. An isotopic perspective on growth and differentiation of Proterozoic orogenic crust: From subduction magmatism to cratonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Simon P.; Korhonen, Fawna J.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Cliff, John B.; Belousova, Elena A.; Sheppard, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The in situ chemical differentiation of continental crust ultimately leads to the long-term stability of the continents. This process, more commonly known as ‘cratonization’, is driven by deep crustal melting with the transfer of those melts to shallower regions resulting in a strongly chemically stratified crust, with a refractory, dehydrated lower portion overlain by a complementary enriched upper portion. Since the lower to mid portions of continental crust are rarely exposed, investigation of the cratonization process must be through indirect methods. In this study we use in situ Hf and O isotope compositions of both magmatic and inherited zircons from several felsic magmatic suites in the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia to highlight the differentiation history (i.e. cratonization) of this portion of late Archean to Proterozoic orogenic crust. The Capricorn Orogen shows a distinct tectonomagmatic history that evolves from an active continental margin through to intracratonic reworking, ultimately leading to thermally stable crust that responds similarly to the bounding Archean Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons.

  4. Orogen-transverse tectonic window in the Eastern Himalayan fold belt: A superposed buckling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Santanu; Mandal, Nibir; Acharyya, S. K.; Ghosh, Subhajit; Saha, Puspendu

    2014-09-01

    The Eastern Lesser Himalayan fold-thrust belt is punctuated by a row of orogen-transverse domal tectonic windows. To evaluate their origin, a variety of thrust-stack models have been proposed, assuming that the crustal shortening occurred dominantly by brittle deformations. However, the Rangit Window (RW) in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya (DSH) shows unequivocal structural imprints of ductile deformations of multiple episodes. Based on new structural maps, coupled with outcrop-scale field observations, we recognize at least four major episodes of folding in the litho-tectonic units of DSH. The last episode has produced regionally orogen-transverse upright folds (F4), the interference of which with the third-generation (F3) orogen-parallel folds has shaped the large-scale structural patterns in DSH. We propose a new genetic model for the RW, invoking the mechanics of superposed buckling in the mechanically stratified litho-tectonic systems. We substantiate this superposed buckling model with results obtained from analogue experiments. The model explains contrasting F3-F4 interferences in the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS). The lower-order (terrain-scale) folds have undergone superposed buckling in Mode 1, producing large-scale domes and basins, whereas the RW occurs as a relatively higher-order dome nested in the first-order Tista Dome. The Gondwana and the Proterozoic rocks within the RW underwent superposed buckling in Modes 3 and 4, leading to Type 2 fold interferences, as evident from their structural patterns.

  5. The effects of dynamic friction in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonugli, Enrique

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frictional properties between the exterior surface of a motorcycle helmet and 'typical' roadway surfaces. These values were compared to abrasive papers currently recommended by government helmet safety standards and widely used by researchers in the field of oblique motorcycle helmet impacts. A guided freefall test fixture was utilized to obtain nominal impact velocities of 5, 7 and 9 m/s. The impacting surfaces were mounted to an angled anvil to simulate off-centered oblique collision. Head accelerations and impact forces were measured for each test. Analysis of the normal and tangential forces imparted to the contact surface indicated that the frictional properties of abrasive papers differ from asphalt and cement in magnitude, duration and onset. Reduction in head acceleration, both linear and angular, were observed when asphalt and cement were used as the impacting surface. Roofing shingle was determined to be a more suitable material to simulate 'typical' roadway surfaces however, this may not be ideal for use in a controlled laboratory setting. In a laboratory setting, the author recommends cement as a best-fit material to simulate roadway surface for use in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts since this material displayed characteristics that closely resemble asphalt and is currently used as a roadway construction material.

  6. Arc Motion in an Obliquely Imposed Alternating Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiho, R; Takeda, K; Sugimoto, M

    2012-01-01

    The arc motion is theoretically investigated under an alternating magnetic field imposed obliquely to the arc. The arc is known to oscillate on a 2-D plane when the alternating magnetic field is imposed perpendicularly to the arc. If the alternating magnetic field is imposed obliquely to the arc, then it is expected that the arc oscillates not on the 2-D plane but in a 3-D space. For this study, 3-D simulation was performed on the motion of the plasma gas under an alternating magnetic field crossing obliquely to the arc. It was also assumed that a stream line of the plasma gas represented the arc profile. The momentum equation for the plasma gas was solved together with the continuity equation. Governing parameters for the gas motion are θ (crossing angle), v 0 (initial velocity of the plasma gas), and λ. Parameter λ is defined as λ = (I a B 0 )/Q 0 . Numerical results are reported under different operating conditions such as magnetic flux densities and the angles between the arc and the magnetic flux. If the crossing angle is larger than 4/π, the arc might be extinguished because of the drastic increase of the arc length.

  7. The Resilience of Kepler Multi-systems to Stellar Obliquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Christopher; Marx, Noah W.; Batygin, Konstantin

    2018-04-01

    The Kepler mission and its successor K2 have brought forth a cascade of transiting planets. Many of these planetary systems exhibit multiple transiting members. However, a large fraction possesses only a single transiting planet. This high abundance of singles, dubbed the "Kepler Dichotomy," has been hypothesized to arise from significant mutual inclinations between orbits in multi-planet systems. Alternatively, the single-transiting population truly possesses no other planets in the system, but the true origin of the overabundance of single systems remains unresolved. In this work, we propose that planetary systems typically form with a coplanar, multiple-planetary architecture, but that quadrupolar gravitational perturbations from their rapidly-rotating host star subsequently disrupt this primordial coplanarity. We demonstrate that, given sufficient stellar obliquity, even systems beginning with 2 planetary constituents are susceptible to dynamical instability soon after planet formation, as a result of the stellar quadrupole moment. This mechanism stands as a widespread, yet poorly explored pathway toward planetary system instability. Moreover, by requiring that observed multi-systems remain coplanar on Gyr timescales, we are able to place upper limits on the stellar obliquity in systems such as K2-38 (obliquity < 20 degrees), where other methods of measuring spin-orbit misalignment are not currently available.

  8. Three-Dimensional Simulations of Oblique Asteroid Impacts into Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisler, G. R.; Ferguson, J. M.; Heberling, T.; Plesko, C. S.; Weaver, R.

    2016-12-01

    Waves generated by impacts into oceans may represent the most significant danger from near-earth asteroids and comets. For impacts near populated shores, the crown splash and subsequent waves, accompanied by sediment lofting and high winds, could be more damaging than storm surges from the strongest hurricanes. For asteroids less than 500 m in diameter that impact into deep water far from shores, the waves produced will be detectable over large distances, but probably not significantly dangerous. We present new three-dimensional simulations of oblique impacts into deep water, with trajectory angles ranging from 20 degrees to 60 degrees (where 90 degrees is vertical). These simulations are performed with the Los Alamos Rage hydrocode, and include atmospheric effects including ablation and airbursts. These oblique impact simulations are specifically performed in order to help determine whether there are additional dangers from the obliquity of impact not covered by previous two-dimensional studies. Water surface elevation profiles, surface pressures, and depth-averaged mass fluxes within the water are prepared for use in propagation studies.

  9. Oblique Photogrammetry Supporting 3d Urban Reconstruction of Complex Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschi, I.; Ramos, M. M.; Nocerino, E.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Moe, K.; Poli, D.; Legat, K.; Fassi, F.

    2017-05-01

    Accurate 3D city models represent an important source of geospatial information to support various "smart city" applications, such as space management, energy assessment, 3D cartography, noise and pollution mapping as well as disaster management. Even though remarkable progress has been made in recent years, there are still many open issues, especially when it comes to the 3D modelling of complex urban scenarios like historical and densely-built city centres featuring narrow streets and non-conventional building shapes. Most approaches introduce strong building priors/constraints on symmetry and roof typology that penalize urban environments having high variations of roof shapes. Furthermore, although oblique photogrammetry is rapidly maturing, the use of slanted views for façade reconstruction is not completely included in the reconstruction pipeline of state-of-the-art software. This paper aims to investigate state-of-the-art methods for 3D building modelling in complex urban scenarios with the support of oblique airborne images. A reconstruction approach based on roof primitives fitting is tested. Oblique imagery is then exploited to support the manual editing of the generated building models. At the same time, mobile mapping data are collected at cm resolution and then integrated with the aerial ones. All approaches are tested on the historical city centre of Bergamo (Italy).

  10. Oblique reconstructions in tomosynthesis. II. Super-resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In tomosynthesis, super-resolution has been demonstrated using reconstruction planes parallel to the detector. Super-resolution allows for subpixel resolution relative to the detector. The purpose of this work is to develop an analytical model that generalizes super-resolution to oblique reconstruction planes.Methods: In a digital tomosynthesis system, a sinusoidal test object is modeled along oblique angles (i.e., “pitches”) relative to the plane of the detector in a 3D divergent-beam acquisition geometry. To investigate the potential for super-resolution, the input frequency is specified to be greater than the alias frequency of the detector. Reconstructions are evaluated in an oblique plane along the extent of the object using simple backprojection (SBP) and filtered backprojection (FBP). By comparing the amplitude of the reconstruction against the attenuation coefficient of the object at various frequencies, the modulation transfer function (MTF) is calculated to determine whether modulation is within detectable limits for super-resolution. For experimental validation of super-resolution, a goniometry stand was used to orient a bar pattern phantom along various pitches relative to the breast support in a commercial digital breast tomosynthesis system.Results: Using theoretical modeling, it is shown that a single projection image cannot resolve a sine input whose frequency exceeds the detector alias frequency. The high frequency input is correctly visualized in SBP or FBP reconstruction using a slice along the pitch of the object. The Fourier transform of this reconstructed slice is maximized at the input frequency as proof that the object is resolved. Consistent with the theoretical results, experimental images of a bar pattern phantom showed super-resolution in oblique reconstructions. At various pitches, the highest frequency with detectable modulation was determined by visual inspection of the bar patterns. The dependency of the highest

  11. Oblique reconstructions in tomosynthesis. II. Super-resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In tomosynthesis, super-resolution has been demonstrated using reconstruction planes parallel to the detector. Super-resolution allows for subpixel resolution relative to the detector. The purpose of this work is to develop an analytical model that generalizes super-resolution to oblique reconstruction planes. Methods: In a digital tomosynthesis system, a sinusoidal test object is modeled along oblique angles (i.e., “pitches”) relative to the plane of the detector in a 3D divergent-beam acquisition geometry. To investigate the potential for super-resolution, the input frequency is specified to be greater than the alias frequency of the detector. Reconstructions are evaluated in an oblique plane along the extent of the object using simple backprojection (SBP) and filtered backprojection (FBP). By comparing the amplitude of the reconstruction against the attenuation coefficient of the object at various frequencies, the modulation transfer function (MTF) is calculated to determine whether modulation is within detectable limits for super-resolution. For experimental validation of super-resolution, a goniometry stand was used to orient a bar pattern phantom along various pitches relative to the breast support in a commercial digital breast tomosynthesis system. Results: Using theoretical modeling, it is shown that a single projection image cannot resolve a sine input whose frequency exceeds the detector alias frequency. The high frequency input is correctly visualized in SBP or FBP reconstruction using a slice along the pitch of the object. The Fourier transform of this reconstructed slice is maximized at the input frequency as proof that the object is resolved. Consistent with the theoretical results, experimental images of a bar pattern phantom showed super-resolution in oblique reconstructions. At various pitches, the highest frequency with detectable modulation was determined by visual inspection of the bar patterns. The dependency of the highest

  12. Surgical Results in Unilateral Superior Oblique Muscle Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Tenlik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the surgical treatments and results of the patients with superior oblique muscle palsy (SOMP. Materials and Methods: Clinical charts of the patients with unilateral SOMP who were operated in our clinic between 1999 and 2009 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients’ demographics, preoperative signs, surgical procedure, complications, and final results were recorded. Results: Thirty-seven patients were included in the study, [21 (59% male, 15 (41% female]. The mean age was 20.6 years at the time of operation. The mean time interval between diagnosis and operation was 7.3 years. Postoperative follow-up period was 2.04 (ranging 1-10 years. Diplopia was determined in seven (18.9% patients, and abnormal head position in 36 (97.3% patients. Only inferior oblique tenotomy with distal muscle resection was performed in 25 patients. In addition, five patients had recession of the contralateral inferior rectus muscle and two patients had recession of the ipsilateral superior rectus muscle additional to inferior oblique tenotomy. Abnormal head position was completely improved in all of the patients postoperatively. The preoperative average score of the inferior oblique muscle (IOM overaction was +3.3±0.8, and postoperative overaction was found in only two patients (+1.5. There was statistically significant difference between the two periods (p<0.001. The average score of the superior oblique muscle hypofunction was -2.18 preoperatively, and in only three patients, the score was found -1.0 postoperatively. Difference between the two periods was statistically significant (p<0.001. While the preoperative average vertical deviation was 22 PD in primary position, none of the patients had hyperdeviation postoperatively. Diplopia was resolved in all seven affected patients postoperatively. Contralateral IOM hyperfunction was the most common complication (13.5%. Adherence syndrome was seen in none of the patients. Conclusion: It was found

  13. Estimates of late Cenozoic climate change relevant to Earth surface processes in tectonically active orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutz, Sebastian G.; Ehlers, Todd A.; Werner, Martin; Lohmann, Gerrit; Stepanek, Christian; Li, Jingmin

    2018-04-01

    The denudation history of active orogens is often interpreted in the context of modern climate gradients. Here we address the validity of this approach and ask what are the spatial and temporal variations in palaeoclimate for a latitudinally diverse range of active orogens? We do this using high-resolution (T159, ca. 80 × 80 km at the Equator) palaeoclimate simulations from the ECHAM5 global atmospheric general circulation model and a statistical cluster analysis of climate over different orogens (Andes, Himalayas, SE Alaska, Pacific NW USA). Time periods and boundary conditions considered include the Pliocene (PLIO, ˜ 3 Ma), the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ˜ 21 ka), mid-Holocene (MH, ˜ 6 ka), and pre-industrial (PI, reference year 1850). The regional simulated climates of each orogen are described by means of cluster analyses based on the variability in precipitation, 2 m air temperature, the intra-annual amplitude of these values, and monsoonal wind speeds where appropriate. Results indicate the largest differences in the PI climate existed for the LGM and PLIO climates in the form of widespread cooling and reduced precipitation in the LGM and warming and enhanced precipitation during the PLIO. The LGM climate shows the largest deviation in annual precipitation from the PI climate and shows enhanced precipitation in the temperate Andes and coastal regions for both SE Alaska and the US Pacific Northwest. Furthermore, LGM precipitation is reduced in the western Himalayas and enhanced in the eastern Himalayas, resulting in a shift of the wettest regional climates eastward along the orogen. The cluster-analysis results also suggest more climatic variability across latitudes east of the Andes in the PLIO climate than in other time slice experiments conducted here. Taken together, these results highlight significant changes in late Cenozoic regional climatology over the last ˜ 3 Myr. Comparison of simulated climate with proxy-based reconstructions for the MH and

  14. The effect of flexural isostasy on the response time of orogenic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J.; Margirier, A.; Guerit, L.

    2017-12-01

    The concept of orogenic steady-state implies that mountain belts can reach a dynamic balance between uplift and erosion in order to maintain a quasi-constant shape. The final morphology of the mountain will be a function of the relative efficiency between uplift and erosion and is therefore likely to be modulated by climate. However, reaching such a steady-state cannot be instantaneous and there must exist a time lag between the onset of convergence and the full development of the mountain topography. Similarly, when an orogenic system is subject to a marked change in convergence rate or in climatic conditions, it takes a certain time for it to adapt to such a change and develop a new steady-state morphology. It is during these transient phases that the nature and efficiency of the interactions between tectonics and climate are most likely to be constrained by observations and understood. The duration of this transient stage remains, however, poorly constrained and understood. As shown by many authors (Whipple and Tucker, 1999, for example) the rate at which tectonic systems evolve to reach steady-state is likely controlled by climate and rock strength, which both determine the efficiency of erosional processes, and the rate of uplift. Here we show that isostasy also plays a very important role in determining the length of the transient phase and that, depending on the level of isostatic adjustment, which in turn depends on the flexural strength of the underlying lithosphere, isostasy can change the time it takes for an orogenic system to reach steady-state by an order of magnitude, i.,e. from a few millions to a few tens of millions of years. This has very important implications. It may explain why many young orogenic systems display an increase in uplift and erosion rate millions of years after the onset of collision and that, in these situations, such an increase does not require a steady change in tectonic and/or climate conditions/forcing. We also show that

  15. Eastern Turkish high plateau as a small Turkic-type orogen: Implications for post-collisional crust-forming processes in Turkic-type orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şengör, A. M. Celâl; Özeren, Mehmet Sinan; Keskin, Mehmet; Sakınç, Mehmet; Özbakır, Ali Değer; Kayan, İlhan

    Post-collisional magmatism may be generated by extensive crustal melting in Tibet-type collisional environments or by falling out of slabs from under giant subduction-accretion complexes in Turkic-type collisional orogens giving rise to decompression melting of the asthenospheric mantle replacing the removed oceanic lithosphere. In Turkic-type post-collisional magmatism, the magmatic products are dominantly alkalic to peralkalic and greatly resemble those of extensional regions giving rise to much confusion especially in interpreting old collisional orogenic belts. Such magmatic regions are also host to a variety of economically valuable ore deposits, including gold. One place in the world where today active, Turkic-type post-collisional magmatism is present is the eastern Anatolian high plateau, produced after the terminal Arabia/Eurasia collision in the late Miocene. The plateau is mostly underlain by the late Cretaceous to Oligocene East Anatolian Accretionary Complex, which formed south of the Rhodope-Pontide magmatic arc. This subduction-accretion complex has been further shortening since the collision, but it has also since been domed and became almost entirely covered by at least 15,000 km 3 of volcanic rocks. The volcanic rocks are calc-alkalic in the north, transitional in the middle, and alkalic in the south of the plateau. Where the crust is thinnest today (less than 38 km), the volcanics are derived almost entirely from an enriched mantle. The ages of the volcanics also become younger from north to south, from about 11 Ma to possibly 17th century AD. We interpret the origin of the magmatic rocks as the result of decompression melting of the asthenospheric mantle sucked towards the exposed base of the East Anatolian Accretionary Complex as the oceanic lithosphere beneath it fell out. The lower density of the hot asthospheric material was the cause of the doming. We believe that similar processes dominated the post-collisional tectonics of such vast

  16. Reviving Ulysses contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellecy, Ryan

    2003-12-01

    Ulysses contracts have faced paternalism objections since they first were proposed. Since the contracts are designed to override a present request from a legally competent patient in favor of a past request made by that patient, enforcement of these contracts was argued to be unjustifiable strong paternalism. Recent legal developments and new theories of practical reasoning suggest that the discussion of Ulysses contracts should be revived. This paper argues that with a proper understanding of the future-directed planning embodied in Ulysses contracts, the charge of strong paternalism can be answered, and the enforcement of some Ulysses contracts may be justified under the rubric of weak paternalism.

  17. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTRACTS. DELIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Teodora PASCARIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Article examines whether all contracts of public persons are administrative contracts; in other words, if the administration may conclude contracts that, according to their legal nature, are not administrative. If we start from the definition of administrative contracts as it appears in Law no. 554/2004, these include contracts by public authorities which concern the enhancement of public property execution of works of public interest, public services, public procurement and other administrative contracts provided by special laws and subject to the jurisdiction of the administrative courts.

  18. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  19. Concept of contracting authority

    OpenAIRE

    Kasiliauskaitė, Vitalija

    2016-01-01

    Concept of Contracting Authority Law on Public Procurement the procurement concept implies the conclusion that public procurement be declared only such purchases are carried out by the contracting authority. The contracting authorities can be a subject of state and municipal management institutes, whose assignment authority is determined by a functional approach. Also, contracting authorities may be public and legal entities, but that the public interest and operates non-commercial activities...

  20. Inflation Forecast Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Gersbach, Hans; Hahn, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new type of incentive contract for central bankers: inflation forecast contracts, which make central bankers’ remunerations contingent on the precision of their inflation forecasts. We show that such contracts enable central bankers to influence inflation expectations more effectively, thus facilitating more successful stabilization of current inflation. Inflation forecast contracts improve the accuracy of inflation forecasts, but have adverse consequences for output. On balanc...

  1. The Resilience of Kepler Systems to Stellar Obliquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Christopher; Marx, Noah W.; Batygin, Konstantin

    2018-04-01

    The Kepler mission and its successor K2 have brought forth a cascade of transiting planets. Many of these planetary systems exhibit multiple members, but a large fraction possess only a single transiting example. This overabundance of singles has led to the suggestion that up to half of Kepler systems might possess significant mutual inclinations between orbits, reducing the transiting number (the so-called “Kepler Dichotomy”). In a recent paper, Spalding & Batygin demonstrated that the quadrupole moment arising from a young, oblate star is capable of misaligning the constituent orbits of a close-in planetary system enough to reduce their transit number, provided that the stellar spin axis is sufficiently misaligned with respect to the planetary orbital plane. Moreover, tightly packed planetary systems were shown to be susceptible to becoming destabilized during this process. Here, we investigate the ubiquity of the stellar obliquity-driven instability within systems with a range of multiplicities. We find that most planetary systems analyzed, including those possessing only two planets, underwent instability for stellar spin periods below ∼3 days and stellar tilts of order 30°. Moreover, we are able to place upper limits on the stellar obliquity in systems such as K2-38 (obliquity ≲20°), where other methods of measuring the spin–orbit misalignment are not currently available. Given the known parameters of T-Tauri stars, we predict that up to one-half of super-Earth-mass systems may encounter the instability, in general agreement with the fraction typically proposed to explain the observed abundance of single-transiting systems.

  2. AUTOMATIC BUILDING OUTLINING FROM MULTI-VIEW OBLIQUE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xiao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Automatic building detection plays an important role in many applications. Multiple overlapped airborne images as well as lidar point clouds are among the most popular data sources used for this purpose. Multi-view overlapped oblique images bear both height and colour information, and additionally we explicitly have access to the vertical extent of objects, therefore we explore the usability of this data source solely to detect and outline buildings in this paper. The outline can then be used for further 3D modelling. In the previous work, building hypotheses are generated using a box model based on detected façades from four directions. In each viewing direction, façade edges extracted from images and height information by stereo matching from an image pair is used for the façade detection. Given that many façades were missing due to occlusion or lack of texture whilst building roofs can be viewed in most images, this work mainly focuses on improve the building box outline by adding roof information. Stereo matched point cloud generated from oblique images are combined with the features from images. Initial roof patches are located in the point cloud. Then AdaBoost is used to integrate geometric and radiometric attributes extracted from oblique image on grid pixel level with the aim to refine the roof area. Generalized contours of the roof pixels are taken as building outlines. The preliminary test has been done by training with five buildings and testing around sixty building clusters. The proposed method performs well concerning covering the irregular roofs as well as improve the sides location of slope roof buildings. Outline result comparing with cadastral map shows almost all above 70% completeness and correctness in an area-based assessment, as well as 20% to 40% improvement in correctness with respect to our previous work.

  3. Continental breakup by oblique extension: the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, J.; Axen, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    We address two aspects of oblique extension: 1) the evolution of pull-apart basins, and how/when they may evolve into seafloor spreading segments; and 2) the formation of microcontinents. The Gulf of California formed by oblique extension. Breakup resulted in oceanic crust generation in the southern and central parts, while in the northern Gulf/Salton Trough a thick layer of (meta-)sediments overlies thinned continental crust. We propose a simple mechanism to explain this N-S variation. We assume that oblique rifting of the proto-Gulf province resulted in pull-apart basins, and use numerical models to show that such pull-apart basins do not develop into seafloor spreading segments when their length-to-width ratios are small, as is the case in the northern Gulf. In the central and southern Gulf the length-to-width ratios were larger, promoting continent rupture. The mechanisms behind this fate of pull-apart basins will be discussed in the presentation. In the southern Gulf, potential field models show that the Tamayo Bank in the southern Gulf is likely a microcontinent, separated from the main continent by the Tamayo trough. The thickness of the ocean crust in the Tamayo trough is anomalously small, suggesting that initial seafloor spreading was magma-starved and unsuccessful, causing the location of rifting and seafloor spreading to jump. As a consequence a sliver of continent broke off, forming the microcontinent. We suggest that worldwide this may be a common process for microcontinent formation.

  4. Oblique electron cyclotron emission for electron distribution studies (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preische, S.; Efthimion, P.C.; Kaye, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) at an oblique angle to the magnetic field provides a means of probing the electron distribution function both in energy and physical space through changes in and constraints on the relativistic electron cyclotron resonance condition. Diagnostics based on this Doppler shifted resonance are able to study a variety of electron distributions through changes in the location of the resonance in physical or energy space accomplished by changes in the viewing angle and frequency, and the magnetic field. For the case of observation across a changing magnetic field, such as across the tokamak midplane, the constraint on the resonance condition for real solutions to the dispersion relation can constrain the physical location of optically thin emission. A new Oblique ECE diagnostic was installed and operated on the PBX-M tokamak for the study of energetic electrons during lower hybrid current drive. It has a view 33 degree with respect to perpendicular in the tokamak midplane, receives second harmonic X-mode emission, and is constrained to receive single pass emission by SiC viewing dumps on the tokamak walls. Spatial localization of optically thin emission from superthermal electrons (50 endash 100 keV) was obtained by observation of emission upshifted from a thermal cyclotron harmonic. The localized measurements of the electron energy distribution and the superthermal density profile made by this diagnostic demonstrate its potential to study the spatial transport of energetic electrons on fast magnetohydrodynamic time scales or anomalous diffusion time scales. Oblique ECE can also be used to study electron distributions that may have a slight deviation from a Maxwellian by localizing the emission in energy space. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. Surgical treatment of superior oblique palsy: Predictors of outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Merino Sanz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and outcome of surgically treated superior oblique palsy (SOP and the factors involved in its resolution. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 76 patients who underwent surgery for SOP. We recorded data from the physical examination and the number and type of procedures performed. Favorable outcome was defined as resolution of or improvement in torticollis (≤5° and diplopia in primary position (PP and downgaze or as vertical deviation (VD <5 prism diopters (pd in PP and 10 pd in the oblique diagnostic position. Results: Mean age was 33.12 years. Congenital SOP was the most frequent type (65.8%. Mean preoperative VD was 15.89 ± 9.94 pd, decreasing to 3.07 ± 4.36 pd after surgery. Associated horizontal deviation was recorded in 51.32% of cases. The mean number of procedures was 1.37 ± 0.62 (range 1–4, with 69.7% of patients requiring only one procedure. The mean number of muscles operated on was 1.96 ± 1.01 (inferior oblique being the most frequent. A greater reduction in VD after surgery was observed in patients with congenital SOP (P = 0.04. Although none of the factors evaluated influenced surgical outcome, amblyopic patients had a greater risk of reoperation (P = 0.04. A favorable outcome was achieved in 75% of cases. Mean follow-up was 37.08 months. Conclusion: Congenital SOP was twice as frequent as acquired SOP and although surgery was successful in most cases, a greater reduction in VD was obtained in congenital cases. Amblyopia was identified as a risk factor for reoperation.

  6. Coupled Hydrodynamic Instability Growth on Oblique Interfaces with a Reflected Rarefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmus, A. M.; Flippo, K. A.; di Stefano, C. A.; Doss, F. W.; Hager, J. D.; Merritt, E. C.; Cardenas, T.; Schmidt, D. W.; Kline, J. L.; Kuranz, C. C.

    2017-10-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities play an important role in the evolution of inertial confinement fusion and astrophysical phenomena. Three of the Omega-EP long pulse beams (10 ns square pulse, 14 kJ total energy, 1.1 mm spot size) drive a supported shock across a heavy-to-light, oblique, interface. Single- and double-mode initial conditions seed coupled Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM), Rayleigh-Taylor (RT), and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) growth. At early times, growth is dominated by RM and KH, whereas at late times a rarefaction from laser turn-off reaches the interface, leading to decompression and RT growth. The addition of a thirty degree tilt does not alter mix width to within experimental error bars, even while significantly altering spike and bubble morphology. The results of single and double-mode experiments along with simulations using the multi-physics hydro-code RAGE will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, Grant Number DE-NA0002956. This material is partially supported by DOE Office of Science Graduate Student Research (SCGSR) program.

  7. Magnetization reversal in an obliquely oriented metal evaporated tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinath, S.; Vavassori, P.; Rekveldt, M.Th.; Cook, R.E.; Felcher, G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetization reversal in obliquely oriented metal evaporated videotapes as a function of the tape depth was studied by vector magneto-optic Kerr effect and polarized neutron reflectivity. The magnetization vector was found to rotate coherently out-of-plane by an angle α during the magnetization reversal for a substantial part of the hysteresis cycle. However α differs between the surface-facing and the substrate-facing sides of the film, with the more oxidized surface layer following closely the applied field. Close to M∼0 the film breaks down magnetically into a collage of small domains, reflecting the crystalline microstructure of the material

  8. Two-phase flow measurement based on oblique laser scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendruscolo, Tiago P.; Fischer, Robert; Martelli, Cícero; Rodrigues, Rômulo L. P.; Morales, Rigoberto E. M.; da Silva, Marco J.

    2015-07-01

    Multiphase flow measurements play a crucial role in monitoring productions processes in many industries. To guarantee the safety of processes involving multiphase flows, it is important to detect changes in the flow conditions before they can cause damage, often in fractions of seconds. Here we demonstrate how the scattering pattern of a laser beam passing a two-phase flow under an oblique angle to the flow direction can be used to detect derivations from the desired flow conditions in microseconds. Applying machine-learning techniques to signals obtained from three photo-detectors we achieve a compact, versatile, low-cost sensor design for safety applications.

  9. Reflection of oblique electron thermal modes in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.; Sanuki, H.

    1980-04-01

    In an inhomogeneous magnetoplasma, reflection of an oblique electron thermal mode radiated from a local source is investigated experimentally and theoretically near the electron plasma frequency layer. The experimental observation of reflection in the lower plasma density region than the f sub(p)-layer is found to be in qualitative accord with the theoretical reflection, which is obtained from a kinetic theory in an inhomogeneous magnetoplasma. The reflection of the thermal mode is also compared with that of an electromagnetic mode at the f sub(p)-layer. (author)

  10. Exaggerated supine oblique view of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The technique of the 60 degree supine oblique view is described together with anatomic skeletal studies of this projection. The view is convenient for emergency room radiography and useful in other clinical radiography. The view separates widely the anterior and posterior portions of the vertebrae in a side to side projection. This makes for an elongated but detailed view of the articular processes, pedicles, and intervertebral foramina. In the cadavar specimen and clinically the view is shown to be useful in delineating fracture deformities of the articular process and visualizing constriction of the intervertebral foramen superiorly. Encroachment of the foramen superiorly is likely to compromise the emerging nerve root in this area

  11. Kinetic Alfven waves and electron physics. II. Oblique slow shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, L.; Winske, D.; Daughton, W.

    2007-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) particle-in-cell (PIC; kinetic ions and electrons) and hybrid (kinetic ions; adiabatic and massless fluid electrons) simulations of highly oblique slow shocks (θ Bn =84 deg. and β=0.1) [Yin et al., J. Geophys. Res., 110, A09217 (2005)] have shown that the dissipation from the ions is too weak to form a shock and that kinetic electron physics is required. The PIC simulations also showed that the downstream electron temperature becomes anisotropic (T e parallel )>T e perpendicular ), as observed in slow shocks in space. The electron anisotropy results, in part, from the electron acceleration/heating by parallel electric fields of obliquely propagating kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) excited by ion-ion streaming, which cannot be modeled accurately in hybrid simulations. In the shock ramp, spiky structures occur in density and electron parallel temperature, where the ion parallel temperature decreases due to the reduction of the ion backstreaming speed. In this paper, KAW and electron physics in oblique slow shocks are further examined under lower electron beta conditions. It is found that as the electron beta is reduced, the resonant interaction between electrons and the wave parallel electric fields shifts to the tail of the electron velocity distribution, providing more efficient parallel heating. As a consequence, for β e =0.02, the electron physics is shown to influence the formation of a θ Bn =75 deg. shock. Electron effects are further enhanced at a more oblique shock angle (θ Bn =84 deg.) when both the growth rate and the range of unstable modes on the KAW branch increase. Small-scale electron and ion phase-space vortices in the shock ramp formed by electron-KAW interactions and the reduction of the ion backstreaming speed, respectively, are observed in the simulations and confirmed in homogeneous geometries in one and two spatial dimensions in the accompanying paper [Yin et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 062104 (2007)]. Results from this study

  12. Oblique aerial images and their use in cultural heritage documentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    on automatically derived point clouds of high density. Each point will be supplemented with colour and other attributes. The problems experienced in these processes and the solutions to these problems are presented. The applied tools are a combination of professional tools, free software, and of own software...... developments. Special attention is given to the quality of input images. Investigations are carried out on edges in the images. The combination of oblique and nadir images enables new possibilities in the processing. The use of the near-infrared channel besides the red, green, and blue channel of the applied...

  13. Teaching about Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, Michael; Kosnoff, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Presents teaching strategies for introducing high school students to contract law. Offers as a case study a contract agreement between pro football players and team owners. Stresses basic elements of contracts (offer, acceptance, consideration, and understanding the bargaining process). Journal available from the American Bar Association, 1155…

  14. Contract law as fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijnsma, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is

  15. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contract oversight could reduce such sums significantly. Government outsourcing for services also raises... a risk that taxpayer funds will be spent on contracts that are wasteful, inefficient, subject to... mission. In such cases, the agency must ensure that the risks associated with noncompetitive contracts are...

  16. Contracting for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuessler, C.M.

    1981-10-01

    This paper deals with uranium sales contracts, i.e. with contractual arrangements in the first steps of the fuel cycle, which cover uranium production and conversion. The various types of contract are described and, where appropriate, their underlying business philosophy and their main terms and conditions. Finally, the specific common features of such contracts are reviewed. (NEA) [fr

  17. Other enrichment related contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to long-term enrichment contracts, DOE has other types of contracts: (1) short-term, fixed-commitment enrichment contract; (2) emergency sales agreement for enriched uranium; (3) feed material lease agreement; (4) enriched uranium storage agreement; and (5) feed material usage agreement

  18. Fault Dating in the US Rockies and Large Regional Extent of Deformation Pulses Along the Sevier Orogen of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pluijm, B.; Lynch, E. A.; Pana, D.; Yonkee, A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent Ar dating of clay-rich fault rock in the Canadian Rockies identified multiple orogenic pulses: Late Jurassic (163-146 Ma), Mid-Cretaceous (103-99 Ma), Late Cretaceous (76-72 Ma) and Eocene (54-52 Ma; Pana and van der Pluijm, GSAB 2015). New dating in the US Rockies combined with ages in the most frontal section along an Idaho-Wyoming transect show a remarkably similar age pattern: Meade Thrust, 108-102 Ma; (S)Absaroka Thrust, 73 Ma; Darby-Bear Thrust, 56-50 Ma. These radiometric fault ages in the US Rockies match field and tectono-stratigraphic predictions, analogues to those in the Canadian Rockies. Thus, a remarkably long (>1500km) lateral tract along the North American Sevier orogen is characterized by at least three major orogenic pulses that are structurally contiguous. These orogenic pulses are progressively younger in the direction of easterly thrust fault motion (toward cratonic interior) and are separated by long periods of relative tectonic quiescence. We interpret the extensive regional continuity of deformation pulses and tectonic quiescence along the Sevier Orogen as the result of three plate reorganization events in western North America since the Late Jurassic.

  19. Obliquity Variations of Habitable Zone Planets Kepler-62f and Kepler-186f

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Yutong; Li, Gongjie

    2018-06-01

    Obliquity variability could play an important role in the climate and habitability of a planet. Orbital modulations caused by planetary companions and the planet’s spin axis precession due to the torque from the host star may lead to resonant interactions and cause large-amplitude obliquity variability. Here we consider the spin axis dynamics of Kepler-62f and Kepler-186f, both of which reside in the habitable zone around their host stars. Using N-body simulations and secular numerical integrations, we describe their obliquity evolution for particular realizations of the planetary systems. We then use a generalized analytic framework to characterize regions in parameter space where the obliquity is variable with large amplitude. We find that the locations of variability are fine-tuned over the planetary properties and system architecture in the lower-obliquity regimes (≲40°). As an example, assuming a rotation period of 24 hr, the obliquities of both Kepler-62f and Kepler-186f are stable below ∼40°, whereas the high-obliquity regions (60°–90°) allow moderate variabilities. However, for some other rotation periods of Kepler-62f or Kepler-186f, the lower-obliquity regions could become more variable owing to resonant interactions. Even small deviations from coplanarity (e.g., mutual inclinations ∼3°) could stir peak-to-peak obliquity variations up to ∼20°. Undetected planetary companions and/or the existence of a satellite could also destabilize the low-obliquity regions. In all cases, the high-obliquity region allows for moderate variations, and all obliquities corresponding to retrograde motion (i.e., >90°) are stable.

  20. A Comparative Study of the Electrical Structure of Circum Tibetan Plateau Orogenic Belts and its Tectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sheng; Zhang, Letian; Wei, Wenbo; Ye, Gaofeng; Jing, Jianen; Dong, Hao; Xie, Chengliang; Yin, Yaotian

    2017-04-01

    The Tibetan Plateau, as known as "roof of the world", was created through the on-going continent-continent collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates since 55 Ma. As the process continues, the plateau is growing both vertically and horizontally. The horizontal expansion of the plateau is blocked by the Yangtze block in the east, the Tarim block in the north, and the Ordos block in the northeast, and consequently lead to the formation of the circum Tibetan plateau orogenic belts. To better understand the mechanism behind this process, we conducted a comparative study by collecting 7 magnetotelluric (MT) profiles over the margins of the Tibetan plateau, namely, the INDEPTH 100, 700 and 800 lines in the southern Tibet, the INDEPTH 4000 and 5000 lines across the Altyn Tagh fault on the northern margin of the plateau, as well as other two profiles across the Haiyuan fault and the Longmenshan fault on the northeastern and eastern margins of the plateau deployed under the framework of project SinoProbe. The electrical features of the stable blocks surrounding the Tibetan plateau are generally resistive, while crustal conductive layers are found to be wide spread within the plateau. The southern margin of the Tibetan plateau is characterized by large scale underthrust of the Indian lithosphere beneath the plateau. This intense converging process created the thrust fault system distributed along the southern margin of the Tibetan plateau over 1000 km. Crustal conductive layers discovered in southern Tibet are generally associated with the southward crustal flow that originated from the lower crust within the plateau and exhumed along the thrust belts in the Himalayas. On the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau, the electrical structures suggest that the Yangtze block wedged into the Tibetan lithosphere and caused decoupling between the crust and upper mantel. Large scale conductors discovered beneath the Songpan-Ganze block reflect that the eastward crustal flow was

  1. Adhesion mechanism of a gecko-inspired oblique structure with an adhesive tip for asymmetric detachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Yu; Sato, Chiaki; Takahashi, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    An adhesion model of an oblique structure with an adhesive tip is proposed by considering a limiting stress for adhesion to describe the detachment mechanism of gecko foot hairs. When a force is applied to the root of the oblique structure, normal and shear stresses are generated at contact and the adhesive tip is detached from the surface when reaching the limiting stress. An adhesion criterion that considers both the normal and shear stresses is introduced, and the asymmetric detachment of the oblique structure is theoretically investigated. In addition, oblique beam array structures are manufactured, and an inclination effect of the structure on the asymmetric detachment is experimentally verified. (paper)

  2. Geometry, kinematics and tectonic models of the Kazakhstan Orocline, Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Yuan, Chao; Safonova, Inna; Cai, Keda; Jiang, Yingde; Zhang, Yunying

    2018-03-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is one of the largest accretionary orogens on Earth and is characterized by the occurrence of tight oroclines (Kazakhstan and Tuva-Mongolian oroclines). The origin of these large-scale orogenic curvatures is not quite understood, but is fundamentally important for understanding crustal growth and tectonic evolution of the CAOB. Here we provide an outline of available geological and paleomagnetic data around the Kazakhstan Orocline, with an aim of clarifying the geometry, kinematics and geodynamic origin of the orocline. The Kazakhstan Orocline is evident in a total magmatic image, and can be traced by the continuation of high magnetic anomalies associated with the Devonian Volcanic Belt and the Late Devonian to Carboniferous Balkhash-Yili arc. Paleomagnetic data show ∼112-126° clockwise rotation of the northern limb relative to the southern limb in the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous, as well as ∼15-28° clockwise rotation of the northern limb and ∼39-40° anticlockwise rotation of the southern limb relative to the hinge of the orocline during the Late Carboniferous to Permian. We argue that the Kazakhstan Orocline experienced two-stage bending with the early stage of bending (Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous; ∼112-126°) driven by slab rollback, and the later stage (Late Carboniferous to Permian; 54-68°) possibly associated with the amalgamation of the Siberian, Tarim and Baltic cratons. This new tectonic model is compatible with the occurrence of rift basins, the spatial migration of magmatic arc, and the development of large-scale strike-slip fault systems during oroclinal bending.

