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Sample records for objects thz imaging

  1. Improvement of passive THz camera images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Marcin; Piszczek, Marek; Palka, Norbert; Szustakowski, Mieczyslaw

    2012-10-01

    Terahertz technology is one of emerging technologies that has a potential to change our life. There are a lot of attractive applications in fields like security, astronomy, biology and medicine. Until recent years, terahertz (THz) waves were an undiscovered, or most importantly, an unexploited area of electromagnetic spectrum. The reasons of this fact were difficulties in generation and detection of THz waves. Recent advances in hardware technology have started to open up the field to new applications such as THz imaging. The THz waves can penetrate through various materials. However, automated processing of THz images can be challenging. The THz frequency band is specially suited for clothes penetration because this radiation does not point any harmful ionizing effects thus it is safe for human beings. Strong technology development in this band have sparked with few interesting devices. Even if the development of THz cameras is an emerging topic, commercially available passive cameras still offer images of poor quality mainly because of its low resolution and low detectors sensitivity. Therefore, THz image processing is very challenging and urgent topic. Digital THz image processing is a really promising and cost-effective way for demanding security and defense applications. In the article we demonstrate the results of image quality enhancement and image fusion of images captured by a commercially available passive THz camera by means of various combined methods. Our research is focused on dangerous objects detection - guns, knives and bombs hidden under some popular types of clothing.

  2. Development of a THz spectroscopic imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usami, M; Iwamoto, T; Fukasawa, R; Tani, M; Watanabe, M; Sakai, K

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a real-time THz imaging system based on the two-dimensional (2D) electro-optic (EO) sampling technique. Employing the 2D EO-sampling technique, we can obtain THz images using a CCD camera at a video rate of up to 30 frames per second. A spatial resolution of 1.4 mm was achieved. This resolution was reasonably close to the theoretical limit determined by diffraction. We observed not only static objects but also moving ones. To acquire spectroscopic information, time-domain images were collected. By processing these images on a computer, we can obtain spectroscopic images. Spectroscopy for silicon wafers was demonstrated

  3. THz Imaging by a Wide-band Compact FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Uk Jeong Young; Cheol Lee Byung; Hee-Park, S

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory-scale users facility with a compact THz FEL. The FEL operates in the wide wavelength range of 100–1200 μm, which corresponds to 0.3-3 THz. THz radiation from the FEL shows well collimated Gaussian spatial distribution and narrow spectral width of 0.3 μm, which is Fourier transform limited by the estimated pulse duration of 20 ps. The main application of the FEL is THz imaging for bio-medical researches. We are developing THz imaging techniques by 2-D scanning, single pulse capturing with the electro-optic method, and 3-D holography. High power, coherent, and pulsed feature of the FEL radiation is expected to show much better performance in advanced THz imaging of 3-D tomography by comparing with incoherent and weak THz sources. By controlling the optical delay between reference beam and scattered light from an object, we can get its 3-D tomography by the holograms. The coherent and pulse length of the FEL beam is measured to be 3-6 mm. In this paper we will show a...

  4. Majolica imaging with THz waves: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Affinito, Antonio; Guerriero, Luigi; Bisceglia, Bruno; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    Recent advancements performed in the development of stable and flexible devices working at TeraHertz (THz) frequencies have opened the way at considering this technology as a very interesting noninvasive diagnostic tool in cultural heritage. In this frame, the paper aims at assessing the ability of THz imaging to gather information about preservation state and constructive modalities of majolica artworks. In particular, THz surveys have been carried out on two majolica tiles dated back to the nineteenth century and realized as building cladding at Naples (Italy). The analysis has been performed by means of the Zomega fiber-coupled THz time-domain system. This analysis corroborates the ability of THz to reconstruct irregularities of majolica tile topography, to characterize pigment and glaze losses, and to detect and localize glaze and pigment layer as well as the glaze-clay body interface.

  5. Possible way for increasing the quality of imaging from THz passive device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Deng, Chao; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Zhang, Cun-lin; Zhang, Xin

    2011-11-01

    Using the passive THz imaging system developed by the CNU-THz laboratory, we capture the passive THz image of human body with forbidden objects hidden under opaque clothes. We demonstrate the possibility of significant improving the quality of the image. Our approach bases on the application of spatial filters, developed by us for computer treatment of passive THz imaging. The THz imaging system is constructed with accordance to well known passive THz imaging principles and to the THz quasi-optical theory. It contains a scanning mechanism, which has a detector approximately with 1200μm central wavelength, a data acquisition card and a microcomputer. To get a clear imaging of object we apply a sequence of the spatial filters to the image and spectral transforms of the image. The treatment of imaging from the passive THz device is made by computer code. The performance time of treatment of the image, containing about 5000 pixels, is less than 0.1 second. To illustrate the efficiency of developed approach we detect the liquid explosive, knife, pistol and metal plate hidden under opaque clothes. The results obtained demonstrate the high efficiency of our approach for the detection and recognition of the hidden objects and are very promising for the real security application.

  6. Real-time computer treatment of THz passive device images with the high image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate real-time computer code improving significantly the quality of images captured by the passive THz imaging system. The code is not only designed for a THz passive device: it can be applied to any kind of such devices and active THz imaging systems as well. We applied our code for computer processing of images captured by four passive THz imaging devices manufactured by different companies. It should be stressed that computer processing of images produced by different companies requires using the different spatial filters usually. The performance of current version of the computer code is greater than one image per second for a THz image having more than 5000 pixels and 24 bit number representation. Processing of THz single image produces about 20 images simultaneously corresponding to various spatial filters. The computer code allows increasing the number of pixels for processed images without noticeable reduction of image quality. The performance of the computer code can be increased many times using parallel algorithms for processing the image. We develop original spatial filters which allow one to see objects with sizes less than 2 cm. The imagery is produced by passive THz imaging devices which captured the images of objects hidden under opaque clothes. For images with high noise we develop an approach which results in suppression of the noise after using the computer processing and we obtain the good quality image. With the aim of illustrating the efficiency of the developed approach we demonstrate the detection of the liquid explosive, ordinary explosive, knife, pistol, metal plate, CD, ceramics, chocolate and other objects hidden under opaque clothes. The results demonstrate the high efficiency of our approach for the detection of hidden objects and they are a very promising solution for the security problem.

  7. Expanded opportunities of THz passive camera for the detection of concealed objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Kuchik, Igor E.

    2013-10-01

    Among the security problems, the detection of object implanted into either the human body or animal body is the urgent problem. At the present time the main tool for the detection of such object is X-raying only. However, X-ray is the ionized radiation and therefore can not be used often. Other way for the problem solving is passive THz imaging using. In our opinion, using of the passive THz camera may help to detect the object implanted into the human body under certain conditions. The physical reason of such possibility arises from temperature trace on the human skin as a result of the difference in temperature between object and parts of human body. Modern passive THz cameras have not enough resolution in temperature to see this difference. That is why, we use computer processing to enhance the passive THz camera resolution for this application. After computer processing of images captured by passive THz camera TS4, developed by ThruVision Systems Ltd., we may see the pronounced temperature trace on the human body skin from the water, which is drunk by person, or other food eaten by person. Nevertheless, there are many difficulties on the way of full soution of this problem. We illustrate also an improvement of quality of the image captured by comercially available passive THz cameras using computer processing. In some cases, one can fully supress a noise on the image without loss of its quality. Using computer processing of the THz image of objects concealed on the human body, one may improve it many times. Consequently, the instrumental resolution of such device may be increased without any additional engineering efforts.

  8. Reflective THz and MR imaging of burn wounds: a potential clinical validation of THz contrast mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Neha; Nowroozi, Bryan; Sung, Shijun; Garritano, James; Maccabi, Ashkan; Tewari, Priyamvada; Culjat, Martin; Singh, Rahul; Alger, Jeffry; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary

    2012-10-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging is an expanding area of research in the field of medical imaging due to its high sensitivity to changes in tissue water content. Previously reported in vivo rat studies demonstrate that spatially resolved hydration mapping with THz illumination can be used to rapidly and accurately detect fluid shifts following induction of burns and provide highly resolved spatial and temporal characterization of edematous tissue. THz imagery of partial and full thickness burn wounds acquired by our group correlate well with burn severity and suggest that hydration gradients are responsible for the observed contrast. This research aims to confirm the dominant contrast mechanism of THz burn imaging using a clinically accepted diagnostic method that relies on tissue water content for contrast generation to support the translation of this technology to clinical application. The hydration contrast sensing capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically T2 relaxation times and proton density values N(H), are well established and provide measures of mobile water content, lending MRI as a suitable method to validate hydration states of skin burns. This paper presents correlational studies performed with MR imaging of ex vivo porcine skin that confirm tissue hydration as the principal sensing mechanism in THz burn imaging. Insights from this preliminary research will be used to lay the groundwork for future, parallel MRI and THz imaging of in vivo rat models to further substantiate the clinical efficacy of reflective THz imaging in burn wound care.

  9. Inspection of Asian Lacquer Substructures by Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Fukunaga, Kaori; Kohzuma, Yoshei

    2017-01-01

    Lacquering is considered one of the most representative Asian artistic techniques. While the decorative part of lacquerwares is the lacquer itself, their substructures serve as the backbone of the object itself. Very little is known about these hidden substructures. Since lacquerwares are mostly...... by inspecting the substructures of Asian lacquerwares by means of THz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI). Three different kinds of Asian lacquerwares were examined by THz-TDI, and the outcomes have been compared with those obtained by standard X-radiography. THz-TDI provides unique information on lacquerwares...

  10. THz imaging of majolica tiles and biological attached marble fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Devices exploiting waves in the frequency range from 0.1 THz to 10 THz (corresponding to a free-space wavelength ranging from 30 μm to 3 mm) deserve attention as diagnostic technologies for cultural heritage. THz waves are, indeed, non-ionizing radiations capable of penetrating into non-metallic materials, which are opaque to both visible and infrared waves, without implying long term risks to the molecular stability of the exposed objects and humans. Moreover, THz surveys involve low poewr probing waves, are performed without contact with the object and, thanks to the recent developments, which have allowed the commercialization of compact, flexible and portable systems, maybe performed in loco (i.e. in the place where the artworks are usually located). On the other hand, THz devices can be considered as the youngest among the sensing and imaging electromagnetic techniques and their actual potentialities in terms of characterization of artworks is an ongoing research activity. As a contribution within this context, we have performed time of flight THz imaging [1,2] on ceramic and marble objects. In particular, we surveyed majolica tiles produced by Neapolitan ceramists in the 18th and 19th centuries with the aim to gather information on their structure, constructive technique and conservation state. Moreover, we investigated a Marmo di Candoglia fragment in order to characterize the biological attach affecting it. All the surveys were carried out by using the Fiber-Coupled Terahertz Time Domain System (FICO) developed by Z-Omega and available at the Institute of Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA). This system is equipped with fiber optic coupled transmitting and receiving probes and with an automatic positioning system enabling to scan a 150 mm x 150 mm area under a reflection measurement configuration. Based on the obtained results we can state that the use of THz waves allows: - the reconstruction of the object topography; - the geometrical

  11. Characterization of European Lacquers by Terahertz (THz) Reflectometric Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Christensen, Mads C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study a European lacquerware replica has been investigated by terahertz (THz) reflectometric imaging. The inspected lacquerware is a wooden panel covered by multiple complex layers of lacquers and plaster. Utilizing pulsed Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) in reflection mode, we obs...

  12. Experiments and Computational Theory for Electrical Breakdown in Critical Components: THz Imaging of Electronic Plasmas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zutavern, Fred J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hjalmarson, Harold P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bigman, Verle Howard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallegos, Richard Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report describes the development of ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) induced terahertz (THz) radiation to image electronic plasmas during electrical breakdown. The technique uses three pulses from two USPLs to (1) trigger the breakdown, (2) create a 2 picosecond (ps, 10 -12 s), THz pulse to illuminate the breakdown, and (3) record the THz image of the breakdown. During this three year internal research program, sub-picosecond jitter timing for the lasers, THz generation, high bandwidth (BW) diagnostics, and THz image acquisition was demonstrated. High intensity THz radiation was optically-induced in a pulse-charged gallium arsenide photoconductive switch. The radiation was collected, transported, concentrated, and co-propagated through an electro-optic crystal with an 800 nm USPL pulse whose polarization was rotated due to the spatially varying electric field of the THz image. The polarization modulated USPL pulse was then passed through a polarizer and the resulting spatially varying intensity was detected in a high resolution digital camera. Single shot images had a signal to noise of %7E3:1. Signal to noise was improved to %7E30:1 with several experimental techniques and by averaging the THz images from %7E4000 laser pulses internally and externally with the camera and the acquisition system (40 pulses per readout). THz shadows of metallic films and objects were also recorded with this system to demonstrate free-carrier absorption of the THz radiation and improve image contrast and resolution. These 2 ps THz pulses were created and resolved with 100 femtosecond (fs, 10 -15 s) long USPL pulses. Thus this technology has the capability to time-resolve extremely fast repetitive or single shot phenomena, such as those that occur during the initiation of electrical breakdown. The goal of imaging electrical breakdown was not reached during this three year project. However, plans to achieve this goal as part of a follow-on project are described in this document

  13. Generation of THz frequency using PANDA ring resonator for THz imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong CT

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available MA Jalil1, Afroozeh Abdolkarim2, T Saktioto2, CT Ong3, Preecha P Yupapin41Ibnu Sina Institute of Fundamental Science Studies, Nanotechnology Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM,81310, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 2Institute of Advanced Photonics Science, Nanotechnology Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM, 81310, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 3Department of Mathematics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 4Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research Alliance (N'SERA, Advanced Research Center for Photonics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520, ThailandAbstract: In this study, we have generated terahertz (THz frequency by a novel design of microring resonators for medical applications. The dense wavelength-division multiplexing can be generated and obtained by using a Gaussian pulse propagating within a modified PANDA ring resonator and an add/drop filter system. Our results show that the THz frequency region can be obtained between 40–50 THz. This area of frequency provides a reliable frequency band for THz pulsed imaging.Keywords: THz imaging, THz technology, MRRs, PANDA, add/drop filter

  14. Temperature resolution enhancing of commercially available THz passive cameras due to computer processing of images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Kuchik, Igor E.

    2014-06-01

    As it is well-known, application of the passive THz camera for the security problems is very promising way. It allows seeing concealed object without contact with a person and this camera is non-dangerous for a person. Efficiency of using the passive THz camera depends on its temperature resolution. This characteristic specifies possibilities of the detection of concealed object: minimal size of the object, maximal distance of the detection, image detail. One of probable ways for a quality image enhancing consists in computer processing of image. Using computer processing of the THz image of objects concealed on the human body, one may improve it many times. Consequently, the instrumental resolution of such device may be increased without any additional engineering efforts. We demonstrate new possibilities for seeing the clothes details, which raw images, produced by the THz cameras, do not allow to see. We achieve good quality of the image due to applying various spatial filters with the aim to demonstrate independence of processed images on math operations. This result demonstrates a feasibility of objects seeing. We consider images produced by THz passive cameras manufactured by Microsemi Corp., and ThruVision Corp., and Capital Normal University (Beijing, China).

  15. Performance assessment of a data processing chain for THz imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Ludeno, Giovanni; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, TeraHertz (THz) imaging is deserving huge attention as very high resolution diagnostic tool in many applicative fields, among which security, cultural heritage, material characterization and civil engineering diagnostics. This widespread use of THz waves is due to their non-ionizing nature, their capability of penetrating into non-metallic opaque materials, as well as to the technological advances, which have allowed the commercialization of compact, flexible and portable systems. However, the effectiveness of THz imaging depends strongly on the adopted data processing aimed at improving the imaging performance of the hardware device. In particular, data processing is required to mitigate detrimental and unavoidable effects like noise, signal attenuation, as well as to correct the sample surface topography. With respect to data processing, we have proposed recently a strategy involving three different steps aimed at reducing noise, filtering out undesired signal introduced by the adopted THz system and performing surface topography correction [1]. The first step regards noise filtering and exploits a procedure based on the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) [2] of the data matrix, which does not require knowledge of noise level and it does not involve the use of a reference signal. The second step aims at removing the undesired signal that we have experienced to be introduced by the adopted Z-Omega Fiber-Coupled Terahertz Time Domain (FICO) system. Indeed, when the system works in a high-speed mode, an undesired low amplitude peak occurs always at the same time instant from the beginning of the observation time window and needs to be removed from the useful data matrix in order to avoid a wrong interpretation of the imaging results. The third step of the considered data processing chain is a topographic correction, which needs in order to image properly the samples surface and its inner structure. Such a procedure performs an automatic alignment of the

  16. Fiber-Drawn Metamaterial for THz Waveguiding and Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atakaramians, Shaghik; Stefani, Alessio; Li, Haisu

    2017-01-01

    and sub-diffraction imaging. We show the experimental demonstration of THz radiation guidance through hollow core waveguides with metamaterial cladding, where substantial improvements were realized compared to conventional hollow core waveguides, such as reduction of size, greater flexibility, increased...

  17. SPP-assisted sub-wavelength reflection-type THz imaging with THz time-domain spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Senfeng; Wu, Yanghui; Wu, Wen; Gu, Wenhua

    2017-08-01

    THz imaging has become a hot research topic in recent years, thanks to its merits of non-contact, strong penetration, immunity to hostile environments, and nondestructive detection. However, its spatial resolution is limited by the relatively long wavelength, so the location and measurement precision can only reach the level of the imaging wavelength, which has become a severe limitation of THz imaging. A simple way using surface plasmonic polartons (SPPs) to improve the location and measurement precision of THz by one order of magnitude was proposed in this manuscript, which can realize subwavelength THz imaging.

  18. Reflective terahertz (THz) imaging: system calibration using hydration phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Neha; Garritano, James; Lee, Yoon Kyung; Tewari, Priyamvada; Sung, Shijun; Maccabi, Ashkan; Nowroozi, Bryan; Babakhanian, Meghedi; Sanghvi, Sajan; Singh, Rahul; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary

    2013-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) hydration sensing continues to gain traction in the medical imaging community due to its unparalleled sensitivity to tissue water content. Rapid and accurate detection of fluid shifts following induction of thermal skin burns as well as remote corneal hydration sensing have been previously demonstrated in vivo using reflective, pulsed THz imaging. The hydration contrast sensing capabilities of this technology were recently confirmed in a parallel 7 Tesla Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging study, in which burn areas are associated with increases in local mobile water content. Successful clinical translation of THz sensing, however, still requires quantitative assessments of system performance measurements, specifically hydration concentration sensitivity, with tissue substitutes. This research aims to calibrate the sensitivity of a novel, reflective THz system to tissue water content through the use of hydration phantoms for quantitative comparisons of THz hydration imagery.Gelatin phantoms were identified as an appropriate tissue-mimicking model for reflective THz applications, and gel composition, comprising mixtures of water and protein, was varied between 83% to 95% hydration, a physiologically relevant range. A comparison of four series of gelatin phantom studies demonstrated a positive linear relationship between THz reflectivity and water concentration, with statistically significant hydration sensitivities (p hydration). The THz-phantom interaction is simulated with a three-layer model using the Transfer Matrix Method with agreement in hydration trends. Having demonstrated the ability to accurately and noninvasively measure water content in tissue equivalent targets with high sensitivity, reflective THz imaging is explored as a potential tool for early detection and intervention of corneal pathologies.

  19. Inspection of Asian Lacquer Substructures by Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Fukunaga, Kaori; Kohzuma, Yoshei; Kiriyama, Kyoko; Matsuda, Kazutaka; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2017-04-01

    Lacquering is considered one of the most representative Asian artistic techniques. While the decorative part of lacquerwares is the lacquer itself, their substructures serve as the backbone of the object itself. Very little is known about these hidden substructures. Since lacquerwares are mostly composed of organic materials, such as urushi, wood, carbon black, and fabrics which are very X-ray transparent, standard X-ray radiography has some problems in achieving clear X-ray radiographic images. Therefore, we wanted to contribute to the understanding of the lacquer manufacturing technique by inspecting the substructures of Asian lacquerwares by means of THz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI). Three different kinds of Asian lacquerwares were examined by THz-TDI, and the outcomes have been compared with those obtained by standard X-radiography. THz-TDI provides unique information on lacquerwares substructures, aiding in the comprehension of the manufacturing technology yielding to these precious artefacts.

  20. Computer processing of image captured by the passive THz imaging device as an effective tool for its de-noising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Kuchik, Igor E.; Zhang, Cun-lin; Deng, Chao; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Zhang, Xin

    2012-12-01

    As it is well-known, passive THz imaging devices have big potential for solution of the security problem. Nevertheless, one of the main problems, which take place on the way of using these devices, consists in the low image quality of developed passive THz camera. To change this situation, it is necessary to improve the engineering characteristics (resolution, sensitivity and so on) of the THz camera or to use computer processing of the image. In our opinion, the last issue is more preferable because it is more inexpensive. Below we illustrate possibility of suppression of the noise of the image captured by three THz passive camera developed in CNU (Beijing. China). After applying the computer processing of the image, its quality enhances many times. Achieved quality in many cases becomes enough for the detection of the object hidden under opaque clothes. We stress that the performance of developed computer code is enough high and does not restrict the performance of passive THz imaging device. The obtained results demonstrate the high efficiency of our approach for the detection of hidden objects and they are a very promising solution for the security problem. Nevertheless, developing the new spatial filter for treatment of the THz image remains a modern problem at present time.

  1. THz near-field imaging of biological tissues employing synchrotronradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, Ulrich; Holldack, Karsten; Martin, Michael C.; Fried,Daniel

    2004-12-23

    Terahertz scanning near-field infrared microscopy (SNIM) below 1 THz is demonstrated. The near-field technique benefits from the broadband and highly brilliant coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) from an electron storage ring and from a detection method based on locking onto the intrinsic time structure of the synchrotron radiation. The scanning microscope utilizes conical wave guides as near-field probes with apertures smaller than the wavelength. Different cone approaches have been investigated to obtain maximum transmittance. Together with a Martin-Puplett spectrometer the set-up enables spectroscopic mapping of the transmittance of samples well below the diffraction limit. Spatial resolution down to about lambda/40 at 2 wavenumbers (0.06 THz) is derived from the transmittance spectra of the near-field probes. The potential of the technique is exemplified by imaging biological samples. Strongly absorbing living leaves have been imaged in transmittance with a spatial resolution of 130 mu-m at about 12 wave numbers (0.36 THz). The THz near-field images reveal distinct structural differences of leaves from different plants investigated. The technique presented also allows spectral imaging of bulky organic tissues. Human teeth samples of various thicknesses have been imaged between 2 and 20 wavenumbers (between 0.06and 0.6 THz). Regions of enamel and dentin within tooth samples are spatially and spectrally resolved, and buried caries lesions are imaged through both the outer enamel and into the underlying dentin.

  2. Focal plane arrays for THz imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iacono, A.; Bencivenni, C.; Freni, A.; Neto, A.; Gerini, G.

    2012-01-01

    The growing attention for Terahertz technology finds support in the high number of applications which will benefit by its use. In the space science sector, the investigation of the THz frequency range will improve the knowledge of the universe, giving a clearer view on its origin and its evolution.

  3. Light field imaging and application analysis in THz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongfei; Su, Bo; He, Jingsuo; Zhang, Cong; Wu, Yaxiong; Zhang, Shengbo; Zhang, Cunlin

    2018-01-01

    The light field includes the direction information and location information. Light field imaging can capture the whole light field by single exposure. The four-dimensional light field function model represented by two-plane parameter, which is proposed by Levoy, is adopted in the light field. Acquisition of light field is based on the microlens array, camera array and the mask. We calculate the dates of light-field to synthetize light field image. The processing techniques of light field data include technology of refocusing rendering, technology of synthetic aperture and technology of microscopic imaging. Introducing the technology of light field imaging into THz, the efficiency of 3D imaging is higher than that of conventional THz 3D imaging technology. The advantages compared with visible light field imaging include large depth of field, wide dynamic range and true three-dimensional. It has broad application prospects.

  4. Comparison of Thermal Detector Arrays for Off-Axis THz Holography and Real-Time THz Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Hack

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In terahertz (THz materials science, imaging by scanning prevails when low power THz sources are used. However, the application of array detectors operating with high power THz sources is increasingly reported. We compare the imaging properties of four different array detectors that are able to record THz radiation directly. Two micro-bolometer arrays are designed for infrared imaging in the 8–14 μm wavelength range, but are based on different absorber materials (i vanadium oxide; (ii amorphous silicon; (iii a micro-bolometer array optimized for recording THz radiation based on silicon nitride; and (iv a pyroelectric array detector for THz beam profile measurements. THz wavelengths of 96.5 μm, 118.8 μm, and 393.6 μm from a powerful far infrared laser were used to assess the technical performance in terms of signal to noise ratio, detector response and detectivity. The usefulness of the detectors for beam profiling and digital holography is assessed. Finally, the potential and limitation for real-time digital holography are discussed.

  5. Comparison of Thermal Detector Arrays for Off-Axis THz Holography and Real-Time THz Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Erwin; Valzania, Lorenzo; Gäumann, Gregory; Shalaby, Mostafa; Hauri, Christoph P; Zolliker, Peter

    2016-02-06

    In terahertz (THz) materials science, imaging by scanning prevails when low power THz sources are used. However, the application of array detectors operating with high power THz sources is increasingly reported. We compare the imaging properties of four different array detectors that are able to record THz radiation directly. Two micro-bolometer arrays are designed for infrared imaging in the 8-14 μm wavelength range, but are based on different absorber materials (i) vanadium oxide; (ii) amorphous silicon; (iii) a micro-bolometer array optimized for recording THz radiation based on silicon nitride; and (iv) a pyroelectric array detector for THz beam profile measurements. THz wavelengths of 96.5 μm, 118.8 μm, and 393.6 μm from a powerful far infrared laser were used to assess the technical performance in terms of signal to noise ratio, detector response and detectivity. The usefulness of the detectors for beam profiling and digital holography is assessed. Finally, the potential and limitation for real-time digital holography are discussed.

  6. Contribution of Reflection Terahertz Time Domain-Imaging (THz-TDI) to Imaging Analysis of Artworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Fukunaga, Kaori; Kohzuma, Y.

    Different kind s of artefacts (easel painting, panel paintings and Asian lacquerwares) have been scanned by THz - TDI and results have been compared with those obtained by others standard imaging techniques (x-ray radiography, cross sectional imaging, technical photography) .......Different kind s of artefacts (easel painting, panel paintings and Asian lacquerwares) have been scanned by THz - TDI and results have been compared with those obtained by others standard imaging techniques (x-ray radiography, cross sectional imaging, technical photography) ....

  7. THz-SAR Vibrating Target Imaging via the Bayesian Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Target vibration bears important information for target recognition, and terahertz, due to significant micro-Doppler effects, has strong advantages for remotely sensing vibrations. In this paper, the imaging characteristics of vibrating targets with THz-SAR are at first analyzed. An improved algorithm based on an excellent Bayesian approach, that is, the expansion-compression variance-component (ExCoV method, has been proposed for reconstructing scattering coefficients of vibrating targets, which provides more robust and efficient initialization and overcomes the deficiencies of sidelobes as well as artifacts arising from the traditional correlation method. A real vibration measurement experiment of idle cars was performed to validate the range model. Simulated SAR data of vibrating targets and a tank model in a real background in 220 GHz show good performance at low SNR. Rapidly evolving high-power terahertz devices will offer viable THz-SAR application at a distance of several kilometers.

  8. Fibre laser based broadband THz imaging systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichhorn, Finn

    imaging techniques. This thesis exhibits that fiber technology can improve the robustness and the flexibility of terahertz imaging systems both by the use of fiber-optic light sources and the employment of optical fibers as light distribution medium. The main focus is placed on multi-element terahertz...

  9. All-optoelectronic continuous wave THz imaging for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebert, Karsten J; Loeffler, Torsten; Quast, Holger; Thomson, Mark; Bauer, Tobias; Leonhardt, Rainer; Czasch, Stephanie; Roskos, Hartmut G

    2002-01-01

    We present an all-optoelectronic THz imaging system for ex vivo biomedical applications based on photomixing of two continuous-wave laser beams using photoconductive antennas. The application of hyperboloidal lenses is discussed. They allow for f-numbers less than 1/2 permitting better focusing and higher spatial resolution compared to off-axis paraboloidal mirrors whose f-numbers for practical reasons must be larger than 1/2. For a specific histological sample, an analysis of image noise is discussed

  10. A tunable continuous wave (CW) and short-pulse optical source for THz brain imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakopoulos, P; Karanasiou, I; Zakynthinos, P; Uzunoglu, N; Avramopoulos, H; Pleros, N

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate recent advances toward the development of a novel 2D THz imaging system for brain imaging applications both at the macroscopic and at the bimolecular level. A frequency-synthesized THz source based on difference frequency generation between optical wavelengths is presented, utilizing supercontinuum generation in a highly nonlinear optical fiber with subsequent spectral carving by means of a fiber Fabry–Perot filter. Experimental results confirm the successful generation of THz radiation in the range of 0.2–2 THz, verifying the enhanced frequency tunability properties of the proposed system. Finally, the roadmap toward capturing functional brain information by exploiting THz imaging technologies is discussed, outlining the unique advantages offered by THz frequencies and their complementarity with existing brain imaging techniques

  11. Development of the high-power THz spectroscopy and imaging systems on the basis of an S-band compact electron LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, R.; Taira, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Toyokawa, H.; Yamada, K.; Kumaki, M.; Tachibana, M.; Sakaue, K.; Washio, M.

    2014-01-01

    The high-power terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and imaging systems have been developed on the basis of an S-band compact electron linac at AIST. Such high-power THz source is strongly expected for inspection of dangerous materials in the homeland security field. The high-power THz radiations are generated in two methods with the high-brightness ultra-short electron bunch. One is THz coherent synchrotron radiation (THz-CSR) for THz imaging applications. The other is THz coherent transition radiation (THz-CTR) for the THz spectroscopy. The THz-CTR time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) has been constructed with the EO sampling method and demonstrated in freq. range between 0.1-2 THz. The absorption measurements of drug samples have been successfully performed in atmosphere. In this symposium, we will describe details of the THz-CTR-TDS and imaging experiments and a future plan of the THz applications. (author)

  12. Nano-Antenna For Terahertz (THz) Medical Imaging Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As a result of technological breakthroughs, research and applications in the Terahertz (THz) radiation system are experiencing explosive growth. The non-ionizing and...

  13. Imaging of THz waves in 2D photonic crystal structures embedded in a slab waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peier, P; Merbold, H; Feurer, T; Pahinin, V; Nelson, K A

    2010-01-01

    We present space- and time-resolved simulations and measurements of single-cycle terahertz (THz) waves propagating through two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal structures embedded in a slab waveguide. Specifically, we use a plane wave expansion technique to calculate the band structure and a time-dependent finite-element method to simulate the temporal evolution of the THz waves. Experimentally, we measure the space-time evolution of the THz waves through a coherent time-resolved imaging method. Three different structures are laser machined in LiNbO 3 crystal slabs and analyzing the transmitted as well as the reflected THz waveforms allows determination of the bandgaps. Comparing the results with the calculated band diagrams and the time-dependent simulations shows that the experiments are consistent with 3D simulations, which include the slab waveguide geometry, the birefringence of the material, and a careful analysis of the excited modes within the band diagrams.

  14. THz near-field imaging of biological tissues employing synchrotron radiation (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Ulrich; Holldack, Karsten; Martin, Michael C.; Fried, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    Terahertz scanning near-field infrared microscopy (SNIM) below 1 THz is demonstrated. The near-field technique benefits from the broadband and highly brilliant coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) from an electron storage ring and from a detection method based on locking on to the intrinsic time structure of the synchrotron radiation. The scanning microscope utilizes conical waveguides as near-field probes with apertures smaller than the wavelength. Different cone approaches have been investigated to obtain maximum transmittance. Together with a Martin-Puplett spectrometer the set-up enables spectroscopic mapping of the transmittance of samples well below the diffraction limit. Spatial resolution down to about λ/40 at 2 wavenumbers (0.06 THz) is derived from the transmittance spectra of the near-field probes. The potential of the technique is exemplified by imaging biological samples. Strongly absorbing living leaves have been imaged in transmittance with a spatial resolution of 130 μm at about 12 wavenumbers (0.36 THz). The THz near-field images reveal distinct structural differences of leaves from different plants investigated. The technique presented also allows spectral imaging of bulky organic tissues. Human teeth samples of various thicknesses have been imaged between 2 and 20 wavenumbers (between 0.06 and 0.6 THz). Regions of enamel and dentin within tooth samples are spatially and spectrally resolved, and buried caries lesions are imaged through both the outer enamel and into the underlying dentin.

  15. THz near-field imaging of biological tissues employing synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schade, Ulrich; Holldack, Karsten; Martin, Michael C.; Fried, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Terahertz scanning near-field infrared microscopy (SNIM) below 1 THz is demonstrated. The near-field technique benefits from the broadband and highly brilliant coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) from an electron storage ring and from a detection method based on locking onto the intrinsic time structure of the synchrotron radiation. The scanning microscope utilizes conical wave guides as near-field probes with apertures smaller than the wavelength. Different cone approaches have been investigated to obtain maximum transmittance. Together with a Martin-Puplett spectrometer the set-up enables spectroscopic mapping of the transmittance of samples well below the diffraction limit. Spatial resolution down to about lambda/40 at 2 wavenumbers (0.06 THz) is derived from the transmittance spectra of the near-field probes. The potential of the technique is exemplified by imaging biological samples. Strongly absorbing living leaves have been imaged in transmittance with a spatial resolution of 130 mu-m at about 12 wave numbers (0.36 THz). The THz near-field images reveal distinct structural differences of leaves from different plants investigated. The technique presented also allows spectral imaging of bulky organic tissues. Human teeth samples of various thicknesses have been imaged between 2 and 20 wavenumbers (between 0.06and 0.6 THz). Regions of enamel and dentin within tooth samples are spatially and spectrally resolved, and buried caries lesions are imaged through both the outer enamel and into the underlying dentin

  16. Unsupervised image segmentation for passive THz broadband images for concealed weapon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Mabel D.; Dietlein, Charles R.; Grossman, Erich; Popović, Zoya

    2007-04-01

    This work presents the application of a basic unsupervised classification algorithm for the segmentation of indoor passive Terahertz images. The 30,000 pixel broadband images of a person with concealed weapons under clothing are taken at a range of 0.8-2m over a frequency range of 0.1-1.2THz using single-pixel row-based raster scanning. The spiral-antenna coupled 36x1x0.02μm Nb bridge cryogenic micro-bolometers are developed at NIST-Optoelectronics Division. The antenna is evaporated on a 250μm thick Si substrate with a 4mm diameter hyper-hemispherical Si lens. The NETD of the microbolometer is 125mK at an integration time of 30 ms. The background temperature calibration is performed with a known 25 pixel source above 330 K, and a measured background fluctuation of 200-500mK. Several weapons were concealed under different fabrics: cotton, polyester, windblocker jacket and thermal sweater. Measured temperature contrasts ranged from 0.5-1K for wrinkles in clothing to 5K for a zipper and 8K for the concealed weapon. In order to automate feature detection in the images, some image processing and pattern recognition techniques have been applied and the results are presented here. We show that even simple algorithms, that can potentially be performed in real time, are capable of differentiating between a metal and a dielectric object concealed under clothing. Additionally, we show that pre-processing can reveal low temperature contrast features, such as folds in clothing.

  17. FTIR Spectroscopy on Basic Materials in THz Region for Compact FEL-Based Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Cha, H J; Lee, B C; Park, S H

    2005-01-01

    We are making experiments on THz(terahertz) imaging using a compact high power FEL (free-electron laser) which is operating as a users facility at KAERI. The wavelength range of output pulses is 100~1200 μm, which corresponds to 0.3~3 THz in the frequency region. We should select the optimum wavelength for the constituents of specimens to realize the imaging based on the THz FEL. A FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) spectrometer was modified to measure the optical constants of the specimens in THz region. A polyester film of which thickness is 3.7 μm was used as a beam splitter of the spectrometer. In the case of normal incidence, the transmittance of the film was measured to be more than 90%, and the estimated loss by absorption was approximately 2% at the FEL frequency of 3 THz. Several tens of nanometer-thick-silver was coated on the polyester film to balance both transmission and reflection of THz waves in the beam splitter. We investigated FTIR spectroscopy on air, vapor and liquid water...

  18. In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiushuo; Parrott, Edward P J; He, Yuezhi; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2018-02-01

    In vivo terahertz (THz) imaging of human skin needs to be done in reflection geometry due to the high attenuation of THz light by water in the skin. To aid the measurement procedure, there is typically an imaging window onto which the patient places the area of interest. The window enables better pulse alignment and helps keep the patient correctly positioned during the measurement. In this paper, we demonstrate how the occlusion caused by the skin contact with the imaging window during the measurement affects the THz response. By studying both rapid point measurements and imaging over an area of a human volar forearm, we find that even 5 seconds of occlusion affects the THz response. As the occlusion time increases, the skin surface water content increases, resulting in the reduction of the amplitude of the reflected THz pulse, especially in the first 3 minutes. Furthermore, it was found that the refractive index of the volar forearm increased by 10% to 15% after 20 minutes of occlusion. In this work, we examine and propose a model for the occlusion effects due to the quartz window with a view to compensating for its influence. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. THz Imaging as a Method to Detect Defects of Aeronautical Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, I.; Soldovieri, F.; Mazzola, L.; Toscano, C.

    2017-10-01

    Ice adhesion over critical aircraft surfaces is a serious potential hazard that runs the risk of causing accidents. To face this issue, the design and diagnostics of new multifunctional coatings with icephobic and aesthetical properties are demanded. In particular, diagnostic tools, capable of characterizing coating surface finishing and its defects, are needed. In this paper, terahertz (THz) imaging is considered as a high-resolution diagnostic tool useful for contactless surveys providing information on surface defects and material inner structure. Therefore, two composite specimens, one covered by a classical commercial livery coating and the other one by a new multifunctional coating with icephobic properties, are investigated by THz surveys carried out in normal environmental conditions of pressure and temperature. The results, obtained by processing the raw data properly, corroborate that THz imaging allows us to detect variations of the coating thickness, to localize hidden anomalies as well as to characterize surface defects at millimetric scale.

  20. A Low-Noise Direct Incremental A/D Converter for FET-Based THz Imaging Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Khatib

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, implementation and characterization results of a pixel-level readout chain integrated with a FET-based terahertz (THz detector for imaging applications. The readout chain is fabricated in a standard 150-nm CMOS technology and contains a cascade of a preamplification and noise reduction stage based on a parametric chopper amplifier and a direct analog-to-digital conversion by means of an incremental ΣΔ converter, performing a lock-in operation with modulated sources. The FET detector is integrated with an on-chip antenna operating in the frequency range of 325–375 GHz and compliant with all process design rules. The cascade of the FET THz detector and readout chain is evaluated in terms of responsivity and Noise Equivalent Power (NEP measurements. The measured readout input-referred noise of 1.6 μ V r m s allows preserving the FET detector sensitivity by achieving a minimum NEP of 376 pW/ Hz in the optimum bias condition, while directly providing a digital output. The integrated readout chain features 65-dB peak-SNR and 80-μ W power consumption from a 1.8-V supply. The area of the antenna-coupled FET detector and the readout chain fits a pixel pitch of 455 μm, which is suitable for pixel array implementation. The proposed THz pixel has been successfully applied for imaging of concealed objects in a paper envelope under continuous-wave illumination.

  1. Innovative monolithic detector for tri-spectral (THz, IR, Vis) imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocas, S.; Perenzoni, M.; Massari, N.; Simoens, F.; Meilhan, J.; Rabaud, W.; Martin, S.; Delplanque, B.; Imperinetti, P.; Goudon, V.; Vialle, C.; Arnaud, A.

    2012-10-01

    Fusion of multispectral images has been explored for many years for security and used in a number of commercial products. CEA-Leti and FBK have developed an innovative sensor technology that gathers monolithically on a unique focal plane arrays, pixels sensitive to radiation in three spectral ranges that are terahertz (THz), infrared (IR) and visible. This technology benefits of many assets for volume market: compactness, full CMOS compatibility on 200mm wafers, advanced functions of the CMOS read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), and operation at room temperature. The ROIC houses visible APS diodes while IR and THz detections are carried out by microbolometers collectively processed above the CMOS substrate. Standard IR bolometric microbridges (160x160 pixels) are surrounding antenna-coupled bolometers (32X32 pixels) built on a resonant cavity customized to THz sensing. This paper presents the different technological challenges achieved in this development and first electrical and sensitivity experimental tests.

  2. Fra Angelico’s painting technique revealed by terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Picollo, Marcello; Cucci, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated with terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI) the well-known Lamentation over the dead Christ panel painting (San Marco Museum, Florence) painted by Fra Giovanni Angelico within 1436 and 1441. The investigation provided a better understanding of the construction and gilding te...

  3. Coherent Imaging at 2.4 THz with a CW Quantum Cascade Laser Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    of the source, or signal bandwidth, with consequent improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio. Image data obtained with the system will be...reciprocal of the source, or signal bandwidth, with consequent improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio. Image data obtained with the system will be...b) 2.4 THz image of the medal. The words “Boston Athletic Association” and the unicorn are well-resolved. However, the words “113 Boston Marathon

  4. THz radiation in KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young Uk; Cha, Hyuk Jin; Ahn, Pildong; Park, Seong Hee; Lee, Byung Cheol

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a high power terahertz (THz) radiation source by using a compact free electron laser (FEL). The FEL operates in the wavelength range of 100 - 1200 μm, which corresponds to 0.3-3 THz. The peak power of the FEL micropulse having 30 ps pulse duration is 1 kW and the pulse energy of the 3-μs-FEL-macropulse is approximately 0.3 mJ. The main application of the FEL is THz imaging and spectroscopy for bio-medical research and THz material study. We could get the transmitted THz imaging of several materials including bugs without being dryed by using the high power THz FEL. THz spectral characteristics of several materials have been studied by the FEL. We hope that the FEL can be upgraded for a practical source of medical and security inspections. (author)

  5. Seeing Beyond the Painting Surface with Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI): a signal separation method for extracting images of buried individual layers in paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filtenborg, Troels Folke; Skou-Hansen, Jakob; Koch Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica

    2015-01-01

    and denoising methods used to resolve temporal features of THz reflected signals, they result impractical if applied to large images analysis. Therefore, we presented a simple, fast and effective method to separate single THz pulses of interest from the entire signal recorded at each spatial coordinate...

  6. THz QCL-based active imaging dedicated to non-destructive testing of composite materials used in aeronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destic, F.; Petitjean, Y.; Massenot, S.; Mollier, J.-C.; Barbieri, S.

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents a CW raster-scanning THz imaging setup, used to perform Non-Destructive Testing of KevlarTMand carbon fibre samples. The setup uses a 2.5 THz Quantum Cascade Laser as a source. Delamination defect in a Kevlar sample was detected showing a sensitivity to laser polarization orientation. Detection of a break in a carbon/epoxy sample was also performed.

  7. THz QCL-based active imaging dedicated to non-destructive testing of composite materials used in aeronautics

    OpenAIRE

    Destic, Fabien; Petitjean, Yoann; Massenot, Sébastien; Mollier, Jean-Claude; Barbieri, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a CW raster-scanning THz imaging setup, used to perform Non-Destructive Testing of KevlarTMand carbon fibre samples. The setup uses a 2.5 THz Quantum Cascade Laser as a source. Delamination defect in a Kevlar sample was detected showing a sensitivity to laser polarization orientation. Detection of a break in a carbon/epoxy sample was also performed.

  8. Analysis of a 17C Panel Painting by Reflection Terahertz Time Domain-Imaging (THz-TDI): contribution of ultrafast optics to museum collections inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica; Filtenborg, Troels Folke; Uhd Jepsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    THz-TDI has been applied for imaging an hidden painting and other subsurface composition layers of a 17C panel painting belonging to the National Gallery of Denmark. C- and B-scans realized by THz have been compared with images obtained by x-ray radiography, thus helping in a deep understanding...

  9. Nanotechnology-supported THz medical imaging [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/ws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stylianou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the achievements and progress in the field of medical imaging have dramatically enhanced the early detection and treatment of many pathological conditions. The development of new imaging modalities, especially non-ionising ones, which will improve prognosis, is of crucial importance. A number of novel imaging modalities have been developed but they are still in the initial stages of development and serious drawbacks obstruct them from offering their benefits to the medical field. In the 21st century, it is believed that nanotechnology will highly influence our everyday life and dramatically change the world of medicine, including medical imaging. Here we discuss how nanotechnology, which is still in its infancy, can improve Terahertz (THz imaging, an emerging imaging modality, and how it may find its way into real clinical applications. THz imaging is characterised by the use of non-ionising radiation and although it has the potential to be used in many biomedical fields, it remains in the field of basic research. An extensive review of the recent available literature shows how the current state of this emerging imaging modality can be transformed by nanotechnology. Innovative scientific concepts that use nanotechnology-based techniques to overcome some of the limitations of the use of THz imaging are discussed. We review a number of drawbacks, such as a low contrast mechanism, poor source performance and bulky THz systems, which characterise present THz medical imaging and suggest how they can be overcome through nanotechnology. Better resolution and higher detection sensitivity can also be achieved using nanotechnology techniques.

  10. YBCO hot-electron bolometers dedicated to THz detection and imaging: Embedding issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurino, M; Tuerer, I; Martinez, A; Gensbittel, A; Degardin, A F; Kreisler, A J

    2010-01-01

    High-T c hot-electron bolometers (HEB) are an interesting alternative to other superconducting heterodyne mixers in the terahertz frequency range because of low-cost cooling investment, ultra-wide instantaneous bandwidth and low intrinsic noise level, even at 80 K. A technological process to fabricate stacked yttrium-based (YBCO) / praseodymium-based (PBCO) ultra-thin films (in the 15 to 40 nm thickness range) etched to form 0.5 μm x 0.5 μm constrictions, elaborated on (100) MgO substrates, has been previously described. Ageing effects were also considered, with the consequence of increased electrical resistance, significant degradation of the regular THz response and no HEB mixing action. Electron and UV lithography steps are revisited here to realize HEB mixers based on nano-bridges covered by a log-periodic planar gold antenna, dedicated to the 1 to 7 THz range. Several measures have been attempted to reduce the conversion losses, mainly by considering the embedding issues related to the YBCO nano-bridge impedance matching to the antenna and the design of optimized intermediate frequency circuitry. Antenna simulations were performed and validated through experiments on scaled models at GHz frequencies. Electromagnetic coupling to the incoming radiation was also studied, including crosstalk between neighbour antennas forming a linear imaging array.

  11. Ghost Imaging of Space Objects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ghost imaging is an optical imaging technique that utilizes the correlations between optical fields in two channels. One of the channels contains the object, however...

  12. CW-THz vector spectroscopy and imaging system based on 1.55-µm fiber-optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Young; Song, Ho-Jin; Yaita, Makoto; Hirata, Akihiko; Ajito, Katsuhiro

    2014-01-27

    We present a continuous-wave terahertz (THz) vector spectroscopy and imaging system based on a 1.5-µm fiber optic uni-traveling-carrier photodiode and InGaAs photo-conductive receiver. Using electro-optic (EO) phase modulators for THz phase control with shortened optical paths, the system achieves fast vector measurement with effective phase stabilization. Dynamic ranges of 100 dB · Hz and 75 dB · Hz at 300 GHz and 1 THz, and phase stability of 1.5° per minute are obtained. With the simultaneous measurement of absorbance and relative permittivity, we demonstrate non-destructive analyses of pharmaceutical cocrystals inside tablets within a few minutes.

  13. Non-invasive Florentine Renaissance Panel Painting Replica Structures Investigation by Using Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Picollo, Marcello; Cucci, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    The potentials of the Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) technique for a non-invasive inspection of panel paintings have been considered in detail. The THz-TD data acquired on a replica of a panel painting made in imitation of Italian Renaissance panel paintings were processed in order to pr...

  14. Objective-guided image annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qi; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Gao, Shenghua

    2013-04-01

    Automatic image annotation, which is usually formulated as a multi-label classification problem, is one of the major tools used to enhance the semantic understanding of web images. Many multimedia applications (e.g., tag-based image retrieval) can greatly benefit from image annotation. However, the insufficient performance of image annotation methods prevents these applications from being practical. On the other hand, specific measures are usually designed to evaluate how well one annotation method performs for a specific objective or application, but most image annotation methods do not consider optimization of these measures, so that they are inevitably trapped into suboptimal performance of these objective-specific measures. To address this issue, we first summarize a variety of objective-guided performance measures under a unified representation. Our analysis reveals that macro-averaging measures are very sensitive to infrequent keywords, and hamming measure is easily affected by skewed distributions. We then propose a unified multi-label learning framework, which directly optimizes a variety of objective-specific measures of multi-label learning tasks. Specifically, we first present a multilayer hierarchical structure of learning hypotheses for multi-label problems based on which a variety of loss functions with respect to objective-guided measures are defined. And then, we formulate these loss functions as relaxed surrogate functions and optimize them by structural SVMs. According to the analysis of various measures and the high time complexity of optimizing micro-averaging measures, in this paper, we focus on example-based measures that are tailor-made for image annotation tasks but are seldom explored in the literature. Experiments show consistency with the formal analysis on two widely used multi-label datasets, and demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed method over state-of-the-art baseline methods in terms of example-based measures on four

  15. Terahertz imaging and tomography as efficient instruments for testing polymer additive manufacturing objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraud, J B; Obaton, A F; Bou-Sleiman, J; Recur, B; Balacey, H; Darracq, F; Guillet, J P; Mounaix, P

    2016-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technology is not only used to make 3D objects but also for rapid prototyping. In industry and laboratories, quality controls for these objects are necessary though difficult to implement compared to classical methods of fabrication because the layer-by-layer printing allows for very complex object manufacturing that is unachievable with standard tools. Furthermore, AM can induce unknown or unexpected defects. Consequently, we demonstrate terahertz (THz) imaging as an innovative method for 2D inspection of polymer materials. Moreover, THz tomography may be considered as an alternative to x-ray tomography and cheaper 3D imaging for routine control. This paper proposes an experimental study of 3D polymer objects obtained by additive manufacturing techniques. This approach allows us to characterize defects and to control dimensions by volumetric measurements on 3D data reconstructed by tomography.

  16. Ghost Imaging of Space Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V; Erkmen, Baris I; Yu Nan

    2013-01-01

    The term 'ghost imaging' was coined in 1995 when an optical correlation measurement in combination with an entangled photon-pair source was used to image a mask placed in one optical channel by raster-scanning a detector in the other, empty, optical channel. Later, it was shown that the entangled photon source could be replaced with thermal sources of light, which are abundantly available as natural illumination sources. It was also shown that the bucket detector could be replaced with a remote point-like detector, opening the possibility to remote-sensing imaging applications. In this paper, we discuss the application of ghost-imaging-like techniques to astronomy, with the objective of detecting intensity-correlation signatures resulting from space objects of interest, such as exo-planets, gas clouds, and gravitational lenses. An important aspect of being able to utilize ghost imaging in astronomy, is the recognition that in interstellar imaging geometries the object of interest can act as an effective beam splitter, yielding detectable variations in the intensity-correlation signature.

  17. Non Destructive Thermal Analysis and In Situ Investigation of Creep Mechanism of Graphite and Ceramic Composites using Phase-sensitive THz Imaging & Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasonic Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, XI-Cheng; Redo-Scanchez, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this project, we conducted a comprehensive study on nuclear graphite properties with terahertz (THz) imaging. Graphite samples from Idaho National Laboratory were carefully imaged by continuous wave (CW) THz. The CW THz imaging of graphite shows that the samples from different billet with different fabricating conditions have different pore size and structure. Based on this result, we then used a phase sensitive THz system to study the graphite properties. In this exploration, various graphite were studied. By imaging nuclear graphite samples in reflection mode at nine different incident polarization angles using THz time-domain spectroscopy, we find that different domain distributions and levels of porosity will introduce polarization dependence in THz reflectivity. Sample with higher density is less porous and has a smaller average domain distribution. As a consequence, it is less polarization-dependent and the polarization-dependent frequency is higher. The results also show that samples oxidized at higher temperatures tend to be more polarization dependent. The graphite from the external billet is more polarization dependent compared to that from the center billet. In addition, we performed laser-based ultrasonic measurements on these graphite samples. The denser, unoxidized samples allow surface acoustic waves to propagate more rapidly than in the samples that had already undergone oxidation. Therefore, for the oxidized samples, the denser samples show less polarization-dependence, higher polarization-dependent frequency, and allow the surface acoustic waves propagate faster.

  18. 3D internal reconstruction by the use of terahertz time domain imaging (THz-TDI): an application on a 15th century stucco relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoi Ching, M. Cheung; Giovannacci, D.; Gariani, G.; Brissaud, D.; Leroux, L.; Goubard, F.; Bouquillon, A.; Bormand, M.

    2017-07-01

    In the field of Cultural Heritage and conservation science the development of non-invasive tools to retrieve information on artworks and historical artifacts remains one of the most important and increasing demands. In this work a focus was made on the capability of THz imaging to investigate the internal structure of objects made of superposed plaster layers. In particular, a first attempt of investigation was made for gypsum based plaster used for a stucco reliefs. After a feasibility phase on plaster moke up samples, a 15th century painted stucco relief was investigated by means of THz-TDI in the framework of the ESPRIT project, promoted by the Louvre Museum. The objectives were to assess the presence of internal layers made of different plaster mixtures, to locate them and give useful information about the supposed manufacturing techniques. The refractive indexes of different plasters were measured. Due to multiple scattering inside the samples and the impact of the heterogeneity of the material on this refractive index, the interface between plaster/plaster seems difficult to detect.

  19. 3D THz hyperspectrum applied in security check-in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, V.; Logofǎtu, P. C.; Vasile, T.

    2016-12-01

    We developed a measuring technology using a TDS-THz system to construct hyperspectral images of some objects, including hazardous materials. "T-rays" (the THz spectral domain of the light) have a growing importance in security and imagistic domain. Due to their property of penetrating through dielectric objects, and using non-ionizing radiations, the THz systems have become a standard for "hot-places" (airports, train stations etc.). The hyperspectral images are 3D images having 2D spatial dimension and one spectral dimension. In this way, we obtain simultaneously information about the form of the object and its molecular composition. For discriminating between substances, we must first build a database of spectra for hazardous and dangerous substances. We experiment our system on some items (among them a firecracker, a cigarette and a metal collar) and we tried to discriminate between them using the database of spectra.

  20. Development of nondestructive inspection tools for cultural heritage artefacts with 3D THz imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch

    inestimable visible and hidden paintings painted by famous artist, such as Fra Angelico, Nicolai Abilgaard and David Teniers The Younger. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time lacquerwares have been examined by THz-TDI. It follows that this research work has broadened the comprehension...

  1. A Low-Noise CMOS THz Imager Based on Source Modulation and an In-Pixel High-Q Passive Switched-Capacitor N-Path Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhayma, Assim; Dupret, Antoine; Rostaing, Jean-Pierre; Enz, Christian

    2016-03-03

    This paper presents the first low noise complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) deletedCMOS terahertz (THz) imager based on source modulation and in-pixel high-Q filtering. The 31 × 31 focal plane array has been fully integrated in a 0 . 13 μ m standard CMOS process. The sensitivity has been improved significantly by modulating the active THz source that lights the scene and performing on-chip high-Q filtering. Each pixel encompass a broadband bow tie antenna coupled to an N-type metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) detector that shifts the THz radiation, a low noise adjustable gain amplifier and a high-Q filter centered at the modulation frequency. The filter is based on a passive switched-capacitor (SC) N-path filter combined with a continuous-time broad-band Gm-C filter. A simplified analysis that helps in designing and tuning the passive SC N-path filter is provided. The characterization of the readout chain shows that a Q factor of 100 has been achieved for the filter with a good matching between the analytical calculation and the measurement results. An input-referred noise of 0 . 2 μ V RMS has been measured. Characterization of the chip with different THz wavelengths confirms the broadband feature of the antenna and shows that this THz imager reaches a total noise equivalent power of 0 . 6 nW at 270 GHz and 0 . 8 nW at 600 GHz.

  2. Bright THz Instrument and Nonlinear THz Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-30

    Report: Bright THz Instrument and Nonlinear THz Science The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and...Number: W911NF-16-1-0436 Organization: University of Rochester Title: Bright THz Instrument and Nonlinear THz Science Report Term: 0-Other Email: xi...exploring new cutting-edge research and broader applications, following the significant development of THz science and technology in the late 80’s, is the

  3. Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Bernd M.; Helm, Hanspeter; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2004-01-01

    THz science is developing rapidly in Europe as well as the rest of the world. There is a strong interest in the exploitation of optical technologies in the THz frequency range in virtually all fields of basic and applied sciences of physics, chemistry, biology as well as medicine. Commercial...... interest in this field has also been growing, spurred by the potential of tHz tools in quality control and the biotechnology sector. We will review some contrast mechanisms, which form the basis for real-world applications of THz technology, in particular in the fields of applied chemistry...... and biotechnology. Whereas narrow bandwidth THz technology may become important for e.g. real-time imaging at larger standoff distances, we will concentrate on broad bandwidth THz technologies for spectroscopic identification of various substances. It has recently been established that the 0.1-5 THz spectral range...

