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Sample records for objective magnet sorting

  1. A multiple objective magnet sorting algorithm for the Advanced Light Source insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, D.; Goetz, F.; Kownacki, P.; Marks, S.; Schlueter, R.

    1995-01-01

    Insertion devices for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) incorporate large numbers of permanent magnets which have a variety of magnetization orientation errors. These orientation errors can produce field errors which affect both the spectral brightness of the insertion devices and the storage ring electron beam dynamics. A perturbation study was carried out to quantify the effects of orientation errors acting in a hybrid magnetic structure. The results of this study were used to develop a multiple stage sorting algorithm which minimizes undesirable integrated field errors and essentially eliminates pole excitation errors. When applied to a measured magnet population for an existing insertion device, an order of magnitude reduction in integrated field errors was achieved while maintaining near zero pole excitation errors

  2. A multiple objective magnet sorting algorithm for the ALS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, D.; Goetz, F.; Kownacki, P.; Marks, S.; Schlueter, R.

    1994-07-01

    Insertion devices for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) incorporate large numbers of permanent magnets which have a variety of magnetization orientation errors. These orientation errors can produce field errors which affect both the spectral brightness of the insertion devices and the storage ring electron beam dynamics. A perturbation study was carried out to quantify the effects of orientation errors acting in a hybrid magnetic structure. The results of this study were used to develop a multiple stage sorting algorithm which minimizes undesirable integrated field errors and essentially eliminates pole excitation errors. When applied to a measured magnet population for an existing insertion device, an order of magnitude reduction in integrated field errors was achieved while maintaining near zero pole excitation errors

  3. Magnet sorting algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.

    1996-01-01

    Several new algorithms for sorting of dipole and/or quadrupole magnets in synchrotrons and storage rings are described. The algorithms make use of a combinatorial approach to the problem and belong to the class of random search algorithms. They use an appropriate metrization of the state space. The phase-space distortion (smear) is used as a goal function. Computational experiments for the case of the JINR-Dubna superconducting heavy ion synchrotron NUCLOTRON have shown a significant reduction of the phase-space distortion after the magnet sorting. (orig.)

  4. System for optical sorting of microscopic objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for optical sorting of microscopic objects and corresponding method. An optical detection system (52) is capable of determining the positions of said first and/or said second objects. One or more force transfer units (200, 205, 210, 215) are placed...... in a first reservoir, the one or more force units being suitable for optical momentum transfer. An electromagnetic radiation source (42) yields a radiation beam (31, 32) capable of optically displacing the force transfer units from one position to another within the first reservoir (1R). The force transfer...... units are displaced from positions away from the first objects to positions close to the first objects, and then displacing the first objects via a contact force (300) between the first objects and the force transfer units facilitates an optical sorting of the first objects and the second objects....

  5. Optimization of magnet sorting in a storage ring using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jia; Wang Lin; Li Weimin; Gao Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the genetic algorithms are applied to the optimization problem of magnet sorting in an electron storage ring, according to which the objectives are set so that the closed orbit distortion and beta beating can be minimized and the dynamic aperture maximized. The sorting of dipole, quadrupole and sextupole magnets is optimized while the optimization results show the power of the application of genetic algorithms in magnet sorting. (authors)

  6. Magnet sorting algorithms for insertion devices for the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, D.; Hoyer, E.; Kincaid, B.; Marks, S.; Schlueter, R.

    1994-01-01

    Insertion devices for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) incorporate up to 3,000 magnet blocks each for pole energization. In order to minimize field errors, these magnets must be measured, sorted and assigned appropriate locations and orientation in the magnetic structures. Sorting must address multiple objectives, including pole excitation and minimization of integrated multipole fields from minor field components in the magnets. This is equivalent to a combinatorial minimization problem with a large configuration space. Multi-stage sorting algorithms use ordering and pairing schemes in conjunction with other combinatorial methods to solve the minimization problem. This paper discusses objective functions, solution algorithms and results of application to magnet block measurement data

  7. UNIFICATION OF PROCESSES OF SORTING OUT OF DESTROYED CONSTRUCTION OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHATOV S. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Problem statement. Technogenic catastrophes, failures or natural calamities, result in destruction of build objects. Under the obstructions of destructions can be victims. The most widespread technogenic failure is explosions of gas. The structure of obstructions changes and depends on parameters and direction of explosion, firstly its size and location of wreckages. Sorting out of obstructions is carried out with machines and mechanisms which do not meet the requirements of these works, that predetermines of carrying out of rescue or restoration works on imperfect scheme , especially on the initial stages, and it increases terms and labour intensiveness of their conduct. Development technological solution is needed for the effective sorting out of destructions of construction objects. Purpose. Development of unification solution on the improvement of technological processes of sorting out of destructions of buildings and constructions. Conclusion. The analysis of experience of works shows on sorting out of the destroyed construction objects, show that they are carried out on imperfect scheme, which do not take into account character of destruction of objects and are based on the use of construction machines which do not meet the requirements of these processes, and lead to considerable resource losses. Developed unified scheme of sorting out of the destroyed construction objects depending on character of their destruction and possibility of line of works, and also with the use of build machines with a multipurpose equipment, provide the increase of efficiency of carrying out of rescue and construction works.

  8. Magnetic fluid equipment for sorting of secondary polyolefins from waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Di Maio, F.; Hu, B.; Houzeaux, G.; Baltes, L.; Tierean, M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the researches made on the FP7 project „Magnetic Sorting and Ultrasound Sensor Technologies for Production of High Purity Secondary Polyolefins from Waste” in order to develop a magnetic fluid equipment for sorting of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) from polymers mixed

  9. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. Use of density gradient centrifugation, magnetically activated cell sorting and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campagnoli, C; Multhaupt, H A; Ludomirski, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a noninvasive method suitable for clinical prenatal diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: Fetal nucleated erythrocytes were separated from peripheral blood of 17 healthy pregnant women using small magnetically activated cell sorting columns (MiniMACS) following density gradient centrifug...

  10. System for sorting microscopic objects using electromagnetic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    There is presented a system 10,100 for sorting microscopic objects 76, 78, 80, where the system comprises a fluid channel 66 with an inlet 68 and an outlet 70, where the fluid channel is arranged for allowing the fluid flow to be laminar. The system furthermore comprises a detection system 52 whi...

  11. Faster magnet sorting with a threshold acceptance algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidia, S.; Carr, R.

    1995-01-01

    We introduce here a new technique for sorting magnets to minimize the field errors in permanent magnet insertion devices. Simulated annealing has been used in this role, but we find the technique of threshold acceptance produces results of equal quality in less computer time. Threshold accepting would be of special value in designing very long insertion devices, such as long free electron lasers (FELs). Our application of threshold acceptance to magnet sorting showed that it converged to equivalently low values of the cost function, but that it converged significantly faster. We present typical cases showing time to convergence for various error tolerances, magnet numbers, and temperature schedules

  12. Faster magnet sorting with a threshold acceptance algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidia, S.

    1994-08-01

    The authors introduce here a new technique for sorting magnets to minimize the field errors in permanent magnet insertion devices. Simulated annealing has been used in this role, but they find the technique of threshold acceptance produces results of equal quality in less computer time. Threshold accepting would be of special value in designing very long insertion devices, such as long FEL's. Their application of threshold acceptance to magnet sorting showed that it converged to equivalently low values of the cost function, but that it converged significantly faster. They present typical cases showing time to convergence for various error tolerances, magnet numbers, and temperature schedules

  13. Dynamic colloidal sorting on a magnetic bubble lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierno, Pietro; Soba, Alejandro; Johansen, Tom H.; Sagués, Francesc

    2008-11-01

    We use a uniaxial garnet film with a magnetic bubble lattice to sort paramagnetic colloidal particles with different diameters, i.e., 1.0 and 2.8μm. We apply an external magnetic field which precesses around an axis normal to the film with a frequency Ω =62.8s-1 and intensity 3120A/m bubbles while the others are transported through the array. We complement the experimental measurements with numerical simulations to explore the sorting capability for particles with different magnetic moments.

  14. Real-World Sorting of RHIC Superconducting Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Gupta, R.; Harrison, M.; Jain, A.; Peggs, S.; Thompson, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Wanderer, P.

    1999-01-01

    During the seven-year construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), more than 1700 superconducting dipoles, quadrupoles, sextupoles, and multi-layer correctors have been constructed and installed. These magnets have been sorted at several production stages to optimize their performance and reliability. For arc magnets, priorities have bene put first on quench performance and operational risk minimization, second on field transfer function and other first-order quantities, and finally on nonlinear field errors which were painstakingly optimized at design. For Interaction-Region (IR) magnets, sorting is applied to select the best possible combination of magnets for the low-β interaction points (IP). This paper summarizes the history of this real-world sorting process

  15. Measurement, sorting and tuning of LCLS undulator magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Vasserman, I B; Dejus, Roger J; Moog, E; Trakhtenberg, E; Vinokurov, N A

    2002-01-01

    Currently, a Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) prototype undulator is under construction. The prototype is a 3.4-m-long hybrid-type undulator with fixed gap of 6 mm. The period length is 30 mm and the number of poles is 226. For this undulator, 450 NdFeB magnet blocks are used. This project does not have demanding requirements for multipole component errors, but the field strength at x=0 should be as precise as possible to provide proper particle steering and phase errors. The first set of magnetic blocks has been measured. The strength and direction of magnetization of the magnet blocks are measured using a Helmholtz coil system. In addition to this, Hall probe measurements are performed for magnet blocks while they are mounted in a specially designed cassette with vanadium-permendur poles. The magnet blocks will be sorted using these data to minimize errors. Computer simulations show that magnets may be sorted in decreasing strengths with little or no additional tuning of the undulators.

  16. Magnetic Sorting of the Regolith on the Moon: Lunar Swirls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, C. M.; Garrick-Bethell, I.; Hemingway, D.

    2014-12-01

    All of the mysterious albedo features on the Moon called "lunar swirls" are associated with magnetic anomalies, but not all magnetic anomalies are associated with lunar swirls [1]. It is often hypothesized that the albedo markings are tied to immature regolith on the surface, perhaps due to magnetic shielding of the solar wind and prevention of normal space weathering of the soil. Although interaction of the solar wind with the surface at swirls is indeed affected by the local magnetic field [2], this does not appear to result in immature soils on the surface. Calibrated spectra from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper [M3] (in image format) demonstrate that the high albedo markings for swirls are simply not consistent with immature regolith as is now understood from detailed analyses of lunar samples [eg 3]. However, M3 data show that the high albedo features of swirls are distinct and quite different from normal soils (in both the highlands and the mare). They allexhibit a flatter continuum across the near-infrared, but the actual band strength of ferrous minerals shows little (if any) deviation [4]. Recent analyses of magnetic field direction at swirls [5] mimic the observed albedo patterns (horizontal surface fields in bright areas, vertical surface fields in dark lanes). When coupled with the optical properties of magnetic separates of lunar soils [6] and our knowledge that the magnetic component of the soil results from space weathering [3,6], we propose a new and very simple explanation for these enigmatic albedo markings: the lunar swirls result from magnetic sorting of a well developed regolith. With time, normal gardening of the soil over a magnetic anomaly causes some of the dark magnetic component of the soil to be gradually removed from regions (high albedo areas) and accumulated in others (dark lanes). We are modeling predicted sorting rates using realistic rates of dust production. If this mechanism is tenable, only the origin of these magnetic anomalies

  17. Magnetic measurement, sorting optimization and adjustment of SDUV-FEL hybrid undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tao; Jia Qika

    2007-01-01

    Construction of an undulator includes magnet block measurement, sorting, field measurement and adjustment. Optimizing SDUV-FEL undulator by simulated annealing algorithm using measurement results of the magnet blocks by Helmholtz coil before installing undulator magnets, the cost function can be reduced by three orders of magnitude. The practical parameters of one segment meet the design specifications after adjusting the magnetic field. (authors)

  18. LOGISTICAL SUPPORT OF PROCESSES OF SORTING OUT OF THE DESTROYED BUILDING OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHATOV S. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Raising of problem. Natural calamities, technogenic catastrophes and failures, result in destruction of building objects. Under the obstructions of destructions there can be victims. The most widespread technogenic failure are explosions of domestic gas. The structure of obstructions changes depending on parameters and direction of explosion, first of all size and location of wreckages. Sorting out of obstructions is executed by machines and mechanisms which do not answer the requirements of these works, that predetermines falling short of logistical support to the requirements of rescue or restoration works, and it increases terms and labour intensiveness of their conduct. Development of technological decisions is therefore needed for the effective sorting out of destructions of building objects. Purpose. Development of methodology of determination of logistical support of processes of sorting out of destructions of building and building. Conclusion. Experience of works shows on sorting out of the destroyed building objects, that they are executed with the use of imperfect logistical support, which are not taken into account by character of destruction of objects and is based on the use of buildings machines which do not answer the requirements of these processes, that results in considerable resource losses. Building machines with a multipurpose equipment, which provide the increase of efficiency of implementation of rescue and restoration works, are worked out. Methodology of determination of number of technique is worked out for providing of material-supply of sorting out of destructions, in particular on the initial stage of rescue works for liberation of victims from under obstructions.

  19. The structured-objective rorschach test (sort occupational profile for state accountants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Gouws

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to provide an occupational profile of performance on the Structured-Objective Rorschach Test (SORT by state accountants for use in guidance, election and placement of personnel. The sample comprised accountants and auditors from the financial sections in various state institutions who were selected for the Senior Financial Management Course at the University of Stellenbosch. As all participants were considered successful in their occupation and no significant differences were found between the profiles of various age and year groups, the SORT profile obtained for the total group can be used as a predictor to determine and evaluate the personality traits that are important in the profession of state accountant. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was die daarstelling van 'n beroepsprofiel van staatsrekenmeesters se prestasie op die Gestruktureerd-Objektiewe Rorschachtoets (SORT wat vir voorligting/ keuring en plasing van personeel gebruik kan word. Die steekproef is saamgestel uit rekenmeesters en ouditeure van die finansiele afdelings in verskeie staatsinstansies wat geselekteer is vir die Senior Finansiele Bestuurskursus by die Universiteit van Stellenbosch. Aangesien alle deelnemers as suksesvol in hulle beroep beskou is en geen beduidende verskille in die profiele van verskillende ouderdomsgroepe en jaargroepe gevind is nie, kan die SORT profiel van die totale groep as 'n voorspeller gebruik word vir die bepaling en evaluering van die persoonlikheidseienskappe wat belangrik is in die beroep van staatsrekenmeester.

  20. 300 mm arrays and 30 nm Features: Frontiers in Sorting Biological Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Robert; Comella, Brandon; D'Silva, Joseph; Sturm, James

    2014-03-01

    One of the great challenges in prediction of metastasis is determining when the metastatic process actually begins. It is presumed that this process occurs due to passage of biological objects in the blood from tumor to remote sites. We will discuss our attempts to find both very large objects (circulating tumor cell clumps) and very small (exosomes) using a combination of extremely large scale photolithography on 300 mm wafers and deep-UV lithography to produce sub-100 nm arrays to sort exosomes. These technologies push the envelope of present day academic facilities . Supported by the National Science Foundation and the National Cancer Institute.

  1. Multi-Objective Bidding Strategy for Genco Using Non-Dominated Sorting Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksinchai, Apinat; Boonchuay, Chanwit; Ongsakul, Weerakorn

    2010-06-01

    This paper proposes a multi-objective bidding strategy for a generation company (GenCo) in uniform price spot market using non-dominated sorting particle swarm optimization (NSPSO). Instead of using a tradeoff technique, NSPSO is introduced to solve the multi-objective strategic bidding problem considering expected profit maximization and risk (profit variation) minimization. Monte Carlo simulation is employed to simulate rivals' bidding behavior. Test results indicate that the proposed approach can provide the efficient non-dominated solution front effectively. In addition, it can be used as a decision making tool for a GenCo compromising between expected profit and price risk in spot market.

  2. Multi-objective calibration of a reservoir model: aggregation and non-dominated sorting approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Numerical reservoir models can be helpful tools for water resource management. These models are generally calibrated against historical measurement data made in reservoirs. In this study, two methods are proposed for the multi-objective calibration of such models: aggregation and non-dominated sorting methods. Both methods use a hybrid genetic algorithm as an optimization engine and are different in fitness assignment. In the aggregation method, a weighted sum of scaled simulation errors is designed as an overall objective function to measure the fitness of solutions (i.e. parameter values). The contribution of this study to the aggregation method is the correlation analysis and its implication to the choice of weight factors. In the non-dominated sorting method, a novel method based on non-dominated sorting and the method of minimal distance is used to calculate the dummy fitness of solutions. The proposed methods are illustrated using a water quality model that was set up to simulate the water quality of Pepacton Reservoir, which is located to the north of New York City and is used for water supply of city. The study also compares the aggregation and the non-dominated sorting methods. The purpose of this comparison is not to evaluate the pros and cons between the two methods but to determine whether the parameter values, objective function values (simulation errors) and simulated results obtained are significantly different with each other. The final results (objective function values) from the two methods are good compromise between all objective functions, and none of these results are the worst for any objective function. The calibrated model provides an overall good performance and the simulated results with the calibrated parameter values match the observed data better than the un-calibrated parameters, which supports and justifies the use of multi-objective calibration. The results achieved in this study can be very useful for the calibration of water

  3. Using magnetic nanoparticles to manipulate biological objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yi; Gao Yu; Xu Chenjie

    2013-01-01

    The use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for the manipulation of biological objects, including proteins, genes, cellular organelles, bacteria, cells, and organs, are reviewed. MNPs are popular candidates for controlling and probing biological objects with a magnetic force. In the past decade, progress in the synthesis and surface engineering of MNPs has further enhanced this popularity. (topical review - magnetism, magnetic materials, and interdisciplinary research)

  4. Solving multi-objective job shop scheduling problems using a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroozfard, Hamed; Wong, Kuan Yew

    2015-05-01

    The efforts of finding optimal schedules for the job shop scheduling problems are highly important for many real-world industrial applications. In this paper, a multi-objective based job shop scheduling problem by simultaneously minimizing makespan and tardiness is taken into account. The problem is considered to be more complex due to the multiple business criteria that must be satisfied. To solve the problem more efficiently and to obtain a set of non-dominated solutions, a meta-heuristic based non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is presented. In addition, task based representation is used for solution encoding, and tournament selection that is based on rank and crowding distance is applied for offspring selection. Swapping and insertion mutations are employed to increase diversity of population and to perform intensive search. To evaluate the modified non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, a set of modified benchmarking job shop problems obtained from the OR-Library is used, and the results are considered based on the number of non-dominated solutions and quality of schedules obtained by the algorithm.

  5. Position Control Method For Pick And Place Robot Arm For Object Sorting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Moe Myint

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The more increase the number of industries in developing countries the more require labourers or workers in that. To reduce the cost of labour force and to increase the manufacturing capacity of industries the advanced robot arms are more needed. The aim of this journal is to eliminate the manual control for object sorting system.Robot arm design in this research uses two joints three links and servo motors to drive. Microcontroller is used to generate required PWM signal for servo motors. In this research the position control of robot arm was designed by using kinematic control methods. There are two types of kinematic control methods which are forward and reverse kinematic methods. In forward kinematic method the input parameters are the joint angles and link length of robot arm and then the output is the position at XYZ coordinate of tool or gripper. In inverse kinematic the input parameters are position at XYZ coordinate of gripper and the link length of robot arm and then the output parameters are the joint angles. So kinematic methods can explain the analytical description of the geometry motion of the manipulator with reference to a robot coordinate system fixed to a frame without consideration of the forces or the moments causing the movements. For sorting system Metal detector is used to detect the metal or non-metal. This position control of pick and place robot arm is fully tested and the result is obtained more precisely.

  6. Enrichment of rat oligodendrocyte progenitor cells by magnetic cell sorting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížková, D.; Čížek, M.; Nagyová, M.; Slovinská, L.; Novotná, I.; Jergová, S.; Radoňák, J.; Hlučilová, Jana; Vanický, I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 184, č. 1 (2009), s. 88-94 ISSN 0165-0270 R&D Projects: GA MŠk MEB0808108 Grant - others:Agentúra na podporu výskumu a vývoja(SK) APVV-51002105; Agentúra na podporu výskumu a vývoja(SK) APVV SK-CZ-0045-07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Oligodendrocytes progenitors Lineage * Magnetic separation Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.295, year: 2009

  7. Using injection molding and reversible bonding for easy fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royet, David; Hériveaux, Yoann; Marchalot, Julien; Scorretti, Riccardo; Dias, André; Dempsey, Nora M.; Bonfim, Marlio; Simonet, Pascal; Frénéa-Robin, Marie

    2017-04-01

    Magnetism and microfluidics are two key elements for the development of inexpensive and reliable tools dedicated to high-throughput biological analysis and providing a large panel of applications in domains ranging from fundamental biology to medical diagnostics. In this work, we introduce a simple protocol, relying on injection molding and reversible bonding for fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices using only standard soft-lithography equipment. Magnetic strips or grids made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) doped with hard (NdFeB) or soft (carbonyl iron) magnetic powders were integrated at the bottom of whole PDMS chips. Preliminary results show the effective deviation/trapping of magnetic beads or magnetically-labeled bacteria as the sample flows through the microchannel, proving the potential of this rapid prototyping approach for easy fabrication of magnetic cell sorters.

  8. Particles Sorting in Micro Channel Using Designed Micro Electromagnets of Magnetic Field Gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yung-Chiang; Wu, Chen-Ming; Lin, Shih-Hao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, microelectromagnet, microchannel, syringe pump, and controlling devices were integrated to form a particle sorting system. A simple, two-dimensional, relatively quick fabricating and easily operating microelectromagnet was designed. Polystyrene particles and magnetic beads were pumped into the microchannel with the syringe pump, and it was observed that the magnetic beads were attracted to one of two outlets by the microelectromagnet, which features a gradually changing magnetic field. The polystyrene particles would move to another outlet because of different-width micro channel, and it completed the separation of the particles. Based on experimental results, the magnetic flux density of the microelectromagnet was 2.3 Gauss for a 12.5-μm average distance between electrodes at 1.0-μm increments, and the magnetic force was 0.22 pN for 2.8-μm magnetic beads. The separating rate was greater for larger distance increment and smaller average distance between the electrodes. The separating rate of the magnetic beads increased as the electric current increased and flow velocity decreased. When the flow velocity was 0.333 μm/s and electric current was 1 A, the separating rate was 90%. The separating rate of the polystyrene particles increased as the flow velocity increased and was 85% when the flow velocity was 0.6 μm/s. These results demonstrate that this particle sorting system has potential applications in bio-molecular studies. - Highlights: • We proposed a method for separating polystyrene particles and magnetic beads by the different-width outlets and microelectromagnet with gradually changing magnetic field, which is simple, two-dimensional and easily operating. • The separating rate was greater for larger distance increment and smaller average distance between the electrodes. • The separating rate of the magnetic beads increased as the electric current increased and flow velocity decreased, and the maximum value is 90%.

  9. Isolating peripheral lymphocytes by density gradient centrifugation and magnetic cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseron, Frederic; Marcus, Katrin; May, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Combining density gradient centrifugation with magnetic cell sorting provides a powerful tool to isolate blood cells with high reproducibility, yield, and purity. It also allows for subsequent separation of multiple cell types, resulting in the possibility to analyze different purified fractions from one donor's sample. The centrifugation step divides whole blood into peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), erythrocytes, and platelet-rich plasma. In the following, lymphocyte subtypes can be consecutively isolated from the PBMC fraction. This chapter describes enrichment of erythrocytes, CD14-positive monocytes and CD3-positive T lymphocytes. Alternatively, other cell types can be targeted by using magnetic beads specific for the desired subpopulation.

  10. Engineering quadrupole magnetic flow sorting for the isolation of pancreatic islets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, David J. [IKOtech, LLC, 3130 Highland Avenue, 3rd Floor, Cincinnati, OH 45219-2374 (United States)]. E-mail: David.Kennedy@IKOtech.com; Todd, Paul [SHOT, Inc., Greenville, IN (United States); Logan, Sam [SHOT, Inc., Greenville, IN (United States); Becker, Matthew [SHOT, Inc., Greenville, IN (United States); Papas, Klearchos K. [Diabetes Institute for Immunology and Transplantation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Moore, Lee R. [Biomedical Engineering Department, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Quadrupole magnetic flow sorting (QMS) is being adapted from the separation of suspensions of single cells (<15 {mu}m) to the isolation of pancreatic islets (150-350 {mu}m) for transplant. To achieve this goal, the critical QMS components have been modeled and engineered to optimize the separation process. A flow channel has been designed, manufactured, and tested. The quadrupole magnet assembly has been designed and verified by finite element analysis. Pumps have been selected and verified by test. Test data generated from the pumps and flow channel demonstrate that the fabricated channel and peristaltic pumps fulfill the requirements of successful QMS separation.

  11. Engineering quadrupole magnetic flow sorting for the isolation of pancreatic islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, David J.; Todd, Paul; Logan, Sam; Becker, Matthew; Papas, Klearchos K.; Moore, Lee R.

    2007-01-01

    Quadrupole magnetic flow sorting (QMS) is being adapted from the separation of suspensions of single cells (<15 μm) to the isolation of pancreatic islets (150-350 μm) for transplant. To achieve this goal, the critical QMS components have been modeled and engineered to optimize the separation process. A flow channel has been designed, manufactured, and tested. The quadrupole magnet assembly has been designed and verified by finite element analysis. Pumps have been selected and verified by test. Test data generated from the pumps and flow channel demonstrate that the fabricated channel and peristaltic pumps fulfill the requirements of successful QMS separation

  12. Using injection molding and reversible bonding for easy fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royet, David; Hériveaux, Yoann; Marchalot, Julien; Scorretti, Riccardo [Univ Lyon, ECL, UCB Lyon1, CNRS, Ampere, F-69134 Ecully (France); Dias, André; Dempsey, Nora M. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes - CNRS, Inst Neel, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Bonfim, Marlio [Universidade Federal do Paraná, DELT, Curitiba (Brazil); Simonet, Pascal; Frénéa-Robin, Marie [Univ Lyon, ECL, UCB Lyon1, CNRS, Ampere, F-69134 Ecully (France)

    2017-04-01

    Magnetism and microfluidics are two key elements for the development of inexpensive and reliable tools dedicated to high-throughput biological analysis and providing a large panel of applications in domains ranging from fundamental biology to medical diagnostics. In this work, we introduce a simple protocol, relying on injection molding and reversible bonding for fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices using only standard soft-lithography equipment. Magnetic strips or grids made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) doped with hard (NdFeB) or soft (carbonyl iron) magnetic powders were integrated at the bottom of whole PDMS chips. Preliminary results show the effective deviation/trapping of magnetic beads or magnetically-labeled bacteria as the sample flows through the microchannel, proving the potential of this rapid prototyping approach for easy fabrication of magnetic cell sorters. - Highlights: • Soft and hard magnetic PDMS composites were microstructured by injection molding. • Tunable or autonomous magnetic microdevices can be fabricated using this approach. • Continuous-flow bacterial cell trapping and deviation were demonstrated.

  13. Using injection molding and reversible bonding for easy fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, David; Hériveaux, Yoann; Marchalot, Julien; Scorretti, Riccardo; Dias, André; Dempsey, Nora M.; Bonfim, Marlio; Simonet, Pascal; Frénéa-Robin, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Magnetism and microfluidics are two key elements for the development of inexpensive and reliable tools dedicated to high-throughput biological analysis and providing a large panel of applications in domains ranging from fundamental biology to medical diagnostics. In this work, we introduce a simple protocol, relying on injection molding and reversible bonding for fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices using only standard soft-lithography equipment. Magnetic strips or grids made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) doped with hard (NdFeB) or soft (carbonyl iron) magnetic powders were integrated at the bottom of whole PDMS chips. Preliminary results show the effective deviation/trapping of magnetic beads or magnetically-labeled bacteria as the sample flows through the microchannel, proving the potential of this rapid prototyping approach for easy fabrication of magnetic cell sorters. - Highlights: • Soft and hard magnetic PDMS composites were microstructured by injection molding. • Tunable or autonomous magnetic microdevices can be fabricated using this approach. • Continuous-flow bacterial cell trapping and deviation were demonstrated.

  14. A simple model based magnet sorting algorithm for planar hybrid undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakowsky, G.

    2010-01-01

    Various magnet sorting strategies have been used to optimize undulator performance, ranging from intuitive pairing of high- and low-strength magnets, to full 3D FEM simulation with 3-axis Helmholtz coil magnet data. In the extreme, swapping magnets in a full field model to minimize trajectory wander and rms phase error can be time consuming. This paper presents a simpler approach, extending the field error signature concept to obtain trajectory displacement, kick angle and phase error signatures for each component of magnetization error from a Radia model of a short hybrid-PM undulator. We demonstrate that steering errors and phase errors are essentially decoupled and scalable from measured X, Y and Z components of magnetization. Then, for any given sequence of magnets, rms trajectory and phase errors are obtained from simple cumulative sums of the scaled displacements and phase errors. The cost function (a weighted sum of these errors) is then minimized by swapping magnets, using one's favorite optimization algorithm. This approach was applied recently at NSLS to a short in-vacuum undulator, which required no subsequent trajectory or phase shimming. Trajectory and phase signatures are also obtained for some mechanical errors, to guide 'virtual shimming' and specifying mechanical tolerances. Some simple inhomogeneities are modeled to assess their error contributions.

  15. Effect of magnet sorting using a simple resonance cancellation method on the RMS orbit distortion at the APS injector synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, F.; Koul, R.; Mills, F.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source injector synchrotron is a 7-GeV positron machine with a standard alternating gradient lattice. The calculated effect of dipole magnet strength errors on the orbit distortion, simulated by Monte Carlo, was reduced by sorting pairs of magnets having the closest simulated measured strengths to reduce the driving the term of the integer resonance nearest the operating point. This method resulted in a factor of four average reduction in the rms orbit distortion when all 68 magnets were sorted at once. The simulated effect of magnet measurement experimental resolution was found to limit the actual improvement. The Β-beat factors were similarly reduced by sorting the quadrupole magnets according to their gradients

  16. Basis for paleoenvironmental interpretation of magnetic properties of sediment from Upper Klamath Lake (Oregon): Effects of weathering and mineralogical sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, J.G.; Reynolds, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of magnetic properties enable reconstruction of environmental conditions that affected magnetic minerals incorporated in sediments from Upper Klamath Lake. Analyses of stream sediment samples from throughout the catchment of Upper Klamath Lake show that alteration of Fe-oxide minerals during subaerial chemical weathering of basic volcanic rocks has significantly changed magnetic properties of surficial deposits. Titanomagnetite, which is abundant both as phenocrysts and as microcrystals in fresh volcanic rocks, is progressively destroyed during weathering. Because fine-grained magnetite is readily altered due to large surface-to-volume ratios, weathering causes an increase in average magnetic grain size as well as reduction in the quantity of titanomagnetite both absolutely and relative to hematite. Hydrodynamic mineralogical sorting also produces differences in magnetic properties among rock and mineral grains of differing sizes. Importantly, removal of coarse silicate and Fe-oxide grains by sorting concentrated extremely fine-grained magnetite in the resulting sediment. The effects of weathering and sorting of minerals cannot be completely separated. These processes combine to produce the magnetic properties of a non-glacial lithic component of Upper Klamath Lake sediments, which is characterized by relatively low magnetite content and coarse magnetic grain size. Hydrodynamic sorting alone causes significant differences between the magnetic properties of glacial flour in lake sediments and of fresh volcanic rocks in the catchment. In comparison to source volcanic rocks, glacial flour in the lake sediment is highly enriched in extremely fine-grained magnetite.

  17. Multi-objective calibration of a reservoir water quality model in aggregation and non-dominated sorting approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongtai

    2014-03-01

    Numerical water quality models are developed to predict contaminant fate and transport in receiving waters such as reservoirs and lakes. They can be helpful tools for water resource management. The objective of this study is to calibrate a water quality model which was set up to simulate the water quality conditions of Pepacton Reservoir, Downsville, New York, USA, using an aggregation hybrid genetic algorithm (AHGA) and a non-dominated sorting hybrid genetic algorithm (NSHGA). Both AHGA and NSHGA use a hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) as optimization engines but are different in fitness assignment. In the AHGA, a weighted sum of scaled simulation errors is designed as an overall objective function to measure the fitness of solutions (i.e., parameter values). In the NSHGA, a method based on non-dominated sorting and Euclidean distances is proposed to calculate the dummy fitness of solutions. In addition, this study also compares the AHGA and the NSHGA. The purpose of this comparison is to determine whether the objective function values (i.e., simulation errors) and simulated results obtained by the AHGA and the NSHGA are significantly different from each other. The results show that the objective function values from the two HGAs are good compromises between all objective functions, and the calibrated model results match the observed data reasonably well and are comparable to other studies, supporting and justifying the use of multi-objective calibration.

  18. Purification of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural precursors using magnetic activated cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Gonçalo M C; Fernandes, Tiago G; Rodrigues, Carlos A V; Cabral, Joaquim M S; Diogo, Maria Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Neural precursor (NP) cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), and their neuronal progeny, will play an important role in disease modeling, drug screening tests, central nervous system development studies, and may even become valuable for regenerative medicine treatments. Nonetheless, it is challenging to obtain homogeneous and synchronously differentiated NP populations from hiPSCs, and after neural commitment many pluripotent stem cells remain in the differentiated cultures. Here, we describe an efficient and simple protocol to differentiate hiPSC-derived NPs in 12 days, and we include a final purification stage where Tra-1-60+ pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are removed using magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS), leaving the NP population nearly free of PSCs.

  19. Multi-objective optimization of water supply network rehabilitation with non-dominated sorting Genetic Algorithm-Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi JIN; Jie ZHANG; Jin-liang GAO; Wen-yan WU

    2008-01-01

    Through the transformation of hydraulic constraints into the objective functions associated with a water supply network rehabilitation problem, a non-dominated sorting Genetic Aigorithm-Ⅱ (NSGA-Ⅱ) can be used to solve the altered multi-objective optimization model. The introduction of NSGA-Ⅱ into water supply network optimal rehabilitation problem solves the conflict between one fitness value of standard genetic algorithm (SGA) and multi-objectives of rehabilitation problem. And the uncertainties brought by using weight coefficients or punish functions in conventional methods are controlled. And also by introduction of artificial inducement mutation (AIM) operation, the convergence speed of population is accelerated; this operation not only improves the convergence speed, but also improves the rationality and feasibility of solutions.

  20. Multi-objective optimization of an industrial penicillin V bioreactor train using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fook Choon; Rangaiah, Gade Pandu; Ray, Ajay Kumar

    2007-10-15

    Bulk of the penicillin produced is used as raw material for semi-synthetic penicillin (such as amoxicillin and ampicillin) and semi-synthetic cephalosporins (such as cephalexin and cefadroxil). In the present paper, an industrial penicillin V bioreactor train is optimized for multiple objectives simultaneously. An industrial train, comprising a bank of identical bioreactors, is run semi-continuously in a synchronous fashion. The fermentation taking place in a bioreactor is modeled using a morphologically structured mechanism. For multi-objective optimization for two and three objectives, the elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is chosen. Instead of a single optimum as in the traditional optimization, a wide range of optimal design and operating conditions depicting trade-offs of key performance indicators such as batch cycle time, yield, profit and penicillin concentration, is successfully obtained. The effects of design and operating variables on the optimal solutions are discussed in detail. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Multi-objective optimization in the presence of practical constraints using non-dominated sorting hybrid cuckoo search algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Balasubbareddy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel optimization algorithm is proposed to solve single and multi-objective optimization problems with generation fuel cost, emission, and total power losses as objectives. The proposed method is a hybridization of the conventional cuckoo search algorithm and arithmetic crossover operations. Thus, the non-linear, non-convex objective function can be solved under practical constraints. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is analyzed for various cases to illustrate the effect of practical constraints on the objectives' optimization. Two and three objective multi-objective optimization problems are formulated and solved using the proposed non-dominated sorting-based hybrid cuckoo search algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed method in confining the Pareto front solutions in the solution region is analyzed. The results for single and multi-objective optimization problems are physically interpreted on standard test functions as well as the IEEE-30 bus test system with supporting numerical and graphical results and also validated against existing methods.

  2. T2-weighted four dimensional magnetic resonance imaging with result-driven phase sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yilin; Yin, Fang-Fang; Cai, Jing; Czito, Brian G.; Bashir, Mustafa R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: T2-weighted MRI provides excellent tumor-to-tissue contrast for target volume delineation in radiation therapy treatment planning. This study aims at developing a novel T2-weighted retrospective four dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) phase sorting technique for imaging organ/tumor respiratory motion. Methods: A 2D fast T2-weighted half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo MR sequence was used for image acquisition of 4D-MRI, with a frame rate of 2–3 frames/s. Respiratory motion was measured using an external breathing monitoring device. A phase sorting method was developed to sort the images by their corresponding respiratory phases. Besides, a result-driven strategy was applied to effectively utilize redundant images in the case when multiple images were allocated to a bin. This strategy, selecting the image with minimal amplitude error, will generate the most representative 4D-MRI. Since we are using a different image acquisition mode for 4D imaging (the sequential image acquisition scheme) with the conventionally used cine or helical image acquisition scheme, the 4D dataset sufficient condition was not obviously and directly predictable. An important challenge of the proposed technique was to determine the number of repeated scans (N_R) required to obtain sufficient phase information at each slice position. To tackle this challenge, the authors first conducted computer simulations using real-time position management respiratory signals of the 29 cancer patients under an IRB-approved retrospective study to derive the relationships between N_R and the following factors: number of slices (N_S), number of 4D-MRI respiratory bins (N_B), and starting phase at image acquisition (P_0). To validate the authors’ technique, 4D-MRI acquisition and reconstruction were simulated on a 4D digital extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) human phantom using simulation derived parameters. Twelve healthy volunteers were involved in an IRB-approved study

  3. Magnet power supply as a network object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.; Stuewe, R.

    1991-01-01

    Magnet power supplies with embedded microprocessor controls are being installed in the beam-lines of the linear accelerator and proton storage ring at LAMPF. Using an RS422 link they communicate with the accelerator control system through a terminal server connected to the site-wide DECnet backbone. Each supply is, for all intents and purposes, a network object. The controller has a command set of over seventy-five three-character ASCII control and read-back instructions. Strategies for choosing the appropriate control protocol and the process of integrating these devices into a large accelerator control system will be presented. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Non-dominated sorting binary differential evolution for the multi-objective optimization of cascading failures protection in complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.F.; Sansavini, G.; Zio, E.

    2013-01-01

    A number of research works have been devoted to the optimization of protection strategies (e.g. transmission line switch off) of critical infrastructures (e.g. power grids, telecommunication networks, computer networks, etc) to avoid cascading failures. This work aims at improving a previous optimization approach proposed by some of the authors [1], based on the modified binary differential evolution (MBDE) algorithm. The improvements are three-fold: (1) in the optimization problem formulation, we introduce a third objective function to minimize the impacts of the switching off operations onto the existing network topology; (2) in the optimization problem formulation, we use the final results of cascades, rather than only a short horizon of one step cascading, to evaluate the effects of the switching off strategies; (3) in the optimization algorithm, the fast non-dominated sorting mechanisms are incorporated into the MBDE algorithm: a new algorithm, namely non-dominated sorting binary differential evolution algorithm (NSBDE) is then proposed. The numerical application to the topological structure of the 380 kV Italian power transmission network proves the benefits of the improvements.

  5. Noncontact orientation of objects in three-dimensional space using magnetic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Yang, Dian; Yu, Hai-Dong; Nemiroski, Alex; Tricard, Simon; Ellerbee, Audrey K; Soh, Siowling; Whitesides, George M

    2014-09-09

    This paper describes several noncontact methods of orienting objects in 3D space using Magnetic Levitation (MagLev). The methods use two permanent magnets arranged coaxially with like poles facing and a container containing a paramagnetic liquid in which the objects are suspended. Absent external forcing, objects levitating in the device adopt predictable static orientations; the orientation depends on the shape and distribution of mass within the objects. The orientation of objects of uniform density in the MagLev device shows a sharp geometry-dependent transition: an analytical theory rationalizes this transition and predicts the orientation of objects in the MagLev device. Manipulation of the orientation of the levitating objects in space is achieved in two ways: (i) by rotating and/or translating the MagLev device while the objects are suspended in the paramagnetic solution between the magnets; (ii) by moving a small external magnet close to the levitating objects while keeping the device stationary. Unlike mechanical agitation or robotic selection, orienting using MagLev is possible for objects having a range of different physical characteristics (e.g., different shapes, sizes, and mechanical properties from hard polymers to gels and fluids). MagLev thus has the potential to be useful for sorting and positioning components in 3D space, orienting objects for assembly, constructing noncontact devices, and assembling objects composed of soft materials such as hydrogels, elastomers, and jammed granular media.

  6. Sorting Out Sorts

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan B. Berk

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the theoretical implications of sorting data into groups and then running asset pricing tests within each group. We show that the way this procedure is implemented introduces a severe bias in favor of rejecting the model under consideration. By simply picking enough groups to sort into even the true asset pricing model can be shown to have no explanatory power within each group.

  7. Characterization of Rat Hair Follicle Stem Cells Selected by Vario Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Enyi; Lian, Xiaohua; Chen, Wei; Yang, Tian; Yang, Li

    2009-01-01

    Hair follicle stem cells (HfSCs) play crucial roles in hair follicle morphogenesis and hair cycling. These stem cells are self-renewable and have the multi-lineage potential to generate epidermis, sebaceous glands, and hair follicle. The separation and identification of hair follicle stem cells are important for further research in stem cell biology. In this study, we report on the successful enrichment of rat hair follicle stem cells through vario magnetic activated cell sorting (Vario MACS) and the biological characteristics of the stem cells. We chose the HfSCs positive surface markers CD34, α6-integrin and the negative marker CD71 to design four isolation strategies: positive selection with single marker of CD34, positive selection with single marker of α6-integrin, CD71 depletion followed by CD34 positive selection, and CD71 depletion followed by α6-integrin positive selection. The results of flow cytometry analysis showed that all four strategies had ideal effects. Specifically, we conducted a series of researches on HfSCs characterized by their high level of CD34, termed CD34 bri cells, and low to undetectable expression of CD34, termed CD34 dim cells. CD34 bri cells had greater proliferative potential and higher colony-forming ability than CD34 dim cells. Furthermore, CD34 bri cells had some typical characteristics as progenitor cells, such as large nucleus, obvious nucleolus, large nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio and few cytoplasmic organelles. Our findings clearly demonstrated that HfSCs with high purity and viability could be successfully enriched with Vario MACS

  8. Multi-objective optimal design of magnetorheological engine mount based on an improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ling; Duan, Xuwei; Deng, Zhaoxue; Li, Yinong

    2014-03-01

    A novel flow-mode magneto-rheological (MR) engine mount integrated a diaphragm de-coupler and the spoiler plate is designed and developed to isolate engine and the transmission from the chassis in a wide frequency range and overcome the stiffness in high frequency. A lumped parameter model of the MR engine mount in single degree of freedom system is further developed based on bond graph method to predict the performance of the MR engine mount accurately. The optimization mathematical model is established to minimize the total of force transmissibility over several frequency ranges addressed. In this mathematical model, the lumped parameters are considered as design variables. The maximum of force transmissibility and the corresponding frequency in low frequency range as well as individual lumped parameter are limited as constraints. The multiple interval sensitivity analysis method is developed to select the optimized variables and improve the efficiency of optimization process. An improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is used to solve the multi-objective optimization problem. The synthesized distance between the individual in Pareto set and the individual in possible set in engineering is defined and calculated. A set of real design parameters is thus obtained by the internal relationship between the optimal lumped parameters and practical design parameters for the MR engine mount. The program flowchart for the improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is given. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization approach in minimizing the total of force transmissibility over several frequency ranges addressed.

  9. Resonance assignment of the NMR spectra of disordered proteins using a multi-objective non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yu; Fritzsching, Keith J.; Hong, Mei

    2013-01-01

    A multi-objective genetic algorithm is introduced to predict the assignment of protein solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectra with partial resonance overlap and missing peaks due to broad linewidths, molecular motion, and low sensitivity. This non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) aims to identify all possible assignments that are consistent with the spectra and to compare the relative merit of these assignments. Our approach is modeled after the recently introduced Monte-Carlo simulated-annealing (MC/SA) protocol, with the key difference that NSGA-II simultaneously optimizes multiple assignment objectives instead of searching for possible assignments based on a single composite score. The multiple objectives include maximizing the number of consistently assigned peaks between multiple spectra (“good connections”), maximizing the number of used peaks, minimizing the number of inconsistently assigned peaks between spectra (“bad connections”), and minimizing the number of assigned peaks that have no matching peaks in the other spectra (“edges”). Using six SSNMR protein chemical shift datasets with varying levels of imperfection that was introduced by peak deletion, random chemical shift changes, and manual peak picking of spectra with moderately broad linewidths, we show that the NSGA-II algorithm produces a large number of valid and good assignments rapidly. For high-quality chemical shift peak lists, NSGA-II and MC/SA perform similarly well. However, when the peak lists contain many missing peaks that are uncorrelated between different spectra and have chemical shift deviations between spectra, the modified NSGA-II produces a larger number of valid solutions than MC/SA, and is more effective at distinguishing good from mediocre assignments by avoiding the hazard of suboptimal weighting factors for the various objectives. These two advantages, namely diversity and better evaluation, lead to a higher probability of predicting the correct

  10. Resonance assignment of the NMR spectra of disordered proteins using a multi-objective non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Fritzsching, Keith J; Hong, Mei

    2013-11-01

    A multi-objective genetic algorithm is introduced to predict the assignment of protein solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectra with partial resonance overlap and missing peaks due to broad linewidths, molecular motion, and low sensitivity. This non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) aims to identify all possible assignments that are consistent with the spectra and to compare the relative merit of these assignments. Our approach is modeled after the recently introduced Monte-Carlo simulated-annealing (MC/SA) protocol, with the key difference that NSGA-II simultaneously optimizes multiple assignment objectives instead of searching for possible assignments based on a single composite score. The multiple objectives include maximizing the number of consistently assigned peaks between multiple spectra ("good connections"), maximizing the number of used peaks, minimizing the number of inconsistently assigned peaks between spectra ("bad connections"), and minimizing the number of assigned peaks that have no matching peaks in the other spectra ("edges"). Using six SSNMR protein chemical shift datasets with varying levels of imperfection that was introduced by peak deletion, random chemical shift changes, and manual peak picking of spectra with moderately broad linewidths, we show that the NSGA-II algorithm produces a large number of valid and good assignments rapidly. For high-quality chemical shift peak lists, NSGA-II and MC/SA perform similarly well. However, when the peak lists contain many missing peaks that are uncorrelated between different spectra and have chemical shift deviations between spectra, the modified NSGA-II produces a larger number of valid solutions than MC/SA, and is more effective at distinguishing good from mediocre assignments by avoiding the hazard of suboptimal weighting factors for the various objectives. These two advantages, namely diversity and better evaluation, lead to a higher probability of predicting the correct assignment for a

  11. Magnetic De-spinning of Space Objects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Objects in orbit about the earth rotate such that a service spacecraft cannot grapple to them. There are few techniques available to despin a space object without...

  12. Power magnetic devices a multi-objective design approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sudhoff, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    Presents a multi-objective design approach to the many power magnetic devices in use today Power Magnetic Devices: A Multi-Objective Design Approach addresses the design of power magnetic devices-including inductors, transformers, electromagnets, and rotating electric machinery-using a structured design approach based on formal single- and multi-objective optimization. The book opens with a discussion of evolutionary-computing-based optimization. Magnetic analysis techniques useful to the design of all the devices considered in the book are then set forth. This material is then used for ind

  13. A Sorting Statistic with Application in Neurological Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levman, Jacob; Takahashi, Emi; Forgeron, Cynthia; MacDonald, Patrick; Stewart, Natalie; Lim, Ashley; Martel, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Effect size refers to the assessment of the extent of differences between two groups of samples on a single measurement. Assessing effect size in medical research is typically accomplished with Cohen's d statistic. Cohen's d statistic assumes that average values are good estimators of the position of a distribution of numbers and also assumes Gaussian (or bell-shaped) underlying data distributions. In this paper, we present an alternative evaluative statistic that can quantify differences between two data distributions in a manner that is similar to traditional effect size calculations; however, the proposed approach avoids making assumptions regarding the shape of the underlying data distribution. The proposed sorting statistic is compared with Cohen's d statistic and is demonstrated to be capable of identifying feature measurements of potential interest for which Cohen's d statistic implies the measurement would be of little use. This proposed sorting statistic has been evaluated on a large clinical autism dataset from Boston Children's Hospital , Harvard Medical School , demonstrating that it can potentially play a constructive role in future healthcare technologies.