  3. Orogenic inheritance and continental breakup: Wilson Cycle-control on rift and passive margin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, C.; Petersen, K. D.

    2016-12-01

    Rifts often develop along suture zones between previously collided continents, as part of the Wilson cycle. The North Atlantic is such an example, formed where Pangaea broke apart along Caledonian and Variscan sutures. Dipping upper mantle structures in E. Greenland and Scotland, have been interpreted as fossil subduction zones and the seismic signature indicates the presence of eclogite and serpentinite. We speculate that this orogenic material may impose a rheological control upon post-orogenic extension and we use thermo-mechanical modelling to explore such effects. Our model includes the following features: 1) Crustal thickness anomalies, 2) Eclogitised mafic crust emplaced in the mantle lithosphere, and 3) Hydrated mantle peridotite (serpentinite) formed in a pre-rift subduction setting. Our models indicate that the inherited structures control the location and the structural and magmatic evolution of the rift. Rifting of thin initial crust allows for relatively large amounts of serpentinite to be preserved within the uppermost mantle. This facilitates rapid continental breakup and serpentinite exhumation. Magmatism does not occur before continental breakup. Rifts in thicker crust preserve little or no serpentinite and thinning is more focused in the mantle lithosphere, rather than in the crust. Continental breakup is therefore preceded by magmatism. This implies that pre-rift orogenic properties may determine whether magma-poor or magma-rich conjugate margins are formed. Our models show that inherited orogenic eclogite and serpentinite are deformed and partially emplaced either as dipping structures within the lithospheric mantle or at the base of the thinned continental crust. The former is consistent with dipping sub-Moho reflectors often observed in passive margins. The latter provides an alternative interpretation of `lower crustal bodies' which are often regarded as igneous bodies. An additional implication of our models is that serpentinite, often

  4. Duration in Production Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J.

    2006-01-01

    We use 2003 and 2004 ARMS data to analyze variations in contract duration among growers of broilers who hold production contracts. Most contracts cover just a single flock, but many extend for 1-2 years, and a significant minority of broiler contracts specify lengths of 5, 10, and even 15 years. We find that grower debt and production volume are inversely related to the choice of a short term (a year or less) contract, while lengthy prior experience with the contractor promotes short term con...

  5. Routine oblique radiography of the pediatric lumbar spine: is it necessary. [Oblique radiography entails more than double the gonadal radiation dose of frontal-lateral projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, F.F.; Kishore, P.R.S.; Cunningham, M.E.

    1978-08-01

    A series of 86 pediatric lumbar spine abnormalities was evaluated to determine the diagnostic benefit of radiography in oblique projection as compared to frontal-lateral projections alone. In only four patients was an abnormality apparent on the oblique view which had not already been demonstrated by the frontal-lateral series; each of these represented an isolated spondylolysis. Because the diagnostic yield was low at a patient cost of more than double the gonadal radiation dose, it is recommended that oblique views be eliminated in the routine radiography of the pediatric lumbar spine.

  6. The Rio Pardo salient, northern Araçuaí orogen: an example of a complex basin-controlled fold-thrust belt curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Peixoto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Rio Pardo salient, the large antitaxial curve described by the Araçuaí fold-and-thrust belt along the southeastern edge of the São Francisco craton, is one of the most prominent and one of the least studied features of the Brasiliano Araçuaí-West Congo orogenic system (AWCO. In addition to the Archean/Paleoproterozoic basement, the salient is comprised of metasedimentary rocks mainly from the Neoproterozoic Macaúbas Group and the Salinas Formation. Its western limb occupies a portion of the Espinhaço ridge, where the NS-trending structures of the Araçuaí belt progressively curve NE and E, thereby defining the hinge zone along the Serra Geral on the Minas-Bahia boundary. The eastern limb is NW-trending and marked by a major shear zone. In models postulated to generate the AWCO through the closure of the Neoproterozoic Macaúbas basin, this large curve plays a critical kinematic role. Yet, in spite of this, its development is still not fully understood. How did this curve originate? Which factors controlled its generation? Our field study performed in the northern Araçuaí orogen characterized the kinematic picture of the salient, and led to a model that addresses these questions. The results we obtained indicate that the Rio Pardo salient developed in response to four deformation phases. The contractional D1 and D2 phases are coaxial and responsible for a craton-directed tectonic transport along the salient’s outer arc, which is coupled with an overall southward motion of the inner arc, thereby giving rise to a rather complex kinematic picture. Furthermore, structures of the D1/D2 phases define a zigzag pattern with alternating NE- and NW-trending segments along the salient’s leading edge. Along the NE-trending segments, the metasedimentary rocks are thrust northwestwards on top of the craton basement, while along the NW-trending segments, the supracrustal rocks are displaced along dextral to reverse

  7. Negotiating Efficient PPP Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvarnø, Christina D.

    . An opportunity the member states should consider using when procuring a PPP. This paper looks at the negotiation and contracting of a PPP in an economic theoretical and EU public procurement perspective and discusses how to establish an efficient PPP contract under a strong public law doctrine. Governments......This paper concerns Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts in concern to the coming new 2014/24IEU public procurement directive. The new EU public procurement directive gives the public authority the opportunity to negotiate PPPs much more when they are implemented in national law...... procurement law. Furthermore, the paper seeks to establish a connection between public law, private law and the efficient PPP contract by drawing upon economic theory and empirical contract data from UK, US and Danish partnering contracts from the construction industry and the aim of contracting joint utility...

  8. Ion stochastic heating by obliquely propagating magnetosonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xinliang; Lu Quanming; Wu Mingyu; Wang Shui

    2012-01-01

    The ion motions in obliquely propagating Alfven waves with sufficiently large amplitudes have already been studied by Chen et al.[Phys. Plasmas 8, 4713 (2001)], and it was found that the ion motions are stochastic when the wave frequency is at a fraction of the ion gyro-frequency. In this paper, with test particle simulations, we investigate the ion motions in obliquely propagating magnetosonic waves and find that the ion motions also become stochastic when the amplitude of the magnetosonic waves is sufficiently large due to the resonance at sub-cyclotron frequencies. Similar to the Alfven wave, the increase of the propagating angle, wave frequency, and the number of the wave modes can lower the stochastic threshold of the ion motions. However, because the magnetosonic waves become more and more compressive with the increase of the propagating angle, the decrease of the stochastic threshold with the increase of the propagating angle is more obvious in the magnetosonic waves than that in the Alfven waves.

  9. Ionospheric heating with oblique high-frequency waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, E.C. Jr.; Bloom, R.M.; Kossey, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents calculations of ionospheric electron temperature and density perturbations and ground-level signal changes produced by intense oblique high-frequency (HF) radio waves. The analysis takes into account focusing at caustics, the consequent Joule heating of the surrounding plasma, heat conduction, diffusion, and recombination processes, these being the effects of a powerful oblique modifying wave. It neglects whatever plasma instabilities might occur. The authors then seek effects on a secondary test wave that is propagated along the same path as the first. The calculations predict ground-level field strength reductions of several decibels in the test wave for modifying waves having effective radiated power (ERP) in the 85- to 90-dBW range. These field strength changes are similar in sign, magnitude, and location to ones measured in Soviet experiments. The location of the signal change is sensitive to the frequency and the model ionosphere assumed; so future experiments should employ the widest possible range of frequencies and propagation conditions. An ERP of 90 dBW seems to be a sort of threshold that, if exceeded, might result in substantial rather than small signal changes. The conclusions are based solely on Joule heating and subsequent refraction of waves passing through caustic regions

  10. The oblique perspective: philosophical diagnostics of contemporary life sciences research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Hub

    2017-12-01

    This paper indicates how continental philosophy may contribute to a diagnostics of contemporary life sciences research, as part of a "diagnostics of the present" (envisioned by continental thinkers, from Hegel up to Foucault). First, I describe (as a "practicing" philosopher) various options for an oblique (or symptomatic) reading of emerging scientific discourse, bent on uncovering the basic "philosophemes" of science (i.e. the guiding ideas, the basic conceptions of nature, life and technology at work in contemporary life sciences research practices). Subsequently, I outline a number of radical transformations occurring both at the object-pole and at the subject-pole of the current knowledge relationship, namely the technification of the object and the anonymisation or collectivisation of the subject, under the sway of automation, ICT and big machines. Finally, I further elaborate the specificity of the oblique perspective with the help of Lacan's theorem of the four discourses. Philosophical reflections on contemporary life sciences concur neither with a Master's discourse (which aims to strengthen the legitimacy and credibility of canonical sources), nor with university discourse (which aims to establish professional expertise), nor with what Lacan refers to as hysterical discourse (which aims to challenge representatives of the power establishment), but rather with the discourse of the analyst, listening with evenly-poised attention to the scientific files in order to bring to the fore the cupido sciendi (i.e. the will to know, but also to optimise and to control) which both inspires and disrupts contemporary life sciences discourse.

  11. SEMANTIC BUILDING FAÇADE SEGMENTATION FROM AIRBORNE OBLIQUE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of airborne oblique camera systems and the improvement of photogrammetric techniques, high-resolution 2D and 3D data can be acquired in urban areas. This high-resolution data allows us to perform detailed investigations on building roofs and façades which can contribute to LoD3 city modeling. Normally, façade segmentation is achieved from terrestrial views. In this paper, we address the problem from aerial views by using high resolution oblique aerial images as the data source in urban areas. In addition to traditional image features, such as RGB and SIFT, normal vector and planarity are also extracted from dense matching point clouds. Then, these 3D geometrical features are projected back to 2D space to assist façade interpretation. Random forest is trained and applied to label façade pixels. Fully connected conditional random field (CRF, capturing long-range spatial interactions, is used as a post-processing to refine our classification results. Its pairwise potential is defined by a linear combination of Gaussian kernels and the CRF model is efficiently solved by mean field approximation. Experiments show that 3D features can significantly improve classification results. Also, fully connected CRF performs well in correcting noisy pixels.

  12. Semantic Building FAÇADE Segmentation from Airborne Oblique Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Nex, F.; Yang, M. Y.

    2018-05-01

    With the introduction of airborne oblique camera systems and the improvement of photogrammetric techniques, high-resolution 2D and 3D data can be acquired in urban areas. This high-resolution data allows us to perform detailed investigations on building roofs and façades which can contribute to LoD3 city modeling. Normally, façade segmentation is achieved from terrestrial views. In this paper, we address the problem from aerial views by using high resolution oblique aerial images as the data source in urban areas. In addition to traditional image features, such as RGB and SIFT, normal vector and planarity are also extracted from dense matching point clouds. Then, these 3D geometrical features are projected back to 2D space to assist façade interpretation. Random forest is trained and applied to label façade pixels. Fully connected conditional random field (CRF), capturing long-range spatial interactions, is used as a post-processing to refine our classification results. Its pairwise potential is defined by a linear combination of Gaussian kernels and the CRF model is efficiently solved by mean field approximation. Experiments show that 3D features can significantly improve classification results. Also, fully connected CRF performs well in correcting noisy pixels.

  13. Geological characters and petrological characters of metamorphosed medium-acidic intrusive complexes in Ludong Orogenic Belt,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌贤长; 胡庆立; 王丽霞

    2002-01-01

    Ludong orogenic belt in China is an importantal continent collision orogenic belt in eastern Asia, between Sino-Korean landmass and Yangtze landmass. The host rock of the orogenic belt is metamorphosed medium-acidic intrusive complexes, which can be divided into four types, that's, quartz dioritz, granite dioritz, monzonitic granite and undertint monzonitic granite, principal minerals are plagioclases, potassium feldspars and quartzs, minor minerals are hornblendes, biotites, clinopyxenes and garnets, accessory mineral types and assemblages are very similar, specially, various rocks are mainly fine-grained textures. They have the history of regional amphibolite facies metamorphism and deep-middle-shallow structural layer deformation, and are changed into various gneiss and tectonic system. There are many xenolithes of middle Proterozoic eclogite-host rock extrahigh-high pressure metamorphic complexes, a small xenolithes of early Proterozoic layered metamorphite system and granulites, and ultrabasic-basic rocks of various epoches in the metamorphosed medium-acidic intrusive complexes.

  14. Independent sources of anisotropy in visual orientation representation: a visual and a cognitive oblique effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikou, Panagiota; Gourtzelidis, Pavlos; Mantas, Asimakis; Moutoussis, Konstantinos; Evdokimidis, Ioannis; Smyrnis, Nikolaos

    2015-11-01

    The representation of visual orientation is more accurate for cardinal orientations compared to oblique, and this anisotropy has been hypothesized to reflect a low-level visual process (visual, "class 1" oblique effect). The reproduction of directional and orientation information also leads to a mean error away from cardinal orientations or directions. This anisotropy has been hypothesized to reflect a high-level cognitive process of space categorization (cognitive, "class 2," oblique effect). This space categorization process would be more prominent when the visual representation of orientation degrades such as in the case of working memory with increasing cognitive load, leading to increasing magnitude of the "class 2" oblique effect, while the "class 1" oblique effect would remain unchanged. Two experiments were performed in which an array of orientation stimuli (1-4 items) was presented and then subjects had to realign a probe stimulus within the previously presented array. In the first experiment, the delay between stimulus presentation and probe varied, while in the second experiment, the stimulus presentation time varied. The variable error was larger for oblique compared to cardinal orientations in both experiments reproducing the visual "class 1" oblique effect. The mean error also reproduced the tendency away from cardinal and toward the oblique orientations in both experiments (cognitive "class 2" oblique effect). The accuracy or the reproduced orientation degraded (increasing variable error) and the cognitive "class 2" oblique effect increased with increasing memory load (number of items) in both experiments and presentation time in the second experiment. In contrast, the visual "class 1" oblique effect was not significantly modulated by any one of these experimental factors. These results confirmed the theoretical predictions for the two anisotropies in visual orientation reproduction and provided support for models proposing the categorization of

  15. Evolving lithospheric flexure and paleotopography of the Pyrenean Orogen from 3D flexural modeling and basin analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, M. E.; van der Beek, P.; Huismans, R. S.; Muñoz, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Pyrenees are an asymmetric, doubly-vergent orogen with retro- and pro- foreland basins that preserve a record of deformation since the Mesozoic. The extensive research and exploration efforts on the mountain belt and flanking foreland basins provide an exceptional dataset for investigating geodynamics and surface processes over large spatial and temporal scales in western Europe. We present the results of a numerical modeling study investigating the spatio-temporal variation in lithospheric flexure in response to the developing orogen. We employ a finite element method to model the 3D flexural deformation of the lithosphere beneath the Pyrenean orogen since the onset of convergence in the late Cretaceous. Using subsurface, geophysical, and structural data, we describe the evolving geometry of both the French Aquitaine and Spanish Ebro foreland basins at the present (post-orogenic), the mid-Eocene (peak orogenic), the Paleocene (early orogenic), and the end of the Cretaceous (pre- to early orogenic). The flexural modeling provides insight into how both the rigidity of the lithosphere and the paleotopographic load have varied over the course of orogenesis to shape the basin geometry. We find that the overriding European plate has higher rigidity than the subducting Iberian plate, with modern Effective Elastic Thickness (EET) values of 20 ± 2 and 12 ± 2 km, respectively. Modeling indicates that the modern rigidity of both plates decreases westward towards the Bay of Biscay. The lithospheric rigidity has increased by 50% since the Mesozoic with early Cenozoic EET values of 13 ± 2 and 8 ± 1 km for the European and Iberian plates, respectively. The topographic load began increasing with convergence in the late Cretaceous, reaching modern levels in the central and eastern Pyrenees by the Eocene. In contrast, the topographic load in the western Pyrenees was 70% of the modern value in the Eocene, and experienced topographic growth through the Oligo-Miocene. The

  16. Phase analysis of regional and global ventricular contraction patterns in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Assessment by radionuclide ventriculography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Tokuji; Koyama, Takao; Ichikawa, Takehiko and others

    1989-04-01

    Multigated blood pool scintigraphy was performed in 20 normal subjects and 39 patients with various intraventricular conduction abnormalities, including 25 patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Cardiac imaging was performed in the modified left anterior oblique, right anterior oblique, and left lateral projections. In WPW syndrome, early contraction sites which were not seen in normal subjects were detected at the ventricular base in phase images. These anomalous early contraction sites disappeared after successful suppression of conduction through an accessory pathway by intravenous procainamide. These sites are believed to correspond to the location of the bundle of Kent and were consistent with the electrocardiographic findings. Phase mapping is a suitable noninvasive method to locate the position of the bundle of Kent and evaluate the ventricular contraction pattern in WPW syndrome and other intraventricular conduction abnormalities. (author).

  17. Evaluation of the internal oblique, external oblique, and transversus abdominalis muscles in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: an ultrasonographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üşen, Ahmet; Kuran, Banu; Yılmaz, Figen; Aksu, Neşe; Erçalık, Cem

    2017-11-01

    The objectives of the study are to compare abdominal muscle thickness in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients with healthy subjects and determine the factors affecting these muscle thickness. Thirty-five male patients with a previous diagnosis of AS according to the Modified New York criteria and a control group consisting of 35 healthy male individuals were included in this cross-sectional and case-control study. Thicknesses of the internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO), and transversus abdominalis (TrA) muscles were measured with ultrasound (US). AS patients were classified according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). There were 35 AS patients with a mean age of 35.17 ± 8.05 years and 35 healthy subjects with a mean age 32.57 ± 7.05 years. No significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of abdominal muscle thicknesses (p > 0.005). When the AS patients were classified according to the IPAQ scores, thicknesses of the IO and TrA muscles were significantly lower in patients who had the low level of IPAQ scores (p < 0.05). In the light of our first and preliminary results, muscle thickness of the IO, EO, and TrA muscles were similar in AS patients to healthy subjects. However, AS patients who had lower level of physical activity have also reduced thickness of IO and TrA muscles.

  18. Magnetotelluric Imaging of the Lithosphere Across the Variscan Orogen (Iberian Autochthonous Domain, NW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Ribeiro, J.; Monteiro-Santos, F. A.; Pereira, M. F.; Díez Fernández, R.; Dias da Silva, Í.; Nascimento, C.; Silva, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    A new magnetotelluric (MT) survey comprising 17 MT soundings throughout a 30 km long N30°W transect in the Iberian autochthons domain of NW Iberia (Central Iberian Zone) is presented. The 2-D inversion model shows the resistivity structure of the continental crust up to 10 km depth, heretofore unavailable for this region of the Variscan Orogen. The MT model reveals a wavy structure separating a conductive upper layer underlain by a resistive layer, thus picturing the two main tectonic blocks of a large-scale D2 extensional shear zone (i.e., Pinhel shear zone). The upper layer represents a lower grade metamorphic domain that includes graphite-rich rocks. The lower layer consists of high-grade metamorphic rocks that experienced partial melting and are associated with granites (more resistive) emplaced during crustal thinning. The wavy structure is the result of superimposed crustal shortening responsible for the development of large-scale D3 folds (e.g., Marofa synform), later deflected and refolded by a D4 strike-slip shear zone (i.e., Juzbado-Penalva do Castelo shear zone). The later contribution to the final structure of the crust is marked by the intrusion of postkinematic granitic rocks and the propagation of steeply dipping brittle fault zones. Our study demonstrates that MT imaging is a powerful tool to understand complex crustal structures of ancient orogens in order to design future prospecting surveys for mineral deposits of economic interest.

  19. Origin of unusual HREE-Mo-rich carbonatites in the Qinling orogen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenlei; Xu, Cheng; Smith, Martin P; Kynicky, Jindrich; Huang, Kangjun; Wei, Chunwan; Zhou, Li; Shu, Qihai

    2016-11-18

    Carbonatites, usually occurring within intra-continental rift-related settings, have strong light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment; they rarely contain economic heavy REE (HREE). Here, we report the identification of Late Triassic HREE-Mo-rich carbonatites in the northernmost Qinling orogen. The rocks contain abundant primary HREE minerals and molybdenite. Calcite-hosted fluid inclusions, inferred to represent a magmatic-derived aqueous fluid phase, contain significant concentrations of Mo (~17 ppm), reinforcing the inference that these carbonatitic magmas had high Mo concentrations. By contrast, Late Triassic carbonatites in southernmost Qinling have economic LREE concentrations, but are depleted in HREE and Mo. Both of these carbonatite types have low δ 26 Mg values (-1.89 to -1.07‰), similar to sedimentary carbonates, suggesting a recycled sediment contribution for REE enrichment in their mantle sources. We propose that the carbonatites in the Qinling orogen were formed, at least in part, by the melting of a subducted carbonate-bearing slab, and that 10 Ma younger carbonatite magmas in the northernmost Qinling metasomatized the thickened eclogitic lower crust to produce high levels of HREE and Mo.

  20. Cenozoic landforms and post-orogenic landscape evolution of the Balkanide orogen: Evidence for alternatives to the tectonic denudation narrative in southern Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnell, Y.; Calvet, M.; Meyer, B.; Pinna-Jamme, R.; Bour, I.; Gautheron, C.; Carter, A.; Dimitrov, D.

    2017-01-01

    Continental denudation is the mass transfer of rock from source areas to sedimentary depocentres, and is typically the result of Earth surface processes. However, a process known as tectonic denudation is also understood to expose deep-seated rocks in short periods of geological time by displacing large masses of continental crust along shallow-angle faults, and without requiring major contributions from surface erosion. Some parts of the world, such as the Basin and Range in the USA or the Aegean province in Europe, have been showcased for their Cenozoic tectonic denudation features, commonly described as metamorphic core-complexes or as supradetachment faults. Based on 22 new apatite fission-track (AFT) and 21 helium (AHe) cooling ages among rock samples collected widely from plateau summits and their adjacent valley floors, and elaborating on inconsistencies between the regional stratigraphic, topographic and denudational records, this study frames a revised perspective on the prevailing tectonic denudation narrative for southern Bulgaria. We conclude that conspicuous landforms in this region, such as erosion surfaces on basement-cored mountain ranges, are not primarily the result of Paleogene to Neogene core-complex formation. They result instead from "ordinary" erosion-driven, subaerial denudation. Rock cooling, each time suggesting at least 2 km of crustal denudation, has exposed shallow Paleogene granitic plutons and documents a 3-stage wave of erosional denudation which progressed from north to south during the Middle Eocene, Oligocene, Early to Middle Miocene, and Late Miocene. Denudation initially prevailed during the Paleogene under a syn-orogenic compressional regime involving piggyback extensional basins (Phase 1), but subsequently migrated southward in response to post-orogenic upper-plate extension driven by trench rollback of the Hellenic subduction slab (Phase 2). Rare insight given by the denudation pattern indicates that trench rollback

  1. Oblique decision trees using embedded support vector machines in classifier ensembles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menkovski, V.; Christou, I.; Efremidis, S.

    2008-01-01

    Classifier ensembles have emerged in recent years as a promising research area for boosting pattern recognition systems' performance. We present a new base classifier that utilizes oblique decision tree technology based on support vector machines for the construction of oblique (non-axis parallel)

  2. Which oblique plane is more helpful in diagnosing an anterior cruciate ligament tear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J.W.; Yoon, Y.C.; Kim, Y.N.; Ahn, J.H.; Choe, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic role of additional oblique coronal and oblique sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. Materials and methods: A total of 101 patients who had undergone preoperative knee MRI examinations with orthogonal and two sets of oblique images were enrolled in the study. Two radiologists evaluated the MRI images by the use of four methods: orthogonal images only (method A); orthogonal and additional oblique coronal images (method B); orthogonal and oblique sagittal images (method C); and orthogonal images with oblique coronal and sagittal images (method D). The status of the ACL (normal or tear) was determined by consensus. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for an ACL tear with the use of each method were calculated in comparison with arthroscopy as the reference standard, and values were statistically analysed using the McNemar test. The diagnostic accuracies were compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: Arthroscopy identified 10 partial ACL tears and 30 complete ACL tears. The specificities and accuracies for methods B, C, and D were significantly higher than the specificities and accuracies for method A (p 0.05). Conclusions: Additional oblique imaging for an ACL tear improved the specificity. Either of the oblique imaging methods is sufficient, and no further improvement in the diagnostic efficacy was achieved by simultaneous use

  3. Asteroseismic Determination of Obliquities of the Exoplanet Systems Kepler-50 and Kepler-65

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaplin, W.J.; Sanchis-Ojeda, R.; Campante, T.L.; Handberg, R.; Stello, D.; Winn, J.N.; Basu, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Davies, G.R.; Metcalfe, T.S.; Buchhave, L.A.; Fischer, D.A.; Bedding, T.R.; Cochran, W.D.; Elsworth, Y.; Gilliland, R.L.; Hekker, S.; Huber, D.; Isaacson, H.; Karoff, C.; Kawaler, S.D.; Kjeldsen, H.; Latham, D.W.; Lund, M.N.; Lundkvist, M.; Marcy, G.W.; Miglio, A.; Barclay, T.; Lissauer, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Results on the obliquity of exoplanet host stars?the angle between the stellar spin axis and the planetary orbital axis?provide important diagnostic information for theories describing planetary formation. Here we present the first application of asteroseismology to the problem of stellar obliquity

  4. An "oblique effect" in the visual evoked potential of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, A B

    1982-01-01

    An oblique effect was observed in the amplitude of the VEP recorded from area 17 of the cat. The ratio of the responses to oblique gratings compared with responses to horizontal and vertical gratings averaged 0.77. Orientation dependence was strongest at low spatial frequencies, unlike the effect found in primates.

  5. New staff contract policy

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Following discussion at TREF and on the recommendation of the Finance Committee, Council approved a new staff contract policy, which became effective on 1 January 2006. Its application is covered by a new Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 3) 'Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members'. The revised circular replaces the previous Circulars No. 9 (Rev. 3) 'Staff contracts' and No. 2 (Rev. 2) 'Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period for staff members'. The main features of the new contract policy are as follows: The new policy provides chances for long-term employment for all staff recruits staying for four years without distinguishing between those assigned to long-term or short-term activities when joining CERN. In addition, it presents a number of simplifications for the award of ICs. There are henceforth only 2 types of contract: Limited Duration (LD) contracts for all recruitment and Indefinite Contracts (IC) for...

  6. Copyright Preemption of Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Bohannan, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This Article argues that both courts and scholars are wrong in their categorical approaches to preemption of contracts under the Copyright Act, and proposes an intermediate approach that recognizes the importance of both contract rights and federal policy in preemption analysis. First, it argues that both courts and scholars have misapplied preemption law to breach of contract claims. Although the two sides tend to favor opposite results, they take equally categorical approaches. Categori...

  7. Contracting for Public Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    strategic purchasing understanding markets communicating the contracting decision designing and drafting the contract the role of the consumer the regulation of service provision Illustrated throughout with practitioner case-studies from a range of OECD countries, this book presents an important new......Insightful and comprehensive and covering new subjects like globalization and IT, this text, international in its approach, provides a thorough introduction to the key phases of the contracting process and the skills required by managers in its implementation. These include: policy for contracting...

  8. Smart contracts sobre Bitcoin

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Alemany, Josep Miquel

    2016-01-01

    El present treball final de màster realitza una introducció als smart contracts. El treball introdueix el concepte de contracte intel·ligent, els seus usos i alguns exemples existents. Seguidament proporciona les nocions necessàries de les transaccions del protocol Bitcoin per poder implementar un contracte intel·ligent, usant la blockchain que ofereix el protocol. Per últim, s'explica la implementació d'un contracte intel·ligent usant bitcoin: un canal de micropagaments. El presente traba...

  9. Horizontal effect of the surgical weakening of the oblique muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Souza-Dias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of the oblique muscles surgical weakening on the horizontal alignment in the primary position (PP and its efficacy on the correction of the "A" and "V" anisotropies. METHODS: In order to study the influence of bilateral superior oblique muscles (SO weakening on the horizontal alignment in PP, we analyzed the files of 12 patients who underwent only that operation; no other muscle was operated on. We took the opportunity of those 12 patients to analyze the effect of their operation on the correction of "A" incomitance. For evaluating the effect of the inferior oblique muscles (IO weakening on the correction of the "V" pattern, we analyzed retrospectively the files of 67 anisotropic patients who underwent a bilateral SO weakening. In 10 of them, the only operation was the oblique muscles weakening and, in 57 patients, the horizontal recti were also operated on for the horizontal deviations in primary position. These patients were divided into two groups: 50 were esotropic and 17 exotropic. There was not any mixed anisotropy. RESULTS: The mean value of the preoperative "V" incomitance of the 50 esotropic patients was 24.25∆ ± 10.15∆; the mean postoperative correction was 15.56 ∆ ± 8.74∆. The mean correction between the PP and upgaze was 7.52∆ ± 7.47∆ and from the PP to downgaze was 8.56∆ ± 9.21∆. The same values of the 17 exotropic patients was: preoperative 31.88∆ ± 9.4∆; primary position to upgaze was 13.11∆ ± 4.9∆ and primary position to downgaze 14.11∆ ± 12.48∆. The mean preoperative value of the "A" incomitance among the 12 patients who underwent isolated SO weakening was 30.50∆ ± 19.25∆ and the postoperative was of 9,92∆, therefore a mean correction of 22.58∆ ± 17.54∆. Among these ones, in 5 there was no alteration of the deviation in primary position, in 4 there was an exo-effect and in 3 there was an eso-effect. The mean alteration of the deviation in PP was an

  10. ANALISIS ABSOLUTE DAN OBLIQUE DALAM BAHASA KERINCI ISOLEK PULAU TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nova Rina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research study in phonological field, aims of this research to discribe rhyme alternation on form of absolute and oblique in Kerinci language isolect pulau tengah. The purpose of this research are 1 to documenting Kerinci language isolect Pulau Tengah that threatened by Indonesian standart, Jakarta Indonesia, Minangkabau language, and most seriously threathened by Kerinci koine 2 the result of this research about description of Kerinci language isolect Pulau Tengah will be useful for other Malayic language researcher especially in remote areas of Sumatera and 3 give langauge contribution significantly for Kerinci society especially for Pulau Tengah society. This research found 19 rhyme alternation in G-words, 20 rhyme alternation in K-words, 16 vocal sequences, 28 consonant clusters, 12 consonant sequences, and base on silable phonotactic rules in Kerinci language isolect Pulau Tengah, it found six rules; V, VC, CV, CVC, CCV, and CCVC.

  11. Oblique-incidence reflectivity difference application for morphology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Honglei; Zhao, Kun; Lü, Huibin; Jin, Kuijuan; Yang, Guozhen; Chen, Xiaohong

    2017-10-20

    Analogous with scanning electron microscopy, we use an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) approach for morphology detection. By scanning the active carbon clusters in a one-dimensional way and the reservoir rocks in a two-dimensional way, the morphology of the samples' surface can be revealed in OIRD signal images. High OIRD signals of active carbon samples refer to the centralized distribution areas of carbon, and the fluctuations are caused by the uneven distribution of carbon pellets. OIRD intensity is proportional to the thickness of materials. In terms of rocks, the trough areas with smaller values refer to the low-lying fields. The areas with relatively large OIRD intensities correspond to the protuberance areas of rocks. Consequently, OIRD is a sensitive yet rapid measure of surface detection in material and petrogeology science.

  12. Splitting Terraced Houses Into Single Units Using Oblique Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, D.

    2017-05-01

    This paper introduces a method to subdivide complex building structures like terraced houses into single house units comparable to units available in a cadastral map. 3D line segments are detected with sub-pixel accuracy in traditional vertical true orthomosaics as well as in innovative oblique true orthomosaics and their respective surface models. Hereby high gradient strengths on roofs as well as façades are taken into account. By investigating the coplanarity and frequencies within a set of 3D line segments, individual cut lines for a building complex are found. The resulting regions ideally describe single houses and thus the object complexity is reduced for subsequent topological, semantical or geometrical considerations. For the chosen study area with 70 buidling outlines a hit rate of 80% for cut lines is achieved.

  13. A simple oblique dip model for geomagnetic micropulsations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Lawrie

    Full Text Available It is pointed out that simple models adopted so far have tended to neglect the obliquity of the magnetic field lines entering the Earth's surface. A simple alternative model is presented, in which the ambient field lines are straight, but enter wedge shaped boundaries at half a right-angle. The model is illustrated by assuming an axially symmetric, compressional, impulse type disturbance at the outer boundary, all other boundaries being assumed to be perfectly conducting. The numerical method used is checked from the instant the excitation ceases, by an analytical method. The first harmonic along field lines is found to be of noticeable size, but appears to be mainly due to coupling with the fundamental, and with the first harmonic across field lines.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities.

  14. Oblique shock waves in granular flows over bluff bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopan Nandu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular flows around an object have been the focus of numerous analytical, experimental and simulation studies. The structure and nature of the oblique shock wave developed when a quasi-two dimensional flow of spherical granular particles streams past an immersed, fixed cylindrical obstacle forms the focus of this study. The binary granular mixture, consisting of particles of the same diameter but different material properties, is investigated by using a modified LIGGGHTS package as the simulation engine. Variations in the solid fraction and granular temperature within the resulting flow are studied. The Mach number is calculated and is used to distinguish between the subsonic and the supersonic regions of the bow shock.

  15. Plasmas fluxes to surfaces for an oblique magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, C.S.; Stangeby, P.C.; Elder, J.D.; Bell, M.G.; Kilpatrick, S.J.; Manos, D.M.; Medley, S.S.; Owens, D.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Ulrickson, M.

    1992-07-01

    The poloidal and toroidal spatial distributions of D α , He I and C II emission have been obtained in the vicinity of the TFTR bumper limiter and are compared with models of ion flow to the surface. The distributions are found not to agree with a model (the ''Cosine'' model) which determines the incident flux density using only the parallel fluxes in the scrape-off layer and the projected area of the surface perpendicular to the field lines. In particular, the Cosine model is not able to explain the significant fluxes observed at locations on the surface which are oblique to the magnetic field. It is further shown that these fluxes cannot be explained by the finite Larmor radius of impinging ions. Finally, it is demonstrated, with the use of Monte Carlo codes, that the distributions can be explained by including both parallel and cross-field transport onto the limiter surface

  16. Formation mechanisms and characteristics of transition patterns in oblique detonations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shikun; Zhou, Jin; Liu, Shijie; Cai, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    The transition structures of wedge-induced oblique detonation waves (ODWs) in high-enthalpy supersonic combustible mixtures are studied with two-dimensional reactive Euler simulations based on the open-source program AMROC (Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Object-oriented C++). The formation mechanisms of different transition patterns are investigated through theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. Results show that transition patterns of ODWs depend on the pressure ratio Pd/Ps, (Pd, Ps are the pressure behind the ODW and the pressure behind the induced shock, respectively). When Pd/Ps > 1.3, an abrupt transition occurs, while when Pd/Ps 1.02Φ∗ (Φ∗ is the critical velocity ratio calculated with an empirical formula).

  17. Distal Oblique Bundle Reinforcement for Treatment of DRUJ Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Peter R G; Hannemann, Pascal F W

    2015-08-01

    Background Chronic, dynamic bidirectional instability in the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is diagnosed clinically, based on the patient's complaints and the finding of abnormal laxity in the vicinity of the distal ulna. In cases where malunion is ruled out or treated and there are no signs of osteoarthritis, stabilization of the DRUJ may offer relief. To this end, several different techniques have been investigated over the past 90 years. Materials and Methods In this article we outline the procedure for a new technique using a tendon graft to reinforce the distal edge of the interosseous membrane. Description of Technique A percutaneous technique is used to harvest the palmaris longus tendon and to create a tunnel, just proximal to the sigmoid notch, through the ulna and radius in an oblique direction. By overdrilling the radial cortex, the knotted tendon can be pulled through the radius and ulna and the knot blocked at the second radial cortex, creating a strong connection between the radius and ulna at the site of the distal oblique bundle (DOB). The tendon is fixed in the ulna with a small interference screw in full supination, preventing subluxation of the ulna out of the sigmoid notch during rotation. Results Fourteen patients were treated with this novel technique between 2011 and October 2013. The QuickDASH score at 25 months postoperatively (range 16-38 months) showed an improvement of 32 points. Similarly, an improvement of 33 points (67-34 months) was found on the PRWHE. Only one recurrence of chronic, dynamic bidirectional instability in the DRUJ was observed. Conclusion This simple percutaneous tenodesis technique between radius and ulna at the position of the distal edge of the interosseous membrane shows promise in terms of both restoring stability and relieving complaints related to chronic subluxation in the DRUJ.

  18. Asymmetric diffusion model for oblique-incidence reflectometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaqin Chen; Liji Cao; Liqun Sun

    2011-01-01

    A diffusion theory model induced by a line source distribution is presented for oblique-incidence reflectom-etry. By fitting to this asymmetric diffusion model, the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients μa and μ's of the turbid medium can both be determined with accuracy of 10% from the absolute profile of the diffuse reflectance in the incident plane at the negative position -1.5 transport mean free path (mfp') away from the incident point; particularly, μ's can be estimated from the data at positive positions within 0-1.0 mfp' with 10% accuracy. The method is verified by Monte Carlo simulations and experimentally tested on a phantom.%A diffusion theory model induced by a line source distribution is presented for oblique-incidence reflectometry.By fitting to this asymmetric diffusion model,the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients μa and μ's of the turbid medium can both be determined with accuracy of 10% from the absolute profile of the diffuse reflectance in the incident plane at the negative position -1.5 transport mean free path (mfp')away from the incident point;particularly,μ's can be estimated from the data at positive positions within 0-1.0 mfp' with 10% accuracy.The method is verified by Monte Carlo simulations and experimentally tested on a phantom.Knowledge about the optical properties,including the absorption coefficient (μa) and the reduced scattering coefficient (μ's =μs(1-g)),where μs is the scattering coefficient and g is the anisotropy factor of scattering,of biological tissues plays an important role for optical therapeutic and diagnostic techniques in medicine.

  19. AUTOMATIC ORIENTATION OF LARGE BLOCKS OF OBLIQUE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rupnik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, multi-camera platforms combining nadir and oblique cameras are experiencing a revival. Due to their advantages such as ease of interpretation, completeness through mitigation of occluding areas, as well as system accessibility, they have found their place in numerous civil applications. However, automatic post-processing of such imagery still remains a topic of research. Configuration of cameras poses a challenge on the traditional photogrammetric pipeline used in commercial software and manual measurements are inevitable. For large image blocks it is certainly an impediment. Within theoretical part of the work we review three common least square adjustment methods and recap on possible ways for a multi-camera system orientation. In the practical part we present an approach that successfully oriented a block of 550 images acquired with an imaging system composed of 5 cameras (Canon Eos 1D Mark III with different focal lengths. Oblique cameras are rotated in the four looking directions (forward, backward, left and right by 45° with respect to the nadir camera. The workflow relies only upon open-source software: a developed tool to analyse image connectivity and Apero to orient the image block. The benefits of the connectivity tool are twofold: in terms of computational time and success of Bundle Block Adjustment. It exploits the georeferenced information provided by the Applanix system in constraining feature point extraction to relevant images only, and guides the concatenation of images during the relative orientation. Ultimately an absolute transformation is performed resulting in mean re-projection residuals equal to 0.6 pix.

  20. Rotation, narrowing and preferential reactivation of brittle structures during oblique rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huismans, R. S.; Duclaux, G.; May, D.