  4. Nondestructive Imaging of an Object Using the Compact Continuous-Wave Sub-Terahertz Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Seok; Kwon, Il Bub; Yoon, Dong Jin; Seo, Dae Cheol [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    This paper presented compact CW sub-THz imaging system using the terahertz transmitter(Tx) that generating 0.34 THz electromagnetic wave on based electronic device. Using 0.34 THz electromagnetic wave generated by Tx, we transmitted to sample by point by point scan method and measured transmitting terahertz wave magnitude and phase information respectively with terahertz receiver(Rx) based on sub harmonic mixer. This paper measured and compared images of several samples to obtain better imaging results by changing time delay and step distance of scanning stage which affect image resolution. Also, through the imaging measurement of various samples, we were able to assure possibility of application of terahertz wave

  5. Nondestructive Imaging of an Object Using the Compact Continuous-Wave Sub-Terahertz Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jin Seok; Kwon, Il Bub; Yoon, Dong Jin; Seo, Dae Cheol

    2010-01-01

    This paper presented compact CW sub-THz imaging system using the terahertz transmitter(Tx) that generating 0.34 THz electromagnetic wave on based electronic device. Using 0.34 THz electromagnetic wave generated by Tx, we transmitted to sample by point by point scan method and measured transmitting terahertz wave magnitude and phase information respectively with terahertz receiver(Rx) based on sub harmonic mixer. This paper measured and compared images of several samples to obtain better imaging results by changing time delay and step distance of scanning stage which affect image resolution. Also, through the imaging measurement of various samples, we were able to assure possibility of application of terahertz wave

  6. Image BOSS: a biomedical object storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Mahlon C.; Augustine, Kurt E.; Robb, Richard A.

    1997-05-01

    Researchers using biomedical images have data management needs which are oriented perpendicular to clinical PACS. The image BOSS system is designed to permit researchers to organize and select images based on research topic, image metadata, and a thumbnail of the image. Image information is captured from existing images in a Unix based filesystem, stored in an object oriented database, and presented to the user in a familiar laboratory notebook metaphor. In addition, the ImageBOSS is designed to provide an extensible infrastructure for future content-based queries directly on the images.

  7. Buried object detection in GPR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W; Chambers, David H; Bond, Steven W; Beer, W. Reginald

    2014-04-29

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes the return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  8. THz Spectroscopic Identification of Red Mineral Pigments in Ancient Chinese Artworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuping; Zhai, Dongwei; Zhang, Zhenwei; Zhang, Cunlin

    2017-10-01

    Nondestructive analysis of historical objects is of significance for cultural heritage conservation. In this paper, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was used to distinguish seven red mineral pigments used in ancient Chinese artworks. Two absorption features of natural minerals HgS and four highly resolved spectral features of mineral pigment Pb3O4 were observed and identified as their fingerprints in the range 0.2 to 3.0 THz, based on which the spatial distribution of individual chemical substances including cinnabar, vermilion, and red lead were clearly revealed at various frequencies using terahertz spectroscopy imaging. Moreover, a noncontact evaluation of thickness changing and dehydration of a wet painting was monitored by inferring time delay as well as signal amplitude of THz pulses transmitted through the painting. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of THz-TDS and THz imaging for authentic artworks detection, a complete set of THz analysis of two nineteenth century wall paintings discovered in the Fuchen Temple of the Forbidden City, Beijing, was performed and the results indicate that THz measurement techniques provide a noninvasive and nondestructive solution for the care, preservation, and restoration of cultural relics.

  9. A Low-Noise CMOS THz Imager Based on Source Modulation and an In-Pixel High-Q Passive Switched-Capacitor N-Path Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhayma, Assim; Dupret, Antoine; Rostaing, Jean-Pierre; Enz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the first low noise complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) terahertz (THz) imager based on source modulation and in-pixel high-Q filtering. The 31×31 focal plane array has been fully integrated in a 0.13μm standard CMOS process. The sensitivity has been improved significantly by modulating the active THz source that lights the scene and performing on-chip high-Q filtering. Each pixel encompass a broadband bow tie antenna coupled to an N-type metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) detector that shifts the THz radiation, a low noise adjustable gain amplifier and a high-Q filter centered at the modulation frequency. The filter is based on a passive switched-capacitor (SC) N-path filter combined with a continuous-time broad-band Gm-C filter. A simplified analysis that helps in designing and tuning the passive SC N-path filter is provided. The characterization of the readout chain shows that a Q factor of 100 has been achieved for the filter with a good matching between the analytical calculation and the measurement results. An input-referred noise of 0.2μV RMS has been measured. Characterization of the chip with different THz wavelengths confirms the broadband feature of the antenna and shows that this THz imager reaches a total noise equivalent power of 0.6 nW at 270 GHz and 0.8 nW at 600 GHz. PMID:26950131

  10. Real-Time Amplitude and Phase Imaging of Optically Opaque Objects by Combining Full-Field Off-Axis Terahertz Digital Holography with Angular Spectrum Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Masatomo; Ogawa, Takayuki; Minamikawa, Takeo; Abdelsalam, Dahi Ghareab; Okabe, Kyosuke; Tsurumachi, Noriaki; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Iwata, Testuo; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2018-06-01

    Terahertz digital holography (THz-DH) has the potential to be used for non-destructive inspection of visibly opaque soft materials due to its good immunity to optical scattering and absorption. Although previous research on full-field off-axis THz-DH has usually been performed using Fresnel diffraction reconstruction, its minimum reconstruction distance occasionally prevents a sample from being placed near a THz imager to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in the hologram. In this article, we apply the angular spectrum method (ASM) for wavefront reconstruction in full-filed off-axis THz-DH because ASM is more accurate at short reconstruction distances. We demonstrate real-time phase imaging of a visibly opaque plastic sample with a phase resolution power of λ/49 at a frame rate of 3.5 Hz in addition to real-time amplitude imaging. We also perform digital focusing of the amplitude image for the same object with a depth selectivity of 447 μm. Furthermore, 3D imaging of visibly opaque silicon objects was achieved with a depth precision of 1.7 μm. The demonstrated results indicate the high potential of the proposed method for in-line or in-process non-destructive inspection of soft materials.

  11. Real-Time Amplitude and Phase Imaging of Optically Opaque Objects by Combining Full-Field Off-Axis Terahertz Digital Holography with Angular Spectrum Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Masatomo; Ogawa, Takayuki; Minamikawa, Takeo; Abdelsalam, Dahi Ghareab; Okabe, Kyosuke; Tsurumachi, Noriaki; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Iwata, Testuo; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2018-04-01

    Terahertz digital holography (THz-DH) has the potential to be used for non-destructive inspection of visibly opaque soft materials due to its good immunity to optical scattering and absorption. Although previous research on full-field off-axis THz-DH has usually been performed using Fresnel diffraction reconstruction, its minimum reconstruction distance occasionally prevents a sample from being placed near a THz imager to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in the hologram. In this article, we apply the angular spectrum method (ASM) for wavefront reconstruction in full-filed off-axis THz-DH because ASM is more accurate at short reconstruction distances. We demonstrate real-time phase imaging of a visibly opaque plastic sample with a phase resolution power of λ/49 at a frame rate of 3.5 Hz in addition to real-time amplitude imaging. We also perform digital focusing of the amplitude image for the same object with a depth selectivity of 447 μm. Furthermore, 3D imaging of visibly opaque silicon objects was achieved with a depth precision of 1.7 μm. The demonstrated results indicate the high potential of the proposed method for in-line or in-process non-destructive inspection of soft materials.

  12. A THz Tomography System for Arbitrarily Shaped Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübling, E.; Bauckhage, Y.; Jelli, E.; Fischer, B.; Globisch, B.; Schell, M.; Heinrich, A.; Balzer, J. C.; Koch, M.

    2017-10-01

    We combine a THz time-domain spectroscopy system with a robotic arm. With this scheme, the THz emitter and receiver can be positioned perpendicular and at defined distance to the sample surface. Our system allows the acquisition of reflection THz tomographic images of samples with an arbitrarily shaped surface.

  13. IMAGE QUALITY FORECASTING FOR SPACE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Altukhov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an approach to quality predicting of the space objects images, which can be used to plan optoelectronic systems of remote sensing satellites work programs. The proposed approach is based on evaluation of the optoelectronic equipment transfer properties and calculation of indexes images quality considering the influence of the orbital shooting conditions.

  14. Featured Image: Revealing Hidden Objects with Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    Stunning color astronomical images can often be the motivation for astronomers to continue slogging through countless data files, calculations, and simulations as we seek to understand the mysteries of the universe. But sometimes the stunning images can, themselves, be the source of scientific discovery. This is the case with the below image of Lynds Dark Nebula 673, located in the Aquila constellation, that was captured with the Mayall 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory by a team of scientists led by Travis Rector (University of Alaska Anchorage). After creating the image with a novel color-composite imaging method that reveals faint H emission (visible in red in both images here), Rector and collaborators identified the presence of a dozen new Herbig-Haro objects small cloud patches that are caused when material is energetically flung out from newly born stars. The image adapted above shows three of the new objects, HH 118789, aligned with two previously known objects, HH 32 and 332 suggesting they are driven by the same source. For more beautiful images and insight into the authors discoveries, check out the article linked below!Full view of Lynds Dark Nebula 673. Click for the larger view this beautiful composite image deserves! [T.A. Rector (University of Alaska Anchorage) and H. Schweiker (WIYN and NOAO/AURA/NSF)]CitationT. A. Rector et al 2018 ApJ 852 13. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa9ce1

  15. Wall Painting Investigation by Means of Non-invasive Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI): Inspection of Subsurface Structures Buried in Historical Plasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-02-01

    Characterization of subsurface features of wall paintings is important in conservation and technical art history as well as in building archaeology and architecture fields. In this study, an area of the apsidal wall painting of Nebbelunde Church (Rødby, Denmark) has been investigated by means of terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI). Subsurface structures have been detected at different depths inside the lime-based plaster of the wall painting until approximately 1 cm from the surface. The surface morphology of the buried structures has been 3D imaged in detail, providing a substantial contribution in their characterization.

  16. Exploring the complementarity of THz pulse imaging and DCE-MRIs: Toward a unified multi-channel classification and a deep learning framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, X-X; Zhang, Y; Cao, J; Wu, J-L; Hadjiloucas, S

    2016-12-01

    We provide a comprehensive account of recent advances in biomedical image analysis and classification from two complementary imaging modalities: terahertz (THz) pulse imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). The work aims to highlight underlining commonalities in both data structures so that a common multi-channel data fusion framework can be developed. Signal pre-processing in both datasets is discussed briefly taking into consideration advances in multi-resolution analysis and model based fractional order calculus system identification. Developments in statistical signal processing using principal component and independent component analysis are also considered. These algorithms have been developed independently by the THz-pulse imaging and DCE-MRI communities, and there is scope to place them in a common multi-channel framework to provide better software standardization at the pre-processing de-noising stage. A comprehensive discussion of feature selection strategies is also provided and the importance of preserving textural information is highlighted. Feature extraction and classification methods taking into consideration recent advances in support vector machine (SVM) and extreme learning machine (ELM) classifiers and their complex extensions are presented. An outlook on Clifford algebra classifiers and deep learning techniques suitable to both types of datasets is also provided. The work points toward the direction of developing a new unified multi-channel signal processing framework for biomedical image analysis that will explore synergies from both sensing modalities for inferring disease proliferation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hierarchical image segmentation for learning object priors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xingwei [TEMPLE UNIV.; Latecki, Longin J [TEMPLE UNIV.; Li, Nan [TEMPLE UNIV.

    2010-11-10

    The proposed segmentation approach naturally combines experience based and image based information. The experience based information is obtained by training a classifier for each object class. For a given test image, the result of each classifier is represented as a probability map. The final segmentation is obtained with a hierarchial image segmentation algorithm that considers both the probability maps and the image features such as color and edge strength. We also utilize image region hierarchy to obtain not only local but also semi-global features as input to the classifiers. Moreover, to get robust probability maps, we take into account the region context information by averaging the probability maps over different levels of the hierarchical segmentation algorithm. The obtained segmentation results are superior to the state-of-the-art supervised image segmentation algorithms.

  18. Coaxial waveguide mode reconstruction and analysis with THz digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinke; Xiong, Wei; Sun, Wenfeng; Zhang, Yan

    2012-03-26

    Terahertz (THz) digital holography is employed to investigate the properties of waveguides. By using a THz digital holographic imaging system, the propagation modes of a metallic coaxial waveguide are measured and the mode patterns are restored with the inverse Fresnel diffraction algorithm. The experimental results show that the THz propagation mode inside the waveguide is a combination of four modes TE₁₁, TE₁₂, TM₁₁, and TM₁₂, which are in good agreement with the simulation results. In this work, THz digital holography presents its strong potential as a platform for waveguide mode charactering. The experimental findings provide a valuable reference for the design of THz waveguides.

  19. Classifications of objects on hyperspectral images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey

    . In the present work a classification method that combines classic image classification approach and MIA is proposed. The basic idea is to group all pixels and calculate spectral properties of the pixel group to be used further as a vector of predictors for calibration and class prediction. The grouping can...... be done with mathematical morphology methods applied to a score image where objects are well separated. In the case of small overlapping a watershed transformation can be applied to disjoint the objects. The method has been tested on several simulated and real cases and showed good results and significant...... improvements in comparison with a standard MIA approach. The results as well as method details will be reported....

  20. THz waves: biological effects, industrial and medical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutaz, J.L.; Garet, F.; Le Drean, Y.; Zhadobov, M.; Veyret, B.; Mounaix, P.; Caumes, J.P.; Gallot, G.; Gian Piero, Gallerano; Mouret, G.; Guilpin, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Following the debates about body scanners installed in airports for passengers security control, the non-ionizing radiations (NIR) section of the French radiation protection society (SFR) has organized a conference day to take stock of the present day knowledge about the physical aspects and the biological effects of this frequency range as well as about their medical, and industrial applications (both civil and military). This document gathers the slides of the available presentations: 1 - introduction and general considerations about THz waves, the THz physical phenomenon among NIR (J.L. Coutaz); 2 - interaction of millimeter waves with living material: from dosimetry to biological impacts (Y. Le Drean and M. Zhadobov); 3 - Tera-Hertz: standards and recommendations (B. Veyret); 4 - THz spectro-imaging technique: status and perspectives (P. Mounaix); 5 - THz technology: seeing the invisible? (J.P. Caumes); 6 - Tera-Hertz: biological and medical applications (G. Gallot); 7 - Biological applications of THz radiation: a review of events and a glance to the future (G.P. Gallerano); 8 - Industrial and military applications - liquids and solids detection in the THz domain (F. Garet); 9 - THz radiation and its civil and military applications - gas detection and quantifying (G. Mouret); 10 - Body scanners and civil aviation security (J.C. Guilpin, presentation not available). (J.S.)

  1. THz computed tomography system with zero-order Bessel beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Liting; Wu, Qiao; Wang, Kejia; Liu, Jinsong; Yang, Zhengang

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) waves can penetrate many optically opaque dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics and colorants. It is effective to reveal the internal structures of these materials. We have built a THz Computed Tomography (CT) system with 0.3 THz zero-order Bessel beam to improve the depth of focus of this imaging system for the non-diffraction property of Bessel beam. The THz CT system has been used to detect a paper cup with a metal rod inside. Finally, the acquired projection data have been processed by the filtered back-projection algorithm and the reconstructed image of the sample has been obtained.

  2. Active THz inspection of water content in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etayo, D.; Iriarte, J. C.; Palacios, I.; Teniente, J.; Ederra, I.; Gonzalo, R.

    2010-04-01

    The THz range offers the possibility of measuring water content. This can be useful in wine industry to control plants water levels and also to decrease irrigation costs. This paper presents a THz imaging system used to characterise water content in leaves using frequency and time domain methods from 0.14 to 0.22 THz. Our results show the possibility of getting useful information out of the preformed measurements.

  3. Fractal THz metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Xiao, S.

    2010-01-01

    applications. THz radiation can be employed for various purposes, among them the study of vibrations in biological molecules, motion of electrons in semiconductors and propagation of acoustic shock waves in crystals. We propose here a new THz fractal MTM design that shows very high transmission in the desired...... frequency range as well as a clear differentiation between one polarisation and another. Based on theoretical predictions we fabricated and measured a fractal based THz metamaterial that shows more than 60% field transmission at around 1THz for TE polarized light while the TM waves have almost 80% field...... transmission peak at 0.6THz. One of the main characteristics of this design is its tunability by design: by simply changing the length of the fractal elements one can choose the operating frequency window. The modelling, fabrication and characterisation results will be presented in this paper. Due to the long...

  4. Novel THz-Frequency Spectrometers by Integrating Widely-Tunable Monochromatic THz Sources and Detectors, or Arrays of Emitters and Detectors, with Photonic Bandgap Crystals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zotova, Yuliya

    2004-01-01

    .... Third, we have used our tunable THz source to take a THz picture of an object (proof of principle). Fourth, we have observed up-conversion process, which can be used as a new detection scheme for THz waves at room temperature...

  5. THz waves: biological effects, industrial and medical; Les ondes THz: effets biologiques, applications industrielles et medicales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutaz, J.L.; Garet, F. [Universite de Savoie au Bourget du Lac, IMEP-LAHC, UMR CNRS 5130, 73 (France); Le Drean, Y.; Zhadobov, M. [Institut d' Electronique et des Telecommunications de Rennes, 35 (France); Veyret, B. [I.M.S., 33 - Pessac (France); Mounaix, P. [Laboratoire Ondes et Matiere d' Aquitaine, Universite de Bordeaux, 1 UMR 5798, 33 - Talence (France); Caumes, J.P. [ALPhANOV, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Gallot, G. [Ecole Polytechnique, Laboratoire d' Optique et Biosciences, CNRS UMR 7645, INSERM U696, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Gian Piero, Gallerano [ENEA, Frascati (Italy); Mouret, G. [Universite du Littoral Cote d' Opale - ULCO, 59 - Dunkerque (France); Guilpin, J.C. [Direction Generale de l' Aviation Civile, 94 - Bonneuil sur Marne (France)

    2011-07-01

    Following the debates about body scanners installed in airports for passengers security control, the non-ionizing radiations (NIR) section of the French radiation protection society (SFR) has organized a conference day to take stock of the present day knowledge about the physical aspects and the biological effects of this frequency range as well as about their medical, and industrial applications (both civil and military). This document gathers the slides of the available presentations: 1 - introduction and general considerations about THz waves, the THz physical phenomenon among NIR (J.L. Coutaz); 2 - interaction of millimeter waves with living material: from dosimetry to biological impacts (Y. Le Drean and M. Zhadobov); 3 - Tera-Hertz: standards and recommendations (B. Veyret); 4 - THz spectro-imaging technique: status and perspectives (P. Mounaix); 5 - THz technology: seeing the invisible? (J.P. Caumes); 6 - Tera-Hertz: biological and medical applications (G. Gallot); 7 - Biological applications of THz radiation: a review of events and a glance to the future (G.P. Gallerano); 8 - Industrial and military applications - liquids and solids detection in the THz domain (F. Garet); 9 - THz radiation and its civil and military applications - gas detection and quantifying (G. Mouret); 10 - Body scanners and civil aviation security (J.C. Guilpin, presentation not available). (J.S.)

  6. Objective assessment of image quality VI: imaging in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, Harrison H; Kupinski, Matthew A; Müeller, Stefan; Halpern, Howard J; Morris, John C III; Dwyer, Roisin

    2013-01-01

    Earlier work on objective assessment of image quality (OAIQ) focused largely on estimation or classification tasks in which the desired outcome of imaging is accurate diagnosis. This paper develops a general framework for assessing imaging quality on the basis of therapeutic outcomes rather than diagnostic performance. By analogy to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and their variants as used in diagnostic OAIQ, the method proposed here utilizes the therapy operating characteristic or TOC curves, which are plots of the probability of tumor control versus the probability of normal-tissue complications as the overall dose level of a radiotherapy treatment is varied. The proposed figure of merit is the area under the TOC curve, denoted AUTOC. This paper reviews an earlier exposition of the theory of TOC and AUTOC, which was specific to the assessment of image-segmentation algorithms, and extends it to other applications of imaging in external-beam radiation treatment as well as in treatment with internal radioactive sources. For each application, a methodology for computing the TOC is presented. A key difference between ROC and TOC is that the latter can be defined for a single patient rather than a population of patients. (paper)

  7. Quality control and authentication of packaged integrated circuits using enhanced-spatial-resolution terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahi, Kiarash; Shahbazmohamadi, Sina; Asadizanjani, Navid

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive set of techniques for quality control and authentication of packaged integrated circuits (IC) using terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) is developed. By material characterization, the presence of unexpected materials in counterfeit components is revealed. Blacktopping layers are detected using THz time-of-flight tomography, and thickness of hidden layers is measured. Sanded and contaminated components are detected by THz reflection-mode imaging. Differences between inside structures of counterfeit and authentic components are revealed through developing THz transmission imaging. For enabling accurate measurement of features by THz transmission imaging, a novel resolution enhancement technique (RET) has been developed. This RET is based on deconvolution of the THz image and the THz point spread function (PSF). The THz PSF is mathematically modeled through incorporating the spectrum of the THz imaging system, the axis of propagation of the beam, and the intensity extinction coefficient of the object into a Gaussian beam distribution. As a result of implementing this RET, the accuracy of the measurements on THz images has been improved from 2.4 mm to 0.1 mm and bond wires as small as 550 μm inside the packaging of the ICs are imaged.

  8. Active Metamaterials for Terahertz Communication and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Saroj

    In recent years there has been significant interest in terahertz (THz) systems mostly due to their unique applications in communication and imaging. One of the primary reason for this resurgence is the use of metamaterials to design THz devices due to lack of natural materials that can respond to this electromagnetic spectrum, the so-called ''THz gap''. Even after years of intense research, THz systems are complex and expensive, unsuitable for mainstream applications. This work focuses on bridging this gap by building all solid-state THz devices for imaging and communication applications in a commercial integrated circuit (IC) technology. One such canonical device is a THz wave modulator that can be used in THz wireless communication devices and as spatial light modulator (SLM) for THz imaging systems. The key contribution of this thesis is a metamaterial based THz wave modulator fabricated in a commercial gallium arsenide (GaAs) process resonant at 0.46 THz using a novel approach of embedding pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (pHEMTs) in metamaterial and demonstrate modulation values over 30%, and THz modulation at frequencies up to 10 MHz. Using the THz wave modulator, we fabricated and experimentally demonstrated an all solid-state metamaterial based THz spatial light modulator (SLM) as a 2x2 pixel array operating around 0.46 THz, by raster scanning an occluded metal object in polystyrene using a single-pixel imaging setup. This was an important step towards building an low-voltage (1V), low power, on-chip integrable THz imaging device. Using the characterization result from the THz SLM, we computationally demonstrated a multi-level amplitude shift keying (ASK) terahertz wireless communication system using spatial light modulation instead of traditional voltage mode modulation, achieving higher spectral efficiency for high speed communication. We show two orders of magnitude improvement in symbol error rate (SER) for a degradation of 20 dB in

  9. The research of Digital Holographic Object Wave Field Reconstruction in Image and Object Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun-Chang; PENG Zu-Jie; FU Yun-Chang

    2011-01-01

    @@ For conveniently detecting objects of different sizes using digital holography, usual measurements employ the object wave transformed by an optical system with different magnifications to fit charge coupled devices (CCDs), then the object field reconstruction involves the diffraction calculation of the optic wave passing through the optical system.We propose two methods to reconstruct the object field.The one is that, when the object is imaging in an image space in which we reconstruct the image of the object field, the object field can be expressed according to the object-image relationship.The other is that, when the object field reaching CCD is imaged in an object space in which we reconstruct the object field, the optical system is described by introducing matrix optics in this paper.The reconstruction formulae which easily use classic diffraction integral are derived.Finally, experimental verifications are also accomplished.%For conveniently detecting objects of different sizes using digital holography, usual measurements employ the object wave transformed by an optical system with different magnifications to fit charge coupled devices (CCDs), then the object Reid reconstruction involves the diffraction calculation of the optic wave passing through the optical system. We propose two methods to reconstruct the object field. The one is that, when the object is imaging in an image space in which we reconstruct the image of the object field, the object field can be expressed according to the object-image relationship. The other is that, when the object field reaching CCD is imaged in an object space in which we reconstruct the object field, the optical system is described by introducing matrix optics in this paper. The reconstruction formulae which easily use classic diffraction integral are derived. Finally, experimental verifications are also accomplished.

  10. Dual THz comb spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Takeshi

    2017-08-01

    Optical frequency combs are innovative tools for broadband spectroscopy because a series of comb modes can serve as frequency markers that are traceable to a microwave frequency standard. However, a mode distribution that is too discrete limits the spectral sampling interval to the mode frequency spacing even though individual mode linewidth is sufficiently narrow. Here, using a combination of a spectral interleaving and dual-comb spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) region, we achieved a spectral sampling interval equal to the mode linewidth rather than the mode spacing. The spectrally interleaved THz comb was realized by sweeping the laser repetition frequency and interleaving additional frequency marks. In low-pressure gas spectroscopy, we achieved an improved spectral sampling density of 2.5 MHz and enhanced spectral accuracy of 8.39 × 10-7 in the THz region. The proposed method is a powerful tool for simultaneously achieving high resolution, high accuracy, and broad spectral coverage in THz spectroscopy.

  11. Image Steganograpfhy Tailored to Objects Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu COSMA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a steganography method that uses all three components of an image in the RGB color space to store secret data. The order in which the image pixels are processed is not given by their position within the image, but by their visual significance. In order to ensure the greatest possible embedding capacity, the image container is traversed in several passes, each expanding its capacity.

  12. A multi-object spectral imaging instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, G.M.; Dienerowitz, M.; Kelleher, P.A.; Harvey, A.R.; Padgett, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a snapshot spectral imaging system which fits onto the side camera port of a commercial inverted microscope. The system provides spectra, in real time, from multiple points randomly selected on the microscope image. Light from the selected points in the sample is directed from the side port imaging arm using a digital micromirror device to a spectrometer arm based on a dispersing prism and CCD camera. A multi-line laser source is used to calibrate the pixel positions on the ...

  13. A multi-object spectral imaging instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, G M; Dienerowitz, M; Kelleher, P A; Harvey, A R; Padgett, M J

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a snapshot spectral imaging system which fits onto the side camera port of a commercial inverted microscope. The system provides spectra, in real time, from multiple points randomly selected on the microscope image. Light from the selected points in the sample is directed from the side port imaging arm using a digital micromirror device to a spectrometer arm based on a dispersing prism and CCD camera. A multi-line laser source is used to calibrate the pixel positions on the CCD for wavelength. A CMOS camera on the front port of the microscope allows the full image of the sample to be displayed and can also be used for particle tracking, providing spectra of multiple particles moving in the sample. We demonstrate the system by recording the spectra of multiple fluorescent beads in aqueous solution and from multiple points along a microscope sample channel containing a mixture of red and blue dye. (paper)

  14. Image Processing Methods Usable for Object Detection on the Chessboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beran Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation and object detection is challenging problem in many research. Although many algorithms for image segmentation have been invented, there is no simple algorithm for image segmentation and object detection. Our research is based on combination of several methods for object detection. The first method suitable for image segmentation and object detection is colour detection. This method is very simply, but there is problem with different colours. For this method it is necessary to have precisely determined colour of segmented object before all calculations. In many cases it is necessary to determine this colour manually. Alternative simply method is method based on background removal. This method is based on difference between reference image and detected image. In this paper several methods suitable for object detection are described. Thisresearch is focused on coloured object detection on chessboard. The results from this research with fusion of neural networks for user-computer game checkers will be applied.

  15. Object detection from images obtained through underwater turbulence medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furhad, Md. Hasan; Tahtali, Murat; Lambert, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Imaging through underwater experiences severe distortions due to random fluctuations of temperature and salinity in water, which produces underwater turbulence through diffraction limited blur. Lights reflecting from objects perturb and attenuate contrast, making the recognition of objects of interest difficult. Thus, the information available for detecting underwater objects of interest becomes a challenging task as they have inherent confusion among the background, foreground and other image properties. In this paper, a saliency-based approach is proposed to detect the objects acquired through an underwater turbulent medium. This approach has drawn attention among a wide range of computer vision applications, such as image retrieval, artificial intelligence, neuro-imaging and object detection. The image is first processed through a deblurring filter. Next, a saliency technique is used on the image for object detection. In this step, a saliency map that highlights the target regions is generated and then a graph-based model is proposed to extract these target regions for object detection.

  16. Simultaneously Discovering and Localizing Common Objects in Wild Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Yuan, Junsong

    2018-09-01

    Motivated by the recent success of supervised and weakly supervised common object discovery, in this paper, we move forward one step further to tackle common object discovery in a fully unsupervised way. Generally, object co-localization aims at simultaneously localizing objects of the same class across a group of images. Traditional object localization/detection usually trains specific object detectors which require bounding box annotations of object instances, or at least image-level labels to indicate the presence/absence of objects in an image. Given a collection of images without any annotations, our proposed fully unsupervised method is to simultaneously discover images that contain common objects and also localize common objects in corresponding images. Without requiring to know the total number of common objects, we formulate this unsupervised object discovery as a sub-graph mining problem from a weighted graph of object proposals, where nodes correspond to object proposals, and edges represent the similarities between neighbouring proposals. The positive images and common objects are jointly discovered by finding sub-graphs of strongly connected nodes, with each sub-graph capturing one object pattern. The optimization problem can be efficiently solved by our proposed maximal-flow-based algorithm. Instead of assuming that each image contains only one common object, our proposed solution can better address wild images where each image may contain multiple common objects or even no common object. Moreover, our proposed method can be easily tailored to the task of image retrieval in which the nodes correspond to the similarity between query and reference images. Extensive experiments on PASCAL VOC 2007 and Object Discovery data sets demonstrate that even without any supervision, our approach can discover/localize common objects of various classes in the presence of scale, view point, appearance variation, and partial occlusions. We also conduct broad

  17. 3D-printed phase waveplates for THz beam shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gospodaric, J.; Kuzmenko, A.; Pimenov, Anna; Huber, C.; Suess, D.; Rotter, S.; Pimenov, A.

    2018-05-01

    The advancement of 3D-printing opens up a new way of constructing affordable custom terahertz (THz) components due to suitable printing resolution and THz transparency of polymer materials. We present a way of calculating, designing, and fabricating a THz waveplate that phase-modulates an incident THz beam (λ0 = 2.14 mm) in order to create a predefined intensity profile of the optical wavefront on a distant image plane. Our calculations were performed for two distinct target intensities with the use of a modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm. The resulting phase-modulating profiles were used to model the polylactide elements, which were printed out with a commercially available 3D-printer. The results were tested in a THz experimental setup equipped with a scanning option, and they showed good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  18. THz and Security Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sizov, Fedir; Detectors, Sources and Associated Electronics for THz Applications

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings comprise invited papers from highly experienced researchers in THz technology and security applications. THz detection of explosives represents one of the most appealing technologies to have recently emerged in dealing with terrorist attacks encountered by civil security and military forces throughout the world. Discussed are the most advanced technologies and developments, the various points of operational strength and weaknesses as well as are suggestions and predictions the best technological solutions to  overcome current operational limits.  The current status of various levels of cooling in THz detectors, sources and associated electronics are also addressed. The goal was to provide a clear view on the current technologies available and the required advances needed in order to achieve more efficient systems. This goal was outlined in part by establishing the baseline of current uncertainty estimations in physics-based modelling and the identification of key areas which require additi...

  19. Tunable, Room Temperature THZ Emitters Based on Nonlinear Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Raju

    The Terahertz (1012 Hz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum covers the frequency range from roughly 300 GHz to 10 THz, which is in between the microwave and infrared regimes. The increasing interest in the development of ultra-compact, tunable room temperature Terahertz (THz) emitters with wide-range tunability has stimulated in-depth studies of different mechanisms of THz generation in the past decade due to its various potential applications such as biomedical diagnosis, security screening, chemical identification, life sciences and very high speed wireless communication. Despite the tremendous research and development efforts, all the available state-of-the-art THz emitters suffer from either being large, complex and costly, or operating at low temperatures, lacking tunability, having a very short spectral range and a low output power. Hence, the major objective of this research was to develop simple, inexpensive, compact, room temperature THz sources with wide-range tunability. We investigated THz radiation in a hybrid optical and THz micro-ring resonators system. For the first time, we were able to satisfy the DFG phase matching condition for the above-mentioned THz range in one single device geometry by employing a modal phase matching technique and using two separately designed resonators capable of oscillating at input optical waves and generated THz waves. In chapter 6, we proposed a novel plasmonic antenna geometry – the dimer rod-tapered antenna (DRTA), where we created a hot-spot in the nanogap between the dimer arms with a very large intensity enhancement of 4.1x105 at optical resonant wavelength. Then, we investigated DFG operation in the antenna geometry by incorporating a nonlinear nanodot in the hot-spot of the antenna and achieved continuously tunable enhanced THz radiation across 0.5-10 THz range. In chapter 8, we designed a multi-metallic resonators providing an ultrasharp toroidal response at THz frequency, then fabricated and

  20. Frequency-agile THz-wave generation and detection system using nonlinear frequency conversion at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruixiang; Ikar'i, Tomofumi; Zhang, Jun; Minamide, Hiroaki; Ito, Hiromasa

    2010-08-02

    A surface-emitting THz parametric oscillator is set up to generate a narrow-linewidth, nanosecond pulsed THz-wave radiation. The THz-wave radiation is coherently detected using the frequency up-conversion in MgO: LiNbO(3) crystal. Fast frequency tuning and automatic achromatic THz-wave detection are achieved through a special optical design, including a variable-angle mirror and 1:1 telescope devices in the pump and THz-wave beams. We demonstrate a frequency-agile THz-wave parametric generation and THz-wave coherent detection system. This system can be used as a frequency-domain THz-wave spectrometer operated at room-temperature, and there are a high possible to develop into a real-time two-dimensional THz spectral imaging system.

  1. Small space object imaging : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, Mark R.; Valley, Michael T.; Kearney, Sean Patrick

    2009-10-01

    We report the results of an LDRD effort to investigate new technologies for the identification of small-sized (mm to cm) debris in low-earth orbit. This small-yet-energetic debris presents a threat to the integrity of space-assets worldwide and represents significant security challenge to the international community. We present a nonexhaustive review of recent US and Russian efforts to meet the challenges of debris identification and removal and then provide a detailed description of joint US-Russian plans for sensitive, laser-based imaging of small debris at distances of hundreds of kilometers and relative velocities of several kilometers per second. Plans for the upcoming experimental testing of these imaging schemes are presented and a preliminary path toward system integration is identified.

  2. A-Track: Detecting Moving Objects in FITS images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atay, T.; Kaplan, M.; Kilic, Y.; Karapinar, N.

    2017-04-01

    A-Track is a fast, open-source, cross-platform pipeline for detecting moving objects (asteroids and comets) in sequential telescope images in FITS format. The moving objects are detected using a modified line detection algorithm.

  3. THz Electron Paramagnetic Resonance / THz Spectroscopy at BESSY II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Holldack

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The THz beamline at BESSY II employs high power broadband femto- to picosecond long THz pulses for magneto-optical THz and FIR studies. A newly designed set-up exploits the unique properties of ultrashort THz pulses generated by laser-energy modulation of electron bunches in the storage ring or alternatively from compressed electron bunches. Experiments from 0.15 to 5 THz (~ 5 – 150 cm-1 may be conducted at a user station equipped with a fully evacuated high resolution FTIR spectrometer (0.0063 cm-1, lHe cooled bolometer detectors, a THz TDS set-up and different sample environments, including a superconducting high field magnet (+11 T - 11T with variable temperature insert (1.5 K – 300 K, a sample cryostat and a THz attenuated total reflection chamber.  Main applications are Frequency Domain Fourier transform THz-Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (FD-FT THz-EPR, THz-FTIR spectroscopy and optical pump - THz probe time domain spectroscopy (TDS, with sub-ps time resolution.

  4. YOLO Object Detector for Onboard Driving Images

    OpenAIRE

    Soto i Serrano, Albert

    2017-01-01

    With the evolution of artificial intelligence and, specially, machine learning, tech and car manufacturing companies are in research of the car of the future. Along with the arrival of new powerful hardware, deep learning is expected to be one of the most outstanding fields in the automotive sector. In this paper, we will be developing an object detection system with neural networks using the You Only Look Once (YOLO) network architecture. We will train and evaluate the model using various da...

  5. Test objects for evaluating the performance of radiological imaging systems. Leeds radiological test objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowen, A.R.; Clarke, O.F.; Haywood, J.M.; Parker, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    A range of test objects has been developed to assess the imaging performance of conventional and digital radiological imaging systems. These test objects have arisen as a result of involvement in both the laboratory evaluation of radiological imaging systems and the routine maintenance of such equipment in a large diagnostic radiology department. The philosophy behind the design and application of the test objects is briefly described. Particular attention is paid to the advantages of using the threshold-contrast detail-detectability technique to assess overall imaging performance. The great importance of ensuring optimum imaging performance prior to clinical acceptance is stressed. A strategy for implementing the test objects in a clinical department is present. The diagnostic information content of the clinical images which result measures the success of the quality control procedure adopted. (author)

  6. Passive THz metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Zalkovskij, Maksim

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present our activities in the fabrication and characterization of passive THz metamaterials. We use two fabrication processes to develop metamaterials either as free-standing metallic membranes or patterned metallic multi-layers on the substrates to achieve different functionalities...

  7. Estimation of object motion parameters from noisy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, T J; Chellappa, R

    1986-01-01

    An approach is presented for the estimation of object motion parameters based on a sequence of noisy images. The problem considered is that of a rigid body undergoing unknown rotational and translational motion. The measurement data consists of a sequence of noisy image coordinates of two or more object correspondence points. By modeling the object dynamics as a function of time, estimates of the model parameters (including motion parameters) can be extracted from the data using recursive and/or batch techniques. This permits a desired degree of smoothing to be achieved through the use of an arbitrarily large number of images. Some assumptions regarding object structure are presently made. Results are presented for a recursive estimation procedure: the case considered here is that of a sequence of one dimensional images of a two dimensional object. Thus, the object moves in one transverse dimension, and in depth, preserving the fundamental ambiguity of the central projection image model (loss of depth information). An iterated extended Kalman filter is used for the recursive solution. Noise levels of 5-10 percent of the object image size are used. Approximate Cramer-Rao lower bounds are derived for the model parameter estimates as a function of object trajectory and noise level. This approach may be of use in situations where it is difficult to resolve large numbers of object match points, but relatively long sequences of images (10 to 20 or more) are available.

  8. From Pixels to Geographic Objects in Remote Sensing Image Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addink, E.A.; Van Coillie, Frieke M.B.; Jong, Steven M. de

    Traditional image analysis methods are mostly pixel-based and use the spectral differences of landscape elements at the Earth surface to classify these elements or to extract element properties from the Earth Observation image. Geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) has received

  9. An efficient direct method for image registration of flat objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Dmitry; Tihonkih, Dmitrii; Makovetskii, Artyom; Voronin, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    Image alignment of rigid surfaces is a rapidly developing area of research and has many practical applications. Alignment methods can be roughly divided into two types: feature-based methods and direct methods. Known SURF and SIFT algorithms are examples of the feature-based methods. Direct methods refer to those that exploit the pixel intensities without resorting to image features and image-based deformations are general direct method to align images of deformable objects in 3D space. Nevertheless, it is not good for the registration of images of 3D rigid objects since the underlying structure cannot be directly evaluated. In the article, we propose a model that is suitable for image alignment of rigid flat objects under various illumination models. The brightness consistency assumptions used for reconstruction of optimal geometrical transformation. Computer simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithm for computing of an accordance between pixels of two images.

  10. R-FCN Object Detection Ensemble based on Object Resolution and Image Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christoffer Bøgelund; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    Object detection can be difficult due to challenges such as variations in objects both inter- and intra-class. Additionally, variations can also be present between images. Based on this, research was conducted into creating an ensemble of Region-based Fully Convolutional Networks (R-FCN) object d...

  11. Objective analysis of image quality of video image capture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowberg, Alan H.

    1990-07-01

    As Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) technology has matured, video image capture has become a common way of capturing digital images from many modalities. While digital interfaces, such as those which use the ACR/NEMA standard, will become more common in the future, and are preferred because of the accuracy of image transfer, video image capture will be the dominant method in the short term, and may continue to be used for some time because of the low cost and high speed often associated with such devices. Currently, virtually all installed systems use methods of digitizing the video signal that is produced for display on the scanner viewing console itself. A series of digital test images have been developed for display on either a GE CT9800 or a GE Signa MRI scanner. These images have been captured with each of five commercially available image capture systems, and the resultant images digitally transferred on floppy disk to a PC1286 computer containing Optimast' image analysis software. Here the images can be displayed in a comparative manner for visual evaluation, in addition to being analyzed statistically. Each of the images have been designed to support certain tests, including noise, accuracy, linearity, gray scale range, stability, slew rate, and pixel alignment. These image capture systems vary widely in these characteristics, in addition to the presence or absence of other artifacts, such as shading and moire pattern. Other accessories such as video distribution amplifiers and noise filters can also add or modify artifacts seen in the captured images, often giving unusual results. Each image is described, together with the tests which were performed using them. One image contains alternating black and white lines, each one pixel wide, after equilibration strips ten pixels wide. While some systems have a slew rate fast enough to track this correctly, others blur it to an average shade of gray, and do not resolve the lines, or give

  12. Hyperspectral imaging simulation of object under sea-sky background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biao; Lin, Jia-xuan; Gao, Wei; Yue, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing image simulation plays an important role in spaceborne/airborne load demonstration and algorithm development. Hyperspectral imaging is valuable in marine monitoring, search and rescue. On the demand of spectral imaging of objects under the complex sea scene, physics based simulation method of spectral image of object under sea scene is proposed. On the development of an imaging simulation model considering object, background, atmosphere conditions, sensor, it is able to examine the influence of wind speed, atmosphere conditions and other environment factors change on spectral image quality under complex sea scene. Firstly, the sea scattering model is established based on the Philips sea spectral model, the rough surface scattering theory and the water volume scattering characteristics. The measured bi directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) data of objects is fit to the statistical model. MODTRAN software is used to obtain solar illumination on the sea, sky brightness, the atmosphere transmittance from sea to sensor and atmosphere backscattered radiance, and Monte Carlo ray tracing method is used to calculate the sea surface object composite scattering and spectral image. Finally, the object spectrum is acquired by the space transformation, radiation degradation and adding the noise. The model connects the spectrum image with the environmental parameters, the object parameters, and the sensor parameters, which provide a tool for the load demonstration and algorithm development.

  13. Object recognition in images by human vision and computer vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Q.; Dijkstra, J.; Vries, de B.

    2010-01-01

    Object recognition plays a major role in human behaviour research in the built environment. Computer based object recognition techniques using images as input are challenging, but not an adequate representation of human vision. This paper reports on the differences in object shape recognition

  14. Mobile object retrieval in server-based image databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manger, D.; Pagel, F.; Widak, H.

    2013-05-01

    The increasing number of mobile phones equipped with powerful cameras leads to huge collections of user-generated images. To utilize the information of the images on site, image retrieval systems are becoming more and more popular to search for similar objects in an own image database. As the computational performance and the memory capacity of mobile devices are constantly increasing, this search can often be performed on the device itself. This is feasible, for example, if the images are represented with global image features or if the search is done using EXIF or textual metadata. However, for larger image databases, if multiple users are meant to contribute to a growing image database or if powerful content-based image retrieval methods with local features are required, a server-based image retrieval backend is needed. In this work, we present a content-based image retrieval system with a client server architecture working with local features. On the server side, the scalability to large image databases is addressed with the popular bag-of-word model with state-of-the-art extensions. The client end of the system focuses on a lightweight user interface presenting the most similar images of the database highlighting the visual information which is common with the query image. Additionally, new images can be added to the database making it a powerful and interactive tool for mobile contentbased image retrieval.

  15. Laser radiography forming bremsstrahlung radiation to image an object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2004-01-13

    A method of imaging an object by generating laser pulses with a short-pulse, high-power laser. When the laser pulse strikes a conductive target, bremsstrahlung radiation is generated such that hard ballistic high-energy electrons are formed to penetrate an object. A detector on the opposite side of the object detects these electrons. Since laser pulses are used to form the hard x-rays, multiple pulses can be used to image an object in motion, such as an exploding or compressing object, by using time gated detectors. Furthermore, the laser pulses can be directed down different tubes using mirrors and filters so that each laser pulse will image a different portion of the object.

  16. Fuzzy object models for newborn brain MR image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Syoji; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2013-03-01

    Newborn brain MR image segmentation is a challenging problem because of variety of size, shape and MR signal although it is the fundamental study for quantitative radiology in brain MR images. Because of the large difference between the adult brain and the newborn brain, it is difficult to directly apply the conventional methods for the newborn brain. Inspired by the original fuzzy object model introduced by Udupa et al. at SPIE Medical Imaging 2011, called fuzzy shape object model (FSOM) here, this paper introduces fuzzy intensity object model (FIOM), and proposes a new image segmentation method which combines the FSOM and FIOM into fuzzy connected (FC) image segmentation. The fuzzy object models are built from training datasets in which the cerebral parenchyma is delineated by experts. After registering FSOM with the evaluating image, the proposed method roughly recognizes the cerebral parenchyma region based on a prior knowledge of location, shape, and the MR signal given by the registered FSOM and FIOM. Then, FC image segmentation delineates the cerebral parenchyma using the fuzzy object models. The proposed method has been evaluated using 9 newborn brain MR images using the leave-one-out strategy. The revised age was between -1 and 2 months. Quantitative evaluation using false positive volume fraction (FPVF) and false negative volume fraction (FNVF) has been conducted. Using the evaluation data, a FPVF of 0.75% and FNVF of 3.75% were achieved. More data collection and testing are underway.

  17. THz Properties of Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübling, E.; Gomell, L.; Sommer, S.; Winkel, A.; Kahlmeyer, M.; Böhm, S.; Koch, M.

    2018-06-01

    We determined the THz properties of 12 different adhesives which are mainly used for industrial purposes. The adhesives applied can be classified according to their chemical structure: epoxy resins, acrylic resins, and polyurethane based materials. This work represents a basis for future studies, which will concentrate on aging effects, including the absorption of water of adhesive joints. Thus, the dielectric properties of the unaged adhesives are investigated and the results of these measurements are described herein.

  18. Widely tunable THz synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.; Eliet, S.; Guinet, M.; Cuisset, A.; Bocquet, R.; Yasui, T.; Rovera, D.

    2011-09-01

    The generation of cw-THz radiation by photomixing is particularly suited to the high resolution spectroscopy of gases; nevertheless, until recently, it has suffered from a lack of frequency metrology. Frequency combs are a powerful tool that can transfer microwave frequency standards to optical frequencies and a single comb has permitted accurate (10-8) THz frequency synthesis with a limited tuning range. A THz synthesizer composed of three extended cavity laser diodes phase locked to a frequency comb has been constructed and its utility for high resolution gas phase spectroscopy demonstrated. The third laser diode allows a larger tuning range of up to 300 MHz to be achieved without the need for large frequency excursions, while the frequency comb provides a versatile link to be established from any traceable microwave frequency standard. The use of a single frequency comb as a reference for all of the cw-lasers eliminates the dependency of synthesized frequency on the carrier envelope offset frequency. This greatly simplifies the frequency comb stabilization requirements and leads to a reduced instrument complexity.

  19. Objective and Subjective Assessment of Digital Pathology Image Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prarthana Shrestha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of an image produced by the Whole Slide Imaging (WSI scanners is of critical importance for using the image in clinical diagnosis. Therefore, it is very important to monitor and ensure the quality of images. Since subjective image quality assessments by pathologists are very time-consuming, expensive and difficult to reproduce, we propose a method for objective assessment based on clinically relevant and perceptual image parameters: sharpness, contrast, brightness, uniform illumination and color separation; derived from a survey of pathologists. We developed techniques to quantify the parameters based on content-dependent absolute pixel performance and to manipulate the parameters in a predefined range resulting in images with content-independent relative quality measures. The method does not require a prior reference model. A subjective assessment of the image quality is performed involving 69 pathologists and 372 images (including 12 optimal quality images and their distorted versions per parameter at 6 different levels. To address the inter-reader variability, a representative rating is determined as a one-tailed 95% confidence interval of the mean rating. The results of the subjective assessment support the validity of the proposed objective image quality assessment method to model the readers’ perception of image quality. The subjective assessment also provides thresholds for determining the acceptable level of objective quality per parameter. The images for both the subjective and objective quality assessment are based on the HercepTestTM slides scanned by the Philips Ultra Fast Scanners, developed at Philips Digital Pathology Solutions. However, the method is applicable also to other types of slides and scanners.

  20. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis: Towards a new paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaschke, T.; Hay, G.J.; Kelly, M.; Lang, S.; Hofmann, P.; Addink, E.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/224281216; Queiroz Feitosa, R.; van der Meer, F.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/138940908; van der Werff, H.M.A.; van Coillie, F.; Tiede, A.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of scientific literature on (Geographic) Object-based Image Analysis – GEOBIA has been and still is sharply increasing. These approaches to analysing imagery have antecedents in earlier research on image segmentation and use GIS-like spatial analysis within classification and feature

  1. Insights on the Side Panels of the Franciscan Triptych by Fra Angelico Using Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Picollo, Marcello; Cucci, Costanza

    2017-01-01

    on the stratigraphy of the panel paintings and the associated construction, "gessoing" and gilding techniques. Furthermore, THz-TDI provided information regarding the location of restoration materials within the painting stratigraphy on St. Jerome, St. John the Baptist, and the Archangel Gabriel, as well...

  2. Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast THz signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors in the THz frequency range using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. Further, we observe THz pulse shortening and increase of the group refractive index at high field strengths.......We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors in the THz frequency range using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. Further, we observe THz pulse shortening and increase of the group refractive index at high field strengths....

  3. Ultrafast THz Saturable Absorption in Doped Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate ultrafast THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors by nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy. This effect is caused by the semiconductor conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite-valley scattering in strong THz fields.......We demonstrate ultrafast THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors by nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy. This effect is caused by the semiconductor conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite-valley scattering in strong THz fields....

  4. A survey on object detection in optical remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Han, Junwei

    2016-07-01

    Object detection in optical remote sensing images, being a fundamental but challenging problem in the field of aerial and satellite image analysis, plays an important role for a wide range of applications and is receiving significant attention in recent years. While enormous methods exist, a deep review of the literature concerning generic object detection is still lacking. This paper aims to provide a review of the recent progress in this field. Different from several previously published surveys that focus on a specific object class such as building and road, we concentrate on more generic object categories including, but are not limited to, road, building, tree, vehicle, ship, airport, urban-area. Covering about 270 publications we survey (1) template matching-based object detection methods, (2) knowledge-based object detection methods, (3) object-based image analysis (OBIA)-based object detection methods, (4) machine learning-based object detection methods, and (5) five publicly available datasets and three standard evaluation metrics. We also discuss the challenges of current studies and propose two promising research directions, namely deep learning-based feature representation and weakly supervised learning-based geospatial object detection. It is our hope that this survey will be beneficial for the researchers to have better understanding of this research field.

  5. Terahertz (THz) Optical Parameters of Three-Dimensional (3-D) Printing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Terahertz (THz), Submillimeter Wave, Imaging 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 16 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT UNCLASSIFIED 18...and imaging has become a topic of research as an optical technique to study these materials because THz radiation can penetrate many visibly opaque...2) Three materials, each tinted with two different colors, were measured. The materials were High Impact polystyrene (HIPS

  6. Super-resolution imaging applied to moving object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swalaganata, Galandaru; Ratna Sulistyaningrum, Dwi; Setiyono, Budi

    2017-10-01

    Moving object tracking in a video is a method used to detect and analyze changes that occur in an object that being observed. Visual quality and the precision of the tracked target are highly wished in modern tracking system. The fact that the tracked object does not always seem clear causes the tracking result less precise. The reasons are low quality video, system noise, small object, and other factors. In order to improve the precision of the tracked object especially for small object, we propose a two step solution that integrates a super-resolution technique into tracking approach. First step is super-resolution imaging applied into frame sequences. This step was done by cropping the frame in several frame or all of frame. Second step is tracking the result of super-resolution images. Super-resolution image is a technique to obtain high-resolution images from low-resolution images. In this research single frame super-resolution technique is proposed for tracking approach. Single frame super-resolution was a kind of super-resolution that it has the advantage of fast computation time. The method used for tracking is Camshift. The advantages of Camshift was simple calculation based on HSV color that use its histogram for some condition and color of the object varies. The computational complexity and large memory requirements required for the implementation of super-resolution and tracking were reduced and the precision of the tracked target was good. Experiment showed that integrate a super-resolution imaging into tracking technique can track the object precisely with various background, shape changes of the object, and in a good light conditions.

  7. Imaging Young Stellar Objects with VLTi/PIONIER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluska, J.; Malbet, F.; Berger, J.-P.; Benisty, M.; Lazareff, B.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Baron, F.; Dominik, C.; Isella, A.; Juhasz, A.; Kraus, S.; Lachaume, R.; Ménard, F.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Monnier, J.; Pinte, C.; Soulez, F.; Tallon, M.; Thi, W.-F.; Thiébaut, É.; Zins, G.

    2014-04-01

    Optical interferometry imaging is designed to help us to reveal complex astronomical sources without a prior model. Among these complex objects are the young stars and their environments, which have a typical morphology with a point-like source, surrounded by circumstellar material with unknown morphology. To image them, we have developed a numerical method that removes completely the stellar point source and reconstructs the rest of the image, using the differences in the spectral behavior between the star and its circumstellar material. We aim to reveal the first Astronomical Units of these objects where many physical phenomena could interplay: the dust sublimation causing a puffed-up inner rim, a dusty halo, a dusty wind or an inner gaseous component. To investigate more deeply these regions, we carried out the first Large Program survey of HAeBe stars with two main goals: statistics on the geometry of these objects at the first astronomical unit scale and imaging their very close environment. The images reveal the environment, which is not polluted by the star and allows us to derive the best fit for the flux ratio and the spectral slope. We present the first images from this survey and the application of the imaging method on other astronomical objects.

  8. Imaging of Phase Objects using Partially Coherent Illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravizza, F. L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Screening high-power laser optics for light intensifying phase objects that cause laserinduced damage on downstream optics is critical to sustaining laser operation. Identifying such flaws on large-apertures is quite challenging since they are relatively small and invisible to conventional inspection methods. A Linescan Phase Differential Imaging (LPDI) system was developed to rapidly identify these flaws on large-aperture optics within a single full-aperture dark-field image. We describe a two-step production phase object screening process consisting of LPDI mapping and image analysis, followed by high-resolution interferometry and propagation based evaluation of the downstream damage potential of identified flaws. An image simulation code capable of modeling the LPDI partially coherent illumination was used to optimize its phase object sensitivity.

  9. Laser-induced acoustic imaging of underground objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; DiMarzio, Charles A.; McKnight, Stephen W.; Sauermann, Gerhard O.; Miller, Eric L.

    1999-02-01

    This paper introduces a new demining technique based on the photo-acoustic interaction, together with results from photo- acoustic experiments. We have buried different types of targets (metal, rubber and plastic) in different media (sand, soil and water) and imaged them by measuring reflection of acoustic waves generated by irradiation with a CO2 laser. Research has been focused on the signal acquisition and signal processing. A deconvolution method using Wiener filters is utilized in data processing. Using a uniform spatial distribution of laser pulses at the ground's surface, we obtained 3D images of buried objects. The images give us a clear representation of the shapes of the underground objects. The quality of the images depends on the mismatch of acoustic impedance of the buried objects, the bandwidth and center frequency of the acoustic sensors and the selection of filter functions.

  10. Object localization in handheld thermal images for fireground understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Florian; Merci, Bart; Jalalvand, Azarakhsh; Verstockt, Steven

    2017-05-01

    Despite the broad application of the handheld thermal imaging cameras in firefighting, its usage is mostly limited to subjective interpretation by the person carrying the device. As remedies to overcome this limitation, object localization and classification mechanisms could assist the fireground understanding and help with the automated localization, characterization and spatio-temporal (spreading) analysis of the fire. An automated understanding of thermal images can enrich the conventional knowledge-based firefighting techniques by providing the information from the data and sensing-driven approaches. In this work, transfer learning is applied on multi-labeling convolutional neural network architectures for object localization and recognition in monocular visual, infrared and multispectral dynamic images. Furthermore, the possibility of analyzing fire scene images is studied and their current limitations are discussed. Finally, the understanding of the room configuration (i.e., objects location) for indoor localization in reduced visibility environments and the linking with Building Information Models (BIM) are investigated.

  11. System and method for automated object detection in an image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Garrett T.; Brumby, Steven P.; George, John S.; Paiton, Dylan M.; Schultz, Peter F.

    2015-10-06

    A contour/shape detection model may use relatively simple and efficient kernels to detect target edges in an object within an image or video. A co-occurrence probability may be calculated for two or more edge features in an image or video using an object definition. Edge features may be differentiated between in response to measured contextual support, and prominent edge features may be extracted based on the measured contextual support. The object may then be identified based on the extracted prominent edge features.

  12. Study of archaeological objects by neutron imaging, xrd and xrf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinca, M.; Dinu, A. D.; Stanciulescu, M. G.; Mandescu, D.

    2015-01-01

    Archaeological objects were borrowed from Arges County History Museum (ACHM) and investigated at the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR). Metallic objects made in iron, copper alloys and silver discovered in southern part of Romania, mostly Dacian and Roman origin, were investigated. For imaging was used the neutron and gamma imaging facility from tangential channel of the TRIGA ACPR to put in evidence the internal structure of the objects. For elemental and chemical composition, concentration levels in objects were performed investigations by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These investigations offer valuable information in archaeological research about composition, structure of the bulk, presence of alteration, inclusions, typology of the location of material extraction, manufacturing techniques etc. This work is an example of application of neutron imaging and other radiation-based analytical methods for cultural heritage research that had the aim to involve some of the non-destructive investigation methods available at INR. (authors)

  13. Thinning an object boundary on digital image using pipelined algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanto, S.; Aliyanta, B.