  14. Surface acoustic wave actuated cell sorting (SAWACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, T; Braunmüller, S; Schmid, L; Wixforth, A; Weitz, D A

    2010-03-21

    We describe a novel microfluidic cell sorter which operates in continuous flow at high sorting rates. The device is based on a surface acoustic wave cell-sorting scheme and combines many advantages of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and fluorescence activated droplet sorting (FADS) in microfluidic channels. It is fully integrated on a PDMS device, and allows fast electronic control of cell diversion. We direct cells by acoustic streaming excited by a surface acoustic wave which deflects the fluid independently of the contrast in material properties of deflected objects and the continuous phase; thus the device underlying principle works without additional enhancement of the sorting by prior labelling of the cells with responsive markers such as magnetic or polarizable beads. Single cells are sorted directly from bulk media at rates as fast as several kHz without prior encapsulation into liquid droplet compartments as in traditional FACS. We have successfully directed HaCaT cells (human keratinocytes), fibroblasts from mice and MV3 melanoma cells. The low shear forces of this sorting method ensure that cells survive after sorting.

  15. Combining magnetic sorting of mother cells and fluctuation tests to analyze genome instability during mitotic cell aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Melissa N; Maxwell, Patrick H

    2014-10-16

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been an excellent model system for examining mechanisms and consequences of genome instability. Information gained from this yeast model is relevant to many organisms, including humans, since DNA repair and DNA damage response factors are well conserved across diverse species. However, S. cerevisiae has not yet been used to fully address whether the rate of accumulating mutations changes with increasing replicative (mitotic) age due to technical constraints. For instance, measurements of yeast replicative lifespan through micromanipulation involve very small populations of cells, which prohibit detection of rare mutations. Genetic methods to enrich for mother cells in populations by inducing death of daughter cells have been developed, but population sizes are still limited by the frequency with which random mutations that compromise the selection systems occur. The current protocol takes advantage of magnetic sorting of surface-labeled yeast mother cells to obtain large enough populations of aging mother cells to quantify rare mutations through phenotypic selections. Mutation rates, measured through fluctuation tests, and mutation frequencies are first established for young cells and used to predict the frequency of mutations in mother cells of various replicative ages. Mutation frequencies are then determined for sorted mother cells, and the age of the mother cells is determined using flow cytometry by staining with a fluorescent reagent that detects bud scars formed on their cell surfaces during cell division. Comparison of predicted mutation frequencies based on the number of cell divisions to the frequencies experimentally observed for mother cells of a given replicative age can then identify whether there are age-related changes in the rate of accumulating mutations. Variations of this basic protocol provide the means to investigate the influence of alterations in specific gene functions or specific environmental conditions on

  16. Magnetic cell sorting purification of differentiated embryonic stem cells stably expressing truncated human CD4 as surface marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Robert; Groebner, Michael; Franz, Wolfgang-Michael

    2005-04-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells offer great potential in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Clinical applications are still hampered by the lack of protocols for gentle, high-yield isolation of specific cell types for transplantation expressing no immunogenic markers. We describe labeling of stably transfected ES cells expressing a human CD4 molecule lacking its intracellular domain (DeltaCD4) under control of the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter for magnetic cell sorting (MACS). To track the labeled ES cells, we fused DeltaCD4 to an intracellular enhanced green fluorescent protein domain (DeltaCD4EGFP). We showed functionality of the membrane-bound fluorescent fusion protein and its suitability for MACS leading to purities greater than 97%. Likewise, expression of DeltaCD4 yielded up to 98.5% positive cells independently of their differentiation state. Purities were not limited by the initial percentage of DeltaCD4(+) cells, ranging from 0.6%-16%. The viability of MACS-selected cells was demonstrated by reaggregation and de novo formation of embryoid bodies developing all three germ layers. Thus, expression of DeltaCD4 in differentiated ES cells may enable rapid, high-yield purification of a desired cell type for tissue engineering and transplantation studies.

  17. Ore sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, A.P.; Richards, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    In an ore sorting apparatus, ore particles are bombarded with neutrons in a chamber and sorted by detecting radiation emitted by isotopes of elements, such as gold, forming or contained in the particles, using detectors and selectively controlling fluid jets. The isotopes can be selectively recognised by their radiation characteristics. In an alternative embodiment, shorter life isotopes are formed by neutron bombardment and detection of radiation takes place immediately adjacent the region of bombardment

  18. A Dedicated Genetic Algorithm for Localization of Moving Magnetic Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Alimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A dedicated Genetic Algorithm (GA has been developed to localize the trajectory of ferromagnetic moving objects within a bounded perimeter. Localization of moving ferromagnetic objects is an important tool because it can be employed in situations when the object is obscured. This work is innovative for two main reasons: first, the GA has been tuned to provide an accurate and fast solution to the inverse magnetic field equations problem. Second, the algorithm has been successfully tested using real-life experimental data. Very accurate trajectory localization estimations were obtained over a wide range of scenarios.

  19. Multi-objective parametric optimization of Inertance type pulse tube refrigerator using response surface methodology and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Sachindra K.; Choudhury, Balaji K.; Sahoo, Ranjit K.; Sarangi, Sunil K.

    2014-07-01

    The modeling and optimization of a Pulse Tube Refrigerator is a complicated task, due to its complexity of geometry and nature. The aim of the present work is to optimize the dimensions of pulse tube and regenerator for an Inertance-Type Pulse Tube Refrigerator (ITPTR) by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Non-Sorted Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA II). The Box-Behnken design of the response surface methodology is used in an experimental matrix, with four factors and two levels. The diameter and length of the pulse tube and regenerator are chosen as the design variables where the rest of the dimensions and operating conditions of the ITPTR are constant. The required output responses are the cold head temperature (Tcold) and compressor input power (Wcomp). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been used to model and solve the ITPTR. The CFD results agreed well with those of the previously published paper. Also using the results from the 1-D simulation, RSM is conducted to analyse the effect of the independent variables on the responses. To check the accuracy of the model, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method has been used. Based on the proposed mathematical RSM models a multi-objective optimization study, using the Non-sorted genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) has been performed to optimize the responses.

  20. Multi-objective optimization of short-term hydrothermal scheduling using non-dominated sorting gravitational search algorithm with chaotic mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Hao; Yuan, Xiaohui; Ji, Bin; Chen, Zhihuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An improved non-dominated sorting gravitational search algorithm (NSGSA-CM) is proposed. • NSGSA-CM is used to solve the problem of short-term multi-objective hydrothermal scheduling. • We enhance the search capability of NSGSA-CM by chaotic mutation. • New strategies are devised to handle various constraints in NSGSA-CM. • We obtain better compromise solutions with less fuel cost and emissions. - Abstract: This paper proposes a non-dominated sorting gravitational search algorithm with chaotic mutation (NSGSA-CM) to solve short-term economic/environmental hydrothermal scheduling (SEEHTS) problem. The SEEHTS problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem with many equality and inequality constraints. By introducing the concept of non-dominated sorting and crowding distance, NSGSA-CM can optimize two objectives of fuel cost and pollutant emission simultaneously and obtain a set of Pareto optimal solutions in one trial. In order to improve the performance of NSGSA-CM, the paper introduces particle memory character and population social information in velocity update process. And a chaotic mutation is adopted to prevent the premature convergence. Furthermore, NSGSA-CM utilizes an elitism strategy which selects better solutions in parent and offspring populations based on their non-domination rank and crowding distance to update new generations. When dealing with the constraints of the SEEHTS, new strategies without penalty factors are proposed. In order to handle the water dynamic balance and system load balance constraints, this paper uses a combined strategy which adjusts the violation averagely to each decision variable at first and adjusts the rest violation randomly later. Meanwhile, a new symmetrical adjustment strategy by modifying the discharges at current and later interval without breaking water dynamic balance is adopted to handle reservoir storage constraints. To test the performance of the proposed NSGSA

  1. Object representation and magnetic moments in thin alkali films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Douglas C.

    2008-10-01

    This thesis is broken into two parts a computer vision part and a solid state physics part. In the computer vision part of the thesis (chapters 1 through 5), the concept of an architecture is discussed with a review of what is known about the brain's visual architecture as it applies to object representation. With this in mind we review the two main types of architectures that are used in computer vision for object representation. A specific object representation is then implemented and optimized to solve a problem in object tracking. This representation is then used to derive the fiducial points of a face using two distinct methods. One using evolutionary algorithms and another by a Bayesian analysis of the feature responses drawn from a gallery of faces. The evolved fiducial representation is tested as a facial detection system. It is shown that the Bayesian analysis of facial images gives an entropy measure that can be used to further improve detection results in the facial detection system. In addition, two similarity metrics are explored in the context of facial detection. It is found that a normalized vector dot product substantially outperforms the Euclidean distance measure. The solid state part of the thesis is composed of two self contained chapters. An effort has been made to reduce the redundancies between the material but some will necessarily remain (i.e., short descriptions of the experimental setup). Both chapters deal with the phenomenon of magnetism of atomic impurities in and on thin metal host films. The important difference between the chapters, besides the results, lies in the experimental technique used to measure the magnetism. In chapter 6, thin films of Pb are covered in situ with sub monolayers of V, Mo and Co in the range between 0.01 and 1 monolayers. If the surface impurities are magnetic they will reduce the superconducting transition temperature of the Pb film. From the reduction of Tc the magnetic dephasing rate of the surface

  2. Biokinetic model-based multi-objective optimization of Dunaliella tertiolecta cultivation using elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm with inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Snehal K; Kumar, Mithilesh; Guria, Chandan; Kumar, Anup; Banerjee, Chiranjib

    2017-10-01

    Algal model based multi-objective optimization using elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm with inheritance was carried out for batch cultivation of Dunaliella tertiolecta using NPK-fertilizer. Optimization problems involving two- and three-objective functions were solved simultaneously. The objective functions are: maximization of algae-biomass and lipid productivity with minimization of cultivation time and cost. Time variant light intensity and temperature including NPK-fertilizer, NaCl and NaHCO 3 loadings are the important decision variables. Algal model involving Monod/Andrews adsorption kinetics and Droop model with internal nutrient cell quota was used for optimization studies. Sets of non-dominated (equally good) Pareto optimal solutions were obtained for the problems studied. It was observed that time variant optimal light intensity and temperature trajectories, including optimum NPK fertilizer, NaCl and NaHCO 3 concentration has significant influence to improve biomass and lipid productivity under minimum cultivation time and cost. Proposed optimization studies may be helpful to implement the control strategy in scale-up operation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A hybrid non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm and its application on multi-objective optimal design of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lei; Yan, Changqi; Liao, Yi; Song, Feifei; Jia, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimization ability of NSGA-II is improved. • The design targets can be obvious optimized through optimization methodology. • Multi-objective optimization is implanted into the design of nuclear power plant. - Abstract: The design of nuclear component can be optimized by seeking out the best combination of article operational and structural parameters. Through multi-objective optimization, the optimized scheme can not only meets the design requirements, but also satisfies the safety regulations. In this work, a hybrid non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is proposed, and its performance is verified by comparing it with its prototype and immune memory clone constraint multi-objective algorithm through four test-functions; the designs of the steam generator and the primary loop of Qinshan I nuclear power plant are optimized by the proposed algorithm. The results show that the algorithm outperforms the other two through overall evaluation; the reactor inlet temperature is an important parameter which influences the distribution of the Pareto optimal front; through optimization, the weight of the steam generator can be reduced by 16.5%, and the primary flow-rate can be reduced by 17.0%, the weight of the primary loop can be reduced by 11.4%, and the volume can be reduced by 9.8%.

  4. Monocytes isolated by positive and negative magnetic sorting techniques show different molecular characteristics and immunophenotypic behaviour [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashdeep Bhattacharjee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnetic sorting of cells, based on  microbead conjugated antibodies (Abs, employs positive as well as negative immunomagnetic separation methods, for isolation of a specific cell population. These microbeads are suggested to be nontoxic, biodegradable carriers conjugated to various antibodies. Isolation of cells through positive selection involves the attachment of antibody conjugated microbeads to the cells of interest, followed by their isolation in the presence of a strong magnetic field to obtain higher purity. Negative selection involves attachment of microbead conjugated antibodies to all other cell populations except the cells of interest, which remain untagged. In the present study, we compared the two methods for their effect on functional and immunophenotypic behavior of isolated CD14+ monocytes. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated from blood collected from healthy volunteers by density gradient centrifugation. Human blood derived monocytes were isolated through positive selection and negative selection, making use of the appropriate monocyte isolation kit. Monocytes were then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS and their activation and proliferation capacity were examined. The degradation or dissociation of cell-bound microbeads was also investigated. Results: We observed an impaired LPS sensitivity as well as poor activation and proliferation capacity upon stimulation by LPS in positively sorted CD14+ monocytes as compared to negatively sorted CD14+ monocytes. The attached microbeads did not degrade and remained attached to the cells even after 6 days of culture. Conclusions: Our results suggest that positively sorted CD14+ cells exhibit hampered functionality and may result in inaccurate analysis and observations in downstream applications. However, these cells can be used for immediate analytical procedures.

  5. Attraction and repulsion of magnetic or magnetizable objects to and from a sensor surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention provides a magnetic sensor device a first magnetic field generating means for attracting magnetic or magnetizable objects, e.g. magnetic particles, to a sensor surface and a second magnetic field generating means for, in combination with the first magnetic field, repelling

  6. Binar Sort: A Linear Generalized Sorting Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Gilreath, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Sorting is a common and ubiquitous activity for computers. It is not surprising that there exist a plethora of sorting algorithms. For all the sorting algorithms, it is an accepted performance limit that sorting algorithms are linearithmic or O(N lg N). The linearithmic lower bound in performance stems from the fact that the sorting algorithms use the ordering property of the data. The sorting algorithm uses comparison by the ordering property to arrange the data elements from an initial perm...

  7. Multi-objective optimization of combustion, performance and emission parameters in a jatropha biodiesel engine using Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Sunil; Bhushan, Gian; Dubey, Kashyap Kumar

    2014-03-01

    The present work studies and identifies the different variables that affect the output parameters involved in a single cylinder direct injection compression ignition (CI) engine using jatropha biodiesel. Response surface methodology based on Central composite design (CCD) is used to design the experiments. Mathematical models are developed for combustion parameters (Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and peak cylinder pressure (Pmax)), performance parameter brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emission parameters (CO, NO x , unburnt HC and smoke) using regression techniques. These regression equations are further utilized for simultaneous optimization of combustion (BSFC, Pmax), performance (BTE) and emission (CO, NO x , HC, smoke) parameters. As the objective is to maximize BTE and minimize BSFC, Pmax, CO, NO x , HC, smoke, a multiobjective optimization problem is formulated. Nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II is used in predicting the Pareto optimal sets of solution. Experiments are performed at suitable optimal solutions for predicting the combustion, performance and emission parameters to check the adequacy of the proposed model. The Pareto optimal sets of solution can be used as guidelines for the end users to select optimal combination of engine output and emission parameters depending upon their own requirements.

  8. External parallel sorting with multiprocessor computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comanceau, S.I.

    1984-01-01

    This article describes methods of external sorting in which the entire main computer memory is used for the internal sorting of entries, forming out of them sorted segments of the greatest possible size, and outputting them to external memories. The obtained segments are merged into larger segments until all entries form one ordered segment. The described methods are suitable for sequential files stored on magnetic tape. The needs of the sorting algorithm can be met by using the relatively slow peripheral storage devices (e.g., tapes, disks, drums). The efficiency of the external sorting methods is determined by calculating the total sorting time as a function of the number of entries to be sorted and the number of parallel processors participating in the sorting process

  9. Multi-Objective PID-Controller Tuning for a Magnetic Levitation System using NSGA-II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gerulf K. M.; Yang, Zhenyu

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of PID-controller parameter tuning for a magnetic levitation system using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). The magnetic levitation system is inherently unstable and the PID-controller parameters are hard to find using conventional methods....... Based on four different performance measures, derived from the step response of the levitation system, the algorithm is used to find a set of non-dominated parameters for a PID-controller that can stabilize the system and minimize the performance measures....

  10. Energy considerations concerning current loops and magnetic objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluitman, J.H.J.

    1980-01-01

    In the thermodynamics of compound magnetic systems there is an ambiguity in defining the free energies connected to the constituent parts or subsystems. It is argued that the choice, usually made in defining the energy of a magnetized body, leads to an expression for the energy of a current loop or

  11. Verification of counting sort and radix sort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); F.S. de Boer (Frank); J.C. Rot (Jurriaan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSorting is an important algorithmic task used in many applications. Two main aspects of sorting algorithms which have been studied extensively are complexity and correctness. [Foley and Hoare, 1971] published the first formal correctness proof of a sorting algorithm (Quicksort). While

  12. Object-oriented magnetic resonance classes and objects, calculations and computations

    CERN Document Server

    Mehring, Michael

    2001-01-01

    This book presents, for the first time, a unified treatment of the quantum mechanisms of magnetic resonance, including both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron spin resonance (ESR). Magnetic resonance is perhaps the most advanced type of spectroscopy and it is applied in biology, chemistry, physics, material science, and medicine. If applied in conjunction with spectroscopy, the imaging version of magnetic resonance has no counterpart in any type of experimental technique. The authors present explanations and applications from fundamental to advanced levels. Additionally, the

  13. Mars Environment and Magnetic Orbiter Scientific and Measurement Objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leblanc, F.; Langlais, B.; Fouchet, T.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize our present understanding of Mars' atmosphere, magnetic field, and surface and address past evolution of these features. Key scientific questions concerning Mars' surface, atmosphere, and magnetic field, along with the planet's interaction with solar wind, are discussed......, the appearance of life, and its sustainability. The MEMO main platform combined remote sensing and in situ measurements of the atmosphere and the magnetic field during regular incursions into the martian upper atmosphere. The micro-satellite was designed to perform simultaneous in situ solar wind measurements...

  14. Apparatus and method for generating a magnetic field by rotation of a charge holding object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Vukovic, Lela [Westchester, IL; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glenn, IL

    2009-10-13

    A device and a method for the production of a magnetic field using a Charge Holding Object that is mechanically rotated. In a preferred embodiment, a Charge Holding Object surrounding a sample rotates and subjects the sample to one or more magnetic fields. The one or more magnetic fields are used by NMR Electronics connected to an NMR Conductor positioned within the Charge Holding Object to perform NMR analysis of the sample.

  15. Multi-Objective Optimization for Pure Permanent-Magnet Undulator Magnets Ordering Using Modified Simulated Annealing

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Nian; Li, Ge

    2004-01-01

    Undulator field errors influence the electron beam trajectories and lower the radiation quality. Angular deflection of electron beam is determined by first field integral, orbital displacement of electron beam is determined by second field integral and radiation quality can be evaluated by rms field error or phase error. Appropriate ordering of magnets can greatly reduce the errors. We apply a modified simulated annealing algorithm to this multi-objective optimization problem, taking first field integral, second field integral and rms field error as objective functions. Undulator with small field errors can be designed by this method within a reasonable calculation time even for the case of hundreds of magnets (first field integral reduced to 10-6T·m, second integral to 10-6T·m2 and rms field error to 0.01%). Thus, the field correction after assembling of undulator will be greatly simplified. This paper gives the optimizing process in detail and puts forward a new method to quickly calculate the rms field e...

  16. Quasi-equilibrium models of magnetized compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markakis, Charalampos; Uryu, Koji; Gourgoulhon, Eric

    2011-01-01

    We report work towards a relativistic formulation for modeling strongly magnetized neutron stars, rotating or in a close circular orbit around another neutron star or black hole, under the approximations of helical symmetry and ideal MHD. The quasi-stationary evolution is governed by the frst law of thermodynamics for helically symmetric systems, which is generalized to include magnetic felds. The formulation involves an iterative scheme for solving the Einstein-Maxwell and relativistic MHD-Euler equations numerically. The resulting configurations for binary systems could be used as self-consistent initial data for studying their inspiral and merger.

  17. Teleoperated robotic sorting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Charles E.; Sommer, Edward J.; Parrish, Robert H.; Russell, James R.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for classifying materials utilizing a computerized touch sensitive screen or other computerized pointing device for operator identification and electronic marking of spatial coordinates of materials to be extracted. An operator positioned at a computerized touch sensitive screen views electronic images of the mixture of materials to be sorted as they are conveyed past a sensor array which transmits sequences of images of the mixture either directly or through a computer to the touch sensitive display screen. The operator manually "touches" objects displayed on the screen to be extracted from the mixture thereby registering the spatial coordinates of the objects within the computer. The computer then tracks the registered objects as they are conveyed and directs automated devices including mechanical means such as air jets, robotic arms, or other mechanical diverters to extract the registered objects.

  18. Structure from the chaos: magnetic fields of cosmic objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, F

    1987-01-01

    The study deals with phenomenological and theoretical models in order to explain the existence of cosmic magnetic fields. Following aspects are considered: non-linear recursions, the theory of chaotic motions, turbulence, convection, the turbulent dynamo theory and magnetohydrodynamics. In the frame of these model assumptions it is tried to explain the causes of the solar activity cycle and the geomagnetic field.

  19. Magnethophoretic sorting of fluid catalytic cracking particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solsona, Miguel; Nieuwelink, A. E.; Odijk, Mathieu; Meirer, Florian; Abelmann, Leon; Olthuis, Wouter; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; van den Berg, Albert; Lee, Abraham; DeVoe, Don

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate an on-chip particle activity sorter, focused on iron concentration and based on magnetophoresis. This device was used for fast sorting of stepwise homogenously distributed [Fe]s. The preliminary results are very encouraging. We show that we can sort particles on magnetic moment, with

  20. Postmortem magnetic resonance imaging dealing with low temperature objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tomoya; Shiotani, Seiji; Isobe, Tomonori

    2010-01-01

    In Japan, the medical examiner system is not widespread, the rate of autopsy is low, and many medical institutions therefore perform postmortem imaging using clinical equipment. Postmortem imaging is performed to clarify cause of death, select candidates for autopsy, make a guide map for autopsy, or provide additional information for autopsy. Findings are classified into 3 categories: cause of death and associated changes, changes induced by cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and postmortem changes. Postmortem magnetic resonance imaging shows characteristic changes in signal intensity related to low body temperature after death; they are low temperature images. (author)

  1. A SCILAB Program for Computing Rotating Magnetic Compact Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasotiriou, P. J.; Geroyannis, V. S.

    We implement the so-called ``complex-plane iterative technique'' (CIT) to the computation of classical differentially rotating magnetic white dwarf and neutron star models. The program has been written in SCILAB (© INRIA-ENPC), a matrix-oriented high-level programming language, which can be downloaded free of charge from the site http://www-rocq.inria.fr/scilab. Due to the advanced capabilities of this language, the code is short and understandable. Highlights of the program are: (a) time-saving character, (b) easy use due to the built-in graphics user interface, (c) easy interfacing with Fortran via online dynamic link. We interpret our numerical results in various ways by extensively using the graphics environment of SCILAB.

  2. Magnetic induction tomography of objects for security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Rob; Joseph, Max; Langley, Abbi; Taylor, Stuart; Watson, Joe C.

    2017-10-01

    A coil array imaging system has been further developed from previous investigations, focusing on designing its application for fast screening of small bags or parcels, with a view to the production of a compact instrument for security applications. In addition to reducing image acquisition times, work was directed toward exploring potential cost effective manufacturing routes. Based on magnetic induction tomography and eddy-current principles, the instrument captured images of conductive targets using a lock-in amplifier, individually multiplexing signals between a primary driver coil and a 20 by 21 imaging array of secondary passive coils constructed using a reproducible multiple tile design. The design was based on additive manufacturing techniques and provided 2 orthogonal imaging planes with an ability to reconstruct images in less than 10 seconds. An assessment of one of the imaging planes is presented. This technique potentially provides a cost effective threat evaluation technique that may compliment conventional radiographic approaches.

  3. Lipid vesicle-mediated affinity chromatography using magnetic activated cell sorting (LIMACS): a novel method to analyze protein-lipid interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieberich, Erhard

    2011-04-26

    The analysis of lipid protein interaction is difficult because lipids are embedded in cell membranes and therefore, inaccessible to most purification procedures. As an alternative, lipids can be coated on flat surfaces as used for lipid ELISA and Plasmon resonance spectroscopy. However, surface coating lipids do not form microdomain structures, which may be important for the lipid binding properties. Further, these methods do not allow for the purification of larger amounts of proteins binding to their target lipids. To overcome these limitations of testing lipid protein interaction and to purify lipid binding proteins we developed a novel method termed lipid vesicle-mediated affinity chromatography using magnetic-activated cell sorting (LIMACS). In this method, lipid vesicles are prepared with the target lipid and phosphatidylserine as the anchor lipid for Annexin V MACS. Phosphatidylserine is a ubiquitous cell membrane phospholipid that shows high affinity to the protein Annexin V. Using magnetic beads conjugated to Annexin V the phosphatidylserine-containing lipid vesicles will bind to the magnetic beads. When the lipid vesicles are incubated with a cell lysate the protein binding to the target lipid will also be bound to the beads and can be co-purified using MACS. This method can also be used to test if recombinant proteins reconstitute a protein complex binding to the target lipid. We have used this method to show the interaction of atypical PKC (aPKC) with the sphingolipid ceramide and to co-purify prostate apoptosis response 4 (PAR-4), a protein binding to ceramide-associated aPKC. We have also used this method for the reconstitution of a ceramide-associated complex of recombinant aPKC with the cell polarity-related proteins Par6 and Cdc42. Since lipid vesicles can be prepared with a variety of sphingo- or phospholipids, LIMACS offers a versatile test for lipid-protein interaction in a lipid environment that resembles closely that of the cell membrane

  4. The force on an object passing through a magnetic fluid seal

    CERN Document Server

    Morton, G

    2002-01-01

    Forces on solid objects passed through a magnetic liquid plug in a tube are measured. A simple one-dimensional model is developed based on hydrostatic and magnetic pressures. The results demonstrate its potential to be used to separate two fluids while allowing solids to pass from one fluid to the other.

  5. Simple optical measurement of the magnetic moment of magnetically labeled objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidsieck, Alexandra, E-mail: aheidsieck@tum.de [Zentralinstitut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München (Germany); Rudigkeit, Sarah [Physics Department, Technische Universität München (Germany); Rümenapp, Christine; Gleich, Bernhard [Zentralinstitut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    The magnetic moment of magnetically labeled cells, microbubbles or microspheres is an important optimization parameter for many targeting, delivery or separation applications. The quantification of this property is often difficult, since it depends not only on the type of incorporated nanoparticle, but also on the intake capabilities, surface properties and internal distribution. We describe a method to determine the magnetic moment of those carriers using a microscopic set-up and an image processing algorithm. In contrast to other works, we measure the diversion of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in a static fluid. The set-up is optimized to achieve a homogeneous movement of the magnetic carriers inside the magnetic field. The evaluation is automated with a customized algorithm, utilizing a set of basic algorithms, including blob recognition, feature-based shape recognition and a graph algorithm. We present example measurements for the characteristic properties of different types of carriers in combination with different types of nanoparticles. Those properties include velocity in the magnetic field as well as the magnetic moment. The investigated carriers are adherent and suspension cells, while the used nanoparticles have different sizes and coatings to obtain varying behavior of the carriers. - Highlights: • Determination of the magnetic moment of magnetic carriers. • optimized set-up achieve a homogeneous movement. • Automated evaluation with a customized algorithm. • example measurements for the properties of nanoparticle-loaded cells.

  6. Parallel sorting algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Akl, Selim G

    1985-01-01

    Parallel Sorting Algorithms explains how to use parallel algorithms to sort a sequence of items on a variety of parallel computers. The book reviews the sorting problem, the parallel models of computation, parallel algorithms, and the lower bounds on the parallel sorting problems. The text also presents twenty different algorithms, such as linear arrays, mesh-connected computers, cube-connected computers. Another example where algorithm can be applied is on the shared-memory SIMD (single instruction stream multiple data stream) computers in which the whole sequence to be sorted can fit in the

  7. Ion collection by probing objects in flowing magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyu-Sun, Chung.

    1989-04-01

    A new one-dimensional collisionless kinetic model is developed for the flow of ions to probing structures in drifting plasmas. The cross-field flow into the presheath is modelled by accounting consistently for particle exchange between the collection flux tube and the outer plasma. Numerical solutions of the self-consistent plasma/sheath equations are obtained with arbitrary external ion temperature and parallel plasma flow velocity. Results are presented of the spatial dependence of the ion distribution function as well as its moments (density, particle flux, temperature, and power flux). The ion current to the probe is obtained and the ratio of the upstream to downstream currents is found to be well represented by the form R = exp[Ku d ], where K = 1.66 for T i = T e and u d is the drift velocity in units of (T e /m i ) 1/2 . The results agree well with comparable recent fluid calculations but show substantial deviations from other models which ignore particle exchange out of the presheath. No evidence is found of the formation of shocks in the downstream wake, contrary to the implications of some fluid theories. We have also extended the previous kinetic model by generalizing cross-field transport and adding ionization to the source of the Boltzmann equation along the presheath. Ion sheath current density and ratio(R) of upstream to downstream current are obtained as a function of plasma drift velocity, equivalent viscosity, ion temperature, and ionization rate. Constants(K) in the form R = exp[Ku d ] are obtained in terms of viscosity, ion temperature, and ionization rate. The effect of an electrical bias applied to the object on the presheath characteristics is discussed

  8. Algorithm 426 : Merge sort algorithm [M1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, C.

    1972-01-01

    Sorting by means of a two-way merge has a reputation of requiring a clerically complicated and cumbersome program. This ALGOL 60 procedure demonstrates that, using recursion, an elegant and efficient algorithm can be designed, the correctness of which is easily proved [2]. Sorting n objects gives

  9. Rolled-up magnetic sensor: nanomembrane architecture for in-flow detection of magnetic objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönch, Ingolf; Makarov, Denys; Koseva, Radinka; Baraban, Larysa; Karnaushenko, Daniil; Kaiser, Claudia; Arndt, Karl-Friedrich; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2011-09-27

    Detection and analysis of magnetic nanoobjects is a crucial task in modern diagnostic and therapeutic techniques applied to medicine and biology. Accomplishment of this task calls for the development and implementation of electronic elements directly in fluidic channels, which still remains an open and nontrivial issue. Here, we present a novel concept based on rolled-up nanotechnology for fabrication of multifunctional devices, which can be straightforwardly integrated into existing fluidic architectures. We apply strain engineering to roll-up a functional nanomembrane consisting of a magnetic sensor element based on [Py/Cu](30) multilayers, revealing giant magnetoresistance (GMR). The comparison of the sensor's characteristics before and after the roll-up process is found to be similar, allowing for a reliable and predictable method to fabricate high-quality ultracompact GMR devices. The performance of the rolled-up magnetic sensor was optimized to achieve high sensitivity to weak magnetic fields. We demonstrate that the rolled-up tube itself can be efficiently used as a fluidic channel, while the integrated magnetic sensor provides an important functionality to detect and respond to a magnetic field. The performance of the rolled-up magnetic sensor for the in-flow detection of ferromagnetic CrO(2) nanoparticles embedded in a biocompatible polymeric hydrogel shell is highlighted. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Sorting a distribution theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Hosam M

    2011-01-01

    A cutting-edge look at the emerging distributional theory of sorting Research on distributions associated with sorting algorithms has grown dramatically over the last few decades, spawning many exact and limiting distributions of complexity measures for many sorting algorithms. Yet much of this information has been scattered in disparate and highly specialized sources throughout the literature. In Sorting: A Distribution Theory, leading authority Hosam Mahmoud compiles, consolidates, and clarifies the large volume of available research, providing a much-needed, comprehensive treatment of the

  11. Multi-objective optimization of discrete time-cost tradeoff problem in project networks using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, Mohammadreza

    2016-06-01

    The time-cost tradeoff problem is one of the most important and applicable problems in project scheduling area. There are many factors that force the mangers to crash the time. This factor could be early utilization, early commissioning and operation, improving the project cash flow, avoiding unfavorable weather conditions, compensating the delays, and so on. Since there is a need to allocate extra resources to short the finishing time of project and the project managers are intended to spend the lowest possible amount of money and achieve the maximum crashing time, as a result, both direct and indirect costs will be influenced in the project, and here, we are facing into the time value of money. It means that when we crash the starting activities in a project, the extra investment will be tied in until the end date of the project; however, when we crash the final activities, the extra investment will be tied in for a much shorter period. This study is presenting a two-objective mathematical model for balancing compressing the project time with activities delay to prepare a suitable tool for decision makers caught in available facilities and due to the time of projects. Also drawing the scheduling problem to real world conditions by considering nonlinear objective function and the time value of money are considered. The presented problem was solved using NSGA-II, and the effect of time compressing reports on the non-dominant set.

  12. Multi-Objective Structural Optimization Design of Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine Blades Using the Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II and Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A multi-objective optimization method for the structural design of horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT blades is presented. The main goal is to minimize the weight and cost of the blade which uses glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP coupled with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP materials. The number and the location of layers in the spar cap, the width of the spar cap and the position of the shear webs are employed as the design variables, while the strain limit, blade/tower clearance limit and vibration limit are taken into account as the constraint conditions. The optimization of the design of a commercial 1.5 MW HAWT blade is carried out by combining FEM analysis and a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm under ultimate (extreme flap-wise load and edge-wise load conditions. The best solutions are described and the comparison of the obtained results with the original design is performed to prove the efficiency and applicability of the method.

  13. Evolution strategies and multi-objective optimization of permanent magnet motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Bøgh; Santos, Ilmar

    2012-01-01

    When designing a permanent magnet motor, several geometry and material parameters are to be defined. This is not an easy task, as material properties and magnetic fields are highly non-linear and the design of a motor is therefore often an iterative process. From an engineering point of view, we...... of evolution strategies, ES to effectively design and optimize parameters of permanent magnet motors. Single as well as multi-objective optimization procedures are carried out. A modified way of creating the strategy parameters for the ES algorithm is also proposed and has together with the standard ES...

  14. Sorting out Downside Beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); P. van Vliet (Pim); S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDownside risk, when properly defined and estimated, helps to explain the cross-section of US stock returns. Sorting stocks by a proper estimate of downside market beta leads to a substantially larger cross-sectional spread in average returns than sorting on regular market beta. This

  15. Three Sorts of Naturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Hans

    2006-01-01

    In "Two sorts of Naturalism" John McDowell is sketching his own sort of naturalism in ethics as an alternative to "bald naturalism". In this paper I distinguish materialist, idealist and absolute conceptions of nature and of naturalism in order to provide a framework for a clearer understanding...

  16. Perbandingan Kecepatan Gabungan Algoritma Quick Sort dan Merge Sort dengan Insertion Sort, Bubble Sort dan Selection Sort

    OpenAIRE

    Al Rivan, Muhammad Ezar

    2017-01-01

    Ordering is one of the process done before doing data processing. The sorting algorithm has its own strengths and weaknesses. By taking strengths of each algorithm then combined can be a better algorithm. Quick Sort and Merge Sort are algorithms that divide the data into parts and each part divide again into sub-section until one element. Usually one element join with others and then sorted by. In this experiment data divide into parts that have size not more than threshold. This part then so...

  17. Cosmic-Ray Propagation in Turbulent Spiral Magnetic Fields Associated with Young Stellar Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatuzzo, Marco; Adams, Fred C.

    2018-04-01

    External cosmic rays impinging upon circumstellar disks associated with young stellar objects provide an important source of ionization, and, as such, play an important role in disk evolution and planet formation. However, these incoming cosmic rays are affected by a variety of physical processes internal to stellar/disk systems, including modulation by turbulent magnetic fields. Globally, these fields naturally provide both a funneling effect, where cosmic rays from larger volumes are focused into the disk region, and a magnetic mirroring effect, where cosmic rays are repelled due to the increasing field strength. This paper considers cosmic-ray propagation in the presence of a turbulent spiral magnetic field, analogous to that produced by the solar wind. The interaction of this wind with the interstellar medium defines a transition radius, analogous to the heliopause, which provides the outer boundary to this problem. We construct a new coordinate system where one coordinate follows the spiral magnetic field lines and consider magnetic perturbations to the field in the perpendicular directions. The presence of magnetic turbulence replaces the mirroring points with a distribution of values and moves the mean location outward. Our results thus help quantify the degree to which cosmic-ray fluxes are reduced in circumstellar disks by the presence of magnetic field structures that are shaped by stellar winds. The new coordinate system constructed herein should also be useful in other astronomical applications.

  18. Magnetic Field of Conductive Objects as Superposition of Elementary Eddy Currents and Eddy Current Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, D. Ya.; Zav'yalova, K. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper represents induced currents in an electrically conductive object as a totality of elementary eddy currents. The proposed scanning method includes measurements of only one component of the secondary magnetic field. Reconstruction of the current distribution is performed by deconvolution with regularization. Numerical modeling supported by the field experiments show that this approach is of direct practical relevance.

  19. Objectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Daston, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...

  20. Multi-Objective Scheduling Optimization Based on a Modified Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II in Voltage Source Converter−Multi-Terminal High Voltage DC Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Farms with Battery Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Young Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Improving the performance of power systems has become a challenging task for system operators in an open access environment. This paper presents an optimization approach for solving the multi-objective scheduling problem using a modified non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm in a hybrid network of meshed alternating current (AC/wind farm grids. This approach considers voltage and power control modes based on multi-terminal voltage source converter high-voltage direct current (MTDC and battery energy storage systems (BESS. To enhance the hybrid network station performance, we implement an optimal process based on the battery energy storage system operational strategy for multi-objective scheduling over a 24 h demand profile. Furthermore, the proposed approach is formulated as a master problem and a set of sub-problems associated with the hybrid network station to improve the overall computational efficiency using Benders’ decomposition. Based on the results of the simulations conducted on modified institute of electrical and electronics engineers (IEEE-14 bus and IEEE-118 bus test systems, we demonstrate and confirm the applicability, effectiveness and validity of the proposed approach.

  1. Sorting and selection in posets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daskalakis, Constantinos; Karp, Richard M.; Mossel, Elchanan

    2011-01-01

    from two decades ago by Faigle and Turán. In particular, we present the first algorithm that sorts a width-$w$ poset of size $n$ with query complexity $O(n(w+\\log n))$ and prove that this query complexity is asymptotically optimal. We also describe a variant of Mergesort with query complexity $O......(wn\\log\\frac{n}{w})$ and total complexity $O(w^{2}n\\log\\frac{n}{w})$; an algorithm with the same query complexity was given by Faigle and Turán, but no efficient implementation of that algorithm is known. Both our sorting algorithms can be applied with negligible overhead to the more general problem of reconstructing transitive......Classical problems of sorting and searching assume an underlying linear ordering of the objects being compared. In this paper, we study these problems in the context of partially ordered sets, in which some pairs of objects are incomparable. This generalization is interesting from a combinatorial...

  2. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close ‹ Back to Healthy Living Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the ... How do I know if I have seasonal allergies? According to Dr. Georgeson, the best way to ...

  3. Wage Sorting Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jesper; Vejlin, Rune Majlund; Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    Using a population-wide Danish Matched Employer-Employee panel from 1980-2006, we document a strong trend towards more positive assortative wage sorting. The correlation between worker and firm fixed effects estimated from a log wage regression increases from -0.07 in 1981 to .14 in 2001. The non......Using a population-wide Danish Matched Employer-Employee panel from 1980-2006, we document a strong trend towards more positive assortative wage sorting. The correlation between worker and firm fixed effects estimated from a log wage regression increases from -0.07 in 1981 to .14 in 2001....... The nonstationary wage sorting pattern is not due to compositional changes in the labor market, primarily occurs among high wage workers, and comprises 41 percent of the increase in the standard deviation of log real wages between 1980 and 2006. We show that the wage sorting trend is associated with worker...

  4. Development of sorting system control using LABVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azraf Azman; Mohd Arif Hamzah; Noriah Mod Ali; John Konsoh; Mohd Idris Taib; Maslina Mohd Ibrahim; Nor Arymaswati Abdullah; Abu Bakar Mhd Ghazali

    2005-01-01

    The development of the Personnel Dosimeter Sorting System, proposed by the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) is to enhance the system or work flow in preparing the personnel dosimeter. The main objective of the system is to reduce stamping error, time and cost. The Personnel Dosimeter Sorting System is a semi-automatic system with an interfacing method using the Advantec 32 bit PCI interface card of 64 digital input and output. The system is integrated with the Labview version 7.1 programming language to control the sorting system and operation. (Author)

  5. Calibration of a fluxgate magnetometer array and its application in magnetic object localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Luo, Shitu; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ji; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2013-01-01

    The magnetometer array is effective for magnetic object detection and localization. Calibration is important to improve the accuracy of the magnetometer array. A magnetic sensor array built with four three-axis DM-050 fluxgate magnetometers is designed, which is connected by a cross aluminum frame. In order to improve the accuracy of the magnetometer array, a calibration process is presented. The calibration process includes magnetometer calibration, coordinate transformation and misalignment calibration. The calibration system consists of a magnetic sensor array, a GSM-19T proton magnetometer, a two-dimensional nonmagnetic rotation platform, a 12 V-dc portable power device and two portable computers. After magnetometer calibration, the RMS error has been decreased from an original value of 125.559 nT to a final value of 1.711 nT (a factor of 74). After alignment, the RMS error of misalignment has been decreased from 1322.3 to 6.0 nT (a factor of 220). Then, the calibrated array deployed on the nonmagnetic rotation platform is used for ferromagnetic object localization. Experimental results show that the estimated errors of X, Y and Z axes are −0.049 m, 0.008 m and 0.025 m, respectively. Thus, the magnetometer array is effective for magnetic object detection and localization in three dimensions. (paper)

  6. Calibration of a fluxgate magnetometer array and its application in magnetic object localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Luo, Shitu; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ji; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2013-07-01

    The magnetometer array is effective for magnetic object detection and localization. Calibration is important to improve the accuracy of the magnetometer array. A magnetic sensor array built with four three-axis DM-050 fluxgate magnetometers is designed, which is connected by a cross aluminum frame. In order to improve the accuracy of the magnetometer array, a calibration process is presented. The calibration process includes magnetometer calibration, coordinate transformation and misalignment calibration. The calibration system consists of a magnetic sensor array, a GSM-19T proton magnetometer, a two-dimensional nonmagnetic rotation platform, a 12 V-dc portable power device and two portable computers. After magnetometer calibration, the RMS error has been decreased from an original value of 125.559 nT to a final value of 1.711 nT (a factor of 74). After alignment, the RMS error of misalignment has been decreased from 1322.3 to 6.0 nT (a factor of 220). Then, the calibrated array deployed on the nonmagnetic rotation platform is used for ferromagnetic object localization. Experimental results show that the estimated errors of X, Y and Z axes are -0.049 m, 0.008 m and 0.025 m, respectively. Thus, the magnetometer array is effective for magnetic object detection and localization in three dimensions.

  7. What is a Sorting Function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    What is a sorting function—not a sorting function for a given ordering relation, but a sorting function with nothing given? Formulating four basic properties of sorting algorithms as defining requirements, we arrive at intrinsic notions of sorting and stable sorting: A function is a sorting...... are derivable without compromising data abstraction. Finally we point out that stable sorting functions as default representations of ordering relations have the advantage of permitting linear-time sorting algorithms; inequality tests forfeit this possibility....... function if and only it is an intrinsically parametric permutation function. It is a stable sorting function if and only if it is an intrinsically stable permutation function. We show that ordering relations can be represented isomorphically as inequality tests, comparators and stable sorting functions...

  8. Method for locating a small magnetic object in the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, L.; Williamson, S.J.; Ilmoniemi, R.J.; Weinberg, H.; Boyd, A.D.

    1988-02-29

    A piece of a thin acupuncture needle lodged under the right scapula of a patient could not be found in surgical procedures accompanied by studies of 30 standard x-ray images. To locate it, the authors mapped the magnetic-field component normal to a plane lying above the object, using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Assuming that the needle could be modeled as a magnetic dipole, the authors were able to infer its lateral position, depth, orientation, and magnetic moment. With this information, directed CT scans, high-resolution x-ray films, and the subsequent surgical removal of the needle proved that it could be located in the body with an accuracy of about three millimeters.

  9. Automated Object-Oriented Simulation Framework for Modelling of Superconducting Magnets at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Maciejewski, Michał; Bartoszewicz, Andrzej

    The thesis aims at designing a flexible, extensible, user-friendly interface to model electro thermal transients occurring in superconducting magnets. Simulations are a fundamental tool for assessing the performance of a magnet and its protection system against the effects of a quench. The application is created using scalable and modular architecture based on object-oriented programming paradigm which opens an easy way for future extensions. What is more, each model composed of thousands of blocks is automatically created in MATLAB/Simulink. Additionally, the user is able to automatically run sets of simulations with varying parameters. Due to its scalability and modularity the framework can be easily used to simulate wide range of materials and magnet configurations.

  10. Multi-objective optimization of MOSFETs channel widths and supply voltage in the proposed dual edge-triggered static D flip-flop with minimum average power and delay by using fuzzy non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keivanian, Farshid; Mehrshad, Nasser; Bijari, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    D Flip-Flop as a digital circuit can be used as a timing element in many sophisticated circuits. Therefore the optimum performance with the lowest power consumption and acceptable delay time will be critical issue in electronics circuits. The newly proposed Dual-Edge Triggered Static D Flip-Flop circuit layout is defined as a multi-objective optimization problem. For this, an optimum fuzzy inference system with fuzzy rules is proposed to enhance the performance and convergence of non-dominated sorting Genetic Algorithm-II by adaptive control of the exploration and exploitation parameters. By using proposed Fuzzy NSGA-II algorithm, the more optimum values for MOSFET channel widths and power supply are discovered in search space than ordinary NSGA types. What is more, the design parameters involving NMOS and PMOS channel widths and power supply voltage and the performance parameters including average power consumption and propagation delay time are linked. To do this, the required mathematical backgrounds are presented in this study. The optimum values for the design parameters of MOSFETs channel widths and power supply are discovered. Based on them the power delay product quantity (PDP) is 6.32 PJ at 125 MHz Clock Frequency, L = 0.18 µm, and T = 27 °C.

  11. LazySorted: A Lazily, Partially Sorted Python List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftali Harris

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available LazySorted is a Python C extension implementing a partially and lazily sorted list data structure. It solves a common problem faced by programmers, in which they need just part of a sorted list, like its middle element (the median, but sort the entire list to get it. LazySorted presents them with the abstraction that they are working with a fully sorted list, while actually only sorting the list partially with quicksort partitions to return the requested sub-elements. This enables programmers to use naive "sort first" algorithms but nonetheless attain linear run-times when possible. LazySorted may serve as a drop-in replacement for the built-in sorted function in most cases, and can sometimes achieve run-times more than 7 times faster.

  12. Multi-objective optimization of circular magnetic abrasive polishing of SUS304 and Cu materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, NhatTan; Yin, ShaoHui; Chen, FengJun; Yin, HanFeng [Hunan University, Changsha (China); Pham, VanThoan [Hanoi University, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tran, TrongNhan [Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, HCM City (Viet Nam)

    2016-06-15

    In this paper, a Multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm (MOPSOA) is applied to optimize surface roughness of workpiece after circular magnetic abrasive polishing. The most important parameters of polishing model, namely current, gap between pole and workpiece, spindle speed and polishing time, were considered in this approach. The objective functions of the MOPSOA depend on the quality of surface roughness of polishing materials with both simultaneous surfaces (Ra1, Ra2), which are determined by means of experimental approach with the aid of circular magnetic field. Finally, the effectiveness of the approach is compared between the optimal results with the experimental data. The results show that the new proposed polishing optimization method is more feasible.

  13. Ready, steady, SORT!

    CERN Document Server

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    The selective or ecological sorting of waste is already second nature to many of us and concerns us all. As the GS Department's new awareness-raising campaign reminds us, everything we do to sort waste contributes to preserving the environment.    Placemats printed on recycled paper using vegetable-based ink will soon be distributed in Restaurant No.1.   Environmental protection is never far from the headlines, and CERN has a responsibility to ensure that the 3000 tonnes and more of waste it produces every year are correctly and selectively sorted. Materials can be given a second life through recycling and re-use, thereby avoiding pollution from landfill sites and incineration plants and saving on processing costs. The GS Department is launching a new poster campaign designed to raise awareness of the importance of waste sorting and recycling. "After conducting a survey to find out whether members of the personnel were prepared to make an effort to sort a...