    2017-12-01

    Occurrence of multiple faults populations with contrasting orientations in oblique continental rifts and passive margins has long sparked debate about relative timing of deformation events and tectonic interpretations. Here, we use high-resolution three-dimensional thermo-mechanical numerical modeling to characterize the evolution of the structural style associated with moderately oblique rifting in the continental lithosphere. Automatic analysis of the distribution of active extensional shears at the surface of the model demonstrates a characteristic deformation sequence. We show that upon localization, Phase 1 wide oblique en-échelon grabens develop, limited by extensional shears oriented orthogonal to σ3. Subsequent widening of the grabens is accompanied by a progressive rotation of the Phase 1 extensional shears that become sub-orthogonal the plate motion direction. Phase 2 is marked by narrowing of active deformation resulting from thinning of the continental lithosphere and development of a second-generation of extensional shears. During Phase 2 deformation localizes both on plate motion direction-orthogonal structures that reactivate rotated Phase 1 shears, and on new oblique structures orthogonal to σ3. Finally, Phase 3 consists in the oblique rupture of the continental lithosphere and produces an oceanic domain where oblique ridge segments are linked with highly oblique accommodation zones. We conclude that while new structures form normal to σ3 in an oblique rift, progressive rotation and long-term reactivation of Phase 1 structures promotes orthorhombic fault systems, critical to accommodate upper crustal extension and control oblique passive margin architecture. The distribution, orientation, and evolution of frictional-plastic structures observed in our models is remarkably similar to documented fault populations in the Gulf of Aden conjugate passive margins, which developed in moderately oblique extensional settings.

  1. Devonian post-orogenic extension-related volcano-sedimentary rocks in the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, NW China: Implications for the Paleozoic tectonic transition in the North Qaidam Orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yu; Feng, Qiao; Chen, Gang; Chen, Yan; Zou, Kaizhen; Liu, Qian; Jiao, Qianqian; Zhou, Dingwu; Pan, Lihui; Gao, Jindong

    2018-05-01

    The Maoniushan Formation in the northern part of the North Qaidam Orogen (NQO), NW China, contains key information on a Paleozoic change in tectonic setting of the NQO from compression to extension. Here, new zircon U-Pb, petrological, and sedimentological data for the lower molasse sequence of the Maoniushan Formation are used to constrain the timing of this tectonic transition. Detrital zircons yield U-Pb ages of 3.3-0.4 Ga with major populations at 0.53-0.4, 1.0-0.56, 2.5-1.0, and 3.3-2.5 Ga. The maximum depositional age of the Maoniushan Formation is well constrained by a youngest detrital zircon age of ∼409 Ma. Comparing these dates with geochronological data for the region indicates that Proterozoic-Paleozoic zircons were derived mainly from the NQO as well as the Oulongbuluk and Qaidam blocks, whereas Archean zircons were probably derived from the Oulongbuluk Block and the Tarim Craton. The ∼924, ∼463, and ∼439 Ma tectonothermal events recorded in this region indicate that the NQO was involved in the early Neoproterozoic assembly of Rodinia and early Paleozoic microcontinental convergence. A regional angular unconformity between Devonian and pre-Devonian strata within the NQO suggests a period of strong mountain building between the Oulongbuluk and Qaidam blocks during the Silurian, whereas an Early Devonian post-orogenic molasse, evidence of extensional collapse, and Middle to Late Devonian bimodal volcanic rocks and Carboniferous marine carbonate rocks clearly reflect long-lived tectonic extension. Based on these results and the regional geology, we suggest that the Devonian volcano-sedimentary rocks within the NQO were formed in a post-orogenic extensional setting similar to that of the East Kunlun Orogen, indicating that a major tectonic transition from compression to extension in these two orogens probably commenced in the Early Devonian.

  2. Hydrothermal alteration styles in ancient and modern orogenic gold deposits, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craw, D.; Upton, P.; MacKenzie, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Orogenic hydrothermal systems in the South Island of New Zealand were active during Mesozoic and late Cenozoic collisional deformation and metamorphism of greywacke/schist terranes. Observations on the currently active mountain-building environment yield insights on processes occurring in the upper 5-15 km of the crust, and observations on an adjacent lithologically identical exhumed ancient mountain belt provide information on processes at 10-20 km in the crust. Hydrothermal fluids were mainly derived from metamorphic dehydration reactions and/or circulating topographically driven meteoric water in these mountain belts. Three geochemically and mineralogically different types of hydrothermal alteration and vein mineralisation occurred in these orogenic belts, and gold enrichment (locally economic) occurred in some examples of each of these three types. The first type of alteration involved fluids that were in or near chemical equilibrium with their greenschist facies host rocks. Fluid flow was controlled by discontinuous fractures, and by microshears and grain boundaries in host rocks, in zones from metres to hundreds of metres thick. Vein and alteration mineralogy was similar to that of the host rocks, and included calcite and chlorite. The second type of alteration occurred where the fluids were in distinct disequilibrium with the host rocks. Fracture permeability was important for fluid flow, but abundant host rock alteration occurred as well. The alteration zones were characterised by decomposition of chlorite and replacement by ankeritic carbonate in zones up to tens of metres thick. The mineralising fluid was deep-sourced and initially rock-equilibrated, with some meteoric input. The third type of mineralisation was controlled almost exclusively by fracture permeability, and host rock alteration was minor (centimetre scale). This mineralisation type commonly involved calcite and chlorite as vein and alteration minerals, and mineralisation fluids had a major

  3. Evaluation of the Orogenic Belt Hypothesis for the Formation of Thaumasia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, A. L.; Schultz, R. A.

    2008-12-01

    The Thaumasia Highlands (TH) and Solis Planum are two of the best-known examples of compressional tectonics on Mars. The TH is a region of high topography located in the southern portion of the Tharsis Province, Mars. Solis Planum is located in eastern Thaumasia. Two hypotheses for the formation of this region have been suggested: sliding on a weak horizon or thrusting analogous to orogenic wedges on Earth. Both hypotheses require a shallowly dipping to sub-horizontal weak horizon below Thaumasia. Wrinkle ridges in Solis Planum are also inferred to sole into a décollement. If Thaumasia formed by thrusting related to sliding on a décollement, then certain conditions must be met as in critical taper wedge mechanics (CTWM) theory. If the angle between the surface slope and the basal décollement is less than predicted by the critical taper equation, the 'subcritical' wedge will deform internally until critical taper is achieved. Once the critical taper has been achieved, internal deformation ceases and the wedge will slide along its base. Formation of orogenic belts on Earth (such as the Central Mountains in Taiwan) can be described using CTWM. This method is applied here to the Thaumasia region on Mars. The surface slope (alpha) was measured in three locations: Syria Planum-Thaumasia margin, Solis Planum, and the TH. Topographic slopes were compared to the results from the critical taper equation. Because the dip of the basal décollement (beta) cannot be measured directly as on Earth, the dip angle was varied at 0 - 10 degrees; these values span the range of likely values based on terrestrial wedges. Pore fluid pressure (lambda) was varied between 0 (dry) and 0.9 (overpressured); these values span the full range of this important unknown parameter. Material properties, such as the coefficients of internal friction and of the basal décollement, were varied using reasonable values. Preliminary results show that for both reasonable (such as lambda = 0, mu b = 0

  4. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  5. Contract Teachers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sangeeta; Pandey, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use non-experimental data from government schools in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, two of the largest Indian states, to present average school outcomes by contract status of teachers. We find that contract teachers are associated with higher effort than civil service teachers with permanent tenures, before as well as after…

  6. Whither Performance Contracting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Norman S.

    This report describes briefly performance contracts; discusses their shortcomings, pitfalls, and advantages; and gives some insight into the future development of this new concept. Two shortcomings of performance contracting include (1) teaching to the test and (2) board abdication of its responsibility for making final decisions about educational…

  7. Comparing contracting performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    . Hypotheses are suggested for the role of culture, competition, contracts, capabilities and collaboration for contracting performance between and across the countries. Arguments are tested against data from on four comparable national surveys of private delivery of park and road maintenance services in local...

  8. BOT Outsourcing Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    Build-operate-transfer (BOT) contracting has been widely usen in the engineering and construction industry, but has only recently been introduced in services industry domains. Notably, service provider firms from emerging markets have recently started offering BOT outsourcing contracts. In this p...

  9. Drilling contracts and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Sorenes, Terje; Toft, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Shortages of rigs and personnel have encouraged discussion of designing incentive contracts in the drilling sector. However, for the drilling contracts, there are not a large variety of contract types in use. This article describes and analyses incentives for drilling contractors. These are directly represented by the compensation formats utilised in the present and in the consecutive drilling contracts. Indirectly, incentives are also provided by the evaluation criteria that oil companies use for awarding drilling assignments. Changes in contract format pose a number of relevant questions relating to resource management, and the article takes an in-depth look at some of these. Do evaluation criteria for awarding drilling assignments encourage the development of new technology and solutions? How will a stronger focus on drilling efficiency influence reservoir utilisation?

  10. Drilling contract issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, G.B.; Worden, D.R.; Borbridge, G.K.D.

    1997-01-01

    Some selected issues which are facing both operators and contractors in drilling for oil and gas, such as the allocation of risk by contract and by statute and the implementation of new technologies, were discussed. There are three varieties of written drilling contracts used in Canada: (1) day work and meterage contracts, (2) master drilling agreements, and (3) contracts that are used in construction projects that do not specifically relate to drilling. Issues relevant to the contractual allocation of risk, to implementing new drilling technologies, to reconciling contract and statute liability, and the formation of strategic alliances for mutual benefit, and the factors contributing to the success of such alliances were explored. 12 refs

  11. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  12. Carboniferous rifted arcs leading to an archipelago of multiple arcs in the Beishan-Tianshan orogenic collages (NW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhonghua; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Zhang, Ji'en; Zhang, Zhiyong; Song, Dongfang

    2017-10-01

    The Beishan and East Tianshan Orogenic Collages in the southernmost Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) record the final stages of evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. These collages and their constituent arcs have an important significance for resolving current controversies regarding their tectonic setting and age, consequent accretionary history of the southern CAOB, and the closure time of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. In this paper, we present our work on the southern Mazongshan arc and the northern Hongyanjing Basin in the Beishan Orogenic Collage (BOC), and our comparison with the Bogda arc and associated basins in the East Tianshan Orogenic Collage. Field relationships indicate that the Pochengshan fault defines the boundary between the arc and basin in the BOC. Volcanic rocks including basalts and rhyolites in the Mazongshan arc have bimodal calc-alkaline characteristics, an enrichment in large ion lithophile elements such as Rb, Ba, and Pb and depletion in high field-strength elements (e.g., Nb and Ta), which were probably developed in a subduction-related tectonic setting. We suggest that these bimodal calc-alkaline volcanic rocks formed in rifted arcs instead of post-orogenic rifts with mantle plume inputs. By making detailed geochemical comparisons between the Mazongshan arc and the Bogda arc to the west, we further propose that they are similar and both formed in arc rifts, and helped generate a Carboniferous archipelago of multiple arcs in the southern Paleo-Asian Ocean. These data and ideas enable us to postulate a new model for the tectonic evolution of the southern CAOB.

  13. Hillslope response to knickpoint migration in the Southern Appalachians: Implications for the evolution of post-orogenic landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, S.F.G.; Franke, K.L.; Hughes, S.; Lewis, R.Q.; Lyons, N.; Paris, P.; Ross, K.; Bauer, J.B.; Witt, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The southern Appalachians represent a landscape characterized by locally high topographic relief, steep slopes, and frequent mass movement in the absence of significant tectonic forcing for at least the last 200 Ma. The fundamental processes responsible for landscape evolution in a post-orogenic landscape remain enigmatic. The non-glaciated Cullasaja River basin of south-western North Carolina, with uniform lithology, frequent debris flows, and the availability of high-resolution airborne lidar DEMs, is an ideal natural setting to study landscape evolution in a post-orogenic landscape through the lens of hillslope-channel coupling. This investigation is limited to channels with upslope contributing areas >2.7 km2, a conservative estimate of the transition from fluvial to debris-flow dominated channel processes. Values of normalized hypsometry, hypsometric integral, and mean slope vs elevation are used for 14 tributary basins and the Cullasaja basin as a whole to characterize landscape evolution following upstream knickpoint migration. Results highlight the existence of a transient spatial relationship between knickpoints present along the fluvial network of the Cullasaja basin and adjacent hillslopes. Metrics of topography (relief, slope gradient) and hillslope activity (landslide frequency) exhibit significant downstream increases below the current position of major knickpoints. The transient effect of knickpoint-driven channel incision on basin hillslopes is captured by measuring the relief, mean slope steepness, and mass movement frequency of tributary basins and comparing these results with the distance from major knickpoints along the Cullasaja River. A conceptual model of area-elevation and slope distributions is presented that may be representative of post-orogenic landscape evolution in analogous geologic settings. Importantly, the model explains how knickpoint migration and channel- hillslope coupling is an important factor in tectonically-inactive (i

  14. EARLY STAGE OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN OROGENIC BELT BUILDING: EVIDENCES FROM THE SOUTHERN SIBERIAN CRATON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Gladkochub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the Central-Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB, especially of its northern segment nearby the southern margin of the Siberian craton (SC is directly related to development and closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO. Signatures of early stages of the PAO evolution are recorded in the Late Precambrian sedimentary successions of the Sayan-Baikal-Patom Belt (SBPB on the southern edge of SC. These successions are spread over 2000 km and can be traced along this edge from north-west (Sayan area to south-east (Baikal area and further to north-east (Patom area. Here we present the synthesis of all available and reliable LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronological studies of detrital zircons from these sedimentary successions.

  15. Architecture and mineral deposit settings of the Altaid orogenic collage: a revised model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubchuk, Alexander

    2004-09-01

    The Altaids are an orogenic collage of Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic rocks located in the center of Eurasia. This collage consists of only three oroclinally bent Neoproterozoic-Early Paleozoic magmatic arcs (Kipchak, Tuva-Mongol, and Mugodzhar-Rudny Altai), separated by sutures of their former backarc basins, which were stitched by new generations of overlapping magmatic arcs. In addition, the Altaids host accreted fragments of the Neoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic oceanic island chains and Neoproterozoic to Cenozoic plume-related magmatic rocks superimposed on the accreted fragments. All these assemblages host important, many world-class, Late Proterozoic to Early Mesozoic gold, copper-molybdenum, lead-zinc, nickel and other deposits of various types. In the Late Proterozoic, during breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia, the Kipchak and Tuva-Mongol magmatic arcs were rifted off Eastern Europe-Siberia and Laurentia to produce oceanic backarc basins. In the Late Ordovician, the Siberian craton began its clockwise rotation with respect to Eastern Europe and this coincides with the beginning of formation of the Mugodzhar-Rudny Altai arc behind the Kipchak arc. These earlier arcs produced mostly Cu-Pb-Zn VMS deposits, although some important intrusion-related orogenic Au deposits formed during arc-arc collision events in the Middle Cambrian and Late Ordovician. The clockwise rotation of Siberia continued through the Paleozoic until the Early Permian producing several episodes of oroclinal bending, strike-slip duplication and reorganization of the magmatic arcs to produce the overlapping Kazakh-Mongol and Zharma-Saur-Valerianov-Beltau-Kurama arcs that welded the extinct Kipchak and Tuva-Mongol arcs. This resulted in amalgamation of the western portion of the Altaid orogenic collage in the Late Paleozoic. Its eastern portion amalgamated only in the early Mesozoic and was overlapped by the Transbaikal magmatic arc, which developed in response to subduction of the oceanic crust

  16. 40Ar-39Ar method for age estimation: principles, technique and application in orogenic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmejer, R.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of the K-Ar method for age estimation by 40 Ar/ 39 Ar recently developed is described. This method doesn't require direct analysis of potassium, its content is calculated as a function of 39 Ar, which is formed from 39 K under neutron activation. Errors resulted from interactions between potassium and calcium nuclei with neutrons are considered. The attention is paid to the technique of gradual heating, used in 40 Ar- 39 Ar method, and of obtaining age spectrum. Aplicabilities of isochronous diagram is discussed for the case of presence of excessive argon in a sample. Examples of 40 Ar- 39 Ar method application for dating events in orogenic regions are presented

  17. The Pan-African Damara Orogen of South West Africa/Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.McG.

    1983-01-01

    The structural grain of the Damara orogen points to a reversal of spreading and to north-westward subduction of the African cratons below a South American craton and of the Kalahari Craton below the Congo Craton. D 1 recumbent folding was followed by intrusion of 650 m.y.-old granitic rocks, uplift and erosion and deposition of a northern molasse. D 2 deformation in the coastal arm marked the continental collision phase in this region. The final, large-scale deformational event in this region caused westward-vergent back folding which was followed by intrusion of 570 m.y.-old post-tectonic granites. In the Central Zone, widespread intrusion of 550 m.y.-old, syntectonic granites and extrusion of their volcanic equivalents in a 150 km-wide, high-temperature-low-pressure zone along the leading edge of the Congo Craton was accompanied by uplift, erosion and the deposition of K-rich greywackes as a fore-arc sequence above the earlier, spreading-phase deposits in the closing Southern Zone ocean. Sedimentological aspects of the Damara along the southern margin of the orogen suggest that the lower Nama Group, which contains a unique Ediacara fauna and was derived from easterly sources, was deposited between about 650 and 550 m.y. ago during deformation north of the Southern Zone ocean. During the final major deformation event in the Central Zone (D 3 doming), the fore-arc deposits and the underlying passive-margin sediments to the south were deformed. The Damaran granitic rocks are Hercynotype; granites make up 96 per cent of the more than 200 plutons. Average compositions have a slightly less calc-alkaline character than typical compressional margin granitic suites. Early granites have I-type chemistries and appear to have been derived from deep crustal sources, whereas most of the young granites have intermediate to S-type compositions and were generated at various crustal levels

  18. Isolating active orogenic wedge deformation in the southern Subandes of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan R.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Foster, James H.; Bevis, Michael; Echalar, Arturo; Caccamise, Dana; Heck, Jacob; Kendrick, Eric; Ahlgren, Kevin; Raleigh, David; Smalley, Robert; Vergani, Gustavo

    2016-08-01

    A new GPS-derived surface velocity field for the central Andean backarc permits an assessment of orogenic wedge deformation across the southern Subandes of Bolivia, where recent studies suggest that great earthquakes (>Mw 8) are possible. We find that the backarc is not isolated from the main plate boundary seismic cycle. Rather, signals from subduction zone earthquakes contaminate the velocity field at distances greater than 800 km from the Chile trench. Two new wedge-crossing velocity profiles, corrected for seasonal and earthquake affects, reveal distinct regions that reflect (1) locking of the main plate boundary across the high Andes, (2) the location of and loading rate at the back of orogenic wedge, and (3) an east flank velocity gradient indicative of décollement locking beneath the Subandes. Modeling of the Subandean portions of the profiles indicates along-strike variations in the décollement locked width (WL) and wedge loading rate; the northern wedge décollement has a WL of ~100 km while accumulating slip at a rate of ~14 mm/yr, whereas the southern wedge has a WL of ~61 km and a slip rate of ~7 mm/yr. When compared to Quaternary estimates of geologic shortening and evidence for Holocene internal wedge deformation, the new GPS-derived wedge loading rates may indicate that the southern wedge is experiencing a phase of thickening via reactivation of preexisting internal structures. In contrast, we suspect that the northern wedge is undergoing an accretion or widening phase primarily via slip on relatively young thrust-front faults.

  19. Contract Award Decisions Resulting in Contract Termination for Default

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... Specifically, the audit focused on contracts terminated either for default or convenience and determined whether the contract terminations could have been averted based on information available before contract award...

  20. Axial oblique MR imaging of the intrinsic ligaments of the wrist: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.; Chung, T.; Finlay, K.; Friedman, L.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate two separate MR sequences acquired in the axial oblique plane, parallel to the long axis of the scapholunate (SL) and lunotriquetral (LT) ligaments, to determine whether the addition of these sequences to the standard MR wrist examination improves visualization of the intrinsic ligaments, and the evaluation of their integrity. To our knowledge, this plane has not been described in the literature previously. In total we evaluated 26 patients with chronic wrist pain or instability, referred for MR imaging following assessment by an orthopedic surgeon or physiatrist. All patients underwent initial conventional tri-compartment wrist arthrography, which served as the reference standard. This was immediately followed by MR arthrography, in the standard coronal and true axial planes, as well as in the axial oblique plane. The SL and LT ligaments were initially assessed for the presence or absence of tear, using the standard coronal and true axial sequences, and subsequently re-evaluated with the addition of the axial oblique planes. A total of ten intrinsic ligament tears were identified with conventional arthrography: six SL and four LT tears. Five of the six SL tears were identified on the standard sequences. All six were diagnosed with the addition of the oblique sequences. There were three false-positive SL tears identified using standard MR imaging, and two false-positives with the addition of the oblique sequences. No LT tear was identified on standard sequences, whereas all four were confidently seen with the addition of oblique images. No false-positives of the LT ligament were recorded with either standard or axial oblique sequences. The study suggests that the addition of axial oblique MR sequences helps identify tears to the intrinsic ligaments of the wrist, particularly the LT ligament. In addition, the axial oblique images assist in localization of the tear. (orig.)

  1. Response of PMHS to high- and low-speed oblique and lateral pneumatic ram impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhule, Heather; Suntay, Brian; Herriott, Rodney; Amenson, Tara; Stricklin, Jim; Bolte, John H

    2011-11-01

    In ISO Technical Report 9790 (1999) normalized lateral and oblique thoracic force-time responses of PMHS subjected to blunt pendulum impacts at 4.3 m/s were deemed sufficiently similar to be grouped together in a single biomechanical response corridor. Shaw et al. (2006) presented results of paired oblique and lateral thoracic pneumatic ram impact tests to opposite sides of seven PMHS at sub-injurious speed (2.5 m/s). Normalized responses showed that oblique impacts resulted in more deflection and less force, whereas lateral impacts resulted in less deflection and more force. This study presents results of oblique and lateral thoracic impacts to PMHS at higher speeds (4.5 and 5.5 m/s) to assess whether lateral relative to oblique responses are different as observed by Shaw et al. or similar as observed by ISO. Twelve PMHS were impacted by a 23 kg pneumatic ram with a 152.4 mmx304.8 mm rectangular face plate at the level of the xyphoid process in either the pure lateral or 30° anterior-to-lateral oblique direction. Because these tests were potentially injurious, only one test per subject was conducted. Normalized responses demonstrate similar characteristics for both lateral and oblique impacts, indicating that it may be reasonable to combine lateral and oblique responses together at these higher speeds to define characteristic PMHS response as was done by ISO. The small number of tests conducted indicates that less chest compression may be required to obtain serious thoracic injury in oblique impacts as compared to lateral impacts at speeds of 4.5 or 5.5 m/s.

  2. Immediate effect of selective neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis oblique muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise DalAva Augusto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p155 The Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is described as an anterior or retropatellar knee pain in the absence of other associated diseases, and has often been associated with dysfunction of the vastus medialis oblique muscle (VMO. However, several studies have demonstrated the impossibility of selectively activating this muscle with exercises. The aim of the present study was to analyze the immediate effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation of VMO muscle by means of monitoring the electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO and vastus lateralis (VL muscles. Eighteen healthy women with a mean age of 23.2 years and mean BMI of 20 Kg/m2 were evaluated. The study protocol included electromyographic analysis of VMO and VL muscles, before and immediately after neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the VMO muscle. During the electromyographic analysis, the volunteers performed maximal voluntary isometric contraction in a 60° knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. “Russian current” apparatus was used for electrical stimulation. Results: The data analysis demonstrated a signifi cant increase in VMO activation intensity immediately after it had been electrically stimulated (p=0.0125, whereas VL activation intensity exhibited no signifi cant increase (p=0.924. Moreover, a significant increase in the VMO/VL ratio was also detected (p=0.048. In this study it was observed that electrical stimulation modifiedthe VMO/VL ratio, which suggests electrical stimulation has a benefi cial effect on VMO muscle strength.

  3. Magmatism in the Shapinggou district of the Dabie orogen, China: Implications for the formation of porphyry Mo deposits in a collisional orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhi; Zhou, Taofa; Hollings, Pete; White, Noel C.

    2018-05-01

    The Shapinggou molybdenum deposit is located in the Qinling-Dabie Orogen, which hosts the world's largest molybdenum belt. The igneous rocks at Shapinggou can be divided into two stages (136-127 Ma and 118-114 Ma), the early suite of felsic (136-127 Ma, SiO2 = 58.0 to 72.9 wt%) and mafic rocks (133-128 Ma, SiO2 = 45.2 to 57.0 wt%), and a later suite comprising syenite (117 Ma, SiO2 = 64.2 to 65.0 wt%), quartz syenite porphyry (116 Ma, 62.5 to 70.0 wt%), granite porphyry (112 Ma, SiO2 = 75.5 to 77.6 wt%) and diorite porphyry (111 Ma, SiO2 = 56.6 to 59.7 wt%). The early-stage felsic rocks display high SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O, K2O, Sr, LREE contents, and Sr/Y, (La/Yb)N ratios, initial Sr isotope ratios of 0.7076 to 0.7089, but low MgO, FeOT, Y, Yb contents and negative εNd(t) values, consistent with partial melting of the lower continental crust. The early-stage mafic rocks exhibit low SiO2, high MgO, Ni and Cr contents, consistent with an upper mantle source, but trace element and isotope data suggest a role for crustal contamination. The late-stage syenite and quartz syenite porphyry show high abundances of Na2O, K2O, Al2O3, HFSEs (e.g., Th, U, Zr, Hf) and significant negative Eu anomalies. The late-stage granite porphyry displays high SiO2 contents, and depletions in Ba, Sr, Eu and Ti. The geochemical features of the late-stage intrusions are similar to A-type granites. Crystal fractionation of plagioclase, K-feldspar, biotite/ muscovite, amphibole/ garnet and Fe-Ti oxides controlled the evolution of the magma. The geochemical and isotopic data suggest that the rocks at Shapinggou were likely derived from a mixed source of lithospheric mantle, subducted continental crust of the Yangtze Block (Kongling Group) and partial melts of the Dabie Complex. Early stage rocks represent melts of the source with a lower proportion of Dabie Complex materials, whereas late stage rocks were derived from a source with a higher proportion Dabie Complex component. The geochemical and

  4. ENFORCEMENT OF MORTGAGE CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa A. BELU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A chattel mortgage contract is the expression of a real guarantee that gives the creditor precedence over other creditors, in addition to the general pledge upon the belongings of the debtor. It refers to the sale of mortgaged movable assets, exclusively or prioritized in favor of the mortgaging creditor, in case the debtor does not comply with his / her commitments, under the signed mortgage contract. Beginning from this purpose, shared by both sides (as the chattel mortgage contract is synallagmatic, in case the debtor is unable to fulfill his / her commitments, the sides reach a situation of enforcement of the signed chattel mortgage contract. Given the legal status of the chattel mortgage contract [Art. 2387-2477 Noul Cod Civil , Universul Juridic, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-673-792-0], the principle of binding force of the contract and the principle according to which signed legal conventions will entail legal effects, the Romanian law maker developed the proper legal framework for the enforcement of the chattel mortgage contract. [art. 622 si urm. Noul Cod de Procedură Civilă, ed. Hamangiu, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-27-0459-9].

  5. JURIDICAL WILL IN CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian CIONGARU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the business law, almost all judicial relationships of private law are obligational juridical relationships which are made up of legal acts and facts. The most important legal act is the contract since it is the basis of the social life in any community meaning that it represents the most important economic and juridical instrument for the participants to a contract. The persons are free and equal in society and, consequently, no power is valid and fundamental unless it relies on their consent, namely on a contract. So, the existence of a civil contract relies on the principles of consensualism, a perception based on moral rules to observe one’s promises, to have good faith and to observe the interests of your fellow creature. The exterior manifestation, the expression or declaration of the juridical will constitutes the consent of such person in making the structure of contract. The declared will must correspond to the person’s real will and the adoption and declaration of the juridical will must take place consciously. Any contract that does not derive from juridical will is null and the civilizing character is inexistent. The principles giving sense to consensualism is the one of agreement between parties so as to produce legal effects by itself and it is enough for the conclusion of a contract, regardless of the form in which it is exteriorized, a principle expressed by the Latin adagio pacta sunt servanda.

  6. Routine oblique radiography of the pediatric lumbar spine: is it necessary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, F.F.; Kishore, P.R.S.; Cunningham, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    A series of 86 pediatric lumbar spine abnormalities was evaluated to determine the diagnostic benefit of radiography in oblique projection as compared to frontal-lateral projections alone. In only four patients was an abnormality apparent on the oblique view which had not already been demonstrated by the frontal-lateral series; each of these represented an isolated spondylolysis. Because the diagnostic yield was low at a patient cost of more than double the gonadal radiation dose, it is recommended that oblique views be eliminated in the routine radiography of the pediatric lumbar spine

  7. Obliquely Propagating Non-Monotonic Double Layer in a Hot Magnetized Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.H.; Kim, S.S.; Hwang, J.H.; Kim, H.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Obliquely propagating non-monotonic double layer is investigated in a hot magnetized plasma, which consists of a positively charged hot ion fluid and trapped, as well as free electrons. A model equation (modified Korteweg-de Vries equation) is derived by the usual reductive perturbation method from a set of basic hydrodynamic equations. A time stationary obliquely propagating non-monotonic double layer solution is obtained in a hot magnetized-plasma. This solution is an analytic extension of the monotonic double layer and the solitary hole. The effects of obliqueness, external magnetic field and ion temperature on the properties of the non-monotonic double layer are discussed

  8. FITTING OF PARAMETRIC BUILDING MODELS TO OBLIQUE AERIAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. S. Panday

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In literature and in photogrammetric workstations many approaches and systems to automatically reconstruct buildings from remote sensing data are described and available. Those building models are being used for instance in city modeling or in cadastre context. If a roof overhang is present, the building walls cannot be estimated correctly from nadir-view aerial images or airborne laser scanning (ALS data. This leads to inconsistent building outlines, which has a negative influence on visual impression, but more seriously also represents a wrong legal boundary in the cadaster. Oblique aerial images as opposed to nadir-view images reveal greater detail, enabling to see different views of an object taken from different directions. Building walls are visible from oblique images directly and those images are used for automated roof overhang estimation in this research. A fitting algorithm is employed to find roof parameters of simple buildings. It uses a least squares algorithm to fit projected wire frames to their corresponding edge lines extracted from the images. Self-occlusion is detected based on intersection result of viewing ray and the planes formed by the building whereas occlusion from other objects is detected using an ALS point cloud. Overhang and ground height are obtained by sweeping vertical and horizontal planes respectively. Experimental results are verified with high resolution ortho-images, field survey, and ALS data. Planimetric accuracy of 1cm mean and 5cm standard deviation was obtained, while buildings' orientation were accurate to mean of 0.23° and standard deviation of 0.96° with ortho-image. Overhang parameters were aligned to approximately 10cm with field survey. The ground and roof heights were accurate to mean of – 9cm and 8cm with standard deviations of 16cm and 8cm with ALS respectively. The developed approach reconstructs 3D building models well in cases of sufficient texture. More images should be acquired for

  9. Bottlenecks and contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The report surveys the central points in the literature about contracts on geographical price differences and transmission rights in the power market. It is commonly believed that such contracts may reduce market power and contribute to better network investments. The theoretical debate is in part unfinished and largely based on very stylised assumptions. There is some indication that such contracts may not be very useful in practice. But they may be useful in some cases, perhaps in particular when power is transported outside limited surplus areas and for certain investment decisions where there is no systems operator with a natural responsibility

  10. Contract management survey 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2002-10-01

    Spending on clinical contracts continues to outpace spending on business services, but may be leveling off. The 12th annual Contract Management Survey shows that the performance of clinical vendors is now comparable to business service vendors in meeting savings targets. Both business and clinical vendors are receiving higher marks from hospital leaders, but execs quickly respond to low marks by bringing the service back in-house of changing vendors. This report examines trends in outsourcing, satisfaction levels, the decision-making process, contract features and performance, and spending.

  11. 2001 contract management survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    For the second year running, hospitals are spending more on clinical outsourcing than on business services. The Eleventh Annual Contract Services Survey shows that, in clinical areas, executives use outsourcing to acquire specialized expertise with cost savings secondary. Reducing costs and FTEs are the primary reasons for outsourcing business operations. Business service contracts are more likely to meet expectations for cost savings. Overall, satisfaction levels are up, but in some areas there's still a lot of room for improvement. This report examines current trends in outsourcing, strategies for the future, satisfaction levels, the decisionmaking process, contract features, and costs.

  12. The contract - introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, G.

    1975-01-01

    The contract is the last and final step of project planning and the first step of project implementation. The contract has to specify in detail and to the point, as concisely as possible, the complete scope of supplies and work, define all technical particulars and requirements, put forward the conditions of legal, regulatory, administrative and financial procedure, prepare for operating and maintenance instructions to be issued after commissioning. In short, the contract is expected to be a reliable instrument during the manufacturing and construction period as well as a guide-book to assist the owner afterwards in the operation and maintenance of the plant. (orig./FW) [de

  13. Fused oblique incidence reflectometry and confocal fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risi, Matthew D.; Rouse, Andrew R.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2011-03-01

    Confocal microendoscopy provides real-time high resolution cellular level images via a minimally invasive procedure, but relies on exogenous fluorophores, has a relatively limited penetration depth (100 μm) and field of view (700 μm), and produces a high rate of detailed information to the user. A new catheter based multi-modal system has been designed that combines confocal imaging and oblique incidence reflectometry (OIR), which is a non-invasive method capable of rapidly extracting tissue absorption, μa, and reduced scattering, μ's, spectra from tissue. The system builds on previous developments of a custom slit-scan multi-spectral confocal microendoscope and is designed to rapidly switch between diffuse spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence imaging modes of operation. An experimental proof-of-principle catheter has been developed that consists of a fiber bundle for traditional confocal fluorescence imaging and a single OIR source fiber which is manually redirected at +/- 26 degrees. Diffusely scattered light from each orientation of the source fiber is collected via the fiber bundle, with a frame of data representing spectra collected at a range of distances from the OIR source point. Initial results with intralipid phantoms show good agreement to published data over the 550-650 nm spectral range. We successfully imaged and measured the optical properties of rodent cardiac muscle.

  14. Effect of ion composition on oblique magnetosonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Yuichi; Toida, Mieko

    2011-01-01

    The effects of ion composition on oblique magnetosonic waves in a two-ion-species plasma are studied theoretically and numerically. First, it is analytically shown that the KdV equation for the low-frequency mode, the lower branch of magnetosonic waves, is valid for amplitudes ε max (l-) , where ε max (l-) is a measure of the upper limit of the amplitude of the rarefactive solitary pulse of the low-frequency mode and is given as a function of the propagation angle of the wave θ, the density ratio and cyclotron frequency ratio of two ion species. The value of ε max (l-) increases with decreasing θ. Next, with electromagnetic particle simulations, the nonlinear evolution of the low- and high-frequency modes is examined. It is demonstrated that shorter-wavelength low- and high-frequency-mode waves are generated from a long-wavelength low-frequency-mode pulse if its amplitude ε exceeds ε max (l-) . (author)

  15. Obliquely Incident Solitary Wave onto a Vertical Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Harry

    2012-10-01

    When a solitary wave impinges obliquely onto a reflective vertical wall, it can take the formation of a Mach reflection (a geometrically similar reflection from acoustics). The mathematical theory predicts that the wave at the reflection can amplify not twice, but as high as four times the incident wave amplitude. Nevertheless, this theoretical four-fold amplification has not been verified by numerical or laboratory experiments. We discuss the discrepancies between the theory and the experiments; then, improve the theory with higher-order corrections. The modified theory results in substantial improvement and is now in good agreement with the numerical as well as our laboratory results. Our laboratory experiments indicate that the wave amplitude along the reflective wall can reach 0.91 times the quiescent water depth, which is higher than the maximum of a freely propagating solitary wave. Hence, this maximum runup 0.91 h would be possible even if the amplitude of the incident solitary wave were as small as 0.24 h. This wave behavior could provide an explanation for local variability of tsunami runup as well as for sneaker waves.

  16. Obliquely propagating large amplitude solitary waves in charge neutral plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Verheest

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals in a consistent way with the implications, for the existence of large amplitude stationary structures in general plasmas, of assuming strict charge neutrality between electrons and ions. With the limit of pair plasmas in mind, electron inertia is retained. Combining in a fluid dynamic treatment the conservation of mass, momentum and energy with strict charge neutrality has indicated that nonlinear solitary waves (as e.g. oscillitons cannot exist in electron-ion plasmas, at no angle of propagation with respect to the static magnetic field. Specifically for oblique propagation, the proof has turned out to be more involved than for parallel or perpendicular modes. The only exception is pair plasmas that are able to support large charge neutral solitons, owing to the high degree of symmetry naturally inherent in such plasmas. The nonexistence, in particular, of oscillitons is attributed to the breakdown of the plasma approximation in dealing with Poisson's law, rather than to relativistic effects. It is hoped that future space observations will allow to discriminate between oscillitons and large wave packets, by focusing on the time variability (or not of the phase, since the amplitude or envelope graphs look very similar.

  17. Oblique Aerial Photography Tool for Building Inspection and Damage Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtiyoso, A.; Remondino, F.; Rupnik, E.; Nex, F.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2014-11-01

    Aerial photography has a long history of being employed for mapping purposes due to some of its main advantages, including large area imaging from above and minimization of field work. Since few years multi-camera aerial systems are becoming a practical sensor technology across a growing geospatial market, as complementary to the traditional vertical views. Multi-camera aerial systems capture not only the conventional nadir views, but also tilted images at the same time. In this paper, a particular use of such imagery in the field of building inspection as well as disaster assessment is addressed. The main idea is to inspect a building from four cardinal directions by using monoplotting functionalities. The developed application allows to measure building height and distances and to digitize man-made structures, creating 3D surfaces and building models. The realized GUI is capable of identifying a building from several oblique points of views, as well as calculates the approximate height of buildings, ground distances and basic vectorization. The geometric accuracy of the results remains a function of several parameters, namely image resolution, quality of available parameters (DEM, calibration and orientation values), user expertise and measuring capability.

  18. Radio frequency sheaths in an oblique magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The physics of radio-frequency (rf) sheaths near a conducting surface is studied for plasmas immersed in a magnetic field that makes an oblique angle θ with the surface. A set of one-dimensional equations is developed that describes the dynamics of the time-dependent magnetic presheath and non-neutral Debye sheath. The model employs Maxwell-Boltzmann electrons, and the magnetization and mobility of the ions is determined by the magnetic field strength, and wave frequency, respectively. The angle θ, assumed to be large enough to insure an electron-poor sheath, is otherwise arbitrary. Concentrating on the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies, the equations are solved numerically to obtain the rectified (dc) voltage, the rf voltage across the sheath, and the rf current flowing through the sheath. As an application of this model, the sheath voltage-current relation is used to obtain the rf sheath impedance, which in turn gives an rf sheath boundary condition for the electric field at the sheath-plasma interface that can be used in rf wave codes. In general, the impedance has both resistive and capacitive contributions, and generalizes previous sheath boundary condition models. The resistive part contributes to parasitic power dissipation at the wall

  19. Automated Prescription of Oblique Brain 3D MRSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhinsky, Eugene; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Chang, Susan M.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Two major difficulties encountered in implementing Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) in a clinical setting are limited coverage and difficulty in prescription. The goal of this project was to completely automate the process of 3D PRESS MRSI prescription, including placement of the selection box, saturation bands and shim volume, while maximizing the coverage of the brain. The automated prescription technique included acquisition of an anatomical MRI image, optimization of the oblique selection box parameters, optimization of the placement of OVS saturation bands, and loading of the calculated parameters into a customized 3D MRSI pulse sequence. To validate the technique and compare its performance with existing protocols, 3D MRSI data were acquired from 6 exams from 3 healthy volunteers. To assess the performance of the automated 3D MRSI prescription for patients with brain tumors, the data were collected from 16 exams from 8 subjects with gliomas. This technique demonstrated robust coverage of the tumor, high consistency of prescription and very good data quality within the T2 lesion. PMID:22692829

  20. Behavior of obliquely incident vector Bessel beams at planar interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of full-vector electromagnetic Bessel beams obliquely incident at an interface between two electrically different media. We employ a Fourier transform domain representation of Bessel beams to determine their behavior upon reflection and transmission. This transform, which is geometric in nature, consists of elliptical support curves with complex weighting associated with them. The behavior of the scattered field at an interface is highly complex, owing to its full-vector nature; nevertheless, this behavior has a straightforward representation in the transform domain geometry. The analysis shows that the reflected field forms a different vector Bessel beam, but in general, the transmitted field cannot be represented as a Bessel beam. Nevertheless, using this approach, we demonstrate a method to propagate a Bessel beam in the refractive medium by launching a non- Bessel beam at the interface. Several interesting phenomena related to the behavior of Bessel beams are illustrated, such as polarized reflection at Brewster\\'s angle incidence, and the Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Federov shifts in the case of total reflection. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  1. Theory of the collisional presheath in an oblique magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemann, K.