    1997-01-01

    In digital image processing, the thinning process to an object boundary is required to analyze the image structure with a measurement of parameter such as area, circumference of the image object. The process needs a sufficient large memory and time consuming if all the image pixels stored in the memory and the following process is done after all the pixels has ben transformed. pipelined algorithm can reduce the time used in the process. This algorithm uses buffer memory where its size can be adjusted. the next thinning process doesn't need to wait all the transformation of pixels. This paper described pipelined algorithm with some result on the use of the algorithm to digital image

  14. System for objective assessment of image differences in digital cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliegel, Karel; Krasula, Lukáš; Páta, Petr; Myslík, Jiří; Pecák, Josef; Jícha, Marek

    2014-09-01

    There is high demand for quick digitization and subsequent image restoration of archived film records. Digitization is very urgent in many cases because various invaluable pieces of cultural heritage are stored on aging media. Only selected records can be reconstructed perfectly using painstaking manual or semi-automatic procedures. This paper aims to answer the question what are the quality requirements on the restoration process in order to obtain acceptably close visual perception of the digitally restored film in comparison to the original analog film copy. This knowledge is very important to preserve the original artistic intention of the movie producers. Subjective experiment with artificially distorted images has been conducted in order to answer the question what is the visual impact of common image distortions in digital cinema. Typical color and contrast distortions were introduced and test images were presented to viewers using digital projector. Based on the outcome of this subjective evaluation a system for objective assessment of image distortions has been developed and its performance tested. The system utilizes calibrated digital single-lens reflex camera and subsequent analysis of suitable features of images captured from the projection screen. The evaluation of captured image data has been optimized in order to obtain predicted differences between the reference and distorted images while achieving high correlation with the results of subjective assessment. The system can be used to objectively determine the difference between analog film and digital cinema images on the projection screen.

  15. Adaptive Colour Feature Identification in Image for Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Su

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification and tracking of a moving object using computer vision techniques is important in robotic surveillance. In this paper, an adaptive colour filtering method is introduced for identifying and tracking a moving object appearing in image sequences. This filter is capable of automatically identifying the most salient colour feature of the moving object in the image and using this for a robot to track the object. The method enables the selected colour feature to adapt to surrounding condition when it is changed. A method of determining the region of interest of the moving target is also developed for the adaptive colour filter to extract colour information. Experimental results show that by using a camera mounted on a robot, the proposed methods can perform robustly in tracking a randomly moving object using adaptively selected colour features in a crowded environment.

  16. Application of object modeling technique to medical image retrieval system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Fumiaki; Abe, Takeshi

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the results of discussions on the object-oriented analysis methodology, which is one of the object-oriented paradigms. In particular, we considered application of the object modeling technique (OMT) to the analysis of a medical image retrieval system. The object-oriented methodology places emphasis on the construction of an abstract model from real-world entities. The effectiveness of and future improvements to OMT are discussed from the standpoint of the system's expandability. These discussions have elucidated that the methodology is sufficiently well-organized and practical to be applied to commercial products, provided that it is applied to the appropriate problem domain. (author)

  17. Toward Imaging of Small Objects with XUV Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayrac, Muhammed; Kolomenski, Alexandre A.; Boran, Yakup; Schuessler, Hans

    The coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) technique has the potential to capture high resolution images of nano- or micron-sized structures when using XUV radiation obtained by high harmonic radiation (HHG) process. When a small object is exposed to XUV radiation, a diffraction pattern of the object is created. The advances in the coherent HHG enable obtaining photon flux sufficient for XUV imaging. The diffractive imaging technique from coherent table top XUV beams have made possible nanometer-scale resolution imaging by replacing the imaging optics with a computer reconstruction algorithm. In this study, we present our initial work on diffractive imaging using a tabletop XUV source. The initial investigation of imaging of a micron-sized mesh with an optimized HHG source is demonstrated. This work was supported in part by the Robert A. Welch Foundation Grant No. A1546 and the Qatar Foundation under the grant NPRP 8-735-1-154. M. Sayrac acknowledges support from the Ministry of National Education of the Republic of Turkey.

  18. Software Analysis of Mining Images for Objects Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Tomecek

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is dealing with the development of the new module of robust FOTOMNG system for editing images from a video or miningimage from measurements for subsequent improvement of detection of required objects in the 2D image. The generated module allows create a finalhigh-quality picture by combination of multiple images with the search objects. We can combine input data according to the parameters or basedon reference frames. Correction of detected 2D objects is also part of this module. The solution is implemented intoFOTOMNG system and finishedwork has been tested in appropriate frames, which were validated core functionality and usability. Tests confirmed the function of each part of themodule, its accuracy and implications of integration.

  19. Microwave imaging of spinning object using orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kang; Li, Xiang; Gao, Yue; Wang, Hongqiang; Cheng, Yongqiang

    2017-09-01

    The linear Doppler shift used for the detection of a spinning object becomes significantly weakened when the line of sight (LOS) is perpendicular to the object, which will result in the failure of detection. In this paper, a new detection and imaging technique for spinning objects is developed. The rotational Doppler phenomenon is observed by using the microwave carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). To converge the radiation energy on the area where objects might exist, the generation method of OAM beams is proposed based on the frequency diversity principle, and the imaging model is derived accordingly. The detection method of the rotational Doppler shift and the imaging approach of the azimuthal profiles are proposed, which are verified by proof-of-concept experiments. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that OAM beams can still be used to obtain the azimuthal profiles of spinning objects even when the LOS is perpendicular to the object. This work remedies the insufficiency in existing microwave sensing technology and offers a new solution to the object identification problem.

  20. Dual-band infrared capabilities for imaging buried object sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Gorvad, M.R.; Perkins, D.E.; Clark, G.A.; Hernandez, J.E.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1993-04-02

    We discuss dual-band infrared (DBIR) capabilities for imaging buried object sizes. We identify physical features affecting thermal contrast needed to distinguish buried object sites from undisturbed sites or surface clutter. Apart from atmospheric transmission and system performance, these features include: object size, shape, and burial depth; ambient soil, disturbed soil and object site thermal diffusivity differences; surface temperature, emissivity, plant-cover, slope, albedo and roughness variations; weather conditions and measurement times. We use good instrumentation to measure the time-varying temperature differences between buried object sites and undisturbed soil sites. We compare near surface soil temperature differences with radiometric infrared (IR) surface temperature differences recorded at 4.7 {plus_minus} 0.4 {mu}m and at 10.6 {plus_minus} 1.0 {mu}m. By producing selective DBIR image ratio maps, we distinguish temperature-difference patterns from surface emissivity effects. We discuss temperature differences between buried object sites, filled hole site (without buried objects), cleared (undisturbed) soil sites, and grass-covered sites (with and without different types of surface clutter). We compare temperature, emissivity-ratio, visible and near-IR reflectance signatures of surface objects, leafy plants and sod. We discuss the physical aspects of environmental, surface and buried target features affecting interpretation of buried targets, surface objects and natural backgrounds.

  1. Optical imaging of objects in turbid medium with ultrashort pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Yu; Sun, Chia-Wei; Yang, Chih Chung; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2000-07-01

    Photons are seriously scattered when entering turbid medium; this the images of objects hidden in turbid medium can not be obtained by just collecting the transmitted photons. Early-arriving photons, which are also called ballistic or snake protons, are much less scattered when passing through turbid medium, and contains more image information than the late-arriving ones. Therefore, objects embedded in turbid medium can be imaged by gathering the ballistic and snake photons. In the present research we try to recover images of objects in turbid medium by simultaneously time-gate and polarization-gate to obtain the snake photons. An Argon-pumped Ti-Sapphire laser with 100fs pulses was employed as a light source. A streak camera with a 2ps temporal resolution was used to extract the ballistic and snake photons. Two pieces of lean swine meat, measured 4mmX3mm and 5xxX4mm, respectively, were placed in a 10cmX10cmX3cm acrylic tank, which was full of diluted milk. A pair of polarizer and an analyzer was used to extract the light that keeps polarization unchanged. The combination of time gating and polarization gating resulted in good images of objects hidden in turbid medium.

  2. Objectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Daston, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...

  3. Mediman: Object oriented programming approach for medical image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, A.; Sibomana, M.; Bol, A.; Michel, C.

    1993-01-01

    Mediman is a new image analysis package which has been developed to analyze quantitatively Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data. It is object-oriented, written in C++ and its user interface is based on InterViews on top of which new classes have been added. Mediman accesses data using external data representation or import/export mechanism which avoids data duplication. Multimodality studies are organized in a simple database which includes images, headers, color tables, lists and objects of interest (OOI's) and history files. Stored color table parameters allow to focus directly on the interesting portion of the dynamic range. Lists allow to organize the study according to modality, acquisition protocol, time and spatial properties. OOI's (points, lines and regions) are stored in absolute 3-D coordinates allowing correlation with other co-registered imaging modalities such as MRI or SPECT. OOI's have visualization properties and are organized into groups. Quantitative ROI analysis of anatomic images consists of position, distance, volume calculation on selected OOI's. An image calculator is connected to mediman. Quantitation of metabolic images is performed via profiles, sectorization, time activity curves and kinetic modeling. Mediman is menu and mouse driven, macro-commands can be registered and replayed. Its interface is customizable through a configuration file. The benefit of the object-oriented approach are discussed from a development point of view

  4. Analysis and Comparison of Objective Methods for Image Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Babkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is research and modification of the reference objective methods for image quality assessment. The ultimate goal is to obtain a modification of formal assessments that more closely corresponds to the subjective expert estimates (MOS.In considering the formal reference objective methods for image quality assessment we used the results of other authors, which offer results and comparative analyzes of the most effective algorithms. Based on these investigations we have chosen two of the most successful algorithm for which was made a further analysis in the MATLAB 7.8 R 2009 a (PQS and MSSSIM. The publication focuses on the features of the algorithms, which have great importance in practical implementation, but are insufficiently covered in the publications by other authors.In the implemented modification of the algorithm PQS boundary detector Kirsch was replaced by the boundary detector Canny. Further experiments were carried out according to the method of the ITU-R VT.500-13 (01/2012 using monochrome images treated with different types of filters (should be emphasized that an objective assessment of image quality PQS is applicable only to monochrome images. Images were obtained with a thermal imaging surveillance system. The experimental results proved the effectiveness of this modification.In the specialized literature in the field of formal to evaluation methods pictures, this type of modification was not mentioned.The method described in the publication can be applied to various practical implementations of digital image processing.Advisability and effectiveness of using the modified method of PQS to assess the structural differences between the images are shown in the article and this will be used in solving the problems of identification and automatic control.

  5. Vectorial diffraction properties of THz vortex Bessel beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen; Wang, Xinke; Sun, Wenfeng; Feng, Shengfei; Han, Peng; Ye, Jiasheng; Yu, Yue; Zhang, Yan

    2018-01-22

    A vortex Bessel beam combines the merits of an optical vortex and a Bessel beam, including a spiral wave front and a non-diffractive feature, which has immense application potentials in optical trapping, optical fabrication, optical communications, and so on. Here, linearly and circularly polarized vortex Bessel beams in the terahertz (THz) frequency range are generated by utilizing a THz quarter wave plate, a spiral phase plate, and Teflon axicons with different opening angles. Taking advantage of a THz focal-plane imaging system, vectorial diffraction properties of the THz vortex Bessel beams are comprehensively characterized and discussed, including the transverse (Ex, Ey) and longitudinal (Ez) polarization components. The experimental phenomena are accurately simulated by adopting the vectorial Rayleigh diffraction integral. By varying the opening angle of the axicon, the characteristic parameters of these THz vortex Bessel beams are exhibited and compared, including the light spot size, the diffraction-free range, and the phase evolution process. This work provides the precise experimental and theoretical bases for the comprehension and application of a THz vortex Bessel beam.

  6. Evidence for secondary gravitationally lensed images in radio quasistellar objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousey, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    Evidence is sought for the observability of the gravitational lens effect by studying the internal radio structures of quasistellar objects. Since the majority of the radio emitting quasars were observed to be multiply structured at radio wavelengths, and since the gravitational deflection of light is essentially frequency independent, these sources are very suitable objects for the investigation of gravitational imaging. From the theoretical framework of gravitational imaging, particularly in the treatment of the gravitational lenses as ''point-mass'' deflectors, several selection criteria were imposed on a sample of 208 radio emitting quasars in order to filter out only those sources which may be exhibiting radio imaging. The employment of further selection criteria, obtained from the consideration of the observed optical fields around the quasars, resulted in a small filtered sample of 10 quasars which are good candidates for exhibiting the gravitational lens effect. In particular, two quasars, 3C 268.4 and 3C 286, are observed to have good evidence for the presence of suitable gravitational lenses. Image models were computed for the image candidates which predict the masses and distances of the gravitational deflectors as well as estimations of the ''time delays'' of the images. It is also suggested that measurements of these image time delays may enable one to place stringent limits on the value of the Hubble constant

  7. METHOD OF IMAGE QUALITY ENHANCEMENT FOR SPACE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Korshunov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an approach for image quality improvement of the space objects in the visible range of electromagnetic wave spectrum. The proposed method is based on the joint taking into account of both the motion velocity of the space supervisory apparatus and a space object observed in the near-earth space when the time of photo-detector exposure is chosen. The timing of exposure is carried out by light-signal characteristics, which determines the optimal value of the charge package formed in the charge-coupled device being irradiated. Thus, the parameters of onboard observation equipment can be selected, which provides space images suitable for interpretation. The linear resolving capacity is used as quality indicator for space images, giving a complete picture for the image contrast and geometric properties of the object on the photo. Observation scenario modeling of the space object, done by sputnik-inspector, has shown the possibility of increasing the linear resolution up to10% - 20% or up to 40% - 50% depending on the non-complanarity angle at the movement along orbits. The proposed approach to the increase of photographs quality provides getting sharp and highcontrast images of space objects by the optical-electronic equipment of the space-based remote sensing. The usage of these images makes it possible to detect in time the space technology failures, which are the result of its exploitation in the nearearth space. The proposed method can be also applied at the stage of space systems design for optical-electronic surveillance in computer models used for facilities assessment of the shooting equipment information tract.

  8. Visual object imagery and autobiographical memory: Object Imagers are better at remembering their personal past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Manila; Pelagatti, Claudia; Chiorri, Carlo; Mazzoni, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examined whether higher levels of object imagery, a stable characteristic that reflects the ability and preference in generating pictorial mental images of objects, facilitate involuntary and voluntary retrieval of autobiographical memories (ABMs). Individuals with high (High-OI) and low (Low-OI) levels of object imagery were asked to perform an involuntary and a voluntary ABM task in the laboratory. Results showed that High-OI participants generated more involuntary and voluntary ABMs than Low-OI, with faster retrieval times. High-OI also reported more detailed memories compared to Low-OI and retrieved memories as visual images. Theoretical implications of these findings for research on voluntary and involuntary ABMs are discussed.

  9. Object recognition based on Google's reverse image search and image similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, András.

    2015-12-01

    Image classification is one of the most challenging tasks in computer vision and a general multiclass classifier could solve many different tasks in image processing. Classification is usually done by shallow learning for predefined objects, which is a difficult task and very different from human vision, which is based on continuous learning of object classes and one requires years to learn a large taxonomy of objects which are not disjunct nor independent. In this paper I present a system based on Google image similarity algorithm and Google image database, which can classify a large set of different objects in a human like manner, identifying related classes and taxonomies.

  10. Objective Color Classification of Ecstasy Tablets by Hyperspectral Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Gerda; Lopatka, Martin; Aalders, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    The general procedure followed in the examination of ecstasy tablets for profiling purposes includes a color description, which depends highly on the observers' perception. This study aims to provide objective quantitative color information using visible hyperspectral imaging. Both self-manufactured

  11. GuidosToolbox: universal digital image object analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Vogt; Kurt Riitters

    2017-01-01

    The increased availability of mapped environmental data calls for better tools to analyze the spatial characteristics and information contained in those maps. Publicly available, userfriendly and universal tools are needed to foster the interdisciplinary development and application of methodologies for the extraction of image object information properties contained in...

  12. Infrared hyperspectral upconversion imaging using spatial object translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Louis Martinus; Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper hyperspectral imaging in the mid-infrared wavelength region is realised using nonlinear frequency upconversion. The infrared light is converted to the near-infrared region for detection with a Si-based CCD camera. The object is translated in a predefined grid by motorized actuators...

  13. Imaging the Messier objects remotely from your laptop

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Len

    2018-01-01

    This is a guide for anyone interested in practical astronomy but intimidated by the idea of investing in a telescope. It explores the world of remote observing, which requires nothing more than a laptop and an Internet connection. The book aims to make readers comfortable navigating the plethora of online equipment at their disposal and to show that a challenge like imaging the Messier objects can be fun, simple, and achievable for all. In this text, all 110 Messier objects are discussed, each one remotely imaged with clear instructions on what telescope and camera combinations give the best results. Common astronomical phrases and units are all explained and illustrated to help newcomers get a grasp of terminology. Tidbits of history and quotes from Messier and other astronomers round out this beginner-friendly read, which also features a handy Quick Reference Image Library.

  14. Repetition blindness for natural images of objects with viewpoint changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane eBuffat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When stimuli are repeated in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP, observers sometimes fail to report the second occurrence of a target. This phenomenon is referred to as repetition blindness (RB. We report an RSVP experiment with photographs in which we manipulated object viewpoints between the first and second occurrences of a target (0-, 45-, or 90-degree changes, and spatial frequency content. Natural images were spatially filtered to produce low, medium, or high spatial-frequency stimuli. RB was observed for all filtering conditions. Surprisingly, for full-spectrum images, RB increased significantly as the viewpoint reached 90 degrees. For filtered images, a similar pattern of results was found for all conditions except for medium spatial-frequency stimuli. These findings suggest that object recognition in RSVP are subtended by viewpoint-specific representations for all spatial frequencies except medium ones.

  15. Object Georeferencing in UAV-Based SAR Terrain Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łabowski Michał

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic aperture radars (SAR allow to obtain high resolution terrain images comparable with the resolution of optical methods. Radar imaging is independent on the weather conditions and the daylight. The process of analysis of the SAR images consists primarily of identifying of interesting objects. The ability to determine their geographical coordinates can increase usability of the solution from a user point of view. The paper presents a georeferencing method of the radar terrain images. The presented images were obtained from the SAR system installed on board an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV. The system was developed within a project under acronym WATSAR realized by the Military University of Technology and WB Electronics S.A. The source of the navigation data was an INS/GNSS system integrated by the Kalman filter with a feed-backward correction loop. The paper presents the terrain images obtained during flight tests and results of selected objects georeferencing with an assessment of the accuracy of the method.

  16. Comparative analysis of imaging configurations and objectives for Fourier microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurvits, Jonathan A; Jiang, Mingming; Zia, Rashid

    2015-11-01

    Fourier microscopy is becoming an increasingly important tool for the analysis of optical nanostructures and quantum emitters. However, achieving quantitative Fourier space measurements requires a thorough understanding of the impact of aberrations introduced by optical microscopes that have been optimized for conventional real-space imaging. Here we present a detailed framework for analyzing the performance of microscope objectives for several common Fourier imaging configurations. To this end, we model objectives from Nikon, Olympus, and Zeiss using parameters that were inferred from patent literature and confirmed, where possible, by physical disassembly. We then examine the aberrations most relevant to Fourier microscopy, including the alignment tolerances of apodization factors for different objective classes, the effect of magnification on the modulation transfer function, and vignetting-induced reductions of the effective numerical aperture for wide-field measurements. Based on this analysis, we identify an optimal objective class and imaging configuration for Fourier microscopy. In addition, the Zemax files for the objectives and setups used in this analysis have been made publicly available as a resource for future studies.

  17. OBJECT-SPACE MULTI-IMAGE MATCHING OF MOBILE-MAPPING-SYSTEM IMAGE SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Chen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an object-space multi-image matching procedure of terrestrial MMS (Mobile Mapping System image sequences to determine the coordinates of an object point automatically and reliably. This image matching procedure can be applied to find conjugate points of MMS image sequences efficiently. Conventional area-based image matching methods are not reliable to deliver accurate matching results for this application due to image scale variations, viewing angle variations, and object occlusions. In order to deal with these three matching problems, an object space multi-image matching is proposed. A modified NCC (Normalized Cross Correlation coefficient is proposed to measure the similarity of image patches. A modified multi-window matching procedure will also be introduced to solve the problem of object occlusion. A coarse-to-fine procedure with a combination of object-space multi-image matching and multi-window matching is adopted. The proposed procedure has been implemented for the purpose of matching terrestrial MMS image sequences. The ratio of correct matches of this experiment was about 80 %. By providing an approximate conjugate point in an overlapping image manually, most of the incorrect matches could be fixed properly and the ratio of correct matches was improved up to 98 %.

  18. Artworks characterization at THz frequencies: preliminary results via the Fiber-Coupled Terahertz Time Domain System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    In the research field of art and archaeology, scientific observation and analysis are hugely demanded to gather as more information as possible on the materials and techniques used to create artworks as well as in previous restoration actions. In this frame, diagnostic tools exploiting electromagnetic waves deserve massive interest tanks to their ability to provide non-invasive and possibly contactless characterization of the investigated objects. Among the electromagnetic diagnostic technologies, those working at frequencies belonging to the 0.1-10 THz range are currently deserving an increased attention since THz waves are capable of penetrating into optically opaque materials (up to the preparation layers), without direct contact and by involving sufficiently low energy to be considered as perfectly non-invasive in practice [1,2]. Moreover, being THz non-ionizing radiations, a moderate exposure to them implies minor long term risks to the molecular stability of the historical artifact and humans. Finally, recent developments of THz technology have allowed the commercialization of compact, flexible and portable systems. One of them is the Fiber-Coupled Terahertz Time Domain System (FICO) developed by Z-Omega, acquired by the Institute of Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA) in 2013. This system works in the range from 60GHz to 3THz with a waveform acquisition speed up to 500Hz, it is equipped with fiber optic coupled transmitting and receiving probes and, few months ago, has been potentiated by means of an automatic positioning system enabling to scan a 150mm x 150mm area. In the frame of the IREA research activities regarding cultural heritage, the FICO system is currently adopted to perform both spectroscopy and imaging, which are the two kind of analysis wherein THz technology can be profitably explored [3]. In particular, THz spectroscopy is used to distinguish different artists materials by exploiting their peculiar fingerprint in the absorption

  19. Impulse radar imaging system for concealed object detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podd, F. J. W.; David, M.; Iqbal, G.; Hussain, F.; Morris, D.; Osakue, E.; Yeow, Y.; Zahir, S.; Armitage, D. W.; Peyton, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    Electromagnetic systems for imaging concealed objects at checkpoints typically employ radiation at millimetre and terahertz frequencies. These systems have been shown to be effective and provide a sufficiently high resolution image. However there are difficulties and current electromagnetic systems have limitations particularly in accurately differentiating between threat and innocuous objects based on shape, surface emissivity or reflectivity, which are indicative parameters. In addition, water has a high absorption coefficient at millimetre wavelength and terahertz frequencies, which makes it more difficult for these frequencies to image through thick damp clothing. This paper considers the potential of using ultra wideband (UWB) in the low gigahertz range. The application of this frequency band to security screening appears to be a relatively new field. The business case for implementing the UWB system has been made financially viable by the recent availability of low-cost integrated circuits operating at these frequencies. Although designed for the communication sector, these devices can perform the required UWB radar measurements as well. This paper reports the implementation of a 2 to 5 GHz bandwidth linear array scanner. The paper describes the design and fabrication of transmitter and receiver antenna arrays whose individual elements are a type of antipodal Vivaldi antenna. The antenna's frequency and angular response were simulated in CST Microwave Studio and compared with laboratory measurements. The data pre-processing methods of background subtraction and deconvolution are implemented to improve the image quality. The background subtraction method uses a reference dataset to remove antenna crosstalk and room reflections from the dataset. The deconvolution method uses a Wiener filter to "sharpen" the returned echoes which improves the resolution of the reconstructed image. The filter uses an impulse response reference dataset and a signal

  20. Complex Pupil Masks for Aberrated Imaging of Closely Spaced Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A. N. K.; Sagar, D. K.; Khonina, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Current approach demonstrates the suppression of optical side-lobes and the contraction of the main lobe in the composite image of two object points of the optical system under the influence of defocusing effect when an asymmetric phase edges are imposed over the apodized circular aperture. The resolution of two point sources having different intensity ratio is discussed in terms of the modified Sparrow criterion, functions of the degree of coherence of the illumination, the intensity difference and the degree of asymmetric phase masking. Here we have introduced and explored the effects of focus aberration (defect-of-focus) on the two-point resolution of the optical systems. Results on the aberrated composite image of closely spaced objects with amplitude mask and asymmetric phase masks forms a significant contribution in astronomical and microscopic observations.

  1. Chemical Shift Imaging (CSI) by precise object displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Leclerc, Sebastien; Trausch, Gregory; Cordier, Benoit; Grandclaude, Denis; Retournard, Alain; Fraissard, Jacques; Canet, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    International audience; A mechanical device (NMR lift) has been built for displacing vertically an object (typically a NMR sample tube) inside the NMR probe with an accuracy of 1 Μm. A series of single pulse experiments are performed for incremented vertical positions of the sample. With a sufficiently spatially selective rf field, one obtains chemical shift information along the displacement direction (one dimensional Chemical Shift Imaging – CSI). Knowing the vertical radio-frequency (rf) f...

  2. Object-oriented design of medical imaging software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligier, Y; Ratib, O; Logean, M; Girard, C; Perrier, R; Scherrer, J R

    1994-01-01

    A special software package for interactive display and manipulation of medical images was developed at the University Hospital of Geneva, as part of a hospital wide Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). This software package, called Osiris, was especially designed to be easily usable and adaptable to the needs of noncomputer-oriented physicians. The Osiris software has been developed to allow the visualization of medical images obtained from any imaging modality. It provides generic manipulation tools, processing tools, and analysis tools more specific to clinical applications. This software, based on an object-oriented paradigm, is portable and extensible. Osiris is available on two different operating systems: the Unix X-11/OSF-Motif based workstations, and the Macintosh family.

  3. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis - Towards a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Thomas; Hay, Geoffrey J; Kelly, Maggi; Lang, Stefan; Hofmann, Peter; Addink, Elisabeth; Queiroz Feitosa, Raul; van der Meer, Freek; van der Werff, Harald; van Coillie, Frieke; Tiede, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The amount of scientific literature on (Geographic) Object-based Image Analysis - GEOBIA has been and still is sharply increasing. These approaches to analysing imagery have antecedents in earlier research on image segmentation and use GIS-like spatial analysis within classification and feature extraction approaches. This article investigates these development and its implications and asks whether or not this is a new paradigm in remote sensing and Geographic Information Science (GIScience). We first discuss several limitations of prevailing per-pixel methods when applied to high resolution images. Then we explore the paradigm concept developed by Kuhn (1962) and discuss whether GEOBIA can be regarded as a paradigm according to this definition. We crystallize core concepts of GEOBIA, including the role of objects, of ontologies and the multiplicity of scales and we discuss how these conceptual developments support important methods in remote sensing such as change detection and accuracy assessment. The ramifications of the different theoretical foundations between the ' per-pixel paradigm ' and GEOBIA are analysed, as are some of the challenges along this path from pixels, to objects, to geo-intelligence. Based on several paradigm indications as defined by Kuhn and based on an analysis of peer-reviewed scientific literature we conclude that GEOBIA is a new and evolving paradigm.

  4. Tracker: Image-Processing and Object-Tracking System Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Theodore W.

    1999-01-01

    Tracker is an object-tracking and image-processing program designed and developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to help with the analysis of images generated by microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments. Experiments are often recorded on film or videotape for analysis later. Tracker automates the process of examining each frame of the recorded experiment, performing image-processing operations to bring out the desired detail, and recording the positions of the objects of interest. It can load sequences of images from disk files or acquire images (via a frame grabber) from film transports, videotape, laser disks, or a live camera. Tracker controls the image source to automatically advance to the next frame. It can employ a large array of image-processing operations to enhance the detail of the acquired images and can analyze an arbitrarily large number of objects simultaneously. Several different tracking algorithms are available, including conventional threshold and correlation-based techniques, and more esoteric procedures such as "snake" tracking and automated recognition of character data in the image. The Tracker software was written to be operated by researchers, thus every attempt was made to make the software as user friendly and self-explanatory as possible. Tracker is used by most of the microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments performed by Lewis, and by visiting researchers. This includes experiments performed on the space shuttles, Mir, sounding rockets, zero-g research airplanes, drop towers, and ground-based laboratories. This software automates the analysis of the flame or liquid s physical parameters such as position, velocity, acceleration, size, shape, intensity characteristics, color, and centroid, as well as a number of other measurements. It can perform these operations on multiple objects simultaneously. Another key feature of Tracker is that it performs optical character recognition (OCR). This feature is useful in

  5. Insect brains use image interpolation mechanisms to recognise rotated objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian G Dyer

    Full Text Available Recognising complex three-dimensional objects presents significant challenges to visual systems when these objects are rotated in depth. The image processing requirements for reliable individual recognition under these circumstances are computationally intensive since local features and their spatial relationships may significantly change as an object is rotated in the horizontal plane. Visual experience is known to be important in primate brains learning to recognise rotated objects, but currently it is unknown how animals with comparatively simple brains deal with the problem of reliably recognising objects when seen from different viewpoints. We show that the miniature brain of honeybees initially demonstrate a low tolerance for novel views of complex shapes (e.g. human faces, but can learn to recognise novel views of stimuli by interpolating between or 'averaging' views they have experienced. The finding that visual experience is also important for bees has important implications for understanding how three dimensional biologically relevant objects like flowers are recognised in complex environments, and for how machine vision might be taught to solve related visual problems.

  6. THz wave sensing for petroleum industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Douseri, Fatemah M.; Chen, Yunqing; Zhang, X.-C.

    2006-04-01

    We present the results of terahertz (THz) sensing of gasoline products. The frequency-dependent absorption coefficients, refractive indices, and complex dielectric constants of gasoline and xylene isomers were extracted in the spectral range from 0.5 3.0 THz. The THz spectra of gasoline (#87, #89, #93) and related BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) compounds were studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in the 1.5 20 THz (50 660 cm-1). The xylene isomers, which are used as antiknock agent in gasoline were determined quantitatively in gasoline in the THz range. Our investigations show the potential of THz technology for the petroleum industrial applications.

  7. Performance evaluation of objective quality metrics for HDR image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzise, Giuseppe; De Simone, Francesca; Lauga, Paul; Dufaux, Frederic

    2014-09-01

    Due to the much larger luminance and contrast characteristics of high dynamic range (HDR) images, well-known objective quality metrics, widely used for the assessment of low dynamic range (LDR) content, cannot be directly applied to HDR images in order to predict their perceptual fidelity. To overcome this limitation, advanced fidelity metrics, such as the HDR-VDP, have been proposed to accurately predict visually significant differences. However, their complex calibration may make them difficult to use in practice. A simpler approach consists in computing arithmetic or structural fidelity metrics, such as PSNR and SSIM, on perceptually encoded luminance values but the performance of quality prediction in this case has not been clearly studied. In this paper, we aim at providing a better comprehension of the limits and the potentialities of this approach, by means of a subjective study. We compare the performance of HDR-VDP to that of PSNR and SSIM computed on perceptually encoded luminance values, when considering compressed HDR images. Our results show that these simpler metrics can be effectively employed to assess image fidelity for applications such as HDR image compression.

  8. A BRIGHT IMPULSIVE SOLAR BURST DETECTED AT 30 THz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, P.; Fernandes, L. O. T.; Kudaka, A. S.; De Souza, R. V.; Valio, A.; Raulin, J.-P. [Center of Radio Astronomy and Astrophysics, Engineering School, Mackenzie Presbyterian University, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); White, S. M. [Air Force Research Laboratories, Space Vehicles Directorate, Albuquerque, NM 87117 (United States); Freeland, S. L. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Marcon, R. [' ' Gleb Wataghin' ' Physics Institute, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Aballay, J. L.; Fernandez, G.; Godoy, R.; Marun, A.; Gimenez de Castro, C. G. [El Leoncito Astronomical Complex, CONICET, San Juan (Argentina)

    2013-05-10

    Ground- and space-based observations of solar flares from radio wavelengths to gamma-rays have produced considerable insights but raised several unsolved controversies. The last unexplored wavelength frontier for solar flares is in the range of submillimeter and infrared wavelengths. Here we report the detection of an intense impulsive burst at 30 THz using a new imaging system. The 30 THz emission exhibited remarkable time coincidence with peaks observed at microwave, mm/submm, visible, EUV, and hard X-ray wavelengths. The emission location coincides with a very weak white-light feature, and is consistent with heating below the temperature minimum in the atmosphere. However, there are problems in attributing the heating to accelerated electrons. The peak 30 THz flux is several times larger than the usual microwave peak near 9 GHz, attributed to non-thermal electrons in the corona. The 30 THz emission could be consistent with an optically thick spectrum increasing from low to high frequencies. It might be part of the same spectral component found at sub-THz frequencies whose nature remains mysterious. Further observations at these wavelengths will provide a new window for flare studies.

  9. Combining Different Modalities for 3D Imaging of Biological Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Tsyganov, E; Kulkarni, P; Mason, R; Parkey, R; Seliuonine, S; Shay, J; Soesbe, T; Zhezher, V; Zinchenko, A I

    2005-01-01

    A resolution enhanced NaI(Tl)-scintillator micro-SPECT device using pinhole collimator geometry has been built and tested with small animals. This device was constructed based on a depth-of-interaction measurement using a thick scintillator crystal and a position sensitive PMT to measure depth-dependent scintillator light profiles. Such a measurement eliminates the parallax error that degrades the high spatial resolution required for small animal imaging. This novel technique for 3D gamma-ray detection was incorporated into the micro-SPECT device and tested with a $^{57}$Co source and $^{98m}$Tc-MDP injected in mice body. To further enhance the investigating power of the tomographic imaging different imaging modalities can be combined. In particular, as proposed and shown in this paper, the optical imaging permits a 3D reconstruction of the animal's skin surface thus improving visualization and making possible depth-dependent corrections, necessary for bioluminescence 3D reconstruction in biological objects. ...

  10. Combining different modalities for 3D imaging of biological objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, Eh.; Antich, P.; Kulkarni, P.; Mason, R.; Parkey, R.; Seliuonine, S.; Shay, J.; Soesbe, T.; Zhezher, V.; Zinchenko, A.

    2005-01-01

    A resolution enhanced NaI(Tl)-scintillator micro-SPECT device using pinhole collimator geometry has been built and tested with small animals. This device was constructed based on a depth-of-interaction measurement using a thick scintillator crystal and a position sensitive PMT to measure depth-dependent scintillator light profiles. Such a measurement eliminates the parallax error that degrades the high spatial resolution required for small animal imaging. This novel technique for 3D gamma-ray detection was incorporated into the micro-SPECT device and tested with a 57 Co source and 98m Tc-MDP injected in mice body. To further enhance the investigating power of the tomographic imaging different imaging modalities can be combined. In particular, as proposed and shown, the optical imaging permits a 3D reconstruction of the animal's skin surface thus improving visualization and making possible depth-dependent corrections, necessary for bioluminescence 3D reconstruction in biological objects. This structural information can provide even more detail if the x-ray tomography is used as presented in the paper

  11. Magnetoacoustic microscopic imaging of conductive objects and nanoparticles distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyu; Zhang, Ruochong; Luo, Yunqi; Zheng, Yuanjin

    2017-09-01

    Magnetoacoustic tomography has been demonstrated as a powerful and low-cost multi-wave imaging modality. However, due to limited spatial resolution and detection efficiency of magnetoacoustic signal, full potential of the magnetoacoustic imaging remains to be tapped. Here we report a high-resolution magnetoacoustic microscopy method, where magnetic stimulation is provided by a compact solenoid resonance coil connected with a matching network, and acoustic reception is realized by using a high-frequency focused ultrasound transducer. Scanning the magnetoacoustic microscopy system perpendicularly to the acoustic axis of the focused transducer would generate a two-dimensional microscopic image with acoustically determined lateral resolution. It is analyzed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally that magnetoacoustic generation in this microscopic system depends on the conductivity profile of conductive objects and localized distribution of superparamagnetic iron magnetic nanoparticles, based on two different but related implementations. The lateral resolution is characterized. Directional nature of magnetoacoustic vibration and imaging sensitivity for mapping magnetic nanoparticles are also discussed. The proposed microscopy system offers a high-resolution method that could potentially map intrinsic conductivity distribution in biological tissue and extraneous magnetic nanoparticles.

  12. Imaging moving objects from multiply scattered waves and multiple sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Analee; Cheney, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a linearized imaging theory that combines the spatial, temporal and spectral components of multiply scattered waves as they scatter from moving objects. In particular, we consider the case of multiple fixed sensors transmitting and receiving information from multiply scattered waves. We use a priori information about the multipath background. We use a simple model for multiple scattering, namely scattering from a fixed, perfectly reflecting (mirror) plane. We base our image reconstruction and velocity estimation technique on a modification of a filtered backprojection method that produces a phase-space image. We plot examples of point-spread functions for different geometries and waveforms, and from these plots, we estimate the resolution in space and velocity. Through this analysis, we are able to identify how the imaging system depends on parameters such as bandwidth and number of sensors. We ultimately show that enhanced phase-space resolution for a distribution of moving and stationary targets in a multipath environment may be achieved using multiple sensors. (paper)

  13. Tracking moving objects with megavoltage portal imaging: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Juergen; Richter, Anne; Baier, Kurt; Wilbert, Juergen; Guckenberger, Matthias; Flentje, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Four different algorithms were investigated with the aim to determine their suitability to track an object in conventional megavoltage portal images. The algorithms considered were the mean of the sum of squared differences (MSSD), mutual information (MI), the correlation ratio (CR), and the correlation coefficient (CC). Simulation studies were carried out with various image series containing a rigid object of interest that was moved along a predefined trajectory. For each of the series the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was varied to compare the performance of the algorithms under noisy conditions. For a poor SNR of -6 dB the mean tracking error was 2.4, 6.5, 39.0, and 17.2 pixels for MSSD, CC, CR and MI, respectively, with a standard deviation of 1.9, 12.9, 19.5, and 7.5 pixels, respectively. The size of a pixel was 0.5 mm. These results improved to 1.1, 1.3, 1.3, and 2.0 pixels, respectively, with a standard deviation of 0.6, 0.8, 0.8, and 2.1 pixels, respectively, when a mean filter was applied to the images prior to tracking. The implementation of MSSD into existing in-house software demonstrated that, depending on the search range, it was possible to process between 2 and 15 images/s, making this approach capable of real-time applications. In conclusion, the best geometric tracking accuracy overall was obtained with MSSD, followed by CC, CR, and MI. The simplest and best algorithm, both in terms of geometric accuracy as well as computational cost, was the MSSD algorithm and was therefore the method of choice

  14. Object detection and recognition in digital images theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Cyganek, Boguslaw

    2013-01-01

    Object detection, tracking and recognition in images are key problems in computer vision. This book provides the reader with a balanced treatment between the theory and practice of selected methods in these areas to make the book accessible to a range of researchers, engineers, developers and postgraduate students working in computer vision and related fields. Key features: Explains the main theoretical ideas behind each method (which are augmented with a rigorous mathematical derivation of the formulas), their implementation (in C++) and demonstrated working in real applications.

  15. Objectness Supervised Merging Algorithm for Color Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Sima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideal color image segmentation needs both low-level cues and high-level semantic features. This paper proposes a two-hierarchy segmentation model based on merging homogeneous superpixels. First, a region growing strategy is designed for producing homogenous and compact superpixels in different partitions. Total variation smoothing features are adopted in the growing procedure for locating real boundaries. Before merging, we define a combined color-texture histogram feature for superpixels description and, meanwhile, a novel objectness feature is proposed to supervise the region merging procedure for reliable segmentation. Both color-texture histograms and objectness are computed to measure regional similarities between region pairs, and the mixed standard deviation of the union features is exploited to make stop criteria for merging process. Experimental results on the popular benchmark dataset demonstrate the better segmentation performance of the proposed model compared to other well-known segmentation algorithms.

  16. Object recognition in images via a factor graph model

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Wang, Long; Wu, Zhaolin; Zhang, Haisu

    2018-04-01

    Object recognition in images suffered from huge search space and uncertain object profile. Recently, the Bag-of- Words methods are utilized to solve these problems, especially the 2-dimension CRF(Conditional Random Field) model. In this paper we suggest the method based on a general and flexible fact graph model, which can catch the long-range correlation in Bag-of-Words by constructing a network learning framework contrasted from lattice in CRF. Furthermore, we explore a parameter learning algorithm based on the gradient descent and Loopy Sum-Product algorithms for the factor graph model. Experimental results on Graz 02 dataset show that, the recognition performance of our method in precision and recall is better than a state-of-art method and the original CRF model, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Multispectral image analysis for object recognition and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viau, C. R.; Payeur, P.; Cretu, A.-M.

    2016-05-01

    Computer and machine vision applications are used in numerous fields to analyze static and dynamic imagery in order to assist or automate decision-making processes. Advancements in sensor technologies now make it possible to capture and visualize imagery at various wavelengths (or bands) of the electromagnetic spectrum. Multispectral imaging has countless applications in various fields including (but not limited to) security, defense, space, medical, manufacturing and archeology. The development of advanced algorithms to process and extract salient information from the imagery is a critical component of the overall system performance. The fundamental objective of this research project was to investigate the benefits of combining imagery from the visual and thermal bands of the electromagnetic spectrum to improve the recognition rates and accuracy of commonly found objects in an office setting. A multispectral dataset (visual and thermal) was captured and features from the visual and thermal images were extracted and used to train support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. The SVM's class prediction ability was evaluated separately on the visual, thermal and multispectral testing datasets.

  18. Mobile system for in-situ imaging of cultural objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemlicka, J; Jakubek, J; Krejci, F; Hradil, D; Hradilova, J; Mislerova, H

    2012-01-01

    Non-invasive analytical techniques recently developed with the Timepix pixel detector have shown great potential for the inspection of objects of cultural heritage. We have developed new instrumentation and methodology for in-situ X-ray transmission radiography and X-ray fluorescence imaging and successfully tested and evaluated a mobile system for remote terrain tasks. The prototype portable imaging device comprises the radiation source tube and the spectral sensitive X-ray camera. Both components can be moreover mounted on independent motorized positioning systems allowing adaptation of irradiation geometry to the object shape. Both parts are placed onto a pair of universal portable holders (tripods). The detector is placed in a shielded box with exchangeable entrance window (beam filters and pinhole collimator). This adjustable setup allows performing in-situ measurements for both transmission and emission (XRF) radiography. The assembled system has been successfully tested in our laboratory with phantoms and real samples. The obtained and evaluated results are presented in this paper. Future work will include successive adaptation of the current system for real in-situ utilization and preparation of software allowing semi-automatic remote control of measurements.

  19. Ultrafast THz Saturable Absorption in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in a nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy experiment. Saturable absorption is caused by sample conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite valley scattering in the field of a strong THz pulse....

  20. Concave omnidirectional imaging device for cylindrical object based on catadioptric panoramic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaojun; Wu, Yumei; Wen, Peizhi

    2018-03-01

    To obtain information on the outer surface of a cylinder object, we propose a catadioptric panoramic imaging system based on the principle of uniform spatial resolution for vertical scenes. First, the influence of the projection-equation coefficients on the spatial resolution and astigmatism of the panoramic system are discussed, respectively. Through parameter optimization, we obtain the appropriate coefficients for the projection equation, and so the imaging quality of the entire imaging system can reach an optimum value. Finally, the system projection equation is calibrated, and an undistorted rectangular panoramic image is obtained using the cylindrical-surface projection expansion method. The proposed 360-deg panoramic-imaging device overcomes the shortcomings of existing surface panoramic-imaging methods, and it has the advantages of low cost, simple structure, high imaging quality, and small distortion, etc. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Object-Based Image Analysis in Wetland Research: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Dronova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The applications of object-based image analysis (OBIA in remote sensing studies of wetlands have been growing over recent decades, addressing tasks from detection and delineation of wetland bodies to comprehensive analyses of within-wetland cover types and their change. Compared to pixel-based approaches, OBIA offers several important benefits to wetland analyses related to smoothing of the local noise, incorporating meaningful non-spectral features for class separation and accounting for landscape hierarchy of wetland ecosystem organization and structure. However, there has been little discussion on whether unique challenges of wetland environments can be uniformly addressed by OBIA across different types of data, spatial scales and research objectives, and to what extent technical and conceptual aspects of this framework may themselves present challenges in a complex wetland setting. This review presents a synthesis of 73 studies that applied OBIA to different types of remote sensing data, spatial scale and research objectives. It summarizes the progress and scope of OBIA uses in wetlands, key benefits of this approach, factors related to accuracy and uncertainty in its applications and the main research needs and directions to expand the OBIA capacity in the future wetland studies. Growing demands for higher-accuracy wetland characterization at both regional and local scales together with advances in very high resolution remote sensing and novel tasks in wetland restoration monitoring will likely continue active exploration of the OBIA potential in these diverse and complex environments.

  2. USING PHOTOPLETHYSMOGRAPHY IMAGING FOR OBJECTIVE CONTACTLESS PAIN ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Koeny

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an extension to the known Analgesia Nociception Index (ANI, which provides an objective estimation of the current depth of analgesia. An adequate “measure” would facilitate so-called balanced anesthesia. Generally, ANI is computed using heart rate variability or rather beat-to-beat intervals based on an electrocardiogram (ECG. There are clinical situations where no ECG monitoring is available or required, but only photoplethysmography (PPG, e.g., in some cases in postoperative care or pain therapy. In addition, a combination of PPG and ECG for obtaining beat-to-beat intervals may lead to increased robustness and reliability for dealing with artifacts. This work therefore investigates the computation of ANI using standard PPG. In addition, new methods and opportunities are presented using contactless PPG imaging (PPGI. PPGI®enables contactless PPG recordings for deriving beat-to-beat intervals as well as analysis of local perfusion and wounds.

  3. Silicon Micromachined Microlens Array for THz Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonsup; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, IImran; Gill, John J.; Jung-Kubiak, Cecile D.; Llombart, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    smooth curvature. The measured height of the silicon microlens is about 280 microns. In this case, the original height of the photoresist was 210 microns. The change was due to the etching selectivity of 1.33 between photoresist and silicon. The measured surface roughness of the silicon microlens shows the peak-to-peak surface roughness of less than 0.5 microns, which is adequate in THz frequency. For example, the surface roughness should be less than 7 microns at 600 GHz range. The SEM (scanning electron microscope) image of the microlens confirms the smooth surface. The beam pattern at 550 GHz shows good directivity.

  4. Method of making tomographic images of X-rayed objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eickel, R.

    1979-01-01

    A tomographic image of a selected layer of a stationary object is made by moving the source of X-rays along a first path at one side of the selected layer and by moving an ionography imaging chamber which contains a dielectric receptor sheet along a second path at the other side of the selected layer. The movement of the sheet is synchronized with movement of the source of X-rays and includes a translatory movement in a direction counter to the direction of movement of the source, a pivotal movement to maintain the sheet in a plane which is normal to the central beam of the bundle of X-rays, and a sidewise movement to vary the distance between the selected layer and the sheet so that the length of the projection of selected layer upon the sheet remains unchanged. If the sheet is rectangular, the pivotal movement is performed about an axis which is located in the plane of the selected layer and is parallel to the shorter sides of the sheet

  5. Object-Image Correspondence for Algebraic Curves under Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Burdis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel algorithm for deciding whether a given planar curve is an image of a given spatial curve, obtained by a central or a parallel projection with unknown parameters. The motivation comes from the problem of establishing a correspondence between an object and an image, taken by a camera with unknown position and parameters. A straightforward approach to this problem consists of setting up a system of conditions on the projection parameters and then checking whether or not this system has a solution. The computational advantage of the algorithm presented here, in comparison to algorithms based on the straightforward approach, lies in a significant reduction of a number of real parameters that need to be eliminated in order to establish existence or non-existence of a projection that maps a given spatial curve to a given planar curve. Our algorithm is based on projection criteria that reduce the projection problem to a certain modification of the equivalence problem of planar curves under affine and projective transformations. To solve the latter problem we make an algebraic adaptation of signature construction that has been used to solve the equivalence problems for smooth curves. We introduce a notion of a classifying set of rational differential invariants and produce explicit formulas for such invariants for the actions of the projective and the affine groups on the plane.

  6. Multilayer roughness and image formation in the Schwarzschild objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Solak, H.; Cerrina, F.

    1996-01-01

    We present a study of the effect of multilayer-surface-roughness-induced scattering in the image formation of the Schwarzschild objective (SO) used in the spectromicroscope MAXIMUM. The two mirrors comprising the SO are coated with Ru/B 4 C multilayers that have a peak reflectivity at 130 eV. We had long observed that a diffuse x-ray background surrounds the focused x-ray spot. The spatial resolution remains at 0.1 μm in spite of this. However, since a significant fraction of the flux is lost to the background, since too large an area of the sample is illuminated, and since the S/N ratio is degraded, the origins of this effect merit investigation. This diffuse background resulting from x-ray scattering at the surface of the mirrors was mapped out using bidirectional knife edge scans. Complementary surface roughness simulations were carried out with the ray-tracing program SHADOW. AFM experiments were also done to directly measure the surface roughness and power spectrum of representative multilayers. Following curve fitting, it was possible to classify Gaussian components in both the measured and simulated profiles as arising from scattering occurring at either the convex primary mirror or the concave secondary mirror. Together with geometrical analysis, these techniques permitted us to track the image formation process of an actual optical system in the presence of surface roughness. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. Poka Yoke system based on image analysis and object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belu, N.; Ionescu, L. M.; Misztal, A.; Mazăre, A.

    2015-11-01

    Poka Yoke is a method of quality management which is related to prevent faults from arising during production processes. It deals with “fail-sating” or “mistake-proofing”. The Poka-yoke concept was generated and developed by Shigeo Shingo for the Toyota Production System. Poka Yoke is used in many fields, especially in monitoring production processes. In many cases, identifying faults in a production process involves a higher cost than necessary cost of disposal. Usually, poke yoke solutions are based on multiple sensors that identify some nonconformities. This means the presence of different equipment (mechanical, electronic) on production line. As a consequence, coupled with the fact that the method itself is an invasive, affecting the production process, would increase its price diagnostics. The bulky machines are the means by which a Poka Yoke system can be implemented become more sophisticated. In this paper we propose a solution for the Poka Yoke system based on image analysis and identification of faults. The solution consists of a module for image acquisition, mid-level processing and an object recognition module using associative memory (Hopfield network type). All are integrated into an embedded system with AD (Analog to Digital) converter and Zync 7000 (22 nm technology).

  8. Objective image analysis of the meibomian gland area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Reiko; Suehiro, Jun; Haraguchi, Tsuyoshi; Shirakawa, Rika; Tokoro, Hideaki; Amano, Shiro

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate objectively the meibomian gland area using newly developed software for non-invasive meibography. Eighty eyelids of 42 patients without meibomian gland loss (meiboscore=0), 105 eyelids of 57 patients with loss of less than one-third total meibomian gland area (meiboscore=1), 13 eyelids of 11 patients with between one-third and two-thirds loss of meibomian gland area (meiboscore=2) and 20 eyelids of 14 patients with two-thirds loss of meibomian gland area (meiboscore=3) were studied. Lid borders were automatically determined. The software evaluated the distribution of the luminance and, by enhancing the contrast and reducing image noise, the meibomian gland area was automatically discriminated. The software calculated the ratio of the total meibomian gland area relative to the total analysis area in all subjects. Repeatability of the software was also evaluated. The mean ratio of the meibomian gland area to the total analysis area in the upper/lower eyelids was 51.9±5.7%/54.7±5.4% in subjects with a meiboscore of 0, 47.7±6.0%/51.5±5.4% in those with a meiboscore of 1, 32.0±4.4%/37.2±3.5% in those with a meiboscore of 2 and 16.7±6.4%/19.5±5.8% in subjects with a meiboscore of 3. The meibomian gland area was objectively evaluated using the developed software. This system could be useful for objectively evaluating the effect of treatment on meibomian gland dysfunction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Analysis on characteristic and application of THz frequency comb and THz sub-comb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Pengxiang; Xu Degang; Yao Jianquan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a method for THz sub-comb generation based on spectral interference. The result of our calculation indicated that the THz pulse train, generated by surface-emitted optical rectification of femtosecond (fs) laser pulse in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), has a comb-like spectrum. The characteristic of this THz sub-comb was analyzed both in frequency and time domain. Compared with the THz frequency comb emitted by a photoconductive antenna (PCA), THz sub-comb has a lower spectral resolution and wider free spectral range. Thus it could be an ideal source for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in THz wireless communication system.

  10. Keyhole imaging method for dynamic objects behind the occlusion area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Conghui; Chen, Xi; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Ming; Kong, Lingqin; Hui, Mei; Liu, Xiaohua; Wu, Hong

    2018-01-01

    A method of keyhole imaging based on camera array is realized to obtain the video image behind a keyhole in shielded space at a relatively long distance. We get the multi-angle video images by using a 2×2 CCD camera array to take the images behind the keyhole in four directions. The multi-angle video images are saved in the form of frame sequences. This paper presents a method of video frame alignment. In order to remove the non-target area outside the aperture, we use the canny operator and morphological method to realize the edge detection of images and fill the images. The image stitching of four images is accomplished on the basis of the image stitching algorithm of two images. In the image stitching algorithm of two images, the SIFT method is adopted to accomplish the initial matching of images, and then the RANSAC algorithm is applied to eliminate the wrong matching points and to obtain a homography matrix. A method of optimizing transformation matrix is proposed in this paper. Finally, the video image with larger field of view behind the keyhole can be synthesized with image frame sequence in which every single frame is stitched. The results show that the screen of the video is clear and natural, the brightness transition is smooth. There is no obvious artificial stitching marks in the video, and it can be applied in different engineering environment .

  11. Bridging the gap between the THz and IR frequency regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltenecker, Korbinian J.; Zhou, Binbin; Stenger, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    THz air photonics allow for the generation and detection of single-cycle sub-40 fs THz transients, which we use in a THz time-domain spectrometer to investigate the transmission properties of molecular crystalline materials in the ultrabroadband frequency window from 0.3 THz to more than 40 THz. ...

  12. Identification of explosives and drugs and inspection of material defects with THz radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cunlin; Mu, Kaijun; Jiang, Xue; Jiao, Yueying; Zhang, Liangliang; Zhou, Qingli; Zhang, Yan; Shen, Jingling; Zhao, Guoshong; Zhang, X.-C.

    2008-03-01

    We report the sensing of explosive materials and illicit drugs by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and imaging. Several explosive materials, such as γ-HNIW, RDX, 2,4-DNT, TNT, Nitro-aniline, and illicit drugs, such as methamphetamine (MA) etc were researched here. Non-destructive testing, as one of the major applications of THz imaging, can be applied to an area of critical need: the testing of aerospace materials. Composite materials such as carbon fiber are widely used in this industry. The nature of their use requires technologies that are able to differentiate between safe and unsafe materials, due to either manufacturing tolerance or damage acquired while in use. In this paper, we discuss the applicability of terahertz (THz) imaging systems to this purpose, focusing on graphite fiber composite materials, carbon silicon composite materials and so on. We applied THz imaging technology to evaluate the fire damage to a variety of carbon fiber composite samples. Major carbon fiber materials have polarization-dependent reflectivity in THz frequency range, and we show how the polarization dependence changes versus the burned damage level. Additionally, time domain information acquired through a THz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) system provides further information with which to characterize the damage. We also detect fuel tank insulation foam panel defects with pulse and continuous-wave (CW) terahertz system.

  13. An Integrative Object-Based Image Analysis Workflow for Uav Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huai; Yan, Tianheng; Yang, Wen; Zheng, Hong

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we propose an integrative framework to process UAV images. The overall process can be viewed as a pipeline consisting of the geometric and radiometric corrections, subsequent panoramic mosaicking and hierarchical image segmentation for later Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA). More precisely, we first introduce an efficient image stitching algorithm after the geometric calibration and radiometric correction, which employs a fast feature extraction and matching by combining the local difference binary descriptor and the local sensitive hashing. We then use a Binary Partition Tree (BPT) representation for the large mosaicked panoramic image, which starts by the definition of an initial partition obtained by an over-segmentation algorithm, i.e., the simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC). Finally, we build an object-based hierarchical structure by fully considering the spectral and spatial information of the super-pixels and their topological relationships. Moreover, an optimal segmentation is obtained by filtering the complex hierarchies into simpler ones according to some criterions, such as the uniform homogeneity and semantic consistency. Experimental results on processing the post-seismic UAV images of the 2013 Ya'an earthquake demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method.

  14. AN INTEGRATIVE OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS WORKFLOW FOR UAV IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose an integrative framework to process UAV images. The overall process can be viewed as a pipeline consisting of the geometric and radiometric corrections, subsequent panoramic mosaicking and hierarchical image segmentation for later Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA. More precisely, we first introduce an efficient image stitching algorithm after the geometric calibration and radiometric correction, which employs a fast feature extraction and matching by combining the local difference binary descriptor and the local sensitive hashing. We then use a Binary Partition Tree (BPT representation for the large mosaicked panoramic image, which starts by the definition of an initial partition obtained by an over-segmentation algorithm, i.e., the simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC. Finally, we build an object-based hierarchical structure by fully considering the spectral and spatial information of the super-pixels and their topological relationships. Moreover, an optimal segmentation is obtained by filtering the complex hierarchies into simpler ones according to some criterions, such as the uniform homogeneity and semantic consistency. Experimental results on processing the post-seismic UAV images of the 2013 Ya’an earthquake demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method.