  14. Exploratory Spectroscopy of Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables Candidates and Other Variable Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, A. S.; Palhares, M. S. [IP and D, Universidade do Vale do Paraíba, 12244-000, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, C. V.; Cieslinski, D.; Jablonski, F. J. [Divisão de Astrofísica, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, 12227-010, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, K. M. G. [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Almeida, L. A. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-900, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rodríguez-Ardila, A., E-mail: alexandre@univap.br [Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica LNA/MCTI, 37504-364, Itajubá MG (Brazil)

    2017-04-01

    The increasing number of synoptic surveys made by small robotic telescopes, such as the photometric Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS), provides a unique opportunity to discover variable sources and improves the statistical samples of such classes of objects. Our goal is the discovery of magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (mCVs). These are rare objects that probe interesting accretion scenarios controlled by the white-dwarf magnetic field. In particular, improved statistics of mCVs would help to address open questions on their formation and evolution. We performed an optical spectroscopy survey to search for signatures of magnetic accretion in 45 variable objects selected mostly from the CRTS. In this sample, we found 32 CVs, 22 being mCV candidates, 13 of which were previously unreported as such. If the proposed classifications are confirmed, it would represent an increase of 4% in the number of known polars and 12% in the number of known IPs. A fraction of our initial sample was classified as extragalactic sources or other types of variable stars by the inspection of the identification spectra. Despite the inherent complexity in identifying a source as an mCV, variability-based selection, followed by spectroscopic snapshot observations, has proved to be an efficient strategy for their discoveries, being a relatively inexpensive approach in terms of telescope time.

  15. Science objectives of the magnetic field experiment onboard Aditya-L1 spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vipin K.; Srivastava, Nandita; Ghosh, S. S.; Srikar, P. T.; Subhalakshmi, Krishnamoorthy

    2018-01-01

    The Aditya-L1 is first Indian solar mission scheduled to be placed in a halo orbit around the first Lagrangian point (L1) of Sun-Earth system in the year 2018-19. The approved scientific payloads onboard Aditya-L1 spacecraft includes a Fluxgate Digital Magnetometer (FGM) to measure the local magnetic field which is necessary to supplement the outcome of other scientific experiments onboard. The in-situ vector magnetic field data at L1 is essential for better understanding of the data provided by the particle and plasma analysis experiments, onboard Aditya-L1 mission. Also, the dynamics of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) can be better understood with the help of in-situ magnetic field data at the L1 point region. This data will also serve as crucial input for the short lead-time space weather forecasting models. The proposed FGM is a dual range magnetic sensor on a 6 m long boom mounted on the Sun viewing panel deck and configured to deploy along the negative roll direction of the spacecraft. Two sets of sensors (tri-axial each) are proposed to be mounted, one at the tip of boom (6 m from the spacecraft) and other, midway (3 m from the spacecraft). The main science objective of this experiment is to measure the magnitude and nature of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) locally and to study the disturbed magnetic conditions and extreme solar events by detecting the CME from Sun as a transient event. The proposed secondary science objectives are to study the impact of interplanetary structures and shock solar wind interaction on geo-space environment and to detect low frequency plasma waves emanating from the solar corona at L1 point. This will provide a better understanding on how the Sun affects interplanetary space. In this paper, we shall give the main scientific objectives of the magnetic field experiment and brief technical details of the FGM onboard Aditya-1 spacecraft.

  16. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...... can identify and then work with one another. Changes to parameters that would seem to make cooperation more attractive, such as an increase in the discount factor or the fraction of conditional cooperators, can reduce equilibrium cooperation if they decrease a selfish player's incentive to sort....

  17. Three Sorts of Naturalism

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Hans

    2006-01-01

    In "Two sorts of Naturalism" John McDowell is sketching his own sort of naturalism in ethics as an alternative to "bald naturalism". In this paper I distinguish materialist, idealist and absolute conceptions of nature and of naturalism in order to provide a framework for a clearer understanding of what McDowell's own naturalism amounts to. I argue that nothing short of an absolute naturalism will do for a number of McDowell's own purposes, but that it is far from obvious that this is his posi...

  18. Buoyancy limits on magnetic viscosity stress-law scalings in quasi stellar object accretion disk models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakimoto, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) are apparently the excessively bright nuclei of distant galaxies. They are thought to be powered by accretion disks surrounding supermassive black holes: however, proof of this presumption is hampered by major uncertainties in the viscous stress necessary for accretion to occur. Models generally assume an and hoc stress law which scales the stress with the total pressure. Near the black hole, radiation pressure dominates gas pressure; scaling the stress with the radiation pressure results in disk models that are thermally unstable and optically thin. This dissertation shows that a radiation pressure scaling for the stress is not possible if the viscosity is due to turbulent magnetic Maxwell stresses. The argument is one of internal self-consistency. First, four model accretion disks that bound the reasonably expected ranges of viscous stress scalings and vertical structures are constructed. Magnetic flux tubes of various initial field strengths are then placed within these models, nd their buoyancy is modeled numerically. In disks using the radiation pressure stress law scaling, low opacities allow rapid heat flow into the flux tubes: the tubes are extremely buoyant, and magnetic fields strong enough to provide the required stress cannot be retained. If an alternative gas pressure scaling for the stress is assumed, then the disks are optically thick; flux tubes have corresponding lower buoyancy, and magnetic fields strong enough to provide the stress can be retained for dynamically significant time periods

  19. A Quality Sorting of Fruit Using a New Automatic Image Processing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenomori, Michihiro; Yokomizu, Nobuyuki

    This paper presents an innovative approach for quality sorting of objects such as apples sorting in an agricultural factory, using an image processing algorithm. The objective of our approach are; firstly to sort the objects by their colors precisely; secondly to detect any irregularity of the colors surrounding the apples efficiently. An experiment has been conducted and the results have been obtained and compared with that has been preformed by human sorting process and by color sensor sorting devices. The results demonstrate that our approach is capable to sort the objects rapidly and the percentage of classification valid rate was 100 %.

  20. An object-oriented framework for magnetic-fusion modeling and analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R H; Yang, T Y Brian.

    1999-01-01

    The magnetic-fusion energy (MFE) program, like many other scientific and engineering activities, has a need to efficiently develop complex modeling codes which combine detailed models of components to make an integrated model of a device, as well as a rich supply of legacy code that could provide the component models. There is also growing recognition in many technical fields of the desirability of steerable software: computer programs whose functionality can be changed by the user as it is run. This project had as its goals the development of two key pieces of infrastructure that are needed to combine existing code modules, written mainly in Fortran, into flexible, steerable, object-oriented integrated modeling codes for magnetic- fusion applications. These two pieces are (1) a set of tools to facilitate the interfacing of Fortran code with a steerable object-oriented framework (which we have chosen to be based on PythonlW3, an object-oriented interpreted language), and (2) a skeleton for the integrated modeling code which defines the relationships between the modules. The first of these activities obviously has immediate applicability to a spectrum of projects; the second is more focussed on the MFE application, but may be of value as an example for other applications

  1. SORTING CAPABILITIES OF CASTINGS FROM NODULAR AND GRAY IRON BY THE STRUCTURE BY THE RESULT OF THE MEASUREMENT OF THE MAGNETIC PARAMETERS AND THE SPEED OF SOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Sandomirskiy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of the influence of changes in the structure of the metal substrate and form of graphite inclusions in cast iron on the magnetic coercive sensitive parameter and the speed of sound are given. The efficiency of shared use of the results of magnetic and ultrasonic measurements to control the shape of inclusions in ductile iron and pearlite content in its metal matrix is shown.

  2. Exploratory Spectroscopy of Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables Candidates and Other Variable Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A. S.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Cieslinski, D.; Jablonski, F. J.; Silva, K. M. G.; Almeida, L. A.; Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Palhares, M. S.

    2017-04-01

    The increasing number of synoptic surveys made by small robotic telescopes, such as the photometric Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS), provides a unique opportunity to discover variable sources and improves the statistical samples of such classes of objects. Our goal is the discovery of magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (mCVs). These are rare objects that probe interesting accretion scenarios controlled by the white-dwarf magnetic field. In particular, improved statistics of mCVs would help to address open questions on their formation and evolution. We performed an optical spectroscopy survey to search for signatures of magnetic accretion in 45 variable objects selected mostly from the CRTS. In this sample, we found 32 CVs, 22 being mCV candidates, 13 of which were previously unreported as such. If the proposed classifications are confirmed, it would represent an increase of 4% in the number of known polars and 12% in the number of known IPs. A fraction of our initial sample was classified as extragalactic sources or other types of variable stars by the inspection of the identification spectra. Despite the inherent complexity in identifying a source as an mCV, variability-based selection, followed by spectroscopic snapshot observations, has proved to be an efficient strategy for their discoveries, being a relatively inexpensive approach in terms of telescope time. Based on observations obtained at the Observatório do Pico dos Dias/LNA, and at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  3. Delay Kalman Filter to Estimate the Attitude of a Mobile Object with Indoor Magnetic Field Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Combettes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available More and more services are based on knowing the location of pedestrians equipped with connected objects (smartphones, smartwatches, etc.. One part of the location estimation process is attitude estimation. Many algorithms have been proposed but they principally target open space areas where the local magnetic field equals the Earth’s field. Unfortunately, this approach is impossible indoors, where the use of magnetometer arrays or magnetic field gradients has been proposed. However, current approaches omit the impact of past state estimates on the current orientation estimate, especially when a reference field is computed over a sliding window. A novel Delay Kalman filter is proposed in this paper to integrate this time correlation: the Delay MAGYQ. Experimental assessment, conducted in a motion lab with a handheld inertial and magnetic mobile unit, shows that the novel filter better estimates the Euler angles of the handheld device with an 11.7° mean error on the yaw angle as compared to 16.4° with a common Additive Extended Kalman filter.

  4. Event shape sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecna, Renata; Tomasik, Boris

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel method for sorting events of multiparticle production according to the azimuthal anisotropy of their momentum distribution. Although the method is quite general, we advocate its use in analysis of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions where a large number of hadrons is produced. The advantage of our method is that it can automatically sort out samples of events with histograms that indicate similar distributions of hadrons. It takes into account the whole measured histograms with all orders of anisotropy instead of a specific observable (e.g., v 2 , v 3 , q 2 ). It can be used for more exclusive experimental studies of flow anisotropies which are then more easily compared to theoretical calculations. It may also be useful in the construction of mixed-events background for correlation studies as it allows to select events with similar momentum distribution. (orig.)

  5. A Sequence of Sorting Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, David R.; Litwiller, Bonnie H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes eight increasingly sophisticated and efficient sorting algorithms including linear insertion, binary insertion, shellsort, bubble exchange, shakersort, quick sort, straight selection, and tree selection. Provides challenges for the reader and the student to program these efficiently. (JM)

  6. Chip-based droplet sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2017-11-21

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  7. Fast Metabolite Identification in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Metabolomic Studies: Statistical Peak Sorting and Peak Overlap Detection for More Reliable Database Queries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoijemberg, Pablo A; Pelczer, István

    2018-01-05

    A lot of time is spent by researchers in the identification of metabolites in NMR-based metabolomic studies. The usual metabolite identification starts employing public or commercial databases to match chemical shifts thought to belong to a given compound. Statistical total correlation spectroscopy (STOCSY), in use for more than a decade, speeds the process by finding statistical correlations among peaks, being able to create a better peak list as input for the database query. However, the (normally not automated) analysis becomes challenging due to the intrinsic issue of peak overlap, where correlations of more than one compound appear in the STOCSY trace. Here we present a fully automated methodology that analyzes all STOCSY traces at once (every peak is chosen as driver peak) and overcomes the peak overlap obstacle. Peak overlap detection by clustering analysis and sorting of traces (POD-CAST) first creates an overlap matrix from the STOCSY traces, then clusters the overlap traces based on their similarity and finally calculates a cumulative overlap index (COI) to account for both strong and intermediate correlations. This information is gathered in one plot to help the user identify the groups of peaks that would belong to a single molecule and perform a more reliable database query. The simultaneous examination of all traces reduces the time of analysis, compared to viewing STOCSY traces by pairs or small groups, and condenses the redundant information in the 2D STOCSY matrix into bands containing similar traces. The COI helps in the detection of overlapping peaks, which can be added to the peak list from another cross-correlated band. POD-CAST overcomes the generally overlooked and underestimated presence of overlapping peaks and it detects them to include them in the search of all compounds contributing to the peak overlap, enabling the user to accelerate the metabolite identification process with more successful database queries and searching all tentative

  8. COST EVALUATION OF AUTOMATED AND MANUAL POST- CONSUMER PLASTIC BOTTLE SORTING SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluates, on the basis of performance and cost, two Automated BottleSort® sorting systems for post-consumer commingled plastic containers developed by Magnetic Separation Systems. This study compares the costs to sort mixed bales of post-consumer plastic at these t...

  9. Software information sorting code 'PLUTO-R'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Naraoka, Kenitsu; Adachi, Masao; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1984-10-01

    A software information sorting code PLUTO-R is developed as one of the supporting codes of the TRITON system for the fusion plasma analysis. The objective of the PLUTO-R code is to sort reference materials of the codes in the TRITON code system. The easiness in the registration of information is especially pursued. As experience and skill in the data registration are not required, this code is usable for construction of general small-scale information system. This report gives an overall description and the user's manual of the PLUTO-R code. (author)

  10. Protein Sorting Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    and drawbacks of each of these approaches is described through many examples of methods that predict secretion, integration into membranes, or subcellular locations in general. The aim of this chapter is to provide a user-level introduction to the field with a minimum of computational theory.......Many computational methods are available for predicting protein sorting in bacteria. When comparing them, it is important to know that they can be grouped into three fundamentally different approaches: signal-based, global-property-based and homology-based prediction. In this chapter, the strengths...

  11. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig histori......, er opdelt i 13 kapitler og består af fire dele: Første del: Slaveriet; anden del: Jim Crow; tredje del. King-årene; fjerde del: Frem mod Obama....

  12. Gender Differences in Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Luca Paolo; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    and causing the most productive female workers to seek better jobs in more female-friendly firms in which they can pursue small career advancements. Nonetheless, gender differences in promotion persist and are found to be similar in all firms when we focus on large career advancements. These results provide......In this paper, we investigate the sorting of workers in firms to understand gender gaps in labor market outcomes. Using Danish employer-employee matched data, we fiend strong evidence of glass ceilings in certain firms, especially after motherhood, preventing women from climbing the career ladder...

  13. The limits of the electron optical parameters of asymmetric double pipecol magnetic objective lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-khashab, A. M.; Abas, K. A.

    1997-01-01

    The asymmetrical magnetic electron lens is of great importance for the electron microscopes intended for high resolution. Such lenses are determined not only by its geometric structure and shape parameters but also by the gap width to bore diameter (S/D) of its pole pieces. a systematic investigation has been carried out for asymmetric objective lenses having different bore diameters. The results indicate that the op per h ore diameter of pole piece lens has considerable effects on the electron optical properties. The Comparison between the two sets of the family of asymmetric lenses provides good performance, and suggests that the ratio of the lens gap width to the bore diameters of its pole pieces (S/ D 1 /D 2 =3) are favourable. (authors). 9 refs., 9 figs

  14. MODELING WORK OF SORTING STATION USING UML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Gorbova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is the construction of methods and models for the graphical representation process of sorting station, using the unified modeling language (UML. Methodology. Methods of graph theory, finite automata and the representation theory of queuing systems were used as the methods of investigation. A graphical representation of the process was implemented with using the Unified Modeling Language UML. The sorting station process representation is implemented as a state diagram and actions through a set of IBM Rational Rose. Graphs can show parallel operation of sorting station, the parallel existence and influence of objects process and the transition from one state to another. The IBM Rational Rose complex allows developing a diagram of work sequence of varying degrees of detailing. Findings. The study has developed a graphical representation method of the process of sorting station of different kind of complexity. All graphical representations are made using the UML. They are represented as a directed graph with the states. It is clear enough in the study of the subject area. Applying the methodology of the representation process, it allows becoming friendly with the work of any automation object very fast, and exploring the process during algorithms construction of sorting stations and other railway facilities. This model is implemented with using the Unified Modeling Language (UML using a combination of IBM Rational Rose. Originality. The representation process of sorting station was developed by means of the Unified Modeling Language (UML use. Methodology of representation process allows creating the directed graphs based on the order of execution of the works chain, objects and performers of these works. The UML allows visualizing, specifying, constructing and documenting, formalizing the representation process of sorting station and developing sequence diagrams of works of varying degrees of detail. Practical

  15. Selective sorting of waste

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Not much effort needed, just willpower In order to keep the cost of disposing of waste materials as low as possible, CERN provides two types of recipient at the entrance to each building: a green plastic one for paper/cardboard and a metal one for general refuse. For some time now we have noticed, to our great regret, a growing negligence as far as selective sorting is concerned, with, for example, the green recipients being filled with a mixture of cardboard boxes full of polystyrene or protective wrappers, plastic bottles, empty yogurts pots, etc. …We have been able to ascertain, after careful checking, that this haphazard mixing of waste cannot be attributed to the cleaning staff but rather to members of the personnel who unscrupulously throw away their rubbish in a completely random manner. Non-sorted waste entails heavy costs for CERN. For information, once a non-compliant item is found in a green recipient, the entire contents are sent off for incineration rather than recycling… We are all concerned...

  16. Simple sorting algorithm test based on CUDA

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Hongyu; Guo, Fangjin

    2015-01-01

    With the development of computing technology, CUDA has become a very important tool. In computer programming, sorting algorithm is widely used. There are many simple sorting algorithms such as enumeration sort, bubble sort and merge sort. In this paper, we test some simple sorting algorithm based on CUDA and draw some useful conclusions.

  17. Track data sort program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, N.A.; Matveev, V.A.; Fedotov, O.P.

    1977-01-01

    The description is given of the MASKA program, based on the principle of sorting points array at surface due to their belonging to the topologically connected regions with boundaries of locked broken lines. The algorithm is realized on the ES-1010 computer for automatic image processing from the bubble chambers by scanning measuring projector. The methods are considered for constructing the above mentioned regions for all the images according to the base points measured on the semiautomatic measuring table. The MASKA program is written in the ASSEMBLER-2 language and equals 3.5K words of the main memory. The average processing time for 10000 points according to one mask is 1 sec

  18. Algorithm Sorts Groups Of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. D.

    1987-01-01

    For efficient sorting, algorithm finds set containing minimum or maximum most significant data. Sets of data sorted as desired. Sorting process simplified by reduction of each multielement set of data to single representative number. First, each set of data expressed as polynomial with suitably chosen base, using elements of set as coefficients. Most significant element placed in term containing largest exponent. Base selected by examining range in value of data elements. Resulting series summed to yield single representative number. Numbers easily sorted, and each such number converted back to original set of data by successive division. Program written in BASIC.

  19. Audiovisual functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation reveals multisensory integration effects in object-related sensory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehrmann, Oliver; Weigelt, Sarah; Altmann, Christian F; Kaiser, Jochen; Naumer, Marcus J

    2010-03-03

    Information integration across different sensory modalities contributes to object recognition, the generation of associations and long-term memory representations. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation to investigate the presence of sensory integrative effects at cortical levels as early as nonprimary auditory and extrastriate visual cortices, which are implicated in intermediate stages of object processing. Stimulation consisted of an adapting audiovisual stimulus S(1) and a subsequent stimulus S(2) from the same basic-level category (e.g., cat). The stimuli were carefully balanced with respect to stimulus complexity and semantic congruency and presented in four experimental conditions: (1) the same image and vocalization for S(1) and S(2), (2) the same image and a different vocalization, (3) different images and the same vocalization, or (4) different images and vocalizations. This two-by-two factorial design allowed us to assess the contributions of auditory and visual stimulus repetitions and changes in a statistically orthogonal manner. Responses in visual regions of right fusiform gyrus and right lateral occipital cortex were reduced for repeated visual stimuli (repetition suppression). Surprisingly, left lateral occipital cortex showed stronger responses to repeated auditory stimuli (repetition enhancement). Similarly, auditory regions of interest of the right middle superior temporal gyrus and sulcus exhibited repetition suppression to auditory repetitions and repetition enhancement to visual repetitions. Our findings of crossmodal repetition-related effects in cortices of the respective other sensory modality add to the emerging view that in human subjects sensory integrative mechanisms operate on earlier cortical processing levels than previously assumed.

  20. Microtechnology for cell manipulation and sorting

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, Peter; Carlo, Dino

    2017-01-01

    This book delves into the recent developments in the microscale and microfluidic technologies that allow manipulation at the single and cell aggregate level. Expert authors review the dominant mechanisms that manipulate and sort biological structures, making this a state-of-the-art overview of conventional cell sorting techniques, the principles of microfluidics, and of microfluidic devices. All chapters highlight the benefits and drawbacks of each technique they discuss, which include magnetic, electrical, optical, acoustic, gravity/sedimentation, inertial, deformability, and aqueous two-phase systems as the dominant mechanisms utilized by microfluidic devices to handle biological samples. Each chapter explains the physics of the mechanism at work, and reviews common geometries and devices to help readers decide the type of style of device required for various applications. This book is appropriate for graduate-level biomedical engineering and analytical chemistry students, as well as engineers and scientist...

  1. Perbandingan Bubble Sort dengan Insertion Sort pada Bahasa Pemrograman C dan Fortran

    OpenAIRE

    Reina, Reina; Gautama, Josef Bernadi

    2013-01-01

    Sorting is a basic algorithm studied by students of computer science major. Sorting algorithm is the basis of other algorithms such as searching algorithm, pattern matching algorithm. Bubble sort is a popular basic sorting algorithm due to its easiness to be implemented. Besides bubble sort, there is insertion sort. It is lesspopular than bubble sort because it has more difficult algorithm. This paper discusses about process time between insertion sort and bubble sort with two kinds of data. ...

  2. Flow sorting in aquatic ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Reckermann

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Flow sorting can be a very helpful tool in revealing phytoplankton and bacterial community structure and elaborating specific physiological parameters of isolated species. Droplet sorting has been the most common technique. Despite the high optical and hydro-dynamic stress for the cells to be sorted, many species grow in culture subsequent to sorting. To date, flow sorting has been applied to post-incubation separation in natural water samples to account for group-specific physiological parameters (radiotracer-uptake rates, to the production of clonal or non-clonal cultures from mixtures, to the isolaton of cell groups from natural assemblages for molecular analyses, and for taxonomic identification of sorted cells by microscopy. The application of cell sorting from natural water samples from the Wadden Sea, including different cryptophytes, cyanobacteria and diatoms, is shown, as well as the establishment of laboratory cultures from field samples. The optional use of a red laser to account for phycocyanine-rich cells is also discussed.

  3. Immunoliposome-mediated delivery of neomycin phosphotransferase for the lineage-specific selection of differentiated/committed stem cell progenies: potential advantages over transfection with marker genes, fluorescence-activated and magnetic affinity cell-sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Boon Chin; Cao, Tong

    2005-01-01

    A major challenge in the therapeutic application of stem cells in regenerative medicine is the lineage-specific selection of their committed/differentiated progenies for transplantation. This is necessary to avoid engraftment of undesired lineages at the transplantation site, i.e. fibroblastic scar tissue, as well as to enhance the efficacy of transplantation therapy. Commonly used techniques for lineage-specific selection of committed/differentiated stem cell progenies include marker gene transfection, fluorescence-activated (FACS) and magnetic-affinity (MACS) cell-sorting. Nevertheless, these have their disadvantages for therapeutic applications. Marker gene transfection invariably leads to permanent genetic modification of stem cells, which in turn limits their use in human clinical therapy due to overwhelming ethical and safety concerns. FACS requires expensive instrumentation and highly-skilled personnel, and is unsuited for handling bulk quantities of cells that would almost certainly be required for transplantation therapy. MACS is a cheaper alternative, but the level of purity attained is also reduced. A possible novel approach that has yet to be investigated is immunoliposome-mediated delivery of neomycin phosphotranferase (NPT) for lineage-specific selection of stem cell progenies. This would avoid permanent genetic modification to the cell, unlike recombinant NPT expression linked to activation of specific promoter sequences. Moreover, it could potentially provide a much more practical and cost-effective alternative for handling bulk quantities of cells that would be required for transplantation therapy, as compared to FACS or MACS. As such, this alternative approach needs to be rigorously investigated, in view of its potentially useful applications in stem cell therapeutics.

  4. A Model Vision of Sorting System Application Using Robotic Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maralo Sinaga

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Image processing in today’s world grabs massive attentions as it leads to possibilities of broaden application in many fields of high technology. The real challenge is how to improve existing sorting system in the Moduler Processing System (MPS laboratory which consists of four integrated stations of distribution, testing, processing and handling with a new image processing feature. Existing sorting method uses a set of inductive, capacitive and optical sensors do differentiate object color. This paper presents a mechatronics color sorting system solution with the application of image processing. Supported by OpenCV, image processing procedure senses the circular objects in an image captured in realtime by a webcam and then extracts color and position information out of it. This information is passed as a sequence of sorting commands to the manipulator (Mitsubishi Movemaster RV-M1 that does pick-and-place mechanism. Extensive testing proves that this color based object sorting system works 100% accurate under ideal condition in term of adequate illumination, circular objects’ shape and color. The circular objects tested for sorting are silver, red and black. For non-ideal condition, such as unspecified color the accuracy reduces to 80%.

  5. Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology: part II. Sorting efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A Rasem; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Sorting of waste wood is an important process practiced at recycling facilities in order to detect and divert contaminants from recycled wood products. Contaminants of concern include arsenic, chromium and copper found in chemically preserved wood. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sorting efficiencies of both treated and untreated parts of the wood waste stream, and metal (As, Cr and Cu) mass recoveries by the use of automated X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. A full-scale system was used for experimentation. This unit consisted of an XRF-detection chamber mounted on the top of a conveyor and a pneumatic slide-way diverter which sorted wood into presumed treated and presumed untreated piles. A randomized block design was used to evaluate the operational conveyance parameters of the system, including wood feed rate and conveyor belt speed. Results indicated that online sorting efficiencies of waste wood by XRF technology were high based on number and weight of pieces (70-87% and 75-92% for treated wood and 66-97% and 68-96% for untreated wood, respectively). These sorting efficiencies achieved mass recovery for metals of 81-99% for As, 75-95% for Cu and 82-99% of Cr. The incorrect sorting of wood was attributed almost equally to deficiencies in the detection and conveyance/diversion systems. Even with its deficiencies, the system was capable of producing a recyclable portion that met residential soil quality levels established for Florida, for an infeed that contained 5% of treated wood. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ALGORITHM FOR SORTING GROUPED DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    It is often desirable to sort data sets in ascending or descending order. This becomes more difficult for grouped data, i.e., multiple sets of data, where each set of data involves several measurements or related elements. The sort becomes increasingly cumbersome when more than a few elements exist for each data set. In order to achieve an efficient sorting process, an algorithm has been devised in which the maximum most significant element is found, and then compared to each element in succession. The program was written to handle the daily temperature readings of the Voyager spacecraft, particularly those related to the special tracking requirements of Voyager 2. By reducing each data set to a single representative number, the sorting process becomes very easy. The first step in the process is to reduce the data set of width 'n' to a data set of width '1'. This is done by representing each data set by a polynomial of length 'n' based on the differences of the maximum and minimum elements. These single numbers are then sorted and converted back to obtain the original data sets. Required input data are the name of the data file to read and sort, and the starting and ending record numbers. The package includes a sample data file, containing 500 sets of data with 5 elements in each set. This program will perform a sort of the 500 data sets in 3 - 5 seconds on an IBM PC-AT with a hard disk; on a similarly equipped IBM PC-XT the time is under 10 seconds. This program is written in BASIC (specifically the Microsoft QuickBasic compiler) for interactive execution and has been implemented on the IBM PC computer series operating under PC-DOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 40K of 8 bit bytes. A hard disk is desirable for speed considerations, but is not required. This program was developed in 1986.

  7. Layers in sorting practices: Sorting out patients with potential cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Naja Holten; Bjørn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    for a particular patient. Due to the limited resources within the Danish healthcare system, initiating cancer pathways for all patients with a remote suspicion of cancer would crash the system, as it would be impossible for healthcare professionals to commit to the prescribed schedules and times defined...... they show that sorting patients before initiating a standardized cancer pathway is not a simple process of deciding on a predefined category that will stipulate particular dates and times. Instead, these informal sorting mechanisms show that the process of sorting patients prior to diagnosis......In the last couple of years, widespread use of standardized cancer pathways has been seen across a range of countries, including Denmark, to improve prognosis of cancer patients. In Denmark, standardized cancer pathways take the form of guidelines prescribing well-defined sequences where steps...

  8. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: An Objective Technique for the Quantification of Prostate Cancer Pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    infantile Alexander disease. J. Neurol. 2003; 250(3): 300–306. 8. Chaudhuri A, Condon BR, Gow JW, Brennan D, Hadley DM. Proton magnetic resonance...xanthomatosis with NAA/Cr and Lac/Cr levels [70]. Studies were also seen in diabetes mellitus [71], and most interestingly, after the lengthy discussion of...71] Geissler A, Frund R, Scholmerich J, Feuerbach S, Zietz B. Alterations of cerebral metabolism in patients with diabetes mellitus studied by proton

  9. Sorting waves and associated eigenvalues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonari, Costanza; Colombini, Marco; Solari, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The presence of mixed sediment always characterizes gravel bed rivers. Sorting processes take place during bed load transport of heterogeneous sediment mixtures. The two main elements necessary to the occurrence of sorting are the heterogeneous character of sediments and the presence of an active sediment transport. When these two key ingredients are simultaneously present, the segregation of bed material is consistently detected both in the field [7] and in laboratory [3] observations. In heterogeneous sediment transport, bed altimetric variations and sorting always coexist and both mechanisms are independently capable of driving the formation of morphological patterns. Indeed, consistent patterns of longitudinal and transverse sorting are identified almost ubiquitously. In some cases, such as bar formation [2] and channel bends [5], sorting acts as a stabilizing effect and therefore the dominant mechanism driving pattern formation is associated with bed altimetric variations. In other cases, such as longitudinal streaks, sorting enhances system instability and can therefore be considered the prevailing mechanism. Bedload sheets, first observed by Khunle and Southard [1], represent another classic example of a morphological pattern essentially triggered by sorting, as theoretical [4] and experimental [3] results suggested. These sorting waves cause strong spatial and temporal fluctuations of bedload transport rate typical observed in gravel bed rivers. The problem of bed load transport of a sediment mixture is formulated in the framework of a 1D linear stability analysis. The base state consists of a uniform flow in an infinitely wide channel with active bed load transport. The behaviour of the eigenvalues associated with fluid motion, bed evolution and sorting processes in the space of the significant flow and sediment parameters is analysed. A comparison is attempted with the results of the theoretical analysis of Seminara Colombini and Parker [4] and Stecca

  10. Sex-sorting sperm using flow cytometry/cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Duane L; Evans, K Michael; Seidel, George E

    2013-01-01

    The sex of mammalian offspring can be predetermined by flow sorting relatively pure living populations of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm. This method is based on precise staining of the DNA of sperm with the nucleic acid-specific fluorophore, Hoechst 33342, to differentiate between the subpopulations of X- and Y-sperm. The fluorescently stained sperm are then sex-sorted using a specialized high speed sorter, MoFlo(®) SX XDP, and collected into biologically supportive media prior to reconcentration and cryopreservation in numbers adequate for use with artificial insemination for some species or for in vitro fertilization. Sperm sorting can provide subpopulations of X- or Y-bearing bovine sperm at rates in the 8,000 sperm/s range while maintaining; a purity of 90% such that it has been applied to cattle on a commercial basis. The sex of offspring has been predetermined in a wide variety of mammalian species including cattle, swine, horses, sheep, goats, dogs, cats, deer, elk, dolphins, water buffalo as well as in humans using flow cytometric sorting of X- and Y-sperm.

  11. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Applications: Proton NMR In Biological Objects Subjected To Magic Angle Spinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2005-01-01

    Proton NMR in Biological Objects Submitted to Magic Angle Spinning, In Encyclopedia of Analytical Science, Second Edition (Paul J. Worsfold, Alan Townshend and Colin F. Poole, eds.), Elsevier, Oxford 6:333-342. Published January 1, 2005. Proposal Number 10896

  12. Learning banknote fitness for sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.M.; Markus, P.; Balke, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a machine learning method is proposed for banknote soiling determination. We apply proven techniques from computer vision to come up with a robust and effective method for automatic sorting of banknotes. The proposed method is evaluated with respect to various invariance classes. The

  13. Quantum lower bound for sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yaoyun

    2000-01-01

    We prove that \\Omega(n log(n)) comparisons are necessary for any quantum algorithm that sorts n numbers with high success probability and uses only comparisons. If no error is allowed, at least 0.110nlog_2(n) - 0.067n + O(1) comparisons must be made. The previous known lower bound is \\Omega(n).

  14. Sorting out river channel patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Rivers self-organize their pattern/planform through feedbacks between bars, channels, floodplain and vegetation, which emerge as a result of the basic spatial sorting process of wash load sediment and bed sediment. The balance between floodplain formation and destruction determines the width and

  15. Accretion-Ejection Instability in magnetized accretion disk around compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varniere, Peggy

    2002-01-01

    The major problem in accretion physics come from the origin of angular momentum transfer in the disk. My PhD deal with a mechanism (the Accretion-Ejection Instability, AEI) able to explain and link together accretion in the inner region of the disk and ejection. This instability occurs in magnetized accretion disk near equipartition with gas pressure. We first study the impact of some relativistic effects on the instability, particularly on the m = 1 mode. And compared the results with the Quasi-Periodic Oscillation (QPO) observed in micro-quasars. In the second part we study analytically and numerically the Alfven wave emission mechanism which re-emit the angular momentum and energy taken from the inner region of the disk into the corona. The last part deals with MHD numerical simulation. First of all a 2D non-linear disk simulation which contribute to QPO modelization. The last chapter is about a beginning collaboration on 3D simulation in order to study the Alfven wave emission in the corona. (author) [fr

  16. UCSD SORT Test (U-SORT): Examination of a newly developed organizational skills assessment tool for severely mentally ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiznado, Denisse; Mausbach, Brent T; Cardenas, Veronica; Jeste, Dilip V; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-12-01

    The present investigation examined the validity of a new cognitive test intended to assess organizational skills. Participants were 180 middle-aged or older participants with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants' organizational skills were measured using our newly developed University of California, San Diego Sorting Test (U-SORT), a performance-based test of organizational ability in which subjects sort objects (e.g., battery, pens) from a "junk drawer" into "keep" versus "trash" piles. Significant correlations between U-SORT scores and theoretically similar constructs (i.e. functional capacity, cognitive functioning, and clinical symptoms) were acceptable (mean r = 0.34), and weak correlations were found between U-SORT scores and theoretically dissimilar constructs (e.g., health symptoms, social support, gender; mean r = 0.06 ). The correlation between assessment scores provides preliminary support for the U-SORT test as a brief, easily transportable, reliable, and valid measure of functioning for this population.

  17. A New Algorithm Using the Non-Dominated Tree to Improve Non-Dominated Sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Patrik; Syberfeldt, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Non-dominated sorting is a technique often used in evolutionary algorithms to determine the quality of solutions in a population. The most common algorithm is the Fast Non-dominated Sort (FNS). This algorithm, however, has the drawback that its performance deteriorates when the population size grows. The same drawback applies also to other non-dominating sorting algorithms such as the Efficient Non-dominated Sort with Binary Strategy (ENS-BS). An algorithm suggested to overcome this drawback is the Divide-and-Conquer Non-dominated Sort (DCNS) which works well on a limited number of objectives but deteriorates when the number of objectives grows. This article presents a new, more efficient algorithm called the Efficient Non-dominated Sort with Non-Dominated Tree (ENS-NDT). ENS-NDT is an extension of the ENS-BS algorithm and uses a novel Non-Dominated Tree (NDTree) to speed up the non-dominated sorting. ENS-NDT is able to handle large population sizes and a large number of objectives more efficiently than existing algorithms for non-dominated sorting. In the article, it is shown that with ENS-NDT the runtime of multi-objective optimization algorithms such as the Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) can be substantially reduced.

  18. Magnetic Gradient Horizontal Operator (MHGO) useful for detecting objects buried at shallow depth: cultural heritage (Villa degli Antonini, Rota Rio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Filippo, Michele; Di Nezza, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Several factors were taken into consideration in order to appropriately tailor the geophysical explorations at the cultural heritage. Given the fact that each site has been neglected for a long time and in recent times used as an illegal dumping area, we thoroughly evaluated for this investigation the advantages and limitations of each specific technique, and the general conditions and history of the site. We took into account the extension of the areas to be investigated and the need for rapid data acquisition and processing. Furthermore, the survey required instrumentation with sensitivity to small background contrasts and as little as possible affected by background noise sources. In order to ascertain the existence and location of underground buried walls, a magnetic gradiometer survey (MAG) was planned. The map of the magnetic anomalies is not computed to reduction at the pole (RTP), but with a magnetic horizontal gradient operator (MHGO). The magnetic horizontal gradient operator (MHGO) generates from a grid of vertical gradient a grid of steepest slopes (i.e. the magnitude of the gradient) at any point on the surface. The MHGO is reported as a number (rise over run) rather than degrees, and the direction is opposite to that of the slope. The MHGO is zero for a horizontal surface, and approaches infinity as the slope approaches the vertical. The gradient data are especially useful for detecting objects buried at shallow depth. The map reveals some details of the anomalies of the geomagnetic field. Magnetic anomalies due to walls are more evident than in the total intensity map, whereas anomalies due to concentrations of debris are very weak. In this work we describe the results of an investigation obtained with magnetometry investigation for two archaeological sites: "Villa degli Antonini" (Genzano, Rome) and Rota Ria (Mugnano in Teverina, Viterbo). Since the main goal of the investigation was to understand the nature of magnetic anomalies with cost

  19. Sorting fluorescent nanocrystals with DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerion, Daniele; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Williams, Shara C.; Zanchet, Daniela; Micheel, Christine M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2001-12-10

    Semiconductor nanocrystals with narrow and tunable fluorescence are covalently linked to oligonucleotides. These biocompounds retain the properties of both nanocrystals and DNA. Therefore, different sequences of DNA can be coded with nanocrystals and still preserve their ability to hybridize to their complements. We report the case where four different sequences of DNA are linked to four nanocrystal samples having different colors of emission in the range of 530-640 nm. When the DNA-nanocrystal conjugates are mixed together, it is possible to sort each type of nanoparticle using hybridization on a defined micrometer -size surface containing the complementary oligonucleotide. Detection of sorting requires only a single excitation source and an epifluorescence microscope. The possibility of directing fluorescent nanocrystals towards specific biological targets and detecting them, combined with their superior photo-stability compared to organic dyes, opens the way to improved biolabeling experiments, such as gene mapping on a nanometer scale or multicolor microarray analysis.

  20. Flow cytogenetics and chromosome sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, L S

    1990-06-01

    This review of flow cytogenetics and chromosome sorting provides an overview of general information in the field and describes recent developments in more detail. From the early developments of chromosome analysis involving single parameter or one color analysis to the latest developments in slit scanning of single chromosomes in a flow stream, the field has progressed rapidly and most importantly has served as an important enabling technology for the human genome project. Technological innovations that advanced flow cytogenetics are described and referenced. Applications in basic cell biology, molecular biology, and clinical investigations are presented. The necessary characteristics for large number chromosome sorting are highlighted. References to recent review articles are provided as a starting point for locating individual references that provide more detail. Specific references are provided for recent developments.

  1. School accountability Incentives or sorting?

    OpenAIRE

    Hege Marie Gjefsen; Trude Gunnes

    2015-01-01

    We exploit a nested school accountability reform to estimate the causal effect on teacher mobility, sorting, and student achievement. In 2003, lower-secondary schools in Oslo became accountable to the school district authority for student achievement. In 2005, information on school performance in lower secondary education also became public. Using a difference-in-difference-in-difference approach, we find a significant increase in teacher mobility and that almost all non-stayers leave the tea...

  2. Perbandingan Bubble Sort dengan Insertion Sort pada Bahasa Pemrograman C dan Fortran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reina Reina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sorting is a basic algorithm studied by students of computer science major. Sorting algorithm is the basis of other algorithms such as searching algorithm, pattern matching algorithm. Bubble sort is a popular basic sorting algorithm due to its easiness to be implemented. Besides bubble sort, there is insertion sort. It is lesspopular than bubble sort because it has more difficult algorithm. This paper discusses about process time between insertion sort and bubble sort with two kinds of data. First is randomized data, and the second is data of descending list. Comparison of process time has been done in two kinds of programming language that is C programming language and FORTRAN programming language. The result shows that bubble sort needs more time than insertion sort does.

  3. Word Sorts for General Music Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2015-01-01

    Word sorts are standard practice for aiding children in acquiring skills in English language arts. When included in the general music classroom, word sorts may aid students in acquiring a working knowledge of music vocabulary. The author shares a word sort activity drawn from vocabulary in John Lithgow's children's book "Never Play…

  4. A Parallel Modular Biomimetic Cilia Sorting Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. H. Whiting

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic unicellular organism Paramecium caudatum uses cilia to swim around its environment and to graze on food particles and bacteria. Paramecia use waves of ciliary beating for locomotion, intake of food particles and sensing. There is some evidence that Paramecia pre-sort food particles by discarding larger particles, but intake the particles matching their mouth cavity. Most prior attempts to mimic cilia-based manipulation merely mimicked the overall action rather than the beating of cilia. The majority of massive-parallel actuators are controlled by a central computer; however, a distributed control would be far more true-to-life. We propose and test a distributed parallel cilia platform where each actuating unit is autonomous, yet exchanging information with its closest neighboring units. The units are arranged in a hexagonal array. Each unit is a tileable circuit board, with a microprocessor, color-based object sensor and servo-actuated biomimetic cilia actuator. Localized synchronous communication between cilia allowed for the emergence of coordinated action, moving different colored objects together. The coordinated beating action was capable of moving objects up to 4 cm/s at its highest beating frequency; however, objects were moved at a speed proportional to the beat frequency. Using the local communication, we were able to detect the shape of objects and rotating an object using edge detection was performed; however, lateral manipulation using shape information was unsuccessful.

  5. An efficient non-dominated sorting method for evolutionary algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongbing; Wang, Qian; Tu, Yi-Cheng; Horstemeyer, Mark F

    2008-01-01

    We present a new non-dominated sorting algorithm to generate the non-dominated fronts in multi-objective optimization with evolutionary algorithms, particularly the NSGA-II. The non-dominated sorting algorithm used by NSGA-II has a time complexity of O(MN(2)) in generating non-dominated fronts in one generation (iteration) for a population size N and M objective functions. Since generating non-dominated fronts takes the majority of total computational time (excluding the cost of fitness evaluations) of NSGA-II, making this algorithm faster will significantly improve the overall efficiency of NSGA-II and other genetic algorithms using non-dominated sorting. The new non-dominated sorting algorithm proposed in this study reduces the number of redundant comparisons existing in the algorithm of NSGA-II by recording the dominance information among solutions from their first comparisons. By utilizing a new data structure called the dominance tree and the divide-and-conquer mechanism, the new algorithm is faster than NSGA-II for different numbers of objective functions. Although the number of solution comparisons by the proposed algorithm is close to that of NSGA-II when the number of objectives becomes large, the total computational time shows that the proposed algorithm still has better efficiency because of the adoption of the dominance tree structure and the divide-and-conquer mechanism.

  6. Model design and simulation of automatic sorting machine using proximity sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole I. Oladapo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The automatic sorting system has been reported to be complex and a global problem. This is because of the inability of sorting machines to incorporate flexibility in their design concept. This research therefore designed and developed an automated sorting object of a conveyor belt. The developed automated sorting machine is able to incorporate flexibility and separate species of non-ferrous metal objects and at the same time move objects automatically to the basket as defined by the regulation of the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC with a capacitive proximity sensor to detect a value range of objects. The result obtained shows that plastic, wood, and steel were sorted into their respective and correct position with an average, sorting, time of 9.903 s, 14.072 s and 18.648 s respectively. The proposed developed model of this research could be adopted at any institution or industries, whose practices are based on mechatronics engineering systems. This is to guide the industrial sector in sorting of object and teaching aid to institutions and hence produce the list of classified materials according to the enabled sorting program commands.

  7. Continuous Size-Dependent Sorting of Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles in Laser-Ablated Microchannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqiang Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a low-cost method of continuous size-dependent sorting of magnetic nanoparticles in polymer-based microfluidic devices by magnetic force. A neodymium permanent magnet was used to generate a magnetic field perpendicular to the fluid flow direction. Firstly, FeNi3 magnetic nanoparticles were chemically synthesized with diameter ranges from 80 nm to 200 nm; then, the solution of magnetic nanoparticles and a buffer were passed through the microchannel in laminar flow; the magnetic nanoparticles were deflected from the flow direction under the applied magnetic field. Nanoparticles in the microchannel will move towards the direction of high-gradient magnetic fields, and the degree of deflection depends on their sizes; therefore, magnetic nanoparticles of different sizes can be separated and finally collected from different output ports. The proposed method offers a rapid and continuous approach of preparing magnetic nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution from an arbitrary particle size distribution. The proposed new method has many potential applications in bioanalysis field since magnetic nanoparticles are commonly used as solid support for biological entities such as DNA, RNA, virus, and protein. Other than the size sorting application of magnetic nanoparticles, this approach could also be used for the size sorting and separation of naturally magnetic cells, including blood cells and magnetotactic bacteria.

  8. Adaptive differential correspondence imaging based on sorting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Wu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We develop an adaptive differential correspondence imaging (CI method using a sorting technique. Different from the conventional CI schemes, the bucket detector signals (BDS are first processed by a differential technique, and then sorted in a descending (or ascending order. Subsequently, according to the front and last several frames of the sorted BDS, the positive and negative subsets (PNS are created by selecting the relative frames from the reference detector signals. Finally, the object image is recovered from the PNS. Besides, an adaptive method based on two-step iteration is designed to select the optimum number of frames. To verify the proposed method, a single-detector computational ghost imaging (GI setup is constructed. We experimentally and numerically compare the performance of the proposed method with different GI algorithms. The results show that our method can improve the reconstruction quality and reduce the computation cost by using fewer measurement data.

  9. Image analysis to measure sorting and stratification applied to sand-gravel experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orrú, C.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to develop new measuring techniques for providing detailed data on sediment sorting suitable for sand-gravel laboratory experiments. Such data will be of aid in obtaining new insights on sorting mechanisms and improving prediction capabilities of morphodynamic

  10. Machine-vision based optofluidic cell sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew

    the available light and creating 2D or 3D beam distributions aimed at the positions of the detected cells. Furthermore, the beam shaping freedom provided by GPC can allow optimizations in the beam’s propagation and its interaction with the laser catapulted and sorted cells....... machine vision1. This approach is gentler, less invasive and more economical compared to conventional FACS-systems. As cells are less responsive to plastic or glass objects commonly used in the optical manipulation literature2, and since laser safety would be an issue in clinical use, we develop efficient...... approaches in utilizing lasers and light modulation devices. The Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method3-9 that can be used for efficiently illuminating spatial light modulators10 or creating well-defined contiguous optical traps11 is supplemented by diffractive techniques capable of integrating...