    1994-01-01

    In the limit of a small Debye length (λ D →0), the plasma boundary layer in front of a negative absorbing wall is split up into a collision-free planar space charge sheath and a quasineutral presheath, where the ions are accelerated to ion sound speed (Bohm criterion). Usually the presheath mechanism depends decisively on collisional friction of the ions, on ionization, or on geometric ion current concentration. If the ion dynamics in the presheath is dominated by a magnetic field (nearly) parallel to the wall, an additional effect must be considered to provide an ion transport to the wall. The special cases (a) of an ion transport by field lines intersecting the wall at a finite angle and (b) of an ion transport by collisions result in somewhat contradictory conclusions. To get a coherent picture, a hydrodynamic model of the presheath is investigated accounting for an oblique magnetic field and for collisions. The limiting cases (a) and (b) are discussed, and it is shown that (in plane geometry) the presheath ion acceleration depends always on elementary processes. The main effect of a strong magnetic field is to ''compress'' the collisional presheath into a thin layer with a characteristic extension of the ion gyroradius ρ i

  2. Behavior of obliquely incident vector Bessel beams at planar interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of full-vector electromagnetic Bessel beams obliquely incident at an interface between two electrically different media. We employ a Fourier transform domain representation of Bessel beams to determine their behavior upon reflection and transmission. This transform, which is geometric in nature, consists of elliptical support curves with complex weighting associated with them. The behavior of the scattered field at an interface is highly complex, owing to its full-vector nature; nevertheless, this behavior has a straightforward representation in the transform domain geometry. The analysis shows that the reflected field forms a different vector Bessel beam, but in general, the transmitted field cannot be represented as a Bessel beam. Nevertheless, using this approach, we demonstrate a method to propagate a Bessel beam in the refractive medium by launching a non- Bessel beam at the interface. Several interesting phenomena related to the behavior of Bessel beams are illustrated, such as polarized reflection at Brewster's angle incidence, and the Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Federov shifts in the case of total reflection. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  3. An isodose shift technique for obliquely incident electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulin, K.; Sternick, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    It is well known that when an electron beam is incident obliquely on the surface of a phantom, the depth dose curve measured normal to the surface is shifted toward the surface. Based on geometrical arguments alone, the depth of the nth isodose line for an electron beam incident at an angle θ should be equal to the product of cos θ and the depth of the nth isodose line at normal incidence. This method, however, ignores the effects of scatter and can lead to significant errors in isodose placement for beams at large angles of incidence. A semi-empirical functional relationship and a table of isodose shift factors have been developed with which one may easily calculate the depth of any isodose line for beams at incident angles of 0 degree to 60 degree. The isodose shift factors are tabulated in terms of beam energy (6--22 MeV) and isodose line (10%--90%) and are shown to be relatively independent of beam size and incident angle for angles <60 degree. Extensive measurements have been made on a Varian Clinac 2500 linear accelerator with a parallel-plate chamber and polystyrene phantom. The dependence of the chamber response on beam angulation has been checked, and the scaling factor of the polystyrene phantom has been determined to be equal to 1.00

  4. Establishing contract periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  5. Industrial Services Contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document gives an overview of Industrial Services contracts at CERN, including the probable expenditure in 2006 and the estimated expenditure for 2007. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note of the revised amount in 2006 for Industrial Services contracts referred to in this document of 138.02 MCHF at 2006 prices compared to the previously anticipated amount of 122.67 MCHF at 2005 prices; - to take note that the estimated amount in 2007 for the contracts referred to in this document will be 112.54 MCHF at 2006 prices; - for the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is also invited to approve the requests for the contracts presented and highlighted in the Annexes.

  6. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    At its September 2000 meeting, the Finance Committee approved a second one-year extension of the four existing temporary labour contracts (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE) until 31 December 2001 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs at 2000 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the estimated annual expenditure on temporary labour in 2001 will amount to approximately 4 500 000 Swiss francs against the previously estimated 6 000 000 Swiss francs; - to approve the extension of the four existing contracts by six months to 30 June 2002 for an overall amount not exceeding 1 500 000 Swiss francs; - to take note that new contracts for the Swiss part of the CERN site will be submitted for adjudication in December 2001 and that new contracts for the French part of the CERN site will be submitted for adjudication in the course of 2002.

  7. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE and L024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) will reach the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. Following the satisfactory execution of these contracts during this period, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2000 for the first of the two years foreseen in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the three-year expenditure for Temporary Labour contracts from 1997 to 1999 will not exceed 19 100 000 Swiss francs, compared to the 18 900 000 Swiss francs estimated at the time of the adjudication in March 1996; - to approve an extension of the present Temporary Labour contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs.

  8. Corrupt Relational Contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Johann Graf Lambsdorff; Sitki Utku Teksoz

    2002-01-01

    Because corruption must be hidden from the public and is not enforced by courts it entails transaction costs, which are larger than those from legal exchange. This suggests that corrupt contracts are primarily relational contracts where legal exchange serves as a basis for sealing and enforcing corrupt agreements. Legal exchange not only provides for corrupt opportunities, but for the necessary enforcement mechanisms. Examples of such legal exchange are long-term business exchange, belonging ...

  9. Contracting as a Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    disconfirmation of expectations theory to examine customer satisfaction in the procuring contracting officer (PCO)–program manager (PM) relationship in...marketing terms, finding that disconfirmed expectations lead to consumer satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The former approach presents the idea that if an...individual exerts effort, the expectation is that successful performance will occur leading to a desired result. In contracting, the theory might be

  10. Expansionary fiscal contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Expansionary Fiscal Contraction (EFC) hypothesis predicts that a major fiscal consolidation leads to an economic expansion under certain circumstances. We test this hypothesis, and the implied non-linear responses of the economy to large and small changes in fiscal policy, using data from...... that the exogenous fiscal contraction in Denmark was a credible regime shift and, together with other reforms undertaken at the time, increased both private consumption and aggregate output....

  11. Petrological and zircon evidence for the Early Cretaceous granulite-facies metamorphism in the Dabie orogen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Qiang-Qiang; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Yi-Xiang

    2017-07-01

    An integrated study of petrology, mineralogy, geochemistry, and geochronology was carried out for contemporaneous mafic granulite and diorite from the Dabie orogen. The results provide evidence for granulite-facies reworking of the ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rock in the collisional orogen. Most zircons from the granulite are new growth, and their U-Pb ages are clearly categorized into two groups at 122-127 Ma and 188 ± 2 Ma. Although these two groups of zircons show similarly steep HREE patterns and variably negative Eu anomalies, the younger group has much higher U, Th and REE contents and Th/U ratios, much lower εHf(t) values than the older group. This suggests their growth is associated with different types of dehydration reactions. The older zircon domains contain mineral inclusions of garnet + clinopyroxene ± quartz, indicating their growth through metamorphic reactions at high pressures. In contrast, the young zircon domains only contain a few quartz inclusions and the garnet-clinopyroxene-plagioclase-quartz barometry yields pressures of 4.9 to 12.5 kb. In addition, the clinopyroxene-garnet Fe-Mg exchange thermometry gives temperatures of 738-951 °C. Therefore, the young zircon domains would have grown through peritectic reaction at low to medium pressures. The younger granulite-facies metamorphic age is in agreement not only with the adjacent diorite at 125 ± 1 Ma in this study but also the voluminous emplacement of coeval mafic and felsic magmas in the Dabie orogen. Mineral separates from both mafic granulite and its adjacent diorite show uniformly lower δ18O values than normal mantle, similar to those for UHP eclogite-facies metaigneous rocks in the Dabie orogen. In combination with major-trace elements and zircon Lu-Hf isotope compositions, it is inferred that the protolith of mafic granulites shares with the source rock of diorites, both being a kind of mafic metasomatites at the slab-mantle interface in the continental subduction channel

  12. An unsatisfactory contract policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2012-01-01

    For the last 15 years contract policy has been one of the top priorities of CERN staff, as expressed in successive surveys initiated by the Staff Association. In one’s professional life, having some forward vision of one’s career prospects is the key to loyalty and motivation. On the contrary, instability about the future is always at the root of anxiety, conflicts, or even health problems. A good employer must therefore balance the needs of the Company and those of its employees. CERN’s current contract policy, as described in the Administrative Circular No 2, states that staff members should first obtain a limited duration (LD) contract of up to five years. Then, if they want to stay in the Organization, staff members must apply, usually once a year, and before the end of their LD contract, for an indefinite contract (IC) post. All candidates for an IC post are considered by the Review Board for the award of indefinite contracts (Review Board) which will choose the most suita...

  13. Oblique rift opening revealed by reoccurring magma injection in central Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel; Wang, Teng; Xu, Wenbin; Hensch, Martin; Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2016-01-01

    -field deformation has rarely been captured, hindering progress in understanding rifting mechanisms and evolution. Here we show new evidence of oblique rift opening during a rifting event influenced by pre-existing fractures and two centuries of extension deficit

  14. OBLIQUE MULTI-CAMERA SYSTEMS – ORIENTATION AND DENSE MATCHING ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rupnik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of oblique imagery has become a standard for many civil and mapping applications, thanks to the development of airborne digital multi-camera systems, as proposed by many companies (Blomoblique, IGI, Leica, Midas, Pictometry, Vexcel/Microsoft, VisionMap, etc.. The indisputable virtue of oblique photography lies in its simplicity of interpretation and understanding for inexperienced users allowing their use of oblique images in very different applications, such as building detection and reconstruction, building structural damage classification, road land updating and administration services, etc. The paper reports an overview of the actual oblique commercial systems and presents a workflow for the automated orientation and dense matching of large image blocks. Perspectives, potentialities, pitfalls and suggestions for achieving satisfactory results are given. Tests performed on two datasets acquired with two multi-camera systems over urban areas are also reported.

  15. Topics in the Analysis of Shear-Wave Propagation in Oblique-Plate Impact Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scheidler, Mike

    2007-01-01

    This report addresses several topics in the theoretical analysis of shock waves, acceleration waves, and centered simple waves, with emphasis on the propagation of shear waves generated in oblique-plate impact tests...

  16. The oblique occipital sinus: anatomical study using bone subtraction 3D CT venography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hwa Seon; Choi, Dae Seob; Baek, Hye Jin; Choi, Ho Cheol; Choi, Hye Young; Park, Mi Jung; Kim, Ji Eun; Han, Jeong Yeol; Park, SungEun

    2017-06-01

    An occipital sinus draining into the sigmoid sinus has been termed the oblique occipital sinus (OOS). The frequency, anatomical features, patterns, and relationship with the transverse sinus of the oblique occipital sinus were analyzed in this study. The study included 1805 patients who underwent brain CT angiography during a 3-year period from 2013 to 2015. CT examinations were performed using a 64-slice MDCT system. The OOS was identified in 41 patients (2.3%). There were many anatomical variations in the oblique occipital sinuses. A hypoplastic or aplastic TS was seen in 31 (75.6%) of the 41 patients with OOS. Many anatomical variations in the oblique occipital sinus can be seen on CT venography. Some OOSs function as the main drainage route of the intracranial veins instead of the TS. Thus, careful examination is essential for preoperative evaluation in posterior fossa lesions.

  17. The role of the reversed oblique radiograph in trauma of the foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geusens, E.; Geyskens, W.; Brys, P.; Janzing, H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the statistical significance of a reversed oblique radiograph of the foot in patients with ankle or foot trauma. In 100 consecutive patients a reversed oblique radiograph of the foot was taken in addition to the conventional plain films. Ten of 29 fractures were not visualised on the conventional films of foot and ankle and could only be diagnosed on the reversed oblique film. In 7 of these 10 cases an avulsion fracture at the anterolateral aspect of the calcaneus was present. This additional reversed oblique film of the foot seems to be of considerable importance, especially when an anterolateral avulsion fracture of the calcaneus is clinically suspected. (orig.)

  18. The role of the reversed oblique radiograph in trauma of the foot and ankle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geusens, E.; Geyskens, W.; Brys, P. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Janzing, H. [Dept. of Traumatology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the statistical significance of a reversed oblique radiograph of the foot in patients with ankle or foot trauma. In 100 consecutive patients a reversed oblique radiograph of the foot was taken in addition to the conventional plain films. Ten of 29 fractures were not visualised on the conventional films of foot and ankle and could only be diagnosed on the reversed oblique film. In 7 of these 10 cases an avulsion fracture at the anterolateral aspect of the calcaneus was present. This additional reversed oblique film of the foot seems to be of considerable importance, especially when an anterolateral avulsion fracture of the calcaneus is clinically suspected. (orig.)

  19. The Paleozoic metamorphic history of the Central Orogenic Belt of China from 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of eclogite garnet fluid inclusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, H.N.; Wijbrans, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The pressure-temperature-time evolution of the UHP eclogites of Dabie-Sulu, in the eastern sector of the Central Orogenic Belt of China shows a complex pattern of predominantly Triassic, and to a lesser extent Early Paleozoic ages.

  20. Photoinjector beam quality improvement by shaping the wavefront of a drive laser with oblique incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhigang; Wang Xiaohui; Jia Qika

    2012-01-01

    To increase the quantum efficiency (QE) of a copper photocathode and reduce the thermal emittance of an electron beam, a drive laser with oblique incidence was adopted in a BNL type photocathode rf gun. The disadvantageous effects on the beam quality caused by oblique incidence were analyzed qualitatively. A simple way to solve the problems through wavefront shaping was introduced and the beam quality was improved. (authors)

  1. Modulational instability of the obliquely modulated ion acoustic waves in a warm ion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, M.K.; Arora, A.K.; Sharma, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    Using KBM. perturbation technique, it is shown that the modulationally unstable domain in the (kappa - phi) plane for the obliquely modulated ion acoustic waves is appreciably modified due to the finite ion temperature. It is also shown that in a collisionless plasma having small TAUsub(i)/TAUsub(e) ( 0 approximately 0.1) may exceed the Landau damping rate provided the modulation is sufficiently oblique. (author)

  2. Oblique Modulation of Ion-Acoustic Waves in a Warm Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Jukui; Tang Rongan

    2003-01-01

    The stability of oblique modulation of ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized warm plasma is studied. A nonlinear Schroedinger equation governing the slow modulation of the wave amplitude is derived. The effect of temperature on the oblique modulational instability of the ion-acoustic wave is investigated. It is found that the ion temperature significantly changes the domain of the modulational instability in the k-θ plane

  3. The visibility of mandibular canal on orthoradial and oblique CBCT slices at molar implant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhader, Mustafa; Jarab, Fadi; Shaweesh, Ashraf; Hudieb, Malik

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare visibility of the mandibular canal on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)-based orthoradial and oblique slices at molar implant sites. CBCT images for 132 mandibular molar implant sites were selected for the study. After generating orthoradial and oblique slices, two observers evaluated the visibility of the mandibular canal using three-point scoring scale (1-3, good to excellent). Wilcoxon signed-rank test compared the visibility scores of the two slices. Both orthoradial and oblique slices obtained from CBCT had only very good to excellent mandibular canal visibility scores. At 114 mandibular molar implant sites, the visibility score was equal on both orthoradial and oblique slices. Although the visibility score was higher on orthoradial slices for 12 implant sites, the visibility score was higher for six implant sites on oblique slices and the difference was not significant. Therefore, the visibility of the mandibular canal was excellent and comparable on most of orthoradial and oblique slices obtained from CBCT images

  4. A discussion on the tectonic implications of Ediacaran late- to post-orogenic A-type granite in the northeastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, F. A.; Bonin, B.; Pease, V.; Anderson, J. L.

    2017-03-01

    The transition from late-orogenic to post-orogenic magmatism following major orogenic episodes such as the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO) is an important, yet not well-understood geological event marking the cessation of subduction-controlled magmatism between buoyant lithospheric fragments. Forming the northern part of the EAO in the Arabian-Nubian Shield are three granitic suites that successively intruded the same northeastern area and post-date the 640 Ma major orogenic episode: (1) 620-600 Ma alkali feldspar (hypersolvous) granite with alkaline/ferroan/A-type geochemistry, (2) 599 Ma granite cumulates (some garnet-bearing) with calc-alkaline/magnesian affinities, and (3) 584-566 Ma alkali feldspar (hypersolvous) granite (aegirine-bearing) with a distinctive peralkaline/ferroan/A-type signature. Combining whole-rock geochemistry from the southern and northern Arabian Shield, suites 1 and 2 are suggested to be products of late-orogenic slab tear/rollback inducing asthenospheric mantle injection and lower crustal melting/fractionation toward A-type/ferroan geochemistry. Suite 3, however, is suggested to be produced by post-orogenic lithospheric delamination, which replaced the older mantle with new asthenospheric (rare earth element-enriched) mantle that ultimately becomes the thermal boundary layer of the new lithosphere. Major shear zones, such as the 620-540 Ma Najd Fault System (NFS), are some of the last tectonic events recorded across the Arabian Shield. Data presented here suggest that the NFS is directly related to the late-orogenic (620-600 Ma) slab tear/rollback in the northeastern Shield as it met with opposing subduction polarity in the southern Shield. Furthermore, this study infers that east and west Gondwana amalgamation interacted with opposing convergence reflected by the NFS.

  5. Magma-assisted strain localization in an orogen-parallel transcurrent shear zone of southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, AndréA.; Vauchez, Alain; Femandes, Luis A. D.; Porcher, Carla C.

    1994-04-01

    In a lithospheric-scale, orogen-parallel transcurrent shear zone of the Pan-African Dom Feliciano belt of southern Brazil, two successive generations of magmas, an early calc-alkaline and a late peraluminous, have been emplaced during deformation. Microstructures show that these granitoids experienced a progressive deformation from magmatic to solid state under decreasing temperature conditions. Magmatic deformation is indicated by the coexistence of aligned K-feldspar, plagioclase, micas, and/or tourmaline with undeformed quartz. Submagmatic deformation is characterized by strain features, such as fractures, lattice bending, or replacement reactions affecting only the early crystallized phases. High-temperature solid-state deformation is characterized by extensive grain boundary migration in quartz, myrmekitic K-feldspar replacement, and dynamic recrystallization of both K-feldspar and plagioclase. Decreasing temperature during solid-state deformation is inferred from changes in quartz crystallographic fabrics, decrease in grain size of recrystallized feldspars, and lower Ti amount in recrystallized biotites. Final low-temperature deformation is characterized by feldspar replacement by micas. The geochemical evolution of the synkinematic magmatism, from calc-alkaline metaluminous granodiorites with intermediate 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio to peraluminous granites with very high 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio, suggests an early lower crustal source or a mixed mantle/crustal source, followed by a middle to upper crustal source for the melts. Shearing in lithospheric faults may induce partial melting in the lower crust by shear heating in the upper mantle, but, whatever the process initiating partial melting, lithospheric transcurrent shear zones may collect melt at different depths. Because they enhance the vertical permeability of the crust, these zones may then act as heat conductors (by advection), promoting an upward propagation of partial melting in the crust

  6. Folded Basinal Compartments of the Southern Mongolian Borderland: A Structural Archive of the Final Consolidation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson Cunningham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB records multiple Phanerozoic tectonic events involving consolidation of disparate terranes and cratonic blocks and subsequent reactivation of Eurasia’s continental interior. The final amalgamation of the CAOB terrane collage involved diachronous closure of the Permian-Triassic Solonker suture in northernmost China and the Jurassic Mongol-Okhotsk suture in northeast Mongolia and eastern Siberia. The distribution, style, and kinematics of deformation associated with these two terminal collision events is poorly documented in southern Mongolia and northernmost China because these regions were later tectonically overprinted by widespread Cretaceous basin and range-style crustal extension and Miocene-recent sinistral transpressional mountain building. These younger events structurally compartmentalized the crust into uplifted crystalline basement blocks and intermontane basins. Consequently, widespread Cretaceous and Late Cenozoic clastic sedimentary deposits overlie older Permian-Jurassic sedimentary rocks in most basinal areas and obscure the deformation record associated with Permian-Triassic Solonker and Jurassic Mongol-Okhotsk collisional suturing. In this report, satellite image mapping of basinal compartments that expose folded Permian-Jurassic sedimentary successions that are unconformably overlapped by Cretaceous-Quaternary clastic sediments is presented for remote and poorly studied regions of southern Mongolia and two areas of the Beishan. The largest folds are tens of kilometers in strike length, east-west trending, and reveal north-south Late Jurassic shortening (present coordinates. Late Jurassic fold vergence is dominantly northerly in the southern Gobi Altai within a regional-scale fold-and-thrust belt. Local refolding of older Permian north-south trending folds is also evident in some areas. The folds identified and mapped in this study provide new evidence for the regional distribution and

  7. Differential melt scaling for oblique impacts on terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Oleg; Wong, Stephanie M. Wong; Kring, David A. Kring

    2012-01-01

    Analytical estimates of melt volumes produced by a given projectile and contained in a given impact crater are derived as a function of impact velocity, impact angle, planetary gravity, target and projectile densities, and specific internal energy of melting. Applications to impact events and impact craters on the Earth, Moon, and Mars are demonstrated and discussed. The most probable oblique impact (45°) produces ∼1.6 times less melt volume than a vertical impact, and ∼1.6 and 3.7 times more melt volume than impacts with 30° and 15° trajectories, respectively. The melt volume for a particular crater diameter increases with planetary gravity, so a crater on Earth should have more melt than similar-size craters on Mars and the Moon. The melt volume for a particular projectile diameter does not depend on gravity, but has a strong dependence on impact velocity, so the melt generated by a given projectile on the Moon is significantly larger than on Mars. Higher surface temperatures and geothermal gradients increase melt production, as do lower energies of melting. Collectively, the results imply thinner central melt sheets and a smaller proportion of melt particles in impact breccias on the Moon and Mars than on Earth. These effects are illustrated in a comparison of the Chicxulub crater on Earth, linked to the Cretaceous–Tertiary mass extinction, Gusev crater on Mars, where the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit landed, and Tsiolkovsky crater on the Moon. The results are comparable to those obtained from field and spacecraft observations, other analytical expressions, and hydrocode simulations.

  8. Electric field measurements at subcritical, oblique bow shock crossings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wygant, J.R.; Bensadoun, M.; Mozer, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Electric field measurements at oblique, subcritical bow shock crossings are presented from the ISEE 1 University of California, Berkeley, double-probe electric field experiment. The measurements averaged over the 3-s spin period of the spacecraft provide the first observations of the large-scale (100 km) laminar oscillations in the longitudinal component of the electric field associated with the whistler precursor which is characteristic of these dispersive shocks. The amplitude of the oscillations increases from ∼0.5 mV/m to a maximum of 6 mV/m across the magnetic ramp of the shock (directed along the shock normal). The calculated electric potential drops across the shocks varied from 340 to 550 volts, which is 40-60% of the observed loss of kinetic energy associated with the bulk flow of the ions. These measurements suggest that at these shocks the additional deceleration of incident ions is due to the Lorentz force. The contributions to the normal component of the large-scale electric field at the shock due to the parallel and perpendicular components (relative to the magnetic field) of the electric field are evaluated. It is shown that the perpendicular component of the electric field dominates, accounting for most of the cross-shock potential, but that there is a nonnegligible parallel component. This large-scale parallel component has a magnitude of 1-2 mV/m which sometimes results in a potential well for electrons with a depth of ∼150 eV. It is experimentally demonstrated that the dominance of the perpendicular over the parallel component of the electric field resulted in a correlation between the longitudinal component of the large-scale electric field and the fluctuations in the magnetic field component perpendicular to the coplanarity plane

  9. Uranium cycle and tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Lufilian Pan-African orogenic belt (Zambia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eglinger, Aurelien

    2013-01-01

    Uranium is an incompatible and lithophile element, and thus more concentrated in silicate melt produced by the partial melting of the mantle related to continental crust formation. Uranium can be used as a geochemical tracer to discuss the generation and the evolution of continental crust. This thesis, focused on the Pan-African Lufilian belt in Zambia, combines structural geology, metamorphic petrology and thermos-barometry, fluid inclusions, geochemistry and geochronology in order to characterize the uranium cycle for this crustal segment. Silici-clastic and evaporitic sediments have been deposited within an intra-continental rift during the dislocation of the Rodinia super-continent during the early Neo-proterozoic. U-Pb ages on detrital zircon grains in these units indicate a dominant Paleo-proterozoic provenance. The same zircon grains show sub-chondritic εHf (between 0 and -15) and yield Hf model ages between ∼2.9 and 2.5 Ga. These data suggest that the continental crust was generated before the end of the Archean (< 2.5 Ga) associated with uranium extraction from the mantle. This old crust has been reworked by deformation and metamorphism during the Proterozoic. Uranium has been re-mobilized and reconcentrated during several orogenic cycles until the Pan-African orogeny. During this Pan-African cycle, U-Pb and REY (REE and Yttrium) signatures of uranium oxides indicate a first mineralizing event at ca. 650 Ma during the continental rifting. This event is related to late diagenesis hydrothermal processes at the basement/cover interface with the circulation of basinal brines linked to evaporites of the Roan. The second stage, dated at 530 Ma, is connected to metamorphic highly saline fluid circulations, synchronous to the metamorphic peak of the Lufilian orogeny (P=9±3 kbar; T=610±30 deg. C). These fluids are derived from the Roan evaporite dissolution. Some late uranium re-mobilizations are described during exhumation of metamorphic rocks and their

  10. Role of Neogene Exhumation and Sedimentation on Critical-Wedge Kinematics in the Zagros Orogenic Belt, Northeastern Iraq, Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshnaw, R. I.; Horton, B. K.; Stockli, D. F.; Barber, D. E.; Tamar-Agha, M. Y.; Kendall, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Zagros orogenic belt and foreland basin formed during the Cenozoic Arabia-Eurasia collision, but the precise histories of shortening and sediment accumulation remain ambiguous, especially at the NW extent of the fold-thrust belt in Iraqi Kurdistan. This region is characterized by well-preserved successions of Cenozoic clastic foreland-basin fill and deformed Paleozoic-Mesozoic hinterland bedrock. The study area provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the linkage between orogenic wedge behavior and surface processes of erosion and deposition. The aim of this research is to test whether the Zagros orogenic wedge advanced steadily under critical to supercritical wedge conditions involving in-sequence thrusting with minimal erosion or propagated intermittently under subcritical condition involving out-of-sequence deformation with intense erosion. These endmember modes of mountain building can be assessed by integrating geo/thermochronologic and basin analyses techniques, including apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology, detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, stratigraphic synthesis, and seismic interpretations. Preliminary apatite (U-Th)/He data indicate activation of the Main Zagros Fault (MZF) at ~10 Ma with frontal thrusts initiating at ~8 Ma. However, thermochronometric results from the intervening Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), located between the MZF and the frontal thrusts, suggest rapid exhumation at ~6 Ma. These results suggest that the MFF, represented by the thrust-cored Qaradagh anticline, represents a major episode of out-of-sequence deformation. Detrital zircon U-Pb analyses from the Neogene foreland-basin deposits show continuous sediment derivation from sources to the NNE in Iraq and western Iran, suggesting that out-of-sequence thrusting did not significantly alter sedimentary provenance. Rather, intense hinterland erosion and recycling of older foreland-basin fill dominated sediment delivery to the basin. The irregular distribution of

  11. Mass elevation and lee effects markedly lift the elevational distribution of ground beetles in the Himalaya-Tibet orogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Joachim; Böhner, Jürgen; Brandl, Roland; Opgenoorth, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Mass elevation and lee effects markedly influence snow lines and tree lines in high mountain systems. However, their impact on other phenomena or groups of organisms has not yet been quantified. Here we quantitatively studied their influence in the Himalaya-Tibet orogen on the distribution of ground beetles as model organisms, specifically whether the ground beetle distribution increases from the outer to the inner parts of the orogen, against latitudinal effects. We also tested whether July temperature and solar radiation are predictors of the beetle's elevational distribution ranges. Finally, we discussed the general importance of these effects for the distributional and evolutionary history of the biota of High Asia. We modelled spatially explicit estimates of variables characterizing temperature and solar radiation and correlated the variables with the respective lower elevational range of 118 species of ground beetles from 76 high-alpine locations. Both July temperature and solar radiation significantly positively correlated with the elevational ranges of high-alpine beetles. Against the latitudinal trend, the median elevation of the respective species distributions increased by 800 m from the Himalayan south face north to the Transhimalaya. Our results indicate that an increase in seasonal temperature due to mass elevation and lee effects substantially impact the regional distribution patterns of alpine ground beetles of the Himalaya-Tibet orogen and are likely to affect also other soil biota there and in mountain ranges worldwide. Since these effects must have changed during orogenesis, their potential impact must be considered when biogeographic scenarios based on geological models are derived. As this has not been the practice, we believe that large biases likely exist in many paleoecological and evolutionary studies dealing with the biota from the Himalaya-Tibet orogen and mountain ranges worldwide.

  12. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen:1.\tCandidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2.\tThe criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following:staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract;in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consid...

  13. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen: 1. Candidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2. The criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following: staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract; in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consideration fo...

  14. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L 021/PE, L 022/PE, L 023/PE and L 024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) reached the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. At CERN?s request, in September 1999 the Finance Committee approved an extension of these contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs (CERN/FC/4196). In December 1999, one of the five contractors, FIRCROFT, withdrew from its contract for 2000. Following the satisfactory execution of the four remaining contracts during 2000, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2001 for the second of the two optional years provided for in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited to approve the extension of the existing contracts until 31 December 2001 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs at 2000 prices.

  15. Networks and informal contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric; Brownsword, Roger; van Gestel, Rob A.J.; Micklitz, Hans-W.

    2017-01-01

    It is often argued that formal contract law cannot treat networks correctly. An analysis of networks in an informal contract law system shows that informal contract law is no panacea. Remaining problems require a different approach to legal regulation and contract practice.

  16. Crustal surface wave velocity structure of the east Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia, from ambient noise recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippl, C.; Kennett, B. L. N.; Tkalčić, H.; Gessner, K.; Spaggiari, C. V.

    2017-09-01

    Group and phase velocity maps in the period range 2-20 s for the Proterozoic east Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia, are extracted from ambient seismic noise recorded with the 70-station ALFREX array. This 2 yr temporary installation provided detailed coverage across the orogen and the edge of the Neoarchean Yilgarn Craton, a region where no passive seismic studies of this scale have occurred to date. The surface wave velocities are rather high overall (>3 km s-1 nearly everywhere), as expected for exposed Proterozoic basement rocks. No clear signature of the transition between Yilgarn Craton and Albany-Fraser Orogen is observed, but several strong anomalies corresponding to more local geological features were obtained. A prominent, NE-elongated high-velocity anomaly in the northern part of the array is coincident with a Bouguer gravity high caused by the upper crustal metamorphic rocks of the Fraser Zone. This feature disappears towards longer periods, which hints at an exclusively upper crustal origin for this anomaly. Further east, the limestones of the Cenozoic Eucla Basin are clearly imaged as a pronounced low-velocity zone at short periods, but the prevalence of low velocities to periods of ≥5 s implies that the uppermost basement in this area is likewise slow. At longer periods, slightly above-average surface wave velocities are imaged below the Eucla Basin.

  17. Magnitude of crustal shortening and structural framework of the easternmost Himalayan orogen, northern Indo-Burma Ranges of northeastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haproff, P. J.; Yin, A.

    2016-12-01

    Along-strike variation in crustal shortening throughout the Himalayan orogen has been attributed to (1) diachronous, eastward-increasing convergence, or (2) localized controls including pre-collisional stratigraphic configuration and climate. In this study, we present new geologic maps and balanced cross-sections across the easternmost segment of the Himalayan orogen, the N-S-trending N. Indo-Burma Ranges of northeastern India. First order structures are NE-dipping, km-wide ductile thrust shear zones with mylonitic fabrics indicating top-to-the SW motion. Major structures include the Mayodia klippe and Hunli window, generated during folding of the SW-directed Tidding thrust and duplexing of Lesser Himalayan rocks (LHS) at depth. Reconstruction of two balanced cross-sections yields minimum shortening estimates of 70% (48 km) and 71% (133 km), respectively. The widths of the orogen for each transect are 21 km and 54 km, respectively. Our percent strain values are comparable to that of western Arunachal Himalaya, reflecting eastward-increasing strain due to counterclockwise rotation of India during convergence or along-strike variation in India's subduction angle. However, shortening magnitudes much less than that of the Sikkim (641 km), Bhutan (414-615 km), and western Arunachal Himalaya (515-775 km) could signal eastward increasing shortening of a unique Himalayan stratigraphic framework, evidenced by few GHC rocks, absence of Tethyan strata, and an extensive subduction mélange and forearc complex.

  18. Tibiofibular syndesmosis in acute ankle fractures: additional value of an oblique MR image plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, John J.; Ginai, Abida Z.; Beumer, Annechien; Moonen, Adrianus F.C.M.; Hop, Wim C.J.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the additional value of a 45 oblique MRI scan plane for assessing the anterior and posterior distal tibiofibular syndesmotic ligaments in patients with an acute ankle fracture. Prospectively, data were collected for 44 consecutive patients with an acute ankle fracture who underwent a radiograph (AP, lateral, and mortise view) as well as an MRI in both the standard three orthogonal planes and in an additional 45 oblique plane. The fractures on the radiographs were classified according to Lauge-Hansen (LH). The anterior (ATIFL) and posterior (PTIFL) distal tibiofibular ligaments, as well as the presence of a bony avulsion in both the axial and oblique planes was evaluated on MRI. MRI findings regarding syndesmotic injury in the axial and oblique planes were compared to syndesmotic injury predicted by LH. Kappa and the agreement score were calculated to determine the interobserver agreement. The Wilcoxon signed rank test and McNemar's test were used to compare the two scan planes. The interobserver agreement (κ) and agreement score [AS (%)] regarding injury of the ATIFL and PTIFL and the presence of a fibular or tibial avulsion fracture were good to excellent in both the axial and oblique image planes (κ 0.61-0.92, AS 84-95%). For both ligaments the oblique image plane indicated significantly less injury than the axial plane (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in detection of an avulsion fracture in the axial or oblique plane, neither anteriorly (p=0.50) nor posteriorly (p=1.00). With syndesmotic injury as predicted by LH as comparison, the specificity in the oblique MR plane increased for both anterior (to 86% from 7%) and posterior (to 86% from 48%) syndesmotic injury when compared to the axial plane. Our results show the additional value of an 45 oblique MR image plane for detection of injury of the anterior and posterior distal tibiofibular syndesmoses in acute ankle fractures. Findings of syndesmotic injury in the oblique MRI plane were

  19. Tibiofibular syndesmosis in acute ankle fractures: additional value of an oblique MR image plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermans, John J.; Ginai, Abida Z. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Beumer, Annechien; Moonen, Adrianus F.C.M. [Amphia Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Breda (Netherlands); Hop, Wim C.J. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Biostatistics, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    To evaluate the additional value of a 45 oblique MRI scan plane for assessing the anterior and posterior distal tibiofibular syndesmotic ligaments in patients with an acute ankle fracture. Prospectively, data were collected for 44 consecutive patients with an acute ankle fracture who underwent a radiograph (AP, lateral, and mortise view) as well as an MRI in both the standard three orthogonal planes and in an additional 45 oblique plane. The fractures on the radiographs were classified according to Lauge-Hansen (LH). The anterior (ATIFL) and posterior (PTIFL) distal tibiofibular ligaments, as well as the presence of a bony avulsion in both the axial and oblique planes was evaluated on MRI. MRI findings regarding syndesmotic injury in the axial and oblique planes were compared to syndesmotic injury predicted by LH. Kappa and the agreement score were calculated to determine the interobserver agreement. The Wilcoxon signed rank test and McNemar's test were used to compare the two scan planes. The interobserver agreement ({kappa}) and agreement score [AS (%)] regarding injury of the ATIFL and PTIFL and the presence of a fibular or tibial avulsion fracture were good to excellent in both the axial and oblique image planes ({kappa} 0.61-0.92, AS 84-95%). For both ligaments the oblique image plane indicated significantly less injury than the axial plane (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in detection of an avulsion fracture in the axial or oblique plane, neither anteriorly (p=0.50) nor posteriorly (p=1.00). With syndesmotic injury as predicted by LH as comparison, the specificity in the oblique MR plane increased for both anterior (to 86% from 7%) and posterior (to 86% from 48%) syndesmotic injury when compared to the axial plane. Our results show the additional value of an 45 oblique MR image plane for detection of injury of the anterior and posterior distal tibiofibular syndesmoses in acute ankle fractures. Findings of syndesmotic injury in the oblique

  20. Capitation, contracts, and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    The radiology business manager in today's environment must become proficient in contract evaluations and negotiations. Health care is focusing on preventive medicine. Third-party payers are offering plans and programs to provide ''well-patient'' care. For prepaid (HMO-IPA-PTO) plans to succeed, demands for reduced fees and other entrepreneurial contractual arrangements are developed. This presentation will focus on specific items contained in most contracts. The issues of withhold, billing procedures, prompt-payment rewards, medical liability, capitation determinations, and modified capitation plans will be discussed. It is the intent of this presentation to share with the audience methods of evaluating contracts, the importance of negotiating specific terms, and an approach to determination of capitation amounts

  1. PROCUREMENT AND CONTRACT MANAGEMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Training & Development Group; Linda Orr-Easo; Tel. 72460; Nathalie Dumeaux; Tel. 78144

    2001-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of a new training on: Procurement and Contract Management (This seminar will be run by CERN experts in French or in English) Level 1 The aim is to raise awareness of the key issues involved. Date : 8 June 2001 This level is open to everyone. Participants should register via our Web page as soon as possible. Level 2 To develop the skills needed to effectively manage contracts, from the Technical, Commercial and Legal aspects. Dates : Three days, Autumn 2001 This Level is open to those who are/will be more directly responsible for procurement and contract management. Participants should have followed Level 1. For a description of the seminar, please consult:   Level 1: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm_e.htm Level 2: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm2_e.htm

  2. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bocchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent ones.

  3. Panel discussion : contract design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallas, A. [Sempra Energy Trading, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vegh, G. [MacLeod Dixon, Toronto, ON (Canada); McGee, M. [Energy Profiles Ltd., Etobicoke, ON (Canada); Zaremba, T. [Direct Energy Marketing, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seshan, A. [Larson and Toubro Information Technology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Harricks, P. [Gowlings, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bertoldi, L. [Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taylor, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs.

  4. Panel discussion : contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallas, A.; Vegh, G.; McGee, M.; Zaremba, T.; Seshan, A.; Harricks, P.; Bertoldi, L.; Taylor, R.

    2003-01-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs

  5. Adding Concurrency to Smart Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Dickerson, Thomas; Gazzillo, Paul; Herlihy, Maurice; Koskinen, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Modern cryptocurrency systems, such as Ethereum, permit complex financial transactions through scripts called smart contracts. These smart contracts are executed many, many times, always without real concurrency. First, all smart contracts are serially executed by miners before appending them to the blockchain. Later, those contracts are serially re-executed by validators to verify that the smart contracts were executed correctly by miners. Serial execution limits system throughput and fails ...

  6. Is Contract Law Necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    SCHWARTZ, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This lecture was delivered on 17 March 2010. Alan Schwartz, Sterling Professor of Law; Professor of Management, Yale University This Lecture argues that much of the contract law in the cases (the US, the UK and Canada) and in the codes (Europe and Latin America) is unnecessary. To say that a law is unnecessary is to say that it does not perform a useful social function. The argument below thus sets out the functions that contract laws today are thought to serve, and then shows that many of...

  7. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...... Law by way of a code on Contracts. In both these regions however the absence of a code causes problems. In England a prominent writer has found that the major weakness of the judge-made law is its immense diffusion and the consequent difficulty of access to it and the Nordic countries face the same...