  15. EMIR, the GTC NIR multi-object imager-spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, F.; Abreu, D.; Barrera, S.; Becerril, S.; Cairós, L. M.; Díaz, J. J.; Fragoso, A. B.; Gago, F.; Grange, R.; González, C.; López, P.; Patrón, J.; Pérez, J.; Rasilla, J. L.; Redondo, P.; Restrepo, R.; Saavedra, P.; Sánchez, V.; Tenegi, F.; Vallbé, M.

    2007-06-01

    EMIR, currently entering into its fabrication and AIV phase, will be one of the first common user instruments for the GTC, the 10 meter telescope under construction by GRANTECAN at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Canary Islands, Spain). EMIR is being built by a Consortium of Spanish and French institutes led by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC). EMIR is designed to realize one of the central goals of 10m class telescopes, allowing observers to obtain spectra for large numbers of faint sources in a time-efficient manner. EMIR is primarily designed to be operated as a MOS in the K band, but offers a wide range of observing modes, including imaging and spectroscopy, both long slit and multi-object, in the wavelength range 0.9 to 2.5 μm. It is equipped with two innovative subsystems: a robotic reconfigurable multi-slit mask and dispersive elements formed by the combination of high quality diffraction grating and conventional prisms, both at the heart of the instrument. The present status of development, expected performances, schedule and plans for scientific exploitation are described and discussed. The development and fabrication of EMIR is funded by GRANTECAN and the Plan Nacional de Astronomía y Astrofísica (National Plan for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Spain).

  16. A compact, all-optical, THz wave generator based on self-modulation in a slab photonic crystal waveguide with a single sub-nanometer graphene layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, R; Ouyang, Z; Mohammd, M M

    2015-07-14

    We design a compact, all-optical THz wave generator based on self-modulation in a 1-D slab photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide with a single sub-nanometer graphene layer by using enhanced nonlinearity of graphene. It has been shown that at the bandgap edge of higher bands of a 1-D slab PhC, through only one sub-nanometer graphene layer we can obtain a compact, high modulation factor (about 0.98 percent), self-intensity modulator at a high frequency (about 0.6 THz) and low threshold intensity (about 15 MW per square centimeter), and further a compact, all-optical THz wave generator by integrating the self-modulator with a THz photodiode or photonic mixer. Such a THz source is expected to have a relatively high efficiency compared with conventional sources based on optical methods. The proposed THz source can find wide applications in THz science and technology, e.g., in THz imaging, THz sensors and detectors, THz communication systems, and THz optical integrated logic circuits.

  17. Use of an object model in three dimensional image reconstruction. Application in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delageniere-Guillot, S.

    1993-02-01

    Threedimensional image reconstruction from projections corresponds to a set of techniques which give information on the inner structure of the studied object. These techniques are mainly used in medical imaging or in non destructive evaluation. Image reconstruction is an ill-posed problem. So the inversion has to be regularized. This thesis deals with the introduction of a priori information within the reconstruction algorithm. The knowledge is introduced through an object model. The proposed scheme is applied to the medical domain for cone beam geometry. We address two specific problems. First, we study the reconstruction of high contrast objects. This can be applied to bony morphology (bone/soft tissue) or to angiography (vascular structures opacified by injection of contrast agent). With noisy projections, the filtering steps of standard methods tend to smooth the natural transitions of the investigated object. In order to regularize the reconstruction but to keep contrast, we introduce a model of classes which involves the Markov random fields theory. We develop a reconstruction scheme: analytic reconstruction-reprojection. Then, we address the case of an object changing during the acquisition. This can be applied to angiography when the contrast agent is moving through the vascular tree. The problem is then stated as a dynamic reconstruction. We define an evolution AR model and we use an algebraic reconstruction method. We represent the object at a particular moment as an intermediary state between the state of the object at the beginning and at the end of the acquisition. We test both methods on simulated and real data, and we prove how the use of an a priori model can improve the results. (author)

  18. Imaging, object detection, and change detection with a polarized multistatic GPR array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W.

    2015-07-21

    A polarized detection system performs imaging, object detection, and change detection factoring in the orientation of an object relative to the orientation of transceivers. The polarized detection system may operate on one of several modes of operation based on whether the imaging, object detection, or change detection is performed separately for each transceiver orientation. In combined change mode, the polarized detection system performs imaging, object detection, and change detection separately for each transceiver orientation, and then combines changes across polarizations. In combined object mode, the polarized detection system performs imaging and object detection separately for each transceiver orientation, and then combines objects across polarizations and performs change detection on the result. In combined image mode, the polarized detection system performs imaging separately for each transceiver orientation, and then combines images across polarizations and performs object detection followed by change detection on the result.

  19. Efficient power combiner for THz radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidfaraji, Hamide, E-mail: hsfaraji@unm.edu; Fuks, Mikhail I.; Christodoulou, Christos; Schamiloglu, Edl [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131-0001 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Most dangerous explosive materials, both toxic and radioactive, contain nitrogen salts with resonant absorption lines in the frequency range 0.3-10 THz. Therefore, there has been growing interest in remotely detecting such materials by observing the spectrum of reflected signals when the suspicious material is interrogated by THz radiation. Practical portable THz sources available today generate only 20–40 mW output power. This power level is too low to interrogate suspicious material from a safe distance, especially if the material is concealed. Hence, there is a need for sources that can provide greater power in the THz spectrum. Generating and extracting high output power from THz sources is complicated and inefficient. The efficiency of vacuum electronic microwave sources is very low when scaled to the THz range and THz sources based on scaling down semiconductor laser sources have low efficiency as well, resulting in the well known “THz gap.” The reason for such low efficiencies for both source types is material losses in the THz band. In this article an efficient power combiner is described that is based on scaling to higher frequencies a microwave combiner that increases the output power in the THz range of interest in simulation studies. The proposed power combiner not only combines the THz power output from several sources, but can also form a Gaussian wavebeam output. A minimum conversion efficiency of 89% with cophased inputs in a lossy copper power combiner and maximum efficiency of 100% in a Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC)-made power combiner were achieved in simulations. Also, it is shown that the TE{sub 01} output mode is a reasonable option for THz applications due to the fact that conductive loss decreases for this mode as frequency increases.

  20. Efficient power combiner for THz radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamide Seidfaraji

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most dangerous explosive materials, both toxic and radioactive, contain nitrogen salts with resonant absorption lines in the frequency range 0.3-10 THz. Therefore, there has been growing interest in remotely detecting such materials by observing the spectrum of reflected signals when the suspicious material is interrogated by THz radiation. Practical portable THz sources available today generate only 20–40 mW output power. This power level is too low to interrogate suspicious material from a safe distance, especially if the material is concealed. Hence, there is a need for sources that can provide greater power in the THz spectrum. Generating and extracting high output power from THz sources is complicated and inefficient. The efficiency of vacuum electronic microwave sources is very low when scaled to the THz range and THz sources based on scaling down semiconductor laser sources have low efficiency as well, resulting in the well known “THz gap.” The reason for such low efficiencies for both source types is material losses in the THz band. In this article an efficient power combiner is described that is based on scaling to higher frequencies a microwave combiner that increases the output power in the THz range of interest in simulation studies. The proposed power combiner not only combines the THz power output from several sources, but can also form a Gaussian wavebeam output. A minimum conversion efficiency of 89% with cophased inputs in a lossy copper power combiner and maximum efficiency of 100% in a Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC-made power combiner were achieved in simulations. Also, it is shown that the TE01 output mode is a reasonable option for THz applications due to the fact that conductive loss decreases for this mode as frequency increases.

  1. Postmortem magnetic resonance imaging dealing with low temperature objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tomoya; Shiotani, Seiji; Isobe, Tomonori

    2010-01-01

    In Japan, the medical examiner system is not widespread, the rate of autopsy is low, and many medical institutions therefore perform postmortem imaging using clinical equipment. Postmortem imaging is performed to clarify cause of death, select candidates for autopsy, make a guide map for autopsy, or provide additional information for autopsy. Findings are classified into 3 categories: cause of death and associated changes, changes induced by cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and postmortem changes. Postmortem magnetic resonance imaging shows characteristic changes in signal intensity related to low body temperature after death; they are low temperature images. (author)

  2. Functional imaging of human crossmodal identification and object recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amedi, A; von Kriegstein, K; van Atteveldt, N M; Beauchamp, M S; Naumer, M J

    2005-01-01

    The perception of objects is a cognitive function of prime importance. In everyday life, object perception benefits from the coordinated interplay of vision, audition, and touch. The different sensory modalities provide both complementary and redundant information about objects, which may improve

  3. Superconducting Solenoid for Superfast THz Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragin, A. V.; Khrushchev, S. V.; Kubarev, V. V.; Mezencev, N. A.; Tsukanov, V. M.; Sozinov, G. I.; Shkaruba, V. A.

    This project is related to new spectroscopy method in little-developed THz range. The method is founded on using of a free electron laser (NovoFEL) with high spectral power radiation which can be smoothly tuned in desirable range of spectrum. The objects of research of this method are fast processes in physics, chemical and biological reactions. Uniform magnetic field of 6 T value in the research area can considerably increase possibilities of this method. The magnetic field will modulate radiation of free molecules induction on characteristic frequencies of the Zeeman splitting that gives more possibilities of identification of molecules having even weak magnetic momentum. Moreover, the use of magnetic field allows essentially increase sensitivity of this method due to almost complete separation of weak measuring signals from powerful radiation of the laser. A superconducting solenoid was developed for this method. Its design and peculiarities are described in this paper.

  4. X-ray image processing software for computing object size and object location coordinates from acquired optical and x-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Akash; Tiwari, Shyam Sunder; Tiwari, Railesha; Panday, Lokesh; Panday, Jeet; Suri, Nitin

    2004-01-01

    X-ray and Visible image data processing software has been developed in Visual Basic for real time online and offline image information processing for NDT and Medical Applications. Software computes two dimension image size parameters from its sharp boundary lines by raster scanning the image contrast data. Code accepts bit map image data and hunts for multiple tumors of different sizes that may be present in the image definition and then computes size of each tumor and locates its approximate center for registering its location coordinates. Presence of foreign metal and glass balls industrial product such as chocolate and other food items imaged out using x-ray imaging technique are detected by the software and their size and position co-ordinates are computed by the software. Paper discusses ways and means to compute size and coordinated of air bubble like objects present in the x-ray and optical images and their multiple existences in image of interest. (author)

  5. Algorithms for detection of objects in image sequences captured from an airborne imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Camps, Octavia; Tang, Yuan-Liang; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Gandhi, Tarak

    1995-01-01

    This research was initiated as a part of the effort at the NASA Ames Research Center to design a computer vision based system that can enhance the safety of navigation by aiding the pilots in detecting various obstacles on the runway during critical section of the flight such as a landing maneuver. The primary goal is the development of algorithms for detection of moving objects from a sequence of images obtained from an on-board video camera. Image regions corresponding to the independently moving objects are segmented from the background by applying constraint filtering on the optical flow computed from the initial few frames of the sequence. These detected regions are tracked over subsequent frames using a model based tracking algorithm. Position and velocity of the moving objects in the world coordinate is estimated using an extended Kalman filter. The algorithms are tested using the NASA line image sequence with six static trucks and a simulated moving truck and experimental results are described. Various limitations of the currently implemented version of the above algorithm are identified and possible solutions to build a practical working system are investigated.

  6. EIT image regularization by a new Multi-Objective Simulated Annealing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Martins, Thiago; Sales Guerra Tsuzuki, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Multi-Objective Optimization can be used to produce regularized Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) images where the weight of the regularization term is not known a priori. This paper proposes a novel Multi-Objective Optimization algorithm based on Simulated Annealing tailored for EIT image reconstruction. Images are reconstructed from experimental data and compared with images from other Multi and Single Objective optimization methods. A significant performance enhancement from traditional techniques can be inferred from the results.

  7. Toward objective and quantitative evaluation of imaging systems using images of phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, Robert M.; Gallas, Brandon D.; Myers, Kyle J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of imaging phantoms is a common method of evaluating image quality in the clinical setting. These evaluations rely on a subjective decision by a human observer with respect to the faintest detectable signal(s) in the image. Because of the variable and subjective nature of the human-observer scores, the evaluations manifest a lack of precision and a potential for bias. The advent of digital imaging systems with their inherent digital data provides the opportunity to use techniques that do not rely on human-observer decisions and thresholds. Using the digital data, signal-detection theory (SDT) provides the basis for more objective and quantitative evaluations which are independent of a human-observer decision threshold. In a SDT framework, the evaluation of imaging phantoms represents a 'signal-known-exactly/background-known-exactly' ('SKE/BKE') detection task. In this study, we compute the performance of prewhitening and nonprewhitening model observers in terms of the observer signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for these 'SKE/BKE' tasks. We apply the evaluation methods to a number of imaging systems. For example, we use data from a laboratory implementation of digital radiography and from a full-field digital mammography system in a clinical setting. In addition, we make a comparison of our methods to human-observer scoring of a set of digital images of the CDMAM phantom available from the internet (EUREF--European Reference Organization). In the latter case, we show a significant increase in the precision of the quantitative methods versus the variability in the scores from human observers on the same set of images. As regards bias, the performance of a model observer estimated from a finite data set is known to be biased. In this study, we minimize the bias and estimate the variance of the observer SNR using statistical resampling techniques, namely, 'bootstrapping' and 'shuffling' of the data sets. Our methods provide objective and quantitative evaluation of

  8. Simulation of Profiles Data For Computed Tomography Using Object Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srisatit, Somyot

    2007-08-01

    Full text: It is necessary to use a scanning system to obtain the profiles data for computed tomographic images. A good profile data can give a good contrast and resolution. For the scanning system, high efficiency and high price of radiation equipments must be used. So, the simulated profiles data to obtain a good CT images quality as same as the real one for the demonstration can be used

  9. Image objects detection based on boosting neural network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, N.; Hegt, J.A.; Mladenov, V.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of object area detection of video frames. The goal is to design a pixel accurate detector for grass, which could be used for object adaptive video enhancement. A boosting neural network is used for creating such a detector. The resulted detector uses both textural

  10. Photonic-assisted ultrafast THz wireless access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Chen, Ying; Galili, Michael

    THz technology has been considered feasible for ultrafast wireless data communi- cation, to meet the increasing demand on next-generation fast wireless access, e.g., huge data file transferring and fast mobile data stream access. This talk reviews recent progress in high-speed THz wireless...

  11. Separated reconstruction of images from ultrasonic holograms with tridimensional object by digital processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Because of much attractiveness, digital reconstruction of image from ultrasonic hologram by computer has been widely studied in recent years. But the method of digital reconstruction of image is displayed in the plain only, so study is done mainly of the hologram obtained from bidimensional objects. Many applications of the ultrasonic holography such as the non-distructive testing and the ultrasonic diagnosis are mostly of the tridimensional object. In the ordinary digital reconstruction of the image from the hologram obtained from tridimensional object, a question of hidden-image problem arises, and the separated reconstruction of the image for the considered part of the object is required. In this paper, multi-diffraction by tridimensional object is assumed to have linearity, ie. superposition property by each diffraction of bidimensional objects. And a new algorithm is proposed here, namely reconstructed image for considered one of bidimensional objects in tridimensional object obtained by means of operation from the two holograms tilted in unequal angles. Such tilted holograms are obtained from the tilted linear array receivers by scanning method. That images can be reconstructed by the operation from two holograms means that the new algorithm is verified. And another new method of the transformation of hologram, that is, transformation of a hologram to arbitrarily tilted hologram, has been proved valid. The reconstructed images obtained with the method of transformation and the method of operation, are the images reconstructed from one hologram by the tridimensional object and more distinctly separated that any images mentioned above. (author)

  12. Moving object detection in top-view aerial videos improved by image stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutsch, Michael; Krüger, Wolfgang; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2017-08-01

    Image stacking is a well-known method that is used to improve the quality of images in video data. A set of consecutive images is aligned by applying image registration and warping. In the resulting image stack, each pixel has redundant information about its intensity value. This redundant information can be used to suppress image noise, resharpen blurry images, or even enhance the spatial image resolution as done in super-resolution. Small moving objects in the videos usually get blurred or distorted by image stacking and thus need to be handled explicitly. We use image stacking in an innovative way: image registration is applied to small moving objects only, and image warping blurs the stationary background that surrounds the moving objects. Our video data are coming from a small fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that acquires top-view gray-value images of urban scenes. Moving objects are mainly cars but also other vehicles such as motorcycles. The resulting images, after applying our proposed image stacking approach, are used to improve baseline algorithms for vehicle detection and segmentation. We improve precision and recall by up to 0.011, which corresponds to a reduction of the number of false positive and false negative detections by more than 3 per second. Furthermore, we show how our proposed image stacking approach can be implemented efficiently.

  13. Deep learning for objective quality assessment of 3D images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocanu, D.C.; Exarchakos, G.; Liotta, A.

    2014-01-01

    Improving the users' Quality of Experience (QoE) in modern 3D Multimedia Systems is a challenging proposition, mainly due to our limited knowledge of 3D image Quality Assessment algorithms. While subjective QoE methods would better reflect the nature of human perception, these are not suitable in

  14. Segmenting overlapping nano-objects in atomic force microscopy image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Han, Yuexing; Li, Qing; Wang, Bing; Konagaya, Akihiko

    2018-01-01

    Recently, techniques for nanoparticles have rapidly been developed for various fields, such as material science, medical, and biology. In particular, methods of image processing have widely been used to automatically analyze nanoparticles. A technique to automatically segment overlapping nanoparticles with image processing and machine learning is proposed. Here, two tasks are necessary: elimination of image noises and action of the overlapping shapes. For the first task, mean square error and the seed fill algorithm are adopted to remove noises and improve the quality of the original image. For the second task, four steps are needed to segment the overlapping nanoparticles. First, possibility split lines are obtained by connecting the high curvature pixels on the contours. Second, the candidate split lines are classified with a machine learning algorithm. Third, the overlapping regions are detected with the method of density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN). Finally, the best split lines are selected with a constrained minimum value. We give some experimental examples and compare our technique with two other methods. The results can show the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  15. Learning Rich Features from RGB-D Images for Object Detection and Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Saurabh; Girshick, Ross; Arbeláez, Pablo; Malik, Jitendra

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of object detection for RGB-D images using semantically rich image and depth features. We propose a new geocentric embedding for depth images that encodes height above ground and angle with gravity for each pixel in addition to the horizontal disparity. We demonstrate that this geocentric embedding works better than using raw depth images for learning feature representations with convolutional neural networks. Our final object detection system achieves an av...

  16. High-resolution imaging of solar system objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    The strategy of this investigation has been to develop new high-resolution imaging capabilities and to apply them to extended observing programs. These programs have included Io's neutral sodium cloud and comets. The Io observing program was carried out at Table Mountain Observatory (1976 to 1981), providing a framework interpreting Voyager measurements of the Io torus, and serving as an important reference for studying asymmetries and time variabilities in the Jovian magnetosphere. Comet observations made with the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and 1.6 m AMOS telescope (1984 to 1987) provide basis for studying early coma development in Halley, the kinematics of its nucleus, and the internal and external structure of the nucleus. Images of GZ from the ICE encounter period form the basis for unique comparisons with in situ magnetic field and dust impact measurements to determine the ion tail and dust coma structure, respectively

  17. Synthetic Aperture Acoustic Imaging for Roadside Detection of Solid Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Testing I I I I Cinderblock Foam block Isometric and translucent view of the weighted foam block . .-.-; Weighted foam block Figure 2.3... concrete block (CB, Fig. 2.4). Conven- tional methods for identifying targets in a radar or acoustic imaging system (also known as Automatic Target...and curb, or than the grass-covered hill beyond the sidewalk. However, there is a strong acoustic return from a seam in the sidewalk concrete that runs

  18. Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging of Buried Metallic Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, A. Burak; Meincke, Peter

    2001-01-01

    During the past decade there has been considerable research on ground penetrating radar (GPR) tomography for detecting objects such as pipes, cables, mines and barrels buried under the surface of the Earth. While the earlier researches were all based on the assumption of a homogeneous background...

  19. A System for Automatic Detection of Partially Occluded Objects from Real-World Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neskovic, Predrag; Wu, Liang; Cooper, Leon N

    2006-01-01

    In this work we consider the Bayesian Integrate And Shift (BIAS) model for learning object categories and test its performance on learning and recognizing different object categories from real-world images...

  20. 3D noise-resistant segmentation and tracking of unknown and occluded objects using integral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloni, Doron; Jung, Jae-Hyun; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak

    2017-10-01

    Three dimensional (3D) object segmentation and tracking can be useful in various computer vision applications, such as: object surveillance for security uses, robot navigation, etc. We present a method for 3D multiple-object tracking using computational integral imaging, based on accurate 3D object segmentation. The method does not employ object detection by motion analysis in a video as conventionally performed (such as background subtraction or block matching). This means that the movement properties do not significantly affect the detection quality. The object detection is performed by analyzing static 3D image data obtained through computational integral imaging With regard to previous works that used integral imaging data in such a scenario, the proposed method performs the 3D tracking of objects without prior information about the objects in the scene, and it is found efficient under severe noise conditions.

  1. Graphical user interface to optimize image contrast parameters used in object segmentation - biomed 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeffrey R; Barrett, Steven F

    2009-01-01

    Image segmentation is the process of isolating distinct objects within an image. Computer algorithms have been developed to aid in the process of object segmentation, but a completely autonomous segmentation algorithm has yet to be developed [1]. This is because computers do not have the capability to understand images and recognize complex objects within the image. However, computer segmentation methods [2], requiring user input, have been developed to quickly segment objects in serial sectioned images, such as magnetic resonance images (MRI) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) images. In these cases, the segmentation process becomes a powerful tool in visualizing the 3D nature of an object. The user input is an important part of improving the performance of many segmentation methods. A double threshold segmentation method has been investigated [3] to separate objects in gray scaled images, where the gray level of the object is among the gray levels of the background. In order to best determine the threshold values for this segmentation method the image must be manipulated for optimal contrast. The same is true of other segmentation and edge detection methods as well. Typically, the better the image contrast, the better the segmentation results. This paper describes a graphical user interface (GUI) that allows the user to easily change image contrast parameters that will optimize the performance of subsequent object segmentation. This approach makes use of the fact that the human brain is extremely effective in object recognition and understanding. The GUI provides the user with the ability to define the gray scale range of the object of interest. These lower and upper bounds of this range are used in a histogram stretching process to improve image contrast. Also, the user can interactively modify the gamma correction factor that provides a non-linear distribution of gray scale values, while observing the corresponding changes to the image. This

  2. Extracting 3D parametric curves from 2D images of helical objects.

    OpenAIRE

    Willcocks, Chris; Jackson, Philip T.G.; Nelson, Carl J.; Obara, Boguslaw

    2016-01-01

    Helical objects occur in medicine, biology, cosmetics, nanotechnology, and engineering. Extracting a 3D parametric curve from a 2D image of a helical object has many practical applications, in particular being able to extract metrics such as tortuosity, frequency, and pitch. We present a method that is able to straighten the image object and derive a robust 3D helical curve from peaks in the object boundary. The algorithm has a small number of stable parameters that require little tuning, and...

  3. Objective specific beam generation for image guided robotic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaefer, A.; Jungmann, O.; Schweikard, A.; Kilby, W.

    2007-01-01

    Robotic radiosurgery enables precise dose delivery throughout the body. Planning for robotic radiosurgery comprises of finding a suitable set of beams and beam weights. The problem can be addressed by generating a large set of candidate beams, and selection of beams with nonzero weight by mathematical programming. We propose to use different randomized beam generation methods depending on the type of lesion and the clinical objective. Results for three patient cases indicate that this can improve the plan quality. (orig.)

  4. Objective specific beam generation for image guided robotic radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaefer, A.; Jungmann, O.; Schweikard, A. [Inst. for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, Univ. of Luebeck (Germany); Kilby, W. [Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Robotic radiosurgery enables precise dose delivery throughout the body. Planning for robotic radiosurgery comprises of finding a suitable set of beams and beam weights. The problem can be addressed by generating a large set of candidate beams, and selection of beams with nonzero weight by mathematical programming. We propose to use different randomized beam generation methods depending on the type of lesion and the clinical objective. Results for three patient cases indicate that this can improve the plan quality. (orig.)

  5. THz - ToF Optical Layer Analysis (OLA) to determine optical properties of dielectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranger, Holger; Beckmann, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between 0.1 and 10 THz are described as THz-radiation (T-ray). The ability to penetrate dielectric materials makes T-rays attractive to reveal discontinuities in polymer and ceramic materials. THz-Time Domain Spectroscopy Systems (THz-TDS) are available on the market today which operates with THz-pulses transmitted and received by optically pumped semiconductor antennas. In THz-TDS the travelling time (ToF) and shape of the pulse is changed if it interacts with the dielectric material and its inherent discontinuities. A tomogram of the object under the test can be reconstructed from time of flight diffraction (ToFD) scans if a synthetic focusing aperture (SAFT) algorithm is applied. The knowledge of the base materials shape and optical properties is essential for a proper reconstruction result. To obtain these properties a model is assumed which describes the device under the test as multilayer structure composed of thin layers with different dielectric characteristics. The Optical Layer Analysis (OLA) is able to fulfill these requirements. A short description why the optical properties are crucial for meaningful SAFT reconstruction results will be given first. Afterwards the OLA will be derived and applied on representative samples to discuss and evaluate its benefits and limits.

  6. Application of THz probe radiation in low-coherent tomographs based on spatially separated counterpropagating beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuritsyn, I I; Shkurinov, A P; Nazarov, M M [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Mandrosov, V I [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Cherkasova, O P [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-31

    A principle of designing a high-resolution low-coherent THz tomograph, which makes it possible to investigate media with a high spatial resolution (in the range λ{sub 0} – 2λ{sub 0}, where λ{sub 0} is the average probe wavelength) is considered. The operation principle of this tomograph implies probing a medium by radiation with a coherence length of 8λ{sub 0} and recording a hologram of a focused image of a fixed layer of this medium using spatially separated counterpropagating object and reference beams. Tomograms of the medium studied are calculated using a temporal approach based on application of the time correlation function of probe radiation. (terahertz radiation)

  7. Graphene-enhanced metamaterials in THz applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Khromova, Irina

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is widely employed in a broad range of fields in biology, medicine, communication, security, chemistry, and spectroscopy. To expand the application of terahertz radiation new device designs and fabrication methods are needed. The ability of metamaterials to manipulate...... electromagnetic waves makes them natural candidates for THz optical components [1]. However, ranges of light manipulation can be strongly expanded by involving graphene as a structural component of metamaterials. The interplay between interband and intraband transitions in graphene allows converting a multilayer...... on hyperbolic-like dispersion [4]. We believe that graphene-enhanced metamaterials constitute a useful functional element for the THz-infrared integrated optics devices....

  8. Mechanical detection of electron spin resonance beyond 1 THz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Ohmichi, Eiji; Ohta, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    We report the cantilever detection of electron spin resonance (ESR) in the terahertz (THz) region. This technique mechanically detects ESR as a change in magnetic torque that acts on the cantilever. The ESR absorption of a tiny single crystal of Co Tutton salt, Co(NH 4 ) 2 (SO 4 ) 2 ⋅6H 2 O, was observed in frequencies of up to 1.1 THz using a backward travelling wave oscillator as a THz-wave source. This is the highest frequency of mechanical detection of ESR till date. The spectral resolution was evaluated with the ratio of the peak separation to the sum of the half-width at half maximum of two absorption peaks. The highest resolution value of 8.59 ± 0.53 was achieved at 685 GHz, while 2.47 ± 0.01 at 80 GHz. This technique will not only broaden the scope of ESR spectroscopy application but also lead to high-spectral-resolution ESR imaging

  9. Three-dimensional imaging of hidden objects using positron emission backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongwon; Cowee, Misa; Fenimore, Ed; Galassi, Mark; Looker, Quinn; Mcneil, Wendy V.; Stonehill, Laura; Wallace, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Positron emission backscatter imaging is a technique for interrogation and three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of hidden objects when we only have access to the objects from one side. Using time-of-flight differences in detected direct and backscattered positron-emitted photons, we construct 3-D images of target objects. Recently at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a fully three-dimensional imaging system has been built and the experimental results are discussed in this paper. Quantitative analysis of images reconstructed in both two- and three-dimensions are also presented.

  10. EMIR: the GTC NIR multi-object imager-spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, F.; Abreu, D.; Barrera, S.; Becerril, S.; Cairós, L. M.; Díaz, J. J.; Fragoso, A. B.; Gago, F.; Grange, R.; González, C.; López, P.; Patrón, J.; Pérez, J.; Rasilla, J. L.; Redondo, P.; Restrepo, R.; Saavedra, P.; Sánchez, V.; Tenegi, F.; Vallbé, M.

    2006-06-01

    EMIR, currently entering into its fabrication and AIV phase, will be one of the first common user instruments for the GTC, the 10 meter telescope under construction by GRANTECAN at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Canary Islands, Spain). EMIR is being built by a Consortium of Spanish and French institutes led by the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC). EMIR is designed to realize one of the central goals of 10m class telescopes, allowing observers to obtain spectra for large numbers of faint sources in an time-efficient manner. EMIR is primarily designed to be operated as a MOS in the K band, but offers a wide range of observing modes, including imaging and spectroscopy, both long slit and multiobject, in the wavelength range 0.9 to 2.5 μm. It is equipped with two innovative subsystems: a robotic reconfigurable multislit mask and disperssive elements formed by the combination of high quality diffraction grating and conventional prisms, both at the heart of the instrument. The present status of development, expected performances, schedule and plans for scientific exploitation are described and discussed. The development and fabrication of EMIR is funded by GRANTECAN and the Plan Nacional de Astronomia y Astrofisica (National Plan for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Spain).

  11. Object classfication from RGB-D images using depth context kernel descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor; Zhu, Yaping

    2015-01-01

    Context cue is important in object classification. By embedding the depth context cue of image attributes into kernel descriptors, we propose a new set of depth image descriptors called depth context kernel descriptors (DCKD) for RGB-D based object classification. The motivation of DCKD is to use...... the depth consistency of image attributes defined within a neighboring region to improve the robustness of descriptor matching in the kernel space. Moreover, a novel joint spatial-depth pooling (JSDP) scheme, which further partitions image sub-regions using the depth cue and pools features in both 2D image...

  12. Quality Evaluation in Wireless Imaging Using Feature-Based Objective Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Engelke, Ulrich; Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the evaluation of image quality in the context of wireless systems using feature-based objective metrics. The considered metrics comprise of a weighted combination of feature values that are used to quantify the extend by which the related artifacts are present in a processed image. In view of imaging applications in mobile radio and wireless communication systems, reduced-reference objective quality metrics are investigated for quantifying user-perceived quality. The exa...

  13. THz characterization of hydrated and anhydrous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolnikov, Andre

    2011-06-01

    The characterization of anhydrous and hydrated forms of materials is of great importance to science and industry. Water content poses difficulties for successful identification of the material structure by THz radiation. However, biological tissues and hydrated forms of nonorganic substances still may be investigated by THz radiation. This paper outlines the range of possibilities of the above characterization, as well as provides analysis of the physical mechanism that allows or prevents penetration of THz waves through the substance. THz-TDS is used to measure the parameters of the characterization of anhydrous and hydrated forms of organic and nonorganic samples. Mathematical methods (such as prediction models of time-series analysis) are used to help identifying the absorption coefficient and other parameters of interest. The discovered dependencies allow designing techniques for material identification/characterization (e.g. of drugs, explosives, etc. that may have water content). The results are provided.

  14. Objective Lens Optimized for Wavefront Delivery, Pupil Imaging, and Pupil Ghosting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olzcak, Gene

    2009-01-01

    An interferometer objective lens (or diverger) may be used to transform a collimated beam into a diverging or converging beam. This innovation provides an objective lens that has diffraction-limited optical performance that is optimized at two sets of conjugates: imaging to the objective focus and imaging to the pupil. The lens thus provides for simultaneous delivery of a high-quality beam and excellent pupil resolution properties.

  15. Foundations of computer vision computational geometry, visual image structures and object shape detection

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamentals of computer vision (CV), with a focus on extracting useful information from digital images and videos. Including a wealth of methods used in detecting and classifying image objects and their shapes, it is the first book to apply a trio of tools (computational geometry, topology and algorithms) in solving CV problems, shape tracking in image object recognition and detecting the repetition of shapes in single images and video frames. Computational geometry provides a visualization of topological structures such as neighborhoods of points embedded in images, while image topology supplies us with structures useful in the analysis and classification of image regions. Algorithms provide a practical, step-by-step means of viewing image structures. The implementations of CV methods in Matlab and Mathematica, classification of chapter problems with the symbols (easily solved) and (challenging) and its extensive glossary of key words, examples and connections with the fabric of C...

  16. European Research on THz Vacuum Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, F.; Cojocarua, C.-S.; de Rossi, A.

    2010-01-01

    The OPTHER (OPtically Driven TeraHertz AmplifiERs) project represents a considerable advancement in the field of high frequency amplification. The design and realization of a THz amplifier within this project is a consolidation of efforts at the international level from the main players...... of the European research, academy and industry in vacuum electronics. This paper describes the status of the project and progress towards the THz amplifier realization....

  17. Priming Contour-Deleted Images: Evidence for Immediate Representations in Visual Object Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Irving; Cooper, Eric E.

    1991-01-01

    Speed and accuracy of identification of pictures of objects are facilitated by prior viewing. Contributions of image features, convex or concave components, and object models in a repetition priming task were explored in 2 studies involving 96 college students. Results provide evidence of intermediate representations in visual object recognition.…

  18. Fast processing of microscopic images using object-based extended depth of field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarapanich, Apichart; Kaewkamnerd, Saowaluck; Pannarut, Montri; Shaw, Philip J; Tongsima, Sissades

    2016-12-22

    Microscopic analysis requires that foreground objects of interest, e.g. cells, are in focus. In a typical microscopic specimen, the foreground objects may lie on different depths of field necessitating capture of multiple images taken at different focal planes. The extended depth of field (EDoF) technique is a computational method for merging images from different depths of field into a composite image with all foreground objects in focus. Composite images generated by EDoF can be applied in automated image processing and pattern recognition systems. However, current algorithms for EDoF are computationally intensive and impractical, especially for applications such as medical diagnosis where rapid sample turnaround is important. Since foreground objects typically constitute a minor part of an image, the EDoF technique could be made to work much faster if only foreground regions are processed to make the composite image. We propose a novel algorithm called object-based extended depths of field (OEDoF) to address this issue. The OEDoF algorithm consists of four major modules: 1) color conversion, 2) object region identification, 3) good contrast pixel identification and 4) detail merging. First, the algorithm employs color conversion to enhance contrast followed by identification of foreground pixels. A composite image is constructed using only these foreground pixels, which dramatically reduces the computational time. We used 250 images obtained from 45 specimens of confirmed malaria infections to test our proposed algorithm. The resulting composite images with all in-focus objects were produced using the proposed OEDoF algorithm. We measured the performance of OEDoF in terms of image clarity (quality) and processing time. The features of interest selected by the OEDoF algorithm are comparable in quality with equivalent regions in images processed by the state-of-the-art complex wavelet EDoF algorithm; however, OEDoF required four times less processing time. This

  19. Illumination Effect of Laser Light in Foggy Objects Using an Active Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Seong-Ouk; Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Active imaging techniques usually provide improved image information when compared to passive imaging techniques. Active vision is a direct visualization technique using an artificial illuminant. Range-gated imaging (RGI) technique is one of active vision technologies. The RGI technique extracts vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, objects are illuminated for ultra-short time by a high intensity illuminant and then the light reflected from objects is captured by a highly sensitive image sensor with the exposure of ultra-short time. The Range-gated imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security application, especially in the visualization of darken night or foggy environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is currently more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies, such as highly sensitive imaging sensor and ultra-short pulse laser light. Especially, this system can be adopted in robot-vision system by virtue of the compact system configuration. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been demonstrated range imaging based on range-gated imaging. Laser light having a short pulse width is usually used for the range-gated imaging system. In this paper, an illumination effect of laser light in foggy objects is studied using a range-gated imaging system. The used imaging system consists of an ultra-short pulse (0.35 ns) laser light and a gated imaging sensor. The experiment is carried out to monitor objects in a box filled by fog. In this paper, the effects by fog particles in range-gated imaging technique are studied. Edge blurring and range distortion are the generated by fog particles.

  20. Illumination Effect of Laser Light in Foggy Objects Using an Active Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Seong-Ouk; Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    Active imaging techniques usually provide improved image information when compared to passive imaging techniques. Active vision is a direct visualization technique using an artificial illuminant. Range-gated imaging (RGI) technique is one of active vision technologies. The RGI technique extracts vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, objects are illuminated for ultra-short time by a high intensity illuminant and then the light reflected from objects is captured by a highly sensitive image sensor with the exposure of ultra-short time. The Range-gated imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security application, especially in the visualization of darken night or foggy environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is currently more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies, such as highly sensitive imaging sensor and ultra-short pulse laser light. Especially, this system can be adopted in robot-vision system by virtue of the compact system configuration. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been demonstrated range imaging based on range-gated imaging. Laser light having a short pulse width is usually used for the range-gated imaging system. In this paper, an illumination effect of laser light in foggy objects is studied using a range-gated imaging system. The used imaging system consists of an ultra-short pulse (0.35 ns) laser light and a gated imaging sensor. The experiment is carried out to monitor objects in a box filled by fog. In this paper, the effects by fog particles in range-gated imaging technique are studied. Edge blurring and range distortion are the generated by fog particles

  1. Twin-image reduction in inline digital holography using an object segmentation heuristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElhinney, Conor P; Hennelly, Bryan M; Naughton, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    We present a digital image processing heuristic for the removal of the twin-image in inline digital holograms. Typically, the unwanted twin manifests itself as visible corruptive noise in the reconstruction plane. We reconstruct the unwanted twin-image at its in-focus plane and suppress it by first finding the boundary of the object, and then removing the optical energy within this boundary. In this plane, the wanted twin-image optical energy is largely dispersed outside this boundary and so it is retained. The heuristic's effectiveness is demonstrated using a digital hologram of a real-world object.

  2. Twin-image reduction in inline digital holography using an object segmentation heuristic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElhinney, Conor P; Hennelly, Bryan M [Department of Computer Science, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, County Kildare (Ireland); Naughton, Thomas J [University of Oulu, RFMedia Laboratory, Oulu Southern Institute, Vierimaantie 5, 84100 Ylivieska (Finland)], E-mail: conormce@cs.nuim.ie, E-mail: tomn@cs.nuim.ie

    2008-11-01

    We present a digital image processing heuristic for the removal of the twin-image in inline digital holograms. Typically, the unwanted twin manifests itself as visible corruptive noise in the reconstruction plane. We reconstruct the unwanted twin-image at its in-focus plane and suppress it by first finding the boundary of the object, and then removing the optical energy within this boundary. In this plane, the wanted twin-image optical energy is largely dispersed outside this boundary and so it is retained. The heuristic's effectiveness is demonstrated using a digital hologram of a real-world object.

  3. Feedforward Object-Vision Models Only Tolerate Small Image Variations Compared to Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud eGhodrati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Invariant object recognition is a remarkable ability of primates' visual system that its underlying mechanism has constantly been under intense investigations. Computational modelling is a valuable tool toward understanding the processes involved in invariant object recognition. Although recent computational models have shown outstanding performances on challenging image databases, they fail to perform well when images with more complex variations of the same object are applied to them. Studies have shown that making sparse representation of objects by extracting more informative visual features through a feedforward sweep can lead to higher recognition performances. Here, however, we show that when the complexity of image variations is high, even this approach results in poor performance compared to humans. To assess the performance of models and humans in invariant object recognition tasks, we built a parametrically controlled image database consisting of several object categories varied in different dimensions and levels, rendered from 3D planes. Comparing the performance of several object recognition models with human observers shows that only in low-level image variations the models perform similar to humans in categorization tasks. Furthermore, the results of our behavioral experiments demonstrate that, even under difficult experimental conditions (i.e. briefly presented masked stimuli with complex image variations, human observers performed outstandingly well, suggesting that the models are still far from resembling humans in invariant object recognition. Taken together, we suggest that learning sparse informative visual features, although desirable, is not a complete solution for future progresses in object-vision modelling. We show that this approach is not of significant help in solving the computational crux of object recognition (that is invariant object recognition when the identity-preserving image variations become more complex.

  4. Broadband polymer microstructured THz fiber coupler with downdoped cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Bang, Ole

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband THz directional coupler based on a dual core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) design with mechanically down-doped core regions. For a center frequency of 1.3 THz we demonstrate a bandwidth of 0.65 THz.......We demonstrate a broadband THz directional coupler based on a dual core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) design with mechanically down-doped core regions. For a center frequency of 1.3 THz we demonstrate a bandwidth of 0.65 THz....

  5. Concealed object segmentation and three-dimensional localization with passive millimeter-wave imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Seokwon

    2013-05-01

    Millimeter waves imaging draws increasing attention in security applications for weapon detection under clothing. In this paper, concealed object segmentation and three-dimensional localization schemes are reviewed. A concealed object is segmented by the k-means algorithm. A feature-based stereo-matching method estimates the longitudinal distance of the concealed object. The distance is estimated by the discrepancy between the corresponding centers of the segmented objects. Experimental results are provided with the analysis of the depth resolution.

  6. Critical object recognition in millimeter-wave images with robustness to rotation and scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzade, Hoda; Ghojogh, Benyamin; Faezi, Sina; Shabany, Mahdi

    2017-06-01

    Locating critical objects is crucial in various security applications and industries. For example, in security applications, such as in airports, these objects might be hidden or covered under shields or secret sheaths. Millimeter-wave images can be utilized to discover and recognize the critical objects out of the hidden cases without any health risk due to their non-ionizing features. However, millimeter-wave images usually have waves in and around the detected objects, making object recognition difficult. Thus, regular image processing and classification methods cannot be used for these images and additional pre-processings and classification methods should be introduced. This paper proposes a novel pre-processing method for canceling rotation and scale using principal component analysis. In addition, a two-layer classification method is introduced and utilized for recognition. Moreover, a large dataset of millimeter-wave images is collected and created for experiments. Experimental results show that a typical classification method such as support vector machines can recognize 45.5% of a type of critical objects at 34.2% false alarm rate (FAR), which is a drastically poor recognition. The same method within the proposed recognition framework achieves 92.9% recognition rate at 0.43% FAR, which indicates a highly significant improvement. The significant contribution of this work is to introduce a new method for analyzing millimeter-wave images based on machine vision and learning approaches, which is not yet widely noted in the field of millimeter-wave image analysis.

  7. Object-Location-Aware Hashing for Multi-Label Image Retrieval via Automatic Mask Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chang-Qin; Yang, Shang-Ming; Pan, Yan; Lai, Han-Jiang

    2018-09-01

    Learning-based hashing is a leading approach of approximate nearest neighbor search for large-scale image retrieval. In this paper, we develop a deep supervised hashing method for multi-label image retrieval, in which we propose to learn a binary "mask" map that can identify the approximate locations of objects in an image, so that we use this binary "mask" map to obtain length-limited hash codes which mainly focus on an image's objects but ignore the background. The proposed deep architecture consists of four parts: 1) a convolutional sub-network to generate effective image features; 2) a binary "mask" sub-network to identify image objects' approximate locations; 3) a weighted average pooling operation based on the binary "mask" to obtain feature representations and hash codes that pay most attention to foreground objects but ignore the background; and 4) the combination of a triplet ranking loss designed to preserve relative similarities among images and a cross entropy loss defined on image labels. We conduct comprehensive evaluations on four multi-label image data sets. The results indicate that the proposed hashing method achieves superior performance gains over the state-of-the-art supervised or unsupervised hashing baselines.

  8. Image Segmentation Method Using Fuzzy C Mean Clustering Based on Multi-Objective Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinlin; Yang, Chunzhi; Xu, Guangkui; Ning, Li

    2018-04-01

    Image segmentation is not only one of the hottest topics in digital image processing, but also an important part of computer vision applications. As one kind of image segmentation algorithms, fuzzy C-means clustering is an effective and concise segmentation algorithm. However, the drawback of FCM is that it is sensitive to image noise. To solve the problem, this paper designs a novel fuzzy C-mean clustering algorithm based on multi-objective optimization. We add a parameter λ to the fuzzy distance measurement formula to improve the multi-objective optimization. The parameter λ can adjust the weights of the pixel local information. In the algorithm, the local correlation of neighboring pixels is added to the improved multi-objective mathematical model to optimize the clustering cent. Two different experimental results show that the novel fuzzy C-means approach has an efficient performance and computational time while segmenting images by different type of noises.

  9. Practical waveform inversion in anisotropic media: The natural combination of the data and image objectives

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Wu, Zedong

    2016-01-01

    scales, with information accessed from the data fitting (FWI) and the image focusing (RWI) objectives. With this parametrization, the RWI role is to obtain a smooth ηmodel, as well as velocity, while FWI focusses on the scattering potential

  10. Automatic cumulative sums contour detection of FBP-reconstructed multi-object nuclear medicine images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protonotarios, Nicholas E; Spyrou, George M; Kastis, George A

    2017-06-01

    The problem of determining the contours of objects in nuclear medicine images has been studied extensively in the past, however most of the analysis has focused on a single object as opposed to multiple objects. The aim of this work is to develop an automated method for determining the contour of multiple objects in positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstructed images. These contours can be used for computing body edges for attenuation correction in PET and SPECT, as well as for eliminating streak artifacts outside the objects, which could be useful in compressive sensing reconstruction. Contour detection has been accomplished by applying a modified cumulative sums (CUSUM) scheme in the sinogram. Our approach automatically detects all objects in the image, without requiring a priori knowledge of the number of distinct objects in the reconstructed image. This method has been tested in simulated phantoms, such as an image-quality (IQ) phantom and two digital multi-object phantoms, as well as a real NEMA phantom and a clinical thoracic study. For this purpose, a GE Discovery PET scanner was employed. The detected contours achieved root mean square accuracy of 1.14 pixels, 1.69 pixels and 3.28 pixels and a Hausdorff distance of 3.13, 3.12 and 4.50 pixels, for the simulated image-quality phantom PET study, the real NEMA phantom and the clinical thoracic study, respectively. These results correspond to a significant improvement over recent results obtained in similar studies. Furthermore, we obtained an optimal sub-pattern assignment (OSPA) localization error of 0.94 and 1.48, for the two-objects and three-objects simulated phantoms, respectively. Our method performs efficiently for sets of convex objects and hence it provides a robust tool for automatic contour determination with precise results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. THz reflectometric imaging of medieval wall paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain reflectometry has been applied to the investigation of a medieval Danish wall painting. The technique has been able to detect the presence of carbonblack layer on the surface of the wall painting and a buried insertion characterized by high reflectivity values has been found...

  12. MRT letter: Guided filtering of image focus volume for 3D shape recovery of microscopic objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Muhammad Tariq

    2014-12-01

    In this letter, a shape from focus (SFF) method is proposed that utilizes the guided image filtering to enhance the image focus volume efficiently. First, image focus volume is computed using a conventional focus measure. Then each layer of image focus volume is filtered using guided filtering. In this work, the all-in-focus image, which can be obtained from the initial focus volume, is used as guidance image. Finally, improved depth map is obtained from the filtered image focus volume by maximizing the focus measure along the optical axis. The proposed SFF method is efficient and provides better depth maps. The improved performance is highlighted by conducting several experiments using image sequences of simulated and real microscopic objects. The comparative analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed SFF method. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Is there a Biological Basis for Therapeutic Applications of Millimetre Waves and THz Waves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Mats-Olof; Zeni, Olga; Simkó, Myrtill

    2018-03-01

    Millimetre wave (MMW) and THz wave (THz) applications are already employed in certain industrial and medical environments for non-destructive quality control, and medical imaging, diagnosis, and therapy, respectively. The aim of the present study is to investigate if published experimental studies (in vivo and in vitro) provide evidence for "non-thermal" biological effects of MMW and THz. Such effects would occur in absence of tissue heating and associated damage and are the ones that can be exploited for therapeutic medical use. The investigated studies provide some evidence for both MMW and THz that can influence biological systems in a manner that is not obviously driven by tissue heating. However, the number of relevant studies is very limited which severely limits the drawing of any far-reaching conclusions. Furthermore, the studies have not addressed specific interaction mechanisms and do not provide hints for future mechanistic studies. Also, the studies do not indicate any specific importance regarding power density levels, frequencies, or exposure duration. It is also unclear if any specific biological endpoints are especially sensitive. Any therapeutic potential of MMW or THz has to be evaluated based on future high-quality studies dealing with physical, bio-physical, and biological aspects that have specific health-related perspectives in mind.

  14. Novelty detection of foreign objects in food using multi-modal X-ray imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Hildur; Emerson, Monica Jane; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a method for novelty detection of foreign objects in food products using grating-based multimodal X-ray imaging. With this imaging technique three modalities are available with pixel correspondence, enhancing organic materials such as wood chips, insects and soft...... plastics not detectable by conventional X-ray absorption radiography. We conduct experiments, where several food products are imaged with common foreign objects typically found in the food processing industry. To evaluate the benefit from using this multi-contrast X-ray technique over conventional X......-ray absorption imaging, a novelty detection scheme based on well known image- and statistical analysis techniques is proposed. The results show that the presented method gives superior recognition results and highlights the advantage of grating-based imaging....

  15. Extracting 3D Parametric Curves from 2D Images of Helical Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcocks, Chris G; Jackson, Philip T G; Nelson, Carl J; Obara, Boguslaw

    2017-09-01

    Helical objects occur in medicine, biology, cosmetics, nanotechnology, and engineering. Extracting a 3D parametric curve from a 2D image of a helical object has many practical applications, in particular being able to extract metrics such as tortuosity, frequency, and pitch. We present a method that is able to straighten the image object and derive a robust 3D helical curve from peaks in the object boundary. The algorithm has a small number of stable parameters that require little tuning, and the curve is validated against both synthetic and real-world data. The results show that the extracted 3D curve comes within close Hausdorff distance to the ground truth, and has near identical tortuosity for helical objects with a circular profile. Parameter insensitivity and robustness against high levels of image noise are demonstrated thoroughly and quantitatively.

  16. Near-field imaging of interacting nano objects with metal and metamaterial superlenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkarainen, T; Setälä, T; Friberg, A T

    2012-01-01

    Employing rigorous electromagnetic theory we investigate optical the near-field imaging of two interacting dipole-like objects with metal and slightly lossy metamaterial nanoslab superlenses. Our analysis indicates that the dipole emission is suppressed by near-field interactions when the objects are close to the lens or each other. This strongly influences the image quality, in particular with objects of small size and high polarizability. The interference from two nearby objects also affects the resolution and subwavelength definition can only be obtained for objects with dipole moments predominantly orthogonal to the slab. Such an optimal imaging condition is achieved with excitation by total internal reflection. With simulations we show that in these circumstances, subwavelength resolutions of about λ/5 for silver superlens and λ/10 for metamaterial slab are reached. (paper)

  17. Segmentation of Concealed Objects in Passive Millimeter-Wave Images Based on the Gaussian Mixture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wangyang; Chen, Xiangguang; Wu, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Passive millimeter wave (PMMW) imaging has become one of the most effective means to detect the objects concealed under clothing. Due to the limitations of the available hardware and the inherent physical properties of PMMW imaging systems, images often exhibit poor contrast and low signal-to-noise ratios. Thus, it is difficult to achieve ideal results by using a general segmentation algorithm. In this paper, an advanced Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) algorithm for the segmentation of concealed objects in PMMW images is presented. Our work is concerned with the fact that the GMM is a parametric statistical model, which is often used to characterize the statistical behavior of images. Our approach is three-fold: First, we remove the noise from the image using both a notch reject filter and a total variation filter. Next, we use an adaptive parameter initialization GMM algorithm (APIGMM) for simulating the histogram of images. The APIGMM provides an initial number of Gaussian components and start with more appropriate parameter. Bayesian decision is employed to separate the pixels of concealed objects from other areas. At last, the confidence interval (CI) method, alongside local gradient information, is used to extract the concealed objects. The proposed hybrid segmentation approach detects the concealed objects more accurately, even compared to two other state-of-the-art segmentation methods.

  18. Region-Based Image Retrieval Using an Object Ontology and Relevance Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kompatsiaris Ioannis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An image retrieval methodology suited for search in large collections of heterogeneous images is presented. The proposed approach employs a fully unsupervised segmentation algorithm to divide images into regions and endow the indexing and retrieval system with content-based functionalities. Low-level descriptors for the color, position, size, and shape of each region are subsequently extracted. These arithmetic descriptors are automatically associated with appropriate qualitative intermediate-level descriptors, which form a simple vocabulary termed object ontology. The object ontology is used to allow the qualitative definition of the high-level concepts the user queries for (semantic objects, each represented by a keyword and their relations in a human-centered fashion. When querying for a specific semantic object (or objects, the intermediate-level descriptor values associated with both the semantic object and all image regions in the collection are initially compared, resulting in the rejection of most image regions as irrelevant. Following that, a relevance feedback mechanism, based on support vector machines and using the low-level descriptors, is invoked to rank the remaining potentially relevant image regions and produce the final query results. Experimental results and comparisons demonstrate, in practice, the effectiveness of our approach.

  19. On Decomposing Object Appearance using PCA and Wavelet bases with Applications to Image Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Forchhammer, Søren

    2002-01-01

    the complete object surface using principal component analysis. This typically involves matrices with a few thousands and up to 100.000+ rows. This paper demonstrates applications of such models applied on colour images of human faces and cardiac magnetic resonance images. Further, we devise methods...

  20. Curvature histogram features for retrieval of images of smooth 3D objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, I; Scherbakov, O; Potapov, A; Peterson, M

    2014-01-01

    We consider image features on the base of histograms of oriented gradients (HOG) with addition of contour curvature histogram (HOG-CH), and also compare it with results of known scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) approach in application to retrieval of images of smooth 3D objects.

  1. Comparing subjective and objective quality assessment of HDR images compressed with JPEG-XT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Ferchiu, Stefan Catalin; Forchhammer, Søren

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a subjective test in which participants evaluate the quality of JPEG-XT compressed HDR images is presented. Results show that for the selected test images and display, the subjective quality reached its saturation point starting around 3bpp. Objective evaluations are obtained...

  2. A Method for Interactive 3D Reconstruction of Piecewise Planar Objects from Single Images

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm , Peter; Maybank , Steve

    1999-01-01

    International audience; We present an approach for 3D reconstruction of objects from a single image. Obviously, constraints on the 3D structure are needed to perform this task. Our approach is based on user-provided coplanarity, perpendicularity and parallelism constraints. These are used to calibrate the image and perform 3D reconstruction. The method is described in detail and results are provided.

  3. Visualization: A Tool for Enhancing Students' Concept Images of Basic Object-Oriented Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to investigate students' concept images about class, object, and their relationship and to help them enhance their learning of these notions with a visualization tool. Fifty-six second-year university students participated in the study. To investigate his/her concept images, the researcher developed a survey…

  4. Objective and Subjective Factors of Perception of Russia’s Image in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Игоревна Ведерникова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the role of international environment influencing the image of Russia. The author reveals the psychological mechanisms of perception of the image of Russia in the EU. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of objective and subjective factors constructive and negative perception of Russia and its political leader. Status conflicts are analyzed in the article as well, including methods and techniques of purposeful distortion of the image of Russia in Europe.

  5. Objective and expert-independent validation of retinal image registration algorithms by a projective imaging distortion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyeol; Reinhardt, Joseph M; Cattin, Philippe C; Abràmoff, Michael D

    2010-08-01

    Fundus camera imaging of the retina is widely used to diagnose and manage ophthalmologic disorders including diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Retinal images typically have a limited field of view, and multiple images can be joined together using an image registration technique to form a montage with a larger field of view. A variety of methods for retinal image registration have been proposed, but evaluating such methods objectively is difficult due to the lack of a reference standard for the true alignment of the individual images that make up the montage. A method of generating simulated retinal images by modeling the geometric distortions due to the eye geometry and the image acquisition process is described in this paper. We also present a validation process that can be used for any retinal image registration method by tracing through the distortion path and assessing the geometric misalignment in the coordinate system of the reference standard. The proposed method can be used to perform an accuracy evaluation over the whole image, so that distortion in the non-overlapping regions of the montage components can be easily assessed. We demonstrate the technique by generating test image sets with a variety of overlap conditions and compare the accuracy of several retinal image registration models. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiplicative mixing of object identity and image attributes in single inferior temporal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratan Murty, N Apurva; Arun, S P

    2018-04-03

    Object recognition is challenging because the same object can produce vastly different images, mixing signals related to its identity with signals due to its image attributes, such as size, position, rotation, etc. Previous studies have shown that both signals are present in high-level visual areas, but precisely how they are combined has remained unclear. One possibility is that neurons might encode identity and attribute signals multiplicatively so that each can be efficiently decoded without interference from the other. Here, we show that, in high-level visual cortex, responses of single neurons can be explained better as a product rather than a sum of tuning for object identity and tuning for image attributes. This subtle effect in single neurons produced substantially better population decoding of object identity and image attributes in the neural population as a whole. This property was absent both in low-level vision models and in deep neural networks. It was also unique to invariances: when tested with two-part objects, neural responses were explained better as a sum than as a product of part tuning. Taken together, our results indicate that signals requiring separate decoding, such as object identity and image attributes, are combined multiplicatively in IT neurons, whereas signals that require integration (such as parts in an object) are combined additively. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  7. Mirror-Image Confusions: Implications for Representation and Processing of Object Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Emma; McCloskey, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Perceiving the orientation of objects is important for interacting with the world, yet little is known about the mental representation or processing of object orientation information. The tendency of humans and other species to confuse mirror images provides a potential clue. However, the appropriate characterization of this phenomenon is not…

  8. Object-Based Image Analysis Beyond Remote Sensing - the Human Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, T.; Lang, S.; Tiede, D.; Papadakis, M.; Györi, A.