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging with k-means clustering objectively measures whole muscle volume compartments in sarcopenia/cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Calum; MacGillivray, Thomas J; Eeley, Clare; Stephens, Nathan A; Beggs, Ian; Fearon, Kenneth C; Greig, Carolyn A

    2011-02-01

    Sarcopenia and cachexia are characterized by infiltration of non-contractile tissue within muscle which influences area and volume measurements. We applied a statistical clustering (k-means) technique to magnetic resonance (MR) images of the quadriceps of young and elderly healthy women and women with cancer to objectively separate the contractile and non-contractile tissue compartments. MR scans of the thigh were obtained for 34 women (n = 16 young, (median) age 26 y; n = 9 older, age 80 y; n = 9 upper gastrointestinal cancer patients, age 65 y). Segmented regions of consecutive axial images were used to calculate cross-sectional area and (gross) volume. The k-means unsupervised algorithm was subsequently applied to the MR binary mask image array data with resultant volumes compared between groups. Older women and women with cancer had 37% and 48% less quadriceps muscle respectively than young women (p k-means subtracted a significant 9%, 14% and 20% non-contractile tissue from the quadriceps of young, older and patient groups respectively (p K-means objectively separates contractile and non-contractile tissue components. Women with upper GI cancer have significant fatty infiltration throughout whole muscle groups which is maintained when controlling for age. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy efficient data sorting using standard sorting algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Bunse, Christian; Hö pfner, Hagen; Roychoudhury, Suman; Mansour, Essam

    2011-01-01

    Protecting the environment by saving energy and thus reducing carbon dioxide emissions is one of todays hottest and most challenging topics. Although the perspective for reducing energy consumption, from ecological and business perspectives is clear, from a technological point of view, the realization especially for mobile systems still falls behind expectations. Novel strategies that allow (software) systems to dynamically adapt themselves at runtime can be effectively used to reduce energy consumption. This paper presents a case study that examines the impact of using an energy management component that dynamically selects and applies the "optimal" sorting algorithm, from an energy perspective, during multi-party mobile communication. Interestingly, the results indicate that algorithmic performance is not key and that dynamically switching algorithms at runtime does have a significant impact on energy consumption. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  13. Fixing the Sorting Algorithm for Android, Java and Python

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); F.S. de Boer (Frank)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractTim Peters developed the Timsort hybrid sorting algorithm in 2002. TimSort was first developed for Python, a popular programming language, but later ported to Java (where it appears as java.util.Collections.sort and java.util.Arrays.sort). TimSort is today used as the default sorting

  14. Application of visible spectroscopy in waste sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, Philippe; Bourely, Antoine

    2011-10-01

    Today, waste recycling, (bottles, papers...), is a mechanical operation: the waste are crushed, fused and agglomerated in order to obtain new manufactured products (e.g. new bottles, clothes ...). The plastics recycling is the main application in the color sorting process. The colorless plastics recovered are more valuable than the colored plastics. Other emergent applications are in the paper sorting, where the main goal is to sort dyed paper from white papers. Up to now, Pellenc Selective Technologies has manufactured color sorting machines based on RGB cameras. Three dimensions (red, green and blue) are no longer sufficient to detect low quantities of dye in the considered waste. In order to increase the efficiency of the color detection, a new sorting machine, based on visible spectroscopy, has been developed. This paper presents the principles of the two approaches and their difference in terms of sorting performance, making visible spectroscopy a clear winner.

  15. On the Construction of Sorted Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We develop a theory of sorted bigraphical reactive systems. Every application of bigraphs in the literature has required an extension, a sorting, of pure bigraphs. In turn, every such application has required a redevelopment of the theory of pure bigraphical reactive systems for the sorting at hand...... bigraphs. Technically, we give our construction for ordinary reactive systems, then lift it to bigraphical reactive systems. As such, we give also a construction of sortings for ordinary reactive systems. This construction is an improvement over previous attempts in that it produces smaller and much more...

  16. Design and realization of sort manipulator of crystal-angle sort machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-shun; Chen, Shu-ping; Guan, Shou-ping; Zhang, Yao-wei

    2005-12-01

    It is a current tendency of development in automation technology to replace manpower with manipulators in working places where dangerous, harmful, heavy or repetitive work is involved. The sort manipulator is installed in a crystal-angle sort machine to take the place of manpower, and engaged in unloading and sorting work. It is the outcome of combing together mechanism, electric transmission, and pneumatic element and micro-controller control. The step motor makes the sort manipulator operate precisely. The pneumatic elements make the sort manipulator be cleverer. Micro-controller's software bestows some simple artificial intelligence on the sort manipulator, so that it can precisely repeat its unloading and sorting work. The combination of manipulator's zero position and step motor counting control puts an end to accumulating error in long time operation. A sort manipulator's design in the practice engineering has been proved to be correct and reliable.

  17. Enhancement of Selection, Bubble and Insertion Sorting Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Farooq Umar; Ehsan Ullah Munir; Shafqat Ali Shad; Muhammad Wasif Nisar

    2014-01-01

    In everyday life there is a large amount of data to arrange because sorting removes any ambiguities and make the data analysis and data processing very easy, efficient and provides with cost less effort. In this study a set of improved sorting algorithms are proposed which gives better performance and design idea. In this study five new sorting algorithms (Bi-directional Selection Sort, Bi-directional bubble sort, MIDBiDirectional Selection Sort, MIDBidirectional bubble sort and linear insert...

  18. Engineering a Cache-Oblivious Sorting Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Vinther, Kristoffer

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an algorithmic engineering study of cache-oblivious sorting. We investigate by empirical methods a number of implementation issues and parameter choices for the cache-oblivious sorting algorithm Lazy Funnelsort, and compare the final algorithm with Quicksort, the established standard...

  19. Heuristic framework for parallel sorting computations | Nwanze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parallel sorting techniques have become of practical interest with the advent of new multiprocessor architectures. The decreasing cost of these processors will probably in the future, make the solutions that are derived thereof to be more appealing. Efficient algorithms for sorting scheme that are encountered in a number of ...

  20. Data parallel sorting for particle simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagum, Leonardo

    1992-01-01

    Sorting on a parallel architecture is a communications intensive event which can incur a high penalty in applications where it is required. In the case of particle simulation, only integer sorting is necessary, and sequential implementations easily attain the minimum performance bound of O (N) for N particles. Parallel implementations, however, have to cope with the parallel sorting problem which, in addition to incurring a heavy communications cost, can make the minimun performance bound difficult to attain. This paper demonstrates how the sorting problem in a particle simulation can be reduced to a merging problem, and describes an efficient data parallel algorithm to solve this merging problem in a particle simulation. The new algorithm is shown to be optimal under conditions usual for particle simulation, and its fieldwise implementation on the Connection Machine is analyzed in detail. The new algorithm is about four times faster than a fieldwise implementation of radix sort on the Connection Machine.

  1. Data Sorting Using Graphics Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Mišić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphics processing units (GPUs have been increasingly used for general-purpose computation in recent years. The GPU accelerated applications are found in both scientific and commercial domains. Sorting is considered as one of the very important operations in many applications, so its efficient implementation is essential for the overall application performance. This paper represents an effort to analyze and evaluate the implementations of the representative sorting algorithms on the graphics processing units. Three sorting algorithms (Quicksort, Merge sort, and Radix sort were evaluated on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA platform that is used to execute applications on NVIDIA graphics processing units. Algorithms were tested and evaluated using an automated test environment with input datasets of different characteristics. Finally, the results of this analysis are briefly discussed.

  2. Big Five Measurement via Q-Sort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris D. Fluckinger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Socially desirable responding presents a difficult challenge in measuring personality. I tested whether a partially ipsative measure—a normatively scored Q-sort containing traditional Big Five items—would produce personality scores indicative of less socially desirable responding compared with Likert-based measures. Across both instructions to respond honestly and in the context of applying for a job, the Q-sort produced lower mean scores, lower intercorrelations between dimensions, and similar validity in predicting supervisor performance ratings to Likert. In addition, the Q-sort produced a more orthogonal structure (but not fully orthogonal when modeled at the latent level. These results indicate that the Q-sort method did constrain socially desirable responding. Researchers and practitioners should consider Big Five measurement via Q-sort for contexts in which high socially desirable responding is expected.

  3. IMPLEMENTATION OF SERIAL AND PARALLEL BUBBLE SORT ON FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Marhaendro Jati Purnomo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sorting is common process in computational world. Its utilization are on many fields from research to industry. There are many sorting algorithm in nowadays. One of the simplest yet powerful is bubble sort. In this study, bubble sort is implemented on FPGA. The implementation was taken on serial and parallel approach. Serial and parallel bubble sort then compared by means of its memory, execution time, and utility which comprises slices and LUTs. The experiments show that serial bubble sort required smaller memory as well as utility compared to parallel bubble sort. Meanwhile, parallel bubble sort performed faster than serial bubble sort

  4. Optimal design of permanent magnet flux switching generator for wind applications via artificial neural network and multi-objective particle swarm optimization hybrid approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meo, Santolo; Zohoori, Alireza; Vahedi, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new optimal design of flux switching permanent magnet generator is developed. • A prototype is employed to validate numerical data used for optimization. • A novel hybrid multi-objective particle swarm optimization approach is proposed. • Optimization targets are weight, cost, voltage and its total harmonic distortion. • The hybrid approach preference is proved compared with other optimization methods. - Abstract: In this paper a new hybrid approach obtained combining a multi-objective particle swarm optimization and artificial neural network is proposed for the design optimization of a direct-drive permanent magnet flux switching generators for low power wind applications. The targets of the proposed multi-objective optimization are to reduce the costs and weight of the machine while maximizing the amplitude of the induced voltage as well as minimizing its total harmonic distortion. The permanent magnet width, the stator and rotor tooth width, the rotor teeth number and stator pole number of the machine define the search space for the optimization problem. Four supervised artificial neural networks are designed for modeling the complex relationships among the weight, the cost, the amplitude and the total harmonic distortion of the output voltage respect to the quantities of the search space. Finite element analysis is adopted to generate training dataset for the artificial neural networks. Finite element analysis based model is verified by experimental results with a 1.5 kW permanent magnet flux switching generator prototype suitable for renewable energy applications, having 6/19 stator poles/rotor teeth. Finally the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid procedure is compared with the results given by conventional multi-objective optimization algorithms. The obtained results show the soundness of the proposed multi objective optimization technique and its feasibility to be adopted as suitable methodology for optimal design of permanent

  5. An Unsupervised Online Spike-Sorting Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knieling, Simeon; Sridharan, Kousik S; Belardinelli, Paolo; Naros, Georgios; Weiss, Daniel; Mormann, Florian; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular neuronal microelectrode recordings can include action potentials from multiple neurons. To separate spikes from different neurons, they can be sorted according to their shape, a procedure referred to as spike-sorting. Several algorithms have been reported to solve this task. However, when clustering outcomes are unsatisfactory, most of them are difficult to adjust to achieve the desired results. We present an online spike-sorting framework that uses feature normalization and weighting to maximize the distinctiveness between different spike shapes. Furthermore, multiple criteria are applied to either facilitate or prevent cluster fusion, thereby enabling experimenters to fine-tune the sorting process. We compare our method to established unsupervised offline (Wave_Clus (WC)) and online (OSort (OS)) algorithms by examining their performance in sorting various test datasets using two different scoring systems (AMI and the Adamos metric). Furthermore, we evaluate sorting capabilities on intra-operative recordings using established quality metrics. Compared to WC and OS, our algorithm achieved comparable or higher scores on average and produced more convincing sorting results for intra-operative datasets. Thus, the presented framework is suitable for both online and offline analysis and could substantially improve the quality of microelectrode-based data evaluation for research and clinical application.

  6. Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    A magnet pole piece for an NMR imaging magnet is made of a plurality of magnetic wires with one end of each wire held in a non-magnetic spacer, the other ends of the wires being brought to a pinch, and connected to a magnetic core. The wires may be embedded in a synthetic resin and the magnetisation and uniformity thereof can be varied by adjusting the density of the wires at the spacer which forms the pole piece. (author)

  7. The Q sort theory and technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyatanga, L

    1989-10-01

    This paper is based on the author's experience of using the Q sort technique with BA Social Sciences (BASS) students, and the community psychiatric nursing (CPN, ENB No 811 course). The paper focuses on two main issues: 1. The theoretical assumptions underpinning the Q Sort technique. Carl Rogers' self theory and some of the values of humanistic psychology are summarised. 2. The actual technique procedure and meaning of results are highlighted. As the Q Sort technique is potentially useful in a variety of sittings some of which are listed in this paper, the emphasis has deliberately been placed in understanding the theoretical underpinning and the operationalisation (sensitive interpretation) of the theory to practice.

  8. On Sorting Genomes with DCJ and Indels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Marília D. V.

    A previous work of Braga, Willing and Stoye compared two genomes with unequal content, but without duplications, and presented a new linear time algorithm to compute the genomic distance, considering double cut and join (DCJ) operations, insertions and deletions. Here we derive from this approach an algorithm to sort one genome into another one also using DCJ, insertions and deletions. The optimal sorting scenarios can have different compositions and we compare two types of sorting scenarios: one that maximizes and one that minimizes the number of DCJ operations with respect to the number of insertions and deletions.

  9. Buoyancy-activated cell sorting using targeted biotinylated albumin microbubbles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ren Liou

    Full Text Available Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs. Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2 μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10 g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4 °C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs, which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44(+ and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44-, which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44(+ is a commonly used cancer

  10. Sediment sorting at a side channel bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Denderen, Pepijn; Schielen, Ralph; Hulscher, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Side channels have been constructed to reduce the flood risk and to increase the ecological value of the river. In various Dutch side channels large aggradation in these channels occurred after construction. Measurements show that the grain size of the deposited sediment in the side channel is smaller than the grain size found on the bed of the main channel. This suggest that sorting occurs at the bifurcation of the side channel. The objective is to reproduce with a 2D morphological model the fining of the bed in the side channel and to study the effect of the sediment sorting on morphodynamic development of the side channel. We use a 2D Delft3D model with two sediment fractions. The first fraction corresponds with the grain size that can be found on the bed of the main channel and the second fraction corresponds with the grain size found in the side channel. With the numerical model we compute several side channel configurations in which we vary the length and the width of the side channel, and the curvature of the upstream channel. From these computations we can derive the equilibrium state and the time scale of the morphodynamic development of the side channel. Preliminary results show that even when a simple sediment transport relation is used, like Engelund & Hansen, more fine sediment enters the side channel than coarse sediment. This is as expected, and is probably related to the bed slope effects which are a function of the Shields parameter. It is expected that by adding a sill at the entrance of the side channel the slope effect increases. This might reduce the amount of coarse sediment which enters the side channel even more. It is unclear whether the model used is able to reproduce the effect of such a sill correctly as modelling a sill and reproducing the correct hydrodynamic and morphodynamic behaviour is not straightforward in a 2D model. Acknowledgements: This research is funded by STW, part of the Dutch Organization for Scientific Research under

  11. Low emittance lattice optimization using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Weiwei; Wang Lin; Li Weimin; He Duohui

    2011-01-01

    A low emittance lattice design and optimization procedure are systematically studied with a non-dominated sorting-based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm which not only globally searches the low emittance lattice, but also optimizes some beam quantities such as betatron tunes, momentum compaction factor and dispersion function simultaneously. In this paper the detailed algorithm and lattice design procedure are presented. The Hefei light source upgrade project storage ring lattice, with fixed magnet layout, is designed to illustrate this optimization procedure. (authors)

  12. Pengembangan Algoritma Pengurutan SMS (Scan, Move, And Sort)

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Denni Aprilsyah

    2015-01-01

    Sorting has been a profound area for the algorithmic researchers. And many resources are invested to suggest a more working sorting algorithm. For this purpose many existing sorting algorithms were observed in terms of the efficiency of the algorithmic complexity. Efficient sorting is important to optimize the use of other algorithms that require sorted lists to work correctly. sorting has been considered as a fundamental problem in the study of algorithms that due to many reas...

  13. Implementation of Serial and Parallel Bubble Sort on Fpga

    OpenAIRE

    Purnomo, Dwi Marhaendro Jati; Arinaldi, Ahmad; Priyantini, Dwi Teguh; Wibisono, Ari; Febrian, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Sorting is common process in computational world. Its utilization are on many fields from research to industry. There are many sorting algorithm in nowadays. One of the simplest yet powerful is bubble sort. In this study, bubble sort is implemented on FPGA. The implementation was taken on serial and parallel approach. Serial and parallel bubble sort then compared by means of its memory, execution time, and utility which comprises slices and LUTs. The experiments show that serial bubble sort r...

  14. System Architecture For High Speed Sorting Of Potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, J. A.; Onyango, C. M.; Street, M. J.

    1989-03-01

    This paper illustrates an industrial application of vision processing in which potatoes are sorted according to their size and shape at speeds of up to 40 objects per second. The result is a multi-processing approach built around the VME bus. A hardware unit has been designed and constructed to encode the boundary of the potatoes, to reducing the amount of data to be processed. A master 68000 processor is used to control this unit and to handle data transfers along the bus. Boundary data is passed to one of three 68010 slave processors each responsible for a line of potatoes across a conveyor belt. The slave processors calculate attributes such as shape, size and estimated weight of each potato and the master processor uses this data to operate the sorting mechanism. The system has been interfaced with a commercial grading machine and performance trials are now in progress.

  15. NeatSort - A practical adaptive algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    La Rocca, Marcello; Cantone, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    We present a new adaptive sorting algorithm which is optimal for most disorder metrics and, more important, has a simple and quick implementation. On input $X$, our algorithm has a theoretical $\\Omega (|X|)$ lower bound and a $\\mathcal{O}(|X|\\log|X|)$ upper bound, exhibiting amazing adaptive properties which makes it run closer to its lower bound as disorder (computed on different metrics) diminishes. From a practical point of view, \\textit{NeatSort} has proven itself competitive with (and of...

  16. Automatic spike sorting using tuning information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Valérie

    2009-09-01

    Current spike sorting methods focus on clustering neurons' characteristic spike waveforms. The resulting spike-sorted data are typically used to estimate how covariates of interest modulate the firing rates of neurons. However, when these covariates do modulate the firing rates, they provide information about spikes' identities, which thus far have been ignored for the purpose of spike sorting. This letter describes a novel approach to spike sorting, which incorporates both waveform information and tuning information obtained from the modulation of firing rates. Because it efficiently uses all the available information, this spike sorter yields lower spike misclassification rates than traditional automatic spike sorters. This theoretical result is verified empirically on several examples. The proposed method does not require additional assumptions; only its implementation is different. It essentially consists of performing spike sorting and tuning estimation simultaneously rather than sequentially, as is currently done. We used an expectation-maximization maximum likelihood algorithm to implement the new spike sorter. We present the general form of this algorithm and provide a detailed implementable version under the assumptions that neurons are independent and spike according to Poisson processes. Finally, we uncover a systematic flaw of spike sorting based on waveform information only.

  17. The solution space of sorting by DCJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Marília D V; Stoye, Jens

    2010-09-01

    In genome rearrangements, the double cut and join (DCJ) operation, introduced by Yancopoulos et al. in 2005, allows one to represent most rearrangement events that could happen in multichromosomal genomes, such as inversions, translocations, fusions, and fissions. No restriction on the genome structure considering linear and circular chromosomes is imposed. An advantage of this general model is that it leads to considerable algorithmic simplifications compared to other genome rearrangement models. Recently, several works concerning the DCJ operation have been published, and in particular, an algorithm was proposed to find an optimal DCJ sequence for sorting one genome into another one. Here we study the solution space of this problem and give an easy-to-compute formula that corresponds to the exact number of optimal DCJ sorting sequences for a particular subset of instances of the problem. We also give an algorithm to count the number of optimal sorting sequences for any instance of the problem. Another interesting result is the demonstration of the possibility of obtaining one optimal sorting sequence by properly replacing any pair of consecutive operations in another optimal sequence. As a consequence, any optimal sorting sequence can be obtained from one other by applying such replacements successively, but the problem of finding the shortest number of replacements between two sorting sequences is still open.

  18. Image analysis to measure sorting and stratification applied to sand-gravel experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Orrú, C.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to develop new measuring techniques for providing detailed data on sediment sorting suitable for sand-gravel laboratory experiments. Such data will be of aid in obtaining new insights on sorting mechanisms and improving prediction capabilities of morphodynamic models. Two measuring techniques have been developed. The first technique is aimed at measuring the size stratification of a sand-gravel deposit through combining image analysis and a sediment remov...

  19. Multi-Objective Optimization of Moving-magnet Linear Oscillatory Motor Using Response Surface Methodology with Quantum-Behaved PSO Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Meizhen; Wang, Liqiang

    2018-01-01

    To reduce the difficulty of manufacturing and increase the magnetic thrust density, a moving-magnet linear oscillatory motor (MMLOM) without inner-stators was Proposed. To get the optimal design of maximum electromagnetic thrust with minimal permanent magnetic material, firstly, the 3D finite element analysis (FEA) model of the MMLOM was built and verified by comparison with prototype experiment result. Then the influence of design parameters of permanent magnet (PM) on the electromagnetic thrust was systematically analyzed by the 3D FEA to get the design parameters. Secondly, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to build the response surface model of the new MMLOM, which can obtain an analytical model of the PM volume and thrust. Then a multi-objective optimization methods for design parameters of PM, using response surface methodology (RSM) with a quantum-behaved PSO (QPSO) operator, was proposed. Then the way to choose the best design parameters of PM among the multi-objective optimization solution sets was proposed. Then the 3D FEA of the optimal design candidates was compared. The comparison results showed that the proposed method can obtain the best combination of the geometric parameters of reducing the PM volume and increasing the thrust.

  20. Effect of climate on morphology and development of sorted circles and polygons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uxa, Tomáš; Mida, P.; Křížek, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2017), s. 663-674 ISSN 1045-6740 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : patterned ground * sorted circles and polygons * morphology * active layer * Svalbard * high Arctic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 2.815, year: 2016

  1. Fruit Sorting Using Fuzzy Logic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamvazuthi, Irraivan; Sinnadurai, Rajendran; Aftab Ahmed Khan, Mohamed Khan; Vasant, Pandian

    2009-08-01

    Fruit and vegetables market is getting highly selective, requiring their suppliers to distribute the goods according to very strict standards of quality and presentation. In the last years, a number of fruit sorting and grading systems have appeared to fulfill the needs of the fruit processing industry. However, most of them are overly complex and too costly for the small and medium scale industry (SMIs) in Malaysia. In order to address these shortcomings, a prototype machine was developed by integrating the fruit sorting, labeling and packing processes. To realise the prototype, many design issues were dealt with. Special attention is paid to the electronic weighing sub-system for measuring weight, and the opto-electronic sub-system for determining the height and width of the fruits. Specifically, this paper discusses the application of fuzzy logic techniques in the sorting process.

  2. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    by B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet operation was very satisfactory till the technical stop at the end of the year 2010. The field was ramped down on 5th December 2010, following the successful regeneration test of the turbine filters at full field on 3rd December 2010. This will limit in the future the quantity of magnet cycles, as it is no longer necessary to ramp down the magnet for this type of intervention. This is made possible by the use of the spare liquid Helium volume to cool the magnet while turbines 1 and 2 are stopped, leaving only the third turbine in operation. This obviously requires full availability of the operators to supervise the operation, as it is not automated. The cryogenics was stopped on 6th December 2010 and the magnet was left without cooling until 18th January 2011, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The maintenance of the vacuum pumping was done immediately after the magnet stop, when the magnet was still at very low temperature. Only the vacuum pumping of the ma...

  3. Application of radix sorting in high energy physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xuan; Gu Minhao; Zhu Kejun

    2012-01-01

    In the high energy physics experiments, there are always requirements to sort the large scale of experiment data. To meet the demand, this paper introduces one radix sorting algorithms, whose sub-sort is counting sorting and time complex is O (n), based on the characteristic of high energy physics experiment data that is marked by time stamp. This paper gives the description, analysis, implementation and experimental result of the sorting algorithms. (authors)

  4. Design and Integration of an All-Magnetic Attitude Control System for FASTSAT-HSV01's Multiple Pointing Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKock, Brandon; Sanders, Devon; Vanzwieten, Tannen; Capo-Lugo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The FASTSAT-HSV01 spacecraft is a microsatellite with magnetic torque rods as it sole attitude control actuator. FASTSAT s multiple payloads and mission functions require the Attitude Control System (ACS) to maintain Local Vertical Local Horizontal (LVLH)-referenced attitudes without spin-stabilization, while the pointing errors for some attitudes be significantly smaller than the previous best-demonstrated for this type of control system. The mission requires the ACS to hold multiple stable, unstable, and non-equilibrium attitudes, as well as eject a 3U CubeSat from an onboard P-POD and recover from the ensuing tumble. This paper describes the Attitude Control System, the reasons for design choices, how the ACS integrates with the rest of the spacecraft, and gives recommendations for potential future applications of the work.

  5. TECHNICAL EQUIPMENT FOR SORTING APPLES BY SIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Ştefan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Need to increase the competitiveness of semi-subsistence farms, by valorisation of the fruits, led to research for designing of an equipment for sorting apples by size, in order to meet market requirement, pricing according to the size of the fruits.

  6. Integration through a Card-Sort Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kris; Ricca, Bernard P.

    2015-01-01

    Learning to compute integrals via the various techniques of integration (e.g., integration by parts, partial fractions, etc.) is difficult for many students. Here, we look at how students in a college level Calculus II course develop the ability to categorize integrals and the difficulties they encounter using a card sort-resort activity. Analysis…

  7. A note on sorting buffrs offline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, H.L.; Megow, N.; Sitters, R.A.; van Stee, R.

    2012-01-01

    We consider the offline sorting buffer problem. The input is a sequence of items of different types. All items must be processed one by one by a server. The server is equipped with a random-access buffer of limited capacity which can be used to rearrange items. The problem is to design a scheduling

  8. A cargo-sorting DNA robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thubagere, Anupama J; Li, Wei; Johnson, Robert F; Chen, Zibo; Doroudi, Shayan; Lee, Yae Lim; Izatt, Gregory; Wittman, Sarah; Srinivas, Niranjan; Woods, Damien; Winfree, Erik; Qian, Lulu

    2017-09-15

    Two critical challenges in the design and synthesis of molecular robots are modularity and algorithm simplicity. We demonstrate three modular building blocks for a DNA robot that performs cargo sorting at the molecular level. A simple algorithm encoding recognition between cargos and their destinations allows for a simple robot design: a single-stranded DNA with one leg and two foot domains for walking, and one arm and one hand domain for picking up and dropping off cargos. The robot explores a two-dimensional testing ground on the surface of DNA origami, picks up multiple cargos of two types that are initially at unordered locations, and delivers them to specified destinations until all molecules are sorted into two distinct piles. The robot is designed to perform a random walk without any energy supply. Exploiting this feature, a single robot can repeatedly sort multiple cargos. Localization on DNA origami allows for distinct cargo-sorting tasks to take place simultaneously in one test tube or for multiple robots to collectively perform the same task. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Smoothsort, an alternative for sorting in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    Like heapsort - which inspired it - smoothsort is an algorithm for sorting in situ. It is of order N · log N in the worst case, but of order N in the best case, with a smooth transition between the two. (Hence its name.)

  10. Passive sorting of capsules by deformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haener, Edgar; Juel, Anne

    We study passive sorting according to deformability of liquid-filled ovalbumin-alginate capsules. We present results for two sorting geometries: a straight channel with a half-cylindrical obstruction and a pinched flow fractioning device (PFF) adapted for use with capsules. In the half-cylinder device, the capsules deform as they encounter the obstruction, and travel around the half-cylinder. The distance from the capsule's centre of mass to the surface of the half-cylinder depends on deformability, and separation between capsules of different deformability is amplified by diverging streamlines in the channel expansion downstream of the obstruction. We show experimentally that capsules can be sorted according to deformability with their downstream position depending on capillary number only, and we establish the sensitivity of the device to experimental variability. In the PFF device, particles are compressed against a wall using a strong pinching flow. We show that capsule deformation increases with the intensity of the pinching flow, but that the downstream capsule position is not set by deformation in the device. However, when using the PFF device like a T-Junction, we achieve improved sorting resolution compared to the half-cylinder device.

  11. 6. Algorithms for Sorting and Searching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Algorithms - Algorithms for Sorting and Searching. R K Shyamasundar. Series Article ... Author Affiliations. R K Shyamasundar1. Computer Science Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India ...

  12. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    Operation of the magnet has gone quite smoothly during the first half of this year. The magnet has been at 4.5K for the full period since January. There was an unplanned short stop due to the CERN-wide power outage on May 28th, which caused a slow dump of the magnet. Since this occurred just before a planned technical stop of the LHC, during which access in the experimental cavern was authorized, it was decided to leave the magnet OFF until 2nd June, when magnet was ramped up again to 3.8T. The magnet system experienced a fault also resulting in a slow dump on April 14th. This was triggered by a thermostat on a filter choke in the 20kA DC power converter. The threshold of this thermostat is 65°C. However, no variation in the water-cooling flow rate or temperature was observed. Vibration may have been the root cause of the fault. All the thermostats have been checked, together with the cables, connectors and the read out card. The tightening of the inductance fixations has also been checked. More tem...

  13. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet was energised at the beginning of March 2012 at a low current to check all the MSS safety chains. Then the magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T on 6 March 2012. Unfortunately two days later an unintentional switch OFF of the power converter caused a slow dump. This was due to a misunderstanding of the CCC (CERN Control Centre) concerning the procedure to apply for the CMS converter control according to the beam-mode status at that time. Following this event, the third one since 2009, a discussion was initiated to define possible improvement, not only on software and procedures in the CCC, but also to evaluate the possibility to upgrade the CMS hardware to prevent such discharge from occurring because of incorrect procedure implementations. The magnet operation itself was smooth, and no power cuts took place. As a result, the number of magnetic cycles was reduced to the minimum, with only two full magnetic cycles from 0 T to 3.8 T. Nevertheless the magnet suffered four stops of the cryogeni...

  14. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      Following the unexpected magnet stops last August due to sequences of unfortunate events on the services and cryogenics [see CMS internal report], a few more events and initiatives again disrupted the magnet operation. All the magnet parameters stayed at their nominal values during this period without any fault or alarm on the magnet control and safety systems. The magnet was stopped for the September technical stop to allow interventions in the experimental cavern on the detector services. On 1 October, to prepare the transfer of the liquid nitrogen tank on its new location, several control cables had to be removed. One cable was cut mistakenly, causing a digital input card to switch off, resulting in a cold-box (CB) stop. This tank is used for the pre-cooling of the magnet from room temperature down to 80 K, and for this reason it is controlled through the cryogenics control system. Since the connection of the CB was only allowed for a field below 2 T to avoid the risk of triggering a fast d...

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging, percentage of dense cells and serum prostanoids as tools for objective assessment of pain crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankad, V.N.; Williams, J.P.; Harpen, M.; Longenecker, G.; Brogdon, B.; Moore, B.

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has added a new dimension to the identification of soft tissue abnormalities. Chemical and histological characteristics of the tissues can be separated by computerized reconstruction algorithms which produce images and quantitative data. This technique, which is now becoming available in many centers, determines the density of protons of hydrogen in various tissues. If the infarction of the tissues leads to changes in chemical composition of the cells, it may produce changes in the image or in the quantitative data about the resonance of protons. Studies correlating hematologic parameters, radiologic changes in the bones or bone marrow and pain crises are scarce. It is likely that presence of abnormal hemoglobin in the red cell, which produces changes in red cells and rheology of blood, would produce changes in hematological parameters and MRI during pain crisis. The authors, therefore, undertook an evaluation of MRI of bones in sickle cell patients during pain-free and painful periods and obtained measurements of dense sickle cells and prostanoids derived from platelets and endothelium

  16. PhySortR: a fast, flexible tool for sorting phylogenetic trees in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Timothy G; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Ragan, Mark A; Chan, Cheong Xin

    2016-01-01

    A frequent bottleneck in interpreting phylogenomic output is the need to screen often thousands of trees for features of interest, particularly robust clades of specific taxa, as evidence of monophyletic relationship and/or reticulated evolution. Here we present PhySortR, a fast, flexible R package for classifying phylogenetic trees. Unlike existing utilities, PhySortR allows for identification of both exclusive and non-exclusive clades uniting the target taxa based on tip labels (i.e., leaves) on a tree, with customisable options to assess clades within the context of the whole tree. Using simulated and empirical datasets, we demonstrate the potential and scalability of PhySortR in analysis of thousands of phylogenetic trees without a priori assumption of tree-rooting, and in yielding readily interpretable trees that unambiguously satisfy the query. PhySortR is a command-line tool that is freely available and easily automatable.

  17. ScanSort{sup SM} at Whiteshell Laboratories for sorting of experimental cesium pond soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downey, H., E-mail: heath.downey@amecfw.com [Amec Foster Wheeler, Portland, ME (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The ScanSort{sup SM} soil sorting system is a unique and efficient radiological instrument used for measuring and sorting bulk soils and volumetric materials. The system performs automatic radioassay and segregation of preconditioned material using a gamma spectroscopy system mounted above a conveyor belt. It was deployed to the Whiteshell Laboratories site to process the excavated soils generated during the decommissioning of the former Experimental Cesium Pond. The ScanSort{sup SM} system was utilized to segregate material with Cs-137 concentrations above the established site unrestricted release and restricted site reuse levels as well as demonstrated the ability to accurately determine the radioactivity concentrations of the radiologically-impacted material and to confidently segregate volumes of that material for appropriate final disposition. (author)

  18. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet and its sub-systems were stopped at the beginning of the winter shutdown on 8th December 2011. The magnet was left without cooling during the cryogenics maintenance until 17th January 2012, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The vacuum pumping was maintained during this period. During this shutdown, the yearly maintenance was performed on the cryogenics, the vacuum pumps, the magnet control and safety systems, and the power converter and discharge lines. Several preventive actions led to the replacement of the electrovalve command coils, and the 20A DC power supplies of the magnet control system. The filters were cleaned on the demineralised water circuits. The oil of the diffusion pumps was changed. On the cryogenics, warm nitrogen at 343 K was circulated in the cold box to regenerate the filters and the heat exchangers. The coalescing filters have been replaced at the inlet of both the turbines and the lubricant trapping unit. The active cha...

  19. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

      The magnet was operated without any problem until the end of the LHC run in February 2013, apart from a CERN-wide power glitch on 10 January 2013 that affected the CMS refrigerator, causing a ramp down to 2 T in order to reconnect the coldbox. Another CERN-wide power glitch on 15 January 2013 didn’t affect the magnet subsystems, the cryoplant or the power converter. At the end of the magnet run, the reconnection of the coldbox at 2.5 T was tested. The process will be updated, in particular the parameters of some PID valve controllers. The helium flow of the current leads was reduced but only for a few seconds. The exercise will be repeated with the revised parameters to validate the automatic reconnection process of the coldbox. During LS1, the water-cooling services will be reduced and many interventions are planned on the electrical services. Therefore, the magnet cryogenics and subsystems will be stopped for several months, and the magnet cannot be kept cold. In order to avoid unc...

  20. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet was successfully operated at the end of the year 2009 despite some technical problems on the cryogenics. The magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T at the end of November until December 16th when the shutdown started. The magnet operation met a few unexpected stops. The field was reduced to 3.5 T for about 5 hours on December 3rd due to a faulty pressure sensor on the helium compressor. The following day the CERN CCC stopped unintentionally the power converters of the LHC and the experiments, triggering a ramp down that was stopped at 2.7 T. The magnet was back at 3.8 T about 6 hours after CCC sent the CERN-wide command. Three days later, a slow dump was triggered due to a stop of the pump feeding the power converter water-cooling circuit, during an intervention on the water-cooling plant done after several disturbances on the electrical distribution network. The magnet was back at 3.8 T in the evening the same day. On December 10th a break occurred in one turbine of the cold box producing the liquid ...

  1. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The CMS magnet has been running steadily and smoothly since the summer, with no detected flaw. The magnet instrumentation is entirely operational and all the parameters are at their nominal values. Three power cuts on the electrical network affected the magnet run in the past five months, with no impact on the data-taking as the accelerator was also affected at the same time. On 22nd June, a thunderstorm caused a power glitch on the service electrical network. The primary water cooling at Point 5 was stopped. Despite a quick restart of the water cooling, the inlet temperature of the demineralised water on the busbar cooling circuit increased by 5 °C, up to 23.3 °C. It was kept below the threshold of 27 °C by switching off other cooling circuits to avoid the trigger of a slow dump of the magnet. The cold box of the cryogenics also stopped. Part of the spare liquid helium volume was used to maintain the cooling of the magnet at 4.5 K. The operators of the cryogenics quickly restarted ...

  2. Sorting signed permutations by short operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Gustavo Rodrigues; Lee, Orlando; Dias, Zanoni

    2015-01-01

    During evolution, global mutations may alter the order and the orientation of the genes in a genome. Such mutations are referred to as rearrangement events, or simply operations. In unichromosomal genomes, the most common operations are reversals, which are responsible for reversing the order and orientation of a sequence of genes, and transpositions, which are responsible for switching the location of two contiguous portions of a genome. The problem of computing the minimum sequence of operations that transforms one genome into another - which is equivalent to the problem of sorting a permutation into the identity permutation - is a well-studied problem that finds application in comparative genomics. There are a number of works concerning this problem in the literature, but they generally do not take into account the length of the operations (i.e. the number of genes affected by the operations). Since it has been observed that short operations are prevalent in the evolution of some species, algorithms that efficiently solve this problem in the special case of short operations are of interest. In this paper, we investigate the problem of sorting a signed permutation by short operations. More precisely, we study four flavors of this problem: (i) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals of length at most 2; (ii) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals of length at most 3; (iii) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals and transpositions of length at most 2; and (iv) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals and transpositions of length at most 3. We present polynomial-time solutions for problems (i) and (iii), a 5-approximation for problem (ii), and a 3-approximation for problem (iv). Moreover, we show that the expected approximation ratio of the 5-approximation algorithm is not greater than 3 for random signed permutations with more than 12 elements. Finally, we present experimental results that show

  3. A mower detector to judge soil sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R.

    1995-01-01

    Thermo Nuclear Services (TNS) has developed a mower detector as an inexpensive and fast means for deciding potential value of soil sorting for cleanup. It is a shielded detector box on wheels pushed over the ground (as a person mows grass) at 30 ft/min with gamma-ray counts recorded every 0.25 sec. It mirror images detection by the TNS transportable sorter system which conveys soil at 30 ft/min and toggles a gate to send soil on separate paths based on counts. The mower detector shows if contamination is variable and suitable for sorting, and by unique calibration sources, it indicates detection sensitivity. The mower detector has been used to characterize some soil at Department of Energy sites in New Jersey and South Carolina

  4. Sorting processes with energy-constrained comparisons*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissmann, Barbara; Penna, Paolo

    2018-05-01

    We study very simple sorting algorithms based on a probabilistic comparator model. In this model, errors in comparing two elements are due to (1) the energy or effort put in the comparison and (2) the difference between the compared elements. Such algorithms repeatedly compare and swap pairs of randomly chosen elements, and they correspond to natural Markovian processes. The study of these Markov chains reveals an interesting phenomenon. Namely, in several cases, the algorithm that repeatedly compares only adjacent elements is better than the one making arbitrary comparisons: in the long-run, the former algorithm produces sequences that are "better sorted". The analysis of the underlying Markov chain poses interesting questions as the latter algorithm yields a nonreversible chain, and therefore its stationary distribution seems difficult to calculate explicitly. We nevertheless provide bounds on the stationary distributions and on the mixing time of these processes in several restrictions.

  5. A Novel and Simple Spike Sorting Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrantonakis, Panagiotis C; Poirazi, Panayiota

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring the activity of multiple, individual neurons that fire spikes in the vicinity of an electrode, namely perform a Spike Sorting (SS) procedure, comprises one of the most important tools for contemporary neuroscience in order to reverse-engineer the brain. As recording electrodes' technology rabidly evolves by integrating thousands of electrodes in a confined spatial setting, the algorithms that are used to monitor individual neurons from recorded signals have to become even more reliable and computationally efficient. In this work, we propose a novel framework of the SS approach in which a single-step processing of the raw (unfiltered) extracellular signal is sufficient for both the detection and sorting of the activity of individual neurons. Despite its simplicity, the proposed approach exhibits comparable performance with state-of-the-art approaches, especially for spike detection in noisy signals, and paves the way for a new family of SS algorithms with the potential for multi-recording, fast, on-chip implementations.

  6. Colour based sorting station with Matlab simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design process and manufacturing elements of a colour-based sorting station. The system is comprised of a gravitational storage, which also contains the colour sensor. Parts are extracted using a linear pneumatic motor and are fed onto an electrically driven conveyor belt. Extraction of the parts is done at 4 points, using two pneumatic motors and a geared DC motor, while the 4th position is at the end of the belt. The mechanical parts of the system are manufactured using 3D printer technology, allowing for easy modification and adaption to the geometry of different parts. The paper shows all of the stages needed to design, optimize, test and implement the proposed solution. System optimization was performed using a graphical Matlab interface which also allows for sorting algorithm optimization.

  7. Efficient sorting using registers and caches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickremesinghe, Rajiv; Arge, Lars Allan; Chase, Jeffrey S.

    2002-01-01

    . Inadequate models lead to poor algorithmic choices and an incomplete understanding of algorithm behavior on real machines.A key step toward developing better models is to quantify the performance effects of features not reflected in the models. This paper explores the effect of memory system features...... on sorting performance. We introduce a new cache-conscious sorting algorithm, R-MERGE, which achieves better performance in practice over algorithms that are superior in the theoretical models. R-MERGE is designed to minimize memory stall cycles rather than cache misses by considering features common to many......Modern computer systems have increasingly complex memory systems. Common machine models for algorithm analysis do not reflect many of the features of these systems, e.g., large register sets, lockup-free caches, cache hierarchies, associativity, cache line fetching, and streaming behavior...

  8. A mower detector to judge soil sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R. [Thermo Nuclear Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Thermo Nuclear Services (TNS) has developed a mower detector as an inexpensive and fast means for deciding potential value of soil sorting for cleanup. It is a shielded detector box on wheels pushed over the ground (as a person mows grass) at 30 ft/min with gamma-ray counts recorded every 0.25 sec. It mirror images detection by the TNS transportable sorter system which conveys soil at 30 ft/min and toggles a gate to send soil on separate paths based on counts. The mower detector shows if contamination is variable and suitable for sorting, and by unique calibration sources, it indicates detection sensitivity. The mower detector has been used to characterize some soil at Department of Energy sites in New Jersey and South Carolina.

  9. Efficient Sorting on the Tilera Manycore Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morari, Alessandro; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste; Secchi, Simone; Valero, Mateo

    2012-10-24

    e present an efficient implementation of the radix sort algo- rithm for the Tilera TILEPro64 processor. The TILEPro64 is one of the first successful commercial manycore processors. It is com- posed of 64 tiles interconnected through multiple fast Networks- on-chip and features a fully coherent, shared distributed cache. The architecture has a large degree of flexibility, and allows various optimization strategies. We describe how we mapped the algorithm to this architecture. We present an in-depth analysis of the optimizations for each phase of the algorithm with respect to the processor’s sustained performance. We discuss the overall throughput reached by our radix sort implementation (up to 132 MK/s) and show that it provides comparable or better performance-per-watt with respect to state-of-the art implemen- tations on x86 processors and graphic processing units.

  10. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of visual object construction and shape discrimination : relations among task, hemispheric lateralization, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, A P; Whang, K; Georgopoulos, M A; Tagaris, G A; Amirikian, B; Richter, W; Kim, S G; Uğurbil, K

    2001-01-01

    We studied the brain activation patterns in two visual image processing tasks requiring judgements on object construction (FIT task) or object sameness (SAME task). Eight right-handed healthy human subjects (four women and four men) performed the two tasks in a randomized block design while 5-mm, multislice functional images of the whole brain were acquired using a 4-tesla system using blood oxygenation dependent (BOLD) activation. Pairs of objects were picked randomly from a set of 25 oriented fragments of a square and presented to the subjects approximately every 5 sec. In the FIT task, subjects had to indicate, by pushing one of two buttons, whether the two fragments could match to form a perfect square, whereas in the SAME task they had to decide whether they were the same or not. In a control task, preceding and following each of the two tasks above, a single square was presented at the same rate and subjects pushed any of the two keys at random. Functional activation maps were constructed based on a combination of conservative criteria. The areas with activated pixels were identified using Talairach coordinates and anatomical landmarks, and the number of activated pixels was determined for each area. Altogether, 379 pixels were activated. The counts of activated pixels did not differ significantly between the two tasks or between the two genders. However, there were significantly more activated pixels in the left (n = 218) than the right side of the brain (n = 161). Of the 379 activated pixels, 371 were located in the cerebral cortex. The Talairach coordinates of these pixels were analyzed with respect to their overall distribution in the two tasks. These distributions differed significantly between the two tasks. With respect to individual dimensions, the two tasks differed significantly in the anterior--posterior and superior--inferior distributions but not in the left--right (including mediolateral, within the left or right side) distribution. Specifically

  11. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet ran smoothly in the last few months until a fast dump occurred on 9th May 2011. Fortunately, this occurred in the afternoon of the first day of the technical stop. The fast dump was due to a valve position controller that caused the sudden closure of a valve. This valve is used to regulate the helium flow on one of the two current leads, which electrically connects the coil at 4.5 K to the busbars at room temperature. With no helium flow on the lead, the voltage drop and the temperatures across the leads increase up to the defined thresholds, triggering a fast dump through the Magnet Safety System (MSS). The automatic reaction triggered by the MSS worked properly. The helium release was limited as the pressure rise was just at the limit of the safety valve opening pressure. The average temperature of the magnet reached 72 K. It took four days to recover the temperature and refill the helium volumes. The faulty valve controller was replaced by a spare one before the magnet ramp-up resumed....

  12. Performance pay, sorting and social motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Tor; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Variable pay links pay and performance but may also help firms in attracting more productive employees. Our experiment investigates the impact of performance pay on both incentives and sorting and analyzes the influence of repeated interactions between firms and employees on these effects. We show that (i) the opportunity to switch from a fixed wage to variable pay scheme increases the average effort level and its variance; (ii) high skill employees concentrate under t...

  13. A sorting network in bounded arithmetic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 162, č. 4 (2011), s. 341-355 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * sorting network * proof complexity * monotone sequent calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.450, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168007210001272

  14. Job Sorting in African Labor Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Fafchamps; Mans Soderbom; Najy Benhassine

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from eleven African countries, we investigate if there is a job sorting in African labor markets. We find that much of the wage gap correlated with education is driven by selection across occupations and firms. This is consistent with educated workers being more effective at complex tasks like labor management. In all countries the education wage gap widens rapidly at high low levels of education. Most of the education wage gap at low levels of education c...

  15. Parallel integer sorting with medium and fine-scale parallelism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagum, Leonardo

    1993-01-01

    Two new parallel integer sorting algorithms, queue-sort and barrel-sort, are presented and analyzed in detail. These algorithms do not have optimal parallel complexity, yet they show very good performance in practice. Queue-sort designed for fine-scale parallel architectures which allow the queueing of multiple messages to the same destination. Barrel-sort is designed for medium-scale parallel architectures with a high message passing overhead. The performance results from the implementation of queue-sort on a Connection Machine CM-2 and barrel-sort on a 128 processor iPSC/860 are given. The two implementations are found to be comparable in performance but not as good as a fully vectorized bucket sort on the Cray YMP.

  16. Stochastic Model of Vesicular Sorting in Cellular Organelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagne, Quentin; Sens, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    The proper sorting of membrane components by regulated exchange between cellular organelles is crucial to intracellular organization. This process relies on the budding and fusion of transport vesicles, and should be strongly influenced by stochastic fluctuations, considering the relatively small size of many organelles. We identify the perfect sorting of two membrane components initially mixed in a single compartment as a first passage process, and we show that the mean sorting time exhibits two distinct regimes as a function of the ratio of vesicle fusion to budding rates. Low ratio values lead to fast sorting but result in a broad size distribution of sorted compartments dominated by small entities. High ratio values result in two well-defined sorted compartments but sorting is exponentially slow. Our results suggest an optimal balance between vesicle budding and fusion for the rapid and efficient sorting of membrane components and highlight the importance of stochastic effects for the steady-state organization of intracellular compartments.

  17. Passive Aerial Grasping of Ferrous Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Fiaz, Usman Amin

    2017-10-19

    Aerial transportation is probably the most efficient way to supply quick and effective aid especially in cases of emergency like search and rescue operations. Thus the ability to grasp and deliver objects is of vital importance in all sorts of unmanned and autonomous aerial operations. We detail a simple yet novel approach for aerial grasping of ferrous objects using a passive magnetic pickup and an impulse based drop mechanism. The design enables our gripper to grasp ferrous objects using single as well as multiple gripping pads, with visual as well as pickup and drop feedback. We describe the various components of the gripper with emphasis on its low mass and high lift capability since weight is a matter of high consideration in all aerial applications. In addition, we investigate and address the issues that may cause our design to fail. We demonstrate by experiments that the proposed design is robust and effective, based on its high payload capability, its sturdiness against possible slide during aggressive aerial maneuvers, and optimum performance of the drop mechanism for the designed range of payloads. We also show that the gripper is able to pick up and drop a single as well as multiple ferrous objects of different shapes, curvature, and inclination, which also involves picking up an object and then grasping the next, while keeping hold of the previous one.

  18. Passive Aerial Grasping of Ferrous Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Fiaz, Usman; Toumi, Noureddine; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2017-01-01

    Aerial transportation is probably the most efficient way to supply quick and effective aid especially in cases of emergency like search and rescue operations. Thus the ability to grasp and deliver objects is of vital importance in all sorts of unmanned and autonomous aerial operations. We detail a simple yet novel approach for aerial grasping of ferrous objects using a passive magnetic pickup and an impulse based drop mechanism. The design enables our gripper to grasp ferrous objects using single as well as multiple gripping pads, with visual as well as pickup and drop feedback. We describe the various components of the gripper with emphasis on its low mass and high lift capability since weight is a matter of high consideration in all aerial applications. In addition, we investigate and address the issues that may cause our design to fail. We demonstrate by experiments that the proposed design is robust and effective, based on its high payload capability, its sturdiness against possible slide during aggressive aerial maneuvers, and optimum performance of the drop mechanism for the designed range of payloads. We also show that the gripper is able to pick up and drop a single as well as multiple ferrous objects of different shapes, curvature, and inclination, which also involves picking up an object and then grasping the next, while keeping hold of the previous one.