  8. Do contracts help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    Economists perceive moral hazard as an undesirable problem because it undermines efficiency. Carefully designed contracts can mitigate the moral hazard problem, but this assumes that a team is already formed. This paper demonstrates that these contracts are sometimes the reason why teams do...... transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable team structure exists if teams produce public goods or if the quota is two. However, these existence results no longer hold if efforts are verifiable....

  9. Statutes and contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trosborg, Anna

    1995-01-01

    and commissive acts. The findings show that the language of the law characteristically selects patterns of regulative distinct from, for example, the patterns typically selected in everyday conversational English. The characteristics of the language of the law can be interpreted within the adherence to legal......This paper is concerned with the language used in legal speech acts in legislative texts and contracts in the field of English Contract Law. The central objects of study are regulative functions with a particular view to establishing realization patterns of the rhetorical functions of directive...

  10. Consensus, contracts, and committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J D

    1991-08-01

    Following a brief account of the puzzle that ethics committees present for the Western Philosophical tradition, I will examine the possibility that social contract theory can contribute to a philosophical account of these committees. Passing through classical as well as contemporary theories, particularly Rawls' recent constructivist approach, I will argue that social contract theory places severe constraints on the authority that may legitimately be granted to ethics committees. This, I conclude, speaks more about the suitability of the theory to this level of analysis than about the ethics committee phenomenon itself.

  11. Timing of Mississippi Valley-type mineralization: Relation to Appalachian orogenic events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, S.E.; van der Pluijm, B.A. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Although Mississippi Valley-type deposits in Lower Ordovician carbonate rocks of the Appalachian orogen are commonly interpreted to have been precipitated by basinal brines, the timing of brine migration remains poorly known. Late Paleozoic K-Ar isotopic ages on authigenic K-feldspar, which is widespread in Appalachian carbonate rocks, as well as evidence of paleomagnetic overprints of similar age, have focused attention on the possibility that these Mississippi Valley-type deposits formed as a result of late Paleozoic deformation. Geologic and geochemical similarities among most of these deposits, from Georgia to Newfoundland, including unusually high sphalerite/galena ratios, isotopically heavy sulfur, and relatively nonradiogenic lead, suggest that they are coeval. Sphalerite sand that parallels host-rock layering in many of the deposits indicates that mineralization occurred before regional deformation. Although the late Paleozoic age of deformation in the southern Appalachians provides little constraint on the age of Mississippi Valley-type mineralization, deformation of these deposits in the Newfoundland Appalachians is early to middle Paleozoic in age. Thus, if Ordovician-hosted, Appalachian Mississippi Valley-type deposits are coeval, they must have formed by middle Paleozoic time and cannot be the product of a late Paleozoic fluid-expulsion event. This hypothesis has important implications for basin evolution, fluid events, and remagnetization in the Appalachians.

  12. Organic molecular paleohypsometry: A new approach to reconstructing the paleoelevation history of an orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hren, M. T.; Ouimet, W. B.

    2017-12-01

    Paleoelevation data is critical to understanding the links and feedbacks between rock-uplift and erosion yet few approaches have proved successful in quantifying changes in paleoelevation rapidly eroding, tropical landscapes. In addition, quantitative methods of reconstructing paleoelevation from marine sedimentary archives are lacking. Here we present a new approach to quantifying changes in paleoelevation that is based on the geochemical signature of organic matter exported via the main river networks of an orogen. This new approach builds on fundamentals of stable isotope paleoaltimetry and is akin to the theory behind cosmogenic isotope records of catchment-integrated erosion. Specifically, we utilize predictable patterns of precipitation and organic molecular biomarker stable isotopes to relate the hypsometry of organic matter in a catchment to the geochemical signal in exported organic carbon. We present data from two sites (the cold temperate White Mountains of New Hampshire, USA and the tropical, rapidly eroding landscape of Taiwan) to demonstrate this relationship between exported carbon geochemistry and catchment hypsometry and the validity of this approach.

  13. Devonian magmatism in the Timan Range, Arctic Russia - subduction, post-orogenic extension, or rifting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, V.; Scarrow, J. H.; Silva, I. G. Nobre; Cambeses, A.

    2016-11-01

    Devonian mafic magmatism of the northern East European Craton (EEC) has been variously linked to Uralian subduction, post-orogenic extension associated with Caledonian collision, and rifting. New elemental and isotopic analyses of Devonian basalts from the Timan Range and Kanin Peninsula, Russia, in the northern EEC constrain magma genesis, mantle source(s) and the tectonic process(es) associated with this Devonian volcanism to a rift-related context. Two compositional groups of low-K2O tholeiitic basalts are recognized. On the basis of Th concentrations, LREE concentrations, and (LREE/HREE)N, the data suggest two distinct magma batches. Incompatible trace elements ratios (e.g., Th/Yb, Nb/Th, Nb/La) together with Nd and Pb isotopes indicate involvement of an NMORB to EMORB 'transitional' mantle component mixed with variable amounts of a continental component. The magmas were derived from a source that developed high (U,Th)/Pb, U/Th and Sm/Nd over time. The geochemistry of Timan-Kanin basalts supports the hypothesis that the genesis of Devonian basaltic magmatism in the region resulted from local melting of transitional mantle and lower crust during rifting of a mainly non-volcanic continental rifted margin.

  14. Three-dimensional thermoluminescence spectra of different origin quartz from Altay Orogenic belt, Xinjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Kaixuan; Liu Zehua; Zeng Sheng; Liu Yan; Xie Yanshi; Rieser, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional thermoluminescence spectra are measured for different types of geological origin quartz from the Altay orogenic belt, northern Xinjiang, China. The results show striking differences which appear to be characteristic of their geological origin. Granitic quartz is dominated by emission bands at 420-430 nm, 550-560 nm, at a temperature of 170 deg. C. Pegmatite quartz is characterized by an intense 480 nm emission band at 170 deg. C. Volcanic quartz has exclusive UV (340-360 nm) and violet (410-430 nm) emission bands. Hydrothermal quartz exhibits very different TL spectral characteristics because of different hydrothermal activity and mineralization. Only one TL peaks at 485 nm/170 deg. C was observed in sedimentary quartz. An intense 730 nm emission band observed at 170 deg. C considered generally to be characteristics of feldspar was observed in quartz from granite and hydrothermal Au-bearing quartz. This TL peak is probably related to the centre of [FeO 4 ] 0 on an Si site. All samples show an intense 990-1000 nm emission band at 330 deg. C. Identical types of quartz formed in different regions or different geological and tectonic settings can also exhibit striking differences in TL spectra.

  15. Polyphase Neoproterozoic orogenesis within the east Africa- Antarctica orogenic belt in central and northern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, R.M.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Goodenough, K.M.; Waele, D.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Styles, M.T.; Conrad, J.; Encarnacion, J.; Lidke, D.J.; O'connor, E. A.; Potter, C.; Smith, R.A.; Walsh, G.J.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.

    2011-01-01

    Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa-Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820-760 Ma, 630-595 Ma and 560-520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid- Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global 'Terminal Pan-African' event (560-490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana. ?? The Geological Society of London 2011.

  16. Uraniferous alaskitic granites with special reference to the Damara Orogenic Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.; Corner, B.

    1980-10-01

    The control and patterns of uranium mineralisation in the alaskitic granites of the Damara Orogenic Belt are discussed. The polyphase Damara metamorphism produced high-grade metamorphic assemblages, migmatites and syn-, late-, and post-tectonic anatectic granites through reactivation of the basement and overlying Damara rocks. During anatexis the incompatible elements, particularly the uranium derived from these formations, were incorporated into the melts which then rose, in an attempt to attain gravitational equilibrium, by varying distances depending on the depth of origin of the melts, on their water content and on the availability of tensional environments. Fractional crystallisation during ascent and increased water content concentrated the uranium into residual melts which finally crystallised as alaskitic pegmatitic granite. Structural episodes played an important part in the emplacement of the uraniferous granites and the presence of marble bands was an important factor in not only providing a structural trap for the alaskitic melts and associated uranium-rich volatiles, but also by leading to the boiling of the magma and the subsequent deposition of uranium. The present-day level of erosion is considered to be an important factor contributing to the preservation of many of the uraniferous granite bodies. In addition it is suggested that secondary enrichment occurring above the water-table in the prevailing desert environment is an important criterion in enriching the tenor of mineralisation to ore grades. The exploration techniques necessary for the location of uraniferous granite bodies are briefly outlined [af

  17. Geological and geochemical implications of the genesis of the Qolqoleh orogenic gold mineralisation, Kurdistan Province (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghipour Batoul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Qolqoleh gold deposit is located in the northwestern part of the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ, within the NE-SW trending Qolqoleh shear zone. Oligocene granitoids, Cretaceous meta-limestones, schists and metavolcanics are the main lithological units. Chondrite-normalised REE patterns of the ore-hosting metavolcanics indicate REE enrichment relative to hanging wall (chlorite-sericite schist and footwall (meta-limestone rocks. The pattern also reflects an enrichment in LREE relative to HREE. It seems that the LREE enrichment is related to the circulation of SO42- and CO2-bearing fluids and regional metamorphism in the Qolqoleh shear zone. Both positive and negative Eu anomalies are observed in shear-zone metavolcanics. These anomalies are related to the degree of plagioclase alteration during gold mineralisation and hydrothermal alteration. In progressing from a metavolcanic protomylonite to an ultramylonite, significant changes occurred in the major/trace element and REE concentration. Utilising an Al-Fe-Ti isocon for the ore-hosting metavolcanics shows that Sc, Y, K, U, P, and M-HREE (except Eu are relatively unchanged; S, As, Ag, Au, Ca, LOI, Rb and LREE are enriched, and Sr, Ba, Eu, Cr, Co and Ni decrease with an increasing degree of deformation. Based on geochemical features and comparison with other well-known shear zones in the world, the study area is best classified as an Isovolume-Gain (IVG type shear zone and orogenic type gold mineralisation.

  18. Analysis of variationfor horizontal deviation in the primary position after the inferior oblique muscle weakening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yu Si

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyse the variation of horizontal deviation in the primary position after the inferior oblique muscle weakening, and to explore the effect of the inferior oblique muscle recession on horizontal deviations in primary position.METHODS:, In the study, 30 cases in the Department of ophthalmology of our hospital from January 2014 to September 2014 underwent the inferior oblique muscle recession as the sole without horizontal muscles surgery, who were superior obliquer paralysis and V pattern strabismus with small angle of horizontal strabismus, were analyzed. Of the 30 patients, 25 had unilateral inferior oblique muscle surgery, and then 5 had bilateral surgeries.Followed up for three to six mo, all patients were received full ophthalmologic and orthoptic examinations, including measurement of the deviation in the diagnostic positions of gaze at near 33cm and at distance 6m by prism and alternate cover test, synoptophore, Titmus stereo graph examination, Worth four lighting inspection, eye movement examination, and fundus photography preoperatively and postoperatively. The changes of horizontal deviations in the primary position after procedures were investigated. RESULT:(1The comparison of horizontal deviation showed significant difference pre- and post-operation in the exotropia group(P=0.00. It was postoperative respectively to reduce the original in external oblique average 3.35±2.87△ and 4.37±2.65△.(2The comparison of horizontal deviation showed significant difference pre-and post-operation in the esotropia group(P=0.02, and it decreased postoperatively in average 2.43±1.99△. There was no significant difference for horizontal deviation position between pre- and post-operation(P=0.089. CONCLUSION:The horizontal deviation in primary position, either exotropia or esotropia, will decrease after the Inferior oblique muscle recession. This change can be compensated by the gradually improving and establishing the fusion function.

  19. QUALITY INSPECTION AND ANALYSIS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION MODEL BASED ON OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote the construction of digital geo-spatial framework in China and accelerate the construction of informatization mapping system, three-dimensional geographic information model emerged. The three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology has higher accuracy, shorter period and lower cost than traditional methods, and can more directly reflect the elevation, position and appearance of the features. At this stage, the technology of producing three-dimensional geographic information models based on oblique photogrammetry technology is rapidly developing. The market demand and model results have been emerged in a large amount, and the related quality inspection needs are also getting larger and larger. Through the study of relevant literature, it is found that there are a lot of researches on the basic principles and technical characteristics of this technology, and relatively few studies on quality inspection and analysis. On the basis of summarizing the basic principle and technical characteristics of oblique photogrammetry technology, this paper introduces the inspection contents and inspection methods of three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology. Combined with the actual inspection work, this paper summarizes the quality problems of three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology, analyzes the causes of the problems and puts forward the quality control measures. It provides technical guidance for the quality inspection of three-dimensional geographic information model data products based on oblique photogrammetry technology in China and provides technical support for the vigorous development of three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology.

  20. Quality Inspection and Analysis of Three-Dimensional Geographic Information Model Based on Oblique Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S.; Yan, Q.; Xu, Y.; Bai, J.

    2018-04-01

    In order to promote the construction of digital geo-spatial framework in China and accelerate the construction of informatization mapping system, three-dimensional geographic information model emerged. The three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology has higher accuracy, shorter period and lower cost than traditional methods, and can more directly reflect the elevation, position and appearance of the features. At this stage, the technology of producing three-dimensional geographic information models based on oblique photogrammetry technology is rapidly developing. The market demand and model results have been emerged in a large amount, and the related quality inspection needs are also getting larger and larger. Through the study of relevant literature, it is found that there are a lot of researches on the basic principles and technical characteristics of this technology, and relatively few studies on quality inspection and analysis. On the basis of summarizing the basic principle and technical characteristics of oblique photogrammetry technology, this paper introduces the inspection contents and inspection methods of three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology. Combined with the actual inspection work, this paper summarizes the quality problems of three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology, analyzes the causes of the problems and puts forward the quality control measures. It provides technical guidance for the quality inspection of three-dimensional geographic information model data products based on oblique photogrammetry technology in China and provides technical support for the vigorous development of three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology.

  1. Amplification of obliquity forcing through mean annual and seasonal atmospheric feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-Y. Lee

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene benthic δ18O records exhibit strong spectral power at ~41 kyr, indicating that global ice volume has been modulated by Earth's axial tilt. This feature, and weak spectral power in the precessional band, has been attributed to the influence of obliquity on mean annual and seasonal insolation gradients at high latitudes. In this study, we use a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model to quantify changes in continental snowfall associated with mean annual and seasonal insolation forcing due to a change in obliquity. Our model results indicate that insolation changes associated with a decrease in obliquity amplify continental snowfall in three ways: (1 Local reductions in air temperature enhance precipitation as snowfall. (2 An intensification of the winter meridional insolation gradient strengthens zonal circulation (e.g. the Aleutian low, promoting greater vapor transport from ocean to land and snow precipitation. (3 An increase in the summer meridional insolation gradient enhances summer eddy activity, increasing vapor transport to high-latitude regions. In our experiments, a decrease in obliquity leads to an annual snowfall increase of 25.0 cm; just over one-half of this response (14.1 cm is attributed to seasonal changes in insolation. Our results indicate that the role of insolation gradients is important in amplifying the relatively weak insolation forcing due to a change in obliquity. Nonetheless, the total snowfall response to obliquity is similar to that due to a shift in Earth's precession, suggesting that obliquity forcing alone can not account for the spectral characteristics of the ice-volume record.

  2. Calcite twinning strain variations across the Proterozoic Grenville orogen and Keweenaw-Kapuskasing inverted foreland, USA and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Craddock

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the calcite twinning strain results of a traverse across the Grenville orogen from Parry Sound, Ontario (NW to Ft. Ann, New York (SE, including the younger, adjacent Ordovician Taconic allochthon. Fifty four carbonates (marbles, calcite veins, Ordovician limestone were collected resulting in 68 strain analyses on mechanically twinned calcite (n = 2337 grains across the Central Gneiss Belt (CGB; 3 samples, the Central Metasedimentary Belt (CMB; 27 samples, the Central Granulite Terrane (CGT; Adirondack's; 13 samples and the Ottawan Orogenic Lid (OOL; 11 samples. Twinning strains in the greenschist-grade OOL marbles preserve N–S shortening and U-Pb titanite ages (∼1150 Ma; n = 4 document these marbles formed during the Shawinigan (1190–1140 Ma part of the Grenville orogen. From northwest to southeast, the Ottawan (1095–1020 Ma twinning strain is dominantly a layer-parallel shortening fabric oriented N–S (Parry Sound, then becomes parallel to the Grenville thrust direction (NW–SE across the CMB to the Adirondack Highlands where the sub-horizontal shortening strain becomes margin-parallel (SW–NE. Within the regional sample suite there are two areas studied in detail, the Bancroft shear zone (n = 11 and a roadcut on the southeast side of the Adirondack Mountains (Ft. Ann, NY; n = 8. Marbles from the Bancroft shear zone contain calcite grains with 2 sets of twin lamellae (e1 and e2. The better-developed e1 sets (n = 406 record a horizontal fabric oriented NW–SE whereas the younger e2 lamellae (n = 146 preserve a margin-parallel (SW–NE horizontal fabric. Both the e1 and e2 strains record an overprint vertical shortening strain (NEV, perhaps related to extensional orogenic collapse. We also report an Ottawan orogen-aged granoblastic mylonite (1093 Ma, U-Pb zircon; 1102 Ma Ar-Ar biotite in the Keweenaw thrust hanging wall 500 km inboard of the Grenville front and interpret the relations of Grenville

  3. On protolith-, metamorphic overprint, microstructure and rheology of mineral assemblages in orogenic peridotites of the central Scandinavian Caledonides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Mattia; Clos, Frediano; Van Roermund, Herman L. M.

    2013-04-01

    The Scandinavian Caledonides (SC) are a deeply eroded Alpine-type orogenic belt formed by closure of the Iapetus ocean and collision between Baltica and Laurentia (500-380 Ma). The SC consists of a stack of Nappe Complexes (from bottom to top called Lower, Middle, Upper and Uppermost Allochthons) thrusted to the east over the Baltic Shield (Brueckner and Van Roermund, 2004; Gee et al., 2008). Fossil lithospheric mantle fragments, called orogenic peridotites, have been found within the (upper part of) middle, upper and uppermost Allochthons, as well as in the reworked basement gneisses (a.o Western Gneiss Complex (WGC)) along the Norwegian west coast. They occur as isolated lenses that contain diverse mineral parageneses and/or bulk rock compositions. Crustal incorporation of orogenic peridotite is classically interpreted to be the result of plate collisional processes related to orogeny (Brueckner and Medaris, 2000). The WGC and parts of the upper part of the Middle Allochthon (a.o. Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) in N Jämtland/S Västerbotten, central Sweden), are well known for the occurrence of high (HP) and ultrahigh pressure (UHP) metamorphic terranes (of Caledonian age). The (U)HPM evidence clearly demonstrates the deep metamorphic origin of these rocks interpreted to be caused by continental subduction and/or collision. Other metamorphic rocks (of Caledonian age) exposed in allochthonous nappes are solely characterised by greenschist-, amphibolite- and/or MP granulite "facies" mineral assemblages that can be interpreted, in the absence of retrogression, to have formed in less deeply subducted (and/or metamorphic) environments. This duality in metamorphic "facies" allows for a discrimination (at least theoretically) between "deep" versus "shallow" rooted nappes (in central parts of the Scandinavian Caledonides). Conform this reasoning, this duality should also be present within the Caledonian mineral assemblages (= metamorphic overprint) of orogenic peridotites (in

  4. Weak Tectono-Magmatic Relationships along an Obliquely Convergent Plate Boundary: Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Acocella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The tectono-magmatic relationships along obliquely convergent plate boundaries, where strain partitioning promotes strike-slip structures along the volcanic arc, are poorly known. Here it is unclear if and, in case, how the strike-slip structures control volcanic processes, distribution and size. To better define the possible tectono-magmatic relationships along strike-slip arcs, we merge available information on the case study of Sumatra (Indonesia with field structural data. The Sumatra arc (entire volcanic belt consists of 48 active volcanoes. Of these, 46% lie within 10 km from the dextral Great Sumatra Fault (GSF, which carries most horizontal displacement on the overriding plate, whereas 27% lie at >20 km from the GSF. Among the volcanoes at <10 km from GSF, 48% show a possible structural relation to the GSF, whereas only 28% show a clear structural relation, lying in pull-aparts or releasing bends; these localized areas of transtension (local extensional zone do not develop magmatic segments. There is no relation between the GSF along-strike slip rate variations and the volcanic productivity. The preferred N30°-N40°E volcano alignment and elongation are subparallel to the convergence vector or to the GSF. The structural field data, collected in the central and southern GSF, show, in addition to the dextral motions along NW-SE to N-S striking faults, also normal motions (extending WNW-ESE or NE-SW, suggesting local reactivations of the GSF. Overall, the collected data suggest a limited tectonic control on arc volcanism. The tectonic control is mostly expressed by the mean depth of the slab surface below the volcanoes (130 ± 20 km and, subordinately, local extension along the GSF. The latter, when WNW-ESE oriented (more common, may be associated with the overall tectonic convergence, as suggested by the structural data; conversely, when NE-SW oriented (less common, the extension may result from co- and post-seismic arc normal extension

  5. Generation of post-collisional normal calc-alkaline and adakitic granites in the Tongbai orogen, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Xiang; Zhu, Liu-Qin; Wang, Hao; Wu, Yuan-Bao

    2018-01-01

    Post-collisional granites are generally generated by partial melting of continental crust during orogenic extension. The occurrence of normal calc-alkaline granites following adakitic granites in a collisional orogen is frequently supposed as a sign of tectonic regime transition from compression to extension, which has been debated yet. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study of zircon U-Pb ages, Hf-O isotopes, as well as whole-rock major and trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes, for Tongbai and Jigongshan post-collisional granitic plutons in the Tongbai orogen. Zircon U-Pb dating yields intrusion ages of ca. 140 and 135 Ma for the Tongbai and Jigongshan plutons, respectively, suggesting they are post-collisional granites. These granites are high-K calc-alkaline series, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous with A/CNK ratios of 0.85-1.08. The Tongbai gneissic granites are normal calc-alkaline granite, having variable SiO2 (61.93-76.74 wt%) and Sr/Y (2.9-38.9) and (La/Yb)N (1.7-30.1) ratios with variably negative Eu anomalies (0.41-0.92). They have relatively high initial Sr isotope ratios of 0.707571 to 0.710317, and low εNd(t) (- 15.74 to - 11.09) and εHf(t) (- 17.6 to - 16.9) values. Their Nd and Hf model ages range from 2.2 to 1.8 Ga and 2.3 to 2.2 Ga. On the contrary, the Jigongshan granites show higher SiO2 (66.56-72.11 wt%) and Sr/Y (30.1-182.0) and (La/Yb)N (27.4-91.4) ratios with insignificant Eu anomalies (0.73-1.00), belonging to adakitic granite. They have Isr = 0.707843-0.708366, εNd(t) = - 19.83 to - 17.59, and εHf(t) = - 26.0 to - 23.5. Their Nd and Hf model ages vary from ca. 2.5 to 2.4 Ga and ca. 2.8 to 2.6 Ga. The Tongbai and Jigongshan granites are characterized by mantle-like zircon δ18O values (5.17-5.46‰). These geochemical features suggest that the Tongbai and Jigongshan granites were derived from partial melting of Paleoproterozoic and Archean continental crust, respectively. Fractional crystallization affected the geochemical

  6. Linking orogen and peripheral foreland basin: conceptual model and application to the Southalpine-Dinaric (Friuli) orocline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberer, Bianca; Neubauer, Franz

    2010-05-01

    Surface uplift and rock exhumation within an orogen are generally a consequence of convergence, and can often be linked with subsidence in a peripheral foreland. Since vertical loads act on the entire lithosphere, these processes can, therefore, be considered as plate-scale processes. Here, we propose a conceptual model for this linkage for the Friuli orocline and its surrounding units. The Friuli orocline stretches from the ENE-trending Southern Alps to the SE-trending Dinarides. There, two Neogene stages of convergence and associated deformation can be differentiated: (1) a Mid-Late Miocene phase of increased surface uplift and intra-orogenic subsidence of sedimentary basins reflecting intra-orogenic crustal-scale folding. Depocentres are e.g. the flexural Belluno, Ljubljana and Klagenfurt basins. (2) A second stage of convergence during Late Pliocene-Pleistocene times led to overall surface uplift in the orogen and contemporaneous pronounced subsidence in the peripheral foreland basin (Venetian platform and the northern Adriatic Sea). We propose, that the spatially variable extent of subsidence originates in variably strong orogen-basin coupling, i.e. weak coupling during stage 1 vs. strong coupling during stage 2. This interpretation is based on the apatite fission track age pattern, the distribution of intra-orogenic Neogene sediment basins and subsidence analyses in the foreland basin (Barbieri et al., 2007). Available low-temperature thermochronological data for the Southern Alps and the NW Dinarides are sparse, in contrast to a dense network of primarily apatite fission track ages north of the Periadriatic lineament (e.g. summarized by Luth & Willingshofer, 2008). AFT ages adjacent to the eastern Periadriatic Lineament mainly range from 15 to 25 Ma (Hejl, 1997; Fodor et al., 2008). Detrital studies on Oligocene to Miocene sediments from the Venetian foreland basin yielded dominant age groups clustering roughly around 20 and 30 Ma (Stefani et al., 2008

  7. Corticospinal activation of internal oblique muscles has a strong ipsilateral component and can be lateralised in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutton, Paul H; Beith, Iain D; Theodorou, Sophie; Catley, Maria; McGregor, Alison H; Davey, Nick J

    2004-10-01

    Trunk muscles receive corticospinal innervation ipsilaterally and contralaterally and here we investigate the degree of ipsilateral innervation and any cortical asymmetry in pairs of trunk muscles and proximal and distal limb muscles. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to left and right motor cortices in turn and bilateral electromyographic (EMG) recordings were made from internal oblique (IO; lower abdominal), deltoid (D; shoulder) and first dorsal interosseus (1DI; hand) muscles during voluntary contraction in ten healthy subjects. We used a 7-cm figure-of-eight stimulating coil located 2 cm lateral and 2 cm anterior to the vertex over either cortex. Incidence of ipsilateral motor evoked potentials (MEPs) was 85% in IO, 40% in D and 35% in 1DI. Mean (+/- S.E.M.) ipsilateral MEP latencies were longer ( Pmuscle (IO: n=16; D: n=8; 1DI: n=7 ratios). Mean values for these ratios were 0.70+/-0.20 (IO), 0.14+/-0.05 (D) and 0.08+/-0.02 (1DI), revealing stronger ipsilateral drive to IO. Comparisons of the sizes of these ratios revealed a bias towards one cortex or the other (four subjects right; three subjects left). The predominant cortex showed a mean ratio of 1.21+/-0.38 compared with 0.26+/-0.06 in the other cortex ( Pmuscles and also shows hemispheric asymmetry.

  8. Partnering and contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Partnering is often, by economists, and construction managerial literature related to more incomplete contracts. This can be explained by seeing partnering as something that neutralizes opportunism. The aim is to uncover whether partnering neutralizes opportunism when there is an incomp...

  9. Cognition and Incomplete Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Tirole, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Thinking about contingencies, designing covenants, and seeing through their implications is costly. Parties to a contract accordingly use heuristics and leave it incomplete. The paper develops a model of limited cognition and examines its consequences for contractual design. (JEL D23, D82, D86, L22)

  10. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented...... in an online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  11. Turn key contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this summary is to point out some specific areas which have to be covered in a turn-key contract and which are of primarily interest to the buyer of a nuclear plant. It will be assumed that the buyer is utility company in a developing country and a plant supplier a company in an industrial country. (orig./FW) [de

  12. Startpoints via weak contractions

    OpenAIRE

    Agyingi, Collins Amburo; Gaba, Yaé Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Startpoints (resp. endpoints) can be defined as "oriented fixed points". They arise naturally in the study of fixed for multi-valued maps defined on quasi-metric spaces. In this article, we give a new result in the startpoint theory for quasi-pseudometric spaces. The result we present is obtained via a generalized weakly contractive set-valued map.

  13. Copyright or Contract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okerson, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Most authors and publishers of electronic information believe that current copyright law does not address technical capabilities or reader uses and have turned to contracts or licenses to define the rights of owners and users. Discusses copyrights, fair use, and licenses and highlights licensing's unresolved issues: use and users; archiving;…

  14. A Double Zone Dynamical Model For The Tidal Evolution Of The Obliquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Cilia

    2017-10-01

    It is debated wether close-in giants planets can form in-situ and if not, which mechanisms are responsible for their migration. One of the observable tests for migration theories is the current value of the obliquity. But after the main migration mechanism has ended, the combined effects of tidal dissipation and the magnetic braking of the star lead to the evolution of both the obliquity and the semi-major axis. The observed correlation between effective temperature and measured projected obliquity has been taken as evidence of such mechanisms being at play. Here I present an improved model for the tidal evolution of the obliquity. It includes all the components of the dynamical tide for circular misaligned systems. It uses an analytical formulation for the frequency-averaged dissipation for each mode, depending only on global stellar parameters, giving a measure of the dissipative properties of the convective zone of the host as it evolves in time. The model also includes the effect of magnetic braking in the framework of the double zone model. This results in the estimation of different tidal evolution timescales for the evolution of the planet's semi-major axis and obliquity depending on the properties of the stellar host. This model can be used to test migration theories, provided that a good determination of stellar radii, masses and ages can be obtained.

  15. Microstructural and magnetic properties of thin obliquely deposited films: A simulation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solovev, P.N., E-mail: platon.solovev@gmail.com [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 50/38, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, 79, pr. Svobodnyi, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); Izotov, A.V. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 50/38, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, 79, pr. Svobodnyi, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); Belyaev, B.A. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 50/38, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, 79, pr. Svobodnyi, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); Reshetnev Siberian State Aerospace University, 31, pr. Imeni Gazety “Krasnoyarskii Rabochii”, Krasnoyarsk 660014 (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-01

    The relation between microstructural and magnetic properties of thin obliquely deposited films has been studied by means of numerical techniques. Using our developed simulation code based on ballistic deposition model and Fourier space approach, we have investigated dependences of magnetometric tensor components and magnetic anisotropy parameters on the deposition angle of the films. A modified Netzelmann approach has been employed to study structural and magnetic parameters of an isolated column in the samples with tilted columnar microstructure. Reliability and validity of used numerical methods is confirmed by a good agreement of the calculation results with each other, as well as with our experimental data obtained by the ferromagnetic resonance measurements of obliquely deposited thin Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} films. The combination of these numerical methods can be used to design a magnetic film with a desirable value of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and to extract the obliquely deposited film structure from only magnetic measurements. - Highlights: • We present a simulation approach to study a relation between structural and magnetic properties of oblique films. • The calculated dependence of magnetic anisotropy on a deposition angle accords well with the experiment. • A modified Netzelmann approach is proposed. • It allows for the computation of magnetic and structural parameters of an isolated column. • Proposed approach can be used for theoretical studies and for characterization of oblique films.

  16. Are oblique views necessary for detecting space occupying lesions in liver scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Seki, Hiroyasu; Taki, Junichi; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Tada, Akira

    1983-01-01

    In colloid scanning of the liver to determine the presence or absence of SOL(s), it has been suggested that oblique views are desirable. However, it is not popular in Japan to obtain oblique views in routine liver imgaing. The present study was conducted to determine whether such additional views are necessary or not. Liver images of 20 patients with SOL(s) and 84 patients without SOL, all of which were confirmed by ultrasonography, transmission computed tomography and/or clinical course, were evaluated initially using 4 standard views and then adding oblique views by 6 physicians (3 experts and 3 freshmen in nuclear medicine). The numbers of cases showing different interpretation between 4 views and 6 views were 15, 10 and 13 each when interpreted by 3 experts. However, those were 21, 33 and 18 each when interpreted by 3 freshmen. Sensitivity for detecting SOL was improved in 3 physicians by adding oblique views, but was the same in other 3. Specificity was improved in only one physicinan. Overall accuracy was consequently improved in 4 physicians and was deteriorated in 2 physicians. ROC analysis revealed that in the freshman group more accurate interpretation was attained by using 6 views, but in the expert group false-positive cases were increased by using 6 views. Some cases showing usefulness for detecting SOL were presented. In conclusion, oblique views gave more accurate interpretation in inexpertienced observers, and useful information in some cases. (author)

  17. Activities of the Vastus Lateralis and Vastus Medialis Oblique Muscles during Squats on Different Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyong, In Hyouk; Kang, Jong Ho

    2013-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of squat exercises performed on different surfaces on the activity of the quadriceps femoris muscle in order to provide information on support surfaces for effective squat exercises. [Subjects and Method] Fourteen healthy subjects performed squat exercises for five seconds each on three different support surfaces: hard plates, foam, and rubber air discs. Their performance was measured using electromyography. As the subjects performed the squat exercises on each surface, data on the activity of the vastus medialis oblique and the vastus lateralis, and the vastus medials oblique/vastus lateralis ratio, were collected. [Results] The activity of the vastus medialis oblique and the vastus medialis oblique/vastus lateralis ratio were found to be statistically significantly higher on rubber air discs than when the squats were performed on hard plates or foam. [Conclusion] To activate the vastus medialis obilique, and to enhance the vastus medialis oblique/vastus lateralis ratio, unstable surfaces that are highly unstable should be selected.

  18. Generation and Micro-scale Effects of Electrostatic Waves in an Oblique Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, K.; Ergun, R.; Schwartz, S. J.; Newman, D.; Johlander, A.; Argall, M. R.; Wilder, F. D.; Torbert, R. B.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Giles, B. L.; Gershman, D. J.; Burch, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present an analysis of large amplitude (>100 mV/m), high frequency (≤1 kHz), electrostatic waves observed by MMS during an oblique bow shock crossing event. The observed waves primarily consist of electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) and oblique ion plasma waves (IPWs). ESWs typically include nonlinear structures such as double layers, ion phase-space holes, and electron phase-space holes. Oblique IPWs are observed to be similar to ion acoustic waves, but can propagate up to 70° from the ambient magnetic field direction. Both wave-modes, particularly IPWs, are observed to have very short wavelengths ( 100 m) and are highly localized. While such wave-modes have been previously observed in the terrestrial bow shock, instrumental constraints have limited detailed insight into their generation and their effect on their plasma shock environment. Analysis of this oblique shock event shows evidence that ESWs and oblique IPWs can be generated through field-aligned currents associated with magnetic turbulence and through a counterstreaming ion instability respectively. We also present evidence that this wave activity can facilitate momentum exchange between ion populations, resulting in deceleration of incoming solar wind, and localized electron heating.

  19. 3D reconnection due to oblique modes: a simulation of Harris current sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lapenta

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulations in three dimensions of a Harris current sheet with mass ratio, mi/me = 180, and current sheet thickness, pi/L = 0.5, suggest the existence of a linearly unstable oblique mode, which is independent from either the drift-kink or the tearing instability. The new oblique mode causes reconnection independently from the tearing mode. During the initial linear stage, the system is unstable to the tearing mode and the drift kink mode, with growth rates that are accurately described by existing linear theories. How-ever, oblique modes are also linearly unstable, but with smaller growth rates than either the tearing or the drift-kink mode. The non-linear stage is first reached by the drift-kink mode, which alters the initial equilibrium and leads to a change in the growth rates of the tearing and oblique modes. In the non-linear stage, the resulting changes in magnetic topology are incompatible with a pure tearing mode. The oblique mode is shown to introduce a helical structure into the magnetic field lines.

  20. DMSA SPECT imaging using oblique reconstruction in a paediatric population - benefits and technical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, G.; Ford, M.; Crisp, J.; Bernard, E.; Howman-Giles, R.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: DMSA renal scans are frequently requested for the diagnosis and follow-up of acute pyelonephritis and cortical scarring. This study was designed to:- 1. evaluate oblique reconstruction of DMSA SPECT over standard plane reconstruction and planar imaging; and 2. report on the technical aspects important in obtaining high quality DMSA SPECT, particularly in neonates. Over seven months, 210/231 (91 %) of DMSA scans were performed with SPECT on children from age nine days to 16 years, the median age being 2.5 years. 65 patients (31 %) were under one year and 39 (18%) were under six months. Planar and SPECT imaging with standard plane reconstruction and oblique reorientation was performed on the Siemens triple-headed gamma camera. High quality SPECT images were obtained on the smallest babies using a paediatric palette, and were of comparable quality to those of older children. At the time of reporting, the nuclear medicine physician assessed the diagnostic value of the three types of date presented: (1) planar images; (2) standard plane SPECT reconstruction; and (3) oblique SPECT reconstruction. Cortical defects were identified separately for upper, middle and lower poles. Three physicians concluded that high quality SPECT is superior to planar images when assessing the renal cortex. In addition, oblique reorientation is superior to standard reconstruction, particularly at the upper and lower poles. SPECT is now performed routinely on patients of all ages, and the oblique sagittal and coronal reorientation is now used in place of the standard reconstruction

  1. Ice Caps and Ice Belts: The Effects of Obliquity on Ice−Albedo Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Brian E. J. [Department of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University at Albany (State University of New York), 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222 (United States); Cronin, Timothy W. [Program in Atmospheres, Oceans, and Climate, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bitz, Cecilia M., E-mail: brose@albany.edu [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, MS 351640, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1640 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Planetary obliquity determines the meridional distribution of the annual mean insolation. For obliquity exceeding 55°, the weakest insolation occurs at the equator. Stable partial snow and ice cover on such a planet would be in the form of a belt about the equator rather than polar caps. An analytical model of planetary climate is used to investigate the stability of ice caps and ice belts over the widest possible range of parameters. The model is a non-dimensional diffusive Energy Balance Model, representing insolation, heat transport, and ice−albedo feedback on a spherical planet. A complete analytical solution for any obliquity is given and validated against numerical solutions of a seasonal model in the “deep-water” regime of weak seasonal ice line migration. Multiple equilibria and unstable transitions between climate states (ice-free, Snowball, or ice cap/belt) are found over wide swaths of parameter space, including a “Large Ice-Belt Instability” and “Small Ice-Belt Instability” at high obliquity. The Snowball catastrophe is avoided at weak radiative forcing in two different scenarios: weak albedo feedback and inefficient heat transport (favoring stable partial ice cover), or efficient transport at high obliquity (favoring ice-free conditions). From speculative assumptions about distributions of planetary parameters, three-fourths to four-fifths of all planets with stable partial ice cover should be in the form of Earth-like polar caps.

  2. Constraints on the near-Earth asteroid obliquity distribution from the Yarkovsky effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardioli, C.; Farnocchia, D.; Rozitis, B.; Cotto-Figueroa, D.; Chesley, S. R.; Statler, T. S.; Vasile, M.

    2017-12-01

    Aims: From light curve and radar data we know the spin axis of only 43 near-Earth asteroids. In this paper we attempt to constrain the spin axis obliquity distribution of near-Earth asteroids by leveraging the Yarkovsky effect and its dependence on an asteroid's obliquity. Methods: By modeling the physical parameters driving the Yarkovsky effect, we solve an inverse problem where we test different simple parametric obliquity distributions. Each distribution results in a predicted Yarkovsky effect distribution that we compare with a χ2 test to a dataset of 125 Yarkovsky estimates. Results: We find different obliquity distributions that are statistically satisfactory. In particular, among the considered models, the best-fit solution is a quadratic function, which only depends on two parameters, favors extreme obliquities consistent with the expected outcomes from the YORP effect, has a 2:1 ratio between retrograde and direct rotators, which is in agreement with theoretical predictions, and is statistically consistent with the distribution of known spin axes of near-Earth asteroids.

  3. Employee contract issues for dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher E; Indest, George F

    2013-12-01

    Employees and employers routinely face negotiating and preparing physician employment contracts. It is important for both sides to know and understand the basic information on what a comprehensive employment contract for a dermatologist should contain. There are various employment contract provisions from both the employee's perspective and the employer's perspective that must be considered when preparing physician employment contracts. This article provides basic advice and recommendations on requirements that should be included in such contracts. It suggests legal pitfalls that can be avoided through various contract clauses.

  4. Reconciling Contracts and Relational Governance through Strategic Contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Østergaard, Kim

    2018-01-01

    on contract types, such as strategic versus conventional, may reconcile the enduring research controversy between the substitution and complements perspectives. Practical implications: Today, formal contracts with foreign distributors tend to resemble “prenuptial agreements”. The opportunity for relational...