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a prototypical methodological framework for a place-based GIS-RS system for the spatial delineation of place while incorporating spatial analysis and mapping techniques using methods from different fields such as environmental psychology, geography, and computer science. The methodological lynchpin for this to happen - when aiming to delineate place in terms of objects - is object-based image analysis (OBIA).

  9. A Scientific Workflow Platform for Generic and Scalable Object Recognition on Medical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Manuel; Tuot, Christopher; Sintek, Michael

    In the research project THESEUS MEDICO we aim at a system combining medical image information with semantic background knowledge from ontologies to give clinicians fully cross-modal access to biomedical image repositories. Therefore joint efforts have to be made in more than one dimension: Object detection processes have to be specified in which an abstraction is performed starting from low-level image features across landmark detection utilizing abstract domain knowledge up to high-level object recognition. We propose a system based on a client-server extension of the scientific workflow platform Kepler that assists the collaboration of medical experts and computer scientists during development and parameter learning.

  10. Operational Automatic Remote Sensing Image Understanding Systems: Beyond Geographic Object-Based and Object-Oriented Image Analysis (GEOBIA/GEOOIA. Part 1: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Baraldi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to existing literature and despite their commercial success, state-of-the-art two-stage non-iterative geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA systems and three-stage iterative geographic object-oriented image analysis (GEOOIA systems, where GEOOIA/GEOBIA, remain affected by a lack of productivity, general consensus and research. To outperform the degree of automation, accuracy, efficiency, robustness, scalability and timeliness of existing GEOBIA/GEOOIA systems in compliance with the Quality Assurance Framework for Earth Observation (QA4EO guidelines, this methodological work is split into two parts. The present first paper provides a multi-disciplinary Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT analysis of the GEOBIA/GEOOIA approaches that augments similar analyses proposed in recent years. In line with constraints stemming from human vision, this SWOT analysis promotes a shift of learning paradigm in the pre-attentive vision first stage of a remote sensing (RS image understanding system (RS-IUS, from sub-symbolic statistical model-based (inductive image segmentation to symbolic physical model-based (deductive image preliminary classification. Hence, a symbolic deductive pre-attentive vision first stage accomplishes image sub-symbolic segmentation and image symbolic pre-classification simultaneously. In the second part of this work a novel hybrid (combined deductive and inductive RS-IUS architecture featuring a symbolic deductive pre-attentive vision first stage is proposed and discussed in terms of: (a computational theory (system design; (b information/knowledge representation; (c algorithm design; and (d implementation. As proof-of-concept of symbolic physical model-based pre-attentive vision first stage, the spectral knowledge-based, operational, near real-time Satellite Image Automatic Mapper™ (SIAM™ is selected from existing literature. To the best of these authors’ knowledge, this is the first time a

  11. Objective for EUV microscopy, EUV lithography, and x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Manfred; Hill, Kenneth W.; Efthimion, Philip

    2016-05-03

    Disclosed is an imaging apparatus for EUV spectroscopy, EUV microscopy, EUV lithography, and x-ray imaging. This new imaging apparatus could, in particular, make significant contributions to EUV lithography at wavelengths in the range from 10 to 15 nm, which is presently being developed for the manufacturing of the next-generation integrated circuits. The disclosure provides a novel adjustable imaging apparatus that allows for the production of stigmatic images in x-ray imaging, EUV imaging, and EUVL. The imaging apparatus of the present invention incorporates additional properties compared to previously described objectives. The use of a pair of spherical reflectors containing a concave and convex arrangement has been applied to a EUV imaging system to allow for the image and optics to all be placed on the same side of a vacuum chamber. Additionally, the two spherical reflector segments previously described have been replaced by two full spheres or, more precisely, two spherical annuli, so that the total photon throughput is largely increased. Finally, the range of permissible Bragg angles and possible magnifications of the objective has been largely increased.

  12. Measurements of WDS Objects Found in Images Taken for Detecting CPM Pairs in the LSPM Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Wilfried; Nanson, John

    2017-10-01

    During our research for CPM objects in the LSPM catalog so far not included in the WDS catalog part II (Knapp and Nanson 2017) we found by chance a surprisingly large number of WDS objects in the field of view of several images taken for this project. To use the existing image material in the best possible way we decided to take measurements of these objects and to look at other existing catalog data allowing a check for potential common proper motion. This report presents the findings of this research.

  13. Investigation of water distribution in proton exchange membrane fuel cells via Terahertz imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamboon, P.; Buaphad, P.; Thongbai, C.; Saisud, J.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Rhodes, M.W.; Vilaithong, T.

    2011-01-01

    Coherent transition radiation in a THz regime generated from a femtosecond electron bunch is explored for its potential use in imaging applications. Due to water sensitivity, the THz imaging experiment is performed on a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) to assess the ability to quantify water in the flow field of the cell. In this investigation, the PEMFC design and the experimental setup for the THz imaging is described. The results of the THz images in the flow field are also discussed.

  14. A Picture You Can Handle: Infants Treat Touch-Screen Images More Like Photographs than Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemer, Christine J; Snyder, Makenna

    2016-01-01

    Infants actively explore their world in order to determine the different ways in which they can interact with various objects. Although research on infant perception has focused on how infants understand the differences between 2- and 3-dimensional objects, today's infants increasingly encounter 2D images with interactive qualities on smart-phone screens, tablets, and laptops. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the types of manual behaviors infants direct toward tablet images and to compare these actions to those evoked by 2D photographs or 3D when tactile feedback is controlled. Infants between the ages of 7-10 months sat on their parent's lap in front of a table with a built-in well covered by a clear, plastic sheet while the three types of displays (photographs, objects, and screen images on a tablet) were presented for 30 s each. Infants saw three examples of each type of display presented in the built-in well so that tactile feedback information from the different displays was controlled. Coders noted the proportion of trials in which infants grasped, scratched, rubbed, or patted the display. Results indicate that infants direct significantly more grasps, scratches, and rubs toward 3D objects than 2D photographs. Infants also direct more grasps to objects compared to screen images. Our data suggests that infants are treating screen images more similarly to 2D photographs than 3D objects.

  15. A Picture You Can Handle: Infants Treat Touch-Screen Images More Like Photographs than Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine J Ziemer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Infants actively explore their world in order to determine the different ways in which they can interact with various objects. Although research on infant perception has focused on how infants understand the differences between 2- and 3-dimensional objects, today’s infants increasingly encounter 2D images with interactive qualities on smart-phone screens, tablets, and laptops. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the types of manual behaviors infants direct towards tablet images and to compare these actions to those evoked by 2D photographs or 3D when tactile feedback is controlled. Infants between the ages of 7-10 months sat on their parent’s lap in front of a table with a built-in well covered by a clear, plastic sheet while the three types of displays (photographs, objects, and screen images on a tablet were presented for 30 seconds each. Infants saw three examples of each type of display presented in the built-in well so that tactile feedback information from the different displays was controlled. Coders noted the proportion of trials in which infants grasped, scratched, rubbed, or patted the display. Results indicate that infants direct significantly more grasps, scratches, and rubs towards 3D objects than 2D photographs. Infants also direct more grasps to objects compared to screen images. Our data suggests that infants are treating screen images more similarly to 2D photographs than 3D objects.

  16. A combined use of multispectral and SAR images for ship detection and characterization through object based image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Martina; Gianinetto, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Marine routes represent a huge portion of commercial and human trades, therefore surveillance, security and environmental protection themes are gaining increasing importance. Being able to overcome the limits imposed by terrestrial means of monitoring, ship detection from satellite has recently prompted a renewed interest for a continuous monitoring of illegal activities. This paper describes an automatic Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) approach to detect vessels made of different materials in various sea environments. The combined use of multispectral and SAR images allows for a regular observation unrestricted by lighting and atmospheric conditions and complementarity in terms of geographic coverage and geometric detail. The method developed adopts a region growing algorithm to segment the image in homogeneous objects, which are then classified through a decision tree algorithm based on spectral and geometrical properties. Then, a spatial analysis retrieves the vessels' position, length and heading parameters and a speed range is associated. Optimization of the image processing chain is performed by selecting image tiles through a statistical index. Vessel candidates are detected over amplitude SAR images using an adaptive threshold Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) algorithm prior the object based analysis. Validation is carried out by comparing the retrieved parameters with the information provided by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), when available, or with manual measurement when AIS data are not available. The estimation of length shows R2=0.85 and estimation of heading R2=0.92, computed as the average of R2 values obtained for both optical and radar images.

  17. A toolbox and sample object perception data for equalization of natural images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma A. Bainbridge

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For psychologists and neuroscientists, careful selection of their stimuli is essential, so that low-level visual features such as color or spatial frequency do not serve as confounds between conditions of interest. Here, we detail the Natural Image Statistical Toolbox, which allows scientists to measure, visualize, and control stimulus sets along a set of low-level visual properties. Additionally, we provide a set of object images varying along several perceptual object properties, including physical size and interaction envelope size (i.e., the space around an object transversed during an interaction, serving as a test-bed for the Natural Image Statistical Toolbox. This stimulus set is also a highly characterized set useful to psychology and neuroscience studies on object perception.

  18. Classification of objects on hyperspectral images — further developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.; Williams, Paul

    Classification of objects (such as tablets, cereals, fruits, etc.) is one of the very important applications of hyperspectral imaging and image analysis. Quite often, a hyperspectral image is represented and analyzed just as a bunch of spectra without taking into account spatial information about...... the pixels, which makes classification objects inefficient. Recently, several methods, which combine spectral and spatial information, has been also developed and this approach becomes more and more wide-spread. The methods use local rank, topology, spectral features calculated for separate objects and other...... spatial characteristics. In this work we would like to show several improvements to the classification method, which utilizes spectral features calculated for individual objects [1]. The features are based (in general) on descriptors of spatial patterns of individual object’s pixels in a common principal...

  19. Probabilistic Characterization of Partial Volume Effects in Imaging of Rectangular Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulaevskaya, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-06

    In imaging, a partial volume effect refers to the problem that arises when the system resolution is low relative to the size of the object being imaged [1, 2]. In this setting, it is likely that most voxels occupied by the object are only partially covered, and that the fraction covered in each voxel is low. This makes the problem of object detection and image segmentation very difficult because the algorithms designed for these purposes rely on pixel summary statistics. If the area covered by the object is very low in relatively many of the total number of the voxels the object occupies, these summary statistics may not reach the thresholds required to detect this object. It is thus important to understand the extent of partial volume effect for a given object size and resolution. This technical report focuses on rectangular objects and derives the probability distributions for three quantities for such objects: 1) the number of fully covered voxels, 2) the number of partially covered voxels, and 3) the fractions of the total volume covered in the partially covered voxels. The derivations are first shown for 2-D settings and are then extended to 3-D settings.

  20. Automatic Centerline Extraction of Coverd Roads by Surrounding Objects from High Resolution Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamangir, H.; Momeni, M.; Satari, M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an automatic method to extract road centerline networks from high and very high resolution satellite images. The present paper addresses the automated extraction roads covered with multiple natural and artificial objects such as trees, vehicles and either shadows of buildings or trees. In order to have a precise road extraction, this method implements three stages including: classification of images based on maximum likelihood algorithm to categorize images into interested classes, modification process on classified images by connected component and morphological operators to extract pixels of desired objects by removing undesirable pixels of each class, and finally line extraction based on RANSAC algorithm. In order to evaluate performance of the proposed method, the generated results are compared with ground truth road map as a reference. The evaluation performance of the proposed method using representative test images show completeness values ranging between 77% and 93%.

  1. Large antennas for ground-based astronomy above 1 THz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, Wolfgang; Guesten, R.; Holland, W. S.; Ivison, R.; Stacey, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    In its history astronomy has continuously expanded access to new wavelength regions both from space and on the ground. Today, one of the few unexplored regimes is the terahertz (THz) frequency range, more specifically above 1 THz (< lambda 300 mum). Astronomical observations above 1 THz are

  2. THz Electro-absorption Effect in Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Monozon, Boris S.; Livshits, Daniil A.

    2011-01-01

    In a THz pump - optical probe experiment we demonstrate an instantaneous electro-absorption effect in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots, induced by the electric field of a single-cycle THz pulse with 3 THz bandwidth and with free-space peak electric field reaching 220 kV/cm. The transient modulation of QD...

  3. An object-oriented framework for medical image registration, fusion, and visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yang-Ming; Cochoff, Steven M

    2006-06-01

    An object-oriented framework for image registration, fusion, and visualization was developed based on the classic model-view-controller paradigm. The framework employs many design patterns to facilitate legacy code reuse, manage software complexity, and enhance the maintainability and portability of the framework. Three sample applications built a-top of this framework are illustrated to show the effectiveness of this framework: the first one is for volume image grouping and re-sampling, the second one is for 2D registration and fusion, and the last one is for visualization of single images as well as registered volume images.

  4. Minimal Camera Networks for 3D Image Based Modeling of Cultural Heritage Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsadik, Bashar; Gerke, Markus; Vosselman, George; Daham, Afrah; Jasim, Luma

    2014-01-01

    3D modeling of cultural heritage objects like artifacts, statues and buildings is nowadays an important tool for virtual museums, preservation and restoration. In this paper, we introduce a method to automatically design a minimal imaging network for the 3D modeling of cultural heritage objects. This becomes important for reducing the image capture time and processing when documenting large and complex sites. Moreover, such a minimal camera network design is desirable for imaging non-digitally documented artifacts in museums and other archeological sites to avoid disturbing the visitors for a long time and/or moving delicate precious objects to complete the documentation task. The developed method is tested on the Iraqi famous statue “Lamassu”. Lamassu is a human-headed winged bull of over 4.25 m in height from the era of Ashurnasirpal II (883–859 BC). Close-range photogrammetry is used for the 3D modeling task where a dense ordered imaging network of 45 high resolution images were captured around Lamassu with an object sample distance of 1 mm. These images constitute a dense network and the aim of our study was to apply our method to reduce the number of images for the 3D modeling and at the same time preserve pre-defined point accuracy. Temporary control points were fixed evenly on the body of Lamassu and measured by using a total station for the external validation and scaling purpose. Two network filtering methods are implemented and three different software packages are used to investigate the efficiency of the image orientation and modeling of the statue in the filtered (reduced) image networks. Internal and external validation results prove that minimal image networks can provide highly accurate records and efficiency in terms of visualization, completeness, processing time (>60% reduction) and the final accuracy of 1 mm. PMID:24670718

  5. Minimal camera networks for 3D image based modeling of cultural heritage objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsadik, Bashar; Gerke, Markus; Vosselman, George; Daham, Afrah; Jasim, Luma

    2014-03-25

    3D modeling of cultural heritage objects like artifacts, statues and buildings is nowadays an important tool for virtual museums, preservation and restoration. In this paper, we introduce a method to automatically design a minimal imaging network for the 3D modeling of cultural heritage objects. This becomes important for reducing the image capture time and processing when documenting large and complex sites. Moreover, such a minimal camera network design is desirable for imaging non-digitally documented artifacts in museums and other archeological sites to avoid disturbing the visitors for a long time and/or moving delicate precious objects to complete the documentation task. The developed method is tested on the Iraqi famous statue "Lamassu". Lamassu is a human-headed winged bull of over 4.25 m in height from the era of Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BC). Close-range photogrammetry is used for the 3D modeling task where a dense ordered imaging network of 45 high resolution images were captured around Lamassu with an object sample distance of 1 mm. These images constitute a dense network and the aim of our study was to apply our method to reduce the number of images for the 3D modeling and at the same time preserve pre-defined point accuracy. Temporary control points were fixed evenly on the body of Lamassu and measured by using a total station for the external validation and scaling purpose. Two network filtering methods are implemented and three different software packages are used to investigate the efficiency of the image orientation and modeling of the statue in the filtered (reduced) image networks. Internal and external validation results prove that minimal image networks can provide highly accurate records and efficiency in terms of visualization, completeness, processing time (>60% reduction) and the final accuracy of 1 mm.

  6. Novel materials, fabrication techniques and algorithms for microwave and THz components, systems and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Min

    . Compared to conventional phased array systems, this Luneburg lens based phased array structure has a broadband working frequency and has no scan angle coverage limit. Because of the symmetry of Luneburg lens, no beam shape variation would occur for the entire scanning range. Moreover, this alternative phased array requires much less system complexity to achieve a highly directional beam. This reduction in system complexity allows the electronic scanning system to be built at much lower cost than traditional phased arrays. Fourth, the characterization of carbon based (Graphene and carbon nanotube) thin films on different substrates via Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy are presented in this dissertation. The substrate permittivity is first characterized. The film under test is then treated as a surface boundary condition between the substrate and air. Using the uniform field approximation, the electromagnetic properties of the film can be extracted. To improve accuracy, precise thickness of sample substrate is calculated through an iteration process in both dielectric constant extraction and surface conductivity extraction. Uncertainty analysis of the measured thin film properties is performed. Fifth, a coded transmitter TDS near field imaging system by employing photoconductive antenna (PCA) array is reported. Silicon lens array is used to couple and focus the femto-second laser onto each PCA. By varying the bias state of each PCA element, the ON/OFF state or power level for different PCAs can be controlled independently. The sample object is placed 10 ?m away from the PCA array to measure the THz near field image. A Hadamard matrix is applied to code the 2x2 antenna array to improve the SNR. Measured results clearly indicate an improved SNR compared to individual antenna measurement. In addition, Multiphysics COMSOL and a FDTD algorithm combined with HFSS time domain simulation is used to model the physics of TDS photoconductive antenna and optimize the performance of

  7. Thermally tunable magnetic metamaterials at THz frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, Son Tung; Nguyen, Van Dung; Bui, Xuan Khuyen; Vu, Dinh Lam; Nguyen, Thanh Tung; Lievens, Peter; Lee, YoungPak

    2013-01-01

    We investigate theoretically and numerically the tunability of the magnetic property of metamaterial in the THz region via thermal control. One component of the meta-atom is InSb, playing an important role as an alterable metal. When the temperature of the InSb stack increases from 300 to 350 K, the resonance peak of the transmission spectra shows a shift from 0.6 to 0.85 THz accompanied by a stronger magnetic behavior. The S-parameter retrieval method realizes the tunability of the negative permeability achieved in the above heating range. (paper)

  8. Probing giant magnetoresistance with THz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zuanming; Tkach, Alexander; Casper, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    We observe a giant magnetoresistance effect in CoFe/Cu-based multistack using THz time-domain spectroscopy. The magnetic field-dependent dc conductivity, electron scattering time, as well as spin-asymmetry parameter of the structure are successfully determined. © 2014 OSA.......We observe a giant magnetoresistance effect in CoFe/Cu-based multistack using THz time-domain spectroscopy. The magnetic field-dependent dc conductivity, electron scattering time, as well as spin-asymmetry parameter of the structure are successfully determined. © 2014 OSA....

  9. A REGION-BASED MULTI-SCALE APPROACH FOR OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kavzoglu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the last two decades, object-based image analysis (OBIA considering objects (i.e. groups of pixels instead of pixels has gained popularity and attracted increasing interest. The most important stage of the OBIA is image segmentation that groups spectrally similar adjacent pixels considering not only the spectral features but also spatial and textural features. Although there are several parameters (scale, shape, compactness and band weights to be set by the analyst, scale parameter stands out the most important parameter in segmentation process. Estimating optimal scale parameter is crucially important to increase the classification accuracy that depends on image resolution, image object size and characteristics of the study area. In this study, two scale-selection strategies were implemented in the image segmentation process using pan-sharped Qickbird-2 image. The first strategy estimates optimal scale parameters for the eight sub-regions. For this purpose, the local variance/rate of change (LV-RoC graphs produced by the ESP-2 tool were analysed to determine fine, moderate and coarse scales for each region. In the second strategy, the image was segmented using the three candidate scale values (fine, moderate, coarse determined from the LV-RoC graph calculated for whole image. The nearest neighbour classifier was applied in all segmentation experiments and equal number of pixels was randomly selected to calculate accuracy metrics (overall accuracy and kappa coefficient. Comparison of region-based and image-based segmentation was carried out on the classified images and found that region-based multi-scale OBIA produced significantly more accurate results than image-based single-scale OBIA. The difference in classification accuracy reached to 10% in terms of overall accuracy.

  10. Active terahertz imaging with Ne indicator lamp detector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeika, N. S.; Abramovich, A.; Yadid-Pecht, O.; Yitzhaky, Y.

    2009-08-01

    The advantages of terahertz (THz) imaging are well known. They penetrate well most non-conducting media and there are no known biological hazards, This makes such imaging systems important for homeland security, as they can be used to image concealed objects and often into rooms or buildings from the outside. There are also biomedical applications that are arising. Unfortunately, THz imaging is quite expensive, especially for real time systems, largely because of the price of the detector. Bolometers and pyroelectric detectors can each easily cost at least hundreds of dollars if not more, thus making focal plane arrays of them quite expensive. We have found that common miniature commercial neon indicator lamps costing typically about 30 cents each exhibit high sensitivity to THz radiation [1-3], with microsecond order rise times, thus making them excellent candidates for such focal plane arrays. NEP is on the order of 10-10 W/Hz1/2. Significant improvement of detection performance is expected when heterodyne detection is used Efforts are being made to develop focal plane array imagers using such devices at 300 GHz. Indeed, preliminary images using 4x4 arrays have already been obtained. An 8x8 VLSI board has been developed and is presently being tested. Since no similar imaging systems have been developed previously, there are many new problems to be solved with such a novel and unconventional imaging system. These devices act as square law detectors, with detected signal proportional to THz power. This allows them to act as mixers in heterodyne detection, thus allowing NEP to be reduced further by almost two orders of magnitude. Plans are to expand the arrays to larger sizes, and to employ super resolution techniques to improve image quality beyond that ordinarily obtainable at THz frequencies.

  11. Image Acquisition of Robust Vision Systems to Monitor Blurred Objects in Hazy Smoking Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Yongjin; Park, Seungkyu; Baik, Sunghoon; Kim, Donglyul; Nam, Sungmo; Jeong, Kyungmin

    2014-01-01

    Image information in disaster area or radiation area of nuclear industry is an important data for safety inspection and preparing appropriate damage control plans. So, robust vision system for structures and facilities in blurred smoking environments, such as the places of a fire and detonation, is essential in remote monitoring. Vision systems can't acquire an image when the illumination light is blocked by disturbance materials, such as smoke, fog, dust. The vision system based on wavefront correction can be applied to blurred imaging environments and the range-gated imaging system can be applied to both of blurred imaging and darken light environments. Wavefront control is a widely used technique to improve the performance of optical systems by actively correcting wavefront distortions, such as atmospheric turbulence, thermally-induced distortions, and laser or laser device aberrations, which can reduce the peak intensity and smear an acquired image. The principal applications of wavefront control are for improving the image quality in optical imaging systems such as infrared astronomical telescopes, in imaging and tracking rapidly moving space objects, and in compensating for laser beam distortion through the atmosphere. A conventional wavefront correction system consists of a wavefront sensor, a deformable mirror and a control computer. The control computer measures the wavefront distortions using a wavefront sensor and corrects it using a deformable mirror in a closed-loop. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra

  12. Image Acquisition of Robust Vision Systems to Monitor Blurred Objects in Hazy Smoking Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yongjin; Park, Seungkyu; Baik, Sunghoon; Kim, Donglyul; Nam, Sungmo; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Image information in disaster area or radiation area of nuclear industry is an important data for safety inspection and preparing appropriate damage control plans. So, robust vision system for structures and facilities in blurred smoking environments, such as the places of a fire and detonation, is essential in remote monitoring. Vision systems can't acquire an image when the illumination light is blocked by disturbance materials, such as smoke, fog, dust. The vision system based on wavefront correction can be applied to blurred imaging environments and the range-gated imaging system can be applied to both of blurred imaging and darken light environments. Wavefront control is a widely used technique to improve the performance of optical systems by actively correcting wavefront distortions, such as atmospheric turbulence, thermally-induced distortions, and laser or laser device aberrations, which can reduce the peak intensity and smear an acquired image. The principal applications of wavefront control are for improving the image quality in optical imaging systems such as infrared astronomical telescopes, in imaging and tracking rapidly moving space objects, and in compensating for laser beam distortion through the atmosphere. A conventional wavefront correction system consists of a wavefront sensor, a deformable mirror and a control computer. The control computer measures the wavefront distortions using a wavefront sensor and corrects it using a deformable mirror in a closed-loop. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra

  13. Benchmarking the Applicability of Ontology in Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachit Rajbhandari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Geographic Object-based Image Analysis (GEOBIA, identification of image objects is normally achieved using rule-based classification techniques supported by appropriate domain knowledge. However, GEOBIA currently lacks a systematic method to formalise the domain knowledge required for image object identification. Ontology provides a representation vocabulary for characterising domain-specific classes. This study proposes an ontological framework that conceptualises domain knowledge in order to support the application of rule-based classifications. The proposed ontological framework is tested with a landslide case study. The Web Ontology Language (OWL is used to construct an ontology in the landslide domain. The segmented image objects with extracted features are incorporated into the ontology as instances. The classification rules are written in Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL and executed using a semantic reasoner to assign instances to appropriate landslide classes. Machine learning techniques are used to predict new threshold values for feature attributes in the rules. Our framework is compared with published work on landslide detection where ontology was not used for the image classification. Our results demonstrate that a classification derived from the ontological framework accords with non-ontological methods. This study benchmarks the ontological method providing an alternative approach for image classification in the case study of landslides.

  14. A light and faster regional convolutional neural network for object detection in optical remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Peng; Zhang, Ye; Deng, Wei-Jian; Jia, Ping; Kuijper, Arjan

    2018-07-01

    Detection of objects from satellite optical remote sensing images is very important for many commercial and governmental applications. With the development of deep convolutional neural networks (deep CNNs), the field of object detection has seen tremendous advances. Currently, objects in satellite remote sensing images can be detected using deep CNNs. In general, optical remote sensing images contain many dense and small objects, and the use of the original Faster Regional CNN framework does not yield a suitably high precision. Therefore, after careful analysis we adopt dense convoluted networks, a multi-scale representation and various combinations of improvement schemes to enhance the structure of the base VGG16-Net for improving the precision. We propose an approach to reduce the test-time (detection time) and memory requirements. To validate the effectiveness of our approach, we perform experiments using satellite remote sensing image datasets of aircraft and automobiles. The results show that the improved network structure can detect objects in satellite optical remote sensing images more accurately and efficiently.

  15. Object-Oriented Hierarchy Radiation Consistency for Different Temporal and Different Sensor Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Su

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we propose a novel object-oriented hierarchy radiation consistency method for dense matching of different temporal and different sensor data in the 3D reconstruction. For different temporal images, our illumination consistency method is proposed to solve both the illumination uniformity for a single image and the relative illumination normalization for image pairs. Especially in the relative illumination normalization step, singular value equalization and linear relationship of the invariant pixels is combined used for the initial global illumination normalization and the object-oriented refined illumination normalization in detail, respectively. For different sensor images, we propose the union group sparse method, which is based on improving the original group sparse model. The different sensor images are set to a similar smoothness level by the same threshold of singular value from the union group matrix. Our method comprehensively considered the influence factors on the dense matching of the different temporal and different sensor stereoscopic image pairs to simultaneously improve the illumination consistency and the smoothness consistency. The radiation consistency experimental results verify the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method by comparing two other methods. Moreover, in the dense matching experiment of the mixed stereoscopic image pairs, our method has more advantages for objects in the urban area.

  16. Sub-OBB based object recognition and localization algorithm using range images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Dinh-Cuong; Chen, Liang-Chia; Nguyen, Thanh-Hung

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to recognize and estimate pose of the 3D objects in cluttered range images. The key technical breakthrough of the developed approach can enable robust object recognition and localization under undesirable condition such as environmental illumination variation as well as optical occlusion to viewing the object partially. First, the acquired point clouds are segmented into individual object point clouds based on the developed 3D object segmentation for randomly stacked objects. Second, an efficient shape-matching algorithm called Sub-OBB based object recognition by using the proposed oriented bounding box (OBB) regional area-based descriptor is performed to reliably recognize the object. Then, the 3D position and orientation of the object can be roughly estimated by aligning the OBB of segmented object point cloud with OBB of matched point cloud in a database generated from CAD model and 3D virtual camera. To detect accurate pose of the object, the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm is used to match the object model with the segmented point clouds. From the feasibility test of several scenarios, the developed approach is verified to be feasible for object pose recognition and localization. (paper)

  17. Moving object detection in video satellite image based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyang; Xiang, Junhua

    2017-11-01

    Moving object detection in video satellite image is studied. A detection algorithm based on deep learning is proposed. The small scale characteristics of remote sensing video objects are analyzed. Firstly, background subtraction algorithm of adaptive Gauss mixture model is used to generate region proposals. Then the objects in region proposals are classified via the deep convolutional neural network. Thus moving objects of interest are detected combined with prior information of sub-satellite point. The deep convolution neural network employs a 21-layer residual convolutional neural network, and trains the network parameters by transfer learning. Experimental results about video from Tiantuo-2 satellite demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  18. Development of a coherent THz radiation source based on the ultra-short electron beam and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, R.; Yasumoto, M.; Toyokawa, H.; Sei, N.; Koike, M.; Yamada, K.

    2011-01-01

    At the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), a coherent terahertz (THz) radiation source has been developed based on an ultra-short electron beam using an S-band compact electron linac. The designed THz pulse has a high peak power of more than 1 kW in the frequency range 0.1-2 THz. The entire system is located in one research room of about 10 m square. The linac consists of a laser photocathode rf gun (BNL type) with a Cs 2 Te photocathode load-lock system and two 1.5-m-long S-band accelerator tubes. The electron beam can be accelerated up to approximately 42 MeV. The electron bunch was compressed to less than 1 ps (rms) with a magnetic bunch compressor. The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of the THz region was generated from the ultra-short electron bunch at the 90 o bending magnet, and it was extracted from a z-cut quartz window for THz applications. In this work, the THz scanning transmission imaging was successfully demonstrated for measuring the freshness of a vegetable leaf over a period of time.

  19. Ultra-broadband THz time-domain spectroscopy of common polymers using THz air photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D’Angelo, Francesco; Mics, Zoltán; Bonn, Mischa

    2014-01-01

    -domain spectrometer employing air-photonics for the generation and detection of single-cycle sub-50 fs THz transients. The time domain measurements provide direct access to both the absorption and refractive index spectra. The polymers LDPE and TOPAS® demonstrate negligible absorption and spectrally-flat refractive...... index across the entire spectroscopy window, revealing the high potential of these polymers for applications in THz photonics such as ultra-broadband polymer-based dielectric mirrors, waveguides, and fibers. Resonant high-frequency polar vibrational modes are observed and assigned in polymers PA6...... and PTFE, and their dielectric functions in the complete frequency window 2-15 THz are theoretically reproduced. Our results demonstrate the potential of ultrabroadband air-photonics-based THz time domain spectroscopy as a valuable analytic tool for materials science....

  20. The Prospects of Ultra-Broadband THz Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Chen, Ying; Galili, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Wireless communications have entered into a path towards Terabit era, to accommodate the increasing demands on fast wireless access, e.g. huge data file transferring and fast mobile data access. Terahertz (THz) technology is considered feasible to carry ultrafast data signals, as it offers up...... to a few THz bandwidths. This paper overviews the prospects of Tbit/s wireless data rate and their potential applications. Technically, this talk reviews the key technologies and challenges to achieve an ultrafast wireless system operating in the THz frequency band, from viewpoint of communication......, in terms of ultrafast THz generation/THz detection and link power budget....

  1. Method for producing three-dimensional real image using radiographic perspective views of an object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, W.A.; Read, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    A sequence of separate radiographs may be made by indexing a radiation source along a known path relative to the object under study. Thus, each radiograph contains information from a different perspective. A holographically-recorded image is then made from each radiographic perspective by exact re-tracing of the rays through each radiographic perspective such that the re-tracing duplicates the geometry under which it was originally prepared. The holographically-stored images are simultaneously illuminated with the conjugate of the reference beam used in the original recordings. The result is the generation of a three-dimensional real image of the object such that a light-sensitive device can be moved to veiw the real image along any desired surface with the optical information in all other surfaces greatly suppressed. 4 claims, 5 drawing figures

  2. Iterative Object Localization Algorithm Using Visual Images with a Reference Coordinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    We-Duke Cho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a simplified algorithm for localizing an object using multiple visual images that are obtained from widely used digital imaging devices. We use a parallel projection model which supports both zooming and panning of the imaging devices. Our proposed algorithm is based on a virtual viewable plane for creating a relationship between an object position and a reference coordinate. The reference point is obtained from a rough estimate which may be obtained from the preestimation process. The algorithm minimizes localization error through the iterative process with relatively low-computational complexity. In addition, nonlinearity distortion of the digital image devices is compensated during the iterative process. Finally, the performances of several scenarios are evaluated and analyzed in both indoor and outdoor environments.

  3. Objective image characterization of a spectral CT scanner with dual-layer detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozguner, Orhan; Dhanantwari, Amar; Halliburton, Sandra; Wen, Gezheng; Utrup, Steven; Jordan, David

    2018-01-01

    This work evaluated the performance of a detector-based spectral CT system by obtaining objective reference data, evaluating attenuation response of iodine and accuracy of iodine quantification, and comparing conventional CT and virtual monoenergetic images in three common phantoms. Scanning was performed using the hospital’s clinical adult body protocol. Modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated for a tungsten wire and visual line pair targets were evaluated. Image noise power spectrum (NPS) and pixel standard deviation were calculated. MTF for monoenergetic images agreed with conventional images within 0.05 lp cm-1. NPS curves indicated that noise texture of 70 keV monoenergetic images is similar to conventional images. Standard deviation measurements showed monoenergetic images have lower noise except at 40 keV. Mean CT number and CNR agreed with conventional images at 75 keV. Measured iodine concentration agreed with true concentration within 6% for inserts at the center of the phantom. Performance of monoenergetic images at detector based spectral CT is the same as, or better than, that of conventional images. Spectral acquisition and reconstruction with a detector based platform represents the physical behaviour of iodine as expected and accurately quantifies the material concentration.

  4. A Novel Abandoned Object Detection System Based on Three-Dimensional Image Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang Zeng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new idea of an abandoned object detection system for road traffic surveillance systems based on three-dimensional image information is proposed in this paper to prevent traffic accidents. A novel Binocular Information Reconstruction and Recognition (BIRR algorithm is presented to implement the new idea. As initial detection, suspected abandoned objects are detected by the proposed static foreground region segmentation algorithm based on surveillance video from a monocular camera. After detection of suspected abandoned objects, three-dimensional (3D information of the suspected abandoned object is reconstructed by the proposed theory about 3D object information reconstruction with images from a binocular camera. To determine whether the detected object is hazardous to normal road traffic, road plane equation and height of suspected-abandoned object are calculated based on the three-dimensional information. Experimental results show that this system implements fast detection of abandoned objects and this abandoned object system can be used for road traffic monitoring and public area surveillance.

  5. Robust selectivity to two-object images in human visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agam, Yigal; Liu, Hesheng; Papanastassiou, Alexander; Buia, Calin; Golby, Alexandra J.; Madsen, Joseph R.; Kreiman, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY We can recognize objects in a fraction of a second in spite of the presence of other objects [1–3]. The responses in macaque areas V4 and inferior temporal cortex [4–15] to a neuron’s preferred stimuli are typically suppressed by the addition of a second object within the receptive field (see however [16, 17]). How can this suppression be reconciled with rapid visual recognition in complex scenes? One option is that certain “special categories” are unaffected by other objects [18] but this leaves the problem unsolved for other categories. Another possibility is that serial attentional shifts help ameliorate the problem of distractor objects [19–21]. Yet, psychophysical studies [1–3], scalp recordings [1] and neurophysiological recordings [14, 16, 22–24], suggest that the initial sweep of visual processing contains a significant amount of information. We recorded intracranial field potentials in human visual cortex during presentation of flashes of two-object images. Visual selectivity from temporal cortex during the initial ~200 ms was largely robust to the presence of other objects. We could train linear decoders on the responses to isolated objects and decode information in two-object images. These observations are compatible with parallel, hierarchical and feed-forward theories of rapid visual recognition [25] and may provide a neural substrate to begin to unravel rapid recognition in natural scenes. PMID:20417105

  6. Modreg: A Modular Framework for RGB-D Image Acquisition and 3D Object Model Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornuta Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available RGB-D sensors became a standard in robotic applications requiring object recognition, such as object grasping and manipulation. A typical object recognition system relies on matching of features extracted from RGB-D images retrieved from the robot sensors with the features of the object models. In this paper we present ModReg: a system for registration of 3D models of objects. The system consists of a modular software associated with a multi-camera setup supplemented with an additional pattern projector, used for the registration of high-resolution RGB-D images. The objects are placed on a fiducial board with two dot patterns enabling extraction of masks of the placed objects and estimation of their initial poses. The acquired dense point clouds constituting subsequent object views undergo pairwise registration and at the end are optimized with a graph-based technique derived from SLAM. The combination of all those elements resulted in a system able to generate consistent 3D models of objects.

  7. An objective spinal motion imaging assessment (OSMIA): reliability, accuracy and exposure data.

    OpenAIRE

    Breen, Alan C.; Muggleton, J.M.; Mellor, F.E.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Minimally-invasive measurement of continuous inter-vertebral motion in clinical settings is difficult to achieve. This paper describes the reliability, validity and radiation exposure levels in a new Objective Spinal Motion Imaging Assessment system (OSMIA) based on low-dose fluoroscopy and image processing. Methods Fluoroscopic sequences in coronal and sagittal planes were obtained from 2 calibration models using dry lumbar vertebrae, plus the lumbar spines of 30 asymptom...

  8. Histogram Curve Matching Approaches for Object-based Image Classification of Land Cover and Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, Sory I.; Stow, Douglas A.; Weeks, John R.; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    The classification of image-objects is usually done using parametric statistical measures of central tendency and/or dispersion (e.g., mean or standard deviation). The objectives of this study were to analyze digital number histograms of image objects and evaluate classifications measures exploiting characteristic signatures of such histograms. Two histograms matching classifiers were evaluated and compared to the standard nearest neighbor to mean classifier. An ADS40 airborne multispectral image of San Diego, California was used for assessing the utility of curve matching classifiers in a geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) approach. The classifications were performed with data sets having 0.5 m, 2.5 m, and 5 m spatial resolutions. Results show that histograms are reliable features for characterizing classes. Also, both histogram matching classifiers consistently performed better than the one based on the standard nearest neighbor to mean rule. The highest classification accuracies were produced with images having 2.5 m spatial resolution. PMID:24403648

  9. Objective evaluation of reconstruction methods for quantitative SPECT imaging in the absence of ground truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Song, Na; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2015-04-13

    Quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is emerging as an important tool in clinical studies and biomedical research. There is thus a need for optimization and evaluation of systems and algorithms that are being developed for quantitative SPECT imaging. An appropriate objective method to evaluate these systems is by comparing their performance in the end task that is required in quantitative SPECT imaging, such as estimating the mean activity concentration in a volume of interest (VOI) in a patient image. This objective evaluation can be performed if the true value of the estimated parameter is known, i.e. we have a gold standard. However, very rarely is this gold standard known in human studies. Thus, no-gold-standard techniques to optimize and evaluate systems and algorithms in the absence of gold standard are required. In this work, we developed a no-gold-standard technique to objectively evaluate reconstruction methods used in quantitative SPECT when the parameter to be estimated is the mean activity concentration in a VOI. We studied the performance of the technique with realistic simulated image data generated from an object database consisting of five phantom anatomies with all possible combinations of five sets of organ uptakes, where each anatomy consisted of eight different organ VOIs. Results indicate that the method provided accurate ranking of the reconstruction methods. We also demonstrated the application of consistency checks to test the no-gold-standard output.

  10. Ballistic Deflection Transistors for THz Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-09

    glass nano-materials. Si-on-glass is an interesting material with possible applications ranging from ultrafast electronics to solar cells. We used our...planar geometry allows for a flexible design and easy integration as a multi-element sensor or with either optical nano-concentrators or THz coupling

  11. Microring Diode Laser for THz Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariani, S.; Andronico, A.; Favero, I.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the modeling and optical characterization of AlGaAs/InAs quantum-dot microring diode lasers designed for terahertz (THz) difference frequency generation (DFG) between two whispering gallery modes (WGMs) around 1.3 $\\mu$m. In order to investigate the spectral features of this active...

  12. THz cavities and injectors for compact electron acceleration using laser-driven THz sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein Fakhari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a design methodology for developing ultrasmall electron injectors and accelerators based on cascaded cavities excited by short multicycle THz pulses obtained from laser-driven THz generation schemes. Based on the developed concept for optimal coupling of the THz pulse, a THz electron injector and two accelerating stages are designed. The designed electron gun consists of a four cell cavity operating at 300 GHz and a door-knob waveguide to coaxial coupler. Moreover, special designs are proposed to mitigate the problem of thermal heat flow and induced mechanical stress to achieve a stable device. We demonstrated a gun based on cascaded cavities that is powered by only 1.1 mJ of THz energy in 300 cycles to accelerate electron bunches up to 250 keV. An additional two linac sections can be added with five and four cell cavities both operating at 300 GHz boosting the bunch energy up to 1.2 MeV using a 4-mJ THz pulse.

  13. 3D high- and super-resolution imaging using single-objective SPIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Remi; Grenci, Gianluca; Aravind, Ajay; Viasnoff, Virgile; Studer, Vincent; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-07-01

    Single-objective selective-plane illumination microscopy (soSPIM) is achieved with micromirrored cavities combined with a laser beam-steering unit installed on a standard inverted microscope. The illumination and detection are done through the same objective. soSPIM can be used with standard sample preparations and features high background rejection and efficient photon collection, allowing for 3D single-molecule-based super-resolution imaging of whole cells or cell aggregates. Using larger mirrors enabled us to broaden the capabilities of our system to image Drosophila embryos.

  14. Dark-field hyperlens: Super-resolution imaging of weakly scattering objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Repän, Taavi; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    : We propose a device for subwavelength optical imaging based on a metal-dielectric multilayer hyperlens designed in such a way that only large-wavevector (evanescent) waves are transmitted while all propagating (small-wavevector) waves from the object area are blocked by the hyperlens. We...... numerically demonstrate that as the result of such filtering, the image plane only contains scattered light from subwavelength features of the objects and is completely free from background illumination. Similar in spirit to conventional dark-field microscopy, the proposed dark-field hyperlens is shown...

  15. Image de-noising based on mathematical morphology and multi-objective particle swarm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Liyun; Xu, Dan; Chen, Hao; Liu, Yicheng

    2017-07-01

    To overcome the problem of image de-noising, an efficient image de-noising approach based on mathematical morphology and multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, constructing a series and parallel compound morphology filter based on open-close (OC) operation and selecting a structural element with different sizes try best to eliminate all noise in a series link. Then, combining multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) to solve the parameters setting of multiple structural element. Simulation result shows that our algorithm can achieve a superior performance compared with some traditional de-noising algorithm.

  16. Shifting Weights: Adapting Object Detectors from Image to Video (Author’s Manuscript)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-08

    Skateboard Sewing Machine Sandwich Figure 1: Images of the “ Skateboard ”, “Sewing machine”, and “Sandwich” classes taken from (top row) ImageNet [7...InitialBL VideoPosBL Our method(nt) Our method(full) Gopalan et al. [18] (PLS) Gopalan et al. [18] (SVM) Skateboard 4.29% 2.89% 10.44% 10.44% 0.04% 0.94...belongs to no event class. We select 6 object classes to learn object detectors for because they are commonly present in selected events: “ Skateboard

  17. Direct imaging of phase objects enables conventional deconvolution in bright field light microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Noemí Hernández Candia

    Full Text Available In transmitted optical microscopy, absorption structure and phase structure of the specimen determine the three-dimensional intensity distribution of the image. The elementary impulse responses of the bright field microscope therefore consist of separate absorptive and phase components, precluding general application of linear, conventional deconvolution processing methods to improve image contrast and resolution. However, conventional deconvolution can be applied in the case of pure phase (or pure absorptive objects if the corresponding phase (or absorptive impulse responses of the microscope are known. In this work, we present direct measurements of the phase point- and line-spread functions of a high-aperture microscope operating in transmitted bright field. Polystyrene nanoparticles and microtubules (biological polymer filaments serve as the pure phase point and line objects, respectively, that are imaged with high contrast and low noise using standard microscopy plus digital image processing. Our experimental results agree with a proposed model for the response functions, and confirm previous theoretical predictions. Finally, we use the measured phase point-spread function to apply conventional deconvolution on the bright field images of living, unstained bacteria, resulting in improved definition of cell boundaries and sub-cellular features. These developments demonstrate practical application of standard restoration methods to improve imaging of phase objects such as cells in transmitted light microscopy.

  18. Integrating fuzzy object based image analysis and ant colony optimization for road extraction from remotely sensed images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboudi, Mehdi; Amini, Jalal; Malihi, Shirin; Hahn, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Updated road network as a crucial part of the transportation database plays an important role in various applications. Thus, increasing the automation of the road extraction approaches from remote sensing images has been the subject of extensive research. In this paper, we propose an object based road extraction approach from very high resolution satellite images. Based on the object based image analysis, our approach incorporates various spatial, spectral, and textural objects' descriptors, the capabilities of the fuzzy logic system for handling the uncertainties in road modelling, and the effectiveness and suitability of ant colony algorithm for optimization of network related problems. Four VHR optical satellite images which are acquired by Worldview-2 and IKONOS satellites are used in order to evaluate the proposed approach. Evaluation of the extracted road networks shows that the average completeness, correctness, and quality of the results can reach 89%, 93% and 83% respectively, indicating that the proposed approach is applicable for urban road extraction. We also analyzed the sensitivity of our algorithm to different ant colony optimization parameter values. Comparison of the achieved results with the results of four state-of-the-art algorithms and quantifying the robustness of the fuzzy rule set demonstrate that the proposed approach is both efficient and transferable to other comparable images.

  19. Real-time detection of natural objects using AM-coded spectral matching imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimachi, Akira

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes application of the amplitude-modulation (AM)-coded spectral matching imager (SMI) to real-time detection of natural objects such as human beings, animals, vegetables, or geological objects or phenomena, which are much more liable to change with time than artificial products while often exhibiting characteristic spectral functions associated with some specific activity states. The AM-SMI produces correlation between spectral functions of the object and a reference at each pixel of the correlation image sensor (CIS) in every frame, based on orthogonal amplitude modulation (AM) of each spectral channel and simultaneous demodulation of all channels on the CIS. This principle makes the SMI suitable to monitoring dynamic behavior of natural objects in real-time by looking at a particular spectral reflectance or transmittance function. A twelve-channel multispectral light source was developed with improved spatial uniformity of spectral irradiance compared to a previous one. Experimental results of spectral matching imaging of human skin and vegetable leaves are demonstrated, as well as a preliminary feasibility test of imaging a reflective object using a test color chart.

  20. Objective factors affecting the image quality of low-dose cranial CT of infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Na; Gan Yungen; Wang Hongwei; Zeng Hongwu; Cao Weiguo; Sun Longwei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the objective factors that affect the image quality of infant cranial CT using different mAs. Materials and Methods: Ninety infants were divided into three groups randomly. The maximum anteroposterior diameter (MAPD) of skull of each infant was measured. Three reference levels, cerebellar, basal ganglia and centrum semiovale levels were selected respectively. Only one level was studied in each group and scanned with 150, 100 and 80 mAs. The subjective quality grade and the objective noise of all images were recorded and analysed statistically. Results: The average MAPD of ninety patients was (148.0±17.4) mm. On the cerebellar level, the subjective quality grade was lower than the other two levels, which were 6.3%, 9.4% and 22.9% respectively when mAs were 150, 100 and 80 mAs. Both quality grade of image and objective noise were significantly correlated with MAPD. Conclusions: The inherent high noise of cerebellar level and MAPD were the objective factors that affect the image quality of low-dose cranial CT of infant. (authors)

  1. Use of Image Based Modelling for Documentation of Intricately Shaped Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marčiš, M.; Barták, P.; Valaška, D.; Fraštia, M.; Trhan, O.

    2016-06-01

    In the documentation of cultural heritage, we can encounter three dimensional shapes and structures which are complicated to measure. Such objects are for example spiral staircases, timber roof trusses, historical furniture or folk costume where it is nearly impossible to effectively use the traditional surveying or the terrestrial laser scanning due to the shape of the object, its dimensions and the crowded environment. The actual methods of digital photogrammetry can be very helpful in such cases with the emphasis on the automated processing of the extensive image data. The created high resolution 3D models and 2D orthophotos are very important for the documentation of architectural elements and they can serve as an ideal base for the vectorization and 2D drawing documentation. This contribution wants to describe the various usage of image based modelling in specific interior spaces and specific objects. The advantages and disadvantages of the photogrammetric measurement of such objects in comparison to other surveying methods are reviewed.

  2. A prototype distributed object-oriented architecture for image-based automatic laser alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, E.A.; Kamm, V.J.M.; Spann, J.M.; Van Arsdall, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Designing a computer control system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a complex undertaking because of the system's large size and its distributed nature. The controls team is addressing that complexity by adopting the object-oriented programming paradigm, designing reusable software frameworks, and using the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) for distribution. A prototype system for image-based automatic laser alignment has been developed to evaluate and gain experience with CORBA and OOP in a small distributed system. The prototype is also important in evaluating alignment concepts, image processing techniques, speed and accuracy of automatic alignment objectives for the NIF, and control hardware for aligment devices. The prototype system has met its inital objectives and provides a basis for continued development

  3. A Fully Automated Method to Detect and Segment a Manufactured Object in an Underwater Color Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, Christian; Phlypo, Ronald

    2010-12-01

    We propose a fully automated active contours-based method for the detection and the segmentation of a moored manufactured object in an underwater image. Detection of objects in underwater images is difficult due to the variable lighting conditions and shadows on the object. The proposed technique is based on the information contained in the color maps and uses the visual attention method, combined with a statistical approach for the detection and an active contour for the segmentation of the object to overcome the above problems. In the classical active contour method the region descriptor is fixed and the convergence of the method depends on the initialization. With our approach, this dependence is overcome with an initialization using the visual attention results and a criterion to select the best region descriptor. This approach improves the convergence and the processing time while providing the advantages of a fully automated method.

  4. Online phase measuring profilometry for rectilinear moving object by image correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Han; Cao, Yi-Ping; Chen, Chen; Wang, Ya-Pin

    2015-11-01

    In phase measuring profilometry (PMP), the object must be static for point-to-point reconstruction with the captured deformed patterns. While the object is rectilinearly moving online, the size and pixel position differences of the object in different captured deformed patterns do not meet the point-to-point requirement. We propose an online PMP based on image correction to measure the three-dimensional shape of the rectilinear moving object. In the proposed method, the deformed patterns captured by a charge-coupled diode camera are reprojected from the oblique view to an aerial view first and then translated based on the feature points of the object. This method makes the object appear stationary in the deformed patterns. Experimental results show the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.

  5. Image object recognition based on the Zernike moment and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jianwei; Wang, Ling; Huang, Fukan; Zhou, Liangzhu

    1998-03-01

    This paper first give a comprehensive discussion about the concept of artificial neural network its research methods and the relations with information processing. On the basis of such a discussion, we expound the mathematical similarity of artificial neural network and information processing. Then, the paper presents a new method of image recognition based on invariant features and neural network by using image Zernike transform. The method not only has the invariant properties for rotation, shift and scale of image object, but also has good fault tolerance and robustness. Meanwhile, it is also compared with statistical classifier and invariant moments recognition method.

  6. Objective lens simultaneously optimized for pupil ghosting, wavefront delivery and pupil imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene G (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens includes multiple optical elements disposed between a first end and a second end, each optical element oriented along an optical axis. Each optical surface of the multiple optical elements provides an angle of incidence to a marginal ray that is above a minimum threshold angle. This threshold angle minimizes pupil ghosts that may enter an interferometer. The objective lens also optimizes wavefront delivery and pupil imaging onto an optical surface under test.

  7. 2D-Driven 3D Object Detection in RGB-D Images

    KAUST Repository

    Lahoud, Jean

    2017-12-25

    In this paper, we present a technique that places 3D bounding boxes around objects in an RGB-D scene. Our approach makes best use of the 2D information to quickly reduce the search space in 3D, benefiting from state-of-the-art 2D object detection techniques. We then use the 3D information to orient, place, and score bounding boxes around objects. We independently estimate the orientation for every object, using previous techniques that utilize normal information. Object locations and sizes in 3D are learned using a multilayer perceptron (MLP). In the final step, we refine our detections based on object class relations within a scene. When compared to state-of-the-art detection methods that operate almost entirely in the sparse 3D domain, extensive experiments on the well-known SUN RGB-D dataset [29] show that our proposed method is much faster (4.1s per image) in detecting 3D objects in RGB-D images and performs better (3 mAP higher) than the state-of-the-art method that is 4.7 times slower and comparably to the method that is two orders of magnitude slower. This work hints at the idea that 2D-driven object detection in 3D should be further explored, especially in cases where the 3D input is sparse.

  8. A foreground object features-based stereoscopic image visual comfort assessment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Jiang, G.; Ying, H.; Yu, M.; Ding, S.; Peng, Z.; Shao, F.

    2014-11-01

    Since stereoscopic images provide observers with both realistic and discomfort viewing experience, it is necessary to investigate the determinants of visual discomfort. By considering that foreground object draws most attention when human observing stereoscopic images. This paper proposes a new foreground object based visual comfort assessment (VCA) metric. In the first place, a suitable segmentation method is applied to disparity map and then the foreground object is ascertained as the one having the biggest average disparity. In the second place, three visual features being average disparity, average width and spatial complexity of foreground object are computed from the perspective of visual attention. Nevertheless, object's width and complexity do not consistently influence the perception of visual comfort in comparison with disparity. In accordance with this psychological phenomenon, we divide the whole images into four categories on the basis of different disparity and width, and exert four different models to more precisely predict its visual comfort in the third place. Experimental results show that the proposed VCA metric outperformance other existing metrics and can achieve a high consistency between objective and subjective visual comfort scores. The Pearson Linear Correlation Coefficient (PLCC) and Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient (SROCC) are over 0.84 and 0.82, respectively.

  9. Moving object detection using dynamic motion modelling from UAV aerial images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, A F M Saifuddin; Prabuwono, Anton Satria; Mahayuddin, Zainal Rasyid

    2014-01-01

    Motion analysis based moving object detection from UAV aerial image is still an unsolved issue due to inconsideration of proper motion estimation. Existing moving object detection approaches from UAV aerial images did not deal with motion based pixel intensity measurement to detect moving object robustly. Besides current research on moving object detection from UAV aerial images mostly depends on either frame difference or segmentation approach separately. There are two main purposes for this research: firstly to develop a new motion model called DMM (dynamic motion model) and secondly to apply the proposed segmentation approach SUED (segmentation using edge based dilation) using frame difference embedded together with DMM model. The proposed DMM model provides effective search windows based on the highest pixel intensity to segment only specific area for moving object rather than searching the whole area of the frame using SUED. At each stage of the proposed scheme, experimental fusion of the DMM and SUED produces extracted moving objects faithfully. Experimental result reveals that the proposed DMM and SUED have successfully demonstrated the validity of the proposed methodology.

  10. Dispersion characteristics of plasmonic waveguides for THz waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markides, Christos; Viphavakit, Charusluk; Themistos, Christos; Komodromos, Michael; Kalli, Kyriacos; Quadir, Anita; Rahman, Azizur

    2013-05-01

    Today there is an increasing surge in Surface Plasmon based research and recent studies have shown that a wide range of plasmon-based optical elements and techniques have led to the development of a variety of active switches, passive waveguides, biosensors, lithography masks, to name just a few. The Terahertz (THz) frequency region of the electromagnetic spectrum is located between the traditional microwave spectrum and the optical frequencies, and offers a significant scientific and technological potential in many fields, such as in sensing, in imaging and in spectroscopy. Waveguiding in this intermediate spectral region is a major challenge. Amongst the various THz waveguides suggested, the metal-clad waveguides supporting surface plasmon modes waves and specifically hollow core structures, coated with insulating material are showing the greatest promise as low-loss waveguides for their use in active components and as well as passive waveguides. The H-field finite element method (FEM) based full-vector formulation is used to study the vectorial modal field properties and the complex propagation characteristics of Surface Plasmon modes of a hollow-core dielectric coated rectangular waveguide structure. Additionally, the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used to estimate the dispersion parameters and the propagation loss of the rectangular waveguide.