  19. Automatic Color Sorting of Hardwood Edge-Glued Panel Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Qiang Lu; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic color sorting system for red oak edge-glued panel parts. The color sorting system simultaneously examines both faces of a panel part and then determines which face has the "best" color, and sorts the part into one of a number of color classes at plant production speeds. Initial test results show that the system generated over...

  20. Categorizing Variations of Student-Implemented Sorting Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Ahmad; Korhonen, Ari; Malmi, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined freshmen students' sorting algorithm implementations in data structures and algorithms' course in two phases: at the beginning of the course before the students received any instruction on sorting algorithms, and after taking a lecture on sorting algorithms. The analysis revealed that many students have insufficient…

  1. Order-sorted Algebraic Specifications with Higher-order Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives a proposal for how order-sorted algebraic specification languages can be extended with higher-order functions. The approach taken is a generalisation to the order-sorted case of an approach given by Mller, Tarlecki and Wirsing for the many-sorted case. The main idea in the proposal...

  2. Gender Sorting across K-12 Schools in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark C.; Conger, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    This article documents evidence of nonrandom gender sorting across K-12 schools in the United States. The sorting exists among coed schools and at all grade levels, and it is highest in the secondary school grades. We observe some gender sorting across school sectors and types: for instance, males are slightly underrepresented in private schools…

  3. Objectives of the symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genter, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this symposium was to discuss the sorts of evidence of molecular alterations in DNA which can be used to study causation of the stochastic effects of importance in radiation protection. Specifically, the aim was to address the following: what sort of indications might show whether a cancer was caused by radiation; whether there is a radiogenic signature to distinguish damage caused by ionizing radiation; whether bio-markers might be available for susceptibility, for exposure, for biological consequences. Despite a number of epidemiological studies (referred to), there is no clear, credible, defensible answer as to whether low-level radiation increases the risk of cancer. A new ethical question is, what rules should be in place for identifying and protecting genetically sensitive individuals. 1 tab

  4. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet worked very well at 3.8 T as expected, despite a technical issue that manifested twice in the cryogenics since June. All the other magnet sub-systems worked without flaw. The issue in the cryogenics was with the cold box: it could be observed that the cold box was getting progressively blocked, due to some residual humidity and air accumulating in the first thermal exchanger and in the adsorber at 65 K. This was later confirmed by the analysis during the regeneration phases. An increase in the temperature difference between the helium inlet and outlet across the heat exchanger and a pressure drop increase on the filter of the adsorber were observed. The consequence was a reduction of the helium flow, first compensated by the automatic opening of the regulation valves. But once they were fully opened, the flow and refrigeration power reduced as a consequence. In such a situation, the liquid helium level in the helium Dewar decreased, eventually causing a ramp down of the magnet current and a field...

  5. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    MAGNET During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bough...

  6. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé.

    The magnet operation restarted end of June this year. Quick routine checks of the magnet sub-systems were performed at low current before starting the ramps up to higher field. It appeared clearly that the end of the field ramp down to zero was too long to be compatible with the detector commissioning and operations plans. It was decided to perform an upgrade to keep the ramp down from 3.8T to zero within 4 hours. On July 10th, when a field of 1.5T was reached, small movements were observed in the forward region support table and it was decided to fix this problem before going to higher field. At the end of July the ramps could be resumed. On July 28th, the field was at 3.8T and the summer CRAFT exercise could start. This run in August went smoothly until a general CERN wide power cut took place on August 3rd, due to an insulation fault on the high voltage network outside point 5. It affected the magnet powering electrical circuit, as it caused the opening of the main circuit breakers, resulting in a fast du...

  7. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

    The magnet is fully stopped and at room temperature. The maintenance works and consolidation activities on the magnet sub-systems are progressing. To consolidate the cryogenic installation, two redundant helium compressors will be installed as ‘hot spares’, to avoid the risk of a magnet downtime in case of a major failure of a compressor unit during operation. The screw compressors, their motors, the mechanical couplings and the concrete blocks are already available and stored at P5. The metallic structure used to access the existing compressors in SH5 will be modified to allow the installation of the two redundant ones. The plan is to finish the installation and commissioning of the hot spare compressors before the summer 2014. In the meantime, a bypass on the high-pressure helium piping will be installed for the connection of a helium drier unit later during the Long Shutdown 1, keeping this installation out of the schedule critical path. A proposal is now being prepared for the con...

  8. Boundary conditions estimation of scoop dosimeter for primary sorting during earthworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batij, V.G.; Pravdivyj, A.A.; Stoyanov, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    Simple method of radioactive waste first separation using collimated dosimeter, which is placed on boom of power shovel, is proposed, and separation process mathematic modeling for boundary conditions definition of sorting under 'Ukryttya' object high gamma background condition are carry out

  9. Card sorting to evaluate the robustness of the information architecture of a protocol website

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentzel, M.J.; Müller, F.; Beerlage-de Jong, Nienke; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A website on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, MRSA-net, was developed for Health Care Workers (HCWs) and the general public, in German and in Dutch. The website’s content was based on existing protocols and its structure was based on a card sort study. A Human Centered Design

  10. Card sorting to evaluate the robustness of the information architecture of a protocol website

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentzel, Jobke; Müller, Fabiola; Beerlage-de Jong, Nienke; van Gemert-Pijnen, Lisette

    Objectives A website on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, MRSA-net, was developed for Health Care Workers (HCWs) and the general public, in German and in Dutch. The website’s content was based on existing protocols and its structure was based on a card sort study. A Human Centered Design

  11. Cache-Aware and Cache-Oblivious Adaptive Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Moruz, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Two new adaptive sorting algorithms are introduced which perform an optimal number of comparisons with respect to the number of inversions in the input. The first algorithm is based on a new linear time reduction to (non-adaptive) sorting. The second algorithm is based on a new division protocol...... for the GenericSort algorithm by Estivill-Castro and Wood. From both algorithms we derive I/O-optimal cache-aware and cache-oblivious adaptive sorting algorithms. These are the first I/O-optimal adaptive sorting algorithms....

  12. Ore sorting using natural gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.J.; Dickson, B.L.; Gray, F.E.

    1980-01-01

    A method of sorting an ore which emits natural gamma radiation is described, comprising the steps of: (a) mining the ore, (b) placing, substantially at the mining location, the sampled or mined ore on to a moving conveyor belt, (c) measuring the natural gamma emission, water content and mass of the ore while the ore is on the conveyor belt, (d) using the gamma, water content and mass measurements to determine the ore grade, and (e) directing the ore to a location characteristic of its grade when it leaves the conveyor belt

  13. Optical cell sorting with multiple imaging modalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banas, Andrew; Carrissemoux, Caro; Palima, Darwin

    2017-01-01

    healthy cells. With the richness of visual information, a lot of microscopy techniques have been developed and have been crucial in biological studies. To utilize their complementary advantages we adopt both fluorescence and brightfield imaging in our optical cell sorter. Brightfield imaging has...... the advantage of being non-invasive, thus maintaining cell viability. Fluorescence imaging, on the other hand, takes advantages of the chemical specificity of fluorescence markers and can validate machine vision results from brightfield images. Visually identified cells are sorted using optical manipulation...

  14. Electronic sorting of radioactive ores; Triage electronique des minerais radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandier, J.

    1958-01-15

    Electronic sorting of radioactive ores consists in passing the rock lumps, after sieving, one by one in front of radioactivity detectors; these detectors command electromechanical systems which class the ores according to their radioactivity level. This note sets on the state of progress of the work going on at the D.R.E.M.: use of scintillometers for γ-ray detection, with circuits carrying magnetic memories to improve their operation; results of laboratory and semi-industrial tests on several deposits; description of the material, data on the first factory project; notes on the financial returns of the process. A description is also given of the electronic sorting material used skip by skip for a first rough classification of the ores according to their content, as they leave the shaft. (author) [French] Le triage electronique des minerais radioactifs consiste a faire passer, apres criblage, les cailloux un par un devant des detecteurs de radioactivite; ces detecteurs commandent des systemes electromecaniques qui classent les minerais selon leur niveau de radioactivite. La note expose l'etat d'avancement des travaux en cours a la D.R.E.M: utilisation des scintillometres pour la detection des rayonnements γ, de circuits comportant des memoires magnetiques pour ameliorer le fonctionnement; resultats d'essais de laboratoire et semi-industriels sur plusieurs gisements; description du materiel, donnees sur le premier projet d'usine; notes sur la rentabilite du procede. Est egalement decrit le materiel de triage electronique skip par skip utilise pour une premiere classification grossiere des minerais selon leurs teneurs, des la sortie des puits. (auteur)

  15. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The magnet subsystems resumed operation early this spring. The vacuum pumping was restarted mid March, and the cryogenic power plant was restarted on March 30th. Three and a half weeks later, the magnet was at 4.5 K. The vacuum pumping system is performing well. One of the newly installed vacuum gauges had to be replaced at the end of the cool-down phase, as the values indicated were not coherent with the other pressure measurements. The correction had to be implemented quickly to be sure no helium leak could be at the origin of this anomaly. The pressure measurements have been stable and coherent since the change. The cryogenics worked well, and the cool-down went quite smoothly, without any particular difficulty. The automated start of the turbines had to be fine-tuned to get a smooth transition, as it was observed that the cooling power delivered by the turbines was slightly higher than needed, causing the cold box to stop automatically. This had no consequence as the cold box safety system acts to keep ...

  16. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bought. Th...

  17. Automatic Color Sorting Machine Using TCS230 Color Sensor And PIC Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunhimohammed C K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sorting of products is a very difficult industrial process. Continuous manual sorting creates consistency issues. This paper describes a working prototype designed for automatic sorting of objects based on the color. TCS230 sensor was used to detect the color of the product and the PIC16F628A microcontroller was used to control the overall process. The identification of the color is based on the frequency analysis of the output of TCS230 sensor. Two conveyor belts were used, each controlled by separate DC motors. The first belt is for placing the product to be analyzed by the color sensor, and the second belt is for moving the container, having separated compartments, in order to separate the products. The experimental results promise that the prototype will fulfill the needs for higher production and precise quality in the field of automation.

  18. Effect of Hydrograph Characteristics on Vertical Grain Sorting in Gravel Bed Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M. A.; Parker, G.; Egozi, R.

    2005-12-01

    This study focuses on the formation of armour layers over a range of hydrologic conditions that includes two limiting cases; a relatively flat hydrograph that represents conditions produced by continuous snowmelt and a sharply peaked hydrograph that represents conditions associated with flash floods. To achieve our objective we analyzed field evidence, conducted flume experiments and performed numerical simulations. Sediment supply appears to be a first-order control on bed surface armouring, while the shape of the hydrograph plays a secondary role. All constant hydrograph experiments developed a well-armored structured surface while short asymmetrical hydrographs did not show substantial vertical sorting. All symmetrical hydrographs show some degree of sorting, and the sorting tended to become more pronounced with longer duration. Using the numerical framework of Parker, modified Powell, et al. and Wilcock and Crowe, we were able to achieve similar results.

  19. Below Regulatory Concern Owners Group: An evaluation of dry active waste sorting: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, S.M.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the accuracy of manual inspection of Dry Active Waste (DAW). Three studies were conducted at two nuclear power plants in which unmodified DAW waste streams of roughly 10,000 items each were inspected by technicians using pancake probes. Sorting performance was measured unobtrusively by intercepting the ''outflow'' from inspection stations. Verification of sorting accuracy was performed with a prototype, semi-automated sorting table employing a matrix of fixed plastic scintillation detectors. More than 30,000 items of trash were examined, classified, counted, and verified, and the composition of the ''inflow'' to the inspection stations was determined by reconstructing the ''outflow'' components, as determined during verification procedures. The results showed that between 1 and 19% of all items in each of the three DAW waste streams were contaminated at levels ≥100 ccpm. Sixty-two percent of the ''contaminated'' items in Study I, 87% of the contaminated items in Study II, and 97% of the contaminated items in Study III were detected. One-half to one percent of all items classified as <100 ccpm by technicians were actually ≥100 ccpm. False positive rates were very high in all three studies. The production rates and accuracy obtained on the semi-automated plastic scintillation sorting table used during the verification stages of this project greatly exceeded the rates for manual sorting. 9 figs., 13 tabs

  20. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry peak sorting algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Cheolhwan; Huang, Xiaodong; Regnier, Fred E; Buck, Charles; Zhang, Xiang

    2008-02-01

    We report a novel peak sorting method for the two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC/TOF-MS) system. The objective of peak sorting is to recognize peaks from the same metabolite occurring in different samples from thousands of peaks detected in the analytical procedure. The developed algorithm is based on the fact that the chromatographic peaks for a given analyte have similar retention times in all of the chromatograms. Raw instrument data are first processed by ChromaTOF (Leco) software to provide the peak tables. Our algorithm achieves peak sorting by utilizing the first- and second-dimension retention times in the peak tables and the mass spectra generated during the process of electron impact ionization. The algorithm searches the peak tables for the peaks generated by the same type of metabolite using several search criteria. Our software also includes options to eliminate non-target peaks from the sorting results, e.g., peaks of contaminants. The developed software package has been tested using a mixture of standard metabolites and another mixture of standard metabolites spiked into human serum. Manual validation demonstrates high accuracy of peak sorting with this algorithm.

  1. Optimum Identification Method of Sorting Green Household Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Mohd Hisam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This project is related to design of sorting facility for reducing, reusing, recycling green waste material, and in particular to invent an automatic system to distinguish household waste in order to separate them from the main waste stream. The project focuses on thorough analysis of the properties of green household waste. The method of identification is using capacitive sensor where the characteristic data taken on three different sensor drive frequency. Three types of material have been chosen as a medium of this research, to be separated using the selected method. Based on capacitance characteristics and its ability to penetrate green object, optimum identification method is expected to be recognized in this project. The output capacitance sensor is in analogue value. The results demonstrate that the information from the sensor is enough to recognize the materials that have been selected.

  2. Raman tweezers in microfluidic systems for analysis and sorting of living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilát, Zdeněk.; Ježek, Jan; Kaňka, Jan; Zemánek, Pavel

    2014-12-01

    We have devised an analytical and sorting system combining optical trapping with Raman spectroscopy in microfluidic environment, dedicated to identification and sorting of biological objects, such as living cells of various unicellular organisms. Our main goal was to create a robust and universal platform for non-destructive and non-contact sorting of micro-objects based on their Raman spectral properties. This approach allowed us to collect spectra containing information about the chemical composition of the objects, such as the presence and composition of pigments, lipids, proteins, or nucleic acids, avoiding artificial chemical probes such as fluorescent markers. The non-destructive nature of this optical analysis and manipulation allowed us to separate individual living cells of our interest in a sterile environment and provided the possibility to cultivate the selected cells for further experiments. We used a mixture of polystyrene micro-particles and algal cells to test and demonstrate the function of our analytical and sorting system. The devised system could find its use in many medical, biotechnological, and biological applications.

  3. Advanced optimization of permanent magnet wigglers using a genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajima, Ryoichi [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    In permanent magnet wigglers, magnetic imperfection of each magnet piece causes field error. This field error can be reduced or compensated by sorting magnet pieces in proper order. We showed a genetic algorithm has good property for this sorting scheme. In this paper, this optimization scheme is applied to the case of permanent magnets which have errors in the direction of field. The result shows the genetic algorithm is superior to other algorithms.

  4. Advanced optimization of permanent magnet wigglers using a genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajima, Ryoichi

    1995-01-01

    In permanent magnet wigglers, magnetic imperfection of each magnet piece causes field error. This field error can be reduced or compensated by sorting magnet pieces in proper order. We showed a genetic algorithm has good property for this sorting scheme. In this paper, this optimization scheme is applied to the case of permanent magnets which have errors in the direction of field. The result shows the genetic algorithm is superior to other algorithms

  5. Sorting waste - A question of good will

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department - FM Group

    2006-01-01

    In order to minimise waste-sorting costs, CERN provides two types of container at the entrance of buildings: a green plastic container for paper/cardboard and a metal container for household-type waste. We regret that recently there has been a significant decrease in the extent to which these types of waste are sorted, for example green containers have been found to hold assorted waste such as cardboard boxes filled with polystyrene, bubble-wrap or even plastic bottles, yoghurt pots, etc. Checks have shown that this 'non-compliant' waste does not come from the rubbish bins emptied by the cleaners but is deposited there directly by inconsiderate users. During the months of October and November alone, for example, only 15% of the waste from the paper/cardboard containers was recycled and the remaining 85% had to be incinerated, which entails a high cost for CERN. You should note that once an item of non-compliant waste is found in a green container its contents are immediately sent as waste to be incinerated ...

  6. Efficiency at Sorting Cards in Compressed Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, E. C.; Catton, M. J.; Carpenter, A.

    1964-01-01

    At a site where compressed air was being used in the construction of a tunnel, 34 men sorted cards twice, once at normal atmospheric pressure and once at 3½, 2½, or 2 atmospheres absolute pressure. An additional six men sorted cards twice at normal atmospheric pressure. When the task was carried out for the first time, all the groups of men performing at raised pressure were found to yield a reliably greater proportion of very slow responses than the group of men performing at normal pressure. There was reliably more variability in timing at 3½ and 2½ atmospheres absolute than at normal pressure. At 3½ atmospheres absolute the average performance was also reliably slower. When the task was carried out for the second time, exposure to 3½ atmospheres absolute pressure had no reliable effect. Thus compressed air affected performance only while the task was being learnt; it had little effect after practice. No reliable differences were found related to age, to length of experience in compressed air, or to the duration of the exposure to compressed air, which was never less than 10 minutes at 3½ atmospheres absolute pressure. PMID:14180485

  7. PACMan to Help Sort Hubble Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    Every year, astronomers submit over a thousand proposals requesting time on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Currently, humans must sort through each of these proposals by hand before sending them off for review. Could this burden be shifted to computers?A Problem of VolumeAstronomer Molly Peeples gathered stats on the HST submissions sent in last week for the upcoming HST Cycle 25 (the deadline was Friday night), relative to previous years. This years proposal round broke the record, with over 1200 proposals submitted in total for Cycle 25. [Molly Peeples]Each proposal cycle for HST time attracts on the order of 1100 proposals accounting for far more HST time than is available. The proposals are therefore carefully reviewed by around 150 international members of the astronomy community during a six-month process to select those with the highest scientific merit.Ideally, each proposal will be read by reviewers that have scientific expertise relevant to the proposal topic: if a proposal requests HST time to study star formation, for instance, then the reviewers assigned to it should have research expertise in star formation.How does this matching of proposals to reviewers occur? The current method relies on self-reported categorization of the submitted proposals. This is unreliable, however; proposals are often mis-categorized by submitters due to misunderstanding or ambiguous cases.As a result, the Science Policies Group at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) which oversees the review of HST proposals must go through each of the proposals by hand and re-categorize them. The proposals are then matched to reviewers with self-declared expertise in the same category.With the number of HST proposals on the rise and the expectation that the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will elicit even more proposals for time than Hubble scientists at STScI and NASA are now asking: could the human hours necessary for this task be spared? Could a computer program

  8. Bacterial lipoproteins; biogenesis, sorting and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Shin-Ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are a subset of membrane proteins localized on either leaflet of the lipid bilayer. These proteins are anchored to membranes through their N-terminal lipid moiety attached to a conserved Cys. Since the protein moiety of most lipoproteins is hydrophilic, they are expected to play various roles in a hydrophilic environment outside the cytoplasmic membrane. Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli possess an outer membrane, to which most lipoproteins are sorted. The Lol pathway plays a central role in the sorting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane after lipoprotein precursors are processed to mature forms in the cytoplasmic membrane. Most lipoproteins are anchored to the inner leaflet of the outer membrane with their protein moiety in the periplasm. However, recent studies indicated that some lipoproteins further undergo topology change in the outer membrane, and play critical roles in the biogenesis and quality control of the outer membrane. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Lipids edited by Russell E. Bishop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Vertical sorting and the morphodynamics of bed form-dominated rivers : a sorting evolution model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Astrid; Ribberink, Jan S.; Parker, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Existing sediment continuity models for nonuniform sediment suffer from a number of shortcomings, as they fail to describe vertical sorting fluxes other than through net aggradation or degradation of the bed and are based on a discrete representation of the bed material interacting with the flow. We

  10. Magnetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Essam; El-Masry, Nabil; Qaddah, Atef; Alqahtani, Faisal; Moufti, Mohammed R. H.

    2015-06-01

    The Rahat volcanic field represents one of the widely distributed Cenozoic volcanic fields across the western regions of the Arabian Peninsula. Its human significance stems from the fact that its northern fringes, where the historical eruption of 1256 A.D. took place, are very close to the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. In the present work, we analyzed aeromagnetic data from the northern part of Rahat volcanic field as well as carried out a ground gravity survey. A joint interpretation and inversion of gravity and magnetic data were used to estimate the thickness of the lava flows, delineate the subsurface structures of the study area, and estimate the depth to basement using various geophysical methods, such as Tilt Derivative, Euler Deconvolution and 2D modeling inversion. Results indicated that the thickness of the lava flows in the study area ranges between 100 m (above Sea Level) at the eastern and western boundaries of Rahat Volcanic field and getting deeper at the middle as 300-500 m. It also showed that, major structural trend is in the NW direction (Red Sea trend) with some minor trends in EW direction.

  11. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The cooling down to the nominal temperature of 4.5 K was achieved at the beginning of August, in conjunction with the completion of the installation work of the connection between the power lines and the coil current leads. The temperature gradient on the first exchanger of the cold box is now kept within the nominal range. A leak of lubricant on a gasket of the helium compressor station installed at the surface was observed and several corrective actions were necessary to bring the situation back to normal. The compressor had to be refilled with lubricant and a regeneration of the filters and adsorbers was necessary. The coil cool down was resumed successfully, and the cryogenics is running since then with all parameters being nominal. Preliminary tests of the 20kA coil power supply were done earlier at full current through the discharge lines into the dump resistors, and with the powering busbars from USC5 to UXC5 without the magnet connected. On Monday evening August 25th, at 8pm, the final commissionin...

  12. MAGNET

    CERN Document Server

    B. Curé

    The first phase of the commissioning ended in August by a triggered fast dump at 3T. All parameters were nominal, and the temperature recovery down to 4.5K was carried out in two days by the cryogenics. In September, series of ramps were achieved up to 3 and finally 3.8T, while checking thoroughly the detectors in the forward region, measuring any movement of and around the HF. After the incident of the LHC accelerator on September 19th, corrective actions could be undertaken in the forward region. When all these displacements were fully characterized and repetitive, with no sign of increments in displacement at each field ramp, it was possible to start the CRAFT, Cosmic Run at Four Tesla (which was in fact at 3.8T). The magnet was ramped up to 18.16kA and the 3 week run went smoothly, with only 4 interruptions: due to the VIP visits on 21st October during the LHC inauguration day; a water leak on the cooling demineralized water circuit, about 1 l/min, that triggered a stop of the cooling pumps, and resulte...

  13. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance work and consolidation activities on the magnet cryogenics and its power distribution are progressing according to the schedules. The manufacturing of the two new helium compressor frame units has started. The frame units support the valves, all the sensors and the compressors with their motors. This activity is subcontracted. The final installation and the commissioning at CERN are scheduled for March–April 2014. The overhauls of existing cryogenics equipment (compressors, motors) are in progress. The reassembly of the components shall start in early 2014. The helium drier, to be installed on the high-pressure helium piping, has been ordered and will be delivered in the first trimester of 2014. The power distribution for the helium compressors in SH5 on the 3.3kV network is progressing. The 3.3kV switches, between each compressor and its hot spare compressor, are being installed, together with the power cables for the new compressors. The 3.3kV electrical switchboards in SE5 will ...

  14. Particle Transport and Size Sorting in Bubble Microstreaming Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thameem, Raqeeb; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Wang, Cheng; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasonic driving of sessile semicylindrical bubbles results in powerful steady streaming flows that are robust over a wide range of driving frequencies. In a microchannel, this flow field pattern can be fine-tuned to achieve size-sensitive sorting and trapping of particles at scales much smaller than the bubble itself; the sorting mechanism has been successfully described based on simple geometrical considerations. We investigate the sorting process in more detail, both experimentally (using new parameter variations that allow greater control over the sorting) and theoretically (incorporating the device geometry as well as the superimposed channel flow into an asymptotic theory). This results in optimized criteria for size sorting and a theoretical description that closely matches the particle behavior close to the bubble, the crucial region for size sorting.

  15. On the Directly and Subdirectly Irreducible Many-Sorted Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Climent Vidal J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A theorem of single-sorted universal algebra asserts that every finite algebra can be represented as a product of a finite family of finite directly irreducible algebras. In this article, we show that the many-sorted counterpart of the above theorem is also true, but under the condition of requiring, in the definition of directly reducible many-sorted algebra, that the supports of the factors should be included in the support of the many-sorted algebra. Moreover, we show that the theorem of Birkhoff, according to which every single-sorted algebra is isomorphic to a subdirect product of subdirectly irreducible algebras, is also true in the field of many-sorted algebras.

  16. Radiometric sorting of Rio Algom uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristovici, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    An ore sample of about 0.2 percent uranium from Quirke Mine was subjected to radiometric sorting by Ore Sorters Limited. Approximately 60 percent of the sample weight fell within the sortable size range: -150 + 25 mm. Rejects of low uranium content ( 2 (2 counts/in 2 ) but only 7.6 percent of the ore, by weight, was discarded. At 0.8-0.9 counts/cm 2 (5-6 counts/in 2 ) a significant amount of rejects was removed (> 25 percent) but the uranium loss was unacceptably high (7.7 percent). Continuation of the testwork to improve the results is proposed by trying to extend the sortable size range and to reduce the amount of fines during crushing

  17. Learning sorting algorithms through visualization construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ibrahim; Andrews-Larson, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Recent increased interest in computational thinking poses an important question to researchers: What are the best ways to teach fundamental computing concepts to students? Visualization is suggested as one way of supporting student learning. This mixed-method study aimed to (i) examine the effect of instruction in which students constructed visualizations on students' programming achievement and students' attitudes toward computer programming, and (ii) explore how this kind of instruction supports students' learning according to their self-reported experiences in the course. The study was conducted with 58 pre-service teachers who were enrolled in their second programming class. They expect to teach information technology and computing-related courses at the primary and secondary levels. An embedded experimental model was utilized as a research design. Students in the experimental group were given instruction that required students to construct visualizations related to sorting, whereas students in the control group viewed pre-made visualizations. After the instructional intervention, eight students from each group were selected for semi-structured interviews. The results showed that the intervention based on visualization construction resulted in significantly better acquisition of sorting concepts. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with respect to students' attitudes toward computer programming. Qualitative data analysis indicated that students in the experimental group constructed necessary abstractions through their engagement in visualization construction activities. The authors of this study argue that the students' active engagement in the visualization construction activities explains only one side of students' success. The other side can be explained through the instructional approach, constructionism in this case, used to design instruction. The conclusions and implications of this study can be used by researchers and

  18. Using Design Sketch to Teach Bubble Sort in High School

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Jiu, Yi-Wen; Chen, Jason Jen-Yen

    2009-01-01

    Bubble Sort is simple. Yet, it seems a bit difficult for high school students. This paper presents a pedagogical methodology: Using Design Sketch to visualize the concepts in Bubble Sort, and to evaluate how this approach assists students to understand the pseudo code of Bubble Sort. An experiment is conducted in Wu-Ling Senior High School with 250 students taking part. The statistical analysis of experimental results shows that, for relatively high abstraction concepts, such as iteration num...

  19. Noise-robust unsupervised spike sorting based on discriminative subspace learning with outlier handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkaran, Mohammad Reza; Yang, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Spike sorting is a fundamental preprocessing step for many neuroscience studies which rely on the analysis of spike trains. Most of the feature extraction and dimensionality reduction techniques that have been used for spike sorting give a projection subspace which is not necessarily the most discriminative one. Therefore, the clusters which appear inherently separable in some discriminative subspace may overlap if projected using conventional feature extraction approaches leading to a poor sorting accuracy especially when the noise level is high. In this paper, we propose a noise-robust and unsupervised spike sorting algorithm based on learning discriminative spike features for clustering. Approach. The proposed algorithm uses discriminative subspace learning to extract low dimensional and most discriminative features from the spike waveforms and perform clustering with automatic detection of the number of the clusters. The core part of the algorithm involves iterative subspace selection using linear discriminant analysis and clustering using Gaussian mixture model with outlier detection. A statistical test in the discriminative subspace is proposed to automatically detect the number of the clusters. Main results. Comparative results on publicly available simulated and real in vivo datasets demonstrate that our algorithm achieves substantially improved cluster distinction leading to higher sorting accuracy and more reliable detection of clusters which are highly overlapping and not detectable using conventional feature extraction techniques such as principal component analysis or wavelets. Significance. By providing more accurate information about the activity of more number of individual neurons with high robustness to neural noise and outliers, the proposed unsupervised spike sorting algorithm facilitates more detailed and accurate analysis of single- and multi-unit activities in neuroscience and brain machine interface studies.

  20. An Objective Short Sleep Insomnia Disorder Subtype Is Associated With Reduced Brain Metabolite Concentrations In Vivo: A Preliminary Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher B; Rae, Caroline D; Green, Michael A; Yee, Brendon J; Gordon, Christopher J; D'Rozario, Angela L; Kyle, Simon D; Espie, Colin A; Grunstein, Ronald R; Bartlett, Delwyn J

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate brain metabolites in objective insomnia subtypes defined from polysomnography (PSG): insomnia with short sleep duration (I-SSD) and insomnia with normal sleep duration (I-NSD), relative to good sleeping controls (GSCs). PSG empirically grouped insomnia patients into I-SSD (n = 12: mean [SD] total sleep time [TST] = 294.7 minutes [30.5]) or I-NSD (n = 19: TST = 394.4 minutes [34.9]). 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) acquired in the left occipital cortex (LOCC), left prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex was used to determine levels of creatine, aspartate, glutamate, and glutamine (referenced to water). Glutathione, glycerophosphocholine, lactate, myoinositol, and N-acetylaspartate measurements were also obtained. Sixteen GSCs were included for comparison. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences in creatine, aspartate, glutamate, and glutamine. Aspartate and glutamine concentrations were reduced in the LOCC in I-SSD compared with I-NSD (both p sleep onset (r = -.40, p sleep study: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12612000050853. 12612000050853. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. An empirical study on SAJQ (Sorting Algorithm for Join Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan I. Mathkour

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Most queries that applied on database management systems (DBMS depend heavily on the performance of the used sorting algorithm. In addition to have an efficient sorting algorithm, as a primary feature, stability of such algorithms is a major feature that is needed in performing DBMS queries. In this paper, we study a new Sorting Algorithm for Join Queries (SAJQ that has both advantages of being efficient and stable. The proposed algorithm takes the advantage of using the m-way-merge algorithm in enhancing its time complexity. SAJQ performs the sorting operation in a time complexity of O(nlogm, where n is the length of the input array and m is number of sub-arrays used in sorting. An unsorted input array of length n is arranged into m sorted sub-arrays. The m-way-merge algorithm merges the sorted m sub-arrays into the final output sorted array. The proposed algorithm keeps the stability of the keys intact. An analytical proof has been conducted to prove that, in the worst case, the proposed algorithm has a complexity of O(nlogm. Also, a set of experiments has been performed to investigate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithm outperforms other Stable–Sorting algorithms that are designed for join-based queries.

  2. A many-sorted calculus based on resolution and paramodulation

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Christoph

    1987-01-01

    A Many-Sorted Calculus Based on Resolution and Paramodulation emphasizes the utilization of advantages and concepts of many-sorted logic for resolution and paramodulation based automated theorem proving.This book considers some first-order calculus that defines how theorems from given hypotheses by pure syntactic reasoning are obtained, shifting all the semantic and implicit argumentation to the syntactic and explicit level of formal first-order reasoning. This text discusses the efficiency of many-sorted reasoning, formal preliminaries for the RP- and ?RP-calculus, and many-sorted term rewrit

  3. Separation and sorting of cells in microsystems using physical principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gi-Hun; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Ahn, Kihoon; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Park, Joong Yull

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, microfabrication techniques have been combined with microfluidics and applied to cell biology. Utilizing such new techniques, various cell studies have been performed for the research of stem cells, immune cells, cancer, neurons, etc. Among the various biological applications of microtechnology-based platforms, cell separation technology has been highly regarded in biological and clinical fields for sorting different types of cells, finding circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and blood cell separation, amongst other things. Many cell separation methods have been created using various physical principles. Representatively, these include hydrodynamic, acoustic, dielectrophoretic, magnetic, optical, and filtering methods. In this review, each of these methods will be introduced, and their physical principles and sample applications described. Each physical principle has its own advantages and disadvantages. The engineers who design the systems and the biologists who use them should understand the pros and cons of each method or principle, to broaden the use of microsystems for cell separation. Continuous development of microsystems for cell separation will lead to new opportunities for diagnosing CTCs and cancer metastasis, as well as other elements in the bloodstream.

  4. Object and Objective Lost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  5. A Preliminary Study of MSD-First Radix-Sorting Methed

    OpenAIRE

    小田, 哲久

    1984-01-01

    Many kinds of sorting algorithms have been developed from the age of Punched Card System. Nowadays, any sorting algorithm can be called either (1) internal sorting methed or (2) external sorting method. Internal sorting method is used only when the number of records to be sorted (N) is not so large for the internal memory of the computer system. Larger memory space has become available with the aid of semiconductor technology. Therefore, it might be desired to develop a new internal sorting m...

  6. Transcriptional profiling of cells sorted by RNA abundance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemm, Sandy; Semrau, Stefan; Wiebrands, Kay; Mooijman, Dylan; Faddah, Dina A; Jaenisch, Rudolf; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    We have developed a quantitative technique for sorting cells on the basis of endogenous RNA abundance, with a molecular resolution of 10-20 transcripts. We demonstrate efficient and unbiased RNA extraction from transcriptionally sorted cells and report a high-fidelity transcriptome measurement of

  7. An introduction to three algorithms for sorting in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, E.W.; Gasteren, van A.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a crisp introduction to three algorithms for sorting in situ, viz. insertion sort, heapsort and smoothsort. The more complicated the algorithm, the more elaborate the justification for the design decisions embodied by it. In passing we offer a style for the

  8. The PreferenSort: A Holistic Instrument for Career Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Adi; Sagiv, Lilach

    2013-01-01

    We present the PreferenSort, a career counseling instrument that derives counselees' vocational interests from their preferences among occupational titles. The PreferenSort allows for a holistic decision process, while taking into account the full complexity of occupations and encouraging deliberation about one's preferences and acceptable…

  9. New age radiometric ore sorting - the elegant solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.P.; Heuer, T.

    2000-01-01

    Radiometric ore sorting technology and application are described in two parts. Part I reviews the history of radiometric sorting in the minerals industry and describes the latest developments in radiometric sorting technology. Part II describes the history, feasibility study and approach used in the application of the new technology at Rossing Uranium Limited. There has been little progress in the field of radiometric sorting since the late 1970s. This has changed with the development of a high capacity radiometric sorter designed to operate on low-grade ore in the +75mm / -300mm size fraction. This has been designed specifically for an application at Rossing. Rossing has a long history in radiometric sorting dating back to 1968 when initial tests were conducted on the Rossing prospect. Past feasibility studies concluded that radiometric sorting would not conclusively reduce the unit cost of production unless sorting was used to increase production levels. The current feasibility study shows that the application of new radiometric sorter technology makes sorting viable without increasing production, and significantly more attractive with increased production. A pilot approach to confirm sorter performance is described. (author)

  10. Decision trees with minimum average depth for sorting eight elements

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    We prove that the minimum average depth of a decision tree for sorting 8 pairwise different elements is equal to 620160/8!. We show also that each decision tree for sorting 8 elements, which has minimum average depth (the number of such trees

  11. Multiple pathways for vacuolar sorting of yeast proteinase A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westphal, V; Marcusson, E G; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The sorting of the yeast proteases proteinase A and carboxypeptidase Y to the vacuole is a saturable, receptor-mediated process. Information sufficient for vacuolar sorting of the normally secreted protein invertase has in fusion constructs previously been found to reside in the propeptide...

  12. Science and technology of kernels and TRISO coated particle sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nothnagel, G.

    2006-09-01

    The ~1mm diameter TRISO coated particles, which form the elemental units of PBMR nuclear fuel, has to be close to spherical in order to best survive damage during sphere pressing. Spherical silicon carbide layers further provide the strongest miniature pressure vessels for fission product retention. To make sure that the final product contains particles of acceptable shape, 100% of kernels and coated particles have to be sorted on a surface-ground sorting table. Broken particles, twins, irregular (odd) shapes and extreme ellipsoids have to be separated from the final kernel and coated particle batches. Proper sorting of particles is an extremely important step in quality fuel production as the final failure fraction depends sensitively on the quality of sorting. After sorting a statistically significant sample of the sorted product is analysed for sphericity, which is defined as the ratio of maximum to minimum diameter, as part of a standard QC test to ensure conformance to German specifications. In addition a burn-leach test is done on coated particles (before pressing) and fuel spheres (after pressing) to ensure adherence to failure specifications. Because of the extreme importance of particle sorting for assurance of fuel quality it is essential to have an in-depth understanding of the capabilities and limitations of particle sorting. In this report a systematic scientific rationale is developed, from fundamental principles, to provide a basis for understanding the relationship between product quality and sorting parameters. The principles and concepts, developed in this report, will be of importance when future sorting tables (or equivalents) are to be designed. A number of new concepts and methodologies are developed to assist with equivalence validation of any two sorting tables. This is aimed in particular towards quantitative assessment of equivalence between current QC tables (closely based on the original NUKEM parameters, except for the driving mechanism

  13. A Fully Automated Approach to Spike Sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jason E; Magland, Jeremy F; Barnett, Alex H; Tolosa, Vanessa M; Tooker, Angela C; Lee, Kye Y; Shah, Kedar G; Felix, Sarah H; Frank, Loren M; Greengard, Leslie F

    2017-09-13

    Understanding the detailed dynamics of neuronal networks will require the simultaneous measurement of spike trains from hundreds of neurons (or more). Currently, approaches to extracting spike times and labels from raw data are time consuming, lack standardization, and involve manual intervention, making it difficult to maintain data provenance and assess the quality of scientific results. Here, we describe an automated clustering approach and associated software package that addresses these problems and provides novel cluster quality metrics. We show that our approach has accuracy comparable to or exceeding that achieved using manual or semi-manual techniques with desktop central processing unit (CPU) runtimes faster than acquisition time for up to hundreds of electrodes. Moreover, a single choice of parameters in the algorithm is effective for a variety of electrode geometries and across multiple brain regions. This algorithm has the potential to enable reproducible and automated spike sorting of larger scale recordings than is currently possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Particle sorting by Paramecium cilia arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Richard; Whiting, James G H; Wheway, Gabrielle; Melhuish, Chris; Adamatzky, Andrew

    Motile cilia are cell-surface organelles whose purposes, in ciliated protists and certain ciliated metazoan epithelia, include generating fluid flow, sensing and substance uptake. Certain properties of cilia arrays, such as beating synchronisation and manipulation of external proximate particulate matter, are considered emergent, but remain incompletely characterised despite these phenomena having being the subject of extensive modelling. This study constitutes a laboratory experimental characterisation of one of the emergent properties of motile cilia: manipulation of adjacent particulates. The work demonstrates through automated videomicrographic particle tracking that interactions between microparticles and somatic cilia arrays of the ciliated model organism Paramecium caudatum constitute a form of rudimentary 'sorting'. Small particles are drawn into the organism's proximity by cilia-induced fluid currents at all times, whereas larger particles may be held immobile at a distance from the cell margin when the cell generates characteristic feeding currents in the surrounding media. These findings can contribute to the design and fabrication of biomimetic cilia, with potential applications to the study of ciliopathies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Microfluidic-chip platform for cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sarul; Balyan, Prerna; Akhtar, J.; Agarwal, Ajay

    2016-04-01

    Cell sorting and separation are considered to be very crucial preparatory steps for numerous clinical diagnostics and therapeutics applications in cell biology research arena. Label free cell separation techniques acceptance rate has been increased to multifold by various research groups. Size based cell separation method focuses on the intrinsic properties of the cell which not only avoids clogging issues associated with mechanical and centrifugation filtration methods but also reduces the overall cost for the process. Consequentially flow based cell separation method for continuous flow has attracted the attention of millions. Due to the realization of structures close to particle size in micro dimensions, the microfluidic devices offer precise and rapid particle manipulation which ultimately leads to an extraordinary cell separation results. The proposed microfluidic device is fabricated to separate polystyrene beads of size 1 µm, 5 µm, 10 µm and 20 µm. The actual dimensions of blood corpuscles were kept in mind while deciding the particle size of polystyrene beads which are used as a model particles for study.

  16. Nanoplasmonic lenses for bacteria sorting (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangchao; Yanik, Ahmet A.

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate that patches of two dimensional arrays of circular plasmonic nanoholes patterned on gold-titanium thin film enables subwavelength focusing of visible light in far field region. Efficient coupling of the light with the excited surface plasmon at metal dielectric interface results in strong light transmission. As a result, surface plasmon plays an important role in the far field focusing behavior of the nanohole-aperture patches device. Furthermore, the focal length of the focused beam was found to be predominantly dependent on the overall size of the patch, which is in good agreement with that calculated by Rayleigh-Sommerfield integral formula. The focused light beam can be utilized to separate bio-particles in the dynamic range from 0.1 μm to 1 μm through mainly overcoming the drag force induced by fluid flow. In our proposed model, focused light generated by our plasmonic lenses will push the larger bio-particles in size back to the source of fluid flow and allow the smaller particles to move towards the central aperture of the patch. Such a new kind of plasmonic lenses open up possibility of sorting bacterium-like particles with plasmonic nanolenses, and also represent a promising tool in the field of virology.

  17. Help the planet by sorting your waste!

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Paper and cardboard waste comes in various forms, from newspapers to the toughest cardboard. Every year CERN dispatches about 200 tonnes of paper and cardboard to a recycling plant, but this is still too little when you take into consideration the tonnes of paper and cardboard that are still thrown out as part of ordinary rubbish or are incorrectly sorted into other rubbish skips.   Each office is equipped with a wastepaper bin, and a paper and cardboard container is available near every building. Cardboard boxes should be folded before they are placed in the containers in order to save space. Please note: Here are some sobering statistics: - 2 to 3 tonnes of wood pulp are required to manufacture 1 tonne of paper. - Each tonne of recycled paper means that we can save approximately 15 trees and substantial amounts of the water that is needed to extract cellulose (60 litres of water per kilo of paper). - A production of 100% recycled paper represents a 90% saving in water. - 5000 kWh of e...

  18. Tradeoffs Between Branch Mispredictions and Comparisons for Sorting Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Branch mispredictions is an important factor affecting the running time in practice. In this paper we consider tradeoffs between the number of branch mispredictions and the number of comparisons for sorting algorithms in the comparison model. We prove that a sorting algorithm using O(dnlog n......) comparisons performs Omega(nlogd n) branch mispredictions. We show that Multiway MergeSort achieves this tradeoff by adopting a multiway merger with a low number of branch mispredictions. For adaptive sorting algorithms we similarly obtain that an algorithm performing O(dn(1+log (1+Inv/n))) comparisons must...... perform Omega(nlogd (1+Inv/n)) branch mispredictions, where Inv is the number of inversions in the input. This tradeoff can be achieved by GenericSort by Estivill-Castro and Wood by adopting a multiway division protocol and a multiway merging algorithm with a low number of branch mispredictions....

  19. Queue and stack sorting algorithm optimization and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Mingzhu; Wang, Xiaobao

    2018-04-01

    Sorting algorithm is one of the basic operation of a variety of software development, in data structures course specializes in all kinds of sort algorithm. The performance of the sorting algorithm is directly related to the efficiency of the software. A lot of excellent scientific research queue is constantly optimizing algorithm, algorithm efficiency better as far as possible, the author here further research queue combined with stacks of sorting algorithms, the algorithm is mainly used for alternating operation queue and stack storage properties, Thus avoiding the need for a large number of exchange or mobile operations in the traditional sort. Before the existing basis to continue research, improvement and optimization, the focus on the optimization of the time complexity of the proposed optimization and improvement, The experimental results show that the improved effectively, at the same time and the time complexity and space complexity of the algorithm, the stability study corresponding research. The improvement and optimization algorithm, improves the practicability.

  20. Standard practice for cell sorting in a BSL-3 facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetto, Stephen P; Ambrozak, David R; Nguyen, Richard; Roederer, Mario; Koup, Richard A; Holmes, Kevin L

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a rapid growth in the number of BSL-3 and BSL-4 laboratories in the USA and an increase in demand for infectious cell sorting in BSL-3 laboratories. In 2007, the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) Biosafety Committee published standards for the sorting of unfixed cells and is an important resource for biosafety procedures when performing infectious cell sorting. Following a careful risk assessment, if it is determined that a cell sorter must be located within a BSL-3 laboratory, there are a variety of factors to be considered prior to the establishment of the laboratory. This chapter outlines procedures for infectious cell sorting in a BSL-3 environment to facilitate the establishment and safe operation of a BSL-3 cell sorting laboratory. Subjects covered include containment verification, remote operation, disinfection, personal protective equipment (PPE), and instrument-specific modifications for enhanced aerosol evacuation.

  1. Development of a reactor thermalhydraulic experiment databank(SORTED1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Young Seck; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hho Jung; Lee, Sang Yong

    1994-01-01

    The recent trend in thermalhydraulic safety analysis of nuclear power plant shows the best-estimate and probabilistic approaches, therefore, the verification of the best-estimate code based on the applicable experiment data has been required. The present study focused on developing a simple databank, SORTED1, to be effectively used for code verification. The development of SORTED1 includes a data collection from the various sources including ENCOUNTER, which is the reactor safety data bank of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a reorganization of collected resources suitable for requirements of SORTED1 database management system (DBMS), and a development of a simple DBMS. The SORTED1 is designed in Unix environment with graphic user interface to improve a user convenience and has a capability to provide the test related information. The currently registered data in SORTED1 cover 759 thermalhydraulic tests including LOFT, Semiscale, etc

  2. A Comparison of Card-sorting Analysis Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how the choice of analysis method for card sorting studies affects the suggested information structure for websites. In the card sorting technique, a variety of methods are used to analyse the resulting data. The analysis of card sorting data helps user experience (UX......) designers to discover the patterns in how users make classifications and thus to develop an optimal, user-centred website structure. During analysis, the recurrence of patterns of classification between users influences the resulting website structure. However, the algorithm used in the analysis influences...... the recurrent patterns found and thus has consequences for the resulting website design. This paper draws an attention to the choice of card sorting analysis and techniques and shows how it impacts the results. The research focuses on how the same data for card sorting can lead to different website structures...

  3. WHAT DOES A WORD ALTER? THE EFFECT OF CONCEPTUAL NETWORKS ON THE DIMENSIONAL CHANGE SORTING TASK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Yildiz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to examine the cognitive flexibility of three-year-olds, who usually persevere in the Dimensional Change Card Sort task, when a constant representation was referred in the classic instruction. In accordance with this purpose, the Dimensional Change Pencil Sort task was developed and used in the current study that 13 three-year-olds participated in. Findings seemed to support partially the hypothesis predicted that the kids could achieve the task in terms of rule use and mental representational flexibilities between length and color at the post switch phase in which situation classification dimensions were referred over a real and constant object (pencil instead of a card. This result drew attention to the conceptual and perceptual mediation roles of language and objects respectively in terms of the cognitive flexibility literature.