  5. Contracting with the Enemy: The Contracting Officer’s Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    contracting command xv KO contracting officer KTR contractor LSC lead service component MGAA Mesopotamia Group Atlas Apache NAT National Afghanistan...and Contract Authority Understanding the roles of contracting versus command authority and command relationships is a fundamental that must be...Audit 12-7 (2012) described the CENTCOM-JTSCC (C- JTSCC) formation and command relationship : In April 2010, CENTCOM issued a fragmentary order to

  6. Understanding erosion rates in the Himalayan orogen: A case study from the Arun Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olen, Stephanie M.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Hoffmann, Bernd; Sachse, Dirk; Adhikari, D. P.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the rates and pattern of erosion is a key aspect of deciphering the impacts of climate and tectonics on landscape evolution. Denudation rates derived from terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCNs) are commonly used to quantify erosion and bridge tectonic (Myr) and climatic (up to several kiloyears) time scales. However, how the processes of erosion in active orogens are ultimately reflected in 10Be TCN samples remains a topic of discussion. We investigate this problem in the Arun Valley of eastern Nepal with 34 new 10Be-derived catchment-mean denudation rates. The Arun Valley is characterized by steep north-south gradients in topography and climate. Locally, denudation rates increase northward, from <0.2 mm yr-1 to ~1.5 mm yr-1 in tributary samples, while main stem samples appear to increase downstream from ~0.2 mm yr-1 at the border with Tibet to 0.91 mm yr-1 in the foreland. Denudation rates most strongly correlate with normalized channel steepness (R2 = 0.67), which has been commonly interpreted to indicate tectonic activity. Significant downstream decrease of 10Be concentration in the main stem Arun suggests that upstream sediment grains are fining to the point that they are operationally excluded from the processed sample. This results in 10Be concentrations and denudation rates that do not uniformly represent the upstream catchment area. We observe strong impacts on 10Be concentrations from local, nonfluvial geomorphic processes, such as glaciation and landsliding coinciding with areas of peak rainfall rates, pointing toward climatic modulation of predominantly tectonically driven denudation rates.

  7. Oblique hilar tomography, computed tomography, and mediastinoscopy for prethoracotomy staging of bronchogenic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Gersten, K.C.; Garvey, J.; Khan, F.A.; Steinberg, H.

    1985-01-01

    Preoperative oblique hilar tomography was used to evaluate hilar lymph nodes in 150 patients with clinically resectable bronchogenic carcinoma. CT was also used in the evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes in 50 of these patients. Subsequently, all patients underwent mediastinoscopy and/or thoracotomy. Hilar and mediastinal nodes were evaluated for the presence of metastasis, and these findings were then correlated with the radiographic findings of oblique hilar tomography and CT. CT was found to be a reliable method for prethoracotomy staging of bronchogenic carcinoma and for selecting patients for mediastinoscopy. Thus patients with negative mediastinal CT need not undergo mediastinoscopy prior to thoracotomy, while mediastinoscopy and biopsy should be done in patients with enlarged mediastinal nodes on CT. Oblique hilar tomography is an accurate method for evaluation of hilar adenopathy and for predicting mediastinal involvement by extrapolation

  8. Design of Human-Machine Interface and altering of pelvic obliquity with RGR Trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrusinski, Maciej; Unluhisarcikli, Ozer; Mavroidis, Constantinos; Cajigas, Iahn; Bonato, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The Robotic Gait Rehabilitation (RGR) Trainer targets secondary gait deviations in stroke survivors undergoing rehabilitation. Using an impedance control strategy and a linear electromagnetic actuator, the device generates a force field to control pelvic obliquity through a Human-Machine Interface (i.e. a lower body exoskeleton). Herein we describe the design of the RGR Trainer Human-Machine Interface (HMI) and we demonstrate the system's ability to alter the pattern of movement of the pelvis during gait in a healthy subject. Results are shown for experiments during which we induced hip-hiking - in healthy subjects. Our findings indicate that the RGR Trainer has the ability of affecting pelvic obliquity during gait. Furthermore, we provide preliminary evidence of short-term retention of the modified pelvic obliquity pattern induced by the RGR Trainer. © 2011 IEEE

  9. Design of Human – Machine Interface and Altering of Pelvic Obliquity with RGR Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrusinski, Maciej; Unluhisarcikli, Ozer; Mavroidis, Constantinos; Cajigas, Iahn; Bonato, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The Robotic Gait Rehabilitation (RGR) Trainer targets secondary gait deviations in stroke survivors undergoing rehabilitation. Using an impedance control strategy and a linear electromagnetic actuator, the device generates a force field to control pelvic obliquity through a Human-Machine Interface (i.e. a lower body exoskeleton). Herein we describe the design of the RGR Trainer Human-Machine Interface (HMI) and we demonstrate the system’s ability to alter the pattern of movement of the pelvis during gait in a healthy subject. Results are shown for experiments during which we induced hip-hiking – in healthy subjects. Our findings indicate that the RGR Trainer has the ability of affecting pelvic obliquity during gait. Furthermore, we provide preliminary evidence of short-term retention of the modified pelvic obliquity pattern induced by the RGR Trainer. PMID:22275693

  10. Treatment for incarcerated indirect hernia with "Cross-Internal Ring" inguinal oblique incision in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xue-Qiang; Yang, Jun; Zheng, Nan-Nan; Kuang, Hou-Fang; Duan, Xu-Fei; Bian, Hong-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the utility of the "Cross-Internal Ring" inguinal oblique incision for the surgical treatment of incarcerated indirect hernia (IIH) complicated with severe abdominal distension. Patients of IIH complicated with severe abdominal distension were reviewed retrospectively. All patients received operation through the "Cross-Internal Ring" inguinal oblique incision. There were totally 13 patients were included, male to female ratio was 9-4. The time for patients to resume oral feeding varying from 2 to 5 days after operation, no complications include delayed intestinal perforation, intra-abdominal abscess, and incision infection happened. Average postoperative hospital stay was 5.2 days. All cases were followed up for 6-18 months. No recurrence or iatrogenic cryptorchidism happened. "Cross-Internal Ring" inguinal oblique incision is a simple, safe, and reliable surgical method to treat pediatric IIH complicated with severe abdominal distension.

  11. Treatment for incarcerated indirect hernia with “Cross-Internal Ring” inguinal oblique incision in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Qiang Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to evaluate the utility of the “Cross-Internal Ring” inguinal oblique incision for the surgical treatment of incarcerated indirect hernia (IIH complicated with severe abdominal distension. Materials and Methods: Patients of IIH complicated with severe abdominal distension were reviewed retrospectively. All patients received operation through the “Cross-Internal Ring” inguinal oblique incision. Results: There were totally 13 patients were included, male to female ratio was 9-4. The time for patients to resume oral feeding varying from 2 to 5 days after operation, no complications include delayed intestinal perforation, intra-abdominal abscess, and incision infection happened. Average postoperative hospital stay was 5.2 days. All cases were followed up for 6–18 months. No recurrence or iatrogenic cryptorchidism happened. Conclusion: “Cross-Internal Ring” inguinal oblique incision is a simple, safe, and reliable surgical method to treat pediatric IIH complicated with severe abdominal distension.

  12. Researching on Real 3d Modeling Constructed with the Oblique Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Youmei; Jiao, Minglian; Shijuan

    2018-04-01

    With the rapid development of the oblique photogrammetry, many cities have built some real 3D model with this technology. Although it has the advantages of short period, high efficiency and good air angle effect, the near ground view angle of these real 3D models are not very good. With increasing development of smart cities, the requirements of reality, practicality and accuracy on real 3D models are becoming higher. How to produce and improve the real 3D models quickly has become one of the hot research directions of geospatial information. To meet this requirement In this paper, Combined with the characteristics of current oblique photogrammetry modeling and the terrestrial photogrammetry, we proposed a new technological process, which consists of close range sensor design, data acquisition and processing. The proposed method is being tested by using oblique photography images acquired. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  13. RESEARCHING ON REAL 3D MODELING CONSTRUCTED WITH THE OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND TERRESTRIAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Han

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the oblique photogrammetry, many cities have built some real 3D model with this technology. Although it has the advantages of short period, high efficiency and good air angle effect, the near ground view angle of these real 3D models are not very good. With increasing development of smart cities, the requirements of reality, practicality and accuracy on real 3D models are becoming higher. How to produce and improve the real 3D models quickly has become one of the hot research directions of geospatial information. To meet this requirement In this paper, Combined with the characteristics of current oblique photogrammetry modeling and the terrestrial photogrammetry, we proposed a new technological process, which consists of close range sensor design, data acquisition and processing. The proposed method is being tested by using oblique photography images acquired. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  14. Differential decay of the East-African Antarctic Orogen : an integrated examination of Northeastern Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, K.; Jacobs, J.; Emmel, B.; Thomas, R. J.; Matola, R.

    2009-04-01

    In Northeastern Mozambique, the late Proterozoic - early Paleozoic East African-Antarctic Orogen can be subdivided into two major blocks that exhibit some relevant differences. The line of divide is represented by the Lurio Belt, a kinematically poorly constrained shear zone that also marks the conceptual northern limit of frequent late-tectonic granitoid intrusions. Moreover, far-travelled granulite-facies nappes cover a much larger area north of this belt (Viola et. al, 2008), giving rise to the assumption of different exhumation and present exposure levels. U/Pb data from previous surveys (e.g., Norconsult consortium, 2007) show coeval high-grade metamorphism in the whole region between c. 610 - 550 Ma, while the block south of the Lurio Belt also shows continuing metamorphism until c. 490 Ma that can be related to extension. Geothermobarometry for samples from within the Lurio Belt (Engvik et. al, 2007) indicates rapid exhumation after high-pressure granulite facies metamorphism and is consistant with the assumption of long tectonic activity. A possible model for the outlined pattern is the delamination of the orogenic root only in the southern part, followed by rapid mechanical thinning as well as by isostatic accommodation along the Lurio Belt. A valuable marker was identified in the metasedimentary Mecuburi group that overlies the southern basement. U/Pb analysis of detrital zircons have yielded a maximum deposition age of c. 600 Ma, while metamorphism is recorded until c. 505 Ma. Investigations of the relationship between metasediments and older basement show that the basal contact is a fairly preserved depositional contact, allowing to suppose a conjoint post-depositional evolution. It is notable that the timing of deposition shortly follows the onset of the main, widespread high-grade metamorphism. Relatively high but variable degrees of migmatisation in the Mecuburi Group require a phase of burial from surface to deep levels after 600 Ma, followed by

  15. Contracting in a Foreign Country

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodeschin, Darrin

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis investigates and compares the different contracting structures of the U.S. Army, the UN, and Apple as well as the duties and responsibilities of the contracting individuals within these organizations...

  16. Utility Energy Services Contracts Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The UESC Guide is a compilation of samples and templates developed as a resource to help contracting officers implement task orders for UESCs under existing U.S. General Services Administration areawide contracts.

  17. Automatic Conflict Detection on Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Stephen; Pace, Gordon J.; Schneider, Gerardo

    Many software applications are based on collaborating, yet competing, agents or virtual organisations exchanging services. Contracts, expressing obligations, permissions and prohibitions of the different actors, can be used to protect the interests of the organisations engaged in such service exchange. However, the potentially dynamic composition of services with different contracts, and the combination of service contracts with local contracts can give rise to unexpected conflicts, exposing the need for automatic techniques for contract analysis. In this paper we look at automatic analysis techniques for contracts written in the contract language mathcal{CL}. We present a trace semantics of mathcal{CL} suitable for conflict analysis, and a decision procedure for detecting conflicts (together with its proof of soundness, completeness and termination). We also discuss its implementation and look into the applications of the contract analysis approach we present. These techniques are applied to a small case study of an airline check-in desk.

  18. Water and Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Grazi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between water and the protein of the contractile machinery as well as the tendency of these proteins to form geometrically ordered structures provide a link between water and muscle contraction. Protein osmotic pressure is strictly related to the chemical potential of the contractile proteins, to the stiffness of muscle structures and to the viscosity of the sliding of the thin over the thick filaments. Muscle power output and the steady rate of contraction are linked by modulating a single parameter, a viscosity coefficient. Muscle operation is characterized by working strokes of much shorter length and much quicker than in the classical model. As a consequence the force delivered and the stiffness attained by attached cross-bridges is much larger than usually believed.

  19. Energy contracting in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, C.

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses the status of energy contracting in Switzerland and compares it with the situation in USA, Germany and France, where it has been standard practice for many years. The fact that this financing and operating instrument is not widely used in Switzerland in spite of its benefits for users and suppliers is discussed, as are the obstacles placed in its way. The results of a study made by the Federal Office of Energy are presented, whereby some 220 existing contracting arrangements with a total investment volume of around CHF 200 million were noted and a further potential of around CHF 1.1 billion estimated. The author notes that in order to utilise this potential, great efforts must be made by all parties involved

  20. 48 CFR 937.7040 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 937.7040... CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Protective Services Contracting 937.7040 Contract clauses. The contracting... services” in all protective services solicitations and contracts involving DOE-owned facilities requiring...

  1. Benefits of sagittal-oblique MRI reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenezić, D.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: MRI examination of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee gives valuable information for conventional, physiatrist and/or arthroscopic microinvasiv treatment. three planar MRI examination and 3D reconstructions are highly precise in the analysis of the intra and periarticular structures, with exceptions of anterior cruciate ligament. Direct contact with the roof of the intercondilar fossa (in the full extension during the examination) and its specific orientation makes visualization of ACL diagnostically problematic. In a one year period precise protocol for MRI visualization of ACL was tested and applied as “Sagittal Oblique MRI Reconstruction”. In short, it has been Angled biplanar reconstruction in the parasagital and paratransversal planes (patientrelated and arbitrary selected in full extension), on T2, 2mm slice and 0,2 mm gap. 153 MRI examinations of the patients with lesions of the ACL were included in the study in the Clinical Center of Montenegro during 2005 year. Beside standard Knee MRI protocol all patients had the Sagittal Oblique MRI reconstruction of ACL and the Flexion MRI examination, to compare with. The Sagittal Oblique MRI reconstruction of ACL it is adapted to the concrete morphology of the patients ACL and it does not depend of the volume of the examined knee. In comparison with the Standard Knee MRI protocol and with the Flexion MRI examination, the Sagittal Oblique MRI reconstruction of ACL takes less time to perform, and the ligament is shown in fool length at three to five slices, which is more than with the both compared protocols. Sagittal Oblique MRI Reconstruction of ACL is therefore patient dependable, orientated in shape of concrete ligament of the patient’s knee. In combination with age, occupation, physical activity and level of patients while to contribute in healing process, the Sagittal Oblique MRI reconstruction of ACL contribute to scholastic approach, as highest benefit to patients with

  2. POTENTIAL OF MULTI-TEMPORAL OBLIQUE AIRBORNE IMAGERY FOR STRUCTURAL DAMAGE ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vetrivel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Quick post-disaster actions demand automated, rapid and detailed building damage assessment. Among the available technologies, post-event oblique airborne images have already shown their potential for this task. However, existing methods usually compensate the lack of pre-event information with aprioristic assumptions of building shapes and textures that can lead to uncertainties and misdetections. However, oblique images have been already captured over many cities of the world, and the exploitation of pre- and post-event data as inputs to damage assessment is readily feasible in urban areas. In this paper, we investigate the potential of multi-temporal oblique imagery for detailed damage assessment focusing on two methodologies: the first method aims at detecting severe structural damages related to geometrical deformation by combining the complementary information provided by photogrammetric point clouds and oblique images. The developed method detected 87% of damaged elements. The failed detections are due to varying noise levels within the point cloud which hindered the recognition of some structural elements. We observed, in general that the façade regions are very noisy in point clouds. To address this, we propose our second method which aims to detect damages to building façades using the oriented oblique images. The results show that the proposed methodology can effectively differentiate among the three proposed categories: collapsed/highly damaged, lower levels of damage and undamaged buildings, using a computationally light-weight approach. We describe the implementations of the above mentioned methods in detail and present the promising results achieved using multi-temporal oblique imagery over the city of L’Aquila (Italy.

  3. Contracting for Complex Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    asymmetries, and barriers to market entry and exit (e.g., Mankiw , et al., 2002). Goods may be non-rivalrous or non-excludable so that transferable property...investments. Expenditures are asset specific to the extent they have no economic value outside the product being produced (Williamson, 2005). For...example, some research in the US space program produced economic value outside the contract (e.g., Tang), while other research produced little value

  4. Contract types - turnkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, G.

    1975-01-01

    Turnkey or the turnkey type of contract refers to a system of management according to which one organization accepts total responsibility for completing all parts and all phases of a project. In the case of a power project the turnkey contractor undertakes to design the plant, supply or procure and erect the equipment, build the station and put it into operation. (orig./FW) [de

  5. Between Status and Contract?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Keiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with unfree labour in Germany from the early modern age until the beginning of the 20th century. It presents the main conclusions of a book published in 2013 on this subject in German. Unfree labour is not identified in the first place with slavery or any other labour relationship based on status. Instead, this study aims at an analysis of freedom and coercion in contractual labour relationships. It will be argued that in Germany contractual labour relationships before 1800 were embedded in a legal system that strongly restricted contractual autonomy and aimed at the suppression of free labour markets. The scope of this legislation was to guarantee efficient labour performance, which was not only perceived as being in the personal interest of an employer, but as a fundamental element of the common good. After 1800 the system changed to more incentive-based legislation that established freedom of contract for labour relations. Nevertheless, coercion in order to perform the contractual duties of a work contract remained important for many groups of workers, especially farmhands and industrial workers. The last criminal sanctions for breaches of labour contracts were only abolished in the revolution of 1919. This development shows the difficulties German law had in extending the principles of private law to workers. When a system of free labour was fully established, the issue of unemployment and economic problems, especially in the Weimar Republic, required a new system of protective rules. The history of free market based labour contracts in Germany was therefore very short, with state intervention shi ing from control and coercion to social assistance.

  6. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  7. Exit from contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Bar-Gill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the procedure of exiting the contract its costs and benefits. Methods statistical method comparative analysis. Results free exit from contract is one of the most powerful tools for the consumer rights protection. The procedure frees consumers from bad deals and keeps businesses honest. Yet consumers often choose transactions with lockin provisions trading off exit rights for other perks. This article examines the costs and benefits of free exit as compared to the lockin alternative. According to the authors the present regulation of exit penalties in the USA is poorly tailored to address concerns about lockin particularly in light of increasingly ubiquitous marketbased solutions. The article also calls regulatory attention to loyalty rewards which are shown to be as powerful as exit penalties and equally detrimental. Scientific novelty the article reveals a paradoxical state of the law exit regulations in the USA are used most where they are needed least. Termination penalties present an obvishyous target for regulatory intervention while loyalty programs seem benign not warranting any regulatory attention. Practical significance the article is of interest for the Russian juridical science and lawmaking authorities as in Russia the issue of exiting the contract is as topical as in the USA and requires solution which would impair neither the rights of consumers nor the rights of the sellers ofnbspproducts and services. nbsp

  8. CONTRACT FOLLOW UP TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74460

    2001-01-01

    SPL is organizing Training Sessions on the Contract Follow Up application. CFU is a Web based tool, developped and supported by the Administrative Information Services. It allows the creation of Divisional Requests and the follow up of their processing, from the Market Survey to the Invitation to Tender or Price Enquiry, approval by the Finance Committee, up to the actual signature of a Contract, acccording to the CERN Purchasing procedures. It includes a document management component. It also provides link with other AIS applications such as BHT and EDH. The course is primarily intended for DPOs, Contract Technical responsibles in the division and their assistants, but is beneficial to anybody involved in the follow up of such Purchasing Procedures. This course is free of charge, but application is necessary. The details of the course may be found at http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/ENSTEC/P2001/Bureautique/cfu4_f.htm General information of CFU may be found at http://ais.cern.ch/apps/cfu/ The dates of t...

  9. Non-turnkey contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyama, Shunji

    1975-01-01

    A turnkey contract is recommended to such a country which is in the initial stage of nuclear power development with respect to a few plants being constructed earlier. The prime contractor may not necessarily be a reactor supplier. In some cases an architect engineering company may be a contractor. If this arrangement is not possible and the contract had to be a non-turnkey type, there might be some advantage to such a developing country capable of undertaking some major portions of the project works. Even if she might face with troubles and difficulties during construction of the first nuclear power station, she might have chance of aquiring technical kowledge and experience which would later enable her to make the plant of her own manufacture. In such a case it is advisable to limit the number of main contracts as small as possible and to utilize an organization to assist the owner in project management or to assume this function in his behalf. (orig./FW) [de

  10. Non-turnkey contract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, S

    1975-01-01

    A turnkey contract is recommended to such a country which is in the initial stage of nuclear power development with respect to a few plants being constructed earlier. The prime contractor may not necessarily be a reactor supplier. In some cases an architect engineering company may be a contractor. If this arrangement is not possible and the contract had to be a non-turnkey type, there might be some advantage to such a developing country capable of undertaking some major portions of the project works. Even if she might face troubles and difficulties during construction of the first nuclear power station, she might have a chance of aquiring technical kowledge and experience which would later enable her to make the plant of her own manufacture. In such a case it is advisable to limit the number of main contracts as small as possible and to utilize an organization to assist the owner in project management or to assume this function in his behalf.

  11. Practical guide on contract of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chiho

    1991-12-01

    This book gives descriptions of practical guide on contract of technology, which deals with basic of contract like meaning, function term, singing and sealing, contract and stamp tax, common things on contract of research like keeping secret and prevention and treat of dispute, compensation for damages, notice, expiration date of contract and measurement at end of contract, contract of joint research such as meaning and necessity, note at contract, check list at contract, and return of the research product.

  12. Why radiologists lose their hospital contracts: is your contract secure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroff, Lawrence R

    2010-03-01

    Previously, a hospital contract meant tenure for the incumbent group of radiologists; however, those days are long gone. Exclusive contracts have morphed into exclusive contracts with carve-outs. Turf erosion has become a fact of life for radiology practices. Now radiologists are losing their hospital contracts in record numbers. Group size, though helpful for a variety of reasons, does not ensure that a practice will be secure in its hospital setting. The reasons that groups lose their hospital contracts are varied, and in this paper, the author discusses the most common ones. Suggestions to help practices avoid this unfortunate fate are presented.

  13. Three-dimensional oblique water-entry problems at small deadrise angles

    KAUST Repository

    Moore, M. R.; Howison, S. D.; Ockendon, J. R.; Oliver, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends Wagner theory for the ideal, incompressible normal impact of rigid bodies that are nearly parallel to the surface of a liquid half-space. The impactors considered are three-dimensional and have an oblique impact velocity. A formulation in terms of the displacement potential is used to reveal the relationship between the oblique and corresponding normal impact solutions. In the case of axisymmetric impactors, several geometries are considered in which singularities develop in the boundary of the effective wetted region. We present the corresponding pressure profiles and models for the splash sheets. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  14. Teetering Stars: Resonant Excitation of Stellar Obliquities by Hot and Warm Jupiters with External Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kassandra; Lai, Dong

    2018-04-01

    Stellar spin-orbit misalignments (obliquities) in hot Jupiter systems have been extensively probed in recent years thanks to Rossiter-McLaughlin observations. Such obliquities may reveal clues about hot Jupiter dynamical and migration histories. Common explanations for generating stellar obliquities include high-eccentricity migration, or primordial disk misalignment. This talk investigates another mechanism for producing stellar spin-orbit misalignments in systems hosting a close-in giant planet with an external, inclined planetary companion. Spin-orbit misalignment may be excited due to a secular resonance, occurring when the precession rate of the stellar spin axis (due to the inner orbit) becomes comparable to the precession rate of the inner orbital axis (due to the outer companion). Due to the spin-down of the host star via magnetic braking, this resonance may be achieved at some point during the star's main sequence lifetime for a wide range of giant planet masses and orbital architectures. We focus on both hot Jupiters (with orbital periods less than ten days) and warm Jupiters (with orbital periods around tens of days), and identify the outer perburber properties needed to generate substantial obliquities via resonant excitation, in terms of mass, separation, and inclination. For hot Jupiters, the stellar spin axis is strongly coupled to the orbital axis, and resonant excitation of obliquity requires a close perturber, located within 1-2 AU. For warm Jupiters, the spin and orbital axes are more weakly coupled, and the resonance may be achieved for more distant perturbers (at several to tens of AU). Resonant excitation of the stellar obliquity is accompanied by a decrease in the planets' mutual orbital inclination, and can thus erase high mutual inclinations in two-planet systems. Since many warm Jupiters are known to have outer planetary companions at several AU or beyond, stellar obliquities in warm Jupiter systems may be common, regardless of the

  15. Diffractive axicons in oblique illumination: analysis and experiments and comparison with elliptical axicons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaning, Anna; Jaroszewicz, Zbigniew; Friberg, Ari T

    2003-01-01

    Axicons in oblique illumination produce broadened focal lines, a problem, e.g., in scanning applications. A compact mathematical description of the focal segment is presented, for the first time, to our knowledge, and the results are compared with elliptical axicons in normal illumination. In both cases, analytical expressions in the form of asteroid curves are obtained from asymptotic wave theory and caustic surfaces. The results are confirmed by direct diffraction simulations and by experiments. In addition we show that at a fixed angle an elliptical axicon can be used to compensate for the adverse effects of oblique illumination.

  16. Oblique Propagation of Fast Surface Waves in a Low-Beta Hall-Magnetohydrodynamics Plasma Slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhelyazkov, I.; Mann, G.

    1999-01-01

    The oblique propagation of fast sausage and kink magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) surface waves in an ideal magnetized plasma slab in the low-beta plasma limit is studied considering the Hall term in the generalized Ohm's law. It is found that the combined action of the Hall effect and oblique wave propagation makes possible the existence of multivalued solutions to the wave dispersion relations - some of them corresponding to positive values of the transfer wave number, k y , undergo a 'propagation stop' at specific (numerically found) full wave numbers. It is also shown that with growing wave number the waves change their nature - from bulk modes to pseudosurface or pure surface waves. (author)

  17. Enhanced sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor by using oblique deposited silver nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chih-Chia; Wu, Pin Chieh; Tseng, Ming Lun; Lin, Wen-Chi; Chen, Chih-Wei; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor is demonstrated to be enhanced by oblique deposited silver nanorods. Silver nanorods are thermally deposited on silver nanothin film by oblique angle deposition (OAD). The length of the nanorods can be tuned by controlling the deposition parameters of thermal deposition. By measuring the phase difference between the p and s waves of surface plasmon resonance heterodyne interferometer with different wavelength of incident light, we have demonstrated that maximum sensitivity of glucose detection down to 7.1 × 10(-8) refractive index units could be achieved with optimal deposition parameters of silver nanorods.

  18. Normal tendon sheath of the second to fifth fingers as seen on oblique views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, E.

    1984-01-01

    Oblique views of the fingers, using a low kilovolt technique, show a portion of the tendon sheaths which can be regarded as representative of the entire sheath. Because of the varying obliquity of each finger, this proportion differs in the fingers. With increasing age the projected portion of the sheath becomes smaller because it is covered by increasing bone formation in the insertion of the tendon sheat. Normal values have been obtained for adults according to their decades; from these, quite minor degrees of tendon sheat thickening can be determined. In camptodactyly of the fifth finger, which is not uncommon, the tendon sheat may be widened in the absence of a tenosynovitis.

  19. Sound absorption of a new oblique-section acoustic metamaterial with nested resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nansha; Hou, Hong; Zhang, Yanni; Wu, Jiu Hui

    2018-02-01

    This study designs and investigates high-efficiency sound absorption of new oblique-section nested resonators. Impedance tube experiment results show that different combinations of oblique-section nest resonators have tunable low-frequency bandwidth characteristics. The sound absorption mechanism is due to air friction losses in the slotted region and the sample structure resonance. The acousto-electric analogy model demonstrates that the sound absorption peak and bandwidth can be modulated over an even wider frequency range by changing the geometric size and combinations of structures. The proposed structure can be easily fabricated and used in low-frequency sound absorption applications.

  20. Three-dimensional oblique water-entry problems at small deadrise angles

    KAUST Repository

    Moore, M. R.

    2012-09-19

    This paper extends Wagner theory for the ideal, incompressible normal impact of rigid bodies that are nearly parallel to the surface of a liquid half-space. The impactors considered are three-dimensional and have an oblique impact velocity. A formulation in terms of the displacement potential is used to reveal the relationship between the oblique and corresponding normal impact solutions. In the case of axisymmetric impactors, several geometries are considered in which singularities develop in the boundary of the effective wetted region. We present the corresponding pressure profiles and models for the splash sheets. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  1. Early detection of breast cancer using only oblique medium lateral view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguillar, Vera L.N.

    1996-01-01

    To compare the advantages of one- versus two-views mammography, screening films were reviewed from 1,500 asymptomatic women undergoing mammography. Two separate interpretations were made of each case, one using only the oblique projection images, the other using both oblique and cranio caudal views. In women with dense breasts, one view readings resulted in much more frequent abnormal interpretations, false positives, than two-views readings. In contrast, in woman with primary fatty breast, in whom superimposition of dense tissue on image is not a problem, it may be reasonable to obtain a single mediolateral projection to follow-up screening mammography. (author)

  2. Spectroscopic ellipsometry investigations of optical anisotropy in obliquely deposited hafnia thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokas, R. B., E-mail: tokasstar@gmail.com; Jena, Shuvendu; Thakur, S.; Sahoo, N. K. [Atomic & Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-85 (India); Haque, S. Maidul; Rao, K. Divakar [Photonics & Nanotechnology Section, Atomic & Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre facility, Visakhapatnam-530012 (India)

    2016-05-23

    In present work, HfO{sub 2} thin films have been deposited at various oblique incidences on Si substrates by electron beam evaporation. These refractory oxide films exhibited anisotropy in refractive index predictably due to special columnar microstructure. Spectroscopic ellipsometry being a powerful tool for optical characterization has been employed to investigate optical anisotropy. It was observed that the film deposited at glancing angle (80°) exhibits the highest optical anisotropy. Further, anisotropy was noticed to decrease with lower values of deposition angles while effective refractive index depicts opposite trend. Variation in refractive index and anisotropy has been explained in light of atomic shadowing during growth of thin films at oblique angles.

  3. Investigation on hydrodynamic performance of a marine propeller in oblique flow by RANS computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxi Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical study on investigating on hydrodynamic characteristics of a marine propeller in oblique flow. The study is achieved by RANS simulations on an open source platform - OpenFOAM. A sliding grid approach is applied to compute the rotating motion of the propeller. Total force and moment acting on blades, as well as average force distributions in one revolution on propeller disk, are obtained for 70 cases of com- binations of advance ratios and oblique angles. The computed results are compared with available experimental data and discussed.

  4. Application of oblique plane microscopy to high speed live cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Wilding, Dean; Sikkel, Markus B.; Lyon, Alexander R.; MacLeod, Ken T.; Dunsby, Chris

    2011-07-01

    Oblique Plane Microscopy (OPM) is a light sheet microscopy technique that combines oblique illumination with correction optics that tilt the focal plane of the collection system. OPM can be used to image conventionally mounted specimens on coverslips or tissue culture dishes and has low out-of-plane photobleaching and phototoxicity. No moving parts are required to achieve an optically sectioned image and so high speed optically sectioned imaging is possible. We present high speed 2D and 3D optically sectioned OPM imaging of live cells using a high NA water immersion lens.

  5. Contracting between firms: empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iyer, R.; Sautner, Z.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse 185 contracts signed between a buyer and 89 suppliers to test how moral-hazard and hold-up problems affect contract design. Our data allow us to study both static and dynamic effects. If a supplier’s products are more critical to the buyer, contracts contain more clauses that address

  6. Static Verification for Code Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähndrich, Manuel

    The Code Contracts project [3] at Microsoft Research enables programmers on the .NET platform to author specifications in existing languages such as C# and VisualBasic. To take advantage of these specifications, we provide tools for documentation generation, runtime contract checking, and static contract verification.

  7. Transnational Law of Public Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audit, M.; Schill, S.W.

    2016-01-01

    Public contracts were traditionally conceived as instruments of domestic public law and used within markets confined to the territory of the state party to the contract. Globalization, however, subjects public contracting to an increasing number of processes that take place at a transnational level

  8. Service quality in contracted facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Fauziah; Pradhan, Nousheen Akber; Zaidi, Shehla; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Yousuf, Farheen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the readiness of contracted and non-contracted first-level healthcare facilities in Pakistan to deliver quality maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care. A balanced scorecard (BSC) was used as the assessment framework. Using a cross-sectional study design, two rural health centers (RHCs) contracted out to Aga Khan Health Service, Pakistan were compared with four government managed RHCs. A BSC was designed to assess RHC readiness to deliver good quality MNH care. In total 20 indicators were developed, representing five BSC domains: health facility functionality, service provision, staff capacity, staff and patient satisfaction. Validated data collection tools were used to collect information. Pearson χ2, Fisher's Exact and the Mann-Whitney tests were applied as appropriate to detect significant service quality differences among the two facilities. Contracted facilities were generally found to be better than non-contracted facilities in all five BSC domains. Patients' inclination for facility-based delivery at contracted facilities was, however, significantly higher than non-contracted facilities (80 percent contracted vs 43 percent non-contracted, p=0.006). The study shows that contracting out initiatives have the potential to improve MNH care. This is the first study to compare MNH service delivery quality across contracted and non-contracted facilities using BSC as the assessment framework.

  9. Timing and nature of Holocene glacier advances at the northwestern end of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sourav; Owen, Lewis A.; Orr, Elizabeth N.; Caffee, Marc W.

    2018-05-01

    Holocene glacial chronostratigraphies are developed for four glaciated valleys at the northwestern end of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen using geomorphic mapping and cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure dating. The study areas include the Hamtah valley in the Lahul Himalaya, and the Karzok, Lato and upper Stok valleys in Zanskar. Five local glacial stages are dated to ∼10.4, ∼6.1-3.3, ∼2.1-0.9, ∼0.7-0.4, and ∼0.3-0.2 ka based on 49 new moraine boulder ages. Large age dispersions are evident for each of the local glacial stages. This is especially the case for ∼6.1-3.3 and ∼2.1-0.9 ka, which is likely a result of prior and/or incomplete exposures in very young moraine boulders. An additional compilation of 187 published 10Be moraine boulder ages help define seven Himalayan Holocene regional glacial stages (HHs) for the northwestern end of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen. These HHs date to ∼10.9-9.3, ∼8.2-7.4, ∼6.9-4.3, ∼4.5-2.8, ∼2.7-1.8, ∼1.8-0.9, and forced northerly migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and enhanced summer monsoon. The timing of the majority of HHs during mid- and late Holocene corresponds well with the North Atlantic cooling that is likely teleconnected via mid-latitude westerlies, particularly during ∼8 ka and after ∼5 ka. These chronostratigraphies suggest that Holocene glaciation in the northwestern part of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen is largely influenced by long-term orbital forcing amplified by large-scale migration of the Earth's thermal equator and the associated hemispheric oceanic-atmospheric systems.

  10. Oblique Chest Views as a Routine Part of Skeletal Surveys Performed for Possible Physical Abuse--Is This Practice Worthwhile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Karen Kirhofer; Prince, Jeffrey S.; Nixon, G. William

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the utility of oblique chest views in the diagnosis of rib fractures when used as a routine part of the skeletal survey performed for possible physical abuse. Methods: Oblique chest views have been part of the routine skeletal survey protocol at Primary Children's Medical Center since October 2002. Dictated radiology reports…

  11. Minimizing the translation error in the application of an oblique single-cut rotation osteotomy: Where to cut?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbe, Johannes G. G.; Strackee, Simon D.; Streekstra, Geert J.

    2017-01-01

    An oblique single cut rotation osteotomy enables correcting angular bone alignment in the coronal, sagittal and transverse planes, with just a single oblique osteotomy, and by rotating one bone segment in the osteotomy plane. However, translational malalignment is likely to exist if the bone is

  12. Analysis of foreign petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Most foreign exploration and production contracts are of two basic types: Production-Sharing contracts in which a portion of oil revenues, 'cost oil,' is available to the contractor for recoupment of exploration and production costs with the remainder, 'profit oil,' being shared according to an agreed-upon formula, and the familiar Tax-Royalty contract in which a share of petroleum revenues goes to the host country 'off the top' as royalties, and operating profits are taxed at the going rate. Bottom line splits of profits between host governments and contractors, which are approximately 50-50 in the United States, are typically in the 60-40 to 85-15 range elsewhere, with lower profit shares being offset by the higher volume potential and lower costs that may be associated with less mature exploration areas. Foreign contract qualities can be grossly compared by walking typical field models through the contracts to arrive at the bottom line profit splits. Variations within the contract forms include government participation, sliding scale contract elements, special taxes related to rates of return, etc. Often, contract terms are subject to negotiation and the tradeoffs between contract elements must be understood. Contract life, amortization schedules, fund repatriation, currency exchange rates, and the interaction of foreign and United States tax regimens are among the other factors that must be considered. Final decisions on foreign ventures must combine consideration of contracts, economic projections, hydrocarbon volumes, exploration cost estimates, and the estimated probability of success into an overall project assessment

  13. The Lanthanide Contraction Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Michael; Oliver, Allen G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-04-19

    A complete, isostructural series of lanthanide complexes (except Pm) with the ligand TREN-1,2-HOIQO has been synthesized and structurally characterized by means of single-crystal X-ray analysis. All complexes are 1D-polymeric species in the solid state, with the lanthanide being in an eight-coordinate, distorted trigonal-dodecahedral environment with a donor set of eight unique oxygen atoms. This series constitutes the first complete set of isostructural lanthanide complexes with a ligand of denticity greater than two. The geometric arrangement of the chelating moieties slightly deviates across the lanthanide series, as analyzed by a shape parameter metric based on the comparison of the dihedral angles along all edges of the coordination polyhedron. The apparent lanthanide contraction in the individual Ln-O bond lengths deviates considerably from the expected quadratic decrease that was found previously in a number of complexes with ligands of low denticity. The sum of all bond lengths around the trivalent metal cation, however, is more regular, showing an almost ideal quadratic behavior across the entire series. The quadratic nature of the lanthanide contraction is derived theoretically from Slater's model for the calculation of ionic radii. In addition, the sum of all distances along the edges of the coordination polyhedron show exactly the same quadratic dependency as the Ln-X bond lengths. The universal validity of this coordination sphere contraction, concomitant with the quadratic decrease in Ln-X bond lengths, was confirmed by reexamination of four other, previously published, almost complete series of lanthanide complexes. Due to the importance of multidentate ligands for the chelation of rare-earth metals, this result provides a significant advance for the prediction and rationalization of the geometric features of the corresponding lanthanide complexes, with great potential impact for all aspects of lanthanide coordination.

  14. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms...... of nutrient delivery and waste product removal, but are also tethered to surrounding fibres by collagen "wires". This paper therefore addresses aspects of the ancillary network of skeletal muscle at both a microscopic and functional level in order to better understand its role holistically as a considerable...

  15. Bunker purchasing with contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    The cost for bunker fuel represents a major part of the daily running costs of liner shipping vessels. The vessels, sailing on a fixed roundtrip of ports, can lift bunker at these ports, having differing and fluctuating prices. The stock of bunker on a vessel is subject to a number of operational...... optimally to reduce overall costs. The Bunker Purchasing with Contracts Problem has been formulated as a mixed integer programme, which has been Dantzig-Wolfe decomposed. To solve it, a novel column generation algorithm has been developed. The algorithm has been run on a series of real-world instances...

  16. Contractions from grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2018-04-01

    We note that large classes of contractions of algebras that arise in physics can be understood purely algebraically via identifying appropriate Zm-gradings (and their generalizations) on the parent algebra. This includes various types of flat space/Carroll limits of finite and infinite dimensional (A)dS algebras, as well as Galilean and Galilean conformal algebras. Our observations can be regarded as providing a natural context for the Grassmann approach of Krishnan et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 2014(3), 36]. We also introduce a related notion, which we call partial grading, that arises naturally in this context.

  17. Tendering specification and contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E. von

    1975-01-01

    The lecture tendering, specification and contracting is prepared in two parts: This first part deals with technical aspects while part two features the commercial and legal situation in the partnership of two: the supplier of the fuel bundles and the utility. In this lecture a look is given on the way how a supplier can offer its fuel and some certain points are mentioned which are important to compare the bid of one competitor to the other. The major points are summarized which are or at least should be in an offer so as to find out which offer is the best. (orig./FW) [de

  18. The Danish Contracting System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Sten; Levring, Peter

    The paper is mainly concerned with the institutional framework of the Danish construction industry, describing structures, rules and actors' roles within a perspective of nationally defined procedural guidelines on construction projects. These aspects are treated under the concept of a "contracting...... system". After a short introduction to the structure and activities of the industry the post-war development is reviewed, in particular emphasising the importance of the early industrialisation process which in an international perspective represents quite unique features. Furthermore the most recent...