  11. Spontaneous Energy Concentration in Energetic Molecules, Interfaces and Composites: Response to Ultrasound and THz Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-21

    crystals or crystalline composites. One crystal had a slippery surface coating and the other did not. The coated ammonium nitrate , RDX and PBX...vibrational spectroscopies and time-resolved thermal imaging microscopy. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ultrasound, THz radiation, energetic materials, hot spots, energy...studying fast processes at interfaces. 3. At the level of bulk materials, we developed a high-speed thermal imaging microscope apparatus.15󈧔

  12. Multi-object segmentation framework using deformable models for medical imaging analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namías, Rafael; D'Amato, Juan Pablo; Del Fresno, Mariana; Vénere, Marcelo; Pirró, Nicola; Bellemare, Marc-Emmanuel

    2016-08-01

    Segmenting structures of interest in medical images is an important step in different tasks such as visualization, quantitative analysis, simulation, and image-guided surgery, among several other clinical applications. Numerous segmentation methods have been developed in the past three decades for extraction of anatomical or functional structures on medical imaging. Deformable models, which include the active contour models or snakes, are among the most popular methods for image segmentation combining several desirable features such as inherent connectivity and smoothness. Even though different approaches have been proposed and significant work has been dedicated to the improvement of such algorithms, there are still challenging research directions as the simultaneous extraction of multiple objects and the integration of individual techniques. This paper presents a novel open-source framework called deformable model array (DMA) for the segmentation of multiple and complex structures of interest in different imaging modalities. While most active contour algorithms can extract one region at a time, DMA allows integrating several deformable models to deal with multiple segmentation scenarios. Moreover, it is possible to consider any existing explicit deformable model formulation and even to incorporate new active contour methods, allowing to select a suitable combination in different conditions. The framework also introduces a control module that coordinates the cooperative evolution of the snakes and is able to solve interaction issues toward the segmentation goal. Thus, DMA can implement complex object and multi-object segmentations in both 2D and 3D using the contextual information derived from the model interaction. These are important features for several medical image analysis tasks in which different but related objects need to be simultaneously extracted. Experimental results on both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging show that the proposed

  13. Range-Image Acquisition for Discriminated Objects in a Range-gated Robot Vision System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Nak-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    demonstrated 3D imaging based on range-gated imaging. Robot vision is a key technology to remotely monitor structural safety in radiation area of nuclear industry. Especially, visualization technique in low-visibility areas, such as smoking and fog areas, is essential to monitor structural safety in emergency smoking areas. In this paper, a range acquisition technique to discriminate objects is developed. The developed technique to acquire object range images is adapted to a range-gated vision system. Visualization experiments are carried out to detect objects in low-visibility fog environment. The experimental result of this newly approach vision system is described in this paper.

  14. Range-Image Acquisition for Discriminated Objects in a Range-gated Robot Vision System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Nak-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    demonstrated 3D imaging based on range-gated imaging. Robot vision is a key technology to remotely monitor structural safety in radiation area of nuclear industry. Especially, visualization technique in low-visibility areas, such as smoking and fog areas, is essential to monitor structural safety in emergency smoking areas. In this paper, a range acquisition technique to discriminate objects is developed. The developed technique to acquire object range images is adapted to a range-gated vision system. Visualization experiments are carried out to detect objects in low-visibility fog environment. The experimental result of this newly approach vision system is described in this paper

  15. Objective assessment of image quality and dose reduction in CT iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaishnav, J. Y., E-mail: jay.vaishnav@fda.hhs.gov; Jung, W. C. [Diagnostic X-Ray Systems Branch, Office of In Vitro Diagnostic Devices and Radiological Health, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, United States Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States); Popescu, L. M.; Zeng, R.; Myers, K. J. [Division of Imaging and Applied Mathematics, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, United States Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms have the potential to reduce radiation dose in CT diagnostic imaging. As these algorithms become available on the market, a standardizable method of quantifying the dose reduction that a particular IR method can achieve would be valuable. Such a method would assist manufacturers in making promotional claims about dose reduction, buyers in comparing different devices, physicists in independently validating the claims, and the United States Food and Drug Administration in regulating the labeling of CT devices. However, the nonlinear nature of commercially available IR algorithms poses challenges to objectively assessing image quality, a necessary step in establishing the amount of dose reduction that a given IR algorithm can achieve without compromising that image quality. This review paper seeks to consolidate information relevant to objectively assessing the quality of CT IR images, and thereby measuring the level of dose reduction that a given IR algorithm can achieve. Methods: The authors discuss task-based methods for assessing the quality of CT IR images and evaluating dose reduction. Results: The authors explain and review recent literature on signal detection and localization tasks in CT IR image quality assessment, the design of an appropriate phantom for these tasks, possible choices of observers (including human and model observers), and methods of evaluating observer performance. Conclusions: Standardizing the measurement of dose reduction is a problem of broad interest to the CT community and to public health. A necessary step in the process is the objective assessment of CT image quality, for which various task-based methods may be suitable. This paper attempts to consolidate recent literature that is relevant to the development and implementation of task-based methods for the assessment of CT IR image quality.

  16. Objective assessment of image quality and dose reduction in CT iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaishnav, J. Y.; Jung, W. C.; Popescu, L. M.; Zeng, R.; Myers, K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms have the potential to reduce radiation dose in CT diagnostic imaging. As these algorithms become available on the market, a standardizable method of quantifying the dose reduction that a particular IR method can achieve would be valuable. Such a method would assist manufacturers in making promotional claims about dose reduction, buyers in comparing different devices, physicists in independently validating the claims, and the United States Food and Drug Administration in regulating the labeling of CT devices. However, the nonlinear nature of commercially available IR algorithms poses challenges to objectively assessing image quality, a necessary step in establishing the amount of dose reduction that a given IR algorithm can achieve without compromising that image quality. This review paper seeks to consolidate information relevant to objectively assessing the quality of CT IR images, and thereby measuring the level of dose reduction that a given IR algorithm can achieve. Methods: The authors discuss task-based methods for assessing the quality of CT IR images and evaluating dose reduction. Results: The authors explain and review recent literature on signal detection and localization tasks in CT IR image quality assessment, the design of an appropriate phantom for these tasks, possible choices of observers (including human and model observers), and methods of evaluating observer performance. Conclusions: Standardizing the measurement of dose reduction is a problem of broad interest to the CT community and to public health. A necessary step in the process is the objective assessment of CT image quality, for which various task-based methods may be suitable. This paper attempts to consolidate recent literature that is relevant to the development and implementation of task-based methods for the assessment of CT IR image quality

  17. A review of supervised object-based land-cover image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Li, Manchun; Ma, Xiaoxue; Cheng, Liang; Du, Peijun; Liu, Yongxue

    2017-08-01

    Object-based image classification for land-cover mapping purposes using remote-sensing imagery has attracted significant attention in recent years. Numerous studies conducted over the past decade have investigated a broad array of sensors, feature selection, classifiers, and other factors of interest. However, these research results have not yet been synthesized to provide coherent guidance on the effect of different supervised object-based land-cover classification processes. In this study, we first construct a database with 28 fields using qualitative and quantitative information extracted from 254 experimental cases described in 173 scientific papers. Second, the results of the meta-analysis are reported, including general characteristics of the studies (e.g., the geographic range of relevant institutes, preferred journals) and the relationships between factors of interest (e.g., spatial resolution and study area or optimal segmentation scale, accuracy and number of targeted classes), especially with respect to the classification accuracy of different sensors, segmentation scale, training set size, supervised classifiers, and land-cover types. Third, useful data on supervised object-based image classification are determined from the meta-analysis. For example, we find that supervised object-based classification is currently experiencing rapid advances, while development of the fuzzy technique is limited in the object-based framework. Furthermore, spatial resolution correlates with the optimal segmentation scale and study area, and Random Forest (RF) shows the best performance in object-based classification. The area-based accuracy assessment method can obtain stable classification performance, and indicates a strong correlation between accuracy and training set size, while the accuracy of the point-based method is likely to be unstable due to mixed objects. In addition, the overall accuracy benefits from higher spatial resolution images (e.g., unmanned aerial

  18. Long working distance objective lenses for single atom trapping and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, J. D., E-mail: jonathan.pritchard@strath.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow East, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Isaacs, J. A.; Saffman, M. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    We present a pair of optimized objective lenses with long working distances of 117 mm and 65 mm, respectively, that offer diffraction limited performance for both Cs and Rb wavelengths when imaging through standard vacuum windows. The designs utilise standard catalog lens elements to provide a simple and cost-effective solution. Objective 1 provides NA = 0.175 offering 3 μm resolution whilst objective 2 is optimized for high collection efficiency with NA = 0.29 and 1.8 μm resolution. This flexible design can be further extended for use at shorter wavelengths by simply re-optimising the lens separations.

  19. Three-dimensional imaging of flat natural and cultural heritage objects by a Compton scattering modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero Prado, Patricio; Nguyen, Mai K.; Dumas, Laurent; Cohen, Serge X.

    2017-01-01

    Characterization and interpretation of flat ancient material objects, such as those found in archaeology, paleoenvironments, paleontology, and cultural heritage, have remained a challenging task to perform by means of conventional x-ray tomography methods due to their anisotropic morphology and flattened geometry. To overcome the limitations of the mentioned methodologies for such samples, an imaging modality based on Compton scattering is proposed in this work. Classical x-ray tomography treats Compton scattering data as noise in the image formation process, while in Compton scattering tomography the conditions are set such that Compton data become the principal image contrasting agent. Under these conditions, we are able, first, to avoid relative rotations between the sample and the imaging setup, and second, to obtain three-dimensional data even when the object is supported by a dense material by exploiting backscattered photons. Mathematically this problem is addressed by means of a conical Radon transform and its inversion. The image formation process and object reconstruction model are presented. The feasibility of this methodology is supported by numerical simulations.

  20. The objective assessment of experts' and novices' suturing skills using an image analysis program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, Adam C; Kasten, Steven J; Hamstra, Stanley J; Perkins, Noel C; Gillespie, R Brent; Armstrong, Thomas J; Minter, Rebecca M

    2013-02-01

    To objectively assess suturing performance using an image analysis program and to provide validity evidence for this assessment method by comparing experts' and novices' performance. In 2009, the authors used an image analysis program to extract objective variables from digital images of suturing end products obtained during a previous study involving third-year medical students (novices) and surgical faculty and residents (experts). Variables included number of stitches, stitch length, total bite size, travel, stitch orientation, total bite-size-to-travel ratio, and symmetry across the incision ratio. The authors compared all variables between groups to detect significant differences and two variables (total bite-size-to-travel ratio and symmetry across the incision ratio) to ideal values. Five experts and 15 novices participated. Experts' and novices' performances differed significantly (P 0.8) for total bite size (P = .009, d = 1.5), travel (P = .045, d = 1.1), total bite-size-to-travel ratio (P algorithm can extract variables from digital images of a running suture and rapidly provide quantitative summative assessment feedback. The significant differences found between groups confirm that this system can discriminate between skill levels. This image analysis program represents a viable training tool for objectively assessing trainees' suturing, a foundational skill for many medical specialties.

  1. INTEGRATION OF VIDEO IMAGES AND CAD WIREFRAMES FOR 3D OBJECT LOCALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Persad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The tracking of moving objects from single images has received widespread attention in photogrammetric computer vision and considered to be at a state of maturity. This paper presents a model-driven solution for localizing moving objects detected from monocular, rotating and zooming video images in a 3D reference frame. To realize such a system, the recovery of 2D to 3D projection parameters is essential. Automatic estimation of these parameters is critical, particularly for pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ surveillance cameras where parameters change spontaneously upon camera motion. In this work, an algorithm for automated parameter retrieval is proposed. This is achieved by matching linear features between incoming images from video sequences and simple geometric 3D CAD wireframe models of man-made structures. The feature matching schema uses a hypothesis-verify optimization framework referred to as LR-RANSAC. This novel method improves the computational efficiency of the matching process in comparison to the standard RANSAC robust estimator. To demonstrate the applicability and performance of the method, experiments have been performed on indoor and outdoor image sequences under varying conditions with lighting changes and occlusions. Reliability of the matching algorithm has been analyzed by comparing the automatically determined camera parameters with ground truth (GT. Dependability of the retrieved parameters for 3D localization has also been assessed by comparing the difference between 3D positions of moving image objects estimated using the LR-RANSAC-derived parameters and those computed using GT parameters.

  2. Three-dimensional object recognitions from two-dimensional images using wavelet transforms and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschenes, Sylvain; Sheng, Yunlong; Chevrette, Paul C.

    1998-03-01

    3D object classification from 2D IR images is shown. The wavelet transform is used for edge detection. Edge tracking is used for removing noise effectively int he wavelet transform. The invariant Fourier descriptor is used to describe the contour curves. Invariance under out-of-plane rotation is achieved by the feature space trajectory neural network working as a classifier.

  3. Estimating 3D Object Parameters from 2D Grey-Level Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houkes, Z.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes a general framework for parameter estimation, which is suitable for computer vision applications. The approach described combines 3D modelling, animation and estimation tools to determine parameters of objects in a scene from 2D grey-level images. The animation tool predicts

  4. Development of test objects for image quality evaluation of digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Vitor Nascimento de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Mammography is the image exam called 'gold standard' for early detection of breast cancer. 111 Brazil, more than eight million mammograms are carried out per year. With the advancement of technology, the digital systems CR and DR for this diagnostic modality have been increasingly implemented, replacing the conventional screen-film system, which brought environmental problems, like the disposal of chemical waste, and is also responsible for the rejection of radiographic films with processing artifacts. Digital systems, besides not experiencing the problem of environmental pollution, are still capable of image processing, allowing a much lower rejection rate when compared to the conventional system. Moreover, the determination of an accurate diagnosis is highly dependent on the image quality of the examination. To ensure the reliability of the images produced by these systems, it is necessary to evaluate them on a regular basis. Unfortunately, there is no regulation in Brazil about the Quality Assurance of these systems. The aim of this study was to develop a set of test objects that allow the evaluation of some parameters of image quality of these systems, such as field image uniformity, the linearity between the air Kerma incident on detector and the mean pixel value (MPV) of the image, the spatial resolution of the system through the modulation transfer function (MTF) and also to suggest an object to be applied in the evaluation of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR). In order to test the objects. 10 mammography centers were evaluated, seven with CR systems and three with the DR systems. To evaluate the linearity, besides the test objects high sensitivity dosimeters were necessary to be used, namely LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL dosimeters. The use of these dosimeters was recommended in order to minimize the time required to perform the tests and to decrease the number of exposures needed. For evaluation of digital images in DICOM format

  5. Road Network Extraction from VHR Satellite Images Using Context Aware Object Feature Integration and Tensor Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Maboudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Road networks are very important features in geospatial databases. Even though high-resolution optical satellite images have already been acquired for more than a decade, tools for automated extraction of road networks from these images are still rare. One consequence of this is the need for manual interaction which, in turn, is time and cost intensive. In this paper, a multi-stage approach is proposed which integrates structural, spectral, textural, as well as contextual information of objects to extract road networks from very high resolution satellite images. Highlights of the approach are a novel linearity index employed for the discrimination of elongated road segments from other objects and customized tensor voting which is utilized to fill missing parts of the network. Experiments are carried out with different datasets. Comparison of the achieved results with the results of seven state-of-the-art methods demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  6. OntoVIP: an ontology for the annotation of object models used for medical image simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibaud, Bernard; Forestier, Germain; Benoit-Cattin, Hugues; Cervenansky, Frédéric; Clarysse, Patrick; Friboulet, Denis; Gaignard, Alban; Hugonnard, Patrick; Lartizien, Carole; Liebgott, Hervé; Montagnat, Johan; Tabary, Joachim; Glatard, Tristan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the creation of a comprehensive conceptualization of object models used in medical image simulation, suitable for major imaging modalities and simulators. The goal is to create an application ontology that can be used to annotate the models in a repository integrated in the Virtual Imaging Platform (VIP), to facilitate their sharing and reuse. Annotations make the anatomical, physiological and pathophysiological content of the object models explicit. In such an interdisciplinary context we chose to rely on a common integration framework provided by a foundational ontology, that facilitates the consistent integration of the various modules extracted from several existing ontologies, i.e. FMA, PATO, MPATH, RadLex and ChEBI. Emphasis is put on methodology for achieving this extraction and integration. The most salient aspects of the ontology are presented, especially the organization in model layers, as well as its use to browse and query the model repository. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 3D OBJECT COORDINATES EXTRACTION BY RADARGRAMMETRY AND MULTI STEP IMAGE MATCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eftekhari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays by high resolution SAR imaging systems as Radarsat-2, TerraSAR-X and COSMO-skyMed, three-dimensional terrain data extraction using SAR images is growing. InSAR and Radargrammetry are two most common approaches for removing 3D object coordinate from SAR images. Research has shown that extraction of terrain elevation data using satellite repeat pass interferometry SAR technique due to atmospheric factors and the lack of coherence between the images in areas with dense vegetation cover is a problematic. So the use of Radargrammetry technique can be effective. Generally height derived method by Radargrammetry consists of two stages: Images matching and space intersection. In this paper we propose a multi-stage algorithm founded on the combination of feature based and area based image matching. Then the RPCs that calculate for each images use for extracting 3D coordinate in matched points. At the end, the coordinates calculating that compare with coordinates extracted from 1 meters DEM. The results show root mean square errors for 360 points are 3.09 meters. We use a pair of spotlight TerraSAR-X images from JAM (IRAN in this article.

  8. Solution of the problem of superposing image and digital map for detection of new objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizaev, I. S.; Miftakhutdinov, D. I.; Takhavova, E. G.

    2018-01-01

    The problem of superposing the map of the terrain with the image of the terrain is considered. The image of the terrain may be represented in different frequency bands. Further analysis of the results of collation the digital map with the image of the appropriate terrain is described. Also the approach to detection of differences between information represented on the digital map and information of the image of the appropriate area is offered. The algorithm for calculating the values of brightness of the converted image area on the original picture is offered. The calculation is based on using information about the navigation parameters and information according to arranged bench marks. For solving the posed problem the experiments were performed. The results of the experiments are shown in this paper. The presented algorithms are applicable to the ground complex of remote sensing data to assess differences between resulting images and accurate geopositional data. They are also suitable for detecting new objects in the image, based on the analysis of the matching the digital map and the image of corresponding locality.

  9. An Object-Oriented Simulator for 3D Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Seyyedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT is an innovative imaging modality that provides 3D reconstructed images of breast to detect the breast cancer. Projections obtained with an X-ray source moving in a limited angle interval are used to reconstruct 3D image of breast. Several reconstruction algorithms are available for DBT imaging. Filtered back projection algorithm has traditionally been used to reconstruct images from projections. Iterative reconstruction algorithms such as algebraic reconstruction technique (ART were later developed. Recently, compressed sensing based methods have been proposed in tomosynthesis imaging problem. We have developed an object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT imaging system using C++ programming language. The simulator is capable of implementing different iterative and compressed sensing based reconstruction methods on 3D digital tomosynthesis data sets and phantom models. A user friendly graphical user interface (GUI helps users to select and run the desired methods on the designed phantom models or real data sets. The simulator has been tested on a phantom study that simulates breast tomosynthesis imaging problem. Results obtained with various methods including algebraic reconstruction technique (ART and total variation regularized reconstruction techniques (ART+TV are presented. Reconstruction results of the methods are compared both visually and quantitatively by evaluating performances of the methods using mean structural similarity (MSSIM values.

  10. An object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyedi, Saeed; Cengiz, Kubra; Kamasak, Mustafa; Yildirim, Isa

    2013-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an innovative imaging modality that provides 3D reconstructed images of breast to detect the breast cancer. Projections obtained with an X-ray source moving in a limited angle interval are used to reconstruct 3D image of breast. Several reconstruction algorithms are available for DBT imaging. Filtered back projection algorithm has traditionally been used to reconstruct images from projections. Iterative reconstruction algorithms such as algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) were later developed. Recently, compressed sensing based methods have been proposed in tomosynthesis imaging problem. We have developed an object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) imaging system using C++ programming language. The simulator is capable of implementing different iterative and compressed sensing based reconstruction methods on 3D digital tomosynthesis data sets and phantom models. A user friendly graphical user interface (GUI) helps users to select and run the desired methods on the designed phantom models or real data sets. The simulator has been tested on a phantom study that simulates breast tomosynthesis imaging problem. Results obtained with various methods including algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and total variation regularized reconstruction techniques (ART+TV) are presented. Reconstruction results of the methods are compared both visually and quantitatively by evaluating performances of the methods using mean structural similarity (MSSIM) values.

  11. Fast and objective detection and analysis of structures in downhole images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedge, Daniel; Holden, Eun-Jung; Dentith, Mike; Spadaccini, Nick

    2017-09-01

    Downhole acoustic and optical televiewer images, and formation microimager (FMI) logs are important datasets for structural and geotechnical analyses for the mineral and petroleum industries. Within these data, dipping planar structures appear as sinusoids, often in incomplete form and in abundance. Their detection is a labour intensive and hence expensive task and as such is a significant bottleneck in data processing as companies may have hundreds of kilometres of logs to process each year. We present an image analysis system that harnesses the power of automated image analysis and provides an interactive user interface to support the analysis of televiewer images by users with different objectives. Our algorithm rapidly produces repeatable, objective results. We have embedded it in an interactive workflow to complement geologists' intuition and experience in interpreting data to improve efficiency and assist, rather than replace the geologist. The main contributions include a new image quality assessment technique for highlighting image areas most suited to automated structure detection and for detecting boundaries of geological zones, and a novel sinusoid detection algorithm for detecting and selecting sinusoids with given confidence levels. Further tools are provided to perform rapid analysis of and further detection of structures e.g. as limited to specific orientations.

  12. Electromagnetic imaging of multiple-scattering small objects: non-iterative analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X; Zhong, Y

    2008-01-01

    Multiple signal classification (MUSIC) imaging method and the least squares method are applied to solve the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem of determining the locations and polarization tensors of a collection of small objects embedded in a known background medium. Based on the analysis of induced electric and magnetic dipoles, the proposed MUSIC method is able to deal with some special scenarios, due to the shapes and materials of objects, to which the standard MUSIC doesn't apply. After the locations of objects are obtained, the nonlinear inverse problem of determining the polarization tensors of objects accounting for multiple scattering between objects is solved by a non-iterative analytical approach based on the least squares method

  13. 3D object-oriented image analysis in 3D geophysical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has traditionally been reduced by using a priori information from seismic tomography models. This reduction in the non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation of the 3D subsurface structures (objects......) based on the seismic tomography models and then forward modelling these objects. However, this form of object-based approach has been done without a standardized methodology on how to extract the subsurface structures from the 3D models. In this research, a 3D object-oriented image analysis (3D OOA......) approach was implemented to extract the 3D subsurface structures from geophysical data. The approach was applied on a 3D shear wave seismic tomography model of the central part of the East African Rift System. Subsequently, the extracted 3D objects from the tomography model were reconstructed in the 3D...

  14. Non-destructive investigations of Swiss museums objects with neutron and x-ray imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, E.H.; Deschler, E.; Pernet, L.; Vontobel, P.

    2004-01-01

    Many objects of archaeological relevance found in Switzerland are from the Celtic and Roman era. Because of their uniqueness in most cases it is demanded to perform any investigation with such samples non-destructively. Depending on the structure and size of the objects a transmission experiment performed either with X-ray or neutron can alight inner structures, composition, defects or the principles of the manufacturing procedures. Furthermore, the treatment by conservators and restaurateurs becomes visible in many cases. This report describes some examples of such investigations. In the case of neutron investigations, beside the transmission imaging as a radiograph the three-dimensional structure was observed with a tomography technique. For X-ray radiography, the images were obtained in the same digital format because the similar experimental method (imaging plates) was applied. It becomes evident in the described examples that the combination and complementary use of both methods (neutrons and X-ray) brings insights in different aspects of the samples properties and treatment. This approach to study museums objects stored and exhibit in Switzerland can be extrapolated to other countries where these techniques are also simultaneously available in order to investigate other objects of relevance. The European network COST-G8 entitled 'Non-destructive analysis and testing of museum objects' can help to support initiatives in this direction. (author)

  15. Object-Oriented Query Language For Events Detection From Images Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganea, Ion Eugen

    2015-09-01

    In this paper is presented a method to represent the events extracted from images sequences and the query language used for events detection. Using an object oriented model the spatial and temporal relationships between salient objects and also between events are stored and queried. This works aims to unify the storing and querying phases for video events processing. The object oriented language syntax used for events processing allow the instantiation of the indexes classes in order to improve the accuracy of the query results. The experiments were performed on images sequences provided from sport domain and it shows the reliability and the robustness of the proposed language. To extend the language will be added a specific syntax for constructing the templates for abnormal events and for detection of the incidents as the final goal of the research.

  16. Fusion of an Ensemble of Augmented Image Detectors for Robust Object Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pan; Ball, John E; Anderson, Derek T

    2018-03-17

    A significant challenge in object detection is accurate identification of an object's position in image space, whereas one algorithm with one set of parameters is usually not enough, and the fusion of multiple algorithms and/or parameters can lead to more robust results. Herein, a new computational intelligence fusion approach based on the dynamic analysis of agreement among object detection outputs is proposed. Furthermore, we propose an online versus just in training image augmentation strategy. Experiments comparing the results both with and without fusion are presented. We demonstrate that the augmented and fused combination results are the best, with respect to higher accuracy rates and reduction of outlier influences. The approach is demonstrated in the context of cone, pedestrian and box detection for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) applications.

  17. Integration of knowledge to support automatic object reconstruction from images and 3D data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boochs, F.; Truong, H; Marbs, A.; Karmacharya, A.; Cruz, C.; Habed, A.; Nicolle, C.; Voisin, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Object reconstruction is a important task in many fields of application as it allows to generate digital representations of our physical world used as base for analysis, planning, construction, visualization or other aims. A reconstruction itself normally is based on reliable data (images, 3D point clouds for example) expressing the object in his complete extension. This data then has to be compiled and analyzed in order to extract all necessary geometrical elements, which represent the object and form a digital copy of it. Traditional strategies are largely based on manual interaction and interpretation, because with increasing complexity of objects human understanding is inevitable to achieve acceptable and reliable results. But human interaction is time consuming and expensive, why many research has already been invested to integrate algorithmic support, what allows to speed up the process and reduce manual work load. Presently most such algorithms are data-driven and concentrate on specific features of the objects, being accessible to numerical models. By means of these models, which normally will represent geometrical (flatness, roughness, for example) or physical features (color, texture), the data is classified and analyzed. This is succesful for objects with a limited complexity, but gets to its limits with increasing complexity of objects. Then purely numerical strategies are not able to sufficiently model the reality. Therefore, the intention of our approach is to take human cogni-tive strategy as an example, and to simulate extraction processes based on available knowledge for the objects of interest. Such processes will introduce a semantic structure for the objects and guide the algorithms used to detect and recognize objects, which will yield a higher effectiveness. Hence, our research proposes an approach using knowledge to guide the algorithms in 3D point cloud and image processing.

  18. Multi-energy method of digital radiography for imaging of biological objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhikov, V. D.; Naydenov, S. V.; Opolonin, O. D.; Volkov, V. G.; Smith, C. F.

    2016-03-01

    This work has been dedicated to the search for a new possibility to use multi-energy digital radiography (MER) for medical applications. Our work has included both theoretical and experimental investigations of 2-energy (2E) and 3- energy (3D) radiography for imaging the structure of biological objects. Using special simulation methods and digital analysis based on the X-ray interaction energy dependence for each element of importance to medical applications in the X-ray range of energy up to 150 keV, we have implemented a quasi-linear approximation for the energy dependence of the X-ray linear mass absorption coefficient μm (E) that permits us to determine the intrinsic structure of the biological objects. Our measurements utilize multiple X-ray tube voltages (50, 100, and 150 kV) with Al and Cu filters of different thicknesses to achieve 3-energy X-ray examination of objects. By doing so, we are able to achieve significantly improved imaging quality of the structure of the subject biological objects. To reconstruct and visualize the final images, we use both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) palettes of identification. The result is a 2E and/or 3E representation of the object with color coding of each pixel according to the data outputs. Following the experimental measurements and post-processing, we produce a 3D image of the biological object - in the case of our trials, fragments or parts of chicken and turkey.

  19. Temperature measurements on fast-rotating objects using a thermographic camera with an optomechanical image derotator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Bettina; Pape, Christian; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2017-08-01

    Increasing requirements concerning the quality and lifetime of machine components in industrial and automotive applications require comprehensive investigations of the components in conditions close to the application. Irregularities in heating of mechanical parts reveal regions with increased loading of pressure, draft or friction. In the long run this leads to damage and total failure of the machine. Thermographic measurements of rotating objects, e.g., rolling bearings, brakes, and clutches provide an approach to investigate those defects. However, it is challenging to measure fast-rotating objects accurately. Currently one contact-free approach is performing stroboscopic measurements using an infrared sensor. The data acquisition is triggered so that the image is taken once per revolution. This leads to a huge loss of information on the majority of the movement and to motion blur. The objective of this research is showing the potential of using an optomechanical image derotator together with a thermographic camera. The derotator follows the rotation of the measurement object so that quasi-stationary thermal images during motion can be acquired by the infrared sensor. Unlike conventional derotators which use a glass prism to achieve this effect, the derotator within this work is equipped with a sophisticated reflector assembly. These reflectors are made of aluminum to transfer infrared radiation emitted by the rotating object. Because of the resulting stationary thermal image, the operation can be monitored continuously even for fast-rotating objects. The field of view can also be set to a small off-axis region of interest which then can be investigated with higher resolution or frame rate. To depict the potential of this approach, thermographic measurements on a rolling bearings in different operating states are presented.

  20. Independent polarization and multi-band THz absorber base on Jerusalem cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arezoomand, Afsaneh Saee; Zarrabi, Ferdows B.; Heydari, Samaneh; Gandji, Navid P.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present the design and simulation of a single and multi-band perfect metamaterial absorber (MA) in the THz region base on Jerusalem cross (JC) and metamaterial load in unit cells. The structures consist of dual metallic layers for allowing near-perfect absorption with absorption peak of more than 99%. In this novel design, four-different shape of Jerusalem cross is presented and by adding L, U and W shape loaded to first structure, we tried to achieve a dual-band absorber. In addition, by good implementation of these loaded, we are able to control the absorption resonance at second resonance at 0.9, 0.7 and 0.85 THz respectively. In the other hand, we achieved a semi stable designing at first resonance between 0.53 and 0.58 THz. The proposed absorber has broadband polarization angle. The surface current modeled and proved the broadband polarization angle at prototype MA. The LC resonance of the metamaterial for Jerusalem cross and modified structures are extracting from equivalent circuit. As a result, proposed MA is useful for THz medical imaging and communication systems and the dual-band absorber has applications in many scientific and technological areas.

  1. GPR Imaging for Deeply Buried Objects: A Comparative Study Based on FDTD Models and Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, roger; Dowla, Farid; Nekoogar, Faranak; Sadjadpour, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Conventional use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is hampered by variations in background environmental conditions, such as water content in soil, resulting in poor repeatability of results over long periods of time when the radar pulse characteristics are kept the same. Target objects types might include voids, tunnels, unexploded ordinance, etc. The long-term objective of this work is to develop methods that would extend the use of GPR under various environmental and soil conditions provided an optimal set of radar parameters (such as frequency, bandwidth, and sensor configuration) are adaptively employed based on the ground conditions. Towards that objective, developing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) GPR models, verified by experimental results, would allow us to develop analytical and experimental techniques to control radar parameters to obtain consistent GPR images with changing ground conditions. Reported here is an attempt at developing 20 and 3D FDTD models of buried targets verified by two different radar systems capable of operating over different soil conditions. Experimental radar data employed were from a custom designed high-frequency (200 MHz) multi-static sensor platform capable of producing 3-D images, and longer wavelength (25 MHz) COTS radar (Pulse EKKO 100) capable of producing 2-D images. Our results indicate different types of radar can produce consistent images.

  2. Subjective and objective image differences in pediatric computed tomography cardiac angiography using lower iodine concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Choo, Ki Seok; Choi, Yoon Young; Kim, Jin Hyeok; Ryu, Hwaseong; Kim, Yong-Woo; Jeon, Ung Bae; Nam, Kyung Jin; Han, Junhee

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies showed the optimal contrast enhancement with a low-concentration and iso-osmolar contrast media in both adult and pediatric patients. However, low contrast media concentrations are not routinely used due to concerns of suboptimal enhancement of cardiac structures and small vessels. To evaluate the feasibility of using iso-osmolar contrast media containing a low iodine dose for CT cardiac angiography at 80 kilovolts (kVp) in neonates and infants. The iodixanol 270 group consisted of 79 CT scans and the iopromide 370 group of 62 CT scans in patients ≤1 year old. Objective measurement of the contrast enhancement was analyzed and contrast-to-noise ratios of the ascending aorta and left ventricle were calculated. Regarding subjective measurement, a four-point scale system was devised to evaluate degrees of contrast enhancement, image noise, motion artifact and overall image quality of each image set. Reader performance for correctly differentiating iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 by visual assessment was evaluated. Group objective and subjective measurements were nonsignificantly different. Overall sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy for correctly differentiating iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 by visual assessment were 42.8%, 59%, and 50%, respectively. The application of iodixanol 270 achieved optimal enhancement for performing pediatric cardiac CT angiography at 80 kVp in neonates and infants. Objective measurements of contrast enhancement and subjective image quality assessments were not statistically different in the iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 groups. (orig.)

  3. Subjective and objective image differences in pediatric computed tomography cardiac angiography using lower iodine concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jae-Yeon [Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Choo, Ki Seok; Choi, Yoon Young; Kim, Jin Hyeok; Ryu, Hwaseong; Kim, Yong-Woo; Jeon, Ung Bae; Nam, Kyung Jin [Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Han, Junhee [Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Division of Biostatistics, Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Several recent studies showed the optimal contrast enhancement with a low-concentration and iso-osmolar contrast media in both adult and pediatric patients. However, low contrast media concentrations are not routinely used due to concerns of suboptimal enhancement of cardiac structures and small vessels. To evaluate the feasibility of using iso-osmolar contrast media containing a low iodine dose for CT cardiac angiography at 80 kilovolts (kVp) in neonates and infants. The iodixanol 270 group consisted of 79 CT scans and the iopromide 370 group of 62 CT scans in patients ≤1 year old. Objective measurement of the contrast enhancement was analyzed and contrast-to-noise ratios of the ascending aorta and left ventricle were calculated. Regarding subjective measurement, a four-point scale system was devised to evaluate degrees of contrast enhancement, image noise, motion artifact and overall image quality of each image set. Reader performance for correctly differentiating iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 by visual assessment was evaluated. Group objective and subjective measurements were nonsignificantly different. Overall sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy for correctly differentiating iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 by visual assessment were 42.8%, 59%, and 50%, respectively. The application of iodixanol 270 achieved optimal enhancement for performing pediatric cardiac CT angiography at 80 kVp in neonates and infants. Objective measurements of contrast enhancement and subjective image quality assessments were not statistically different in the iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 groups. (orig.)

  4. How to Find More Supernovae with Less Work: Object ClassificationTechniques for Difference Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Stephen; Aragon, Cecilia; Romano, Raquel; Thomas, RollinC.; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Wong, Daniel

    2007-05-02

    We present the results of applying new object classificationtechniques to difference images in the context of the Nearby SupernovaFactory supernova search. Most current supernova searches subtractreference images from new images, identify objects in these differenceimages, and apply simple threshold cuts on parameters such as statisticalsignificance, shape, and motionto reject objects such as cosmic rays,asteroids, and subtraction artifacts. Although most static objectssubtract cleanly, even a very low false positive detection rate can leadto hundreds of non-supernova candidates which must be vetted by humaninspection before triggering additional followup. In comparison to simplethreshold cuts, more sophisticated methods such as Boosted DecisionTrees, Random Forests, and Support Vector Machines provide dramaticallybetter object discrimination. At the Nearby Supernova Factory, we reducedthe number of non-supernova candidates by a factor of 10 while increasingour supernova identification efficiency. Methods such as these will becrucial for maintaining a reasonable false positive rate in the automatedtransient alert pipelines of upcoming projects such as PanSTARRS andLSST.

  5. Foreign Object Detection by Sub-Terahertz Quasi-Bessel Beam Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyang Sook Chun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Food quality monitoring, particularly foreign object detection, has recently become a critical issue for the food industry. In contrast to X-ray imaging, terahertz imaging can provide a safe and ionizing-radiation-free nondestructive inspection method for foreign object sensing. In this work, a quasi-Bessel beam (QBB known to be nondiffracting was generated by a conical dielectric lens to detect foreign objects in food samples. Using numerical evaluation via the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method, the beam profiles of a QBB were evaluated and compared with the results obtained via analytical calculation and experimental characterization (knife edge method, point scanning method. The FDTD method enables a more precise estimation of the beam profile. Foreign objects in food samples, namely crickets, were then detected with the QBB, which had a deep focus and a high spatial resolution at 210 GHz. Transmitted images using a Gaussian beam obtained with a conventional lens were compared in the sub-terahertz frequency experimentally with those using a QBB generated using an axicon.

  6. X-ray and gamma-ray transmission computed tomographic imaging of archaeological objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar Abdullah; Susan Maria Sipaun

    2004-01-01

    X-ray or gamma-ray transmission computed tomography (CT) is a powerful non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique that produces two-dimensional cross-section images of an object without the need to physically section it. CT is also known by the acronym CAT, for computerised axial tomography or computed-aided tomography. The invention of CT techniques revolutionised the field of medical diagnostic imaging because it provided more detailed and useful information than any previous non-invasive imaging techniques. The method is increasingly being used in industry, aerospace, geosciences and archaeology. This paper presents a brief overview of X-ray or gamma-ray transmission tomography. It is not intended to be a technical treatise but is hoped that it would raise awareness and promote opportunities for further collaboration amongst the nuclear research community, including archaeologists and those in the conservation profession. The theoretical aspects of CT scanner, the system configurations and the adopted algorithm for image reconstruction are discussed. In addition, a few examples of CT images for archaeological objects are presented. The examples were purposely chosen to illustrate clearly and precisely the fundamental concepts of this sophisticated field. (Author)

  7. The use of Leeds Test Objects in the assessment of the performance of radiological imaging systems: an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowen, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Over the preceding decade the Leeds Radiological Imaging Group have developed a range of test objects with which to assess the performance of radiological imaging systems. The types of imaging equipment which can be assessed include X-ray image intensifier television systems, small-format 100mm/105mm fluorography systems and radiographic screen-film combinations. We have recently extended our interest to the evaluation of digital radiological imaging equipment including digital subtraction fluorography and digital (greyscale) radiographic imaging systems. These test objects were initially developed for the purpose of evaluating imaging performance under laboratory conditions but they have also proved useful under field (clinical) conditions. (author)

  8. Optical derotator alignment using image-processing algorithm for tracking laser vibrometer measurements of rotating objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Hossam; Kim, Dongkyu; Jo, Youngjoon; Park, Kyihwan

    2017-06-01

    An optical component called a Dove prism is used to rotate the laser beam of a laser-scanning vibrometer (LSV). This is called a derotator and is used for measuring the vibration of rotating objects. The main advantage of a derotator is that it works independently from an LSV. However, this device requires very specific alignment, in which the axis of the Dove prism must coincide with the rotational axis of the object. If the derotator is misaligned with the rotating object, the results of the vibration measurement are imprecise, owing to the alteration of the laser beam on the surface of the rotating object. In this study, a method is proposed for aligning a derotator with a rotating object through an image-processing algorithm that obtains the trajectory of a landmark attached to the object. After the trajectory of the landmark is mathematically modeled, the amount of derotator misalignment with respect to the object is calculated. The accuracy of the proposed method for aligning the derotator with the rotating object is experimentally tested.

  9. Mapping of crop calendar events by object-based analysis of MODIS and ASTER images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. De Castro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A method to generate crop calendar and phenology-related maps at a parcel level of four major irrigated crops (rice, maize, sunflower and tomato is shown. The method combines images from the ASTER and MODIS sensors in an object-based image analysis framework, as well as testing of three different fitting curves by using the TIMESAT software. Averaged estimation of calendar dates were 85%, from 92% in the estimation of emergence and harvest dates in rice to 69% in the case of harvest date in tomato.

  10. THE ARTISTIC IMAGE OF THE OPERA CHARACTER AS AN OBJECT OF COMPOSITION INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENDEROV VALERI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the methodologic problems of an all-round analysis of the image of an opera character as the object of compositional interpretation. For the first time in musicology there are examined the means of expression of a given character created by the librettist and composer — the authors of the opera. The author presents the main directions of this analysis that give the possibility to present the artistic image of the opera character in the most complex form. The main principles of the paper are illustrated by examples taken from world opera literature.

  11. 3D Imaging of Dielectric Objects Buried under a Rough Surface by Using CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Tetik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3D scalar electromagnetic imaging of dielectric objects buried under a rough surface is presented. The problem has been treated as a 3D scalar problem for computational simplicity as a first step to the 3D vector problem. The complexity of the background in which the object is buried is simplified by obtaining Green’s function of its background, which consists of two homogeneous half-spaces, and a rough interface between them, by using Buried Object Approach (BOA. Green’s function of the two-part space with planar interface is obtained to be used in the process. Reconstruction of the location, shape, and constitutive parameters of the objects is achieved by Contrast Source Inversion (CSI method with conjugate gradient. The scattered field data that is used in the inverse problem is obtained via both Method of Moments (MoM and Comsol Multiphysics pressure acoustics model.

  12. Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for cultural heritage management: state of art and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Non-invasive diagnostic tools able to provide information on the materials and preservation state of artworks are crucial to help conservators, archaeologists and anthropologists to plan and carry out their tasks properly. In this frame, technological solutions exploiting Terahertz (THz) radiation, i.e., working at frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 10 THz, are currently deserving huge attention as complementary techniques to classical analysis methodologies based on electromagnetic radiations from X-rays to mid infrared [1]. The main advantage offered by THz spectroscopy and imaging systems is referred to their capability of providing information useful to determine the construction modality, the history life and the conservation state of artworks as well as to identify previous restoration actions [1,2]. In particular, unlike mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy, which provides fingerprint absorption spectra depending on the intramolecular behavior, THz spectroscopy is related to the structure of the molecules of the investigated object. Hence, it can discriminate, for instance, the different materials mixed in a paint [1,2]. Moreover, THz radiation is able to penetrate several materials which are opaque to both visible and infrared materials, such as varnish, paint, plaster, paper, wood, plastic, and so on. Accordingly, it is useful to detect hidden objects and characterize the inner structure of the artwork under test even in the direction of the depth, while avoiding core drillings. In this frame, THz systems allow us to discriminate different layers of materials present in artworks like paints, to obtain images providing information on the construction technique as well as to discover risk factors affecting the preservation state, such as non-visible cracks, hidden molds and air gaps between the paint layer and underlying structure. Furthermore, adopting a no-ionizing radiation, THz systems offer the not trivial benefit of negligible long term risks to the

  13. Automated Micro-Object Detection for Mobile Diagnostics Using Lens-Free Imaging Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohendra Roy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lens-free imaging technology has been extensively used recently for microparticle and biological cell analysis because of its high throughput, low cost, and simple and compact arrangement. However, this technology still lacks a dedicated and automated detection system. In this paper, we describe a custom-developed automated micro-object detection method for a lens-free imaging system. In our previous work (Roy et al., we developed a lens-free imaging system using low-cost components. This system was used to generate and capture the diffraction patterns of micro-objects and a global threshold was used to locate the diffraction patterns. In this work we used the same setup to develop an improved automated detection and analysis algorithm based on adaptive threshold and clustering of signals. For this purpose images from the lens-free system were then used to understand the features and characteristics of the diffraction patterns of several types of samples. On the basis of this information, we custom-developed an automated algorithm for the lens-free imaging system. Next, all the lens-free images were processed using this custom-developed automated algorithm. The performance of this approach was evaluated by comparing the counting results with standard optical microscope results. We evaluated the counting results for polystyrene microbeads, red blood cells, and HepG2, HeLa, and MCF7 cells. The comparison shows good agreement between the systems, with a correlation coefficient of 0.91 and linearity slope of 0.877. We also evaluated the automated size profiles of the microparticle samples. This Wi-Fi-enabled lens-free imaging system, along with the dedicated software, possesses great potential for telemedicine applications in resource-limited settings.

  14. Propagation characteristic of THz wave in camouflage net material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hailong; Wang, Jiachun; Chen, Zongsheng; Lin, Zhidan; Zhao, Dapeng; Liu, Ruihuang

    2017-10-01

    Terahertz (THz) radar system, with excellent potentials such as high-resolution and strong penetration capability, is promising in the field of anti-camouflage. Camouflage net is processed by cutting the camouflage net material, which is fabricated on pre-processing substrate by depositing coatings with camouflage abilities in different bands, such as visible, infrared and radar. In this paper, we concentrate on the propagation characteristic of THz wave in camouflage net material. Firstly, function and structure of camouflage net were analyzed. Then the advantage and appliance of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was introduced. And the relevant experiments were conducted by utilizing THz-TDS. The results obtained indicate that THz wave has better penetration capacity in camouflage net material, which demonstrates the feasibility of using THz radar to detect those targets covered with camouflage net.

  15. Graphene-Enhanced Metamaterials for THz Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Khromova, Irina; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is gaining momentum in biology, medicine, communication, security, chemistry, and spectroscopy applications. To expand the usability of terahertz radiation the man-made metal-dielectric composite metamaterials are typically considered owing to their ability to effectively...... manipulate electromagnetic waves. The possibilities of light manipulation can be extended even more by involving new active materials as a structural component – such as, for example, graphene. Its prominent conductivity tunability through the electrochemical potential change allows converting a multilayer...

  16. IMPLEMENTATION OF IMAGE PROCESSING ALGORITHMS AND GLVQ TO TRACK AN OBJECT USING AR.DRONE CAMERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nanda Kurniawan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this research, Parrot AR.Drone as an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV was used to track an object from above. Development of this system utilized some functions from OpenCV library and Robot Operating System (ROS. Techniques that were implemented in the system are image processing al-gorithm (Centroid-Contour Distance (CCD, feature extraction algorithm (Principal Component Analysis (PCA and an artificial neural network algorithm (Generalized Learning Vector Quantization (GLVQ. The final result of this research is a program for AR.Drone to track a moving object on the floor in fast response time that is under 1 second.

  17. AN APPARATUS AND A METHOD OF RECORDING AN IMAGE OF AN OBJECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of recording an image of an object (103) using an electronic camera (102), one or more light sources (104), and means for light distribution (105), where light emitted from the light sources (104) is distributed to illuminate the object (103), light being reflected...... to the camera (102). In the light distribution, an integrating cavity (106) is used to whose inner side (107) a light reflecting coating has been applied, and which is provided with first and second openings (109, 110). The camera (102) is placed in alignment with the first opening (109) so that the optical...

  18. THz impulse radar for biomedical sensing: nonlinear system behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. R.; Sung, Shijun; Grundfest, W. S.; Taylor, Z. D.

    2014-03-01

    The THz impulse radar is an "RF-inspired" sensor system that has performed remarkably well since its initial development nearly six years ago. It was developed for ex vivo skin-burn imaging, and has since shown great promise in the sensitive detection of hydration levels in soft tissues of several types, such as in vivo corneal and burn samples. An intriguing aspect of the impulse radar is its hybrid architecture which combines the high-peak-power of photoconductive switches with the high-responsivity and -bandwidth (RF and video) of Schottky-diode rectifiers. The result is a very sensitive sensor system in which the post-detection signal-to-noise ratio depends super-linearly on average signal power up to a point where the diode is "turned on" in the forward direction, and then behaves quasi-linearly beyond that point. This paper reports the first nonlinear systems analysis done on the impulse radar using MATLAB.

  19. The artificial object detection and current velocity measurement using SAR ocean surface images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpatov, Boris; Strotov, Valery; Ershov, Maksim; Muraviev, Vadim; Feldman, Alexander; Smirnov, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    Due to the fact that water surface covers wide areas, remote sensing is the most appropriate way of getting information about ocean environment for vessel tracking, security purposes, ecological studies and others. Processing of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is extensively used for control and monitoring of the ocean surface. Image data can be acquired from Earth observation satellites, such as TerraSAR-X, ERS, and COSMO-SkyMed. Thus, SAR image processing can be used to solve many problems arising in this field of research. This paper discusses some of them including ship detection, oil pollution control and ocean currents mapping. Due to complexity of the problem several specialized algorithm are necessary to develop. The oil spill detection algorithm consists of the following main steps: image preprocessing, detection of dark areas, parameter extraction and classification. The ship detection algorithm consists of the following main steps: prescreening, land masking, image segmentation combined with parameter measurement, ship orientation estimation and object discrimination. The proposed approach to ocean currents mapping is based on Doppler's law. The results of computer modeling on real SAR images are presented. Based on these results it is concluded that the proposed approaches can be used in maritime applications.

  20. PLANE MATCHING WITH OBJECT-SPACE SEARCHING USING INDEPENDENTLY RECTIFIED IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Takeda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the social situation in cities has changed significantly such as redevelopment due to the massive earthquake and large-scale urban development. For example, numerical simulations can be used to study this phenomenon. Such simulations require the construction of high-definition three-dimensional city models that accurately reflect the real world. Progress in sensor technology allows us to easily obtain multi-view images. However, the existing multi-image matching techniques are inadequate. In this paper, we propose a new technique for multi-image matching. Since the existing method of feature searching is complicated, we have developed a rectification method that can be processed independently for each image does not depend on the stereo-pair. The object-space searching method that produces mismatches due to the occlusion or distortion of wall textures on images is the focus of our study. Our proposed technique can also match the building wall surface. The proposed technique has several advantages, and its usefulness is clarified through an experiment using actual images.

  1. Lateral strukturierte Oberflächen zur THz-Strahlmanipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jahn, David; Koch, Martin (Prof. Dr.)

    2018-01-01

    Die Terahertz-Zeitbereichsspektroskopie ist mittlerweile eine etablierte spektroskopische Methode im Frequenzbereich von 0;2 THz bis etwa 5 THz. Mit der stetigen Verbesserung von Zeitbereichs-Spektrometern, in den letzten Jahren hauptsächlich vorangetrieben durch die Verbesserung der Materialsysteme sowohl im photoleitenden Emitter als auch im Detektor sind heute Systeme mit bis zu 90 dB SNR und 4;5 THz Brandbreite verfügbar. Auch der Einfluss anderer Systemkomponenten, deren Beitrag zum...

  2. Ultrabroadband THz time-domain spectroscopy of biomolecular crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltenecker, Korbinian J.; Engelbrecht, Sebastian; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Ultrabroadband THz time-domain spectroscopy based on two-color plasma generation and air biased coherent detection is used for the investigation of molecular dynamics of crystalline materials in the frequency range from 0.3 THz to 20 THz. We show that the spectral features in this extended...... frequency range are a result of inter- and intramolecular vibrations which are identified by means of simulations of the crystalline materials....

  3. Fusion of an Ensemble of Augmented Image Detectors for Robust Object Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Wei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A significant challenge in object detection is accurate identification of an object’s position in image space, whereas one algorithm with one set of parameters is usually not enough, and the fusion of multiple algorithms and/or parameters can lead to more robust results. Herein, a new computational intelligence fusion approach based on the dynamic analysis of agreement among object detection outputs is proposed. Furthermore, we propose an online versus just in training image augmentation strategy. Experiments comparing the results both with and without fusion are presented. We demonstrate that the augmented and fused combination results are the best, with respect to higher accuracy rates and reduction of outlier influences. The approach is demonstrated in the context of cone, pedestrian and box detection for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS applications.

  4. Novel low-cost alternative to THz for security and defence applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, G. G.; Hutchins, D. A.; Pallav, P.; Green, R. J.

    2008-10-01

    A novel technique of NIR imaging is presented that gives access to most of the applications currently published as being solely suitable for Terahertz (THz) waves. The technique uses NIR beams wavelengths found in ordinary domestic remote controls (circa 850 nm) and various signal recovery techniques commonly found in astronomy. This alternative technique can be realised by very simple and inexpensive electronics and is inherently far more portable and easy to use and no special sources are required. Transmission imaging results from this technique are presented from several industrial examples and various security applications and are compared and contrasted directly with their THz-derived counterparts. It would appear possible to very cheaply and simply emulate the performance of commercial terahertz systems at a fraction of the cost and with greatly reduced processing times Another advantage is that apart from imaging, this technique affords the means to provide simultaneous in-situ chemical-bond analysis for stand-off detection of certain chemical signatures - for example, those found in drugs and explosives (both molecular and oxidiser based). Also, unlike THz, this technique can penetrate bulk water and high humidity atmospheres and be used in transmission mode on biological and medical samples. Several results are presented of non-ionising X-ray type images that even differentiate between separate types of soft tissue

  5. Automated quantification and sizing of unbranched filamentous cyanobacteria by model based object oriented image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zeder, M; Van den Wyngaert, S; Köster, O; Felder, K M; Pernthaler, J

    2010-01-01

    Quantification and sizing of filamentous cyanobacteria in environmental samples or cultures are time-consuming and are often performed by using manual or semiautomated microscopic analysis. Automation of conventional image analysis is difficult because filaments may exhibit great variations in length and patchy autofluorescence. Moreover, individual filaments frequently cross each other in microscopic preparations, as deduced by modeling. This paper describes a novel approach based on object-...

  6. Narrowband imaging of the Herbig-Haro object HH 46/47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, A.C.; Mateo, M.

    1987-01-01

    Narrow-band CCD images of the HH 46/47 system were obtained in the light of the H-alpha, forbidden N II 6583-A forbidden S II 6717-A and forbidden S II 6731-A emission lines. The images include HH 46, HH 47B, and HH 47A. A calibration for these images was carried out that makes it possible to calculate line ratios, and then use these line ratios as diagnostics of the physical conditions in the radiating gas. The study shows that the bright condensation HH 47A has a higher electron density and a lower excitation spectrum than the jet that joins this condensation to the central source. This result does not agree with the observations of other morphologically similar Herbig-Haro objects. 36 references

  7. Polymer microstructured fibers for guiding of THz radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Bang, Ole; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    THz radiation, including low-loss transport of THz signals [1] between high-speed devices, integrated components for manipulation of THz light [2], such as power splitters, polarization management, and frequency filters, and confinement of the electric field of a THz signal in a small volume, enabling...... the facets of the fiber have allowed a direct visualization of the guided modes in the fiber [5]. We will discuss the optimal material choice for various kinds of polymer-based fibers, including solid-core and air-core photonic crystal fibers, and show examples of characterization of such components. We...

  8. Generation and detection of ultrabroadband infrared wave exceeding 200 THz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashida Masaaki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available By focusing a hollow-fiber compressed intense 10–fs pulse and its second harmonic in air, an ultrabroadband infrared pulse with a spectral range of 1–200 THz is generated through a plasma. Coherent detection of the signal up to 100 THz is achieved with electro–optic sampling and THz air-breakdown-coherent-detection. The drastic dependence on the orientation of the second harmonic crystal is clarified in a range of 100–200 THz. From these, the whole frequency components are confirmed to be generated from the AC biased plasma and phase-locked.

  9. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis – Towards a new paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Thomas; Hay, Geoffrey J.; Kelly, Maggi; Lang, Stefan; Hofmann, Peter; Addink, Elisabeth; Queiroz Feitosa, Raul; van der Meer, Freek; van der Werff, Harald; van Coillie, Frieke; Tiede, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The amount of scientific literature on (Geographic) Object-based Image Analysis – GEOBIA has been and still is sharply increasing. These approaches to analysing imagery have antecedents in earlier research on image segmentation and use GIS-like spatial analysis within classification and feature extraction approaches. This article investigates these development and its implications and asks whether or not this is a new paradigm in remote sensing and Geographic Information Science (GIScience). We first discuss several limitations of prevailing per-pixel methods when applied to high resolution images. Then we explore the paradigm concept developed by Kuhn (1962) and discuss whether GEOBIA can be regarded as a paradigm according to this definition. We crystallize core concepts of GEOBIA, including the role of objects, of ontologies and the multiplicity of scales and we discuss how these conceptual developments support important methods in remote sensing such as change detection and accuracy assessment. The ramifications of the different theoretical foundations between the ‘per-pixel paradigm’ and GEOBIA are analysed, as are some of the challenges along this path from pixels, to objects, to geo-intelligence. Based on several paradigm indications as defined by Kuhn and based on an analysis of peer-reviewed scientific literature we conclude that GEOBIA is a new and evolving paradigm. PMID:24623958

  10. Ruby-Helix: an implementation of helical image processing based on object-oriented scripting language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metlagel, Zoltan; Kikkawa, Yayoi S; Kikkawa, Masahide

    2007-01-01

    Helical image analysis in combination with electron microscopy has been used to study three-dimensional structures of various biological filaments or tubes, such as microtubules, actin filaments, and bacterial flagella. A number of packages have been developed to carry out helical image analysis. Some biological specimens, however, have a symmetry break (seam) in their three-dimensional structure, even though their subunits are mostly arranged in a helical manner. We refer to these objects as "asymmetric helices". All the existing packages are designed for helically symmetric specimens, and do not allow analysis of asymmetric helical objects, such as microtubules with seams. Here, we describe Ruby-Helix, a new set of programs for the analysis of "helical" objects with or without a seam. Ruby-Helix is built on top of the Ruby programming language and is the first implementation of asymmetric helical reconstruction for practical image analysis. It also allows easier and semi-automated analysis, performing iterative unbending and accurate determination of the repeat length. As a result, Ruby-Helix enables us to analyze motor-microtubule complexes with higher throughput to higher resolution.

  11. Conical Perspective Image of an Architectural Object Close to Human Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwierzynska, Jolanta

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a method of computer aided constructing conical perspective of an architectural object, which is close to human perception. The conical perspective considered in the paper is a central projection onto a projection surface being a conical rotary surface or a fragment of it. Whereas, the centre of projection is a stationary point or a point moving on a circular path. The graphical mapping results of the perspective representation is realized directly on an unrolled flat projection surface. The projective relation between a range of points on a line and the perspective image of the same range of points received on a cylindrical projection surface permitted to derive formulas for drawing perspective. Next, the analytical algorithms for drawing perspective image of a straight line passing through any two points were formulated. It enabled drawing a perspective wireframe image of a given 3D object. The use of the moving view point as well as the application of the changeable base elements of perspective as the variables in the algorithms enable drawing conical perspective from different viewing positions. Due to this fact, the perspective drawing method is universal. The algorithms are formulated and tested in Mathcad Professional software, but can be implemented in AutoCAD and majority of computer graphical packages, which makes drawing a perspective image more efficient and easier. The presented conical perspective representation, and the convenient method of its mapping directly on the flat unrolled surface can find application for numerous advertisement and art presentations.