  4. Hurricane Sandy's Fingerprint: Ripple Bedforms at an Inner Continental Shelf Sorted Bedform Field Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, C.; Trembanis, A. C.; Beaudoin, J. D.; Schmidt, V. E.; Mayer, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrodynamics and seabed morphodynamics on the inner continental shelf and near shore environments have increasing relevance with continued development of near shore structures, offshore energy technologies and artificial reef construction. Characterizing the stresses on and response of the seabed near and around seabed objects will inform best practices for structural design, seabed mine and unexploded ordnance detection, and archaeological and benthic habitat studies. As part of an ONR funded project, Delaware's Redbird Reef is being studied for object scour and sorted bedform morphodynamics (Trembanis et al., in press). Central to this study are the effects of large storm events, such as Hurricane Sandy, which have had significant impact on the seafloor. Previous studies of inner shelf bedform dynamics have typically focused on near bed currents and bed stressors (e.g. Trembanis et al., 2004), sorted bedforms (e.g. Green et al., 2004) and object scour (e.g. Quinn, 2006; Trembanis et al., 2007; Mayer et al., 2007), but our understanding of the direct effects of objects and object scour on bedform morphodynamics is still incomplete. With prominent sorted bedform ripple fields, the Delaware Redbird artificial reef site, composed of 997 former New York City subway cars, as well as various military vehicles, tugboats, barges and ballasted tires, has made an ideal study location (Raineault et al., 2013 and 2011). Acoustic mapping of the Redbird reef three days prior to Sandy and two days after the following nor'easter, captured the extensive effects of the storms to the site, while acoustic Doppler current profilers characterized both the waves and bottom currents generated by the storm events. Results of the post-Sandy survey support the theory of sorted bedform evolution proposed by Murray and Thieler (2004). Acoustic imagery analysis indicates a highly energized and mobile bed during the storms, leading to self-organization of bedforms and creation of large

  5. CellSort: a support vector machine tool for optimizing fluorescence-activated cell sorting and reducing experimental effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jessica S; Pertusi, Dante A; Adeniran, Adebola V; Tyo, Keith E J

    2017-03-15

    High throughput screening by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) is a common task in protein engineering and directed evolution. It can also be a rate-limiting step if high false positive or negative rates necessitate multiple rounds of enrichment. Current FACS software requires the user to define sorting gates by intuition and is practically limited to two dimensions. In cases when multiple rounds of enrichment are required, the software cannot forecast the enrichment effort required. We have developed CellSort, a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm that identifies optimal sorting gates based on machine learning using positive and negative control populations. CellSort can take advantage of more than two dimensions to enhance the ability to distinguish between populations. We also present a Bayesian approach to predict the number of sorting rounds required to enrich a population from a given library size. This Bayesian approach allowed us to determine strategies for biasing the sorting gates in order to reduce the required number of enrichment rounds. This algorithm should be generally useful for improve sorting outcomes and reducing effort when using FACS. Source code available at http://tyolab.northwestern.edu/tools/ . k-tyo@northwestern.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. A Simple Deep Learning Method for Neuronal Spike Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Wu, Haifeng; Zeng, Yu

    2017-10-01

    Spike sorting is one of key technique to understand brain activity. With the development of modern electrophysiology technology, some recent multi-electrode technologies have been able to record the activity of thousands of neuronal spikes simultaneously. The spike sorting in this case will increase the computational complexity of conventional sorting algorithms. In this paper, we will focus spike sorting on how to reduce the complexity, and introduce a deep learning algorithm, principal component analysis network (PCANet) to spike sorting. The introduced method starts from a conventional model and establish a Toeplitz matrix. Through the column vectors in the matrix, we trains a PCANet, where some eigenvalue vectors of spikes could be extracted. Finally, support vector machine (SVM) is used to sort spikes. In experiments, we choose two groups of simulated data from public databases availably and compare this introduced method with conventional methods. The results indicate that the introduced method indeed has lower complexity with the same sorting errors as the conventional methods.

  7. The Container Problem in Bubble-Sort Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuto; Kaneko, Keiichi

    Bubble-sort graphs are variants of Cayley graphs. A bubble-sort graph is suitable as a topology for massively parallel systems because of its simple and regular structure. Therefore, in this study, we focus on n-bubble-sort graphs and propose an algorithm to obtain n-1 disjoint paths between two arbitrary nodes in time bounded by a polynomial in n, the degree of the graph plus one. We estimate the time complexity of the algorithm and the sum of the path lengths after proving the correctness of the algorithm. In addition, we report the results of computer experiments evaluating the average performance of the algorithm.

  8. Automorphism group of the modified bubble-sort graph

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesan, Ashwin

    2014-01-01

    The modified bubble-sort graph of dimension $n$ is the Cayley graph of $S_n$ generated by $n$ cyclically adjacent transpositions. In the present paper, it is shown that the automorphism group of the modified bubble sort graph of dimension $n$ is $S_n \\times D_{2n}$, for all $n \\ge 5$. Thus, a complete structural description of the automorphism group of the modified bubble-sort graph is obtained. A similar direct product decomposition is seen to hold for arbitrary normal Cayley graphs generate...

  9. Job-Sorting Assignment to Assess Cream Liqueur Brand Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gámbaro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Projective techniques rely on a stimulus to elicit from respondents projections of their beliefs onto other people or objects, thus reflecting their own perceptions, feelings and motivations. In this work, the job-sorting technique, in combination with Aaker’s personality scale, was applied to the study of cream liqueur brand image in Uruguay and Costa Rica. Eight jobs with different levels of intellectual complexity, salary and physical demands were selected. In each of the two countries, three (two imported and one locally made liqueurs were presented to 90 consumers with similar socio-demographic characteristics. Respondents were told to select the job, profession or occupation (JPO that best fitted each brand. After JPO selection, respondents were asked to select from a list of 88 personality traits all the words that they considered applicable to each JPO selected. The JPOs associated with the different brands showed no similarity between Uruguayan and Costa Rican respondents, but the personality traits associated with the two imported brands were similar in both countries, supporting the use of JPOs as metaphors in the study of brand images. The brand image of locally made liqueurs was associated with traits that differed clearly from those of the imported brands. These results provide relevant information for the design of marketing strategies.

  10. Design and analysis on sorting blade for automated size-based sorting device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Zol Bahri; Kader, Mohamed Mydin M. Abdul; Samsudin, Yasser Suhaimi; Daud, Mohd Hisam

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays rubbish separating or recycling is a main problem of nation, where peoples dumped their rubbish into dumpsite without caring the value of the rubbish if it can be recycled and reused. Thus the author proposed an automated segregating device, purposely to teach people to separate their rubbish and value the rubbish that can be reused. The automated size-based mechanical segregating device provides significant improvements in terms of efficiency and consistency in this segregating process. This device is designed to make recycling easier, user friendly, in the hope that more people will take responsibility if it is less of an expense of time and effort. This paper discussed about redesign a blade for the sorting device which is to develop an efficient automated mechanical sorting device for the similar material but in different size. The machine is able to identify the size of waste and it depends to the coil inside the container to separate it out. The detail design and methodology is described in detail in this paper.

  11. A real time sorting algorithm to time sort any deterministic time disordered data stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, J.; Mandal, S.; Chakrabarti, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2017-12-01

    In new generation high intensity high energy physics experiments, millions of free streaming high rate data sources are to be readout. Free streaming data with associated time-stamp can only be controlled by thresholds as there is no trigger information available for the readout. Therefore, these readouts are prone to collect large amount of noise and unwanted data. For this reason, these experiments can have output data rate of several orders of magnitude higher than the useful signal data rate. It is therefore necessary to perform online processing of the data to extract useful information from the full data set. Without trigger information, pre-processing on the free streaming data can only be done with time based correlation among the data set. Multiple data sources have different path delays and bandwidth utilizations and therefore the unsorted merged data requires significant computational efforts for real time manifestation of sorting before analysis. Present work reports a new high speed scalable data stream sorting algorithm with its architectural design, verified through Field programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based hardware simulation. Realistic time based simulated data likely to be collected in an high energy physics experiment have been used to study the performance of the algorithm. The proposed algorithm uses parallel read-write blocks with added memory management and zero suppression features to make it efficient for high rate data-streams. This algorithm is best suited for online data streams with deterministic time disorder/unsorting on FPGA like hardware.

  12. Magnet Schools, Innate Talent and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vopat, Mark C.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in the 1970s, many school US school districts reallocated their already scarce resources from local schools to specially created magnet schools. Many of these magnet schools have some sort of entrance exam, portfolio, or audition requirement that students must pass in order to gain admission. These selective magnet schools are predicated…

  13. Natural Selection Is a Sorting Process: What Does that Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    To learn why natural selection acts only on existing variation, students categorize processes as either creative or sorting. This activity helps students confront the misconception that adaptations evolve because species need them.

  14. Acoustic bubble sorting for ultrasound contrast agent enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Tim; Versluis, Michel

    2014-05-21

    An ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) suspension contains encapsulated microbubbles with a wide size distribution, with radii ranging from 1 to 10 μm. Medical transducers typically operate at a single frequency, therefore only a small selection of bubbles will resonate to the driving ultrasound pulse. Thus, the sensitivity can be improved by narrowing down the size distribution. Here, we present a simple lab-on-a-chip method to sort the population of microbubbles on-chip using a traveling ultrasound wave. First, we explore the physical parameter space of acoustic bubble sorting using well-defined bubble sizes formed in a flow-focusing device, then we demonstrate successful acoustic sorting of a commercial UCA. This novel sorting strategy may lead to an overall improvement of the sensitivity of contrast ultrasound by more than 10 dB.

  15. Recent progress in multi-electrode spike sorting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Baptiste; Yger, Pierre; Marre, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, arrays of extracellular electrodes have been developed and manufactured to record simultaneously from hundreds of electrodes packed with a high density. These recordings should allow neuroscientists to reconstruct the individual activity of the neurons spiking in the vicinity of these electrodes, with the help of signal processing algorithms. Algorithms need to solve a source separation problem, also known as spike sorting. However, these new devices challenge the classical way to do spike sorting. Here we review different methods that have been developed to sort spikes from these large-scale recordings. We describe the common properties of these algorithms, as well as their main differences. Finally, we outline the issues that remain to be solved by future spike sorting algorithms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sorting on STAR. [CDC computer algorithm timing comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, H. S.

    1978-01-01

    Timing comparisons are given for three sorting algorithms written for the CDC STAR computer. One algorithm is Hoare's (1962) Quicksort, which is the fastest or nearly the fastest sorting algorithm for most computers. A second algorithm is a vector version of Quicksort that takes advantage of the STAR's vector operations. The third algorithm is an adaptation of Batcher's (1968) sorting algorithm, which makes especially good use of vector operations but has a complexity of N(log N)-squared as compared with a complexity of N log N for the Quicksort algorithms. In spite of its worse complexity, Batcher's sorting algorithm is competitive with the serial version of Quicksort for vectors up to the largest that can be treated by STAR. Vector Quicksort outperforms the other two algorithms and is generally preferred. These results indicate that unusual instruction sets can introduce biases in program execution time that counter results predicted by worst-case asymptotic complexity analysis.

  17. Unsupervised spike sorting based on discriminative subspace learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkaran, Mohammad Reza; Yang, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Spike sorting is a fundamental preprocessing step for many neuroscience studies which rely on the analysis of spike trains. In this paper, we present two unsupervised spike sorting algorithms based on discriminative subspace learning. The first algorithm simultaneously learns the discriminative feature subspace and performs clustering. It uses histogram of features in the most discriminative projection to detect the number of neurons. The second algorithm performs hierarchical divisive clustering that learns a discriminative 1-dimensional subspace for clustering in each level of the hierarchy until achieving almost unimodal distribution in the subspace. The algorithms are tested on synthetic and in-vivo data, and are compared against two widely used spike sorting methods. The comparative results demonstrate that our spike sorting methods can achieve substantially higher accuracy in lower dimensional feature space, and they are highly robust to noise. Moreover, they provide significantly better cluster separability in the learned subspace than in the subspace obtained by principal component analysis or wavelet transform.

  18. In-flight Sorting of BNNTs by Aspect Ratio

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key technical challenges are: (a) mechanical sorting is ineffective for nanoscale product, (b) BNNTs are non-conductive and the agglomeration tendency is strong,...

  19. Using Sorting Networks for Skill Building and Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Robert; Wiest, Lynda R.

    2007-01-01

    Sorting networks, used in graph theory, have instructional value as a skill- building tool as well as an interesting exploration in discrete mathematics. Students can practice mathematics facts and develop reasoning and logic skills with this topic. (Contains 4 figures.)

  20. Sorting and quantifying orbital angular momentum of laser beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel tool for sorting the orbital angular momentum and to determine the orbital angular momentum density of laser beams, which is based on the use of correlation filters....

  1. Composition of source-sorted municipal organic waste collected in Danish cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Jansen, Jes La Cour; Spliid, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Source-sorted municipal organic waste from different dwelling types in five Danish cities was sampled during one year. The samples were from permanent, full-scale systems or temporary, experimental systems for collection of source-sorted municipal organic waste. Pre-treatment of the organic waste...... prior to biological treatment was used in all cities to remove foreign objects and provide size reduction. All sampling was performed after pre-treatment in order to obtain more homogeneous and representative samples. The sampling included both the pre-treated waste and the reject from the pre......-treatment allowing for estimation of the composition of the original waste. A total of 40 waste samples were chemically characterised with respect to 15 parameters. The waste generally consisted of around 88% VS of which an average of 80% was easily degradable. The average content of N, P and K in the dry matter...

  2. Let’s limit our waste production and let’s’ sort it!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Let’s limit our waste production! – Why ? Preventing the production of waste is the best solution to avoid environmental issues, economic impacts and technical constraints. So, whenever you are involved in the design, manufacturing, distribution, use or dismantling of a product or an activity in general, always remember that the best waste is that which is not produced. The limitation of waste production being an HSE objective declared in 2013 by the CERN Director-General, we encourage everyone to help limit the amount of waste produced through CERN activities. Let’s sort it! – Why ? Since the 90s, CERN has implemented a policy to promote recovery of the waste* generated by its activities. Nowadays, CERN is committed to continuously improving its sorting and recovery and therefore various initiatives have been started by GS-IS to improve the recovery of waste (e.g. recovery of organic waste from restaurants; implementation of solar trash compactors - see Bulletin 27-...

  3. A thick-walled sphere rotating in a uniform magnetic field: The next step to de-spin a space object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark A.; Youngquist, Robert C.; Caracciolo, Ryan A.; Peck, Mason; Leve, Frederick A.

    2017-08-01

    Modeling the interaction between a moving conductor and a static magnetic field is critical to understanding the operation of induction motors, eddy current braking, and the dynamics of satellites moving through Earth's magnetic field. Here, we develop the case of a thick-walled sphere rotating in a uniform magnetic field, which is the simplest, non-trivial, magneto-statics problem that leads to complete closed-form expressions for the resulting potentials, fields, and currents. This solution requires knowledge of all of Maxwell's time independent equations, scalar and vector potential equations, and the Lorentz force law. The paper presents four cases and their associated experimental results, making this topic appropriate for an advanced student lab project.

  4. Optimal Control of Objects on the Micro- and Nano-Scale by Electrokinetic and Electromagnetic Manipulation: for Bio-Sample Preparation, Quantum Information Devices and Magnetic Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    frequencies) thus the magneto - static equations are appropriate. These are H j∇ × =   (31) 0B∇ ⋅ =  (32) ( ) ( ) ,o oB H M H Hµ µ χ...degree rotations of 1H  . Let 1u , 2u , 3u and 4u be the applied voltage of each of the four magnets. Then, by the linearity of the magneto -static...Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Regional Therapy with a Magnetic Targeted Carrier Bound to Doxorubicin in a Dual MR Imaging/ Conventional Angiography Suite

  5. Parallel object-oriented decision tree system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath,; Chandrika, Cantu-Paz [Dublin, CA; Erick, [Oakland, CA

    2006-02-28

    A data mining decision tree system that uncovers patterns, associations, anomalies, and other statistically significant structures in data by reading and displaying data files, extracting relevant features for each of the objects, and using a method of recognizing patterns among the objects based upon object features through a decision tree that reads the data, sorts the data if necessary, determines the best manner to split the data into subsets according to some criterion, and splits the data.

  6. Sorting white blood cells in microfabricated arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelino, Judith Andrea Rose

    Fractionating white cells in microfabricated arrays presents the potential for detecting cells with abnormal adhesive or deformation properties. A possible application is separating nucleated fetal red blood cells from maternal blood. Since fetal cells are nucleated, it is possible to extract genetic information about the fetus from them. Separating fetal cells from maternal blood would provide a low cost noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for genetic defects, which is not currently available. We present results showing that fetal cells penetrate further into our microfabricated arrays than adult cells, and that it is possible to enrich the fetal cell fraction using the arrays. We discuss modifications to the array which would result in further enrichment. Fetal cells are less adhesive and more deformable than adult white cells. To determine which properties limit penetration, we compared the penetration of granulocytes and lymphocytes in arrays with different etch depths, constriction size, constriction frequency, and with different amounts of metabolic activity. The penetration of lymphocytes and granulocytes into constrained and unconstrained arrays differed qualitatively. In constrained arrays, the cells were activated by repeated shearing, and the number of cells stuck as a function of distance fell superexponentially. In unconstrained arrays the number of cells stuck fell slower than an exponential. We attribute this result to different subpopulations of cells with different sticking parameters. We determined that penetration in unconstrained arrays was limited by metabolic processes, and that when metabolic activity was reduced penetration was limited by deformability. Fetal cells also contain a different form of hemoglobin with a higher oxygen affinity than adult hemoglobin. Deoxygenated cells are paramagnetic and are attracted to high magnetic field gradients. We describe a device which can separate cells using 10 μm magnetic wires to deflect the paramagnetic

  7. Diagnostic Utility of the Shortened Version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in Patients With Sporadic Late Onset Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juan Luis; Martín, Javier; López, Carolina

    2017-12-01

    The classic version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) consists of correctly sorting 128 cards according to changing sorting criteria. Its application is costly in terms of the time employed, with all the negative consequences this entails (decrease in motivation, frustration, and fatigue). The main objective of this study was to test the usefulness of the shortened version of the WCST as compared to the full test by analyzing the equivalence between the two decks comprising the full 128-card version on a sample of patients diagnosed with sporadic late onset Alzheimer disease (SLOAD) and to check its clinical usefulness. The variables showed equivalence between the two decks and their ability to differentiate between the control group (CG) and the Alzheimer disease (AD) group. The scores obtained suggest equivalence between decks and that the application of only the first deck is sufficient.

  8. A real-time traffic control method for the intersection with pre-signals under the phase swap sorting strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Bie

    Full Text Available To deal with the conflicts between left-turn and through traffic streams and increase the discharge capacity, this paper addresses the pre-signal which is implemented at a signalized intersection. Such an intersection with pre-signal is termed as a tandem intersection. For the tandem intersection, phase swap sorting strategy is deemed as the most effective phasing scheme in view of some exclusive merits, such as easier compliance of drivers, and shorter sorting area. However, a major limitation of the phase swap sorting strategy is not considered in previous studies: if one or more vehicle is left at the sorting area after the signal light turns to red, the capacity of the approach would be dramatically dropped. Besides, previous signal control studies deal with a fixed timing plan that is not adaptive with the fluctuation of traffic flows. Therefore, to cope with these two gaps, this paper firstly takes an in-depth analysis of the traffic flow operations at the tandem intersection. Secondly, three groups of loop detectors are placed to obtain the real-time vehicle information for adaptive signalization. The lane selection behavior in the sorting area is considered to set the green time for intersection signals. With the objective of minimizing the vehicle delay, the signal control parameters are then optimized based on a dynamic programming method. Finally, numerical experiments show that average vehicle delay and maximum queue length can be reduced under all scenarios.

  9. A real-time traffic control method for the intersection with pre-signals under the phase swap sorting strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Yiming; Liu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Yinhai

    2017-01-01

    To deal with the conflicts between left-turn and through traffic streams and increase the discharge capacity, this paper addresses the pre-signal which is implemented at a signalized intersection. Such an intersection with pre-signal is termed as a tandem intersection. For the tandem intersection, phase swap sorting strategy is deemed as the most effective phasing scheme in view of some exclusive merits, such as easier compliance of drivers, and shorter sorting area. However, a major limitation of the phase swap sorting strategy is not considered in previous studies: if one or more vehicle is left at the sorting area after the signal light turns to red, the capacity of the approach would be dramatically dropped. Besides, previous signal control studies deal with a fixed timing plan that is not adaptive with the fluctuation of traffic flows. Therefore, to cope with these two gaps, this paper firstly takes an in-depth analysis of the traffic flow operations at the tandem intersection. Secondly, three groups of loop detectors are placed to obtain the real-time vehicle information for adaptive signalization. The lane selection behavior in the sorting area is considered to set the green time for intersection signals. With the objective of minimizing the vehicle delay, the signal control parameters are then optimized based on a dynamic programming method. Finally, numerical experiments show that average vehicle delay and maximum queue length can be reduced under all scenarios.

  10. Spike sorting for polytrodes: a divide and conquer approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas V. Swindale

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine patterns of neural activity, spike signals recorded by extracellular electrodes have to be clustered (sorted with the aim of ensuring that each cluster represents all the spikes generated by an individual neuron. Many methods for spike sorting have been proposed but few are easily applicable to recordings from polytrodes which may have 16 or more recording sites. As with tetrodes, these are spaced sufficiently closely that signals from single neurons will usually be recorded on several adjacent sites. Although this offers a better chance of distinguishing neurons with similarly shaped spikes, sorting is difficult in such cases because of the high dimensionality of the space in which the signals must be classified. This report details a method for spike sorting based on a divide and conquer approach. Clusters are initially formed by assigning each event to the channel on which it is largest. Each channel-based cluster is then sub-divided into as many distinct clusters as possible. These are then recombined on the basis of pairwise tests into a final set of clusters. Pairwise tests are also performed to establish how distinct each cluster is from the others. A modified gradient ascent clustering (GAC algorithm is used to do the clustering. The method can sort spikes with minimal user input in times comparable to real time for recordings lasting up to 45 minutes. Our results illustrate some of the difficulties inherent in spike sorting, including changes in spike shape over time. We show that some physiologically distinct units may have very similar spike shapes. We show that RMS measures of spike shape similarity are not sensitive enough to discriminate clusters that can otherwise be separated by principal components analysis. Hence spike sorting based on least-squares matching to templates may be unreliable. Our methods should be applicable to tetrodes and scaleable to larger multi-electrode arrays (MEAs.

  11. Neuronal spike sorting based on radial basis function neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghavi Kani M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Studying the behavior of a society of neurons, extracting the communication mechanisms of brain with other tissues, finding treatment for some nervous system diseases and designing neuroprosthetic devices, require an algorithm to sort neuralspikes automatically. However, sorting neural spikes is a challenging task because of the low signal to noise ratio (SNR of the spikes. The main purpose of this study was to design an automatic algorithm for classifying neuronal spikes that are emitted from a specific region of the nervous system."n "nMethods: The spike sorting process usually consists of three stages: detection, feature extraction and sorting. We initially used signal statistics to detect neural spikes. Then, we chose a limited number of typical spikes as features and finally used them to train a radial basis function (RBF neural network to sort the spikes. In most spike sorting devices, these signals are not linearly discriminative. In order to solve this problem, the aforesaid RBF neural network was used."n "nResults: After the learning process, our proposed algorithm classified any arbitrary spike. The obtained results showed that even though the proposed Radial Basis Spike Sorter (RBSS reached to the same error as the previous methods, however, the computational costs were much lower compared to other algorithms. Moreover, the competitive points of the proposed algorithm were its good speed and low computational complexity."n "nConclusion: Regarding the results of this study, the proposed algorithm seems to serve the purpose of procedures that require real-time processing and spike sorting.

  12. Knee point search using cascading top-k sorting with minimized time complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Tseng, Shian-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Anomaly detection systems and many other applications are frequently confronted with the problem of finding the largest knee point in the sorted curve for a set of unsorted points. This paper proposes an efficient knee point search algorithm with minimized time complexity using the cascading top-k sorting when a priori probability distribution of the knee point is known. First, a top-k sort algorithm is proposed based on a quicksort variation. We divide the knee point search problem into multiple steps. And in each step an optimization problem of the selection number k is solved, where the objective function is defined as the expected time cost. Because the expected time cost in one step is dependent on that of the afterwards steps, we simplify the optimization problem by minimizing the maximum expected time cost. The posterior probability of the largest knee point distribution and the other parameters are updated before solving the optimization problem in each step. An example of source detection of DNS DoS flooding attacks is provided to illustrate the applications of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Machine Vision for Object Detection and Profiling in an Unstructured Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Miles Conley; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur

    2002-08-01

    The Handling and Sorting System for 55-Gallon Drums (HANDSS-55) is a DOE project to develop an automated method for retrieving items that are not acceptable at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) from 55-gallon drums of low-level waste. The HANDSS-55 is a modular system that opens drums, sorts the waste, and then repackages the remaining waste in WIPP compliant barrels. The Sorting Station module relies on a non-contact measurement system to quickly provide a 3D profile of the sorting area. It then analyses the 3D profile and a color image to determine the position and orientation of an operator selected waste item. The item is then removed from the sorting area by a robotic arm. The use of both image and profile information for object determination provides a fast, effective method of finding and retrieving selected objects in the unstructured environment of the sorting module.

  14. Machine Vision for Object Detection and Profiling in an Unstructured Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, R.A.; Walton, M.C.

    2002-05-23

    The Handling and Sorting System for 55-Gallon Drums (HANDSS-55) is a DOE project to develop an automated method for retrieving items that are not acceptable at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) from 55-gallon drums of low-level waste. The HANDSS-55 is a modular system that opens drums, sorts the waste, and then repackages the remaining waste in WIPP compliant barrels. The Sorting Station module relies on a non-contact measurement system to quickly provide a 3D profile of the sorting area. It then analyses the 3D profile and a color image to determine the position and orientation of an operator selected waste item. The item is then removed from the sorting area by a robotic arm. The use of both image and profile information for object determination provides a fast, effective method of finding and retrieving selected objects in the unstructured environment of the sorting module.

  15. Machine Vision for Object Detection and Profiling in an Unstructured Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, R.A.; Walton, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    The Handling and Sorting System for 55-Gallon Drums (HANDSS-55) is a DOE project to develop an automated method for retrieving items that are not acceptable at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) from 55-gallon drums of low-level waste. The HANDSS-55 is a modular system that opens drums, sorts the waste, and then repackages the remaining waste in WIPP compliant barrels. The Sorting Station module relies on a non-contact measurement system to quickly provide a 3D profile of the sorting area. It then analyses the 3D profile and a color image to determine the position and orientation of an operator selected waste item. The item is then removed from the sorting area by a robotic arm. The use of both image and profile information for object determination provides a fast, effective method of finding and retrieving selected objects in the unstructured environment of the sorting module

  16. Ferromagnetic Objects Magnetovision Detection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Michał; Szewczyk, Roman

    2013-12-02

    This paper presents the application of a weak magnetic fields magnetovision scanning system for detection of dangerous ferromagnetic objects. A measurement system was developed and built to study the magnetic field vector distributions. The measurements of the Earth's field distortions caused by various ferromagnetic objects were carried out. The ability for passive detection of hidden or buried dangerous objects and the determination of their location was demonstrated.

  17. Ferromagnetic Objects Magnetovision Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of a weak magnetic fields magnetovision scanning system for detection of dangerous ferromagnetic objects. A measurement system was developed and built to study the magnetic field vector distributions. The measurements of the Earth’s field distortions caused by various ferromagnetic objects were carried out. The ability for passive detection of hidden or buried dangerous objects and the determination of their location was demonstrated.

  18. A Sort-Last Rendering System over an Optical Backplane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Kirihata

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sort-Last is a computer graphics technique for rendering extremely large data sets on clusters of computers. Sort-Last works by dividing the data set into even-sized chunks for parallel rendering and then composing the images to form the final result. Since sort-last rendering requires the movement of large amounts of image data among cluster nodes, the network interconnecting the nodes becomes a major bottleneck. In this paper, we describe a sort-last rendering system implemented on a cluster of computers whose nodes are connected by an all-optical switch. The rendering system introduces the notion of the Photonic Computing Engine, a computing system built dynamically by using the optical switch to create dedicated network connections among cluster nodes. The sort-last volume rendering algorithm was implemented on the Photonic Computing Engine, and its performance is evaluated. Prelimi- nary experiments show that performance is affected by the image composition time and average payload size. In an attempt to stabilize the performance of the system, we have designed a flow control mechanism that uses feedback messages to dynamically adjust the data flow rate within the computing engine.

  19. Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum by single-cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jun; Li, Xiaolian; Cui, Liwang

    2010-10-01

    Malaria parasite cloning is traditionally carried out mainly by using the limiting dilution method, which is laborious, imprecise, and unable to distinguish multiply-infected RBCs. In this study, we used a parasite engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to evaluate a single-cell sorting method for rapidly cloning Plasmodium falciparum. By dividing a two-dimensional scattergram from a cell sorter into 17 gates, we determined the parameters for isolating singly-infected erythrocytes and sorted them into individual cultures. Pre-gating of the engineered parasites for GFP allowed the isolation of almost 100% GFP-positive clones. Compared with the limiting dilution method, the number of parasite clones obtained by single-cell sorting was much higher. Molecular analyses showed that parasite isolates obtained by single-cell sorting were highly homogenous. This highly efficient single-cell sorting method should prove very useful for cloning both P. falciparum laboratory populations from genetic manipulation experiments and clinical samples. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sorting signed permutations by inversions in O(nlogn) time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Krister M; Rajan, Vaibhav; Lin, Yu; Moret, Bernard M E

    2010-03-01

    The study of genomic inversions (or reversals) has been a mainstay of computational genomics for nearly 20 years. After the initial breakthrough of Hannenhalli and Pevzner, who gave the first polynomial-time algorithm for sorting signed permutations by inversions, improved algorithms have been designed, culminating with an optimal linear-time algorithm for computing the inversion distance and a subquadratic algorithm for providing a shortest sequence of inversions--also known as sorting by inversions. Remaining open was the question of whether sorting by inversions could be done in O(nlogn) time. In this article, we present a qualified answer to this question, by providing two new sorting algorithms, a simple and fast randomized algorithm and a deterministic refinement. The deterministic algorithm runs in time O(nlogn + kn), where k is a data-dependent parameter. We provide the results of extensive experiments showing that both the average and the standard deviation for k are small constants, independent of the size of the permutation. We conclude (but do not prove) that almost all signed permutations can be sorted by inversions in O(nlogn) time.

  1. Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum by single-cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jun; Li, Xiaolian; Cui, Liwang

    2010-01-01

    Malaria parasite cloning is traditionally carried out mainly by using the limiting dilution method, which is laborious, imprecise, and unable to distinguish multiply-infected RBCs. In this study, we used a parasite engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to evaluate a single-cell sorting method for rapidly cloning Plasmodium falciparum. By dividing a two dimensional scattergram from a cell sorter into 17 gates, we determined the parameters for isolating singly-infected erythrocytes and sorted them into individual cultures. Pre-gating of the engineered parasites for GFP allowed the isolation of almost 100% GFP-positive clones. Compared with the limiting dilution method, the number of parasite clones obtained by single-cell sorting was much higher. Molecular analyses showed that parasite isolates obtained by single-cell sorting were highly homogenous. This highly efficient single-cell sorting method should prove very useful for cloning both P. falciparum laboratory populations from genetic manipulation experiments and clinical samples. PMID:20435038

  2. Coupling Bacterial Activity Measurements with Cell Sorting by Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servais; Courties; Lebaron; Troussellier

    1999-08-01

    > Abstract A new procedure to investigate the relationship between bacterial cell size and activity at the cellular level has been developed; it is based on the coupling of radioactive labeling of bacterial cells and cell sorting by flow cytometry after SYTO 13 staining. Before sorting, bacterial cells were incubated in the presence of tritiated leucine using a procedure similar to that used for measuring bacterial production by leucine incorporation and then stained with SYTO 13. Subpopulations of bacterial cells were sorted according to their average right-angle light scatter (RALS) and fluorescence. Average RALS was shown to be significantly related to the average biovolume. Experiments were performed on samples collected at different times in a Mediterranean seawater mesocosm enriched with nitrogen and phosphorus. At four sampling times, bacteria were sorted in two subpopulations (cells smaller and larger than 0.25 µm(3)). The results indicate that, at each sampling time, the growth rate of larger cells was higher than that of smaller cells. In order to confirm this tendency, cell sorting was performed on six subpopulations differing in average biovolume during the mesocosm follow-up. A clear increase of the bacterial growth rates was observed with increasing cell size for the conditions met in this enriched mesocosm.http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00248/bibs/38n2p180.html

  3. The role of color sorting machine in reducing food safety risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Kecskes-Nagy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is the very difficult problem how we can decrease food safety risks in the product, which was polluted in process of cropping. According to professional literature almost the prevention is considered as an exclusive method to keep below safe level the content of DON toxin. The source of food safety in food chain is that the primary products suit the food safety requirements. It is a very difficult or sometimes it is not possible to correct food safety risk factors - which got into the products during cultivation - in the course of processing. Such factor is fusariotoxin in fodder and bread wheat. DON toxin is the most frequent toxin in cereals. The objective of the searching was to investigate, if it is possible to decrease DON toxin content of durum wheat and to minimize the food safety risk by application milling technology with good production practice and technological conditions. The samples were taken in the first phase of milling technology just before and after color sorting. According to measuring results Sortex Z+ optical sorting decreased DON toxin content of wheat. This mean that the food safety risks can be reduced by Sortex Z+ optical sorting machine. Our experiments proved if there is color sorting in the cleaning process preceding the milling of wheat then a part of the grain of wheat infected by Fusarium sp. can be selected. This improves the food safety parameters of given lot of wheat and decrease the toxin content. The flour made from contaminated grains of wheat can be a serious food safety risk. We would like to support scientifically the technical development of milling technology with our experimental data. Normal 0 21 false false false HU X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  4. Sorting Real Numbers in $O(n\\sqrt{\\log n})$ Time and Linear Space

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yijie

    2017-01-01

    We present an $O(n\\sqrt{\\log n})$ time and linear space algorithm for sorting real numbers. This breaks the long time illusion that real numbers have to be sorted by comparison sorting and take $\\Omega (n\\log n)$ time to be sorted.

  5. Particle migration and sorting in microbubble streaming flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thameem, Raqeeb; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic driving of semicylindrical microbubbles generates strong streaming flows that are robust over a wide range of driving frequencies. We show that in microchannels, these streaming flow patterns can be combined with Poiseuille flows to achieve two distinctive, highly tunable methods for size-sensitive sorting and trapping of particles much smaller than the bubble itself. This method allows higher throughput than typical passive sorting techniques, since it does not require the inclusion of device features on the order of the particle size. We propose a simple mechanism, based on channel and flow geometry, which reliably describes and predicts the sorting behavior observed in experiment. It is also shown that an asymptotic theory that incorporates the device geometry and superimposed channel flow accurately models key flow features such as peak speeds and particle trajectories, provided it is appropriately modified to account for 3D effects caused by the axial confinement of the bubble. PMID:26958103

  6. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  7. Long term estimates for sorting strategies of the LHC dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Todesco, Ezio

    1998-01-01

    Sorting strategies are investigated in view of improving the dynamic aperture of the CERN-LHC. Local and quasi-local compensation of the random field shape imperfections are discussed and applied to simplified model of the LHC lattice. The most promising strategies are further investigated on a realistic LHC model with particular emphasis on the analysis of the robustness of the dynamic aperture improvements including long term effects. First results on the application of the recently developed extrapolation law for the prediction of the dynamic aperture to the sorting problem are presented.

  8. Sorting, Searching, and Simulation in the MapReduce Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari; Zhang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    usefulness of our approach by designing and analyzing efficient MapReduce algorithms for fundamental sorting, searching, and simulation problems. This study is motivated by a goal of ultimately putting the MapReduce framework on an equal theoretical footing with the well-known PRAM and BSP parallel...... in parallel computational geometry for the MapReduce framework, which result in efficient MapReduce algorithms for sorting, 2- and 3-dimensional convex hulls, and fixed-dimensional linear programming. For the case when mappers and reducers have a memory/message-I/O size of M = (N), for a small constant > 0...

  9. Two-sorted Point-Interval Temporal Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbiani, Philippe; Goranko, Valentin; Sciavicco, Guido

    2011-01-01

    There are two natural and well-studied approaches to temporal ontology and reasoning: point-based and interval-based. Usually, interval-based temporal reasoning deals with points as particular, duration-less intervals. Here we develop explicitly two-sorted point-interval temporal logical framework...... whereby time instants (points) and time periods (intervals) are considered on a par, and the perspective can shift between them within the formal discourse. We focus on fragments involving only modal operators that correspond to the inter-sort relations between points and intervals. We analyze...

  10. Constructing Efficient Dictionaries in Close to Sorting Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzic, Milan

    2008-01-01

    to be a particularly challenging task. We present solutions to the static dictionary problem that significantly improve the previously known upper bounds and bring them close to obvious lower bounds. Our dictionaries have a constant lookup cost and use linear space, which was known to be possible, but the worst......-case cost of construction of the structures is proportional to only loglogn times the cost of sorting the input. Our claimed performance bounds are obtained in the word RAM model and in the external memory models; only the involved sorting procedures in the algorithms need to be changed between the models....

  11. 4D CT sorting based on patient internal anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijiang; Lewis, John H.; Cerviño, Laura I.; Jiang, Steve B.

    2009-08-01

    Respiratory motion during free-breathing computed tomography (CT) scan may cause significant errors in target definition for tumors in the thorax and upper abdomen. A four-dimensional (4D) CT technique has been widely used for treatment simulation of thoracic and abdominal cancer radiotherapy. The current 4D CT techniques require retrospective sorting of the reconstructed CT slices oversampled at the same couch position. Most sorting methods depend on external surrogates of respiratory motion recorded by extra instruments. However, respiratory signals obtained from these external surrogates may not always accurately represent the internal target motion, especially when irregular breathing patterns occur. We have proposed a new sorting method based on multiple internal anatomical features for multi-slice CT scan acquired in the cine mode. Four features are analyzed in this study, including the air content, lung area, lung density and body area. We use a measure called spatial coherence to select the optimal internal feature at each couch position and to generate the respiratory signals for 4D CT sorting. The proposed method has been evaluated for ten cancer patients (eight with thoracic cancer and two with abdominal cancer). For nine patients, the respiratory signals generated from the combined internal features are well correlated to those from external surrogates recorded by the real-time position management (RPM) system (average correlation: 0.95 ± 0.02), which is better than any individual internal measures at 95% confidence level. For these nine patients, the 4D CT images sorted by the combined internal features are almost identical to those sorted by the RPM signal. For one patient with an irregular breathing pattern, the respiratory signals given by the combined internal features do not correlate well with those from RPM (correlation: 0.68 ± 0.42). In this case, the 4D CT image sorted by our method presents fewer artifacts than that from the RPM signal. Our

  12. New designs in the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.S. Larin; V.V. Demenko; V.L. Voitanik [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    In recent Giprokoks designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems, high-productivity vibrational-inertial screens have been employed. This permits single-stage screening and reduction in capital and especially operating expenditures, without loss of coke quality. In two-stage screening, >80 mm coke (for foundry needs) is additionally separated, with significant improvement in quality of the metallurgical coke (25-80 mm). New designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems employ mechanical treatment of the coke outside the furnace, which offers new scope for stabilization of coke quality and permits considerable improvement in mechanical strength and granulometric composition of the coke by mechanical crushing.

  13. Decision trees with minimum average depth for sorting eight elements

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2015-11-19

    We prove that the minimum average depth of a decision tree for sorting 8 pairwise different elements is equal to 620160/8!. We show also that each decision tree for sorting 8 elements, which has minimum average depth (the number of such trees is approximately equal to 8.548×10^326365), has also minimum depth. Both problems were considered by Knuth (1998). To obtain these results, we use tools based on extensions of dynamic programming which allow us to make sequential optimization of decision trees relative to depth and average depth, and to count the number of decision trees with minimum average depth.

  14. Generic sorting of raft lipids into secretory vesicles in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surma, Michal A; Klose, Christian; Klemm, Robin W

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has showed that ergosterol and sphingolipids become sorted to secretory vesicles immunoisolated using a chimeric, artificial raft membrane protein as bait. In this study, we have extended this analysis to three populations of secretory vesicles isolated using natural yeast plasma...... a complete lipid overview of the yeast late secretory pathway. We could show that vesicles captured with different baits carry the same cargo and have almost identical lipid compositions; being highly enriched in ergosterol and sphingolipids. This finding indicates that lipid raft sorting is a generic...

  15. Objectives and Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segalman, D.J.

    1998-11-30

    I have recently become involved in the ABET certification process under the new system - ABET 2000. This system relies heavily on concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM). It encourages each institution to define its objectives in terms of its own mission and then create a coherent program based on it. The prescribed steps in setting up the new system at an engineering institution are: o identification of constituencies G definition of mission. It is expected that the department's mission will be consistent with that of the overall institution, but containing some higher resolution language appropriate to that particular discipline of the engineering profession. o statement of objectives consistent with the mission 3G~~\\vED " enumeration of desired, and preferably measurable, outcomes of the process that would ~ `=. verify satisfaction of the objectives. ~~~ 07 !398 o establish performance standards for each outcome. o creation of appropriate feedback loops to assure that the objectives are still consistent with Q$YT1 the mission, that the outcomes remain consistent with the objectives, and that the curriculum and the teaching result in those outcomes. It is my assertion that once the institution verbalizes a mission, enumerated objectives naturally flow from that mission. (We shall try to demonstrate by example.) Further, if the mission uses the word "engineer", one would expect that word also to appear in at least one of the objectives. The objective of producing engineers of any sort must -by decree - involve the presence of the ABET criteria in the outcomes list. In other words, successful satisfaction of the ABET items a-k are a necessary subset of the measure of success in producing engineers. o We shall produce bachelor level engineers whose training in the core topics of chemical (or electrical, or mechanical) engineering is recognized to be among the best in the nation. o We shall provide an opportunity for our students to gain

  16. Elegant objects

    CERN Document Server

    Bugayenko, Yegor

    2017-01-01

    There are 23 practical recommendations for object-oriented programmers. Most of them are completely against everything you've read in other books. For example, static methods, NULL references, getters, setters, and mutable classes are called evil. Compound variable names, validators, private static literals, configurable objects, inheritance, annotations, MVC, dependency injection containers, reflection, ORM and even algorithms are our enemies.

  17. Objective lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  18. Mineral-PET Kimberlite sorting by nuclear-medical technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ballestrero, S; Cafferty, L; Caveney, R; Connell, SH; Cook, M; Dalton, M; Gopal, H; Ives, N; Lee, C A; Mampe, W; Phoku, M; Roodt, A; Sibande, W; Sellschop, J P F; Topkin, J; Unwucholaa, D A

    2010-01-01

    A revolutionary new technology for diamond bearing rock sorting which has its roots in medical-nuclear physics has been taken through a substantial part of the R&D phase. This has led to the construction of the technology demonstrator. Experiments using the technology demonstrator and experiments at a hospital have established the scientific and technological viability of the project.

  19. Image processing. A system for the automatic sorting of chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najai, Amor

    1977-01-01

    The present paper deals with two aspects of the system: - an automata (specialized hardware) dedicated to image processing. Images are digitized, divided into sub-units and computations are carried out on their main parameters. - A software for the automatic recognition and sorting of chromosomes is implemented on a Multi-20 minicomputer, connected to the automata. (author) [fr

  20. Dielectrophoretic focusing integrated pulsed laser activated cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiongfeng; Kung, Yu-Chun; Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Teitell, Michael A.; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2017-08-01

    We present a pulsed laser activated cell sorter (PLACS) integrated with novel sheathless size-independent dielectrophoretic (DEP) focusing. Microfluidic fluorescence activated cell sorting (μFACS) systems aim to provide a fully enclosed environment for sterile cell sorting and integration with upstream and downstream microfluidic modules. Among them, PLACS has shown a great potential in achieving comparable performance to commercial aerosol-based FACS (>90% purity at 25,000 cells sec-1). However conventional sheath flow focusing method suffers a severe sample dilution issue. Here we demonstrate a novel dielectrophoresis-integrated pulsed laser activated cell sorter (DEP-PLACS). It consists of a microfluidic channel with 3D electrodes laid out to provide a tunnel-shaped electric field profile along a 4cmlong channel for sheathlessly focusing microparticles/cells into a single stream in high-speed microfluidic flows. All focused particles pass through the fluorescence detection zone along the same streamline regardless of their sizes and types. Upon detection of target fluorescent particles, a nanosecond laser pulse is triggered and focused in a neighboring channel to generate a rapidly expanding cavitation bubble for precise sorting. DEP-PLACS has achieved a sorting purity of 91% for polystyrene beads at a throughput of 1,500 particle/sec.

  1. Real-time implementation of a color sorting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanteswara, Srikathyanyani; Lu, Qiang O.; King, William; Drayer, Thomas H.; Conners, Richard W.; Kline, D. Earl; Araman, Philip A.

    1997-09-01

    Wood edge glued panels are used extensively in the furniture and cabinetry industries. They are used to make doors, tops, and sides of solid wood furniture and cabinets. Since lightly stained furniture and cabinets are gaining in popularity, there is an increasing demand to color sort the parts used to make these edge glued panels. The goal of the sorting processing is to create panels that are uniform in both color and intensity across their visible surface. If performed manually, the color sorting of edge-glued panel parts is very labor intensive and prone to error. This paper describes a complete machine vision system for performing this sort. This system uses two color line scan cameras for image input and a specially designed custom computing machine to allow real-time implementation. Users define the number of color classes that are to be used. An 'out' class is provided to handle unusually colored parts. The system removes areas of character mark, e.g., knots, mineral streak, etc., from consideration when assigning a color class to a part. The system also includes a better face algorithm for determining which part face would be the better to put on the side of the panel that will show. The throughput is two linear feet per second. Only a four inch between part spacing is required. This system has undergone extensive in plant testing and will be commercially available in the very near future. The results of this testing will be presented.

  2. A correctness proof of sorting by means of formal procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkinga, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    We consider a recursive sorting algorithm in which, in each invocation, a new variable and a new procedure (using the variable globally) are defined and the procedure is passed to recursive calls. This algorithm is proved correct with Hoare-style pre- and postassertions. We also discuss the same

  3. Sorting, Searching, and Simulation in the MapReduce Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodar; Zhang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    We study the MapReduce framework from an algorithmic standpoint, providing a generalization of the previous algorithmic models for MapReduce. We present optimal solutions for the fundamental problems of all-prefix-sums, sorting and multi-searching. Additionally, we design optimal simulations...

  4. Sorting genomes by reciprocal translocations, insertions, and deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xingqin; Li, Guojun; Li, Shuguang; Xu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    The problem of sorting by reciprocal translocations (abbreviated as SBT) arises from the field of comparative genomics, which is to find a shortest sequence of reciprocal translocations that transforms one genome Pi into another genome Gamma, with the restriction that Pi and Gamma contain the same genes. SBT has been proved to be polynomial-time solvable, and several polynomial algorithms have been developed. In this paper, we show how to extend Bergeron's SBT algorithm to include insertions and deletions, allowing to compare genomes containing different genes. In particular, if the gene set of Pi is a subset (or superset, respectively) of the gene set of Gamma, we present an approximation algorithm for transforming Pi into Gamma by reciprocal translocations and deletions (insertions, respectively), providing a sorting sequence with length at most OPT + 2, where OPT is the minimum number of translocations and deletions (insertions, respectively) needed to transform Pi into Gamma; if Pi and Gamma have different genes but not containing each other, we give a heuristic to transform Pi into Gamma by a shortest sequence of reciprocal translocations, insertions, and deletions, with bounds for the length of the sorting sequence it outputs. At a conceptual level, there is some similarity between our algorithm and the algorithm developed by El Mabrouk which is used to sort two chromosomes with different gene contents by reversals, insertions, and deletions.

  5. Incentives versus sorting in tournaments: evidence from a field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, E.; Oosterbeek, H.; Sonnemans, J.; van der Klaauw, B.

    2011-01-01

    Existing field evidence on rank-order tournaments typically does not allow disentangling incentive and sorting effects. We conduct a field experiment illustrating the confounding effect. Students in an introductory microeconomics course selected themselves into tournaments with low, medium, or high

  6. A methodical approach for the assessment of waste sorting plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feil, Alexander; Pretz, Thomas; Vitz, Philipp; Thoden van Velzen, Ulphard

    2017-01-01

    A techno-economical evaluation of the processing result of waste sorting plants should at least provide a realistic assessment of the recovery yields of valuable materials and of the qualities of the obtained products. This practical data is generated by weighing all the output products and

  7. Sorting Tubules Regulate Blood-Brain Barrier Transcytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Villaseñor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Transcytosis across the blood-brain barrier (BBB regulates key processes of the brain, but the intracellular sorting mechanisms that determine successful receptor-mediated transcytosis in brain endothelial cells (BECs remain unidentified. Here, we used Transferrin receptor-based Brain Shuttle constructs to investigate intracellular transport in BECs, and we uncovered a pathway for the regulation of receptor-mediated transcytosis. By combining live-cell imaging and mathematical modeling in vitro with super-resolution microscopy of the BBB, we show that intracellular tubules promote transcytosis across the BBB. A monovalent construct (sFab sorted for transcytosis was localized to intracellular tubules, whereas a bivalent construct (dFab sorted for degradation formed clusters with impaired transport along tubules. Manipulating tubule biogenesis by overexpressing the small GTPase Rab17 increased dFab transport into tubules and induced its transcytosis in BECs. We propose that sorting tubules regulate transcytosis in BECs and may be a general mechanism for receptor-mediated transport across the BBB.