  19. Tectonic evolution of a part of the Tethyside orogenic collage: The Kargi Massif, northern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüysüz, Okan

    1990-02-01

    The central part of the Rhodope-Pontide fragment, one of the major tectonic units in Turkey, provides critical data for evaluating the Cimmeride and Alpide evolution of the Mediterranean Tethysides. Tectonic events that affected the central part of the Rhodope-Pontide fragment since the end of the Paleozoic, generated east-west trending belts with the event of every episode redeforming and partly obliterating the structures of previous episodes. This evolution may be conveniently described in terms of three major episodes: (1) Two different realms of pre-Dogger oceanic rocks are present in the area. The northern realm coincided with main branch of Paleo-Tethys that was being actively destroyed by south dipping subduction. The southern realm, the Karakaya ocean, a back arc basin related to this subduction, began opening by rifting of a retroarc carbonate platform during the Permo-Triassic. To the west a continental domain with sparse magmatism seperated the two oceanic areas. Toward the east the two oceans become united by the wedging out of the continental domain. These two pre-Dogger oceans closed during the Lias, and their remnants were emplaced between the southern margin of Laurasia and the fragments of the Cimmerian continent. (2) The second episode partly overlapped the first with rifting south of the Cimmerian continent fragment during the Lias. This rifting was followed by a transgression which covered the ruins of the Cimmeride orogenic belt by the Malm. This rifting concurrently led to the development of the northern branch of the Neo-Tethys and a south facing Atlantic-type continental margin. A southerly thickening sedimentary prism developed on this margin during the Lias to early Cretaceous interval. (3) The floor of the northern branch of Neo-Tethys began to be consumed along the north dipping subduction zone beneath the previosly constructed continental margin. This convergent margin generated a magmatic arc to the north and to the south a subduction

  20. Two modes of orogenic collapse of the Pamir plateau recorded by titanite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, M. A.; Hacker, B. R.; Ratschbacher, L.; Rutte, D.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Processes that operate in the mid- to lower crust during and following continent-continent collision are important for understanding how orogenic plateaux transition from thickening to collapse. In the central and southern Pamir, mid- to lower crustal rocks crop out in two belts of extensional domes. The central Pamir domes were exhumed by symmetrical N-S extension. In contrast, the southern Pamir domes were exhumed by asymmetrical top to the south (NNW-SSE) extension via a rolling-hinge detachment. To investigate the high-temperature exhumation history, titanites were dated using LASS (laser ablation split stream-ICP-MS). A multi-collector ICP was used to collect U-Pb isotopic ratios and a single collector ICP-MS was used to measure trace-element abundances. The data indicate that the central Pamir domes began exhumation synchronously at ~17 Ma. Titanite from the southern Pamir record two periods of protracted (re)crystallization: older metamorphic dates ranging from ~35-18 Ma and younger igneous and metamorphic dates from ~15-7 Ma. Samples with single populations of titanite dates are present throughout both groups. Samples with more-complex date populations typically have distinct trace-element (e.g., Sr, Y, Zr, and Nb) groups that can be used to distinguish different date populations (e.g., older dates may have higher Zr and younger dates lower Zr). The distinct early exhumation histories of the north and south Pamir require either a diachronous single process or two semi-independent processes. The N to S sequence of exhumation, ranges of dates, and overall extension directions may be related to two important plate-tectonic events inferred from seismic data: 1) breakoff of the northward subducting Indian slab around ~20 Ma, and 2) southward subduction and northwestward rollback of the Asian lithosphere between ~15-10 Ma based on geodetic convergence rates and Benioff zone length. We interpret these two lithospheric-detachment events to have driven the

  1. Geochemical modeling of orogenic gold deposit using PCANN hybrid method in the Alut, Kurdistan province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Mohammadjafar; Nasseri, Aynur

    2018-03-01

    In this paper stream sediments based geochemical exploration program with the aim of delineating potentially promising areas by a comprehensive stepwise optimization approach from univariate statistics, PCA, ANN, and fusion method PCANN were under taken for an orogenic gold deposit located in the Alut, Kurdistan province, NW of Iran. At first the data were preprocessed and then PCA were applied to determine the maximum variability directions of elements in the area. Subsequently the artificial neural network (ANN) was used for quick estimation of elemental concentration, as well as discriminating anomalous populations and intelligent determination of internal structure among the data. However, both the methods revealed constraints for modeling. To overcome the deficiency and shortcoming of each individual method a new methodology is presented by integration of both "PCA & ANN" referred as PCANN method. For integrating purpose, the detected PCs pertinent to ore mineralization selected and intruded to neural network structure, as a result different MLPs with various algorithms and structures were produced. The resulting PCANN maps suggest that the gold mineralization and its pathfinder elements (Au, Mo, W, Bi, Sb, Cu, Pb, Ag & As) are associated with metamorphic host rocks intruded by granite bodies in the Alut area. In addition, more concealed and distinct Au anomalies with higher intensity were detected, confirming the privileges of the method in evaluating susceptibility of the area in delineating new hidden potential zones. The proposed method demonstrates simpler network architecture, easy computational implementation, faster training speed, as well as no need to consider any primary assumption about the behavior of data and their probability distribution type, with more satisfactory predicting performance for generating gold potential map of the area. Comparing the results of three methods (PCA, ANN and PCANN), representing the higher efficiency and more

  2. Fluid-driven normal faulting earthquake sequences in the Taiwan orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling-hua; Rau, Ruey-Juin; Lee, En-Jui

    2017-04-01

    Seismicity in the Central Range of Taiwan shows normal faulting mechanisms with T-axes directing NE, subparallel to the strike of the mountain belt. We analyze earthquake sequences occurred within 2012-2015 in the Nanshan area of northern Taiwan which indicating swarm behavior and migration characteristics. We select events larger than 2.0 from Central Weather Bureau catalog and use the double-difference relocation program hypoDD with waveform cross-correlation in the Nanshan area. We obtained a final count of 1406 (95%) relocated earthquakes. Moreover, we compute focal mechanisms using USGS program HASH by P-wave first motion and S/P ratio picking and 114 fault plane solutions with M 3.0-5.87 were determined. To test for fluid diffusion, we model seismicity using the equation of Shapiro et al. (1997) by fitting earthquake diffusing rate D during the migration period. According to the relocation result, seismicity in the Taiwan orogenic belt present mostly N25E orientation parallel to the mountain belt with the same direction of the tension axis. In addition, another seismic fracture depicted by seismicity rotated 35 degree counterclockwise to the NW direction. Nearly all focal mechanisms are normal fault type. In the Nanshan area, events show N10W distribution with a focal depth range from 5-12 km and illustrate fault plane dipping about 45-60 degree to SW. Three months before the M 5.87 mainshock which occurred in March, 2013, there were some foreshock events occurred in the shallow part of the fault plane of the mainshock. Half a year following the mainshock, earthquakes migrated to the north and south, respectively with processes matched the diffusion model at a rate of 0.2-0.6 m2/s. This migration pattern and diffusion rate offer an evidence of 'fluid-driven' process in the fault zone. We also find the upward migration of earthquakes in the mainshock source region. These phenomena are likely caused by the opening of the permeable conduit due to the M 5

  3. Orogenic-type copper-gold-arsenic-(bismuth) mineralization at Flatschach (Eastern Alps), Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raith, Johann G.; Leitner, Thomas; Paar, Werner H.

    2015-10-01

    high Hg content (up to 11 mass %). The Cu-Au deposits in the Flatschach area show similarities with meso- to epizonal orogenic lode gold deposits regarding the geological setting, the structural control of mineralization, the type of alteration, the early (stage 1) sulfide assemblage and composition of gold. Unique about the Flatschach district is the lower-temperature overprint of copper arsenides (domeykite and koutekite) and copper sulfides (djurleite, yarrowite/spionkopite) on earlier formed sulfide mineralization. Based on mineralogical considerations temperature of stage 2 mineralization was between about 70 °C and 160 °C. Gold was locally mobilized during this low-temperature hydrothermal overprint as well as during stage 3 supergene oxidation and cementation processes.

  4. Multiple sulfur isotopes monitor fluid evolution of an Archean orogenic gold deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFlamme, Crystal; Sugiono, Dennis; Thébaud, Nicolas; Caruso, Stefano; Fiorentini, Marco; Selvaraja, Vikraman; Jeon, Heejin; Voute, François; Martin, Laure

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of a gold-bearing hydrothermal fluid from its source to the locus of gold deposition is complex as it experiences rapid changes in thermochemical conditions during ascent through the crust. Although it is well established that orogenic gold deposits are generated during time periods of abundant crustal growth and/or reworking, the source of fluid and the thermochemical processes that control gold precipitation remain poorly understood. In situ analyses of multiple sulfur isotopes offer a new window into the relationship between source reservoirs of Au-bearing fluids and the thermochemical processes that occur along their pathway to the final site of mineralisation. Whereas δ34S is able to track changes in the evolution of the thermodynamic conditions of ore-forming fluids, Δ33S is virtually indelible and can uniquely fingerprint an Archean sedimentary reservoir that has undergone mass independent fractionation of sulfur (MIF-S). We combine these two tracers (δ34S and Δ33S) to characterise a gold-bearing laminated quartz breccia ore zone and its sulfide-bearing alteration halo in the (+6 Moz Au) structurally-controlled Archean Waroonga deposit located in the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Over 250 analyses of gold-associated sulfides yield a δ34S shift from what is interpreted as an early pre-mineralisation phase, with chalcopyrite-pyrrhotite (δ34S = +0.7‰ to +2.9‰) and arsenopyrite cores (δ34S = ∼-0.5‰), to a syn-mineralisation stage, reflected in Au-bearing arsenopyrite rims (δ34S = -7.6‰ to +1.5‰). This shift coincides with an unchanging Δ33S value (Δ33S = +0.3‰), both temporally throughout the Au-hosting hydrothermal sulfide paragenesis and spatially across the Au ore zone. These results indicate that sulfur is at least partially recycled from MIF-S-bearing Archean sediments. Further, the invariant nature of the observed MIF-S signature demonstrates that sulfur is derived from a

  5. Recognition of human gait in oblique and frontal views using Kinect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the recognition of human gait in the oblique and frontal views using novel gait features derived from the skeleton joints provided by Kinect. In D-joint, the skeleton joints were extracted directly from the Kinect, which generates the gait feature. On the other hand, H-joint distance is a feature of distance ...

  6. Study of the state of the plasma produced by oblique-incident laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Jiatian; Zhang Guoping; Liu Wei; Ye Chunfu; Hu Shengyong

    1997-01-01

    The plasma state and the gain region produced by the oblique-incidence laser on Ge target are studied and are compared with that produced by the vertical one. As a result of study, the absorption efficiency of the pumping energy turns far smaller, the plasma state changes remarkable and the gain region becomes much narrower when incident angle is greater than 30 degree

  7. Oblique radiograph for the detection of bone spurs in anterior ankle impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, Niek C. van; Wessel, Ronald N.; Tol, Johannes L.; Maas, M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a radiographic view to detect anteromedial talotibial osteophytes that remain undetected on standard radiographs. Design and patients: In 10 cadaver specimens the maximal size was measured of anteromedial tibial osteophytes that remain undetected on a standard lateral radiograph projection, due to the presence of the anteromedial tibial rim. The average projection of the most prominent anterolateral tibial rim over the anteromedial rim was found to be 7.3 mm. A 7 mm barium-clay osteophyte was attached to this anteromedial rim of the distal tibia. Anteromedial osteophytes become most prominent on an oblique view, in which the radiographic beam is tilted into a 45 craniocaudal direction with the leg in 30 external rotation. This oblique view was compared with the findings of arthroscopic surgery in 25 consecutive patients with anterior ankle impingement syndrome. Results: Medially located tibial and talar osteophytes remained undetected on a standard lateral projection and became visible on the oblique anteromedial impingement (AMI) radiograph. Anterolateral tibial and talar osteophytes were well detected on a standard lateral radiograph projection but were invisible on the AMI view. There was a high correlation between the location of the osteophyte and the location of symptoms and the findings at arthroscopy. Conclusion: A combination of lateral and oblique radiographs can be used to differentiate between anteromedial and anterolateral bony ankle impingement. (orig.)

  8. Multiple Climate States of Habitable Exoplanets: The Role of Obliquity and Irradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, C.; Raible, C. C.; Stocker, T. F.

    2017-01-01

    Stable, steady climate states on an Earth-size planet with no continents are determined as a function of the tilt of the planet’s rotation axis (obliquity) and stellar irradiance. Using a general circulation model of the atmosphere coupled to a slab ocean and a thermodynamic sea ice model, two states, the Aquaplanet and the Cryoplanet, are found for high and low stellar irradiance, respectively. In addition, four stable states with seasonally and perennially open water are discovered if comprehensively exploring a parameter space of obliquity from 0° to 90° and stellar irradiance from 70% to 135% of the present-day solar constant. Within 11% of today’s solar irradiance, we find a rich structure of stable states that extends the area of habitability considerably. For the same set of parameters, different stable states result if simulations are initialized from an aquaplanet or a cryoplanet state. This demonstrates the possibility of multiple equilibria, hysteresis, and potentially rapid climate change in response to small changes in the orbital parameters. The dynamics of the atmosphere of an aquaplanet or a cryoplanet state is investigated for similar values of obliquity and stellar irradiance. The atmospheric circulation substantially differs in the two states owing to the relative strength of the primary drivers of the meridional transport of heat and momentum. At 90° obliquity and present-day solar constant, the atmospheric dynamics of an Aquaplanet state and one with an equatorial ice cover is analyzed.

  9. Youngswick-Austin versus distal oblique osteotomy for the treatment of Hallux Rigidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viladot, Antonio; Sodano, Luca; Marcellini, Lorenzo; Zamperetti, Marco; Hernandez, Elsa Sanchez; Perice, Ramon Viladot

    2017-08-01

    Hallux Rigidus is the most common degenerative joint pathology of the foot. Several procedures are described for the management of this deformity. In this prospective study we compared Youngswick-Austin and distal oblique osteotomy in the treatment of grade II Hallux Rigidus, in terms of clinical outcomes, efficacy and complications. Forty-six patients (50 feet) with moderate Hallux Rigidus (Regnauld grade II) were recruited and operated between March 2009 and December 2012. Surgical technique was Youngswick-Austin osteotomy (Group A) or distal oblique osteotomy (Group B). Mean follow-up was 42.7 ±12.2 (range, 24-70) months. Both groups achieved significant improvement of AOFAS score and first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion (p value Austin and distal oblique osteotomies provides subjective patient improvement and increases the first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion. The results of grade II Hallux Rigidus treatment were comparable when using a Youngswick-Austin or distal oblique osteotomy. Level II, prospective comparative study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oblique propagation of electron thermal modes below the electron plasma frequency without boundary effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.; Sanuki, H.

    1981-08-01

    Propagation characteristics and refractive effects of an oblique electron thermal mode without boundary effects below the electron plasma frequency are studied experimentally and theoretically in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. The behavior of this mode observed experimentally was confirmed by the theoretical analysis based on a new type of ray theory. (author)

  11. Intrinsic carpal ligaments on MR and multidetector CT arthrography: comparison of axial and axial oblique planes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ryan K.L.; Griffith, James F.; Ng, Alex W.H.; Law, Eric K.C. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince Of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Tse, W.L.; Wong, Clara W.Y.; Ho, P.C. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Prince Of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

    2017-03-15

    To compare axial and oblique axial planes on MR arthrography (MRA) and multidetector CT arthrography (CTA) to evaluate dorsal and volar parts of scapholunate (SLIL) and lunotriquetral interosseous (LTIL) ligaments. Nine cadaveric wrists of five male subjects were studied. The visibility of dorsal and volar parts of the SLIL and LTIL was graded semi-quantitatively (good, intermediate, poor) on MRA and CTA. The presence of a ligament tear was determined on arthrosocopy and sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of tear detection were calculated. Oblique axial imaging was particularly useful for delineating dorsal and volar parts of the LTIL on MRA with overall 'good' visibility increased from 11 % to 78 %. The accuracy of MRA and CTA in revealing SLIL and LTIL tear was higher using the oblique axial plane. The overall accuracy for detecting SLIL tear on CTA improved from 94 % to 100 % and from 89 % to 94 % on MRA; the overall accuracy of detecting LTIL tear on CTA improved from 89 % to 100 % and from 72 % to 89 % on MRA Oblique axial imaging during CT and MR arthrography improves detection of tears in the dorsal and volar parts of both SLIL and LTIL. (orig.)

  12. On a non classical oblique derivative problem for parabolic singular integro-differential operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Minh Chuong; Le Quang Trung

    1989-10-01

    In this paper an oblique derivative problem for parabolic singular integro-differential operators was studied. In this problem the direction of the derivative may be tangent to the boundary of the domain. By the large parameter method theorems of existence and uniqueness of solutions of the problem were obtained. (author). 10 refs

  13. Deficiency of the cytoskeletal protein SPECC1L leads to oblique facial clefting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saadi, Irfan; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Gisselbrecht, Stephen S

    2011-01-01

    Genetic mutations responsible for oblique facial clefts (ObFC), a unique class of facial malformations, are largely unknown. We show that loss-of-function mutations in SPECC1L are pathogenic for this human developmental disorder and that SPECC1L is a critical organizer of vertebrate facial morpho...

  14. ACCURACY ANALYSIS FOR AUTOMATIC ORIENTATION OF A TUMBLING OBLIQUE VIEWING SENSOR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Stebner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic camera systems with moving parts are difficult to handle in photogrammetric workflow, because it is not ensured that the dynamics are constant over the recording period. Minimum changes of the camera’s orientation greatly influence the projection of oblique images. In this publication these effects – originating from the kinematic chain of a dynamic camera system – are analysed and validated. A member of the Modular Airborne Camera System family – MACS-TumbleCam – consisting of a vertical viewing and a tumbling oblique camera was used for this investigation. Focus is on dynamic geometric modeling and the stability of the kinematic chain. To validate the experimental findings, the determined parameters are applied to the exterior orientation of an actual aerial image acquisition campaign using MACS-TumbleCam. The quality of the parameters is sufficient for direct georeferencing of oblique image data from the orientation information of a synchronously captured vertical image dataset. Relative accuracy for the oblique data set ranges from 1.5 pixels when using all images of the image block to 0.3 pixels when using only adjacent images.

  15. Integration of aerial oblique imagery and terrestrial imagery for optimized 3D modeling in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Xie, Linfu; Hu, Han; Zhu, Qing; Yau, Eric

    2018-05-01

    Photorealistic three-dimensional (3D) models are fundamental to the spatial data infrastructure of a digital city, and have numerous potential applications in areas such as urban planning, urban management, urban monitoring, and urban environmental studies. Recent developments in aerial oblique photogrammetry based on aircraft or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) offer promising techniques for 3D modeling. However, 3D models generated from aerial oblique imagery in urban areas with densely distributed high-rise buildings may show geometric defects and blurred textures, especially on building façades, due to problems such as occlusion and large camera tilt angles. Meanwhile, mobile mapping systems (MMSs) can capture terrestrial images of close-range objects from a complementary view on the ground at a high level of detail, but do not offer full coverage. The integration of aerial oblique imagery with terrestrial imagery offers promising opportunities to optimize 3D modeling in urban areas. This paper presents a novel method of integrating these two image types through automatic feature matching and combined bundle adjustment between them, and based on the integrated results to optimize the geometry and texture of the 3D models generated from aerial oblique imagery. Experimental analyses were conducted on two datasets of aerial and terrestrial images collected in Dortmund, Germany and in Hong Kong. The results indicate that the proposed approach effectively integrates images from the two platforms and thereby improves 3D modeling in urban areas.

  16. A two-fluid study of oblique tearing modes in a force-free current sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akçay, Cihan, E-mail: akcay@lanl.gov; Daughton, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lukin, Vyacheslav S. [National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230 (United States); Liu, Yi-Hsin [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Kinetic simulations have demonstrated that three-dimensional reconnection in collisionless regimes proceeds through the formation and interaction of magnetic flux ropes, which are generated due to the growth of tearing instabilities at multiple resonance surfaces. Since kinetic simulations are intrinsically expensive, it is desirable to explore the feasibility of reduced two-fluid models to capture this complex evolution, particularly, in the strong guide field regime, where two-fluid models are better justified. With this goal in mind, this paper compares the evolution of the collisionless tearing instability in a force-free current sheet with a two-fluid model and fully kinetic simulations. Our results indicate that the most unstable modes are oblique for guide fields larger than the reconnecting field, in agreement with the kinetic results. The standard two-fluid tearing theory is extended to address the tearing instability at oblique angles. The resulting theory yields a flat oblique spectrum and underestimates the growth of oblique modes in a similar manner to kinetic theory relative to kinetic simulations.

  17. Atmospheric dynamics and habitability range in Earth-like aquaplanets obliquity simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowajewski, Priscilla; Rojas, M.; Rojo, P.; Kimeswenger, S.

    2018-05-01

    We present the evolution of the atmospheric variables that affect planetary climate by increasing the obliquity by using a general circulation model (PlaSim) coupled to a slab ocean with mixed layer flux correction. We increase the obliquity between 30° and 90° in 16 aquaplanets with liquid sea surface and perform the simulation allowing the sea ice cover formation to be a consequence of its atmospheric dynamics. Insolation is maintained constant in each experiment, but changing the obliquity affects the radiation budget and the large scale circulation. Earth-like atmospheric dynamics is observed for planets with obliquity under 54°. Above this value, the latitudinal temperature gradient is reversed giving place to a new regime of jet streams, affecting the shape of Hadley and Ferrel cells and changing the position of the InterTropical Convergence Zone. As humidity and high temperatures determine Earth's habitability, we introduce the wet bulb temperature as an atmospheric index of habitability for Earth-like aquaplanets with above freezing temperatures. The aquaplanets are habitable all year round at all latitudes for values under 54°; above this value habitability decreases toward the poles due to high temperatures.

  18. Multiple Climate States of Habitable Exoplanets: The Role of Obliquity and Irradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, C.; Raible, C. C.; Stocker, T. F., E-mail: stocker@climate.unibe.ch [Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, University of Bern (Switzerland)

    2017-08-01

    Stable, steady climate states on an Earth-size planet with no continents are determined as a function of the tilt of the planet’s rotation axis (obliquity) and stellar irradiance. Using a general circulation model of the atmosphere coupled to a slab ocean and a thermodynamic sea ice model, two states, the Aquaplanet and the Cryoplanet, are found for high and low stellar irradiance, respectively. In addition, four stable states with seasonally and perennially open water are discovered if comprehensively exploring a parameter space of obliquity from 0° to 90° and stellar irradiance from 70% to 135% of the present-day solar constant. Within 11% of today’s solar irradiance, we find a rich structure of stable states that extends the area of habitability considerably. For the same set of parameters, different stable states result if simulations are initialized from an aquaplanet or a cryoplanet state. This demonstrates the possibility of multiple equilibria, hysteresis, and potentially rapid climate change in response to small changes in the orbital parameters. The dynamics of the atmosphere of an aquaplanet or a cryoplanet state is investigated for similar values of obliquity and stellar irradiance. The atmospheric circulation substantially differs in the two states owing to the relative strength of the primary drivers of the meridional transport of heat and momentum. At 90° obliquity and present-day solar constant, the atmospheric dynamics of an Aquaplanet state and one with an equatorial ice cover is analyzed.

  19. Evaluation of macular thickness change after inferior oblique muscle recession surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Turan-Vural

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the changes in macular thickness following inferior oblique muscle recession surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirty-eight eyes from 21 patients undergoing ocular muscle surgery were included. Patients were grouped into three groups based on the type of surgical intervention: Group I (n = 12, inferior oblique recession surgery alone; Group II (n = 12, inferior oblique plus horizontal muscle surgery; Group III (n = 14, horizontal muscle surgery alone. Each eye was scanned using the optical coherence tomography (OCT device preoperatively and on the first postoperative day to measure macular thickness. Results: Following surgery, a significant increase in foveal thickness occurred in Group I (P < 0.05 and Group II (P < 0.01. In addition, a statistically significant difference was observed between the groups with regard to the increase in foveal thickness (P = 0.016, with significantly lower changes in Group III. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that inferior oblique muscle recession surgery is associated with an increase in macular thickness.

  20. Oblique rotaton in canonical correlation analysis reformulated as maximizing the generalized coefficient of determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satomura, Hironori; Adachi, Kohei

    2013-07-01

    To facilitate the interpretation of canonical correlation analysis (CCA) solutions, procedures have been proposed in which CCA solutions are orthogonally rotated to a simple structure. In this paper, we consider oblique rotation for CCA to provide solutions that are much easier to interpret, though only orthogonal rotation is allowed in the existing formulations of CCA. Our task is thus to reformulate CCA so that its solutions have the freedom of oblique rotation. Such a task can be achieved using Yanai's (Jpn. J. Behaviormetrics 1:46-54, 1974; J. Jpn. Stat. Soc. 11:43-53, 1981) generalized coefficient of determination for the objective function to be maximized in CCA. The resulting solutions are proved to include the existing orthogonal ones as special cases and to be rotated obliquely without affecting the objective function value, where ten Berge's (Psychometrika 48:519-523, 1983) theorems on suborthonormal matrices are used. A real data example demonstrates that the proposed oblique rotation can provide simple, easily interpreted CCA solutions.

  1. Non-aligned pulsar magnetosphere: an illustrative model for small obliquity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestel, L.; Wang, Y.M. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Astronomy Centre)

    1982-02-01

    The electromagnetic field outside a pulsar of small obliquity is approximated by Goldreich-Julian (GJ) conditions out to the light-cylinder and by an outgoing vacuum wave beyond, matched by the appropriate surface charge-current distribution. The energy supply for the wave requires current flow between the pulsar and the light-cylinder. As in the earlier proposal for the aligned rotator, the cold electrons carrying the current achieve relativistic energies near the light-cylinder; the consequent inertial and radiation damping forces enable the electrons to drift across the field-lines and so complete their circuits back to the pulsar. It is hypothesized that low-obliquity pulsars are essentially emitters of a plasma-modified low-frequency wave and of gamma-radiation near the light-cylinder. Illustrative models are constructed as perturbations about an analogous approximate model for the aligned case. The precessional torque component accompanying the braking component acts so as to reduce the obliquity. As long as the obliquity is not too large there is no prima facie objection to non-relativistic flow near the star. It is emphasized that fully self-consistent models will have a smooth rather than a sharp transition between the GJ and vacuum domains.

  2. The non-aligned pulsar magnetosphere: an illustrative model for small obliquity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestel, L.; Wang, Y.M.

    1982-01-01

    The electromagnetic field outside a pulsar of small obliquity is approximated by Goldreich-Julian (GJ) conditions out to the light-cylinder and by an outgoing vacuum wave beyond, matched by the appropriate surface charge-current distribution. The energy supply for the wave requires current flow between the pulsar and the light-cylinder. As in the earlier proposal for the aligned rotator, the cold electrons carrying the current achieve relativistic energies near the light-cylinder; the consequent inertial and radiation damping forces enable the electrons to drift across the field-lines and so complete their circuits back to the pulsar. It is hypothesized that low-obliquity pulsars are essentially emitters of a plasma-modified low-frequency wave and of gamma-radiation near the light-cylinder. Illustrative models are constructed as perturbations about an analogous approximate model for the aligned case. The precessional torque component accompanying the braking component acts so as to reduce the obliquity. As long as the obliquity is not too large there is no prima facie objection to non-relativistic flow near the star. It is emphasized that fully self-consistent models will have a smooth rather than a sharp transition between the GJ and vacuum domains. (author)

  3. VASTUS LATERALIS OBLIQUE ACTIVITY DURING GAIT OF SUBJECTS WITH PATELLOFEMORAL PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Moraes Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: So far, little is known about the behavior of electromyographic activity of vastus lateralis oblique muscle during treadmill gait in subjects with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the electromyographic activity of the patellar stabilizers muscles and the angle of the knee joint flexion in subjects with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome. Method: Fifteen subjects without (21 ± 3 years and 12 with patellofemoral pain syndrome (20 ± 2 years were evaluated. The electromyographic activity and flexion angle of the knee joint were obtained during gait on the treadmill with a 5 degree inclination. Results: The knee flexion angle was significantly lower in the subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome when compared with the healthy controls. The electromyographic activity of vastus lateralis longus was significantly greater during gait on the treadmill with inclination in subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome. The results also showed that the electromyographic activity of vastus lateralis oblique and vastus medialis oblique were similar in both groups, regardless of the condition (with/without inclination. Conclusion: We have shown that knee kinematics during gait differs among patients with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome and healthy controls and that a different motor strategy persists even when the pain is no longer present. In addition, the findings suggested that the vastus lateralis oblique has a minor role in patellar stability during gait.

  4. Implementation of the critical points model in a SFM-FDTD code working in oblique incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidi, M; Belkhir, A; Lamrous, O [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Baida, F I, E-mail: omarlamrous@mail.ummto.dz [Departement d' Optique P.M. Duffieux, Institut FEMTO-ST UMR 6174 CNRS Universite de Franche-Comte, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2011-06-22

    We describe the implementation of the critical points model in a finite-difference-time-domain code working in oblique incidence and dealing with dispersive media through the split field method. Some tests are presented to validate our code in addition to an application devoted to plasmon resonance of a gold nanoparticles grating.

  5. Asteroseismic Determination of Obliquities of the Exoplanet Systems Kepler-50 and Kepler-65

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaplin, W. J.; Sanchis-Ojeda, R.; Campante, T. L.

    2013-01-01

    Results on the obliquity of exoplanet host stars - the angle between the stellar spin axis and the planetary orbital axis - provide important diagnostic information for theories describing planetary formation. Here we present the first application of asteroseismology to the problem of stellar obl...

  6. Double oblique MR images of the shoulder. Comparison with conventional images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Taisuke; Saito, Yoko; Yodono, Hiraku; Miura, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Atsushi; Abe, Shuichiro

    1998-01-01

    Because the scapula is not only slanted on transverse sections but also inclines on sagittal sections, we now perform shoulder MR imaging using double oblique images (DOI), which are planes perpendicular or parallel to the long axis of the scapula obtained with oblique sagittal scout imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of double oblique shoulder MR imaging. MR images of shoulders with operatively or arthroscopically proven lesions (20 cases) that had been examined on both conventional images (CI) and DOI were retrospectively reviewed. DOI were compared with CI not only in terms of diagnostic performance but also in their ability to identify the details of shoulder anatomy. All MR studies were done with a shoulder coil on a high-field (1.5 T) unit. Although the accuracy of DOI in diagnosing shoulder disorders such as rotator cuff tear and labrum injury was not as good as that of CI, DOI were better for identifying or discriminating muscles and tendons of the rotator cuff, labralbicipital junction and anterior band of the inferior gleno-humeral ligament, and for recognizing the correct position of the glenoid labrum. MR double oblique imaging of the shoulder provides more detailed information about shoulder anatomy and disorders than conventional imaging. (author)

  7. Oblique incidence of electron beams - comparisons between calculated and measured dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karcher, J.; Paulsen, F.; Christ, G.

    2005-01-01

    Clinical applications of high-energy electron beams, for example for the irradiation of internal mammary lymph nodes, can lead to oblique incidence of the beams. It is well known that oblique incidence of electron beams can alter the depth dose distribution as well as the specific dose per monitor unit. The dose per monitor unit is the absorbed dose in a point of interest of a beam, which is reached with a specific dose monitor value (DIN 6814-8[5]). Dose distribution and dose per monitor unit at oblique incidence were measured with a small-volume thimble chamber in a water phantom, and compared to both normal incidence and calculations of the Helax TMS 6.1 treatment planning system. At 4 MeV and 60 degrees, the maximum measured dose per monitor unit at oblique incidence was decreased up to 11%, whereas at 18MeV and 60 degrees this was increased up to 15% compared to normal incidence. Comparisons of measured and calculated dose distributions showed that the predicted dose at shallow depths is usually higher than the measured one, whereas it is smaller at depths beyond the depth of maximum dose. On the basis of the results of these comparisons, normalization depths and correction factors for the dose monitor value were suggested to correct the calculations of the dose per monitor unit. (orig.)

  8. Obliquely propagating cnoidal waves in a magnetized dusty plasma with variable dust charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, L. L.; Sayal, V. K.

    2009-01-01

    We have studied obliquely propagating dust-acoustic nonlinear periodic waves, namely, dust-acoustic cnoidal waves, in a magnetized dusty plasma consisting of electrons, ions, and dust grains with variable dust charge. Using reductive perturbation method and appropriate boundary conditions for nonlinear periodic waves, we have derived Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the plasma. It is found that the contribution to the dispersion due to the deviation from plasma approximation is dominant for small angles of obliqueness, while for large angles of obliqueness, the dispersion due to magnetic force becomes important. The cnoidal wave solution of the KdV equation is obtained. It is found that the frequency of the cnoidal wave depends on its amplitude. The effects of the magnetic field, the angle of obliqueness, the density of electrons, the dust-charge variation and the ion-temperature on the characteristics of the dust-acoustic cnoidal wave are also discussed. It is found that in the limiting case the cnoidal wave solution reduces to dust-acoustic soliton solution.

  9. Historical oblique aerial photographs as a powerful tool for communicating landscape changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a potential new form of data generation and data display to be used for communicating landscape change at local scales, utilizing a huge collection of oblique aerial photographs held by the Royal Library in Copenhagen. The collection contains local scale imagery covering all...

  10. Do oblique views add value in the diagnosis of spondylolysis in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Nicholas A; Miller, Robert; Baldwin, Keith; Zhu, X; Spiegel, David; Drummond, Denis; Sankar, Wudbhav N; Flynn, John M

    2013-05-15

    Anteroposterior, lateral, and right and left oblique lumbar spine radiographs are often a standard part of the evaluation of children who are clinically suspected of having spondylolysis. Recent concerns regarding radiation exposure and costs have brought the value of oblique radiographs into question. The purpose of the present study was to determine the diagnostic value of oblique views in the diagnosis of spondylolysis. Radiographs of fifty adolescents with L5 spondylolysis without spondylolisthesis and fifty controls were retrospectively reviewed. All controls were confirmed not to have spondylolysis on the basis of computed tomographic scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, or bone scanning. Anteroposterior, lateral, and right and left oblique radiographs of the lumbar spine were arranged into two sets of slides: one showing four views (anteroposterior, lateral, right oblique, and left oblique) and one showing two views (anteroposterior and lateral only). The slides were randomly presented to four pediatric spine surgeons for diagnosis, with four-view slides being presented first, followed by two-view slides. The slides for twenty random patients were later reanalyzed in order to calculate of intra-rater agreement. A power analysis demonstrated that this study was adequately powered. Inter-rater and intra-rater agreement were assessed on the basis of the percentage of overall agreement and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). PCXMC software was used to generate effective radiation doses. Study charges were determined from radiology billing data. There was no significant difference in sensitivity and specificity between four-view and two-view radiographs in the diagnosis of spondylolysis. The sensitivity was 0.59 for two-view studies and 0.53 for four-view studies (p = 0.33). The specificity was 0.96 for two-view studies and 0.94 for four-view studies (p = 0.60). Inter-rater agreement, intra-rater agreement, and agreement with gold-standard ICC values

  11. Seismic evidence for multiple-stage exhumation of high/ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks in the eastern Dabie orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yinhe; Zhao, Kaifeng; Tang, Chi-Chia; Xu, Yixian

    2018-05-01

    The Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt in China contains one of the largest exposures of high and ultrahigh pressure (HP and UHP) metamorphic rocks in the world. The origin of HP/UHP metamorphic rocks and their exhumation to the surface in this belt have attracted great interest in the geologic community because the study of exhumation history of HP/UHP rocks helps to understand the process of continental-continental collision and the tectonic evolution of post-collision. However, the exhumation mechanism of the HP-UHP rocks to the surface is still contentious. In this study, by deploying 28 broadband seismic stations in the eastern Dabie orogenic belt and combining seismic data from 40 stations of the China National Seismic Network (CNSN), we image the high-resolution crustal isotropic shear velocity and radial anisotropy structure using ambient noise tomography. Our high-resolution 3D models provide new information about the exhumation mechanism of HP/UHP rocks and the origin of two dome structures.

  12. Sulfur and lead isotope geochemistry of the orogenic gold deposits in the eastern Kunlun area, Qinghai province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Chengyou; Zhang Dequan; Li Daxin; She Hongquan; Zhu Huaping

    2003-01-01

    Based on researches on the basic geological characteristics and sulfur and lead isotopic geochemistry of four typical gold deposits, it is considered that they have many similar geo-geochemical characteristics and are all related genetically to orogenic process. Therefore, they should belong to a type of orogenic gold deposits according to the newest classification of gold deposits provided by Kerrich et al. (2000). There is a big change in the average 34 S values of the sulfides selected from different deposits, varying from -3.7‰-4.4‰ and tower-shape distribution is apparent. The lead isotope in four gold deposits is characterized by high compositions and minor changes, with 206 Pb/ 204 Pb > 18.3380, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb > 15.5555, 208 Pb/ 204 Pb >38.1796 in ores and wall-rocks, it can be concluded that the ore-forming material consisting of sulfur and lead are mainly derived from wall-rocks. Intensive subduction and collision during late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic not only formed deep faults, large-scale shear belt, and low-order folds and faults but also induced fluidization and mineralization, and resulted in formation and zonal distribution of several large or medium gold deposits in this area. (authors)

  13. IPP fuel contracts - creating certain contracts for uncertain times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, I. [Coddington International Pty. Ltd., Milsons Point, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    Coal contracts for the new Asian Independent Power Producers (IPPs) are examined. Since most IPPs will be selling to state electricity utilities, often in competition with power plant using other fuels, coal based IPPs must negotiate advantageous coal supply contracts several years before the commissioning of a plant, and must ensure security of supply for at least the life of the construction loan. A more recent trend in the developed world is the Merchant IPP, where there is no guaranteed electricity sale. Lenders are wary of IPPs relying an imported coal, and insist on binding fuel contracts, while coal companies are wary of the quantity of information demanded by these lenders. A full understanding of the risks involved is needed; and a method of price indexation for the contracts. Contracts must also specify security of supply, coal quality, freight contracts and other details. 2 figs.

  14. Characteristics of nuclear contracts. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.

    1976-01-01

    While the object of nuclear contracts is specific, these contracts are concluded according to proven techniques based on general regulations on contracts. Following a review of contract classification, they are differentiated according to the nature of the co-contracting parties, the purpose of the contract itself, the procedure for drawing up the contracts, and payment. The operations prior to the contract vary in that they may include a call for tenders, an option for delays or a letter of intent. (NEA) [fr

  15. Active shortening, intermontane basin formation, and geomorphic evolution in an orogenic plateau: Central Puna Plateau, NW Argentina (24°37'S, 67°03'W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Manfred R.; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Freymark, Jessica; Pingel, Heiko

    2017-04-01

    The high-elevation Andean Plateau (Altiplano-Puna; 4km) is a first-order morphotectonic province of the Central Andes and constitutes the world's second largest orogenic plateau. While there are many unifying basin characteristics in this region, including internal drainage, semi-arid to arid climate and associated deposition of evaporites, there are notable differences between the northern and southern parts of the plateau. In contrast to the vast basins of the Altiplano (north) and incipient establishment of fluvial connectivity and sediment transport to the foreland, the Puna (south) comprises numerous smaller basins, bordered by reverse-fault bounded ranges up to 6 km high. The plateau is internally drained and fluvial connectivity with the foreland does not exist leading to thick sedimentary basin fills that comprise continental evaporites, volcanic and clastic deposits, typically between 3 and 5 km thick. However, repeated impacts of climate change and superposed tectonic activity in the southern plateau have resulted in further basin differentiation, abandonment or re-arrangement of fluvial networks and impacts on sediment transport. Here we report evidence for sustained contractional tectonic activity in the Pocitos Basin in the southern plateau. On the western margin of the basin fanning of dipping strata and regraded, steeply inclined gravel-covered pediment surfaces and wind gaps associated with gravel derived from distant sources in the west document late Tertiary to Pleistocene growth of an approximately N-S oriented and N plunging anticline. The growth of the eastern limb of this anticline has caused the isolation of a formerly more extensive basin. In addition, Late Pleistocene and Holocene lake shorelines and lacustrine deposits are tilted eastward along the same structure and InSAR measurements of deformed lake terraces document that the fold is growing. Despite widely reported extensional faulting in the southern Puna, we conclude (1) that the

  16. 48 CFR 315.371 - Contract preparation and award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 315.371 Contract... the contract until the finance office certifies that the funds are available for obligation. ...