  12. Crowded Field Photometry and Moving Object Detection with Optimal Image Subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Austin A. T.; Scheulen, F.; Sauro, C. M.; McMahon, C. T.; Berry, S. J.; Robinson, C. H.; Buie, M. W.; Little, P.

    2010-05-01

    High precision photometry and moving object detection are essential in the study of Pluto and the Kuiper Belt. In particular, the New Horizons mission would benefit from an accurate and fast method of performing image subtraction to locate faint Kuiper Belt Objects (KBO) among large data sets. The optimal image subtraction (OIS) algorithm was optimized for IDL to decrease execution time by a factor of about 140 from a previous implementation (Miller 2008, PASP, 120, 449). In addition, a powerful image transformation and interpolation routine was written to provide OIS with well-aligned input images using astrometric fit data. The first half of this project is complete including the code optimization and the alignment routine. The second half of the project is focused on using these tools to search a 5 x 10 degree search area to find KBOs for possible targets for the New Horizons mission. We will present examples of how these tools work and along with resulting Pluto photometry and KBO target lists. The optimized OIS and transformation routines are available in Marc Buie's IDL library at http://www.boulder.swri.edu/ buie/idl/ as ois.pro and dewarp.pro. This project was conducted for Harvey Mudd College's Clinic Program with financial support from the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program grant number NNX09AB43G.

  13. Cerebrovascular plaque segmentation using object class uncertainty snake in MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bipul; Saha, Punam K.; Wolf, Ronald; Song, Hee Kwon; Wright, Alexander C.; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2005-04-01

    Atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease leads to formation of lipid-laden plaques that can form emboli when ruptured causing blockage to cerebral vessels. The clinical manifestation of this event sequence is stroke; a leading cause of disability and death. In vivo MR imaging provides detailed image of vascular architecture for the carotid artery making it suitable for analysis of morphological features. Assessing the status of carotid arteries that supplies blood to the brain is of primary interest to such investigations. Reproducible quantification of carotid artery dimensions in MR images is essential for plaque analysis. Manual segmentation being the only method presently makes it time consuming and sensitive to inter and intra observer variability. This paper presents a deformable model for lumen and vessel wall segmentation of carotid artery from MR images. The major challenges of carotid artery segmentation are (a) low signal-to-noise ratio, (b) background intensity inhomogeneity and (c) indistinct inner and/or outer vessel wall. We propose a new, effective object-class uncertainty based deformable model with additional features tailored toward this specific application. Object-class uncertainty optimally utilizes MR intensity characteristics of various anatomic entities that enable the snake to avert leakage through fuzzy boundaries. To strengthen the deformable model for this application, some other properties are attributed to it in the form of (1) fully arc-based deformation using a Gaussian model to maximally exploit vessel wall smoothness, (2) construction of a forbidden region for outer-wall segmentation to reduce interferences by prominent lumen features and (3) arc-based landmark for efficient user interaction. The algorithm has been tested upon T1- and PD- weighted images. Measures of lumen area and vessel wall area are computed from segmented data of 10 patient MR images and their accuracy and reproducibility are examined. These results correspond

  14. Ultrafast nonlinear carrier dynamics in doped semiconductors in high THz fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    THz frequency saturable absorption and intervalley carrier scattering in n-type semiconductors were observed using intensity-dependent transmission experiments as well as THz-pump—THz probe spectroscopy with ultrabroadband probe pulses.......THz frequency saturable absorption and intervalley carrier scattering in n-type semiconductors were observed using intensity-dependent transmission experiments as well as THz-pump—THz probe spectroscopy with ultrabroadband probe pulses....

  15. An Object-Based Image Analysis Approach for Detecting Penguin Guano in very High Spatial Resolution Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandi Witharana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The logistical challenges of Antarctic field work and the increasing availability of very high resolution commercial imagery have driven an interest in more efficient search and classification of remotely sensed imagery. This exploratory study employed geographic object-based analysis (GEOBIA methods to classify guano stains, indicative of chinstrap and Adélie penguin breeding areas, from very high spatial resolution (VHSR satellite imagery and closely examined the transferability of knowledge-based GEOBIA rules across different study sites focusing on the same semantic class. We systematically gauged the segmentation quality, classification accuracy, and the reproducibility of fuzzy rules. A master ruleset was developed based on one study site and it was re-tasked “without adaptation” and “with adaptation” on candidate image scenes comprising guano stains. Our results suggest that object-based methods incorporating the spectral, textural, spatial, and contextual characteristics of guano are capable of successfully detecting guano stains. Reapplication of the master ruleset on candidate scenes without modifications produced inferior classification results, while adapted rules produced comparable or superior results compared to the reference image. This work provides a road map to an operational “image-to-assessment pipeline” that will enable Antarctic wildlife researchers to seamlessly integrate VHSR imagery into on-demand penguin population census.

  16. A study of the image quality of computed tomography adaptive statistical iterative reconstructed brain images using subjective and objective methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangat, J.; Morgan, J.; Benson, E.; Baath, M.; Lewis, M.; Reilly, A.

    2016-01-01

    The recent reintroduction of iterative reconstruction in computed tomography has facilitated the realisation of major dose saving. The aim of this article was to investigate the possibility of achieving further savings at a site with well-established Adaptive Statistical iterative Reconstruction (ASiR TM ) (GE Healthcare) brain protocols. An adult patient study was conducted with observers making visual grading assessments using image quality criteria, which were compared with the frequency domain metrics, noise power spectrum and modulation transfer function. Subjective image quality equivalency was found in the 40-70% ASiR TM range, leading to the proposal of ranges for the objective metrics defining acceptable image quality. Based on the findings of both the patient-based and objective studies of the ASiR TM /tube-current combinations tested, 60%/305 mA was found to fall within all, but one, of these ranges. Therefore, it is recommended that an ASiR TM level of 60%, with a noise index of 12.20, is a viable alternative to the currently used protocol featuring a 40% ASiR TM level and a noise index of 11.20, potentially representing a 16% dose saving. (authors)

  17. USE OF IMAGE BASED MODELLING FOR DOCUMENTATION OF INTRICATELY SHAPED OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marčiš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the documentation of cultural heritage, we can encounter three dimensional shapes and structures which are complicated to measure. Such objects are for example spiral staircases, timber roof trusses, historical furniture or folk costume where it is nearly impossible to effectively use the traditional surveying or the terrestrial laser scanning due to the shape of the object, its dimensions and the crowded environment. The actual methods of digital photogrammetry can be very helpful in such cases with the emphasis on the automated processing of the extensive image data. The created high resolution 3D models and 2D orthophotos are very important for the documentation of architectural elements and they can serve as an ideal base for the vectorization and 2D drawing documentation. This contribution wants to describe the various usage of image based modelling in specific interior spaces and specific objects. The advantages and disadvantages of the photogrammetric measurement of such objects in comparison to other surveying methods are reviewed.

  18. Using Object Storage Technology vs Vendor Neutral Archives for an Image Data Repository Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialecki, Brian; Park, James; Tilkin, Mike

    2016-08-01

    The intent of this project was to use object storage and its database, which has the ability to add custom extensible metadata to an imaging object being stored within the system, to harness the power of its search capabilities, and to close the technology gap that healthcare faces. This creates a non-disruptive tool that can be used natively by both legacy systems and the healthcare systems of today which leverage more advanced storage technologies. The base infrastructure can be populated alongside current workflows without any interruption to the delivery of services. In certain use cases, this technology can be seen as a true alternative to the VNA (Vendor Neutral Archive) systems implemented by healthcare today. The scalability, security, and ability to process complex objects makes this more than just storage for image data and a commodity to be consumed by PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) and workstations. Object storage is a smart technology that can be leveraged to create vendor independence, standards compliance, and a data repository that can be mined for truly relevant content by adding additional context to search capabilities. This functionality can lead to efficiencies in workflow and a wealth of minable data to improve outcomes into the future.

  19. Terrestrial scanning or digital images in inventory of monumental objects? - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, J. S.; Zawieska, D.

    2014-06-01

    Cultural heritage is the evidence of the past; monumental objects create the important part of the cultural heritage. Selection of a method to be applied depends on many factors, which include: the objectives of inventory, the object's volume, sumptuousness of architectural design, accessibility to the object, required terms and accuracy of works. The paper presents research and experimental works, which have been performed in the course of development of architectural documentation of elements of the external facades and interiors of the Wilanów Palace Museum in Warszawa. Point clouds, acquired from terrestrial laser scanning (Z+F 5003h) and digital images taken with Nikon D3X and Hasselblad H4D cameras were used. Advantages and disadvantages of utilisation of these technologies of measurements have been analysed with consideration of the influence of the structure and reflectance of investigated monumental surfaces on the quality of generation of photogrammetric products. The geometric quality of surfaces obtained from terrestrial laser scanning data and from point clouds resulting from digital images, have been compared.

  20. Statistics of Visual Responses to Image Object Stimuli from Primate AIT Neurons to DNN Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiulei; Wang, Hong; Hu, Zhanyi

    2018-02-01

    Under the goal-driven paradigm, Yamins et al. ( 2014 ; Yamins & DiCarlo, 2016 ) have shown that by optimizing only the final eight-way categorization performance of a four-layer hierarchical network, not only can its top output layer quantitatively predict IT neuron responses but its penultimate layer can also automatically predict V4 neuron responses. Currently, deep neural networks (DNNs) in the field of computer vision have reached image object categorization performance comparable to that of human beings on ImageNet, a data set that contains 1.3 million training images of 1000 categories. We explore whether the DNN neurons (units in DNNs) possess image object representational statistics similar to monkey IT neurons, particularly when the network becomes deeper and the number of image categories becomes larger, using VGG19, a typical and widely used deep network of 19 layers in the computer vision field. Following Lehky, Kiani, Esteky, and Tanaka ( 2011 , 2014 ), where the response statistics of 674 IT neurons to 806 image stimuli are analyzed using three measures (kurtosis, Pareto tail index, and intrinsic dimensionality), we investigate the three issues in this letter using the same three measures: (1) the similarities and differences of the neural response statistics between VGG19 and primate IT cortex, (2) the variation trends of the response statistics of VGG19 neurons at different layers from low to high, and (3) the variation trends of the response statistics of VGG19 neurons when the numbers of stimuli and neurons increase. We find that the response statistics on both single-neuron selectivity and population sparseness of VGG19 neurons are fundamentally different from those of IT neurons in most cases; by increasing the number of neurons in different layers and the number of stimuli, the response statistics of neurons at different layers from low to high do not substantially change; and the estimated intrinsic dimensionality values at the low

  1. Optimization and objective and subjective analysis of thorax image for computerized radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velo, Alexandre F.; Miranda, Jose Ricardo A.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed at optimizing computational chest radiographic images (in previous posterior projection-PA). To this end, we used a homogeneous patient equivalent phantom in Computational Imaging System calibration, in order to obtain a satisfactory noise signal relation for a diagnosis, adjusting to a minimum dose received by the patient. The techniques have been applied in an anthropomorphic phantom (RANDO). The images obtained were evaluated by a radiologist, which identified the best image to determine possible pathologies (fracture or pneumonia). The technique were quantified objectively (Detective Quantum Efficiency - DQE, Modulation Transfer Function MTF, Noise Power Spectrum, NPS). Comparing optimized techniques with the clinical routine, it is concluded that all provide doses below reference levels. However the choice of the best technique for viewing possible pneumonia and/or fracture, was determined based on the first 3D (Dose, Diagnostic, Dollar) and regarded as gold standard. This image presented a reduction of dose and loading of tube around 70.5% and 80% respectively when compared with the clinical routine

  2. Evaluating fuzzy operators of an object-based image analysis for detecting landslides and their changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizizadeh, Bakhtiar; Blaschke, Thomas; Tiede, Dirk; Moghaddam, Mohammad Hossein Rezaei

    2017-09-01

    This article presents a method of object-based image analysis (OBIA) for landslide delineation and landslide-related change detection from multi-temporal satellite images. It uses both spatial and spectral information on landslides, through spectral analysis, shape analysis, textural measurements using a gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), and fuzzy logic membership functionality. Following an initial segmentation step, particular combinations of various information layers were investigated to generate objects. This was achieved by applying multi-resolution segmentation to IRS-1D, SPOT-5, and ALOS satellite imagery in sequential steps of feature selection and object classification, and using slope and flow direction derivatives from a digital elevation model together with topographically-oriented gray level co-occurrence matrices. Fuzzy membership values were calculated for 11 different membership functions using 20 landslide objects from a landslide training data. Six fuzzy operators were used for the final classification and the accuracies of the resulting landslide maps were compared. A Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation (FSE) approach was adapted for validation of the results and for an accuracy assessment using the landslide inventory database. The FSE approach revealed that the AND operator performed best with an accuracy of 93.87% for 2005 and 94.74% for 2011, closely followed by the MEAN Arithmetic operator, while the OR and AND (*) operators yielded relatively low accuracies. An object-based change detection was then applied to monitor landslide-related changes that occurred in northern Iran between 2005 and 2011. Knowledge rules to detect possible landslide-related changes were developed by evaluating all possible landslide-related objects for both time steps.

  3. Objective assessment in digital images of skin erythema caused by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, H.; Matsufuji, N.; Tsuji, H.; Yamamoto, N.; Karasawa, K.; Nakajima, M.; Karube, M.; Takahashi, W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Skin toxicity caused by radiotherapy has been visually classified into discrete grades. The present study proposes an objective and continuous assessment method of skin erythema in digital images taken under arbitrary lighting conditions, which is the case for most clinical environments. The purpose of this paper is to show the feasibility of the proposed method. Methods: Clinical data were gathered from six patients who received carbon beam therapy for lung cancer. Skin condition was recorded using an ordinary compact digital camera under unfixed lighting conditions; a laser Doppler flowmeter was used to measure blood flow in the skin. The photos and measurements were taken at 3 h, 30, and 90 days after irradiation. Images were decomposed into hemoglobin and melanin colors using independent component analysis. Pixel values in hemoglobin color images were compared with skin dose and skin blood flow. The uncertainty of the practical photographic method was also studied in nonclinical experiments. Results: The clinical data showed good linearity between skin dose, skin blood flow, and pixel value in the hemoglobin color images; their correlation coefficients were larger than 0.7. It was deduced from the nonclinical that the uncertainty due to the proposed method with photography was 15%; such an uncertainty was not critical for assessment of skin erythema in practical use. Conclusions: Feasibility of the proposed method for assessment of skin erythema using digital images was demonstrated. The numerical relationship obtained helped to predict skin erythema by artificial processing of skin images. Although the proposed method using photographs taken under unfixed lighting conditions increased the uncertainty of skin information in the images, it was shown to be powerful for the assessment of skin conditions because of its flexibility and adaptability

  4. Objective assessment in digital images of skin erythema caused by radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, H., E-mail: matubara@nirs.go.jp; Matsufuji, N.; Tsuji, H.; Yamamoto, N.; Karasawa, K.; Nakajima, M.; Karube, M. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Takahashi, W. [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: Skin toxicity caused by radiotherapy has been visually classified into discrete grades. The present study proposes an objective and continuous assessment method of skin erythema in digital images taken under arbitrary lighting conditions, which is the case for most clinical environments. The purpose of this paper is to show the feasibility of the proposed method. Methods: Clinical data were gathered from six patients who received carbon beam therapy for lung cancer. Skin condition was recorded using an ordinary compact digital camera under unfixed lighting conditions; a laser Doppler flowmeter was used to measure blood flow in the skin. The photos and measurements were taken at 3 h, 30, and 90 days after irradiation. Images were decomposed into hemoglobin and melanin colors using independent component analysis. Pixel values in hemoglobin color images were compared with skin dose and skin blood flow. The uncertainty of the practical photographic method was also studied in nonclinical experiments. Results: The clinical data showed good linearity between skin dose, skin blood flow, and pixel value in the hemoglobin color images; their correlation coefficients were larger than 0.7. It was deduced from the nonclinical that the uncertainty due to the proposed method with photography was 15%; such an uncertainty was not critical for assessment of skin erythema in practical use. Conclusions: Feasibility of the proposed method for assessment of skin erythema using digital images was demonstrated. The numerical relationship obtained helped to predict skin erythema by artificial processing of skin images. Although the proposed method using photographs taken under unfixed lighting conditions increased the uncertainty of skin information in the images, it was shown to be powerful for the assessment of skin conditions because of its flexibility and adaptability.

  5. Threat Object Detection using Covariance Matrix Modeling in X-ray Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Byoun Gil; Kim, Jong Yul; Moon, Myung Kook

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray imaging system for the aviation security is one of the applications. In airports, all passengers and properties should be inspected and accepted by security machines before boarding on aircrafts to avoid all treat factors. That treat factors might be directly connected on terrorist threats awfully hazardous to not only passengers but also people in highly populated area such as major cities or buildings. Because the performance of the system is increasing along with the growth of IT technology, information that has various type and good quality can be provided for security check. However, human factors are mainly affected on the inspections. It means that human inspectors should be proficient corresponding to the growth of technology for efficient and effective inspection but there is clear limit of proficiency. Human being is not a computer. Because of the limitation, the aviation security techniques have the tendencies to provide not only numerous and nice information but also effective assistance for security inspectors. Many image processing applications already have been developed to provide efficient assistance for the security systems. Naturally, the security check procedure should not be altered by automatic software because it's not guaranteed that the automatic system will never make any mistake. This paper addressed an application of threat object detection using the covariance matrix modeling. The algorithm is implemented in MATLAB environment and evaluated the performance by comparing with other detection algorithms. Considering the shape of an object on an image is changed by the attitude of that to the imaging machine, the implemented detector has the robustness for rotation and scale of an object

  6. Threat Object Detection using Covariance Matrix Modeling in X-ray Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Byoun Gil; Kim, Jong Yul; Moon, Myung Kook [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The X-ray imaging system for the aviation security is one of the applications. In airports, all passengers and properties should be inspected and accepted by security machines before boarding on aircrafts to avoid all treat factors. That treat factors might be directly connected on terrorist threats awfully hazardous to not only passengers but also people in highly populated area such as major cities or buildings. Because the performance of the system is increasing along with the growth of IT technology, information that has various type and good quality can be provided for security check. However, human factors are mainly affected on the inspections. It means that human inspectors should be proficient corresponding to the growth of technology for efficient and effective inspection but there is clear limit of proficiency. Human being is not a computer. Because of the limitation, the aviation security techniques have the tendencies to provide not only numerous and nice information but also effective assistance for security inspectors. Many image processing applications already have been developed to provide efficient assistance for the security systems. Naturally, the security check procedure should not be altered by automatic software because it's not guaranteed that the automatic system will never make any mistake. This paper addressed an application of threat object detection using the covariance matrix modeling. The algorithm is implemented in MATLAB environment and evaluated the performance by comparing with other detection algorithms. Considering the shape of an object on an image is changed by the attitude of that to the imaging machine, the implemented detector has the robustness for rotation and scale of an object.

  7. Object position and image magnification in dental panoramic radiography: a theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, H; Yuan, J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate how image magnification and distortion in dental panoramic radiography are influenced by object size and position for a small round object such as a ball bearing used for calibration. Two ball bearings (2.5 mm and 6 mm in diameter) were placed at approximately the same position between the teeth of a plastic skull and radiographed 21 times. The skull was replaced each time. Their images were measured by software using edge detection and ellipse-fitting algorithms. Using a standard definition of magnification, equations were derived to enable an object's magnification to be determined from its position and vice versa knowing the diameter and machine parameters. The average magnification of the 2.5 mm ball bearing was 1.292 (0.0445) horizontally and 1.257 (0.0067) vertically with a mean ratio of 1.028 (0.0322); standard deviations are in parentheses. The figures for the 6 mm ball bearing were 1.286 (0.0068), 1.255 (0.0018) and 1.025 (0.0061), respectively. Derived positions of each ball bearing from magnification were more consistent horizontally than vertically. There was less variation in either direction for the 6 mm ball bearing than the 2.5 mm one. Automatic measurement of image size resulted in less variation in vertical magnification values than horizontal. There are only certain positions in the focal trough that achieve zero distortion. Object location can be determined from its diameter, measured magnification and machine parameters. The 6 mm diameter ball bearing is preferable to the 2.5 mm one for more reliable magnification measurement and position determination.

  8. Audiovisual functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation reveals multisensory integration effects in object-related sensory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehrmann, Oliver; Weigelt, Sarah; Altmann, Christian F; Kaiser, Jochen; Naumer, Marcus J

    2010-03-03

    Information integration across different sensory modalities contributes to object recognition, the generation of associations and long-term memory representations. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation to investigate the presence of sensory integrative effects at cortical levels as early as nonprimary auditory and extrastriate visual cortices, which are implicated in intermediate stages of object processing. Stimulation consisted of an adapting audiovisual stimulus S(1) and a subsequent stimulus S(2) from the same basic-level category (e.g., cat). The stimuli were carefully balanced with respect to stimulus complexity and semantic congruency and presented in four experimental conditions: (1) the same image and vocalization for S(1) and S(2), (2) the same image and a different vocalization, (3) different images and the same vocalization, or (4) different images and vocalizations. This two-by-two factorial design allowed us to assess the contributions of auditory and visual stimulus repetitions and changes in a statistically orthogonal manner. Responses in visual regions of right fusiform gyrus and right lateral occipital cortex were reduced for repeated visual stimuli (repetition suppression). Surprisingly, left lateral occipital cortex showed stronger responses to repeated auditory stimuli (repetition enhancement). Similarly, auditory regions of interest of the right middle superior temporal gyrus and sulcus exhibited repetition suppression to auditory repetitions and repetition enhancement to visual repetitions. Our findings of crossmodal repetition-related effects in cortices of the respective other sensory modality add to the emerging view that in human subjects sensory integrative mechanisms operate on earlier cortical processing levels than previously assumed.

  9. Object-based image analysis and data mining for building ontology of informal urban settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelifa, Dejrriri; Mimoun, Malki

    2012-11-01

    During recent decades, unplanned settlements have been appeared around the big cities in most developing countries and as consequence, numerous problems have emerged. Thus the identification of different kinds of settlements is a major concern and challenge for authorities of many countries. Very High Resolution (VHR) Remotely Sensed imagery has proved to be a very promising way to detect different kinds of settlements, especially through the using of new objectbased image analysis (OBIA). The most important key is in understanding what characteristics make unplanned settlements differ from planned ones, where most experts characterize unplanned urban areas by small building sizes at high densities, no orderly road arrangement and Lack of green spaces. Knowledge about different kinds of settlements can be captured as a domain ontology that has the potential to organize knowledge in a formal, understandable and sharable way. In this work we focus on extracting knowledge from VHR images and expert's knowledge. We used an object based strategy by segmenting a VHR image taken over urban area into regions of homogenous pixels at adequate scale level and then computing spectral, spatial and textural attributes for each region to create objects. A genetic-based data mining was applied to generate high predictive and comprehensible classification rules based on selected samples from the OBIA result. Optimized intervals of relevant attributes are found, linked with land use types for forming classification rules. The unplanned areas were separated from the planned ones, through analyzing of the line segments detected from the input image. Finally a simple ontology was built based on the previous processing steps. The approach has been tested to VHR images of one of the biggest Algerian cities, that has grown considerably in recent decades.

  10. Supervised guiding long-short term memory for image caption generation based on object classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Qi, Xinyuan

    2018-03-01

    The present models of image caption generation have the problems of image visual semantic information attenuation and errors in guidance information. In order to solve these problems, we propose a supervised guiding Long Short Term Memory model based on object classes, named S-gLSTM for short. It uses the object detection results from R-FCN as supervisory information with high confidence, and updates the guidance word set by judging whether the last output matches the supervisory information. S-gLSTM learns how to extract the current interested information from the image visual se-mantic information based on guidance word set. The interested information is fed into the S-gLSTM at each iteration as guidance information, to guide the caption generation. To acquire the text-related visual semantic information, the S-gLSTM fine-tunes the weights of the network through the back-propagation of the guiding loss. Complementing guidance information at each iteration solves the problem of visual semantic information attenuation in the traditional LSTM model. Besides, the supervised guidance information in our model can reduce the impact of the mismatched words on the caption generation. We test our model on MSCOCO2014 dataset, and obtain better performance than the state-of-the- art models.

  11. Transferability of Object-Oriented Image Analysis Methods for Slum Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Stein

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Updated spatial information on the dynamics of slums can be helpful to measure and evaluate progress of policies. Earlier studies have shown that semi-automatic detection of slums using remote sensing can be challenging considering the large variability in definition and appearance. In this study, we explored the potential of an object-oriented image analysis (OOA method to detect slums, using very high resolution (VHR imagery. This method integrated expert knowledge in the form of a local slum ontology. A set of image-based parameters was identified that was used for differentiating slums from non-slum areas in an OOA environment. The method was implemented on three subsets of the city of Ahmedabad, India. Results show that textural features such as entropy and contrast derived from a grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM and the size of image segments are stable parameters for classification of built-up areas and the identification of slums. Relation with classified slum objects, in terms of enclosed by slums and relative border with slums was used to refine classification. The analysis on three different subsets showed final accuracies ranging from 47% to 68%. We conclude that our method produces useful results as it allows including location specific adaptation, whereas generically applicable rulesets for slums are still to be developed.

  12. X-CT imaging method for large objects using double offset scan mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jian; Lu Hongnian; Li Bing; Zhang Lei; Sun Jingjing

    2007-01-01

    In X-ray computed tomography (X-CT) inspection, rotate-only scanner is commonly used because this configuration offers the highest imaging speed and best utilization of X-ray dose. But it requires that the imaging region of the scanned object must fit within the X-ray beam. Another configuration, transverse-rotate scanner, has a bigger field of view, but it is much more time consuming. In this paper, a two-dimensional X-CT imaging method for large objects is proposed to overcome the existing disadvantages. The scan principle of this method has been described and the reconstruction algorithm has been deduced. The results of the computer simulation and the experiments show the validity of the new method. Analysis shows that the scan field of view of this method is 1.8 times larger than that of rotate-only X-CT. The scan speed of this method is also much quicker than transverse-rotate X-CT

  13. Time domain SAR raw data simulation using CST and image focusing of 3D objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Adnan; Hellwich, Olaf

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the use of a general purpose electromagnetic simulator, CST, to simulate realistic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) raw data of three-dimensional objects. Raw data is later focused in MATLAB using range-doppler algorithm. Within CST Microwave Studio a replica of TerraSAR-X chirp signal is incident upon a modeled Corner Reflector (CR) whose design and material properties are identical to that of the real one. Defining mesh and other appropriate settings reflected wave is measured at several distant points within a line parallel to the viewing direction. This is analogous to an array antenna and is synthesized to create a long aperture for SAR processing. The time domain solver in CST is based on the solution of differential form of Maxwells equations. Exported data from CST is arranged into a 2-d matrix of axis range and azimuth. Hilbert transform is applied to convert the real signal to complex data with phase information. Range compression, range cell migration correction (RCMC), and azimuth compression are applied in time domain to obtain the final SAR image. This simulation can provide valuable information to clarify which real world objects cause images suitable for high accuracy identification in the SAR images.

  14. Processing graspable object images and their nouns is impaired in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccino, Giovanni; Dalla Volta, Riccardo; Arabia, Gennarina; Morelli, Maurizio; Chiriaco, Carmelina; Lupo, Angela; Silipo, Franco; Quattrone, Aldo

    2018-03-01

    According to embodiment, the recruitment of the motor system is necessary to process language material expressing a motor content. Coherently, an impairment of the motor system should affect the capacity to process language items with a motor content. The aim of the present study was to assess the capacity to process graspable objects and their nouns in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and healthy controls. Participants saw photos and nouns depicting graspable and non-graspable objects. Scrambled images and pseudo-words served as control stimuli. At 150 msec after stimulus presentation, they had to respond when the stimulus referred to a real object, and refrain from responding when it was meaningless (go-no go paradigm). In the control group, participants gave slower motor responses for stimuli (both photos and nouns) related to graspable objects as compared to non-graspable ones. This in keeping with data obtained in a previous study with young healthy participants. In the PD group, motor responses were similar for both graspable and non-graspable items. Moreover, error number was significantly greater than in controls. These findings support the notion that when the motor circuits are lesioned, like in PD, patients do not show the typical modulation of motor responses and have troubles in processing graspable objects and their nouns. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. RAPTOR-scan: Identifying and Tracking Objects Through Thousands of Sky Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidoff, Sherri; Wozniak, Przemyslaw

    2004-01-01

    The RAPTOR-scan system mines data for optical transients associated with gamma-ray bursts and is used to create a catalog for the RAPTOR telescope system. RAPTOR-scan can detect and track individual astronomical objects across data sets containing millions of observed points.Accurately identifying a real object over many optical images (clustering the individual appearances) is necessary in order to analyze object light curves. To achieve this, RAPTOR telescope observations are sent in real time to a database. Each morning, a program based on the DBSCAN algorithm clusters the observations and labels each one with an object identifier. Once clustering is complete, the analysis program may be used to query the database and produce light curves, maps of the sky field, or other informative displays.Although RAPTOR-scan was designed for the RAPTOR optical telescope system, it is a general tool designed to identify objects in a collection of astronomical data and facilitate quick data analysis. RAPTOR-scan will be released as free software under the GNU General Public License

  16. 120 Gb/s Multi-Channel THz Wireless Transmission and THz Receiver Performance Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Shi; Yu, Xianbin; Hu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    /s. The THz carriers with high-frequency stability and low phase noise are generated based on photonic photomixing of 25-GHz spaced six optical tones and a single optical local oscillator derived from a same optical frequency comb in an ultrabroadband uni-travelling carrier photodiode. The bit...

  17. Volumetric Medical Image Coding: An Object-based, Lossy-to-lossless and Fully Scalable Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyali, Habibiollah; Mertins, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    In this article, an object-based, highly scalable, lossy-to-lossless 3D wavelet coding approach for volumetric medical image data (e.g., magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT)) is proposed. The new method, called 3DOBHS-SPIHT, is based on the well-known set partitioning in the hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithm and supports both quality and resolution scalability. The 3D input data is grouped into groups of slices (GOS) and each GOS is encoded and decoded as a separate unit. The symmetric tree definition of the original 3DSPIHT is improved by introducing a new asymmetric tree structure. While preserving the compression efficiency, the new tree structure allows for a small size of each GOS, which not only reduces memory consumption during the encoding and decoding processes, but also facilitates more efficient random access to certain segments of slices. To achieve more compression efficiency, the algorithm only encodes the main object of interest in each 3D data set, which can have any arbitrary shape, and ignores the unnecessary background. The experimental results on some MR data sets show the good performance of the 3DOBHS-SPIHT algorithm for multi-resolution lossy-to-lossless coding. The compression efficiency, full scalability, and object-based features of the proposed approach, beside its lossy-to-lossless coding support, make it a very attractive candidate for volumetric medical image information archiving and transmission applications. PMID:22606653

  18. Time integration and statistical regulation applied to mobile objects detection in a sequence of images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letang, Jean-Michel

    1993-01-01

    This PhD thesis deals with the detection of moving objects in monocular image sequences. The first section presents the inherent problems of motion analysis in real applications. We propose a method robust to perturbations frequently encountered during acquisition of outdoor scenes. It appears three main directions for investigations, all of them pointing out the importance of the temporal axis, which is a specific dimension for motion analysis. In the first part, the image sequence is considered as a set of temporal signals. The temporal multi-scale decomposition enables the characterization of various dynamical behaviors of the objects being in the scene at a given instant. A second module integrates motion information. This elementary trajectography of moving objects provides a temporal prediction map, giving a confidence level of motion presence. Interactions between both sets of data are expressed within a statistical regularization. Markov random field models supply a formal framework to convey a priori knowledge of the primitives to be evaluated. A calibration method with qualitative boxes is presented to estimate model parameters. Our approach requires only simple computations and leads to a rather fast algorithm, that we evaluate in the last section over various typical sequences. (author) [fr

  19. Interaction between High-Level and Low-Level Image Analysis for Semantic Video Object Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cavallaro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The task of extracting a semantic video object is split into two subproblems, namely, object segmentation and region segmentation. Object segmentation relies on a priori assumptions, whereas region segmentation is data-driven and can be solved in an automatic manner. These two subproblems are not mutually independent, and they can benefit from interactions with each other. In this paper, a framework for such interaction is formulated. This representation scheme based on region segmentation and semantic segmentation is compatible with the view that image analysis and scene understanding problems can be decomposed into low-level and high-level tasks. Low-level tasks pertain to region-oriented processing, whereas the high-level tasks are closely related to object-level processing. This approach emulates the human visual system: what one “sees” in a scene depends on the scene itself (region segmentation as well as on the cognitive task (semantic segmentation at hand. The higher-level segmentation results in a partition corresponding to semantic video objects. Semantic video objects do not usually have invariant physical properties and the definition depends on the application. Hence, the definition incorporates complex domain-specific knowledge and is not easy to generalize. For the specific implementation used in this paper, motion is used as a clue to semantic information. In this framework, an automatic algorithm is presented for computing the semantic partition based on color change detection. The change detection strategy is designed to be immune to the sensor noise and local illumination variations. The lower-level segmentation identifies the partition corresponding to perceptually uniform regions. These regions are derived by clustering in an N-dimensional feature space, composed of static as well as dynamic image attributes. We propose an interaction mechanism between the semantic and the region partitions which allows to

  20. Paediatric interventional cardiology: flat detector versus image intensifier using a test object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, E.; Ubeda, C.; Martinez, L. C.; Leyton, F.; Miranda, P.

    2010-12-01

    Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) values and image quality parameters were measured and compared for two biplane angiography x-ray systems dedicated to paediatric interventional cardiology, one equipped with image intensifiers (II) and the other one with dynamic flat detectors (FDs). Polymethyl methacrylate phantoms of different thicknesses, ranging from 8 to 16 cm, and a Leeds TOR 18-FG test object were used. The parameters of the image quality evaluated were noise, signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SdNR), high contrast spatial resolution (HCSR) and three figures of merit combining entrance doses and signal-to-noise ratios or HCSR. The comparisons showed a better behaviour of the II-based system in the low contrast region over the whole interval of thicknesses. The FD-based system showed a better performance in HCSR. The FD system evaluated would need around two times more dose than the II system evaluated to reach a given value of SdNR; moreover, a better spatial resolution was measured (and perceived in conventional monitors) for the system equipped with flat detectors. According to the results of this paper, the use of dynamic FD systems does not lead to an automatic reduction in ESAK or to an automatic improvement in image quality by comparison with II systems. Any improvement also depends on the setting of the x-ray systems and it should still be possible to refine these settings for some of the dynamic FDs used in paediatric cardiology.

  1. Beamstop-based low-background ptychography to image weakly scattering objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Juliane, E-mail: juliane.reinhardt@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Hoppe, Robert [Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Hofmann, Georg [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Damsgaard, Christian D. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Patommel, Jens; Baumbach, Christoph [Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Baier, Sina; Rochet, Amélie; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Falkenberg, Gerald [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Schroer, Christian G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Department Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    In recent years, X-ray ptychography has been established as a valuable tool for high-resolution imaging. Nevertheless, the spatial resolution and sensitivity in coherent diffraction imaging are limited by the signal that is detected over noise and over background scattering. Especially, coherent imaging of weakly scattering specimens suffers from incoherent background that is generated by the interaction of the central beam with matter along its propagation path in particular close to and inside of the detector. Common countermeasures entail evacuated flight tubes or detector-side beamstops, which improve the experimental setup in terms of background reduction or better coverage of high dynamic range in the diffraction patterns. Here, we discuss an alternative approach: we combine two ptychographic scans with and without beamstop and reconstruct them simultaneously taking advantage of the complementary information contained in the two scans. We experimentally demonstrate the potential of this scheme for hard X-ray ptychography by imaging a weakly scattering object composed of catalytic nanoparticles and provide the analysis of the signal-to-background ratio in the diffraction patterns. - Highlights: • An opaque beamstop far-upstream of the detector reduces background scattering. • Increased signal-to-background ratio in the diffraction patterns. • Simultaneous ptychographic reconstruction of two data sets with and without beamstop. • Result shows high spatial resolution of 13 nm of a weakly scattering catalyst sample. • High sensitivity to less than 10{sup 5} atoms.

  2. Paediatric interventional cardiology: flat detector versus image intensifier using a test object

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vano, E [Radiology Department, Medicine School, Complutense University and San Carlos University Hospital, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ubeda, C [Clinical Sciences Department, Faculty of the Science of Health and CIHDE, Tarapaca University, 18 de Septiembre 2222, Arica (Chile); Martinez, L C [Medical Physics and Radiation Protection Service, 12 de Octubre University Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Leyton, F [Institute of Public Health of Chile, Marathon 1000, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile); Miranda, P, E-mail: eliseov@med.ucm.e [Hemodynamic Department, Cardiovascular Service, Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital, Avenida Antonio Varaas 360, Providencia, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-12-07

    Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) values and image quality parameters were measured and compared for two biplane angiography x-ray systems dedicated to paediatric interventional cardiology, one equipped with image intensifiers (II) and the other one with dynamic flat detectors (FDs). Polymethyl methacrylate phantoms of different thicknesses, ranging from 8 to 16 cm, and a Leeds TOR 18-FG test object were used. The parameters of the image quality evaluated were noise, signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SdNR), high contrast spatial resolution (HCSR) and three figures of merit combining entrance doses and signal-to-noise ratios or HCSR. The comparisons showed a better behaviour of the II-based system in the low contrast region over the whole interval of thicknesses. The FD-based system showed a better performance in HCSR. The FD system evaluated would need around two times more dose than the II system evaluated to reach a given value of SdNR; moreover, a better spatial resolution was measured (and perceived in conventional monitors) for the system equipped with flat detectors. According to the results of this paper, the use of dynamic FD systems does not lead to an automatic reduction in ESAK or to an automatic improvement in image quality by comparison with II systems. Any improvement also depends on the setting of the x-ray systems and it should still be possible to refine these settings for some of the dynamic FDs used in paediatric cardiology.

  3. Bridge Crack Detection Using Multi-Rotary Uav and Object-Base Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, J. Y.; Hsiao, K. W.; Jhan, J. P.; Wang, S. H.; Fang, W. C.; Wang, J. L.

    2017-08-01

    Bridge is an important infrastructure for human life. Thus, the bridge safety monitoring and maintaining is an important issue to the government. Conventionally, bridge inspection were conducted by human in-situ visual examination. This procedure sometimes require under bridge inspection vehicle or climbing under the bridge personally. Thus, its cost and risk is high as well as labor intensive and time consuming. Particularly, its documentation procedure is subjective without 3D spatial information. In order cope with these challenges, this paper propose the use of a multi-rotary UAV that equipped with a SONY A7r2 high resolution digital camera, 50 mm fixed focus length lens, 135 degrees up-down rotating gimbal. The target bridge contains three spans with a total of 60 meters long, 20 meters width and 8 meters height above the water level. In the end, we took about 10,000 images, but some of them were acquired by hand held method taken on the ground using a pole with 2-8 meters long. Those images were processed by Agisoft PhotoscanPro to obtain exterior and interior orientation parameters. A local coordinate system was defined by using 12 ground control points measured by a total station. After triangulation and camera self-calibration, the RMS of control points is less than 3 cm. A 3D CAD model that describe the bridge surface geometry was manually measured by PhotoscanPro. They were composed of planar polygons and will be used for searching related UAV images. Additionally, a photorealistic 3D model can be produced for 3D visualization. In order to detect cracks on the bridge surface, we utilize object-based image analysis (OBIA) technique to segment the image into objects. Later, we derive several object features, such as density, area/bounding box ratio, length/width ratio, length, etc. Then, we can setup a classification rule set to distinguish cracks. Further, we apply semi-global-matching (SGM) to obtain 3D crack information and based on image scale we

  4. Neural network application for thermal image recognition of low-resolution objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi-Chin; Wu, Bo-Wen

    2007-02-01

    In the ever-changing situation on a battle field, accurate recognition of a distant object is critical to a commander's decision-making and the general public's safety. Efficiently distinguishing between an enemy's armoured vehicles and ordinary civilian houses under all weather conditions has become an important research topic. This study presents a system for recognizing an armoured vehicle by distinguishing marks and contours. The characteristics of 12 different shapes and 12 characters are used to explore thermal image recognition under the circumstance of long distance and low resolution. Although the recognition capability of human eyes is superior to that of artificial intelligence under normal conditions, it tends to deteriorate substantially under long-distance and low-resolution scenarios. This study presents an effective method for choosing features and processing images. The artificial neural network technique is applied to further improve the probability of accurate recognition well beyond the limit of the recognition capability of human eyes.

  5. BRIDGE CRACK DETECTION USING MULTI-ROTARY UAV AND OBJECT-BASE IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Rau

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bridge is an important infrastructure for human life. Thus, the bridge safety monitoring and maintaining is an important issue to the government. Conventionally, bridge inspection were conducted by human in-situ visual examination. This procedure sometimes require under bridge inspection vehicle or climbing under the bridge personally. Thus, its cost and risk is high as well as labor intensive and time consuming. Particularly, its documentation procedure is subjective without 3D spatial information. In order cope with these challenges, this paper propose the use of a multi-rotary UAV that equipped with a SONY A7r2 high resolution digital camera, 50 mm fixed focus length lens, 135 degrees up-down rotating gimbal. The target bridge contains three spans with a total of 60 meters long, 20 meters width and 8 meters height above the water level. In the end, we took about 10,000 images, but some of them were acquired by hand held method taken on the ground using a pole with 2–8 meters long. Those images were processed by Agisoft PhotoscanPro to obtain exterior and interior orientation parameters. A local coordinate system was defined by using 12 ground control points measured by a total station. After triangulation and camera self-calibration, the RMS of control points is less than 3 cm. A 3D CAD model that describe the bridge surface geometry was manually measured by PhotoscanPro. They were composed of planar polygons and will be used for searching related UAV images. Additionally, a photorealistic 3D model can be produced for 3D visualization. In order to detect cracks on the bridge surface, we utilize object-based image analysis (OBIA technique to segment the image into objects. Later, we derive several object features, such as density, area/bounding box ratio, length/width ratio, length, etc. Then, we can setup a classification rule set to distinguish cracks. Further, we apply semi-global-matching (SGM to obtain 3D crack information and based

  6. Astrophysical Information from Objective Prism Digitized Images: Classification with an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratsolis Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stellar spectral classification is not only a tool for labeling individual stars but is also useful in studies of stellar population synthesis. Extracting the physical quantities from the digitized spectral plates involves three main stages: detection, extraction, and classification of spectra. Low-dispersion objective prism images have been used and automated methods have been developed. The detection and extraction problems have been presented in previous works. In this paper, we present a classification method based on an artificial neural network (ANN. We make a brief presentation of the entire automated system and we compare the new classification method with the previously used method of maximum correlation coefficient (MCC. Digitized photographic material has been used here. The method can also be used on CCD spectral images.

  7. THz Generation Using Fluxon Dynamics in High Temperature Superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Madsen, S.

    2009-01-01

    We consider THz emission due to fluxon dynamics in a stack of inductively coupled long Josephson junctions connected electrically to a resonant cavity. By comparing to experiments on Josephson junction parametric amplifiers we consider the role of a negative resistance in connection with THz emis...

  8. Nanoscale electron manipulation in metals with intense THz electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Jun; Yoshioka, Katsumasa; Minami, Yasuo; Katayama, Ikufumi

    2018-03-01

    Improved control over the electromagnetic properties of metals on a nanoscale is crucial for the development of next-generation nanoelectronics and plasmonic devices. Harnessing the terahertz (THz)-electric-field-induced nonlinearity for the motion of electrons is a promising method of manipulating the local electromagnetic properties of metals, while avoiding undesirable thermal effects and electronic transitions. In this review, we demonstrate the manipulation of electron delocalization in ultrathin gold (Au) films with nanostructures, by intense THz electric-field transients. On increasing the electric-field strength of the THz pulses, the transmittance in the THz-frequency region abruptly decreases around the percolation threshold. The observed THz-electric-field-induced nonlinearity is analysed, based on the Drude-Smith model. The results suggest that ultrafast electron delocalization occurs by electron tunnelling across the narrow insulating bridge between the Au nanostructures, without material breakdown. In order to quantitatively discuss the tunnelling process, we perform scanning tunnelling microscopy with carrier-envelope phase (CEP)-controlled single-cycle THz electric fields. By applying CEP-controlled THz electric fields to the 1 nm nanogap between a metal nanotip and graphite sample, many electrons could be coherently driven through the quantum tunnelling process, either from the nanotip to the sample or vice versa. The presented concept, namely, electron tunnelling mediated by CEP-controlled single-cycle THz electric fields, can facilitate the development of nanoscale electron manipulation, applicable to next-generation ultrafast nanoelectronics and plasmonic devices.

  9. Fundamental Analysis of Extremely Fast Photonic THz Wireless Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Zhang, Xianmin

    This talk will review the recent progress on developing THz communication systems for high speed wireless access, and fundamentally analyze the realistic throughput and accessible wireless range of a THz impulse radio communication link by employing a uni-travelling photodiode (UTC-PD) as emitter...

  10. MAPPING ERODED AREAS ON MOUNTAIN GRASSLAND WITH TERRESTRIAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mayr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Alps as well as in other mountain regions steep grassland is frequently affected by shallow erosion. Often small landslides or snow movements displace the vegetation together with soil and/or unconsolidated material. This results in bare earth surface patches within the grass covered slope. Close-range and remote sensing techniques are promising for both mapping and monitoring these eroded areas. This is essential for a better geomorphological process understanding, to assess past and recent developments, and to plan mitigation measures. Recent developments in image matching techniques make it feasible to produce high resolution orthophotos and digital elevation models from terrestrial oblique images. In this paper we propose to delineate the boundary of eroded areas for selected scenes of a study area, using close-range photogrammetric data. Striving for an efficient, objective and reproducible workflow for this task, we developed an approach for automated classification of the scenes into the classes grass and eroded. We propose an object-based image analysis (OBIA workflow which consists of image segmentation and automated threshold selection for classification using the Excess Green Vegetation Index (ExG. The automated workflow is tested with ten different scenes. Compared to a manual classification, grass and eroded areas are classified with an overall accuracy between 90.7% and 95.5%, depending on the scene. The methods proved to be insensitive to differences in illumination of the scenes and greenness of the grass. The proposed workflow reduces user interaction and is transferable to other study areas. We conclude that close-range photogrammetry is a valuable low-cost tool for mapping this type of eroded areas in the field with a high level of detail and quality. In future, the output will be used as ground truth for an area-wide mapping of eroded areas in coarser resolution aerial orthophotos acquired at the same time.

  11. Realization of THz Band Mixer Using Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ghasemi Mizuji

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article a new method for creating mixer component in infrared and THz is suggested. Since the nonlinear property of admittance creates frequency components that do not exist in the input signal and the electrical conductivity is associated with admittance, in our work we have proven and simulated that the nonlinear property of graphene admittance can produce mixer component. The simulation results show that the mixer component is larger than other components, therefore the mixer works properly. Because of nano scale of graphene structure, this method paves the road to achieve super compact circuits.

  12. Determining Attitude of Object from Needle Map Using Extended Gaussian Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    D Images," Artificial Intellignece , Vol 17, August, 1981, 285-349. [6] Marr, D., Vision W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, 1982. [7] Brady, M...Witkin, A.P. "Recovering Surface Shape and Orientation from texture," Artificial Intellignec , Vol. 17, 1982, 17-47. [22] Horn, B.K.P., "SEQUINS and...AD-R131 617 DETERMINING ATTITUDE OF OBJECT FROM NEEDLE MAP USING I/i EXTENDED GAUSSIAN IMRGE(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL

  13. Objective quantification of pulmonary effects in X-ray chest images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcela de; Giacomini, Guilherme; Alvarez, Matheus; Pereira, Paulo M.C.; Ribeiro, Sergio M.; Pina, Diana R. de

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious lung disease of great concern worldwide. Even after treatment, TB leaves pulmonary sequelae that compromise the quality of life of patients. The exam of diagnostic imaging done more frequently is the X-ray chest. The evaluation of pulmonary involvement of these patients is performed visually by the radiologist. The detection and quantification aided by computer systems are of great importance for the more accurate assessment of pulmonary involvement. The objective of this study was to evaluate computationally the reduction of lung damage in X-ray of chest in patients treated with two different medication regimens. (author)

  14. An evolutionary computing frame work toward object extraction from satellite images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Arun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Image interpretation domains have witnessed the application of many intelligent methodologies over the past decade; however the effective use of evolutionary computing techniques for feature detection has been less explored. In this paper, we critically analyze the possibility of using cellular neural network for accurate feature detection. Contextual knowledge has been effectively represented by incorporating spectral and spatial aspects using adaptive kernel strategy. Developed methodology has been compared with traditional approaches in an object based context and investigations revealed that considerable success has been achieved with the procedure. Intelligent interpretation, automatic interpolation, and effective contextual representations are the features of the system.

  15. THz transceiver characterization : LDRD project 139363 final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Wanke, Michael Clement; Cich, Michael Joseph; Reno, John Louis; Fuller, Charles T.; Wendt, Joel Robert; Lee, Mark; Grine, Albert D.

    2009-09-01

    LDRD Project 139363 supported experiments to quantify the performance characteristics of monolithically integrated Schottky diode + quantum cascade laser (QCL) heterodyne mixers at terahertz (THz) frequencies. These integrated mixers are the first all-semiconductor THz devices to successfully incorporate a rectifying diode directly into the optical waveguide of a QCL, obviating the conventional optical coupling between a THz local oscillator and rectifier in a heterodyne mixer system. This integrated mixer was shown to function as a true heterodyne receiver of an externally received THz signal, a breakthrough which may lead to more widespread acceptance of this new THz technology paradigm. In addition, questions about QCL mode shifting in response to temperature, bias, and external feedback, and to what extent internal frequency locking can improve stability have been answered under this project.

  16. Differentiation of illicit drugs with THz time-domain spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guifeng; Ma Shihua; Ji Te; Zhao Hongwei; Wang Wenfeng

    2010-01-01

    The tera hertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was used for sensing and identifying illicit drugs. The absorption spectra of seven illicit drug samples(morphine and its hydrochloride, cocaine hydrochloride, codeine phosphate, papaverine hydrochloride, pethidine hydrochloride, and thebaine) were studied by THz-TDS at 0.3-2.0 THz at room temperature. The geometric structure and vibration frequencies of morphine were calculated by density functional theory. The four absorption features were dominated by intra-/inter-molecular collective or lattice vibration modes. Each illicit drug has a distinct signature in its THz spectra. The results indicate that the THz-TDS can be used to identify and discriminate illicit drugs by their characteristic fingerprints. (authors)

  17. Image-based tracking system for vibration measurement of a rotating object using a laser scanning vibrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongkyu, E-mail: akein@gist.ac.kr; Khalil, Hossam; Jo, Youngjoon; Park, Kyihwan, E-mail: khpark@gist.ac.kr [School of Mechatronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Buk-gu, Gwangju, South Korea, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-28

    An image-based tracking system using laser scanning vibrometer is developed for vibration measurement of a rotating object. The proposed system unlike a conventional one can be used where the position or velocity sensor such as an encoder cannot be attached to an object. An image processing algorithm is introduced to detect a landmark and laser beam based on their colors. Then, through using feedback control system, the laser beam can track a rotating object.

  18. Correlative nanoscale 3D imaging of structure and composition in extended objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xu

    Full Text Available Structure and composition at the nanoscale determine the behavior of biological systems and engineered materials. The drive to understand and control this behavior has placed strong demands on developing methods for high resolution imaging. In general, the improvement of three-dimensional (3D resolution is accomplished by tightening constraints: reduced manageable specimen sizes, decreasing analyzable volumes, degrading contrasts, and increasing sample preparation efforts. Aiming to overcome these limitations, we present a non-destructive and multiple-contrast imaging technique, using principles of X-ray laminography, thus generalizing tomography towards laterally extended objects. We retain advantages that are usually restricted to 2D microscopic imaging, such as scanning of large areas and subsequent zooming-in towards a region of interest at the highest possible resolution. Our technique permits correlating the 3D structure and the elemental distribution yielding a high sensitivity to variations of the electron density via coherent imaging and to local trace element quantification through X-ray fluorescence. We demonstrate the method by imaging a lithographic nanostructure and an aluminum alloy. Analyzing a biological system, we visualize in lung tissue the subcellular response to toxic stress after exposure to nanotubes. We show that most of the nanotubes are trapped inside alveolar macrophages, while a small portion of the nanotubes has crossed the barrier to the cellular space of the alveolar wall. In general, our method is non-destructive and can be combined with different sample environmental or loading conditions. We therefore anticipate that correlative X-ray nano-laminography will enable a variety of in situ and in operando 3D studies.

  19. Evaluations of UltraiQ software for objective ultrasound image quality assessment using images from a commercial scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zaiyang; Tradup, Donald J; Stekel, Scott F; Gorny, Krzysztof R; Hangiandreou, Nicholas J

    2018-03-01

    We evaluated a commercially available software package that uses B-mode images to semi-automatically measure quantitative metrics of ultrasound image quality, such as contrast response, depth of penetration (DOP), and spatial resolution (lateral, axial, and elevational). Since measurement of elevational resolution is not a part of the software package, we achieved it by acquiring phantom images with transducers tilted at 45 degrees relative to the phantom. Each measurement was assessed in terms of measurement stability, sensitivity, repeatability, and semi-automated measurement success rate. All assessments were performed on a GE Logiq E9 ultrasound system with linear (9L or 11L), curved (C1-5), and sector (S1-5) transducers, using a CIRS model 040GSE phantom. In stability tests, the measurements of contrast, DOP, and spatial resolution remained within a ±10% variation threshold in 90%, 100%, and 69% of cases, respectively. In sensitivity tests, contrast, DOP, and spatial resolution measurements followed the expected behavior in 100%, 100%, and 72% of cases, respectively. In repeatability testing, intra- and inter-individual coefficients of variations were equal to or less than 3.2%, 1.3%, and 4.4% for contrast, DOP, and spatial resolution (lateral and axial), respectively. The coefficients of variation corresponding to the elevational resolution test were all within 9.5%. Overall, in our assessment, the evaluated package performed well for objective and quantitative assessment of the above-mentioned image qualities under well-controlled acquisition conditions. We are finding it to be useful for various clinical ultrasound applications including performance comparison between scanners from different vendors. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  20. THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy of Interstellar Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioppolo, Sergio; McGuire, Brett A.; de Vries, Xander; Carroll, Brandon; Allodi, Marco; Blake, Geoffrey

    2015-08-01

    The unambiguous identification of nearly 200 molecular species in different astronomical environments proves that our cosmos is a ‘Molecular Universe’. The cumulative outcome of recent observations, laboratory studies, and astrochemical models indicates that there is a strong interplay between the gas and the solid phase throughout the process of forming molecules in space. Observations of interstellar ices are generally limited to lines-of-sight along which infrared absorption spectroscopy is possible. Therefore, the identification of more complex prebiotic molecules in the mid-IR is difficult because of their low expected interstellar abundances and the overlap of their absorption features with those from the more abundant species. In the THz region, telescopes can detect Interstellar ices in emission or absorption against dust continuum. Thus, THz searches do not require a background point source. Moreover, since THz spectra are the fingerprint of inter- and intramolecular forces, complex species can present unique modes that do not overlap with those from simpler, more abundant molecules. THz modes are also sensitive to temperature and phase changes in the ice. Therefore, spectroscopy at THz frequencies has the potential to better characterize the physics and chemistry of the ISM. Currently, the Herschel Space Telescope, SOFIA, and ALMA databases contain a vast amount of new THz spectral data that require THz laboratory spectra for interpretation. The latter, however, are largely lacking. We have recently constructed a new THz time-domain spectroscopy system operating in the range between 0.3 - 7.5 THz. This work focuses on the laboratory investigation of the composition and structure of the most abundant interstellar ice analogs compared to some more complex species. Different temperatures, mixing ratios, and matrix isolation experiments will be shown. The ultimate goal of this research is to provide the scientific community with an extensive THz ice

  1. A multiband THz bandpass filter based on multiple-resonance excitation of a composite metamaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xu; Fan, Wen-Hui

    2015-01-01

    We present a systematic numerical study on a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) sandwich structure for multiple resonance transmission in terahertz (THz) region. The designed structure consists of periodic square close ring array on both side of a flexible dielectric substrate, exhibits a multiband transmission, with low average insertion loss, steep skirts and high out-of-band rejection. In addition, due to its rotationally symmetric structure, this filter is polarization-insensitive for normal incidence of the electromagnetic waves, keeping highly transmission at a wide range of incident angles for transverse electric waves and transverse magnetic waves. The metamaterial structure can be utilized as a desirable multiband filter with many practical applications, especially for THz communication, spectroscopic detection and phase imaging. (paper)

  2. THz and Sub-THz Capabilities of a Table-Top Radiation Source Driven by an RF Thermionic Electron Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, Alexei V.; Agustsson, R.; Boucher, S.; Campese, Tara; Chen, Y.C.; Hartzell, Josiah J.; Jocobson, B.T.; Murokh, A.; O' Shea, F.H.; Spranza, E.; Berg, W.; Borland, M.; Dooling, J. C.; Erwin, L.; Lindberg, R. R.; Pasky, S.J.; Sereno, N.; Sun, Y.; Zholents, A.