  8. Sphingolipid trafficking and protein sorting in epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimane, TA; Hoekstra, D

    2002-01-01

    Sphingolipids represent a minor, but highly dynamic subclass of lipids in all eukaryotic cells. They are involved in functions that range from structural protection to signal transduction and protein sorting, and participate in lipid raft assembly. In polarized epithelial cells, which display an

  9. AMDLIBGZ, IBM 360 Subroutine Library for Data Processing, Graphics, Sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jesse Y.

    1980-01-01

    Description of problem or function: AMDLIBGZ is a subset of the IBM 360 Subroutine Library at the Applied Mathematics Division at Argonne National Laboratory. This subset includes library categories G-Z: Identification/Description: G552S F RANF: Random number generator; J952S F YOLYPLOT: CalComp plots; J955S P GRAF: Prints a graph of points on line printer; K250S A1: Core to core conversion; K251S A HEXINP: Hexadecimal input for PL/I programs; K252S A HEXOUT: Hexadecimal output conv. PL/I programs; M101S F SORT: Algebraic sort; M150S F CSORT: Algebraic sort; M151S P2 ANLKWIC: KWIC sort; M250S A SMALLIST: Squeezes assembler listing to 8 x 11; N251S A ABEND: Calls ABEND dump; Q052S A CLOCK: Time; Q053S A COPYAGO: Copy load module from tape to disk; Q054S A DATE: Current date in form MM/DD/YY; Q055S A TIME: Time (24 hour clock) in EBCDIC HH.MM.SS; Z013S F: Variable metric minimization; Z057S A LOCF: Locate machine addresses of variables; Z071S A ALLOC: Allocate LCS for FORTRAN programs; Z074S A ANLMNP: Exponent and mantissa manipulative functs.

  10. Towards understanding and managing the learning process in mail sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, M; Karltun, A

    2012-01-01

    This paper was based on case study research at the Swedish Mail Service Division and it addresses learning time to sort mail at new districts and means to support the learning process on an individual as well as organizational level. The study population consisted of 46 postmen and one team leader in the Swedish Mail Service Division. Data were collected through measurements of time for mail sorting, interviews and a focus group. The study showed that learning to sort mail was a much more complex process and took more time than expected by management. Means to support the learning process included clarification of the relationship between sorting and the topology of the district, a good work environment, increased support from colleagues and management, and a thorough introduction for new postmen. The identified means to support the learning process require an integration of human, technological and organizational aspects. The study further showed that increased operations flexibility cannot be reinforced without a systems perspective and thorough knowledge about real work activities and that ergonomists can aid businesses to acquire this knowledge.

  11. Udpegning af potentielle sorte pletter via floating car data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Splid Svendsen, Martin; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Lahrmann, Harry

    2008-01-01

    Formålet med dette paper er at undersøge, om det er muligt at udpege potentielle sorte pletter via floating car data. Der er i projektet udført teoretiske litteraturstudier for at skabe et grundlag for det senere analysearbejde, som danner baggrund for analysearbejdet. Dataene stammer fra Aalborg...

  12. Pure chromosome-specific PCR libraries from single sorted chromosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanDevanter, D. R.; Choongkittaworn, N. M.; Dyer, K. A.; Aten, J. A.; Otto, P.; Behler, C.; Bryant, E. M.; Rabinovitch, P. S.

    1994-01-01

    Chromosome-specific DNA libraries can be very useful in molecular and cytogenetic genome mapping studies. We have developed a rapid and simple method for the generation of chromosome-specific DNA sequences that relies on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a single flow-sorted

  13. Optical sorting and photo-transfection of mammalian cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mthunzi, P

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available and that the scattering force can enable sorting through axial guiding onto laminin coated glass coverslips upon which the selected cells adhere. Following this, I report on transient photo-transfection of mammalian cells including neuroblastomas (rat/mouse and human...

  14. Support for designing waste sorting systems: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousta, Kamran; Ordoñez, Isabel; Bolton, Kim; Dahlén, Lisa

    2017-11-01

    This article presents a mini review of research aimed at understanding material recovery from municipal solid waste. It focuses on two areas, waste sorting behaviour and collection systems, so that research on the link between these areas could be identified and evaluated. The main results presented and the methods used in the articles are categorised and appraised. The mini review reveals that most of the work that offered design guidelines for waste management systems was based on optimising technical aspects only. In contrast, most of the work that focused on user involvement did not consider developing the technical aspects of the system, but was limited to studies of user behaviour. The only clear consensus among the articles that link user involvement with the technical system is that convenient waste collection infrastructure is crucial for supporting source separation. This mini review reveals that even though the connection between sorting behaviour and technical infrastructure has been explored and described in some articles, there is still a gap when using this knowledge to design waste sorting systems. Future research in this field would benefit from being multidisciplinary and from using complementary methods, so that holistic solutions for material recirculation can be identified. It would be beneficial to actively involve users when developing sorting infrastructures, to be sure to provide a waste management system that will be properly used by them.

  15. System of radwaste sorting out physical features and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batij, V.G.; Kuz'menko, V.A.; Bozhko, V.P.; Ganenko, V.B.; Olejnik, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    Classification of radioactive waste sources in Ukraine is provided. General technological sorting scheme of the RAW of chiefly. Chernobyl origin is offered. Some measures to treat short-lived and long-lived High-Level Waste, Intermediate-Active Waste and Low-Level Active Waste in the Center for waste treatment and disposal are offered. 4 refs., 2 tab., 8 figs

  16. Parallel sort with a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high perfomance computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron; Poole, Stephen W.

    2016-01-26

    Improved sorting techniques are provided that perform a parallel sort using a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high performance computing (HPC) environment. A plurality of input data files comprising unsorted key-value data in a partitioned key-value store are sorted. The partitioned key-value store comprises a range server for each of a plurality of ranges. Each input data file has an associated reader thread. Each reader thread reads the unsorted key-value data in the corresponding input data file and performs a local sort of the unsorted key-value data to generate sorted key-value data. A plurality of sorted, ranged subsets of each of the sorted key-value data are generated based on the plurality of ranges. Each sorted, ranged subset corresponds to a given one of the ranges and is provided to one of the range servers corresponding to the range of the sorted, ranged subset. Each range server sorts the received sorted, ranged subsets and provides a sorted range. A plurality of the sorted ranges are concatenated to obtain a globally sorted result.

  17. Denni Algorithm An Enhanced Of SMS (Scan, Move and Sort) Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprilsyah Lubis, Denni; Salim Sitompul, Opim; Marwan; Tulus; Andri Budiman, M.

    2017-12-01

    Sorting has been a profound area for the algorithmic researchers, and many resources are invested to suggest a more working sorting algorithm. For this purpose many existing sorting algorithms were observed in terms of the efficiency of the algorithmic complexity. Efficient sorting is important to optimize the use of other algorithms that require sorted lists to work correctly. Sorting has been considered as a fundamental problem in the study of algorithms that due to many reasons namely, the necessary to sort information is inherent in many applications, algorithms often use sorting as a key subroutine, in algorithm design there are many essential techniques represented in the body of sorting algorithms, and many engineering issues come to the fore when implementing sorting algorithms., Many algorithms are very well known for sorting the unordered lists, and one of the well-known algorithms that make the process of sorting to be more economical and efficient is SMS (Scan, Move and Sort) algorithm, an enhancement of Quicksort invented Rami Mansi in 2010. This paper presents a new sorting algorithm called Denni-algorithm. The Denni algorithm is considered as an enhancement on the SMS algorithm in average, and worst cases. The Denni algorithm is compared with the SMS algorithm and the results were promising.

  18. Extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1976-01-01

    After some disconnected comments on the MIT bag and string models for extended hadrons, I review current understanding of extended objects in classical conventional relativistic field theories and their quantum mechanical interpretation

  19. Trusted Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, PHILIP L.; PIERSON, LYNDON G.; WITZKE, EDWARD L.

    1999-01-01

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  20. Promoting Continuous Quality Improvement in the Alabama Child Health Improvement Alliance Through Q-Sort Methodology and Learning Collaboratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifolt, Matthew; Preskitt, Julie; Rucks, Andrew; Corvey, Kathryn; Benton, Elizabeth Cason

    Q-sort methodology is an underutilized tool for differentiating among multiple priority measures. The authors describe steps to identify, delimit, and sort potential health measures and use selected priority measures to establish an overall agenda for continuous quality improvement (CQI) activities within learning collaboratives. Through an iterative process, the authors vetted a list of potential child and adolescent health measures. Multiple stakeholders, including payers, direct care providers, and organizational representatives sorted and prioritized measures, using Q-methodology. Q-methodology provided the Alabama Child Health Improvement Alliance (ACHIA) an objective and rigorous approach to system improvement. Selected priority measures were used to design learning collaboratives. An open dialogue among stakeholders about state health priorities spurred greater organizational buy-in for ACHIA and increased its credibility as a statewide provider of learning collaboratives. The integrated processes of Q-sort methodology, learning collaboratives, and CQI offer a practical yet innovative way to identify and prioritize state measures for child and adolescent health and establish a learning agenda for targeted quality improvement activities.

  1. Channels as Objects in Concurrent Object-Oriented Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Campos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There is often a sort of a protocol associated to each class, stating when and how certain methods should be called. Given that this protocol is, if at all, described in the documentation accompanying the class, current mainstream object-oriented languages cannot provide for the verification of client code adherence against the sought class behaviour. We have defined a class-based concurrent object-oriented language that formalises such protocols in the form of usage types. Usage types are attached to class definitions, allowing for the specification of (1 the available methods, (2 the tests clients must perform on the result of methods, and (3 the object status - linear or shared - all of which depend on the object's state. Our work extends the recent approach on modular session types by eliminating channel operations, and defining the method call as the single communication primitive in both sequential and concurrent settings. In contrast to previous works, we define a single category for objects, instead of distinct categories for linear and for shared objects, and let linear objects evolve into shared ones. We introduce a standard sync qualifier to prevent thread interference in certain operations on shared objects. We formalise the language syntax, the operational semantics, and a type system that enforces by static typing that methods are called only when available, and by a single client if so specified in the usage type. We illustrate the language via a complete example.

  2. Development of automatic extraction of the corpus callosum from magnetic resonance imaging of the head and examination of the early dementia objective diagnostic technique in feature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Naoki; Kaneko, Tomoyuki

    2005-01-01

    We examined the objective diagnosis of dementia based on changes in the corpus callosum. We examined midsagittal head MR images of 17 early dementia patients (2 men and 15 women; mean age, 77.2±3.3 years) and 18 healthy elderly controls (2 men and 16 women; mean age, 73.8±6.5 years), 35 subjects altogether. First, the corpus callosum was automatically extracted from the MR images. Next, early dementia was compared with the healthy elderly individuals using 5 features of the straight-line methods, 5 features of the Run-Length Matrix, and 6 features of the Co-occurrence Matrix from the corpus callosum. Automatic extraction of the corpus callosum showed an accuracy rate of 84.1±3.7%. A statistically significant difference was found in 6 of the 16 features between early dementia patients and healthy elderly controls. Discriminant analysis using the 6 features demonstrated a sensitivity of 88.2% and specificity of 77.8%, with an overall accuracy of 82.9%. These results indicate that feature analysis based on changes in the corpus callosum can be used as an objective diagnostic technique for early dementia. (author)

  3. Effects of month of breeding on reproductive efficiency of Holstein cows and heifers inseminated with sex-sorted or conventional semen in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Miguel; Sepulveda, Edgar; Macias-Cruz, Ulises; Avendaño, Leonel; Garcia, Jose E; Veliz, Francisco G; Rodríguez, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of month of breeding on reproduction performance of Holstein heifers and cows inseminated with sex-sorted or conventional semen in a hot environment. Pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI; 64,666 services over an 8-year period) both in heifers (n = 22,313) and cows (n = 42,353) from a large dairy herd in northern Mexico (26°N) were evaluated with the GENMOD procedure of SAS, with respect to month of AI. Overall, P/AI with sex-sorted semen was greater (P sex-sorted semen. While there was no difference in P/AI between the sex-sorted sperm and conventional semen in cows inseminated in July (16 and 18 %, respectively), P/AI plummeted for both groups of cows during the summer and fall (more severe heat stress). P/AI was not different between heifers serviced with sex-sorted or conventional semen during the hottest months of the year (July to October). However, during the coldest month of the year (January and February), P/AI was 10 percentage points greater (P sex-sorted semen. It was concluded that in this hot climate cow and heifer fertility declined in the summer and fall when inseminated with conventional semen. However, the use of sex-sorted semen during summer and fall did not compromise the breeding success in heifers. Thus, this data suggest that sex-sorted semen promotes some embryonic thermoprotective mechanism, which leads to a marginal summer and fall fertility depression with this type of semen in this particular hot environment.

  4. A multiobjective non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II for the Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Iván Bolaños

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a multi-objective version of the Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (MOmTSP. In particular, two objectives are considered: the minimization of the total traveled distance and the balance of the working times of the traveling salesmen. The problem is formulated as an integer multi-objective optimization model. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II is proposed to solve the MOmTSP. The solution scheme allows one to find a set of ordered solutions in Pareto fronts by considering the concept of dominance. Tests on real world instances and instances adapted from the literature show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Next-Step scientific objectives, targets, and parameters for reversed-field-pinch (RFP) magnetic fusion energy (MFE) systems: Preliminary thoughts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; DiMarco, J.N.; Miller, R.L.; Werley, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this document is the quantitative definition of objectives, targets, and parameters of the Next-Step device to follow the present RFX experiment; this device is given the name RFXNS. Although developed over five years ago, much of the material distilled into the 1988 RFP tactical plan is useful in establishing the goals and parameters of RFXNS. This earlier plan established tentative parameters of an RFP next step based on: predictions of RFP ignition and commercial-reactor devices; and the assumed successful operation of highly complementary RFP experiments RFX and ZTH/CPRF. Programmatic changes and evolution that have occurred since 1988 strongly impact the role and characteristics of an RFXNS: the Los Alamos ZTH/CPRF project and fusion program was terminated in mid-construction for reasons of MFE cost savings and concept focusing; great progress has been made in launching ITER; and reactor projections for the tokamak have increased in detail and variety, but not in commercial promise and competitiveness. A brief status of and perspective from each of the above three points is necessary before the key issues and their implementation to form the basis of the RFXNS definition are given

  6. An Automated Sorting System Based on Virtual Instrumentation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Holonec

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The application presented in this paper represents an experimental model and it refers to the implementing of an automated sorting system for pieces of same shape but different sizes and/or colors. The classification is made according to two features: the color and weight of these pieces. The system is a complex combination of NI Vision hardware and software tools, strain gauges transducers, signal conditioning connected to data acquisition boards, motion and control elements. The system is very useful for students to learn and experiment different virtual instrumentation techniques in order to be able to develop a large field of applications from inspection and process control to sorting and assembly

  7. Oscillating microbubbles for selective particle sorting in acoustic microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Priscilla; Xu, Lin; Neild, Adrian

    2012-05-01

    In this study, acoustic waves were used to excite a microbubble for selective particle trapping and sorting. Excitation of the bubble at its volume resonance, as necessary to drive strong fluid microstreaming, resulted in the particles being either selectively attracted to the bubble or continuing to follow the local microstreamlines. The operating principle exploited two acoustic phenomena acting on the particle suspension: the drag force arising from the acoustic microstreaming and the secondary Bjerknes force, i.e. the attractive radiation force produced between an oscillating bubble and a non-buoyant particle. It was also found that standing wave fields within the fluid chamber could be used to globally align bubbles and particles for local particle sorting by the bubble.

  8. Past, present and future of spike sorting techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Hernan Gonzalo; Pedreira, Carlos; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo

    2015-10-01

    Spike sorting is a crucial step to extract information from extracellular recordings. With new recording opportunities provided by the development of new electrodes that allow monitoring hundreds of neurons simultaneously, the scenario for the new generation of algorithms is both exciting and challenging. However, this will require a new approach to the problem and the development of a common reference framework to quickly assess the performance of new algorithms. In this work, we review the basic concepts of spike sorting, including the requirements for different applications, together with the problems faced by presently available algorithms. We conclude by proposing a roadmap stressing the crucial points to be addressed to support the neuroscientific research of the near future. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A 1.375-approximation algorithm for sorting by transpositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Isaac; Hartman, Tzvika

    2006-01-01

    Sorting permutations by transpositions is an important problem in genome rearrangements. A transposition is a rearrangement operation in which a segment is cut out of the permutation and pasted in a different location. The complexity of this problem is still open and it has been a 10-year-old open problem to improve the best known 1.5-approximation algorithm. In this paper, we provide a 1.375-approximation algorithm for sorting by transpositions. The algorithm is based on a new upper bound on the diameter of 3-permutations. In addition, we present some new results regarding the transposition diameter: we improve the lower bound for the transposition diameter of the symmetric group and determine the exact transposition diameter of simple permutations.

  10. Comparison of spike-sorting algorithms for future hardware implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sarah; Judy, Jack W; Markovic, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Applications such as brain-machine interfaces require hardware spike sorting in order to (1) obtain single-unit activity and (2) perform data reduction for wireless transmission of data. Such systems must be low-power, low-area, high-accuracy, automatic, and able to operate in real time. Several detection and feature extraction algorithms for spike sorting are described briefly and evaluated in terms of accuracy versus computational complexity. The nonlinear energy operator method is chosen as the optimal spike detection algorithm, being most robust over noise and relatively simple. The discrete derivatives method [1] is chosen as the optimal feature extraction method, maintaining high accuracy across SNRs with a complexity orders of magnitude less than that of traditional methods such as PCA.

  11. Spatial sorting promotes the spread of maladaptive hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Winsor H.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive hybridization is causing loss of biodiversity worldwide. The spread of such introgression can occur even when hybrids have reduced Darwinian fitness, which decreases the frequency of hybrids due to low survival or reproduction through time. This paradox can be partially explained by spatial sorting, where genotypes associated with dispersal increase in frequency at the edge of expansion, fueling further expansion and allowing invasive hybrids to increase in frequency through space rather than time. Furthermore, because all progeny of a hybrid will be hybrids (i.e., will possess genes from both parental taxa), nonnative admixture in invaded populations can increase even when most hybrid progeny do not survive. Broader understanding of spatial sorting is needed to protect native biodiversity.

  12. Reticulate evolution and incomplete lineage sorting among the ponderosa pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willyard, Ann; Cronn, Richard; Liston, Aaron

    2009-08-01

    Interspecific gene flow via hybridization may play a major role in evolution by creating reticulate rather than hierarchical lineages in plant species. Occasional diploid pine hybrids indicate the potential for introgression, but reticulation is hard to detect because ancestral polymorphism is still shared across many groups of pine species. Nucleotide sequences for 53 accessions from 17 species in subsection Ponderosae (Pinus) provide evidence for reticulate evolution. Two discordant patterns among independent low-copy nuclear gene trees and a chloroplast haplotype are better explained by introgression than incomplete lineage sorting or other causes of incongruence. Conflicting resolution of three monophyletic Pinus coulteri accessions is best explained by ancient introgression followed by a genetic bottleneck. More recent hybridization transferred a chloroplast from P. jeffreyi to a sympatric P. washoensis individual. We conclude that incomplete lineage sorting could account for other examples of non-monophyly, and caution against any analysis based on single-accession or single-locus sampling in Pinus.

  13. Event-driven processing for hardware-efficient neural spike sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Pereira, João L.; Constandinou, Timothy G.

    2018-02-01

    Objective. The prospect of real-time and on-node spike sorting provides a genuine opportunity to push the envelope of large-scale integrated neural recording systems. In such systems the hardware resources, power requirements and data bandwidth increase linearly with channel count. Event-based (or data-driven) processing can provide here a new efficient means for hardware implementation that is completely activity dependant. In this work, we investigate using continuous-time level-crossing sampling for efficient data representation and subsequent spike processing. Approach. (1) We first compare signals (synthetic neural datasets) encoded with this technique against conventional sampling. (2) We then show how such a representation can be directly exploited by extracting simple time domain features from the bitstream to perform neural spike sorting. (3) The proposed method is implemented in a low power FPGA platform to demonstrate its hardware viability. Main results. It is observed that considerably lower data rates are achievable when using 7 bits or less to represent the signals, whilst maintaining the signal fidelity. Results obtained using both MATLAB and reconfigurable logic hardware (FPGA) indicate that feature extraction and spike sorting accuracies can be achieved with comparable or better accuracy than reference methods whilst also requiring relatively low hardware resources. Significance. By effectively exploiting continuous-time data representation, neural signal processing can be achieved in a completely event-driven manner, reducing both the required resources (memory, complexity) and computations (operations). This will see future large-scale neural systems integrating on-node processing in real-time hardware.

  14. Improved Sorting-Based Procedure for Integer Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantchev, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Recently, Cornuéjols and Dawande have considered a special class of 0-1 programs that turns out to be hard for existing IP solvers. One of them is a sorting-based algorithm, based on an idea of Wolsey. In this paper, we show how to improve both the running time and the space requirements...... of this algorithm. The drastic reduction of space needed allows us to solve much larger instances than was possible before using this technique....

  15. A novel automated spike sorting algorithm with adaptable feature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestel, Robert; Daus, Andreas W; Thielemann, Christiane

    2012-10-15

    To study the electrophysiological properties of neuronal networks, in vitro studies based on microelectrode arrays have become a viable tool for analysis. Although in constant progress, a challenging task still remains in this area: the development of an efficient spike sorting algorithm that allows an accurate signal analysis at the single-cell level. Most sorting algorithms currently available only extract a specific feature type, such as the principal components or Wavelet coefficients of the measured spike signals in order to separate different spike shapes generated by different neurons. However, due to the great variety in the obtained spike shapes, the derivation of an optimal feature set is still a very complex issue that current algorithms struggle with. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm that (i) extracts a variety of geometric, Wavelet and principal component-based features and (ii) automatically derives a feature subset, most suitable for sorting an individual set of spike signals. Thus, there is a new approach that evaluates the probability distribution of the obtained spike features and consequently determines the candidates most suitable for the actual spike sorting. These candidates can be formed into an individually adjusted set of spike features, allowing a separation of the various shapes present in the obtained neuronal signal by a subsequent expectation maximisation clustering algorithm. Test results with simulated data files and data obtained from chick embryonic neurons cultured on microelectrode arrays showed an excellent classification result, indicating the superior performance of the described algorithm approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Why study abroad? : Sorting of Chinese students across British universities

    OpenAIRE

    Cebolla-Boado, H; Hu, Yang; Soysal, Y

    2018-01-01

    This research contributes to the booming literature on the mobility of international students in higher education. Specifically, it analyzes university-level factors that affect the sorting of Chinese international students across British universities. To do so, we produced a unique dataset merging university-level data from the the 2014 UK Higher Education Statistics Agency and the Higher Expectations Survey, supplemented by qualitative evidence from six focus groups which we use for illustr...

  17. Are Korean Industry-Sorted Portfolios Mean Reverting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongman Moon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the weak-form efficient market hypothesis for Korean industry-sorted portfolios. Based on a panel variance ratio approach, we find significant mean reversion of stock returns over long horizons in the pre Asian currency crisis period but little evidence in the post-crisis period. Our empirical findings are consistent with the fact that Korea accelerated its integration with international financial market by implementing extensive capital liberalization since the crisis.

  18. Risk Aversion and Sorting into Public Sector Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This research note uses two German data sets – the large-scale German Socio-Economic Panel and unique data from own student questionnaires – to analyse the relationship between risk aversion and the choice for public sector employment. Main results are: (1) more risk averse individuals sort into public sector employment, (2) the impact of career specific and unemployment risk attitudes is larger than the impact of general risk attitudes, and (3) risk taking is rewarded with higher wages in th...

  19. Gamma radiation effects on different sorts of onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burov, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    Gamma radiation effects on different sorts of onions were studied to improve ways of obtaining agricultural vegetation mutations and to find out the genotype role in induced mutagenesis. It is established that rhizome onion seeds are more radiosensitive than bulbous ones, ephemeroide form seeds are most stable among bulbous plants. Table data on dependence of seed germination and plant survival on radiation dose are presented

  20. MANNER OF STOCKS SORTING USING CLUSTER ANALYSIS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Halčinová

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to show the possibility of using the methods of cluster analysis in classification of stocks of finished products. Cluster analysis creates groups (clusters of finished products according to similarity in demand i.e. customer requirements for each product. Manner stocks sorting of finished products by clusters is described a practical example. The resultants clusters are incorporated into the draft layout of the distribution warehouse.

  1. Flow cytometric chromosome sorting in plants: The next generation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrána, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Kubaláková, Marie; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2012), s. 331-337 ISSN 1046-2023 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1740 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Chromosome sorting * Flow cytometry * Fluorescence in situ hybridization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.641, year: 2012

  2. Hyperexpansion of wheat chromosomes sorted by flow cytometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Endo, Takashi R.; Kubaláková, Marie; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2014), s. 181-185 ISSN 1341-7568 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : flow cytometry * flow sorting * chromosome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.930, year: 2014 http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=MEDLINE&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=25747042

  3. Performance evaluation of firefly algorithm with variation in sorting for non-linear benchmark problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbarkar, A. J.; Balande, U. T.; Seth, P. D.

    2017-06-01

    The field of nature inspired computing and optimization techniques have evolved to solve difficult optimization problems in diverse fields of engineering, science and technology. The firefly attraction process is mimicked in the algorithm for solving optimization problems. In Firefly Algorithm (FA) sorting of fireflies is done by using sorting algorithm. The original FA is proposed with bubble sort for ranking the fireflies. In this paper, the quick sort replaces bubble sort to decrease the time complexity of FA. The dataset used is unconstrained benchmark functions from CEC 2005 [22]. The comparison of FA using bubble sort and FA using quick sort is performed with respect to best, worst, mean, standard deviation, number of comparisons and execution time. The experimental result shows that FA using quick sort requires less number of comparisons but requires more execution time. The increased number of fireflies helps to converge into optimal solution whereas by varying dimension for algorithm performed better at a lower dimension than higher dimension.

  4. Design of monitoring system for mail-sorting based on the Profibus S7 series PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Jia, S. H.; Wang, Y. H.; Liu, H.; Tang, G. C.

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of the postal express, the workload of mail sorting is increasing, but the automatic technology of mail sorting is not mature enough. In view of this, the system uses Siemens S7-300 PLC as the main station controller, PLC of Siemens S7-200/400 is from the station controller, through the man-machine interface configuration software MCGS, PROFIBUS-DP communication, RFID technology and mechanical sorting hand achieve mail classification sorting monitoring. Among them, distinguish mail-sorting by scanning RFID posted in the mail electronic bar code (fixed code), the system uses the corresponding controller on the acquisition of information processing, the processed information transmit to the sorting manipulator by PROFIBUS-DP. The system can realize accurate and efficient mail sorting, which will promote the development of mail sorting technology.

  5. Selective sorting of waste - not much effort needed, just willpower

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to keep as low as possible the cost of disposing of waste materials, CERN provides in the entrance to each building two types of recipient: a green plastic one for paper/cardboard and a metallic one for general refuse. For some time now, we have noticed, to our great regret, a growing neglect as far as the selective sorting is concerned, for example the green recipients being filled with a mixture of cardboard boxes full of polystyrene or of protective wrappers, plastic bottles, empty yogurts pots, etc …We have been able to ascertain, after carefully checking, that this haphazard mixing of waste cannot be attributed to the cleaning staff but rather to members of personnel who unscrupulously throw away their rubbish in a completely random manner. Waste non sorted entails heavy costs for CERN. For your information, once a non-compliant item is found in a green recipient, the entire contents are sent off for incineration rather than recycling… We are all concerned by selective sorting of waste mater...

  6. Fast sorting measurement technique to determine decontamination priority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distenfeld, C.H.; Brosey, B.; Igarashi, H.

    1986-01-01

    The method used to select decontamination priorities for the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor building (RB) is systematic, but costs in personnel exposure and time must be borne. One way of minimizing exposure is to define and treat the one or two surface sources that are important contributors to the collective dose of the recovery personnel. Surface characteristics can then be determined and decontamination techniques developed to match the removal requirements. At TMI-2, a fast sorting technique was developed and used to prioritize surfaces for exposure reduction. A second quick sort can then be used to determine the next generation of surface characterization, decontamination method selection, and performance. The quick-sort method that was developed is based on the Eberline HP 220A probes directional survey system. The angular response of the HP 220A probes approaches 2 pi steradians and allows toward-away type measurements. Sources distributed over 4 pi steradians are hard to define with this system. Angular differentiation was improved to about pi/2 steradians by redesigning the probe shield. The change allows unambiguous six-direction measurements, such as up, down, front, rear, right, and left with practically no angular overlap or exclusion. A simple, light-weight stand was used to establish an angular reference for the rectangular packaged probe. The six surface planes of the rectangle work with the angular reference to establish the six viewing angles

  7. Trapping, focusing, and sorting of microparticles through bubble streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Jalikop, Shreyas; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2010-11-01

    Ultrasound-driven oscillating microbubbles can set up vigorous steady streaming flows around the bubbles. In contrast to previous work, we make use of the interaction between the bubble streaming and the streaming induced around mobile particles close to the bubble. Our experiment superimposes a unidirectional Poiseuille flow containing a well-mixed suspension of neutrally buoyant particles with the bubble streaming. The particle-size dependence of the particle-bubble interaction selects which particles are transported and which particles are trapped near the bubbles. The sizes selected for can be far smaller than any scale imposed by the device geometry, and the selection mechanism is purely passive. Changing the amplitude and frequency of ultrasound driving, we can further control focusing and sorting of the trapped particles, leading to the emergence of sharply defined monodisperse particle streams within a much wider channel. Optimizing parameters for focusing and sorting are presented. The technique is applicable in important fields like cell sorting and drug delivery.

  8. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa M. Reda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan.

  9. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Naglaa M; Tawfik, A; Marzok, Mohamed A; Khamis, Soheir M

    2015-11-01

    Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan.

  10. Differential evolution enhanced with multiobjective sorting-based mutation operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiahai; Liao, Jianjun; Zhou, Ying; Cai, Yiqiao

    2014-12-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is a simple and powerful population-based evolutionary algorithm. The salient feature of DE lies in its mutation mechanism. Generally, the parents in the mutation operator of DE are randomly selected from the population. Hence, all vectors are equally likely to be selected as parents without selective pressure at all. Additionally, the diversity information is always ignored. In order to fully exploit the fitness and diversity information of the population, this paper presents a DE framework with multiobjective sorting-based mutation operator. In the proposed mutation operator, individuals in the current population are firstly sorted according to their fitness and diversity contribution by nondominated sorting. Then parents in the mutation operators are proportionally selected according to their rankings based on fitness and diversity, thus, the promising individuals with better fitness and diversity have more opportunity to be selected as parents. Since fitness and diversity information is simultaneously considered for parent selection, a good balance between exploration and exploitation can be achieved. The proposed operator is applied to original DE algorithms, as well as several advanced DE variants. Experimental results on 48 benchmark functions and 12 real-world application problems show that the proposed operator is an effective approach to enhance the performance of most DE algorithms studied.

  11. Efficient Architecture for Spike Sorting in Reconfigurable Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ying Lai

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel hardware architecture for fast spike sorting. The architecture is able to perform both the feature extraction and clustering in hardware. The generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA and fuzzy C-means (FCM algorithm are used for feature extraction and clustering, respectively. The employment of GHA allows efficient computation of principal components for subsequent clustering operations. The FCM is able to achieve near optimal clustering for spike sorting. Its performance is insensitive to the selection of initial cluster centers. The hardware implementations of GHA and FCM feature low area costs and high throughput. In the GHA architecture, the computation of different weight vectors share the same circuit for lowering the area costs. Moreover, in the FCM hardware implementation, the usual iterative operations for updating the membership matrix and cluster centroid are merged into one single updating process to evade the large storage requirement. To show the effectiveness of the circuit, the proposed architecture is physically implemented by field programmable gate array (FPGA. It is embedded in a System-on-Chip (SOC platform for performance measurement. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture is an efficient spike sorting design for attaining high classification correct rate and high speed computation.

  12. Efficient Architecture for Spike Sorting in Reconfigurable Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Lee, Wei-Hao; Lin, Shiow-Jyu; Lai, Sheng-Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hardware architecture for fast spike sorting. The architecture is able to perform both the feature extraction and clustering in hardware. The generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA) and fuzzy C-means (FCM) algorithm are used for feature extraction and clustering, respectively. The employment of GHA allows efficient computation of principal components for subsequent clustering operations. The FCM is able to achieve near optimal clustering for spike sorting. Its performance is insensitive to the selection of initial cluster centers. The hardware implementations of GHA and FCM feature low area costs and high throughput. In the GHA architecture, the computation of different weight vectors share the same circuit for lowering the area costs. Moreover, in the FCM hardware implementation, the usual iterative operations for updating the membership matrix and cluster centroid are merged into one single updating process to evade the large storage requirement. To show the effectiveness of the circuit, the proposed architecture is physically implemented by field programmable gate array (FPGA). It is embedded in a System-on-Chip (SOC) platform for performance measurement. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture is an efficient spike sorting design for attaining high classification correct rate and high speed computation. PMID:24189331

  13. Anti-Hermitian photodetector facilitating efficient subwavelength photon sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Jin; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Mutlu, Mehmet; Park, Joonsuk; Park, Woosung; Goodson, Kenneth E; Sinclair, Robert; Fan, Shanhui; Kik, Pieter G; Brongersma, Mark L

    2018-01-22

    The ability to split an incident light beam into separate wavelength bands is central to a diverse set of optical applications, including imaging, biosensing, communication, photocatalysis, and photovoltaics. Entirely new opportunities are currently emerging with the recently demonstrated possibility to spectrally split light at a subwavelength scale with optical antennas. Unfortunately, such small structures offer limited spectral control and are hard to exploit in optoelectronic devices. Here, we overcome both challenges and demonstrate how within a single-layer metafilm one can laterally sort photons of different wavelengths below the free-space diffraction limit and extract a useful photocurrent. This chipscale demonstration of anti-Hermitian coupling between resonant photodetector elements also facilitates near-unity photon-sorting efficiencies, near-unity absorption, and a narrow spectral response (∼ 30 nm) for the different wavelength channels. This work opens up entirely new design paradigms for image sensors and energy harvesting systems in which the active elements both sort and detect photons.

  14. Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    -- an outline which at the same time indicates the need for transformations of the Durkheimian model on decisive points. Thus, thirdly, it returns to Durkheim and undertakes to develop his concepts in a direction suitable for a sociological theory of fashion. Finally, it discusses the theoretical implications......This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...

  15. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  16. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Zivoli, Rosanna; Gambacorta, Lucia; Piemontese, Luca; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted) from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distributi...

  17. Protein purification using magnetic adsorbent particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzreb, M; Siemann-Herzberg, M.; Hobley, Timothy John

    2006-01-01

    The application of functionalised magnetic adsorbent particles in combination with magnetic separation techniques has received considerable attention in recent years. The magnetically responsive nature of such adsorbent particles permits their selective manipulation and separation in the presence...... separations are fast, gentle, scaleable, easily automated, can achieve separations that would be impossible or impractical to achieve by other techniques, and have demonstrated credibility in a wide range of disciplines, including minerals processing, wastewater treatment, molecular biology, cell sorting...

  18. Technology to sort lumber by color and grain for furniture parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic color and grain sorting system for wood edge-glued panel parts. The color sorting system simultaneously examines both faces of a panel part and then determines which face has the "best" color, and sorts the part into one of a number of color classes at plant production speeds. In-plant test results show that the system...

  19. A QR code identification technology in package auto-sorting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    di, Yi-Juan; Shi, Jian-Ping; Mao, Guo-Yong

    2017-07-01

    Traditional manual sorting operation is not suitable for the development of Chinese logistics. For better sorting packages, a QR code recognition technology is proposed to identify the QR code label on the packages in package auto-sorting system. The experimental results compared with other algorithms in literatures demonstrate that the proposed method is valid and its performance is superior to other algorithms.

  20. Machine Vision System for Color Sorting Wood Edge-Glued Panel Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang Lu; S. Srikanteswara; W. King; T. Drayer; Richard Conners; D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic color sorting system for hardwood edge-glued panel parts. The color sorting system simultaneously examines both faces of a panel part and then determines which face has the "better" color given specified color uniformity and priority defined by management. The real-time color sorting system software and hardware are briefly...

  1. Magnetophoretic transistors in a tri-axial magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Joh, Daniel Y; Albarghouthi, Faris; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Murdoch, David M; Yellen, Benjamin B

    2016-10-18

    The ability to direct and sort individual biological and non-biological particles into spatially addressable locations is fundamentally important to the emerging field of single cell biology. Towards this goal, we demonstrate a new class of magnetophoretic transistors, which can switch single magnetically labeled cells and magnetic beads between different paths in a microfluidic chamber. Compared with prior work on magnetophoretic transistors driven by a two-dimensional in-plane rotating field, the addition of a vertical magnetic field bias provides significant advantages in preventing the formation of particle clumps and in better replicating the operating principles of circuits in general. However, the three-dimensional driving field requires a complete redesign of the magnetic track geometry and switching electrodes. We have solved this problem by developing several types of transistor geometries which can switch particles between two different tracks by either presenting a local energy barrier or by repelling magnetic objects away from a given track, hereby denoted as "barrier" and "repulsion" transistors, respectively. For both types of transistors, we observe complete switching of magnetic objects with currents of ∼40 mA, which is consistent over a range of particle sizes (8-15 μm). The switching efficiency was also tested at various magnetic field strengths (50-90 Oe) and driving frequencies (0.1-0.6 Hz); however, we again found that the device performance only weakly depended on these parameters. These findings support the use of these novel transistor geometries to form circuit architectures in which cells can be placed in defined locations and retrieved on demand.

  2. Consensus-Based Sorting of Neuronal Spike Waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Julien; Mueller, Christian M; Shein-Idelson, Mark; Hemberger, Mike; Laurent, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing spike-sorting algorithms is difficult because sorted clusters can rarely be checked against independently obtained "ground truth" data. In most spike-sorting algorithms in use today, the optimality of a clustering solution is assessed relative to some assumption on the distribution of the spike shapes associated with a particular single unit (e.g., Gaussianity) and by visual inspection of the clustering solution followed by manual validation. When the spatiotemporal waveforms of spikes from different cells overlap, the decision as to whether two spikes should be assigned to the same source can be quite subjective, if it is not based on reliable quantitative measures. We propose a new approach, whereby spike clusters are identified from the most consensual partition across an ensemble of clustering solutions. Using the variability of the clustering solutions across successive iterations of the same clustering algorithm (template matching based on K-means clusters), we estimate the probability of spikes being clustered together and identify groups of spikes that are not statistically distinguishable from one another. Thus, we identify spikes that are most likely to be clustered together and therefore correspond to consistent spike clusters. This method has the potential advantage that it does not rely on any model of the spike shapes. It also provides estimates of the proportion of misclassified spikes for each of the identified clusters. We tested our algorithm on several datasets for which there exists a ground truth (simultaneous intracellular data), and show that it performs close to the optimum reached by a support vector machine trained on the ground truth. We also show that the estimated rate of misclassification matches the proportion of misclassified spikes measured from the ground truth data.

  3. Numerical Model of Streaming DEP for Stem Cell Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha Natu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells are of special interest due to their potential in neurogenesis to treat spinal cord injuries and other nervous disorders. Flow cytometry, a common technique used for cell sorting, is limited due to the lack of antigens and labels that are specific enough to stem cells of interest. Dielectrophoresis (DEP is a label-free separation technique that has been recently demonstrated for the enrichment of neural stem/progenitor cells. Here we use numerical simulation to investigate the use of streaming DEP for the continuous sorting of neural stem/progenitor cells. Streaming DEP refers to the focusing of cells into streams by equilibrating the dielectrophoresis and drag forces acting on them. The width of the stream should be maximized to increase throughput while the separation between streams must be widened to increase efficiency during retrieval. The aim is to understand how device geometry and experimental variables affect the throughput and efficiency of continuous sorting of SC27 stem cells, a neurogenic progenitor, from SC23 cells, an astrogenic progenitor. We define efficiency as the ratio between the number of SC27 cells over total number of cells retrieved in the streams, and throughput as the number of SC27 cells retrieved in the streams compared to their total number introduced to the device. The use of cylindrical electrodes as tall as the channel yields streams featuring >98% of SC27 cells and width up to 80 µm when using a flow rate of 10 µL/min and sample cell concentration up to 105 cells/mL.

  4. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB): list sorting test to measure working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Kisala, Pamela A; Mungas, Dan; Conway, Kevin; Gershon, Richard

    2014-07-01

    The List Sorting Working Memory Test was designed to assess working memory (WM) as part of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. List Sorting is a sequencing task requiring children and adults to sort and sequence stimuli that are presented visually and auditorily. Validation data are presented for 268 participants ages 20 to 85 years. A subset of participants (N=89) was retested 7 to 21 days later. As expected, the List Sorting Test had moderately high correlations with other measures of working memory and executive functioning (convergent validity) but a low correlation with a test of receptive vocabulary (discriminant validity). Furthermore, List Sorting demonstrates expected changes over the age span and has excellent test-retest reliability. Collectively, these results provide initial support for the construct validity of the List Sorting Working Memory Measure as a measure of working memory. However, the relationship between the List Sorting Test and general executive function has yet to be determined.

  5. Scaled signal intensity of uterine fibroids based on T2-weighted MR images: a potential objective method to determine the suitability for magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery of uterine fibroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun [CHA University, Comprehensive Gynecologic Cancer Center, CHA Bundang Medical Center, Gyunggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sang-Wook [CHA University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, Sungnam-si, Gyunggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Sokolov, Amit [InSightec Ltd., Haifa (Israel)

    2015-12-15

    Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS) is a non-invasive method to treat uterine fibroids. To help determine the patient suitability for MRgFUS, we propose a new objective measure: the scaled signal intensity (SSI) of uterine fibroids in T2 weighted MR images (T2WI). Forty three uterine fibroids in 40 premenopausal women were included in this retrospective study. SSI of each fibroid was measured from the screening T2WI by standardizing its mean signal intensity to a 0-100 scale, using reference intensities of rectus abdominis muscle (0) and subcutaneous fat (100). Correlation between the SSI and the non-perfused volume (NPV) ratio (a measure for treatment success) was calculated. Pre-treatment SSI showed a significant inverse-correlation with post treatment NPV ratio (p < 0.05). When dichotomizing NPV ratio at 45 %, the optimal cut off value of the SSI was found to be 16.0. A fibroid with SSI value 16.0 or less can be expected to have optimal responses. The SSI of uterine fibroids in T2WI can be suggested as an objective parameter to help in patient selection for MRgFUS. (orig.)

  6. Scaled signal intensity of uterine fibroids based on T2-weighted MR images: a potential objective method to determine the suitability for magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery of uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun; Yoon, Sang-Wook; Sokolov, Amit

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS) is a non-invasive method to treat uterine fibroids. To help determine the patient suitability for MRgFUS, we propose a new objective measure: the scaled signal intensity (SSI) of uterine fibroids in T2 weighted MR images (T2WI). Forty three uterine fibroids in 40 premenopausal women were included in this retrospective study. SSI of each fibroid was measured from the screening T2WI by standardizing its mean signal intensity to a 0-100 scale, using reference intensities of rectus abdominis muscle (0) and subcutaneous fat (100). Correlation between the SSI and the non-perfused volume (NPV) ratio (a measure for treatment success) was calculated. Pre-treatment SSI showed a significant inverse-correlation with post treatment NPV ratio (p < 0.05). When dichotomizing NPV ratio at 45 %, the optimal cut off value of the SSI was found to be 16.0. A fibroid with SSI value 16.0 or less can be expected to have optimal responses. The SSI of uterine fibroids in T2WI can be suggested as an objective parameter to help in patient selection for MRgFUS. • Signal intensity of fibroid in MR images predicts treatment response to MRgFUS. • Signal intensity is standardized into scaled form using adjacent tissues as references. • Fibroids with SSI less than 16.0 are expected to have optimal responses.

  7. Woody biomass comminution and sorting - a review of mechanical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Gunnar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Forest Resource Management, Umeaa (Sweden)], e-mail: gunnar.eriksson@slu.se

    2012-11-01

    The increased demand for woody biomass for heat and electricity and biorefineries means that each bio component must be used efficiently. Any increase in raw material supply in the short term is likely to require the use of trees from early thinnings, logging residues and stumps, assortments of low value compared to stemwood. However, sorting of the novel materials into bio components may increase their value considerably. The challenge is to 1) maximise the overall values of the different raw material fractions for different users, 2) minimise costs for raw material extraction, processing, storage and transportation. Comminution of the raw material (e.g. to chips, chunks, flakes and powder) and sorting the bio components (e.g. separating bark from pulp chips and separating alkali-rich needles and shots for combustion and gasification applications) are crucial processes in this optimisation. The purpose of this study has been to make a literature review of principles for comminution and sorting, with an emphasis on mechanical methods suitable outside industries. More efficient comminution methods can be developed when the wood is to a larger extent cut along the fibre direction, and closer to the surface (with less pressure to the sides of the knife). By using coarse comminution (chunking) rather than fine comminution (chipping), productivity at landings can be increased and energy saved, the resulting product will have better storage and drying properties. At terminals, any further comminution (if necessary) could use larger-scale equipment of higher efficiency. Rolls and flails can be used to an increasing extent for removing foliage and twigs, possibly in the terrain (for instance fitted on grapples). Physical parameters used for sorting of the main components of trees include particle size, density and shape (aerodynamic drag and lift), optical and IR properties and X-ray fluorescence. Although methods developed for pulp chip production from whole trees may not

  8. Aldefluor protocol to sort keratinocytes stem cells from skin

    OpenAIRE

    Noronha, Samuel Marcos Ribeiro; Gragnani, Alfredo; Pereira, Thiago Antônio Calado; Correa, Silvana Aparecida Alves; Bonucci, Jessica; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate the use Aldefluor® and N, N - Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB) to design a protocol to sort keratinocyte stem cells from cultured keratinocytes from burned patients. Methods: Activated Aldefluor® aliquots were prepared and maintained at temperature between 2 to 8°C, or stored at -20°C. Next, the cells were collected following the standard protocol of sample preparation. Results: Best results were obtained with Aldefluor® 1.5µl and DEAB 15 µl for 1 x 106 c...

  9. Simulating Sediment Sorting of Streambed Surfaces - It's the Supply, Stupid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    The grain size of the streambed surface is an integral part of the transport system because it represents the grains immediately available for transport. If the rate and size of grains entrained from the bed surface differ from that delivered to the bed surface, the bed surface grain size will change. Although this balance is intuitively clear, its implications can surprise. The relative mobility of different sizes in a mixture change as transport rates increase. At small transport rates, smaller sizes are more mobile. As transport rate increases, the transport grain size approaches that of the bed. This presents a dilemma when using flumes to simulate surface sorting and transport. When sediment is fed into a flume, the same sediment is typically used regardless of feed rate. The transport grain size remains constant at all rates, which does not match the pattern observed in the field. This operational constraint means that sediment supply is coarser than transport capacity in feed flumes, increasingly so as transport rates diminish. This imbalance drives a coarsening of the stream bed as less mobile coarse grains concentrate on the surface as the system approaches steady-state. If sediment is recirculated in a flume, sediment supply and entrainment are perfectly matched. Surface coarsening is not imposed, but does occur via kinematic sieving. The coarsening of the transport (and supply) accommodates the rate-dependent change in mobility such that the bed surface grain size does not change with transport rate. Streambed armoring depends on both the rate and grain size of sediment supply - their implications do not seem to be fully appreciated. A coarsened bed surface does not indicate sorting of the bed surface during waning flows - it can persist with active sediment supply and transport. Neither sediment feed nor sediment recirculating flumes accurately mimic natural conditions but instead represent end members that bracket the dynamics of natural streams

  10. Web page sorting algorithm based on query keyword distance relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han; Cui, Hong Gang; Tang, Hao

    2017-08-01

    In order to optimize the problem of page sorting, according to the search keywords in the web page in the relationship between the characteristics of the proposed query keywords clustering ideas. And it is converted into the degree of aggregation of the search keywords in the web page. Based on the PageRank algorithm, the clustering degree factor of the query keyword is added to make it possible to participate in the quantitative calculation. This paper proposes an improved algorithm for PageRank based on the distance relation between search keywords. The experimental results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamical processes near compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisnovatyi Kogan, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamical processes near compact objects are reviewed in this paper. First the accretion of the magnetized matter into a single black hole and spectra of radiation are considered. Then the magnetic-field phenomena in the disk accretion, when the black hole is in a pair are discussed. Furthermore, the magnetohydrodynamics phenomena during supernova explosion are considered. Finally the magnetohydrodynamics in the accretion of a neutron star is considered in connection With x-ray sources

  12. Effects of Added Enzymes on Sorted, Unsorted and Sorted-Out Barley: A Model Study on Realtime Viscosity and Process Potentials Using Rapid Visco Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Radhakrishna; Zhuang, Shiwen; Olsen, Rasmus Lyngsø

    2017-01-01

    Barley sorting is an important step for selecting grain of required quality for malting prior to brewing. However, brewing with unmalted barley with added enzymes has been thoroughly proven, raising the question of whether traditional sorting for high quality malting-barley is still necessary. To...