  17. TraceContract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavelund, Klaus; Barringer, Howard

    2012-01-01

    TraceContract is an API (Application Programming Interface) for trace analysis. A trace is a sequence of events, and can, for example, be generated by a running program, instrumented appropriately to generate events. An event can be any data object. An example of a trace is a log file containing events that a programmer has found important to record during a program execution. Trace - Contract takes as input such a trace together with a specification formulated using the API and reports on any violations of the specification, potentially calling code (reactions) to be executed when violations are detected. The software is developed as an internal DSL (Domain Specific Language) in the Scala programming language. Scala is a relatively new programming language that is specifically convenient for defining such internal DSLs due to a number of language characteristics. This includes Scala s elegant combination of object-oriented and functional programming, a succinct notation, and an advanced type system. The DSL offers a combination of data-parameterized state machines and temporal logic, which is novel. As an extension of Scala, it is a very expressive and convenient log file analysis framework.

  18. Contracts in Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka GRZESIOK-HOROSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present makes a contribution to the discussion on contracts in administration under Polish law. It concentrates on theoretical issues, but ones of considerable practical significance. Prior Work though relatively poorly explored, field. This paper is a result of academic considerations on the classical institution of civil law, namely a bilateral juridical act significance of this area may be demonstrated by the fact that one scientific conference and a collection of papers have been devoted to contracts in administration. as research method, the analysis of jurisprudence and doctrinal writings referring to law currently in force. The paper discusses as well the draft of the administrative law, and includes comparative remarks. put forward certain comments pertainin legislation. The authors formulate as well outline theses interesting but complicated matters. As a voice in the doctrinal dispute it can als useful for law students. Value composition. Starting from gener the binding law and proposed amendments. The functioning in foreign countries and proposals of regulatory solutions.

  19. UKAEA'S evolving contract philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has gone through fundamental change over the last ten years. At the heart of this change has been UKAEA's relationship with the contracting and supply market. This paper describes the way in which UKAEA actively developed the market to support the decommissioning programme, and how the approach to contracting has evolved as external pressures and demands have changed. UKAEA's pro-active approach to industry has greatly assisted the development of a healthy, competitive market for services supporting decommissioning in the UK. There have been difficult changes and many challenges along the way, and some retrenchment was necessary to meet regulatory requirements. Nevertheless, UKAEA has sustained a high level of competition - now measured in terms of competed spend as a proportion of competable spend - with annual out-turns consistently over 80%. The prime responsibility for market development will pass to the new Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) in 2005, as the owner, on behalf of the Government, of the UK's civil nuclear liabilities. The preparatory work for the NDA indicates that the principles established by UKAEA will be carried forward. (author)

  20. Graded versus ungraded inferior oblique anterior transposition in patients with asymmetric dissociated vertical deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavi, Zhale; Feizi, Mohadeseh; Naderi, Ali; Sabbaghi, Hamideh; Behradfar, Narges; Yaseri, Mehdi; Faghihi, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    To report the surgical outcomes of graded versus ungraded inferior oblique anterior transposition (IOAT) in treatment of patients with asymmetric dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) and bilateral inferior oblique overaction (IOOA). A total of 74 eyes of 37 patients with asymmetric DVD (interocular difference of ≥5 Δ ) and bilateral IOOA of > +1 were included in this randomized clinical trial. In the ungraded group (n = 18), both inferior oblique muscles were sutured at the inferior rectus level; in the graded group (n = 19), the inferior oblique muscles of eyes with more DVD were sutured at the level of the inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles of eyes with less DVD were sutured 2 mm posterior to the level of the inferior rectus muscle. DVD was significantly reduced in each group (P < 0.001 for both). Although the postoperative mean difference of asymmetry of DVD was less in the ungraded group compared to the graded group (1.2 ± 1.9 vs 3.2 ± 1.2 [P = 0.001]), the absolute amounts of reduction of DVD asymmetry were similar (4.3 ± 2.3 vs 4.4 ± 3.1 [P = 0.78]). IOOA and V patterns were also reduced postoperatively. Each method of IOAT was effective in reducing DVD, asymmetry, IOOA, and V patterns. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Asymmetric growth of collapsed caldera by oblique subsidence during the 2000 eruption of Miyakejima, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geshi, Nobuo

    2009-04-01

    Oblique development of the ring faults reflecting the structural heterogeneities inside the volcano formed many asymmetric structures of Miyakejima 2000 AD caldera. The asymmetry includes (a) offset location of the ring faults with respect to the associated shallow magma chamber, (b) unequal outward migration of the caldera wall 600 m at the southeastern rim but only 200 m at the northwestern rim, (c) development of tilted terrace only at the southeastern caldera margin, (d) eruption sites and fumaroles being confined to the southern part of the caldera. Geophysical data, including ground deformation and seismic activity, indicates the offset of the location of the magma chamber about 2 km south of the caldera center on the surface. The ring faults propagated from the deflating magma chamber obliquely about 30 degrees toward the summit. The oblique subsidence of the cylindrical block formed a wider instable zone, particularly in the southeastern side of the ring fault that enhanced the larger outward migration of the caldera rim and also caused the formation of the outer half-ring fault bordering the tilting slope at the southern part. Ascending pass of the buoyant magma along the tilted ring faults was concentrated in the southern half of the caldera and consequently the distributions of the eruption sites and fumaroles are localized in the southern-half part of the caldera. The structure of the Miyakejima 2000 caldera with complete development of the ring faults, its high roof aspect ratio and oblique subsidence is clearly distinguishable from trapdoor-type caldera. The oblique development of the ring faults can be controlled by the mechanical contrast between the solidified conduits and surrounding fragile volcanic edifice. Asymmetric development of the Miyakejima caldera shows that the collapsed calderas are potential indicators of the heterogeneous structures inside of the volcano, particularly in the case of small-size caldera.

  2. Cervical spine trauma radiographs: Swimmers and supine obliques; an exploration of current practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, Michael, E-mail: michael.fell@mkgeneral.nhs.u [Milton Keynes General Hospital, Radiology Standing Way, Eaglestone, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire MK6 5LD (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The study objectives were: to investigate current cervical spine radiographic imaging practices in conscious adult patients with suspected neck injury; reasons behind variation and consideration of dose estimates were explored. Comparison with a previous survey has been made. Questionnaires were sent to superintendent radiographers responsible for accident and emergency X-ray departments in English trusts with over 8500 emergency admissions per year, with a response rate of 97% (n = 181/186). Departmental cervical spine imaging protocols were reported by 82% of respondents. None use fewer than the three standard projections; if the cervicothoracic junction (C7/T1), is not adequately demonstrated 87% use swimmers projections, 9% supine obliques, 3% CT alone. Following projectional radiography, 97% perform CT. A significant (p = 0.018) increase was found since 1999 in CT use once the swimmers projection fails; fewer now use obliques at this point, continuing with CT instead. No significant difference (p = 0.644) was found in choice of first supplementary radiographs; despite British Trauma Society's recommendation to undertake supine obliques, swimmers remain the most widespread technique. An 85% response rate (n = 103/121) completed a second questionnaire, exploring reasons behind the various practices. Several reported a perceived difficulty in interpreting oblique radiographs, some a concern over high dose of the swimmers. Numerous issues affect the acquisition of cervical spine radiographs. Patient radiation dose should be a major consideration in selection of technique. A potential need for training in interpretation of obliques is highlighted. Specific guidelines for optimum projections should be researched, and protocols issued to ensure best practice.

  3. Combining evolutionary algorithms with oblique decision trees to detect bent-double galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu-Paz, Erick; Kamath, Chandrika

    2000-10-01

    Decision tress have long been popular in classification as they use simple and easy-to-understand tests at each node. Most variants of decision trees test a single attribute at a node, leading to axis- parallel trees, where the test results in a hyperplane which is parallel to one of the dimensions in the attribute space. These trees can be rather large and inaccurate in cases where the concept to be learned is best approximated by oblique hyperplanes. In such cases, it may be more appropriate to use an oblique decision tree, where the decision at each node is a linear combination of the attributes. Oblique decision trees have not gained wide popularity in part due to the complexity of constructing good oblique splits and the tendency of existing splitting algorithms to get stuck in local minima. Several alternatives have been proposed to handle these problems including randomization in conjunction wiht deterministic hill-climbing and the use of simulated annealing. In this paper, we use evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to determine the split. EAs are well suited for this problem because of their global search properties, their tolerance to noisy fitness evaluations, and their scalability to large dimensional search spaces. We demonstrate our technique on a synthetic data set, and then we apply it to a practical problem from astronomy, namely, the classification of galaxies with a bent-double morphology. In addition, we describe our experiences with several split evaluation criteria. Our results suggest that, in some cases, the evolutionary approach is faster and more accurate than existing oblique decision tree algorithms. However, for our astronomical data, the accuracy is not significantly different than the axis-parallel trees.

  4. A numerical simulation of climate changes during the obliquity cycle on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, L.M.; Walker, J.C.G.; Kuhn, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    A one-dimensional seasonal energy balance climate model has been developed for the Martian surface and coupled to a model of CO 2 distribution between atmosphere, regolith, and polar caps. This model takes into account the greenhouse warming of carbon dioxide, the meridional transport of heat, the CO 2 condensation and sublimation cycle, and its adsorption in the regolith. The model takes into consideration the diurnal variation of solar irradiation, since it is shown that disregard of this effect yields temperatures too high by several degrees. The yearly-averaged temperatures calculated from this climate model at different obliquities are used to estimate the importance of CO 2 exchanges between the regolith and atmosphere-cap systems during the obliquity cycle. For this purpose, the equation of thermal diffusion into the ground is solved for each latitude belt. The results differ substantially from those of previous studies, due in part to the consideration of the diurnal and seasonal variations of the solar irradiance. The model shows the importance of taking these short-period variations into account instead of using yearly-averaged quantities, due to the strong nonlinearity of the climate system on Mars. The roles of meridional heat transport and greenhouse warming are analyzed and shown to be important. For example, a permanent polar cap of carbon dioxide is destroyed by heat transport when the obliquity is high, while at low obliquity, high-pressure systems without permanent cap can exist if enough exchangeable carbon dioxide is available. Further, the results show the possible existence of hysteresis cycles in the formation and sublimation of permanent deposits during the course of the obliquity cycle

  5. Extreme mass flux from the glaciated, collisional St. Elias Orogen: Preliminary results from IODP Expedition 341 (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, S. P.; Jaeger, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 341 drilled a cross-margin transect to investigate the linkages between global climate change, modification of the dynamics of surficial processes, and subsequent tectonic responses. The Gulf of Alaska (GoA) borders the St. Elias orogen, the highest coastal mountain range on Earth. Exp. 341 drilled five sites within a regional seismic reflection grid that spans from the distal Surveyor Fan to the continental shelf. More than 3000 m of high-quality core coupled with seismic reflection profiles collected with nested vertical resolution allows us to address the major objectives of drilling in the GoA. These objectives were to: 1) document the tectonic response of an active orogenic system to late Miocene to recent climate change; 2) establish the timing of advance/retreat phases of the northern Cordilleran ice sheet to test its relation to dynamics of other global ice sheets; 3) implement an expanded source-to-sink study of the interactions between glacial, tectonic, and oceanographic processes responsible for creation of one of the thickest Neogene high-latitude continental margin sequences; 4) understand the dynamics of productivity, nutrients, freshwater input to the ocean, and ocean circulation in the northeast Pacific and their role in the global carbon cycle, and 5) document the spatial and temporal behavior of the geomagnetic field at extremely high temporal resolution in an under-sampled region of the globe. The Exp. 341 cross-margin transect discovered transitions in sediment accumulation rates from >100 m/Ma at the distal site to > 1000 m/Ma in the proximal fan, slope and on the continental shelf that provide a telescoping view of strata formation from the Miocene to the Holocene. Complete recovery and development of spliced sedimentary records of the Pleistocene through Holocene were achieved at the distal, proximal, and slope Sites U1417, U1418, and U1419, respectively, because of exceptional piston core

  6. 48 CFR 1316.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1316.406 Section 1316.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1316.406 Contract clauses. Insert a clause...

  7. 48 CFR 716.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 716.406 Section 716.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost Reimbursement Contracts 716.406 Contract clauses. The...

  8. 48 CFR 916.307 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 916.307 Section 916.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 916.307 Contract clauses. (g) Insert the...

  9. 48 CFR 732.111 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 732.111... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING General 732.111 Contract clauses. (a) [Reserved] (b) USAID may... Agency-specific indefinite quantity contracts that are a combination of contract types. Rather than using...

  10. 48 CFR 935.071 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 935.071... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 935.071 Contract clause. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 952.235-71, Research Misconduct, in contracts, including management and operating...

  11. New seismic observation on the lithosphere and slab subduction beneath the Indo-Myanmar block: Implications for continent oblique subduction and transition to oceanic slab subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, M.; He, Y.; Zheng, T.; Mon, C. T.; Thant, M.; Hou, G.; Ai, Y.; Chen, Q. F.; Sein, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Indo-Myanmar block locates to the southern and southeastern of the Eastern Himalayan Syntax (EHS) and marks a torsional boundary of the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates. There are two fundamental questions concerned on the tectonics of Indo-Myanmar block since the Cenozoic time. One is whether and how the oblique subduction is active in the deep; the other is where and how the transition from oceanic subduction and continental subduction operates. However, the two problems are still under heated debate mainly because the image of deep structure beneath this region is still blurring. Since June, 2016, we have executed the China-Myanmar Geophysical Survey in the Myanmar Orogen (CMGSMO) and deployed the first portable seismic array in Myanmar in cooperation with Myanmar Geosciences Society (MGS). This array contains 70 stations with a dense-deployed main profile across the Indo-Myanmar Range, Central Basin and Shan State Plateau along latitude of 22° and a 2-D network covering the Indo-Myanmar Range and the western part of the Central Basin. Based on the seismic data collected by the new array, we conducted the studies on the lithospheric structure using the routine surface wave tomography and receiver function CCP stacking. The preliminary results of surface wave tomography displayed a remarkable high seismic velocity fabric in the uppermost of mantle beneath the Indo-Myanmar Range and Central Basin, which was interpreted as the subducted slab eastward. Particularly, we found a low velocity bulk within the high-velocity slab, which was likely to be a slab window due to the slab tearing. The preliminary results of receiver function CCP stacking showed the obvious variations of the lithospheric structures from the Indo-Myanmar Range to the Central Basin and Shan State Plateau. The lithospheric structure beneath the Indo-Myanmar Range is more complex than that beneath the Central Basin and Shan State Plateau. Our resultant high-resolution images

  12. Compositional specification of commercial contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Elsborg, Ebbe; Henglein, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    -definable analysis of their state before, during and after execution. We provide several realistic examples of commercial contracts and their analyses. A variety of (real) contracts can be expressed in such a fashion as to support their integration, management and analysis in an operational environment......We present a declarative language for compositional specification of contracts governing the exchange of resources. It extends Eber and Peyton Jones’s declarative language for specifying financial contracts (Jones et al. in The Fun of Programming. 2003) to the exchange of money, goods and services...... amongst multiple parties and complements McCarthy’s Resources, Events and Agents (REA) accounting model (McCarthy in Account Rev. LVII(3), 554–578, 1982) with a view- independent formal contract model that supports definition of user-defined contracts, automatic monitoring under execution and user...

  13. Corrective justice and contract law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Hevia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  14. Incentive contracts and time use

    OpenAIRE

    Tor Viking Eriksson; Jaime Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Empirical studies on incentive contracts have primarily been concerned with the effects on employees’ productivity and earnings. The productivity increases associated with such contracts may, however, come at the expense of quality of life at or outside work. In this paper we study the effect on the employees’ non-work activities, testing whether incentive contracts lead to a change in the allocation of time across work and non-work activities. In doing so, we distinguish between two effects,...

  15. Methodological remarks on contraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    Because contraction analysis stems from a differential and incremental framework, the nature and methodology of contraction-based proofs are significantly different from those of their Lyapunov-based counterparts. This paper specifically studies this issue, and illustrates it by revisiting some c...... classical examples traditionally addressed using Lyapunov theory. Even in these cases, contraction tools can often yield significantly simplified analysis. The examples include adaptive control, robotics, and a proof of convergence of the deterministic Extended Kalman Filter....

  16. Judges, commerce and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Gava, John

    2010-01-01

    John Gava, Reader at Adelaide Law School, considers the question how should judges decide commercial cases, in particular, contract cases? He looks at the circumstances and impact of the use of contract law, with attention on common law contract and market needs. Published in Amicus Curiae – Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by SALS at the IALS (Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, School of Advanced Study, Un...

  17. On Permuting Cut with Contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Borisavljevic, Mirjana; Dosen, Kosta; Petric, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents a cut-elimination procedure for intuitionistic propositional logic in which cut is eliminated directly, without introducing the multiple-cut rule mix, and in which pushing cut above contraction is one of the reduction steps. The presentation of this procedure is preceded by an analysis of Gentzen's mix-elimination procedure, made in the perspective of permuting cut with contraction. It is also shown that in the absence of implication, pushing cut above contraction doesn't p...

  18. Corrective justice and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Hevia

    2010-01-01

    This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  19. Forthcoming indefinite contract review procedure

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2011-01-01

    The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of an indefinite contract will be published in early April 2011. In the meantime, the list of posts to be opened this spring is available at the following address: Indefinite contract posts - spring 2011 A second exercise will take place in autumn 2011 and, as of 2012, the indefinite contract award procedure will only be held once a year, in autumn. For more information please consult: https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/IndefiniteContracts.asp  

  20. Work and minor work contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The Work and Minor Work contracts are all of the result-oriented type. The work is specified by CERN and the contractor is given full responsibility for its performance. The contracts are thus very similar to supply contracts. The re-tendering of the existing contracts is almost complete, except for some building maintenance contracts. A new cycle of re-tendering for some activities will be launched in the next twelve months. The total estimated expenditure in the year 2000 for the contracts referred to in this document is 27 750 000 Swiss francs at 1999 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to approve the proposed expenditure for the extension of contracts for which the estimated amount for the year 2000 exceeds 750 000 Swiss francs, namely those under references 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 23, highlighted in Table I; - to take note that all Work and Minor Work contracts have been tendered since 1 January 1994, except the small contracts shown under references 12 and 16 in Table I; - to take note that the ...

  1. URGENSI STUDI TENTANG PROCUREMENT CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Sogar Simamora

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Contractualization is kind of goverment activity in acquiring goods, services and infrastructure as well. Procurement contract has several important function especially in enhancing economic development in a state. In Indonesia, this kind of contract also has function in empowering micro economic scale. Since the aim of procurement study is to provide equal protection between public fund interest in one hand and privat sector in the other hand, general principle of contract law must be taken into consideration together with transparency as the most important principle in government contract.

  2. Unfair contract terms in B2C contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Loos, M.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Because of its textual similarity to the Unfair Terms Directive 1993, Chapter 8 of the proposed CESL, on ‘Unfair contract terms’, can benefit from two decades of interpretative experience which is likely to provide a comparably high degree of instant legal certainty to contracting parties.

  3. Miocene magmatism and tectonics within the Peri-Alboran orogen (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Azzouzi, M.; Bellon, H.; Coutelle, A.; Réhault, J.-P.

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper concerns Miocene igneous activity in the Alboran Sea and Peri-Alboran area (northern Morocco, western Algeria and Betic Cordilleras in Spain), considering its age and its location with regard to major tectonics structures. We have compiled previous K-Ar isotopic ages of lavas and plutonic boulders and intrusives with an error of ±1σ and completed this set by a new K-Ar isotopic age for andesitic tuffites from Alboran Island. Geochemistry of most of these samples has been considered after previous analyses completed with new data for Spain magmatism. These two sets of data allow us to place the magmatic activity within the regional stratigraphy and tectonics and their chronological framework of the three major tectonic phases of the Maghrebian orogen, at 17 Ma (Burdigalian), 15 Ma (Langhian) and 9 Ma (Tortonian). Petro-geochemical characteristics are compared through time and geographical locations. A major goal of this coupled approach is to help the elaboration of possible geodynamical processes. As an application, we present the case study of the Dellys, Djinet and Thenia region (east of Algiers) where the successive magmatic events between 19.4 ± 1 and 11.6 ± 0.5 Ma are closely related to the local tectonics and sedimentation. The Peri-Alboran igneous activity is placed in a multidisciplinary framework. Timing of activity is defined according to the ages of the neighbouring sedimentary units and the K-Ar ages of igneous rocks. In Spain, the Cabo de Gata-Carboneras magmatic province displays late Oligocene and early Miocene leucogranitic dikes, dated from 24.8 ± 1.3 to 18.1 ± 1.2 Ma; three following andesitic to rhyolitic events took place around 15.1 ± 0.8 to 14.0 ± 0.7 Ma, 11.8 ± 0.6 to 9.4 ± 0.4 Ma, 8.8 ± 0.4 to 7.9 ± 0.4 Ma; this last event displays also granitic rocks. Lamproitic magmas dated between 8.4 ± 0.4 and 6.76 ± 0.04 Ma were emplaced after the Tortonian phase. In Morocco, after the complex building of the Ras Tarf

  4. Natural and mining-related mercury in an orogenic greywacke terrane, South Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holley, E.A.; Craw, D.; Kim, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is naturally present in warm springs and mesothermal (orogenic) gold-bearing quartz vein systems in the South Island of New Zealand. Mercury amalgamation was used historically in ore processing at gold (Au) mines, resulting in composite natural and anthropogenic Hg signatures at these sites. This study compares natural Hg enrichment of the Au vein systems, residual anthropogenic Hg added for amalgamation, and enrichment of naturally present Hg during ore processing. Mercury concentration data are presented for solids and water at historic mine sites, the modern Macraes mine, fault-related warm springs, and zones of naturally occurring cinnabar and Hg-bearing Au. Arsenic (As) concentrations are also presented, as As is the most environmentally significant element in this tectonic setting. Tailings and processing residues at historic mine sites (Blackwater mine, West Coast; Golden Point and Golden Bar, Hyde-Macraes shear zone) contain up to 1000 mg/kg Hg, and in adjacent surface waters Hg is at or slightly above background from 0.6 to 0.8 ng/L. Relative to South Island Hg, As is more environmentally significant: solid wastes at some historic mine and mineral processing sites contain up to 30.5 wt% As due to enrichment of natural As in mineralised rocks. Shallow groundwater and processing waters at the modern Macraes mine are up to 0.01 mg/L Hg due to natural Hg in mineralised rocks, and no significant Hg elevation is evident in nearby surface waters, which are 3 to 10 4 times higher than primary ore, and Hg is disproportionally increased relative to As, indicating that much of the Hg was added during the amalgamation process. Natural cinnabar deposition from warm springs results in localised, strongly elevated Hg, equal to or less than the Hg contents in historic mine processing residues. Warm spring precipitates are up to 111 mg/kg Hg and waters are 0.3 μg/L Hg, comparable to data reported for active North Island geothermal (epithermal-style) systems

  5. Geological and geochemical implications of the genesis of the Qolqoleh orogenic gold mineralisation, Kurdistan Province (Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Batoul; Ahmadnejad, Farhad

    2015-03-01

    The Qolqoleh gold deposit is located in the northwestern part of the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ), within the NE-SW trending Qolqoleh shear zone. Oligocene granitoids, Cretaceous meta-limestones, schists and metavolcanics are the main lithological units. Chondrite-normalised REE patterns of the ore-hosting metavolcanics indicate REE enrichment relative to hanging wall (chlorite-sericite schist) and footwall (meta-limestone) rocks. The pattern also reflects an enrichment in LREE relative to HREE. It seems that the LREE enrichment is related to the circulation of SO42- and CO2-bearing fluids and regional metamorphism in the Qolqoleh shear zone. Both positive and negative Eu anomalies are observed in shear-zone metavolcanics. These anomalies are related to the degree of plagioclase alteration during gold mineralisation and hydrothermal alteration. In progressing from a metavolcanic protomylonite to an ultramylonite, significant changes occurred in the major/trace element and REE concentration. Utilising an Al-Fe-Ti isocon for the ore-hosting metavolcanics shows that Sc, Y, K, U, P, and M-HREE (except Eu) are relatively unchanged; S, As, Ag, Au, Ca, LOI, Rb and LREE are enriched, and Sr, Ba, Eu, Cr, Co and Ni decrease with an increasing degree of deformation. Based on geochemical features and comparison with other well-known shear zones in the world, the study area is best classified as an Isovolume-Gain (IVG) type shear zone and orogenic type gold mineralisation. Based on the number of phases observed at room temperature and their microthermometric behaviour, three fluid inclusion types have been recognised in quartz-sulphide and quartz-calcite veins: Type I monophase aqueous inclusions, Type II two-phase liquid-vapour (L-V) inclusions which are subdivided into two groups based on the homogenisation temperature (Th): a) L-V inclusions with Th from 205 to 255°C and melting temperature of last ice (Tm) from -3 to -9°C. b) L-V inclusions with higher Th from 335 to 385

  6. THERMAL PHASES OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS: ESTIMATING THERMAL INERTIA FROM ECCENTRICITY, OBLIQUITY, AND DIURNAL FORCING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Voigt, Aiko [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstr. 53, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Abbot, Dorian S., E-mail: n-cowan@nortwestern.edu [Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    In order to understand the climate on terrestrial planets orbiting nearby Sun-like stars, one would like to know their thermal inertia. We use a global climate model to simulate the thermal phase variations of Earth analogs and test whether these data could distinguish between planets with different heat storage and heat transport characteristics. In particular, we consider a temperate climate with polar ice caps (like the modern Earth) and a snowball state where the oceans are globally covered in ice. We first quantitatively study the periodic radiative forcing from, and climatic response to, rotation, obliquity, and eccentricity. Orbital eccentricity and seasonal changes in albedo cause variations in the global-mean absorbed flux. The responses of the two climates to these global seasons indicate that the temperate planet has 3 Multiplication-Sign the bulk heat capacity of the snowball planet due to the presence of liquid water oceans. The obliquity seasons in the temperate simulation are weaker than one would expect based on thermal inertia alone; this is due to cross-equatorial oceanic and atmospheric energy transport. Thermal inertia and cross-equatorial heat transport have qualitatively different effects on obliquity seasons, insofar as heat transport tends to reduce seasonal amplitude without inducing a phase lag. For an Earth-like planet, however, this effect is masked by the mixing of signals from low thermal inertia regions (sea ice and land) with that from high thermal inertia regions (oceans), which also produces a damped response with small phase lag. We then simulate thermal light curves as they would appear to a high-contrast imaging mission (TPF-I/Darwin). In order of importance to the present simulations, which use modern-Earth orbital parameters, the three drivers of thermal phase variations are (1) obliquity seasons, (2) diurnal cycle, and (3) global seasons. Obliquity seasons are the dominant source of phase variations for most viewing angles. A

  7. THERMAL PHASES OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS: ESTIMATING THERMAL INERTIA FROM ECCENTRICITY, OBLIQUITY, AND DIURNAL FORCING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Voigt, Aiko; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the climate on terrestrial planets orbiting nearby Sun-like stars, one would like to know their thermal inertia. We use a global climate model to simulate the thermal phase variations of Earth analogs and test whether these data could distinguish between planets with different heat storage and heat transport characteristics. In particular, we consider a temperate climate with polar ice caps (like the modern Earth) and a snowball state where the oceans are globally covered in ice. We first quantitatively study the periodic radiative forcing from, and climatic response to, rotation, obliquity, and eccentricity. Orbital eccentricity and seasonal changes in albedo cause variations in the global-mean absorbed flux. The responses of the two climates to these global seasons indicate that the temperate planet has 3× the bulk heat capacity of the snowball planet due to the presence of liquid water oceans. The obliquity seasons in the temperate simulation are weaker than one would expect based on thermal inertia alone; this is due to cross-equatorial oceanic and atmospheric energy transport. Thermal inertia and cross-equatorial heat transport have qualitatively different effects on obliquity seasons, insofar as heat transport tends to reduce seasonal amplitude without inducing a phase lag. For an Earth-like planet, however, this effect is masked by the mixing of signals from low thermal inertia regions (sea ice and land) with that from high thermal inertia regions (oceans), which also produces a damped response with small phase lag. We then simulate thermal light curves as they would appear to a high-contrast imaging mission (TPF-I/Darwin). In order of importance to the present simulations, which use modern-Earth orbital parameters, the three drivers of thermal phase variations are (1) obliquity seasons, (2) diurnal cycle, and (3) global seasons. Obliquity seasons are the dominant source of phase variations for most viewing angles. A pole-on observer

  8. Multiple fluid sources/pathways and severe thermal gradients during formation of the Jílové orogenic gold deposit, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zachariáš, J.; Žák, Karel; Pudilová, M.; Snee, L. W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, October (2013), s. 81-109 ISSN 0169-1368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Orogenic gold deposits * Carbon isotopes * Oxygen isotopes * Bismuth * Age * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.383, year: 2013

  9. AN EARLY PERMIAN GARNET-BEATING PERALUMINOUS GRANITIC PLUTON IN THE SOUTH TIANSHAN OROGENIC BELT, NW CHINA: PETROLOGICAL, MINERALOGICAL AND GEOCHEMICAL CONSTRAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qie Qin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ku’erchu granitic pluton (283±4 Ma was exposed in the eastern part of the South Tianshan Orogenic Belt. The granites from the intrusion are mainly composed of orthoclase (~45 vol. %, plagioclase (~15 vol. %, quartz (~20 vol. %, muscovite (~10 vol. % and biotite (~5 vol. %, with accessory minerals including garnet, zircon and Fe-Ti oxide.

  10. Bicarbonate-rich fluid inclusions and hydrogen diffusion in quartz from the Libčice orogenic gold deposit, Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrstka, Tomáš; Dubessy, J.; Zachariáš, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 281, 3-4 (2011), s. 317-332 ISSN 0009-2541 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : bicarbonate * fluid inclusions * hydrogen diffusion * orogenic gold deposits * raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.518, year: 2011

  11. Palaeozoic polymetamorphism in the North Qinling orogenic belt, Central China: Insights from petrology and in situ titanite and zircon U-Pb geochronology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Zhou, H.; Li, Q.L.; Xiang, H.; Zhong, Z.Q.; Brouwer, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Qinling orogenic belt experienced multiple phases of orogenesis during the Palaeozoic. Unraveling the timing and P- T conditions of these events is the key to understanding the convergence processes between the South China and the North China Blocks. The Songshugou Complex, located in the

  12. Nature and timing of the final collision of Central Asian Orogenic Belt: insights from basic intrusion in the Xilin Gol Complex, Inner Mongolia, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Zhou, H.; Brouwer, F.M.; Xiao, W.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, Z.; Liu, H.

    2014-01-01

    The Solonker suture zone of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) records the final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The nature and timing of final collision along the Solonker suture has long been controversial, partly because of an incomplete record of isotopic ages and differing interpretations

  13. Climate instability and tipping points in the Late Devonian: Detection of the Hangenberg Event in an open oceanic island arc in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carmichael, A.; Waters, J. A.; Batchelor, C. J.; Coleman, D. M.; Suttner, T. J.; Kido, E.; Moore, L. M.; Chadimová, Leona

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 32, 1 April (2016), s. 213-231 ISSN 1342-937X Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Central Asian Orogenic Belt * chemostratigraphy * Devonian-Carboniferous * Hangenberg Event * West Junggar Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 6.959, year: 2016

  14. Age and geochemistry of Silurian gabbroic rocks in the Tongbai orogen, central China: implications for the geodynamic evolution of the North Qinling arc–back-arc system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Wu, Y.B.; Qin, Z.W.; Zhu, L.Q.; Liu, Q.; Liu, X.C.; Gao, J.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Gong, H.J.; Yuan, H.L.

    2013-01-01

    The tectonic properties of the Erlangping unit and the subduction polarity of oceanic basins in the North Qinling-Tongbai orogen have been the focus of debate for more than twenty years. The resolution of these controversies hinges on the refined constraints on the location and nature of

  15. The Relationship between the Employment Contract and other Civil Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Radu Popescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. An employment contract, however, is unlike most other contracts. Although the parties will have negotiated the main terms, we shall see that a large number of terms will be implied into the agreement from all sorts of different sources and will not have been individually negotiated by the parties at all. This is what makes an employment contract so different from other contracts. We think this article is an important step in the disclosure of the problem eraised by these two concepts.

  16. Geodynamics of oceanic plateau and plume head accretion and their role in Phanerozoic orogenic systems of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Betts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present three 3D numerical models of deep subduction where buoyant material from an oceanic plateau and a plume interact with the overriding plate to assess the influence on subduction dynamics, trench geometry, and mechanisms for plateau accretion and continental growth. Transient instabilities of the convergent margin are produced, resulting in: contorted trench geometry; trench migration parallel with the plate margin; folding of the subducting slab and orocline development at the convergent margin; and transfer of the plateau to the overriding plate. The presence of plume material beneath the oceanic plateau causes flat subduction above the plume, resulting in a “bowed” shaped subducting slab. In plateau-only models, plateau accretion at the edge of the overriding plate results in trench migration around the edge of the plateau before subduction is re-established directly behind the trailing edge of the plateau. The plateau shortens and some plateau material subducts. The presence of buoyant plume material beneath the oceanic plateau has a profound influence on the behaviour of the convergent margin. In the plateau + plume model, plateau accretion causes rapid trench advance. Plate convergence is accommodated by shearing at the base of the plateau and shortening in the overriding plate. The trench migrates around the edge of the plateau and subduction is re-established well behind the trailing edge of the plateau, effectively embedding the plateau into the overriding plate. A slab window forms beneath the accreted plateau and plume material is transferred from the subducting plate to the overriding plate through the window. In all of the models, the subduction zone maintains a relatively stable configuration away from the buoyancy anomalies within the downgoing plate. The models provide a dynamic context for plateau and plume accretion in Phanerozoic accretionary orogenic systems such as the East China Orogen and the Central Asian

  17. Juvenile crustal recycling in an accretionary orogen: Insights from contrasting Early Permian granites from central Inner Mongolia, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lingling; Zhang, Xiaohui; Xue, Fuhong; Liu, Fulin

    2016-11-01

    Coeval high-K calc-alkaline to alkaline granites constitute important components of post-collisional to post-orogenic igneous suites in most orogenic belts of various ages on Earth and their genesis harbors a key to ascertaining critical geodynamic controls on continental crustal formation and differentiation. This zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical study documents three contrasting Early Permian granites from Erenhot of central Inner Mongolia, eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) and reveals concurrent high-K calc-alkaline to alkaline granite association derived from successive partial melting of distinct protoliths. The ca. 280 Ma Gancihuduge (GCG) pluton shows a calc-alkaline I-type character, with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7035 to 0.7039, εNd(t) of + 1.87 to + 4.70, zircon εHf(t) of + 8.0 to + 13.2 and δ18O from 7.4 to 8.7‰. The ca. 276 Ma Cailiwusu (CLS) pluton is magnesian and peraluminous, with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7036 to 0.7040, εNd(t) of + 1.9 to + 2.4, zircon εHf(t) of + 6.5 to + 12.1 and δ18O from 9.7 to 10.9‰. These features are consistent with partial melts of mixed sources composed of newly underplated meta-basaltic to -andesitic protoliths and variable supracrustal components, with distinctively higher proportion of the latter in the CLS pluton. By contrast, the ca. 279 Ma Kunduleng (KDL) suite exhibits an A-type magmatic affinity, with typical enrichment in alkalis, Ga, Zr, Nb and Y, εNd(t) of + 2.39 to + 3.55, zircon εHf(t) from + 8.3 to + 12.3 and δ18O values from 6.8 to 7.5‰. These features suggest that they stem from high-temperature fusion of dehydrated K-rich mafic to intermediate protoliths. Besides presenting a snapshot into a stratified crustal architecture in δ18O, these contrasting granites could not only serve as a temporal marker for monitoring post-collisional extension in the aftermath of a retreating subduction zone, but also present spatial magmatic proxy for tracing crustal formation and

  18. Kanfenggou UHP Metamorphic Fragment in Eastern Qinling Orogen and Its Relationship to Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP Metamorphic Belts, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suo Shutian; Zhong Zengqiu; Zhou Hanwen; You Zhendong

    2003-01-01

    In the Central Orogenic Belt, China, two UHP metamorphic belts are discriminated mainly based on a detailed structural analysis of the Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment exposed in the eastern Qinling orogen, and together with previous regional structural, petrological and geochronological data at the scale of the orogenic domain. The first one corresponds to the South Altun-North QaidamNorth Qinling UHP metamorphic belt. The other is the Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts. The two UHP metamorphic belts are separated by a series of tectonic slices composed by the Qinling rock group, Danfeng rock group and Liuling or Foziling rock group etc. respectively, and are different in age of the peak UHP metamorphism and geodynamic implications for continental deep subduction and collision. Regional field and petrological relationships suggest that the Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment that contains a large volume of the coesite- and microdiamond-bearing eclogite lenses is compatible with the structures recognized in the South Altun and North Qaidam UHP metamorphic fragments exposed in the western part of China, thereby forming a large UHP metamorphic belt up to 1 000 km long along the orogen strike. This UHP metamorphic belt represents an intercontinental deep subduction and collision belt between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean cratons, occurred during the Paleozoic. On the other hand, the well-constrained Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts occurred mainly during Triassic time (250-220 Ma), and were produced by the intrucontinental deep subduction and collision within the Yangtze craton. The Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment does not appear to link with the Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts along the orogen. There is no reason to assume the two UHP metamorphic belts us a single giant deep subduction and collision zone in the Central Orogenic Belt situated between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean cratons. Therefore, any dynamic model for the orogen must account

  19. Geological and Geophysical Integration Regarding a Structural Evolution Modelling of a Suture Zone Controlled by a Cratonic Buttress - The Case of Dom Feliciano Orogenic Belt, SSE Brazil, Implications for Western Gondwana Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, H.; Almeida, J.; Heilbron, M. C. P. L.; Salomão, M.

    2017-12-01

    The matters surrounding the amalgamation of tectonic blocks during the Brasiliano / Pan-African orogeny have been the main subject of study of several works in recent years. The main objective of this work is the hierarchy and discrimination of the boundaries between the known tectonic blocks, integrating geological and geophysical data. The geology of the study area is dominated by Precambrian terranes; Luís Alves Terrane, the vulcanosedimentary sequences of the Itajaí and Campo Alegre Basins, the metasedimentary sequences of the Brusque and Paranaguá Terranes and their granitic suites besides the granitoids of the Florianópolis Terrane. The shear zones and faults that separate these crustal blocks were developed during the Brasiliano / Pan-African orogenic cycle that led to the formation of the supercontinent Gondwana. These tectonic boundaries generally separate blocks of different rheology and crustal thickness. The integration of geological and geophysical data allowed the identification of important structural lineaments and crustal boundaries. The presented geodynamic model suggests that the suture between the block composed of the Brusque, Paranaguá and Florianópolis Terranes and the block composed by the Luís Alves Terrane is the Itajaí Perimbó Shear Zone, and not the Major Gercino Shear Zone as previously suggested. Considering the Itajaí Perimbó Shear Zone as the suture zone, the metassediments of the Brusque Terrane were deposited on the basement of the Florianópolis Terrane, hereby declared as part of the Angola Craton, and are correlated to the metassediments of the Paranaguá Terrane as a passive margin that in approximately ca. 650 My became active margin, functioning as a forearc basin. The oblique collision between the blocks would have occurred with the development of a dextral transpression in the Itajaí Perimbó Shear Zone, separating the Luís Alves Terrane from the Brusque Terrane, a sinistral transcurrence represented by the

  20. Pressure drop in contraction flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) page 178. DPL gives an equation for the pressure drop in a tapered (and circular) contraction, valid only at low angles. Here the general definition of contraction flow (the Bagley correction) and a more general method to find...