    2017-06-01

    Design features and experimental results are presented for a sub-mm wave source [1] based on APS RF thermionic electron gun. The setup includes compact alpha-magnet, quadrupoles, sub-mm-wave radiators, and THz optics. The sub-THz radiator is a planar, oversized structure with gratings. Source upgrade for generation frequencies above 1 THz is discussed. The THz radiator will use a short-period undulator having 1 T field amplitude, ~20 cm length, and integrated with a low-loss oversized waveguide. Both radiators are integrated with a miniature horn antenna and a small ~90°-degree in-vacuum bending magnet. The electron beamline is designed to operate different modes including conversion to a flat beam interacting efficiently with the radiator. The source can be used for cancer diagnostics, surface defectoscopy, and non-destructive testing. Sub-THz experiment demonstrated a good potential of a robust, table-top system for generation of a narrow bandwidth THz radiation. This setup can be considered as a prototype of a compact, laser-free, flexible source capable of generation of long trains of Sub-THz and THz pulses with repetition rates not available with laser-driven sources.

  3. Noise temperature of an NbN hot-electron bolometric mixer at frequencies from 0.7 THz to 5.2 THz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.; Semenov, A.; Gol'tsman, G.; Huebers, H-W.; Voronov, B.; Gershenzon, E.; Schwaab, G.

    1999-01-01

    We report on noise temperature measurements of an NbN phonon-cooled hot-electron bolometric mixer in the terahertz frequency range. The devices were 3 nm thick films with in-plane dimensions 1.7x0.2μm 2 and 0.9x0.2μm 2 integrated in a complementary logarithmic-spiral antenna. Measurements were performed at seven frequencies ranging from 0.7 THz to 5.2 THz. The measured DSB noise temperatures are 1500 K (0.7 THz), 2200 K (1.4 THz), 2600 K (1.6 THz), 2900 K (2.5 THz), 4000 K (3.1 THz), 5600 K (4.3 THz) and 8800 K (5.2 THz). (author)

  4. Formation of ghost images due to metal objects on the surface of the patient's face: A pictorial essay

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, B?rbara Couto; da Silva Izar, Bruna Raquel; Pereira, J?ssica Lourdes Costa; Souza, Priscilla Sena; Valerio, Claudia Scigliano; Tuji, Fabr?cio Mesquita; Manzi, Fl?vio Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Panoramic radiographs are a relatively simple technique that is commonly used in all dental specialties. In panoramic radiographs, in addition to the formation of real images of metal objects, ghost images may also form, and these ghost images can hinder an accurate diagnosis and interfere with the accuracy of radiology reports. Dentists must understand the formation of these images in order to avoid making incorrect radiographic diagnoses. Therefore, the present study sought to present a stu...

  5. Can state-of-the-art HVS-based objective image quality criteria be used for image reconstruction techniques based on ROI analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, P.; Krasula, L.; Klima, M.

    2012-06-01

    Various image processing techniques in multimedia technology are optimized using visual attention feature of the human visual system. Spatial non-uniformity causes that different locations in an image are of different importance in terms of perception of the image. In other words, the perceived image quality depends mainly on the quality of important locations known as regions of interest. The performance of such techniques is measured by subjective evaluation or objective image quality criteria. Many state-of-the-art objective metrics are based on HVS properties; SSIM, MS-SSIM based on image structural information, VIF based on the information that human brain can ideally gain from the reference image or FSIM utilizing the low-level features to assign the different importance to each location in the image. But still none of these objective metrics utilize the analysis of regions of interest. We solve the question if these objective metrics can be used for effective evaluation of images reconstructed by processing techniques based on ROI analysis utilizing high-level features. In this paper authors show that the state-of-the-art objective metrics do not correlate well with subjective evaluation while the demosaicing based on ROI analysis is used for reconstruction. The ROI were computed from "ground truth" visual attention data. The algorithm combining two known demosaicing techniques on the basis of ROI location is proposed to reconstruct the ROI in fine quality while the rest of image is reconstructed with low quality. The color image reconstructed by this ROI approach was compared with selected demosaicing techniques by objective criteria and subjective testing. The qualitative comparison of the objective and subjective results indicates that the state-of-the-art objective metrics are still not suitable for evaluation image processing techniques based on ROI analysis and new criteria is demanded.

  6. GRAIN-SIZE MEASUREMENTS OF FLUVIAL GRAVEL BARS USING OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Castro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional techniques for classifying the average grain size in gravel bars require manual measurements of each grain diameter. Aiming productivity, more efficient methods have been developed by applying remote sensing techniques and digital image processing. This research proposes an Object-Based Image Analysis methodology to classify gravel bars in fluvial channels. First, the study evaluates the performance of multiresolution segmentation algorithm (available at the software eCognition Developer in performing shape recognition. The linear regression model was applied to assess the correlation between the gravels’ reference delineation and the gravels recognized by the segmentation algorithm. Furthermore, the supervised classification was validated by comparing the results with field data using the t-statistic test and the kappa index. Afterwards, the grain size distribution in gravel bars along the upper Bananeiras River, Brazil was mapped. The multiresolution segmentation results did not prove to be consistent with all the samples. Nonetheless, the P01 sample showed an R2 =0.82 for the diameter estimation and R2=0.45 the recognition of the eliptical ft. The t-statistic showed no significant difference in the efficiencies of the grain size classifications by the field survey data and the Object-based supervised classification (t = 2.133 for a significance level of 0.05. However, the kappa index was 0.54. The analysis of the both segmentation and classification results did not prove to be replicable.

  7. Comparison of the performance of intraoral X-ray sensors using objective image quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellén-Halme, Kristina; Johansson, Curt; Nilsson, Mats

    2016-05-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 10 individual sensors of the same make, using objective measures of key image quality parameters. A further aim was to compare 8 brands of sensors. Ten new sensors of 8 different models from 6 manufacturers (i.e., 80 sensors) were included in the study. All sensors were exposed in a standardized way using an X-ray tube voltage of 60 kVp and different exposure times. Sensor response, noise, low-contrast resolution, spatial resolution and uniformity were measured. Individual differences between sensors of the same brand were surprisingly large in some cases. There were clear differences in the characteristics of the different brands of sensors. The largest variations were found for individual sensor response for some of the brands studied. Also, noise level and low contrast resolution showed large variations between brands. Sensors, even of the same brand, vary significantly in their quality. It is thus valuable to establish action levels for the acceptance of newly delivered sensors and to use objective image quality control for commissioning purposes and periodic checks to ensure high performance of individual digital sensors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An objective spinal motion imaging assessment (OSMIA): reliability, accuracy and exposure data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Alan C; Muggleton, Jennifer M; Mellor, Fiona E

    2006-01-04

    Minimally-invasive measurement of continuous inter-vertebral motion in clinical settings is difficult to achieve. This paper describes the reliability, validity and radiation exposure levels in a new Objective Spinal Motion Imaging Assessment system (OSMIA) based on low-dose fluoroscopy and image processing. Fluoroscopic sequences in coronal and sagittal planes were obtained from 2 calibration models using dry lumbar vertebrae, plus the lumbar spines of 30 asymptomatic volunteers. Calibration model 1 (mobile) was screened upright, in 7 inter-vertebral positions. The volunteers and calibration model 2 (fixed) were screened on a motorized table comprising 2 horizontal sections, one of which moved through 80 degrees. Model 2 was screened during motion 5 times and the L2-S1 levels of the volunteers twice. Images were digitised at 5fps. Inter-vertebral motion from model 1 was compared to its pre-settings to investigate accuracy. For volunteers and model 2, the first digitised image in each sequence was marked with templates. Vertebrae were tracked throughout the motion using automated frame-to-frame registration. For each frame, vertebral angles were subtracted giving inter-vertebral motion graphs. Volunteer data were acquired twice on the same day and analysed by two blinded observers. The root-mean-square (RMS) differences between paired data were used as the measure of reliability. RMS difference between reference and computed inter-vertebral angles in model 1 was 0.32 degrees for side-bending and 0.52 degrees for flexion-extension. For model 2, X-ray positioning contributed more to the variance of range measurement than did automated registration. For volunteer image sequences, RMS inter-observer variation in intervertebral motion range in the coronal plane was 1.86 degrees and intra-subject biological variation was between 2.75 degrees and 2.91 degrees. RMS inter-observer variation in the sagittal plane was 1.94 degrees. Radiation dosages in each view were below

  9. An objective spinal motion imaging assessment (OSMIA: reliability, accuracy and exposure data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellor Fiona E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimally-invasive measurement of continuous inter-vertebral motion in clinical settings is difficult to achieve. This paper describes the reliability, validity and radiation exposure levels in a new Objective Spinal Motion Imaging Assessment system (OSMIA based on low-dose fluoroscopy and image processing. Methods Fluoroscopic sequences in coronal and sagittal planes were obtained from 2 calibration models using dry lumbar vertebrae, plus the lumbar spines of 30 asymptomatic volunteers. Calibration model 1 (mobile was screened upright, in 7 inter-vertebral positions. The volunteers and calibration model 2 (fixed were screened on a motorised table comprising 2 horizontal sections, one of which moved through 80 degrees. Model 2 was screened during motion 5 times and the L2-S1 levels of the volunteers twice. Images were digitised at 5fps. Inter-vertebral motion from model 1 was compared to its pre-settings to investigate accuracy. For volunteers and model 2, the first digitised image in each sequence was marked with templates. Vertebrae were tracked throughout the motion using automated frame-to-frame registration. For each frame, vertebral angles were subtracted giving inter-vertebral motion graphs. Volunteer data were acquired twice on the same day and analysed by two blinded observers. The root-mean-square (RMS differences between paired data were used as the measure of reliability. Results RMS difference between reference and computed inter-vertebral angles in model 1 was 0.32 degrees for side-bending and 0.52 degrees for flexion-extension. For model 2, X-ray positioning contributed more to the variance of range measurement than did automated registration. For volunteer image sequences, RMS inter-observer variation in intervertebral motion range in the coronal plane was 1.86 degreesand intra-subject biological variation was between 2.75 degrees and 2.91 degrees. RMS inter-observer variation in the sagittal plane was 1

  10. A method for the evaluation of image quality according to the recognition effectiveness of objects in the optical remote sensing image using machine learning algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yuan

    Full Text Available Objective and effective image quality assessment (IQA is directly related to the application of optical remote sensing images (ORSI. In this study, a new IQA method of standardizing the target object recognition rate (ORR is presented to reflect quality. First, several quality degradation treatments with high-resolution ORSIs are implemented to model the ORSIs obtained in different imaging conditions; then, a machine learning algorithm is adopted for recognition experiments on a chosen target object to obtain ORRs; finally, a comparison with commonly used IQA indicators was performed to reveal their applicability and limitations. The results showed that the ORR of the original ORSI was calculated to be up to 81.95%, whereas the ORR ratios of the quality-degraded images to the original images were 65.52%, 64.58%, 71.21%, and 73.11%. The results show that these data can more accurately reflect the advantages and disadvantages of different images in object identification and information extraction when compared with conventional digital image assessment indexes. By recognizing the difference in image quality from the application effect perspective, using a machine learning algorithm to extract regional gray scale features of typical objects in the image for analysis, and quantitatively assessing quality of ORSI according to the difference, this method provides a new approach for objective ORSI assessment.

  11. A method for the evaluation of image quality according to the recognition effectiveness of objects in the optical remote sensing image using machine learning algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao; Zheng, Xinqi; Hu, Xuan; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Objective and effective image quality assessment (IQA) is directly related to the application of optical remote sensing images (ORSI). In this study, a new IQA method of standardizing the target object recognition rate (ORR) is presented to reflect quality. First, several quality degradation treatments with high-resolution ORSIs are implemented to model the ORSIs obtained in different imaging conditions; then, a machine learning algorithm is adopted for recognition experiments on a chosen target object to obtain ORRs; finally, a comparison with commonly used IQA indicators was performed to reveal their applicability and limitations. The results showed that the ORR of the original ORSI was calculated to be up to 81.95%, whereas the ORR ratios of the quality-degraded images to the original images were 65.52%, 64.58%, 71.21%, and 73.11%. The results show that these data can more accurately reflect the advantages and disadvantages of different images in object identification and information extraction when compared with conventional digital image assessment indexes. By recognizing the difference in image quality from the application effect perspective, using a machine learning algorithm to extract regional gray scale features of typical objects in the image for analysis, and quantitatively assessing quality of ORSI according to the difference, this method provides a new approach for objective ORSI assessment.

  12. UAV-based urban structural damage assessment using object-based image analysis and semantic reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Galarreta, J.; Kerle, N.; Gerke, M.

    2015-06-01

    Structural damage assessment is critical after disasters but remains a challenge. Many studies have explored the potential of remote sensing data, but limitations of vertical data persist. Oblique imagery has been identified as more useful, though the multi-angle imagery also adds a new dimension of complexity. This paper addresses damage assessment based on multi-perspective, overlapping, very high resolution oblique images obtained with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). 3-D point-cloud assessment for the entire building is combined with detailed object-based image analysis (OBIA) of façades and roofs. This research focuses not on automatic damage assessment, but on creating a methodology that supports the often ambiguous classification of intermediate damage levels, aiming at producing comprehensive per-building damage scores. We identify completely damaged structures in the 3-D point cloud, and for all other cases provide the OBIA-based damage indicators to be used as auxiliary information by damage analysts. The results demonstrate the usability of the 3-D point-cloud data to identify major damage features. Also the UAV-derived and OBIA-processed oblique images are shown to be a suitable basis for the identification of detailed damage features on façades and roofs. Finally, we also demonstrate the possibility of aggregating the multi-perspective damage information at building level.

  13. Object tracking with robotic total stations: Current technologies and improvements based on image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Matthias; Lienhart, Werner

    2017-09-01

    The importance of automated prism tracking is increasingly triggered by the rising automation of total station measurements in machine control, monitoring and one-person operation. In this article we summarize and explain the different techniques that are used to coarsely search a prism, to precisely aim at a prism, and to identify whether the correct prism is tracked. Along with the state-of-the-art review, we discuss and experimentally evaluate possible improvements based on the image data of an additional wide-angle camera which is available for many total stations today. In cases in which the total station's fine aiming module loses the prism, the tracked object may still be visible to the wide-angle camera because of its larger field of view. The theodolite angles towards the target can then be derived from its image coordinates which facilitates a fast reacquisition of the prism. In experimental measurements we demonstrate that our image-based approach for the coarse target search is 4 to 10-times faster than conventional approaches.

  14. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2016-04-07

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  15. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Frey, Eric C; Caffo, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  16. A novel lobster-eye imaging system based on Schmidt-type objective for X-ray-backscattering inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jie; Wang, Xin; Zhan, Qi; Huang, Shengling; Chen, Yifan; Mu, Baozhong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel lobster-eye imaging system for X-ray-backscattering inspection. The system was designed by modifying the Schmidt geometry into a treble-lens structure in order to reduce the resolution difference between the vertical and horizontal directions, as indicated by ray-tracing simulations. The lobster-eye X-ray imaging system is capable of operating over a wide range of photon energies up to 100 keV. In addition, the optics of the lobster-eye X-ray imaging system was tested to verify that they meet the requirements. X-ray-backscattering imaging experiments were performed in which T-shaped polymethyl-methacrylate objects were imaged by the lobster-eye X-ray imaging system based on both the double-lens and treble-lens Schmidt objectives. The results show similar resolution of the treble-lens Schmidt objective in both the vertical and horizontal directions. Moreover, imaging experiments were performed using a second treble-lens Schmidt objective with higher resolution. The results show that for a field of view of over 200 mm and with a 500 mm object distance, this lobster-eye X-ray imaging system based on a treble-lens Schmidt objective offers a spatial resolution of approximately 3 mm.

  17. Invited Review Article: Methods for imaging weak-phase objects in electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Contrast has traditionally been produced in electron-microscopy of weak phase objects by simply defocusing the objective lens. There now is renewed interest, however, in using devices that apply a uniform quarter-wave phase shift to the scattered electrons relative to the unscattered beam, or that generate in-focus image contrast in some other way. Renewed activity in making an electron-optical equivalent of the familiar “phase-contrast” light microscope is based in part on the improved possibilities that are now available for device microfabrication. There is also a better understanding that it is important to take full advantage of contrast that can be had at low spatial frequency when imaging large, macromolecular objects. In addition, a number of conceptually new phase-plate designs have been proposed, thus increasing the number of options that are available for development. The advantages, disadvantages, and current status of each of these options is now compared and contrasted. Experimental results that are, indeed, superior to what can be accomplished with defocus-based phase contrast have been obtained recently with two different designs of phase-contrast aperture. Nevertheless, extensive work also has shown that fabrication of such devices is inconsistent, and that their working lifetime is short. The main limitation, in fact, appears to be electrostatic charging of any device that is placed into the electron diffraction pattern. The challenge in fabricating phase plates that are practical to use for routine work in electron microscopy thus may be more in the area of materials science than in the area of electron optics

  18. A cross-correlation objective function for least-squares migration and visco-acoustic imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Gaurav

    2014-08-05

    Conventional acoustic least-squares migration inverts for a reflectivity image that best matches the amplitudes of the observed data. However, for field data applications, it is not easy to match the recorded amplitudes because of the visco-elastic nature of the earth and inaccuracies in the estimation of source signature and strength at different shot locations. To relax the requirement for strong amplitude matching of least-squares migration, we use a normalized cross-correlation objective function that is only sensitive to the similarity between the predicted and the observed data. Such a normalized cross-correlation objective function is also equivalent to a time-domain phase inversion method where the main emphasis is only on matching the phase of the data rather than the amplitude. Numerical tests on synthetic and field data show that such an objective function can be used as an alternative to visco-acoustic least-squares reverse time migration (Qp-LSRTM) when there is strong attenuation in the subsurface and the estimation of the attenuation parameter Qp is insufficiently accurate.

  19. A cross-correlation objective function for least-squares migration and visco-acoustic imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Gaurav; Sinha, Mrinal; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional acoustic least-squares migration inverts for a reflectivity image that best matches the amplitudes of the observed data. However, for field data applications, it is not easy to match the recorded amplitudes because of the visco-elastic nature of the earth and inaccuracies in the estimation of source signature and strength at different shot locations. To relax the requirement for strong amplitude matching of least-squares migration, we use a normalized cross-correlation objective function that is only sensitive to the similarity between the predicted and the observed data. Such a normalized cross-correlation objective function is also equivalent to a time-domain phase inversion method where the main emphasis is only on matching the phase of the data rather than the amplitude. Numerical tests on synthetic and field data show that such an objective function can be used as an alternative to visco-acoustic least-squares reverse time migration (Qp-LSRTM) when there is strong attenuation in the subsurface and the estimation of the attenuation parameter Qp is insufficiently accurate.

  20. Formation of ghost images due to metal objects on the surface of the patient's face: A pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Bárbara Couto; da Silva Izar, Bruna Raquel; Pereira, Jéssica Lourdes Costa; Souza, Priscilla Sena; Valerio, Claudia Scigliano; Tuji, Fabrício Mesquita; Manzi, Flávio Ricardo

    2016-03-01

    Panoramic radiographs are a relatively simple technique that is commonly used in all dental specialties. In panoramic radiographs, in addition to the formation of real images of metal objects, ghost images may also form, and these ghost images can hinder an accurate diagnosis and interfere with the accuracy of radiology reports. Dentists must understand the formation of these images in order to avoid making incorrect radiographic diagnoses. Therefore, the present study sought to present a study of the formation of panoramic radiograph ghost images caused by metal objects in the head and neck region of a dry skull, as well as to report a clinical case n order to warn dentists about ghost images and to raise awareness thereof. An understanding of the principles of the formation of ghost images in panoramic radiographs helps prevent incorrect diagnoses.

  1. Characterisation of historic plastics using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and pulsed imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, Gianluca; Trafela, Tanja; Taday, Phillip F; Portieri, Alessia; Lowe, David; Fukunaga, Kaori; Strlič, Matija

    2012-05-01

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy and 3D THz pulsed imaging have been explored with regard to polymer materials, both commodity and historic polymers. A systematic spectroscopic study of a wide range of different polymer materials showed significant differences in their spectra. Polyolefins and polystyrenes generally exhibit lower absorption than other examined polymers, various cellulose derivates, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(methyl methacrylate), polyamide, hard rubber and phenol formaldehyde resin, the last of these exhibiting the most intense absorption over the entire range, 0.15-4.2 THz. It was also examined how the presence of plasticisers in poly(vinyl chloride), the presence of fillers in polypropylene, and the degree of branching in polyethylene and polystyrene affect the spectra; inorganic fillers in polypropylene affected the absorption most. With 3D THz pulsed imaging, features in polymer objects were explored, appearing either as integral parts of the material (coatings and pores in foams) or as a consequence of physical deterioration (cracks, delamination). All of these features of various complexities can be successfully imaged in 3D. Terahertz technology is thus shown to have significant potential for both chemical and structural characterisation of polymers, which will be of interest to heritage science, but also to the polymer industry and development of analytical technologies in general.

  2. Terahertz imaging applied to cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, M.-A.; Formanek, F.; Yasuda, A.; Sekine, M.; Ando, N.; Eishii, Y.

    2010-08-01

    We report on terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy imaging of 10 µm thick histological sections. The sections are prepared according to standard pathological procedures and deposited on a quartz window for measurements in reflection geometry. Simultaneous acquisition of visible images enables registration of THz images and thus the use of digital pathology tools to investigate the links between the underlying cellular structure and specific THz information. An analytic model taking into account the polarization of the THz beam, its incidence angle, the beam shift between the reference and sample pulses as well as multiple reflections within the sample is employed to determine the frequency-dependent complex refractive index. Spectral images are produced through segmentation of the extracted refractive index data using clustering methods. Comparisons of visible and THz images demonstrate spectral differences not only between tumor and healthy tissues but also within tumors. Further visualization using principal component analysis suggests different mechanisms as to the origin of image contrast.

  3. Terahertz imaging applied to cancer diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, M-A; Formanek, F; Yasuda, A [Life Science Laboratory, Advanced Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510 (Japan); Sekine, M; Ando, N; Eishii, Y, E-mail: florian.formanek@jp.sony.co [Department of Human Pathology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510 (Japan)

    2010-08-21

    We report on terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy imaging of 10 {mu}m thick histological sections. The sections are prepared according to standard pathological procedures and deposited on a quartz window for measurements in reflection geometry. Simultaneous acquisition of visible images enables registration of THz images and thus the use of digital pathology tools to investigate the links between the underlying cellular structure and specific THz information. An analytic model taking into account the polarization of the THz beam, its incidence angle, the beam shift between the reference and sample pulses as well as multiple reflections within the sample is employed to determine the frequency-dependent complex refractive index. Spectral images are produced through segmentation of the extracted refractive index data using clustering methods. Comparisons of visible and THz images demonstrate spectral differences not only between tumor and healthy tissues but also within tumors. Further visualization using principal component analysis suggests different mechanisms as to the origin of image contrast.

  4. A strategy to objectively evaluate the necessity of correcting detected target deviations in image guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Ning J.; Kim, Sung; Jabbour, Salma; Narra, Venkat; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2007-01-01

    Image guided radiotherapy technologies are being increasingly utilized in the treatment of various cancers. These technologies have enhanced the ability to detect temporal and spatial deviations of the target volume relative to planned radiation beams. Correcting these detected deviations may, in principle, improve the accuracy of dose delivery to the target. However, in many situations, a clinical decision has to be made as to whether it is necessary to correct some of the deviations since the relevant dosimetric impact may or may not be significant, and the corresponding corrective action may be either impractical or time consuming. Ideally this decision should be based on objective and reproducible criteria rather than subjective judgment. In this study, a strategy is proposed for the objective evaluation of the necessity of deviation correction during the treatment verification process. At the treatment stage, without any alteration from the planned beams, the treatment beams should provide the desired dose coverage to the geometric volume identical to the planning target volume (PTV). Given this fact, the planned dose distribution and PTV geometry were used to compute the dose coverage and PTV enclosure of the clinical target volume (CTV) that was detected from imaging during the treatment setup verification. The spatial differences between the detected CTV and the planning CTV are essentially the target deviations. The extent of the PTV enclosure of the detected CTV as well as its dose coverage were used as criteria to evaluate the necessity of correcting any of the target deviations. This strategy, in principle, should be applicable to any type of target deviations, including both target deformable and positional changes and should be independent of how the deviations are detected. The proposed strategy was used on two clinical prostate cancer cases. In both cases, gold markers were implanted inside the prostate for the purpose of treatment setup

  5. Nonlinear THz spectroscopy on n-type GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaal, Peter

    2008-06-23

    In this thesis, the ultrafast dynamics of conduction band electrons in semiconductors are investigated by nonlinear terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. In particular, n-doped gallium arsenide samples with doping concentrations in the range of 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} to 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} are studied. A novel source for the generation of intense THz radiation is developed which yields single-cycle THz transients with field amplitudes of more then 400 kV/cm. The THz source uses ultrashort optical laser pulses provided by a Ti:sapphire oscillator. In addition, a two-color THz-pump mid-infrared-probe setup is implemented, which allows for two-dimensional time-resolved experiments in the far-infrared wavelength range. Field ionization of neutral shallow donors in gallium arsenide with intense, ultrashort THz pulses and subsequent coherent radiative recombination of electrons to impurity ground states is observed at room temperature. The superradiant decay of the nonlinear polarization results in the emission of a coherent signal with picosecond lifetimes. Such nonlinear signals, which exhibit a lifetime ten times longer than in the linear regime are observed for the first time. At low temperatures and THz field strengths below 5 kV/cm, Rabi flopping on shallow donor transitions is demonstrated. For the first time, the polar electron-LO phonon interaction is directly measured in the quantum kinetic transport regime. Quasi-instantaneous acceleration of conduction band electrons in the polar gallium arsenide lattice by the electric field of intense THz pulses and subsequent probing of the mid-infrared transmission reveals a modulation of the transmission along the THz-mid-infrared delay coordinate with the frequency of the LO phonon. These modulations directly display the relative phase between the electron motion and its surrounding virtual phonon cloud. Quantum kinetic model calculations fully account for the observed phenomena. (orig.)

  6. Information Recovery Algorithm for Ground Objects in Thin Cloud Images by Fusing Guide Filter and Transfer Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Gensheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground object information of remote sensing images covered with thin clouds is obscure. An information recovery algorithm for ground objects in thin cloud images is proposed by fusing guide filter and transfer learning. Firstly, multi-resolution decomposition of thin cloud target images and cloud-free guidance images is performed by using multi-directional nonsubsampled dual-tree complex wavelet transform. Then the decomposed low frequency subbands are processed by using support vector guided filter and transfer learning respectively. The decomposed high frequency subbands are enhanced by using modified Laine enhancement function. The low frequency subbands output by guided filter and those predicted by transfer learning model are fused by the method of selection and weighting based on regional energy. Finally, the enhanced high frequency subbands and the fused low frequency subbands are reconstructed by using inverse multi-directional nonsubsampled dual-tree complex wavelet transform to obtain the ground object information recovery images. Experimental results of Landsat-8 OLI multispectral images show that, support vector guided filter can effectively preserve the detail information of the target images, domain adaptive transfer learning can effectively extend the range of available multi-source and multi-temporal remote sensing images, and good effects for ground object information recover are obtained by fusing guide filter and transfer learning to remove thin cloud on the remote sensing images.

  7. Objective evaluation of Tl-201 image efficacy for detection of myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Teruo; Murata, Kazuhiko; Torizuka, Kanji

    1982-01-01

    As the 3rd report of the objective analysis of radioactive 201 Tl scintigraphy of myocardial infarction, detection of infarction and extent of the lesion was discussed. In 114 cases with relatively definite findings, their images were rereaded and evaluated by 2 physicians. Segmental analysis in each direction was employed for localization of perfusion defects. Comparison between the sites of myocardial infarction on ECG and that of perfusion defects by segmental analysis revealed that, in infarction of the anterior wall, many segments showed defects, and that the lesions of the posterior and lateral wall had a few segments showing defects. This standard of correlation was applied to other cases of myocardial infarction, and the result suggested possible improvement in detection of infarction. As regards the extent of the lesion, no significant correlation between number of segments with defect and ECG and/or the serum enzyme levels were seen. (Ueda, J.)

  8. Rotational spectrum of formaldehyde reinvestigated using a photomixing THz synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliet, Sophie; Cuisset, Arnaud; Guinet, Mickaël; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gaël; Bocquet, Robin; Demaison, Jean

    2012-09-01

    Approximately 60 pure rotational frequency transitions of formaldehyde in its ground state have been measured with sub-MHz uncertainty in the 0.7-1.8 THz frequency range using a photomixing THz synthesizer locked onto a frequency comb. The frequencies associated with previous submillimeter and infrared data have been included in a fit providing a new set of improved molecular parameters. The assignment of each line was checked using the usual statistical diagnostics. Finally, the ability of the continuous-wave spectrometer coupled to a multipass-cell to measure THz rotational transitions of H2CO in the 31, 41 and 61 vibrational states was demonstrated.

  9. A European Project on Vacuum Tube Amplifiers for THz Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paoloni, Claudio; Di Carlo, Aldo; Brunetti, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The OPTHER (Optically Driven THz amplifier) project supported by the European Commission within the Seventh Framework Program (FP7) represents the first joint European attempt to realize vacuum electron devices in THz range. The target of the project was to design and realize the first 1 THz vacuum...... tube amplifier. The challenges of the presented task and the innovative solutions adopted established a new level of knowledge in the field. The main aspects of the OPTHER project are described, focusing on challenges and adopted innovative solutions....

  10. Design and Fabrication of a 1 THz Backward Wave Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paoloni, Claudio; Di Carlo, Aldo; Brunetti, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    , to get a level of output power to enable applications at these frequencies. The OPTHER (Optically driven THz amplifier) project, funded by the European Community, is on the road to realize the first 1 THz vacuum tube amplifier. Technology at the state of the art has been used for the realization...... of the parts with dimensions supporting THz frequencies. A backward wave amplifier configuration is chosen to make the parts realizable. A carbon nanotube cold cathode has been considered for electron generation. A thermionic micro electron gun is designed to test the tube. A novel slow-wave structure (SWS...

  11. Superthin resonator dye laser with THz intermode frequency separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudych, P D; Surovtsev, N V

    2014-01-01

    Two-color laser irradiation is considered an effective way to pump THz excitations for numerous scientific and applied goals. We present a design for convenient laser source with THz intermode frequency separation. The setup is based on dye laser with superthin resonator pumped by a subnanosecond pulse laser. It was proven that the superthin resonator dye laser is useful, possesses high stability and high energy conversion, and generates narrow laser modes. The ability of this laser to pump CARS processes for THz vibrations is demonstrated. (letter)

  12. Objective quality assessment of stereoscopic images with vertical disparity using EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi Avarvand, Forooz; Bosse, Sebastian; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Schäfer, Ralf; Nolte, Guido; Wiegand, Thomas; Curio, Gabriel; Samek, Wojciech

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Neurophysiological correlates of vertical disparity in 3D images are studied in an objective approach using EEG technique. These disparities are known to negatively affect the quality of experience and to cause visual discomfort in stereoscopic visualizations. Approach. We have presented four conditions to subjects: one in 2D and three conditions in 3D, one without vertical disparity and two with different vertical disparity levels. Event related potentials (ERPs) are measured for each condition and the differences between ERP components are studied. Analysis is also performed on the induced potentials in the time frequency domain. Main results. Results show that there is a significant increase in the amplitude of P1 components in 3D conditions in comparison to 2D. These results are consistent with previous studies which have shown that P1 amplitude increases due to the depth perception in 3D compared to 2D. However the amplitude is significantly smaller for maximum vertical disparity (3D-3) in comparison to 3D with no vertical disparity. Our results therefore suggest that the vertical disparity in 3D-3 condition decreases the perception of depth compared to other 3D conditions and the amplitude of P1 component can be used as a discriminative feature. Significance. The results show that the P1 component increases in amplitude due to the depth perception in the 3D stimuli compared to the 2D stimulus. On the other hand the vertical disparity in the stereoscopic images is studied here. We suggest that the amplitude of P1 component is modulated with this parameter and decreases due to the decrease in the perception of depth.

  13. Object-oriented classification using quasi-synchronous multispectral images (optical and radar) over agricultural surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais Sicre, Claire; Baup, Frederic; Fieuzal, Remy

    2015-04-01

    In the context of climate change (with consequences on temperature and precipitation patterns), persons involved in agricultural management have the imperative to combine: sufficient productivity (as a response of the increment of the necessary foods) and durability of the resources (in order to restrain waste of water, fertilizer or environmental damages). To this end, a detailed knowledge of land use will improve the management of food and water, while preserving the ecosystems. Among the wide range of available monitoring tools, numerous studies demonstrated the interest of satellite images for agricultural mapping. Recently, the launch of several radar and optical sensors offer new perspectives for the multi-wavelength crop monitoring (Terrasar-X, Radarsat-2, Sentinel-1, Landsat-8…) allowing surface survey whatever the cloud conditions. Previous studies have demonstrated the interest of using multi-temporal approaches for crop classification, requiring several images for suitable classification results. Unfortunately, these approaches are limited (due to the satellite orbit cycle) and require waiting several days, week or month before offering an accurate land use map. The objective of this study is to compare the accuracy of object-oriented classification (random forest algorithm combined with vector layer coming from segmentation) to map winter crop (barley, rapeseed, grasslands and wheat) and soil states (bare soils with different surface roughness) using quasi-synchronous images. Satellite data are composed of multi-frequency and multi-polarization (HH, VV, HV and VH) images acquired near the 14th of April, 2010, over a studied area (90km²) located close to Toulouse in France. This is a region of alluvial plains and hills, which are mostly mixed farming and governed by a temperate climate. Remote sensing images are provided by Formosat-2 (04/18), Radarsat-2 (C-band, 04/15), Terrasar-X (X-band, 04/14) and ALOS (L-band, 04/14). Ground data are collected

  14. Subjective and objective measurements of visual fatigue induced by excessive disparities in stereoscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong Ju; Kim, Dongchan; Sohn, Hosik; Lee, Seong-il; Park, Hyun Wook; Ro, Yong Man

    2013-03-01

    As stereoscopic displays have spread, it is important to know what really causes the visual fatigue and discomfort and what happens in the visual system in the brain behind the retina while viewing stereoscopic 3D images on the displays. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used for the objective measurement to assess the human brain regions involved in the processing of the stereoscopic stimuli with excessive disparities. Based on the subjective measurement results, we selected two subsets of comfort videos and discomfort videos in our dataset. Then, a fMRI experiment was conducted with the subsets of comfort and discomfort videos in order to identify which brain regions activated while viewing the discomfort videos in a stereoscopic display. We found that, when viewing a stereoscopic display, the right middle frontal gyrus, the right inferior frontal gyrus, the right intraparietal lobule, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the bilateral cuneus were significantly activated during the processing of excessive disparities, compared to those of small disparities (< 1 degree).

  15. Comparison of pixel and object-based classification for burned area mapping using SPOT-6 images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Sertel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available On 30 May 2013, a forest fire occurred in Izmir, Turkey causing damage to both forest and fruit trees within the region. In this research, pre- and post-fire SPOT-6 images obtained on 30 April 2013 and 31 May 2013 were used to identify the extent of forest fire within the region. SPOT-6 images of the study region were orthorectified and classified using pixel and object-based classification (OBC algorithms to accurately delineate the boundaries of burned areas. The present results show that for OBC using only normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI thresholds is not sufficient enough to map the burn scars; however, creating a new and simple rule set that included mean brightness values of near infrared and red channels in addition to mean NDVI values of segments considerably improved the accuracy of classification. According to the accuracy assessment results, the burned area was mapped with a 0.9322 kappa value in OBC, while a 0.7433 kappa value was observed in pixel-based classification. Lastly, classification results were integrated with the forest management map to determine the effected forest types after the fire to be used by the National Forest Directorate for their operational activities to effectively manage the fire, response and recovery processes.

  16. Monitoring Urban Tree Cover Using Object-Based Image Analysis and Public Domain Remotely Sensed Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Halabisky

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban forest ecosystems provide a range of social and ecological services, but due to the heterogeneity of these canopies their spatial extent is difficult to quantify and monitor. Traditional per-pixel classification methods have been used to map urban canopies, however, such techniques are not generally appropriate for assessing these highly variable landscapes. Landsat imagery has historically been used for per-pixel driven land use/land cover (LULC classifications, but the spatial resolution limits our ability to map small urban features. In such cases, hyperspatial resolution imagery such as aerial or satellite imagery with a resolution of 1 meter or below is preferred. Object-based image analysis (OBIA allows for use of additional variables such as texture, shape, context, and other cognitive information provided by the image analyst to segment and classify image features, and thus, improve classifications. As part of this research we created LULC classifications for a pilot study area in Seattle, WA, USA, using OBIA techniques and freely available public aerial photography. We analyzed the differences in accuracies which can be achieved with OBIA using multispectral and true-color imagery. We also compared our results to a satellite based OBIA LULC and discussed the implications of per-pixel driven vs. OBIA-driven field sampling campaigns. We demonstrated that the OBIA approach can generate good and repeatable LULC classifications suitable for tree cover assessment in urban areas. Another important finding is that spectral content appeared to be more important than spatial detail of hyperspatial data when it comes to an OBIA-driven LULC.

  17. Introduction to the GEOBIA 2010 special issue: From pixels to geographic objects in remote sensing image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addink, Elisabeth A.; Van Coillie, Frieke M. B.; De Jong, Steven M.

    2012-04-01

    Traditional image analysis methods are mostly pixel-based and use the spectral differences of landscape elements at the Earth surface to classify these elements or to extract element properties from the Earth Observation image. Geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) has received considerable attention over the past 15 years for analyzing and interpreting remote sensing imagery. In contrast to traditional image analysis, GEOBIA works more like the human eye-brain combination does. The latter uses the object's color (spectral information), size, texture, shape and occurrence to other image objects to interpret and analyze what we see. GEOBIA starts by segmenting the image grouping together pixels into objects and next uses a wide range of object properties to classify the objects or to extract object's properties from the image. Significant advances and improvements in image analysis and interpretation are made thanks to GEOBIA. In June 2010 the third conference on GEOBIA took place at the Ghent University after successful previous meetings in Calgary (2008) and Salzburg (2006). This special issue presents a selection of the 2010 conference papers that are worked out as full research papers for JAG. The papers cover GEOBIA applications as well as innovative methods and techniques. The topics range from vegetation mapping, forest parameter estimation, tree crown identification, urban mapping, land cover change, feature selection methods and the effects of image compression on segmentation. From the original 94 conference papers, 26 full research manuscripts were submitted; nine papers were selected and are presented in this special issue. Selection was done on the basis of quality and topic of the studies. The next GEOBIA conference will take place in Rio de Janeiro from 7 to 9 May 2012 where we hope to welcome even more scientists working in the field of GEOBIA.

  18. Globally Stable Microresonator Turing Pattern Formation for Coherent High-Power THz Radiation On-Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Wei; Yang, Jinghui; Yang, Shang-Hua; Yu, Mingbin; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Zelevinsky, T.; Jarrahi, Mona; Wong, Chee Wei

    2017-10-01

    In nonlinear microresonators driven by continuous-wave (cw) lasers, Turing patterns have been studied in the formalism of the Lugiato-Lefever equation with emphasis on their high coherence and exceptional robustness against perturbations. Destabilization of Turing patterns and the transition to spatiotemporal chaos, however, limit the available energy carried in the Turing rolls and prevent further harvest of their high coherence and robustness to noise. Here, we report a novel scheme to circumvent such destabilization, by incorporating the effect of local mode hybridizations, and we attain globally stable Turing pattern formation in chip-scale nonlinear oscillators with significantly enlarged parameter space, achieving a record-high power-conversion efficiency of 45% and an elevated peak-to-valley contrast of 100. The stationary Turing pattern is discretely tunable across 430 GHz on a THz carrier, with a fractional frequency sideband nonuniformity measured at 7.3 ×10-14 . We demonstrate the simultaneous microwave and optical coherence of the Turing rolls at different evolution stages through ultrafast optical correlation techniques. The free-running Turing-roll coherence, 9 kHz in 200 ms and 160 kHz in 20 minutes, is transferred onto a plasmonic photomixer for one of the highest-power THz coherent generations at room temperature, with 1.1% optical-to-THz power conversion. Its long-term stability can be further improved by more than 2 orders of magnitude, reaching an Allan deviation of 6 ×10-10 at 100 s, with a simple computer-aided slow feedback control. The demonstrated on-chip coherent high-power Turing-THz system is promising to find applications in astrophysics, medical imaging, and wireless communications.

  19. Numerical correction of anti-symmetric aberrations in single HRTEM images of weakly scattering 2D-objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Ossi; Geiger, Dorin; Lee, Zhongbo; Whitwick, Michael Brian; Chen, Ming-Wei; Kis, Andras; Kaiser, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a numerical post-processing method for removing the effect of anti-symmetric residual aberrations in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images of weakly scattering 2D-objects. The method is based on applying the same aberrations with the opposite phase to the Fourier transform of the recorded image intensity and subsequently inverting the Fourier transform. We present the theoretical justification of the method, and its verification based on simulated images in the case of low-order anti-symmetric aberrations. Ultimately the method is applied to experimental hardware aberration-corrected HRTEM images of single-layer graphene and MoSe 2 resulting in images with strongly reduced residual low-order aberrations, and consequently improved interpretability. Alternatively, this method can be used to estimate by trial and error the residual anti-symmetric aberrations in HRTEM images of weakly scattering objects

  20. Paper on Designing Costless THz Paper Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siemion

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing diffractive optical elements is crucial for efficient development of THz techniques. Here, we consider paper structures and we analyze their advantages and disadvantages in fast prototyping. The discussion about using material parameters like refractive index and absorption coefficient in designing diffractive optical elements is shown. We analyze the influence of phase step mismatch, of attenuation of real structure, and of nonuniform illumination on the efficiency of the structure. All these features result in worsening of the diffraction efficiency but they do not seem to have such significant influence as shadow effect introduced by fast varying zones. Diffractive elements can be designed with very good accordance with experimental results which makes them ideal for possible applications. Paper optics scan be used more for fast prototyping; nevertheless its performance can be increased by placing it inside water protecting foil.

  1. Infrared and THz spectroscopy of nanostructured dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Petzelt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Results achieved using the infrared/THz spectroscopy of various inhomogeneous dielectrics in the Department of Dielectrics, Institute of Physics, Prague, during the last decade are briefly reviewed. The discussion concerns high-permittivity ceramics with inevitable low-permittivity dead layers along the grain boundaries, relaxor ferroelectrics with highly anisotropic polar nano-regions, classical matrix-type composites, core-shell composites, filled nanoporous glasses, polycrystalline and epitaxial thin films, heterostructures and superlattices on dielectric substrates. The analysis using models based on the effective medium approach is discussed. The importance of depolarizing field and of the percolation of components on the effective ac dielectric response and the excitations contributing to it are emphasized.

  2. On image pre-processing for PIV of sinlge- and two-phase flows over reflecting objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deen, N.G.; Willems, P.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Wessling, Matthias; van der Meer, Walterus Gijsbertus Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A novel image pre-processing scheme for PIV of single- and two-phase flows over reflecting objects which does not require the use of additional hardware is discussed. The approach for single-phase flow consists of image normalization and intensity stretching followed by background subtraction. For

  3. Reconstruction of an Non-Monochromatically Illuminated Object Imaged through an Electron Microscope with a Fluctuating Electromagnetic Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenders, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that a weak phase object imaged by an electron microscope within the presence of instabilities of the lense currents and the acceleration voltage, fluctuating electromagnetic field, can be reconstructed from the intensity distribution in the image plane. Perfectly incoherent illumination

  4. Objective image quality parameters of relevance in practice, measured for film-screen combinations - a contribution to quality assurance activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angerstein, W.; Wolf, M.

    1986-01-01

    Objective measurement of the physico-technical parameters determining the image quality is the fastest and most accurate method of quality testing of the systems. The parameters in case of X-ray intensifying screens are imaging quality, servicable life, and mechanical properties. (orig./DG) [de

  5. Objective and expert-independent validation of retinal image registration algorithms by a projective imaging distortion model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Sangyeol; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Cattin, Philippe C.; Abramoff, M.D.

    2010-01-01

    Fundus camera imaging of the retina is widely used to diagnose and manage ophthalmologic disorders including diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Retinal images typically have a limited field of view, and multiple images can be joined together using an image

  6. Perspective: Ultrafast magnetism and THz spintronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walowski, Jakob; Münzenberg, Markus [Institut für Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-10-14

    This year the discovery of femtosecond demagnetization by laser pulses is 20 years old. For the first time, this milestone work by Bigot and coworkers gave insight directly into the time scales of microscopic interactions that connect the spin and electron system. While intense discussions in the field were fueled by the complexity of the processes in the past, it now became evident that it is a puzzle of many different parts. Rather than providing an overview that has been presented in previous reviews on ultrafast processes in ferromagnets, this perspective will show that with our current depth of knowledge the first applications are developed: THz spintronics and all-optical spin manipulation are becoming more and more feasible. The aim of this perspective is to point out where we can connect the different puzzle pieces of understanding gathered over 20 years to develop novel applications. Based on many observations in a large number of experiments. Differences in the theoretical models arise from the localized and delocalized nature of ferromagnetism. Transport effects are intrinsically non-local in spintronic devices and at interfaces. We review the need for multiscale modeling to address the processes starting from electronic excitation of the spin system on the picometer length scale and sub-femtosecond time scale, to spin wave generation, and towards the modeling of ultrafast phase transitions that altogether determine the response time of the ferromagnetic system. Today, our current understanding gives rise to the first usage of ultrafast spin physics for ultrafast magnetism control: THz spintronic devices. This makes the field of ultrafast spin-dynamics an emerging topic open for many researchers right now.

  7. Perspective: Ultrafast magnetism and THz spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walowski, Jakob; Münzenberg, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This year the discovery of femtosecond demagnetization by laser pulses is 20 years old. For the first time, this milestone work by Bigot and coworkers gave insight directly into the time scales of microscopic interactions that connect the spin and electron system. While intense discussions in the field were fueled by the complexity of the processes in the past, it now became evident that it is a puzzle of many different parts. Rather than providing an overview that has been presented in previous reviews on ultrafast processes in ferromagnets, this perspective will show that with our current depth of knowledge the first applications are developed: THz spintronics and all-optical spin manipulation are becoming more and more feasible. The aim of this perspective is to point out where we can connect the different puzzle pieces of understanding gathered over 20 years to develop novel applications. Based on many observations in a large number of experiments. Differences in the theoretical models arise from the localized and delocalized nature of ferromagnetism. Transport effects are intrinsically non-local in spintronic devices and at interfaces. We review the need for multiscale modeling to address the processes starting from electronic excitation of the spin system on the picometer length scale and sub-femtosecond time scale, to spin wave generation, and towards the modeling of ultrafast phase transitions that altogether determine the response time of the ferromagnetic system. Today, our current understanding gives rise to the first usage of ultrafast spin physics for ultrafast magnetism control: THz spintronic devices. This makes the field of ultrafast spin-dynamics an emerging topic open for many researchers right now.

  8. Possible standoff detection of ionizing radiation using high-power THz electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Sprangle, Phillip; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.; Rodgers, John; Pu, Ruifeng; Kashyn, Dmytro G.; Antonsen, Thomas M., Jr.; Granatstein, Victor L.

    2012-06-01

    Recently, a new method of remote detection of concealed radioactive materials was proposed. This method is based on focusing high-power short wavelength electromagnetic radiation in a small volume where the wave electric field exceeds the breakdown threshold. In the presence of free electrons caused by ionizing radiation, in this volume an avalanche discharge can then be initiated. When the wavelength is short enough, the probability of having even one free electron in this small volume in the absence of additional sources of ionization is low. Hence, a high breakdown rate will indicate that in the vicinity of this volume there are some materials causing ionization of air. To prove this concept a 0.67 THz gyrotron delivering 200-300 kW power in 10 microsecond pulses is under development. This method of standoff detection of concealed sources of ionizing radiation requires a wide range of studies, viz., evaluation of possible range, THz power and pulse duration, production of free electrons in air by gamma rays penetrating through container walls, statistical delay time in initiation of the breakdown in the case of low electron density, temporal evolution of plasma structure in the breakdown and scattering of THz radiation from small plasma objects. Most of these issues are discussed in the paper.

  9. Semiconductor plasmonic crystals : active control of THz extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, M.C.; Gomez Rivas, J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the enhanced THz extinction by periodic arrays of semiconductor particles. Scattering particles of doped semiconductors can sustain localized surface plasmon polaritons, which can be diffractively coupled giving rise to surface lattice resonances. These resonances are

  10. In vitro osteosarcoma biosensing using THz time domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Bradley S.; Liu, Haibo; Hay, Shelley; Findlay, David; Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Abbott, Derek

    2004-03-01

    Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has a wide range of applications from semiconductor diagnostics to biosensing. Recent attention has focused on bio-applications and several groups have noted the ability of THz-TDS to differentiate basal cell carcinoma tissue from healthy dermal tissue ex vivo. The contrast mechanism is unclear but has been attributed to increased interstitial water in cancerous tissue. In this work we investigate the THz response of human osteosarcoma cells and normal human bone cells grown in culture to isolate the cells' responses from other effects. A classification algorithms based on a frequency selection by genetic algorithm is used to attempt to differentiate between the cell types based on the THz spectra. Encouraging preliminary results have been obtained.

  11. Modelling, fabrication and characterisation of THz fractal meta-materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, S.; Zhou, L.; Malureanu, Radu

    2011-01-01

    We present theoretical predictions, fabrication procedure and characterisation results of fractal metamaterials for the THz frequency range. The characterisation results match well the predicted response thus validating both the fabrication procedure as well as the simulation one. Such systems sh...

  12. Numerical suppression of the twin image in in-line holography of a volume of micro-objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, L; Fournier, C; Fournel, T; Ducottet, C

    2008-01-01

    We address the twin-image problem that arises in holography due to the lack of phase information in intensity measurements. This problem is of great importance in in-line holography where spatial elimination of the twin image cannot be carried out as in off-axis holography. A unifying description of existing digital suppression methods is given in the light of deconvolution techniques. Holograms of objects spread in 3D cannot be processed through available approaches. We suggest an iterative algorithm and demonstrate its efficacy on both simulated and real data. This method is suitable to enhance the reconstructed images from a digital hologram of small objects

  13. A NEW FRAMEWORK FOR OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON SEGMENTATION SCALE SPACE AND RANDOM FOREST CLASSIFIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hadavand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new object-based framework is developed for automate scale selection in image segmentation. The quality of image objects have an important impact on further analyses. Due to the strong dependency of segmentation results to the scale parameter, choosing the best value for this parameter, for each class, becomes a main challenge in object-based image analysis. We propose a new framework which employs pixel-based land cover map to estimate the initial scale dedicated to each class. These scales are used to build segmentation scale space (SSS, a hierarchy of image objects. Optimization of SSS, respect to NDVI and DSM values in each super object is used to get the best scale in local regions of image scene. Optimized SSS segmentations are finally classified to produce the final land cover map. Very high resolution aerial image and digital surface model provided by ISPRS 2D semantic labelling dataset is used in our experiments. The result of our proposed method is comparable to those of ESP tool, a well-known method to estimate the scale of segmentation, and marginally improved the overall accuracy of classification from 79% to 80%.

  14. Hybrid antiresonant metamaterial waveguides for THz and IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Lwin, Richard; Argyros, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We report on a novel waveguide concept which combines antiresonant and metamaterial guidance. The guidance is achieved in the hollow core and loss as low as 2.3 dB/km are theoretically achievable in the THz frequency range. Both purely antiresonant and antiresonant metamaterial fibers have been f...... fabricated and characterized. The realized metamaterial fiber has been simulated to have 0.3 dB/m loss at 0.3 THz....

  15. THz induced nonlinear absorption in ZnTe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2015-01-01

    Absorption spectra of ZnTe during strong-field THz interaction are investigated. Bleaching of the difference phonon modes below the fundamental TO mode is observed when field strengths higher than 4 MV/cm are applied.......Absorption spectra of ZnTe during strong-field THz interaction are investigated. Bleaching of the difference phonon modes below the fundamental TO mode is observed when field strengths higher than 4 MV/cm are applied....

  16. The OPTHER Project: Progress toward the THz Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paoloni, C; Brunetti, F; Di Carlo, A

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the OPTHER (OPtically driven TeraHertz AmplifiERs) project and progress toward the THz amplifier realization. This project represents a considerable advancement in the field of high frequency amplification. The design and realization of a THz amplifier within...... this project is a consolidation of efforts at the international level from the leading scientific and industrial European organizations working with vacuum electronics....

  17. Mobile and embedded fast high resolution image stitching for long length rectangular monochromatic objects with periodic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limonova, Elena; Tropin, Daniil; Savelyev, Boris; Mamay, Igor; Nikolaev, Dmitry

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we describe stitching protocol, which allows to obtain high resolution images of long length monochromatic objects with periodic structure. This protocol can be used for long length documents or human-induced objects in satellite images of uninhabitable regions like Arctic regions. The length of such objects can reach notable values, while modern camera sensors have limited resolution and are not able to provide good enough image of the whole object for further processing, e.g. using in OCR system. The idea of the proposed method is to acquire a video stream containing full object in high resolution and use image stitching. We expect the scanned object to have straight boundaries and periodic structure, which allow us to introduce regularization to the stitching problem and adapt algorithm for limited computational power of mobile and embedded CPUs. With the help of detected boundaries and structure we estimate homography between frames and use this information to reduce complexity of stitching. We demonstrate our algorithm on mobile device and show image processing speed of 2 fps on Samsung Exynos 5422 processor

  18. High resolution mapping of development in the wildland-urban interface using object based image extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, Michael D.; Tinkham, Wade T.; Hoffman, Chad; Cheng, Antony S.; Hawbaker, Todd J.

    2016-01-01

    The wildland-urban interface (WUI), the area where human development encroaches on undeveloped land, is expanding throughout the western United States resulting in increased wildfire risk to homes and communities. Although census based mapping efforts have provided insights into the pattern of development and expansion of the WUI at regional and national scales, these approaches do not provide sufficient detail for fine-scale fire and emergency management planning, which requires maps of individual building locations. Although fine-scale maps of the WUI have been developed, they are often limited in their spatial extent, have unknown accuracies and biases, and are costly to update over time. In this paper we assess a semi-automated Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) approach that utilizes 4-band multispectral National Aerial Image Program (NAIP) imagery for the detection of individual buildings within the WUI. We evaluate this approach by comparing the accuracy and overall quality of extracted buildings to a building footprint control dataset. In addition, we assessed the effects of buffer distance, topographic conditions, and building characteristics on the accuracy and quality of building extraction. The overall accuracy and quality of our approach was positively related to buffer distance, with accuracies ranging from 50 to 95% for buffer distances from 0 to 100 m. Our results also indicate that building detection was sensitive to building size, with smaller outbuildings (footprints less than 75 m2) having detection rates below 80% and larger residential buildings having detection rates above 90%. These findings demonstrate that this approach can successfully identify buildings in the WUI in diverse landscapes while achieving high accuracies at buffer distances appropriate for most fire management applications while overcoming cost and time constraints associated with traditional approaches. This study is unique in that it evaluates the ability of an OBIA

  19. High resolution mapping of development in the wildland-urban interface using object based image extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Caggiano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The wildland-urban interface (WUI, the area where human development encroaches on undeveloped land, is expanding throughout the western United States resulting in increased wildfire risk to homes and communities. Although census based mapping efforts have provided insights into the pattern of development and expansion of the WUI at regional and national scales, these approaches do not provide sufficient detail for fine-scale fire and emergency management planning, which requires maps of individual building locations. Although fine-scale maps of the WUI have been developed, they are often limited in their spatial extent, have unknown accuracies and biases, and are costly to update over time. In this paper we assess a semi-automated Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA approach that utilizes 4-band multispectral National Aerial Image Program (NAIP imagery for the detection of individual buildings within the WUI. We evaluate this approach by comparing the accuracy and overall quality of extracted buildings to a building footprint control dataset. In addition, we assessed the effects of buffer distance, topographic conditions, and building characteristics on the accuracy and quality of building extraction. The overall accuracy and quality of our approach was positively related to buffer distance, with accuracies ranging from 50 to 95% for buffer distances from 0 to 100 m. Our results also indicate that building detection was sensitive to building size, with smaller outbuildings (footprints less than 75 m2 having detection rates below 80% and larger residential buildings having detection rates above 90%. These findings demonstrate that this approach can successfully identify buildings in the WUI in diverse landscapes while achieving high accuracies at buffer distances appropriate for most fire management applications while overcoming cost and time constraints associated with traditional approaches. This study is unique in that it evaluates the ability

  20. EXTRACTION OF BENTHIC COVER INFORMATION FROM VIDEO TOWS AND PHOTOGRAPHS USING OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. L. Estomata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mapping benthic cover in deep waters comprises a very small proportion of studies in the field of research. Majority of benthic cover mapping makes use of satellite images and usually, classification is carried out only for shallow waters. To map the seafloor in optically deep waters, underwater videos and photos are needed. Some researchers have applied this method on underwater photos, but made use of different classification methods such as: Neural Networks, and rapid classification via down sampling. In this study, accurate bathymetric data obtained using a multi-beam echo sounder (MBES was attempted to be used as complementary data with the underwater photographs. Due to the absence of a motion reference unit (MRU, which applies correction to the data gathered by the MBES, accuracy of the said depth data was compromised. Nevertheless, even with the absence of accurate bathymetric data, object-based image analysis (OBIA, which used rule sets based on information such as shape, size, area, relative distance, and spectral information, was still applied. Compared to pixel-based classifications, OBIA was able to classify more specific benthic cover types other than coral and sand, such as rubble and fish. Through the use of rule sets on area, less than or equal to 700 pixels for fish and between 700 to 10,000 pixels for rubble, as well as standard deviation values to distinguish texture, fish and rubble were identified. OBIA produced benthic cover maps that had higher overall accuracy, 93.78±0.85%, as compared to pixel-based methods that had an average accuracy of only 87.30±6.11% (p-value = 0.0001, α = 0.05.