  13. Fluence map optimization (FMO) with dose–volume constraints in IMRT using the geometric distance sorting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Yihua; Li Cunhua; Ren Haozheng; Zhang Yong; Min Zhifang

    2012-01-01

    A new heuristic algorithm based on the so-called geometric distance sorting technique is proposed for solving the fluence map optimization with dose–volume constraints which is one of the most essential tasks for inverse planning in IMRT. The framework of the proposed method is basically an iterative process which begins with a simple linear constrained quadratic optimization model without considering any dose–volume constraints, and then the dose constraints for the voxels violating the dose–volume constraints are gradually added into the quadratic optimization model step by step until all the dose–volume constraints are satisfied. In each iteration step, an interior point method is adopted to solve each new linear constrained quadratic programming. For choosing the proper candidate voxels for the current dose constraint adding, a so-called geometric distance defined in the transformed standard quadratic form of the fluence map optimization model was used to guide the selection of the voxels. The new geometric distance sorting technique can mostly reduce the unexpected increase of the objective function value caused inevitably by the constraint adding. It can be regarded as an upgrading to the traditional dose sorting technique. The geometry explanation for the proposed method is also given and a proposition is proved to support our heuristic idea. In addition, a smart constraint adding/deleting strategy is designed to ensure a stable iteration convergence. The new algorithm is tested on four cases including head–neck, a prostate, a lung and an oropharyngeal, and compared with the algorithm based on the traditional dose sorting technique. Experimental results showed that the proposed method is more suitable for guiding the selection of new constraints than the traditional dose sorting method, especially for the cases whose target regions are in non-convex shapes. It is a more efficient optimization technique to some extent for choosing constraints than

  14. Fluence map optimization (FMO) with dose-volume constraints in IMRT using the geometric distance sorting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yihua; Li, Cunhua; Ren, Haozheng; Zhang, Yong; Min, Zhifang

    2012-10-21

    A new heuristic algorithm based on the so-called geometric distance sorting technique is proposed for solving the fluence map optimization with dose-volume constraints which is one of the most essential tasks for inverse planning in IMRT. The framework of the proposed method is basically an iterative process which begins with a simple linear constrained quadratic optimization model without considering any dose-volume constraints, and then the dose constraints for the voxels violating the dose-volume constraints are gradually added into the quadratic optimization model step by step until all the dose-volume constraints are satisfied. In each iteration step, an interior point method is adopted to solve each new linear constrained quadratic programming. For choosing the proper candidate voxels for the current dose constraint adding, a so-called geometric distance defined in the transformed standard quadratic form of the fluence map optimization model was used to guide the selection of the voxels. The new geometric distance sorting technique can mostly reduce the unexpected increase of the objective function value caused inevitably by the constraint adding. It can be regarded as an upgrading to the traditional dose sorting technique. The geometry explanation for the proposed method is also given and a proposition is proved to support our heuristic idea. In addition, a smart constraint adding/deleting strategy is designed to ensure a stable iteration convergence. The new algorithm is tested on four cases including head-neck, a prostate, a lung and an oropharyngeal, and compared with the algorithm based on the traditional dose sorting technique. Experimental results showed that the proposed method is more suitable for guiding the selection of new constraints than the traditional dose sorting method, especially for the cases whose target regions are in non-convex shapes. It is a more efficient optimization technique to some extent for choosing constraints than the dose

  15. A multiobjective modeling approach to locate multi-compartment containers for urban-sorted waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tralhao, Lino; Coutinho-Rodrigues, Joao; Alcada-Almeida, Luis

    2010-01-01

    The location of multi-compartment sorted waste containers for recycling purposes in cities is an important problem in the context of urban waste management. The costs associated with those facilities and the impacts placed on populations are important concerns. This paper introduces a mixed-integer, multiobjective programming approach to identify the locations and capacities of such facilities. The approach incorporates an optimization model in a Geographical Information System (GIS)-based interactive decision support system that includes four objectives. The first objective minimizes the total investment cost; the second one minimizes the average distance from dwellings to the respective multi-compartment container; the last two objectives address the 'pull' and 'push' characteristics of the decision problem, one by minimizing the number of individuals too close to any container, and the other by minimizing the number of dwellings too far from the respective multi-compartment container. The model determines the number of facilities to be opened, the respective container capacities, their locations, their respective shares of the total waste of each type to be collected, and the dwellings assigned to each facility. The approach proposed was tested with a case study for the historical center of Coimbra city, Portugal, where a large urban renovation project, addressing about 800 buildings, is being undertaken. This paper demonstrates that the models and techniques incorporated in the interactive decision support system (IDSS) can be used to assist a decision maker (DM) in analyzing this complex problem in a realistically sized urban application. Ten solutions consisting of different combinations of underground containers for the disposal of four types of sorted waste in 12 candidate sites, were generated. These solutions and tradeoffs among the objectives are presented to the DM via tables, graphs, color-coded maps and other graphics. The DM can then use this

  16. Soil sorting, new approach to site remediation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Woods, J.A.; Dillon, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Soil sorting is the technology which conveys soil beneath contaminant detectors and, based on contaminant signal, automatically toggles a gate at the conveyor end to send soil with contamination above a guideline to a separate location from soil which meets the guideline. The technology was perfected for remediation of sites having soils with radioactive contamination, but it is applicable to other contaminants when instrumental methods exist for rapid contaminant detection at levels of concern. This paper examines the three methods for quantifying contamination in soil in support of site remediation management. Examples are discussed where the primary contaminant is plutonium, a radioactive substance and source of nuclear energy which can be hazardous to health when in the environment without controls. Field survey instruments are very sensitive to plutonium and can detect it in soil at levels below a part per billion, and there are a variety of soils which have been contaminated by plutonium and thoroughly investigated. The lessons learned with plutonium are applicable to other types of contaminants and site remediations. The paper concludes that soil sorting can be the most cost effective approach to site remediation, and it leads to the best overall cleanup

  17. Performance evaluation of PCA-based spike sorting algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamos, Dimitrios A; Kosmidis, Efstratios K; Theophilidis, George

    2008-09-01

    Deciphering the electrical activity of individual neurons from multi-unit noisy recordings is critical for understanding complex neural systems. A widely used spike sorting algorithm is being evaluated for single-electrode nerve trunk recordings. The algorithm is based on principal component analysis (PCA) for spike feature extraction. In the neuroscience literature it is generally assumed that the use of the first two or most commonly three principal components is sufficient. We estimate the optimum PCA-based feature space by evaluating the algorithm's performance on simulated series of action potentials. A number of modifications are made to the open source nev2lkit software to enable systematic investigation of the parameter space. We introduce a new metric to define clustering error considering over-clustering more favorable than under-clustering as proposed by experimentalists for our data. Both the program patch and the metric are available online. Correlated and white Gaussian noise processes are superimposed to account for biological and artificial jitter in the recordings. We report that the employment of more than three principal components is in general beneficial for all noise cases considered. Finally, we apply our results to experimental data and verify that the sorting process with four principal components is in agreement with a panel of electrophysiology experts.

  18. Spike sorting based upon machine learning algorithms (SOMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, P M; Nicol, A U; Kendrick, K M; Feng, J F

    2007-02-15

    We have developed a spike sorting method, using a combination of various machine learning algorithms, to analyse electrophysiological data and automatically determine the number of sampled neurons from an individual electrode, and discriminate their activities. We discuss extensions to a standard unsupervised learning algorithm (Kohonen), as using a simple application of this technique would only identify a known number of clusters. Our extra techniques automatically identify the number of clusters within the dataset, and their sizes, thereby reducing the chance of misclassification. We also discuss a new pre-processing technique, which transforms the data into a higher dimensional feature space revealing separable clusters. Using principal component analysis (PCA) alone may not achieve this. Our new approach appends the features acquired using PCA with features describing the geometric shapes that constitute a spike waveform. To validate our new spike sorting approach, we have applied it to multi-electrode array datasets acquired from the rat olfactory bulb, and from the sheep infero-temporal cortex, and using simulated data. The SOMA sofware is available at http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Users/pmh20/spikes.

  19. Design and construction of automatic sorting station with machine vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar D. Velasco-Delgado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the design, construction and testing of an automatic product sorting system in belt conveyor with machine vision that integrates Free and Open Source Software technology and Allen Bradley commercial equipment. Requirements are defined to determine features such as: mechanics of manufacturing station, an app of product sorting with machine vision and for automation system. For the app of machine vision a library is used for optical digital image processing Open CV, for the mechanical design of the manufacturing station is used the CAD tool Solid Edge and for the design and implementation of automation ISA standards are used along with an automation engineering project methodology integrating a PLC, an inverter, a Panel View and a DeviceNet Network. Performance tests are shown by classifying bottles and PVC pieces in four established types, the behavior of the integrated system is checked so as the efficiency of the same. The processing time on machine vision is 0.290 s on average for a piece of PVC, a capacity of 206 accessories per minute, for bottles was obtained a processing time of 0.267 s, a capacity of 224 bottles per minute. A maximum mechanical performance is obtained with 32 products per minute (1920 products/hour with the conveyor to 22 cm/s and 40 cm of distance between products obtaining an average error of 0.8%.

  20. A Linear Criterion to sort Color Components in Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barriga Rodriguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The color and its representation play a basic role in Image Analysis process. Several methods can be beneficial whenever they have a correct representation of wave-length variations used to represent scenes with a camera. A wide variety of spaces and color representations is founded in specialized literature. Each one is useful in concrete circumstances and others may offer redundant color information (for instance, all RGB components are high correlated. This work deals with the task of identifying and sorting which component from several color representations offers the majority of information about the scene. This approach is based on analyzing linear dependences among each color component, by the implementation of a new sorting algorithm based on entropy. The proposal is tested in several outdoor/indoor scenes with different light conditions. Repeatability and stability are tested in order to guarantee its use in several image analysis applications. Finally, the results of this work have been used to enhance an external algorithm to compensate the camera random vibrations.

  1. Assessing of bulk materials mixing and sorting by radiotracer methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyn, J.

    1983-01-01

    Various applications are indicated of tracer techniques for the evaluation of mixing and sorting of mixtures of solid particles. The evaluation of the process of mixing, i.e., the determination of the homogenization time is done by labelling of the entire volume of the monitored component of the mixture and continuous detection of radiation through the walls of the mixer using one or several detectors. The evaluation of the character of the flow and the evacuation of solid particles from the bin is done by labelling with a radiotracer the material which is spread out on the top along the whole cross-section of the bin, and the concentration is monitored of the tracer in the material outflow. The evaluation of material sorting in bins which takes place during the filling and emptying is done on the basis of significance tests or using self-correlation functions and frequency characteristics. Also monitored was the dependence of the equalizing ability of the continuous gravity mixer at the vertex angle of the tip. (M.D.)

  2. Fuzzy ranking based non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II for network overload alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandiarajan K.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an effective method of network overload management in power systems. The three competing objectives 1 generation cost 2 transmission line overload and 3 real power loss are optimized to provide pareto-optimal solutions. A fuzzy ranking based non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II is used to solve this complex nonlinear optimization problem. The minimization of competing objectives is done by generation rescheduling. Fuzzy ranking method is employed to extract the best compromise solution out of the available non-dominated solutions depending upon its highest rank. N-1 contingency analysis is carried out to identify the most severe lines and those lines are selected for outage. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated for different contingency cases in IEEE 30 and IEEE 118 bus systems with smooth cost functions and their results are compared with other single objective evolutionary algorithms like Particle swarm optimization (PSO and Differential evolution (DE. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach to generate well distributed pareto-optimal non-dominated solutions of multi-objective problem

  3. Relevance-aware filtering of tuples sorted by an attribute value via direct optimization of search quality metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spirin, N.V.; Kuznetsov, M.; Kiseleva, Y.; Spirin, Y.V.; Izhutov, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Sorting tuples by an attribute value is a common search scenario and many search engines support such capabilities, e.g. price-based sorting in e-commerce, time-based sorting on a job or social media website. However, sorting purely by the attribute value might lead to poor user experience because

  4. An institution for object-z with inheritance and polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumeister, Hubert; Bettaz, Mohamed; Maouche, Mourad

    2015-01-01

    logical systems and their connections. This is the foundation of multi-modelling languages allowing one to deal with heterogeneous specifications in a consistent way. To make Object-Z accessible as part of such a multi-modelling language, we define the institution OZS for Object-Z. We have chosen Object......-Z in part because it is a prominent software modelling language and in part because it allows us to study the formalisation of object-oriented concepts, like object identity, object state, dynamic behaviour, polymorphic sorts and inheritance....

  5. Vision-based autonomous grasping of unknown piled objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Computer vision techniques have been used to develop a vision-based grasping capability for autonomously picking and placing unknown piled objects. This work is currently being applied to the problem of hazardous waste sorting in support of the Department of Energy's Mixed Waste Operations Program

  6. Design of mechanical arm for an automatic sorting system of recyclable cans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resti, Y.; Mohruni, A. S.; Burlian, F.; Yani, I.; Amran, A.

    2018-04-01

    The use of a mechanical arm for an automatic sorting system of used cans should be designed carefully. The right design will result in a high precision sorting rate and a short sorting time. The design includes first; design manipulator,second; determine link and joint specifications, and third; build mechanical systems and control systems. This study aims to design the mechanical arm as a hardware system for automatic cans sorting system. The material used for the manipulator is the aluminum plate. The manipulator is designed using 6 links and 6 join where the 6th link is the end effectorand the 6th join is the gripper. As a driving motor used servo motor, while as a microcontroller used Arduino Uno which is connected with Matlab programming language. Based on testing, a mechanical arm designed for this recyclable canned recycling system has a precision sorting rate at 93%, where the average total time required for sorting is 10.82 seconds.

  7. An Empirical Model of Wage Dispersion with Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jesper; Lentz, Rasmus

    (submodular). The model is estimated on Danish matched employer-employee data. We find evidence of positive assortative matching. In the estimated equilibrium match distribution, the correlation between worker skill and firm productivity is 0.12. The assortative matching has a substantial impact on wage......This paper studies wage dispersion in an equilibrium on-the-job-search model with endogenous search intensity. Workers differ in their permanent skill level and firms differ with respect to productivity. Positive (negative) sorting results if the match production function is supermodular...... to mismatch by asking how much greater output would be if the estimated population of matches were perfectly positively assorted. In this case, output would increase by 7.7%....

  8. Increased Sorting and Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This paper makes use of a linked employer–employee dataset to examine the evolution of wage inequality in the Czech Republic during 1998–2006. We find evidence of slightly increasing returns to human capital and diminishing gender inequality and document sharp increases in both within......-firm and between-firm inequality. We investigate several hypotheses to explain these patterns: increased domestic and international competition, decentralized wage bargaining, skill-biased technological change and a changing educational composition of the workforce. Domestic competition is found to lower within......-firm inequality whereas we find no evidence that increased international trade at the industry level is associated with higher betweenor within-firm wage inequality. The key factors driving the observed increase in wage inequality are increased educational sorting and the inflow of foreign firms to the Czech...

  9. PTP1B targets the endosomal sorting machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuible, Matthew; Abella, Jasmine V; Feldhammer, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Dephosphorylation and endocytic down-regulation are distinct processes that together control the signaling output of a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). PTP1B can directly dephosphorylate several RTKs, but it can also promote activation of downstream pathways through largely unknown...... mechanisms. These positive signaling functions likely contribute to the tumor-promoting effect of PTP1B in mouse cancer models. Here, we have identified STAM2, an endosomal protein involved in sorting activated RTKs for lysosomal degradation, as a substrate of PTP1B. PTP1B interacts with STAM2 at defined...... phosphotyrosine sites, and knockdown of PTP1B expression augments STAM2 phosphorylation. Intriguingly, manipulating the expression and phosphorylation state of STAM2 did not have a general effect on epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EGF receptor trafficking, degradation, or signaling. Instead, phosphorylated...

  10. Construction of BAC Libraries from Flow-Sorted Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šafář, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Cloned DNA libraries in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) are the most widely used form of large-insert DNA libraries. BAC libraries are typically represented by ordered clones derived from genomic DNA of a particular organism. In the case of large eukaryotic genomes, whole-genome libraries consist of a hundred thousand to a million clones, which make their handling and screening a daunting task. The labor and cost of working with whole-genome libraries can be greatly reduced by constructing a library derived from a smaller part of the genome. Here we describe construction of BAC libraries from mitotic chromosomes purified by flow cytometric sorting. Chromosome-specific BAC libraries facilitate positional gene cloning, physical mapping, and sequencing in complex plant genomes.

  11. The Sorting of Female Careers after First Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntz, Melanie; Dlugosz, Stephan; Wilke, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    unprecedented insights into how women's skills, the quality of the previous job match, firm level characteristics, labour market conditions and leave legislation are related to the length of maternity duration. Expansionary leave policies, e.g. are found to be a key factor for the rising share of women who have......A number of contributions have found evidence that motherhood is a critical life event for women's employment careers. This study presents a detailed analysis for the duration of maternity leave in which young mothers can make a transition into different types of employment, unemployment as well...... as the next birth. We provide a comprehensive picture of the sorting mechanisms that lead to the differentiation of women's employment careers after birth. Our empirical evidence is derived from large-linked administrative individual labour market data from Germany for a period of three decades. We obtain...

  12. The Sorting of Female Careers after First Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntz, Melanie; Dlugosz, Stephan; Wilke, Ralf A.

    A number of contributions have found evidence for motherhood being a critical life event for women's employment careers. This study presents a detailed model for the du- ration of maternity leave in which young mothers can make a transition into a number of states related to employment......- rived from large linked administrative individual labour market data from Germany for a period of three decades. We obtain unprecedented insights how women's skills, the quality of the previous job match, firm level characteristics, labour market conditions and leave legislation are related...... and unemployment among others. The model incorporates a large number of factors including the legal framework, individual and firm character- istics. We provide a comprehensive picture of the sorting mechanisms that lead to the differentiation of women's employment careers after birth. Our empirical evidence is de...

  13. Sorting process of nanoparticles and applications of same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Timothy P.; Henry, Anne-Isabelle; Van Duyne, Richard P.

    2017-10-31

    In one aspect of the present invention, a method for sorting nanoparticles includes preparing a high-viscosity density gradient medium filled in a container, dispersing nanoparticles into an aqueous solution to form a suspension of the nanoparticles, each nanoparticle having one or more cores and a shell encapsulating the one or more cores, layering the suspension of the nanoparticles on the top of the high-viscosity density gradient medium in the container, and centrifugating the layered suspension of the nanoparticles on the top of the high-viscosity density gradient medium in the container at a predetermined speed for a predetermined period of time to form a gradient of fractions of the nanoparticles along the container, where each fraction comprises nanoparticles in a respective one of aggregation states of the nanoparticles.

  14. Insight into economies of scale for waste packaging sorting plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik; Maul, Anja

    2015-01-01

    of economies of scale and discussed complementary relations occurring between capacity size, technology level and operational practice. Processing costs (capital and operational expenditure) per unit waste input were found to decrease from above 100 € for small plants with a basic technology level to 60......This contribution presents the results of a techno-economic analysis performed for German Materials Recovery Facilities (MRFs) which sort commingled lightweight packaging waste (consisting of plastics, metals, beverage cartons and other composite packaging). The study addressed the importance......-70 € for large plants employing advanced process flows. Typical operational practice, often riddled with inadequate process parameters was compared with planned or designed operation. The former was found to significantly influence plant efficiency and therefore possible revenue streams from the sale of output...

  15. Identification and sorting of materials with portable LIBS before decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vors, Evelyne; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Dehayem-Massop, Alix; Gallou, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique of elemental analysis. A laser beam is focused on the surface of the sample to be analyzed. A small quantity of matter is ablated and a plasma formed by the atomized compounds is created. The spectral lines of the light emitted by the plasma are detected by an optical spectrometer. LIBS is a fully optical, multi-elementary and fast analytical technique, requiring no or little sample preparation. These features make the LIBS technique particularly suited for in situ measurements, and portable instruments are currently developed. LIBS analysis can be applied to the identification of materials using chemometric statistical methods (multivariate analysis) connecting the spectrum to the nature of the sample. Such methods have been successfully applied in our laboratory to the determination of the geographical origin of yellow cakes and to the identification of alloys. We present here the work performed with a portable LIBS instrument to meet the needs of waste sorting in industrial domain and in nuclear domain (inventory before decommissioning). A data base of LIBS spectra was built with a commercial instrument (IVEA SAS Easylibs) with samples of four categories of interest for industrial waste sorting: alloys, plastics, concrete and glasses. Different correct identification rates are requested by categories. The alloy spectra contain characteristic spectral lines and sub-categories can be easily discriminated (for example, different steel classes can be identified). The components of the plastics (mainly C, H, O and N) give rise to less characteristic lines and the plastics identification requires a separate study. Supervised statistical models are built with the data base spectra and predictions are instantly calculated for the spectra of unknown materials to identify in order to direct them to the correct waste stream. (authors)

  16. Reducing 4D CT artifacts using optimized sorting based on anatomic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Eric; Diehn, Maximilian; Murphy, James D; Loo, Billy W; Maxim, Peter G

    2011-05-01

    Four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) has been widely used as a tool to characterize respiratory motion in radiotherapy. The two most commonly used 4D CT algorithms sort images by the associated respiratory phase or displacement into a predefined number of bins, and are prone to image artifacts at transitions between bed positions. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate a method of reducing motion artifacts in 4D CT by incorporating anatomic similarity into phase or displacement based sorting protocols. Ten patient datasets were retrospectively sorted using both the displacement and phase based sorting algorithms. Conventional sorting methods allow selection of only the nearest-neighbor image in time or displacement within each bin. In our method, for each bed position either the displacement or the phase defines the center of a bin range about which several candidate images are selected. The two dimensional correlation coefficients between slices bordering the interface between adjacent couch positions are then calculated for all candidate pairings. Two slices have a high correlation if they are anatomically similar. Candidates from each bin are then selected to maximize the slice correlation over the entire data set using the Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm. To assess the reduction of artifacts, two thoracic radiation oncologists independently compared the resorted 4D datasets pairwise with conventionally sorted datasets, blinded to the sorting method, to choose which had the least motion artifacts. Agreement between reviewers was evaluated using the weighted kappa score. Anatomically based image selection resulted in 4D CT datasets with significantly reduced motion artifacts with both displacement (P = 0.0063) and phase sorting (P = 0.00022). There was good agreement between the two reviewers, with complete agreement 34 times and complete disagreement 6 times. Optimized sorting using anatomic similarity significantly reduces 4D CT motion

  17. An Evaluation of the Critical Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Some Sorting Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Olabiyisi S.O.; Adetunji A.B.; Oyeyinka F.I.

    2013-01-01

    Sorting allows information or data to be put into a meaningful order. As efficiency is a major concern of computing, data are sorted in order to gain the efficiency in retrieving or searching tasks. The factors affecting the efficiency of shell, Heap, Bubble, Quick and Merge sorting techniques in terms of running time, memory usage and the number of exchanges were investigated. Experiment was conducted for the decision variables generated from algorithms implemented in Java programming and fa...

  18. Safe sorting of GFP-transduced live cells for subsequent culture using a modified FACS vantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T U; Gram, G J; Nielsen, S D

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A stream-in-air cell sorter enables rapid sorting to a high purity, but it is not well suited for sorting of infectious material due to the risk of airborne spread to the surroundings. METHODS: A FACS Vantage cell sorter was modified for safe use with potentially HIV infected cells...... culture. CONCLUSIONS: Sorting of live infected cells can be performed safely and with no deleterious effects on vector expression using the modified FACS Vantage instrument....

  19. Magnetic and Engineering Analysis of an Adjustable Strength Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    CERN Document Server

    Gottschalk, Stephen C

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic and engineering analyses used in the design of an adjustable strength permanent magnet quadrupole will be reported. The quadrupole designed has a pole length of 42cm, aperture diameter 13mm, peak pole tip strength 1.03Tesla and peak integrated gradient * length (GL) of 68.7Tesla. Analyses of magnetic strength, field quality, magnetic centerline, temperature compensation and dynamic eddy currents induced during field adjustments will be presented. Magnet sorting strategies, pole positioning sensitivity, component forces, and other sensitivity analyses will be presented. Engineering analyses of stress, deflection and thermal effects as well as compensation strategies will also be shown.

  20. Continuous sorting of Brownian particles using coupled photophoresis and asymmetric potential cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tuck Wah; Neild, Adrian; Heeraman, Pascal

    2008-03-15

    Feasible sorters need to function rapidly and permit the input and delivery of particles continuously. Here, we describe a scheme that incorporates (i) restricted spatial input location and (ii) orthogonal sort and movement direction features. Sorting is achieved using an asymmetric potential that is cycled on and off, whereas movement is accomplished using photophoresis. Simulations with 0.2 and 0.5 microm diameter spherical particles indicate that sorting can commence quickly from a continuous stream. Procedures to optimize the sorting scheme are also described.

  1. The use of radiometric ore sorting on South African gold mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehme, R.C.; Freer, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper refers to the radiometric sorting tests reported during the 7th CMMI Congress, and then describes the photometric and radiometric sorter installations in operation and under construction in South Africa at present. As radiometric sorting of gold ores uses the radiation from the uranium content as a tracer, it is essential that the sortability of the ore should be reliably determined before sorting is adopted. The method of obtaining the important ore characteristics is described, with examples. The possible increase in gold production from a hypothetical plant as a result of sorting is shown

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, R.

    1991-01-01

    In order to include the effect of a magnetic object in a subject under investigation, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) apparatus is operable at more than one radio frequency (RF) frequency. The apparatus allows normal practice as far as obtaining an NMR response or image from a given nuclear species is concerned, but, in addition, interrogates the nuclear spin system at a frequency which is different from the resonance frequency normally used for the given nuclear species, as determined from the applied magnetic field. The magnetic field close to a magnetised or magnetisable object is modified and the given nuclear species gives a response at the different frequency. Thus detection of a signal at the frequency indicates the presence of the chosen nuclei close to the magnetised or magnetisable object. Applications include validation of an object detection or automatic shape inspection system in the presence of magnetic impurities, and the detection of magnetic particles which affect measurement of liquid flow in a pipe. (author)

  3. Radiation Response of Cancer Stem-Like Cells From Established Human Cell Lines After Sorting for Surface Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Assar, Osama; Muschel, Ruth J.; Mantoni, Tine S.; McKenna, W. Gillies; Brunner, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: A subpopulation of cancer stem-like cells (CSLC) is hypothesized to exist in different cancer cell lines and to mediate radioresistance in solid tumors. Methods and Materials: Cells were stained for CSLC markers and sorted (fluorescence-activated cell sorter/magnetic beads) to compare foci and radiosensitivity of phosphorylated histone H2AX at Ser 139 (γ-H2AX) in sorted vs. unsorted populations in eight cell lines from different organs. CSLC properties were examined using anchorage-independent growth and levels of activated Notch1. Validation consisted of testing tumorigenicity and postirradiation enrichment of CSLC in xenograft tumors. Results: The quantity of CSLC was generally in good agreement with primary tumors. CSLC from MDA-MB-231 (breast) and Panc-1 and PSN-1 (both pancreatic) cells had fewer residual γ-H2AX foci than unsorted cells, pointing to radioresistance of CSLC. However, only MDA-MB-231 CSLC were more radioresistant than unsorted cells. Furthermore, MDA-MB-231 CSLC showed enhanced anchorage-independent growth and overexpression of activated Notch1 protein. The expression of cancer stem cell surface markers in the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model was increased after exposure to fractionated radiation. In contrast to PSN-1 cells, a growth advantage for MDA-MB-231 CSLC xenograft tumors was found compared to tumors arising from unsorted cells. Conclusions: CSLC subpopulations showed no general radioresistant phenotype, despite the quantities of CSLC subpopulations shown to correspond relatively well in other reports. Likewise, CSLC characteristics were found in some but not all of the tested cell lines. The reported problems in testing for CSLC in cell lines may be overcome by additional techniques, beyond sorting for markers.

  4. The Application of PEC System on Thickness Measurement and Material Sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Ain Ahmad Latif; Ilham Mukriz Zainal Abidin; Noorhazleena Azaman

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed eddy current (PEC) is an advanced non-destructive testing (NDT) technique that operates based on electromagnetic principle and widely used in various industry including aviation, petrochemical and transportation. Compared to conventional eddy current technique, the major advantages of this technique is it contains a wideband of frequency in its excitation which makes it highly sensitive in distinguishing the location of defects deeply buried in conductive materials. The PEC system is established through a combination of several equipment i.e. power supply, oscilloscope, amplifier, pre amplifier and multi function generator. For the highest sensitivity in detection, the probe that acts as the detector is designed and fabricated with a magnetic sensor at its core. Generally, during the PEC experiment, the probe is place on the surface of the specimen and the signals obtain are simultaneously transferred and displayed on the oscilloscope. Among the basic testing that can be performed by PEC system include conductivity measurement for material sorting and thickness measurement. For the validation purposes, the results obtained through the experiment are compared with the results from finite element method (FEM) simulation conducted using COMSOL software. (author)

  5. Field quality evaluation of the superconducting magnets of the relativistic heavy ion collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Gupta, R.C.; Jain, A.; Peggs, S.G.; Trahern, C.G.; Trbojevic, D.; Wanderer, P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the authors first present the procedure established to evaluate the field quality, quench performance, and alignment of the superconducting magnets manufactured for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), and then discuss the strategies used to improve the field quality and to minimize undesirable effects by sorting the magnets. The field quality of the various RHIC magnets is briefly summarized

  6. Free Sorting and Association Task: A Variant of the Free Sorting Method Applied to Study the Impact of Dried Sourdough as an Ingredienton the Related Bread Odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétel, Cécile; Courcoux, Philippe; Génovesi, Noémie; Rouillé, Jocelyn; Onno, Bernard; Prost, Carole

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a new variant of the free sorting method developed to analyze the relationship between dried sourdough (DSD) and corresponding DSD-bread (bread) odors. The comparison of DSD and bread sensory characteristics is complicated due to their specific features (for example, acidity for DSD and a characteristic "baked bread" aroma for breads). To analyze them at the same time, this study introduces a new variant of the free sorting method, which adds an association task between DSD and bread after those of free sorting and verbalization. This separation makes it possible to change the product between tasks. It was applied to study the impact of 6 European commercial DSDs on their related DSD-bread. According to our results, this methodology enabled an association between different kinds of products and thus underlined the relationship between them. Moreover, as this methodology contains a verbalization task, it provides product descriptions. Compared with the standard free sorting method, free sorting with an association task gives the distance (i) between DSDs, (ii) between breads, and (iii) between DSDs and breads. The separation of product assessment through sorting and association avoids the separation of products according to their category (DSD or bread). © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Enhanced Multi-Objective Energy Optimization by a Signaling Method

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, João; Borges, Nuno; Vale, Zita; Oliveira, P.B.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper three metaheuristics are used to solve a smart grid multi-objective energy management problem with conflictive design: how to maximize profits and minimize carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and the results compared. The metaheuristics implemented are: weighted particle swarm optimization (W-PSO), multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II). The performance of these methods with the use of multi-dimensi...

  8. Subjective and objective image qualities: a comparison of sagittal T2 weighted spin-echo and turbo-spin-eco sequences in magnetic resonance imaging of the spine by use of a subjective ranking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerres, G. [Institut fuer diagnostische Radiologie, Departement Radiologie, Universitaetskliniken, Kantonsspital Basel (Switzerland); Mader, I. [Radiologische Gemeinschaftspraxis Dres. Siems, Grossmann, Bayreuth (Germany); Proske, M. [Klinikum Rosenheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    1998-12-31

    We evaluated the subjective image impression of two different magnetic resonance (MR) sequences by using a subjective ranking system. This ranking system was based on 20 criteria describing several tissue characteristics such as the signal intensity of normal anatomical structures and the changes of signal intensities and shape of lesions as well as artefacts. MR of the vertebral spine was performed in 48 female and 52 male patients (mean age 44.8 years) referred consecutively for investigation of a back problem. Ninety-six pathologies were found in 82 patients. Sagittal and axial T1 weighted spin-echo before and after administration of Gadolinium (Gd-DOTA), and sagittal T2 weighted spin-echo (T2wSE) and Turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequences were performed by means of surface coils. Using the subjective ranking system the sagittal T2wSE and sagittal TSE were compared. Both sequences were suitable for identification of normal anatomy and pathologic changes and there was no trend for increased detection of disease by one imaging sequence over the other. We found that sagittal TSE sequences can replace sagittal T2wSE sequences in spinal MR and that artefacts at the cervical and lumbar spine are less frequent using TSE, thus confirming previous studies. In this study, our ranking system reveiled, that there are differences between the subjective judgement of image qualities and objective measurement of SNR. However, this approach may not be helpful to compare two different MR sequences as it is limited to the anatomical area investigated and is time consuming. The subjective image impression, i.e. the quality of images, may not always be represented by physical parameters such as a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), radiologists should try to define influences of image quality also by subjective parameters. (orig.)

  9. Self-assembled magnetic filter for highly efficient immunomagnetic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issadore, David; Shao, Huilin; Chung, Jaehoon; Newton, Andita; Pittet, Mikael; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho

    2011-01-07

    We have developed a compact and inexpensive microfluidic chip, the self-assembled magnetic filter, to efficiently remove magnetically tagged cells from suspension. The self-assembled magnetic filter consists of a microfluidic channel built directly above a self-assembled NdFeB magnet. Micrometre-sized grains of NdFeB assemble to form alternating magnetic dipoles, creating a magnetic field with a very strong magnitude B (from the material) and field gradient ▽B (from the configuration) in the microfluidic channel. The magnetic force imparted on magnetic beads is measured to be comparable to state-of-the-art microfabricated magnets, allowing for efficient separations to be performed in a compact, simple device. The efficiency of the magnetic filter is characterized by sorting non-magnetic (polystyrene) beads from magnetic beads (iron oxide). The filter enriches the population of non-magnetic beads to magnetic beads by a factor of >10(5) with a recovery rate of 90% at 1 mL h(-1). The utility of the magnetic filter is demonstrated with a microfluidic device that sorts tumor cells from leukocytes using negative immunomagnetic selection, and concentrates the tumor cells on an integrated membrane filter for optical detection.

  10. Effective magnetic moment of neutrinos in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez M, A.; Perez R, H.; Masood, S.S.; Gaitan, R.; Rodriguez R, S.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we compute the effective magnetic moment of neutrinos propagating in dense high magnetized medium. Taking typical values of magnetic field and densities of astrophysical objects (such as the cores of supernovae and neutron stars) we obtain an effective type of dipole magnetic moment in agreement with astrophysical and cosmological bounds. (Author)

  11. Sorting of White Blood Cells in a Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Robert; Chan, Shirley; Gabel, Chris; Austin, Robert

    1997-03-01

    White blood cells represent a heterogenous population of differentially sticky and deformable objects. We examine here experiemnts where the hydrodynamic flow of such a population in a lattice of obstacles results in the fractionation of the objects, and will present modeling of the observed fractionation of the objects.

  12. Automatic Color Sorting System for Hardwood Edge-Glued Panel Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; D.Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1996-01-01

    The color sorting of edge-glued panel parts is becoming more important in the manufacture of hardwood products. Consumers, while admiring the natural appearance of hardwoods, do not like excessive color variation across product surfaces. Color uniformity is particularly important today because of the popularity of lightly stained products. Unfortunately, color sorting...

  13. Aminopeptidase N is directly sorted to the apical domain in MDCK cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, H P; Hansen, Gert Helge; Fuhrer, C

    1990-01-01

    In different epithelial cell types, integral membrane proteins appear to follow different sorting pathways to the apical surface. In hepatocytes, several apical proteins were shown to be transported there indirectly via the basolateral membrane, whereas in MDCK cells a direct sorting pathway from...

  14. ALGORITHM OF CARDIO COMPLEX DETECTION AND SORTING FOR PROCESSING THE DATA OF CONTINUOUS CARDIO SIGNAL MONITORING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasichkov, A S; Grigoriev, E B; Nifontov, E M; Shapovalov, V V

    The paper presents an algorithm of cardio complex classification as part of processing the data of continuous cardiac monitoring. R-wave detection concurrently with cardio complex sorting is discussed. The core of this approach is the use of prior information about. cardio complex forms, segmental structure, and degree of kindness. Results of the sorting algorithm testing are provided.

  15. A Computer Environment for Beginners' Learning of Sorting Algorithms: Design and Pilot Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordaki, M.; Miatidis, M.; Kapsampelis, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design, features and pilot evaluation study of a web-based environment--the SORTING environment--for the learning of sorting algorithms by secondary level education students. The design of this environment is based on modeling methodology, taking into account modern constructivist and social theories of learning while at…

  16. A polynomial-time algorithm to design push plans for sensorless parts sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, de M.; Goaoc, X.; van der Stappen, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the efficient computation of sequences of push actions that simultaneously orient two different polygons. Our motivation for studying this problem comes from the observation that appropriately oriented parts admit simple sensorless sorting. We study the sorting of two polygonal parts by

  17. Financial feasibility of a log sort yard handling small-diameter logs: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han-Sup Han; E. M. (Ted) Bilek; John (Rusty) Dramm; Dan Loeffler; Dave Calkin

    2011-01-01

    The value and use of the trees removed in fuel reduction thinning and restoration treatments could be enhanced if the wood were effectively evaluated and sorted for quality and highest value before delivery to the next manufacturing destination. This article summarizes a preliminary financial feasibility analysis of a log sort yard that would serve as a log market to...

  18. Grain-size sorting in grainflows at the lee side of deltas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    The sorting of sediment mixtures at the lee slope of deltas (at the angle of repose) is studied with experiments in a narrow, deep flume with subaqueous Gilbert-type deltas using varied flow conditions and different sediment mixtures. Sediment deposition and sorting on the lee slope of the delta

  19. Self-sorting of guests and hard blocks in bisurea-based thermoplastic elastomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterhuis, N.E.; Karthikeyan, S.; Spiering, A.J.H.; Sijbesma, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Self-sorting in thermoplastic elastomers was studied using bisurea-based thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) which are known to form hard blocks via hierarchical aggregation of bisurea segments into ribbons and of ribbons into fibers. Self-sorting of different bisurea hard blocks in mixtures of polymers

  20. The effect of transverse bed slope and sediment mobility on bend sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisscher, S.A.H.; Baar, A.W.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.; Kleinhans, MG

    2017-01-01

    Lateral sorting (= bend sorting) is observed in  natural meanders, where the inner and outer  bend are fairly fine and coarse, respectively  (e.g. Julien and Anthony, 2002; Clayton and  Pitlick, 2007). This is caused by the mass  differences between grains on a

  1. Card-Sorting Usability Tests of the WMU Libraries' Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the card-sorting techniques used by several academic libraries, reports and discusses the results of card-sorting usability tests of the Western Michigan University Libraries' Web site, and reveals how the WMU libraries incorporated the findings into a new Web site redesign, setting the design direction early on. The article…

  2. The Methods and Goals of Teaching Sorting Algorithms in Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernát, Péter

    2014-01-01

    The topic of sorting algorithms is a pleasant subject of informatics education. Not only is it so because the notion of sorting is well known from our everyday life, but also because as an algorithm task, whether we expect naive or practical solutions, it is easy to define and demonstrate. In my paper I will present some of the possible methods…

  3. In situ fragmentation and rock particle sorting on arid hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Gavan S.; Nie, Zhengyao; Dyskin, Arcady; Byrd, Tia; Jenner, Rowan; Holbeche, Georgina; Hinz, Christoph

    2013-03-01

    Transport processes are often proposed to explain the sorting of rock particles on arid hillslopes, where mean rock particle size often decreases in the downslope direction. Here we show that in situ fragmentation of rock particles can also produce similar patterns. A total of 93,414 rock particles were digitized from 880 photographs of the surface of three mesa hills in the Great Sandy Desert, Australia. Rock particles were characterized by the projected Feret's diameter and circularity. Distance from the duricrust cap was found to be a more robust explanatory variable for diameter than the local hillslope gradient. Mean diameter decreased exponentially downslope, while the fractional area covered by rock particles decreased linearly. Rock particle diameters were distributed lognormally, with both the location and scale parameters decreasing approximately linearly downslope. Rock particle circularity distributions showed little change; only a slight shift in the mode to more circular particles was noted to occur downslope. A dynamic fragmentation model was used to assess whether in situ weathering alone could reproduce the observed downslope fining of diameters. Modeled and observed size distributions agreed well and both displayed a preferential loss of relatively large rock particles and an apparent approach to a terminal size distribution of the rocks downslope. We show this is consistent with a size effect in material strength, where large rocks are more susceptible to fatigue failure under stress than smaller rocks. In situ fragmentation therefore produces qualitatively similar patterns to those that would be expected to arise from selective transport.

  4. Spanish translation and validation of the Preschool Activity Card Sort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Ashley; Berg, Christine

    2008-05-01

    Few standardized assessments exist for children living in the United States who are Hispanic/Latino. This study reports the Spanish translation process for the Preschool Activity Card Sort (PACS), which is a measure of participation in preschool children, and examines content, construct, and concurrent validity. Methods of verifying accuracy of translation included expert review and back translation and supported content validity of the Tarjetas de Actividades Preescolares (TAP). Subsequently, a sample of 37 parents of children between 3 and 6 years of age completed the PACS/TAP by structured interview. Twenty-six parents were Spanish speaking, and 11 were English speaking. A comparison of reported participation by Spanish- and English-speaking children provides initial construct validity of the TAP. Results indicate that the TAP differentiates among children of recent immigrants as compared to preschoolers who were born in the United States on domains of self-care, high and low demand leisure, and educational activities. Results emphasize the importance of considering sociocultural influences when assessing participation. PACS/TAP scores were moderately correlated with Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory scores for the self-care domain, but did not correlate with the mobility or social function domains. The PACS/TAP appears to provide a useful means of understanding preschoolers' participation. Future research is needed to further establish the validity of this assessment.

  5. Empirical approach to interpreting card-sorting data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven F. Wolf

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since it was first published 30 years ago, the seminal paper of Chi et al. on expert and novice categorization of introductory problems led to a plethora of follow-up studies within and outside of the area of physics [Cogn. Sci. 5, 121 (1981COGSD50364-021310.1207/s15516709cog0502_2]. These studies frequently encompass “card-sorting” exercises whereby the participants group problems. While this technique certainly allows insights into problem solving approaches, simple descriptive statistics more often than not fail to find significant differences between experts and novices. In moving beyond descriptive statistics, we describe a novel microscopic approach that takes into account the individual identity of the cards and uses graph theory and models to visualize, analyze, and interpret problem categorization experiments. We apply these methods to an introductory physics (mechanics problem categorization experiment, and find that most of the variation in sorting outcome is not due to the sorter being an expert versus a novice, but rather due to an independent characteristic that we named “stacker” versus “spreader.” The fact that the expert-novice distinction only accounts for a smaller amount of the variation may explain the frequent null results when conducting these experiments.

  6. Empirical approach to interpreting card-sorting data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven F. Wolf1,2,*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since it was first published 30 years ago, the seminal paper of Chi et al. on expert and novice categorization of introductory problems led to a plethora of follow-up studies within and outside of the area of physics [ Cogn. Sci. 5 121 (1981]. These studies frequently encompass “card-sorting” exercises whereby the participants group problems. While this technique certainly allows insights into problem solving approaches, simple descriptive statistics more often than not fail to find significant differences between experts and novices. In moving beyond descriptive statistics, we describe a novel microscopic approach that takes into account the individual identity of the cards and uses graph theory and models to visualize, analyze, and interpret problem categorization experiments. We apply these methods to an introductory physics (mechanics problem categorization experiment, and find that most of the variation in sorting outcome is not due to the sorter being an expert versus a novice, but rather due to an independent characteristic that we named “stacker” versus “spreader.” The fact that the expert-novice distinction only accounts for a smaller amount of the variation may explain the frequent null results when conducting these experiments.

  7. Comparison of Classifier Architectures for Online Neural Spike Sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Maryam; Khan, Amir Ali; Kamboh, Awais Mehmood

    2017-04-01

    High-density, intracranial recordings from micro-electrode arrays need to undergo Spike Sorting in order to associate the recorded neuronal spikes to particular neurons. This involves spike detection, feature extraction, and classification. To reduce the data transmission and power requirements, on-chip real-time processing is becoming very popular. However, high computational resources are required for classifiers in on-chip spike-sorters, making scalability a great challenge. In this review paper, we analyze several popular classifiers to propose five new hardware architectures using the off-chip training with on-chip classification approach. These include support vector classification, fuzzy C-means classification, self-organizing maps classification, moving-centroid K-means classification, and Cosine distance classification. The performance of these architectures is analyzed in terms of accuracy and resource requirement. We establish that the neural networks based Self-Organizing Maps classifier offers the most viable solution. A spike sorter based on the Self-Organizing Maps classifier, requires only 7.83% of computational resources of the best-reported spike sorter, hierarchical adaptive means, while offering a 3% better accuracy at 7 dB SNR.

  8. Heterogeneity within compulsive buyers: a Q-sort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Kate; Kellett, Stephen; Davies, Jason

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated how compulsive buyers make sense of their excessive shopping behaviour to explore possible sources of heterogeneity between compulsive buyers. Twenty female participants met 'caseness' for compulsive buying (CB) on the CB Scale (CBS), prior to completing a Q-sort specifically related to their experiences of shopping. Participants provided details of occupation, income, and debt levels and completed two psychometric scales: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Shopping Version (YBOCS-SV). Principle component analysis (PCA) identified two groups within the compulsive buyers (labelled positive reinforcement and emotional distress) that explained 44% of the study variance. Ten women defined the positive reinforcement factor and tended to identify with pleasurable aspects of buying. Six women characterized the emotional distress factor and endorsed varied financial, emotional, and interpersonal difficulties associated with their CB. The emotional distress group carried significantly greater current debt levels and had significantly more severe CB. The study illustrates that compulsive buyers can relate to their 'symptoms' in dissimilar ways. The clinical implications of such heterogeneity are discussed, methodological shortcomings identified, and areas for future research indicated. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  9. A fast-sorting measurement technique to determine decontamination priority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distenfeld, C.H.; Brosey, B.; Igarashi, H.

    1988-01-01

    Recovery of large contaminated buildings, such as the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor building, are complicated by ceilings that can be 12 to 13 m high. Much of the overhead space is filled with conduits, pipes, cable trays, ventilation ducts, and steel structures. The total complex surface can greatly exceed the total surface of walls and floors. Concrete pedestals, heavy steel stands, embedded steel rails, refueling mechanisms, and other similar structures complicate normally accessible areas and impede exposure reduction efforts. Initial recovery of contaminated spaces tends to involve treatment of hot spots and accessible spaces such as floor and wall surfaces. Subsequent decontamination may be less efficient since untreated surfaces, such as in overhead spaces, may be beyond the reach of ordinary decontamination tools. To conserve radiation exposure of recovery personnel, it is important to prioritize the effort so that early work provides maximum exposure reduction. Subsequent exposure reduction can then be carried out with less total exposure to recovery personnel. This favorable scenario depends on identification of key surfaces that most affect the exposure rate. The quick-sort method that was developed is based on the Eberline HP 220A directional survey system

  10. BayesMotif: de novo protein sorting motif discovery from impure datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Fan

    2010-01-18

    Protein sorting is the process that newly synthesized proteins are transported to their target locations within or outside of the cell. This process is precisely regulated by protein sorting signals in different forms. A major category of sorting signals are amino acid sub-sequences usually located at the N-terminals or C-terminals of protein sequences. Genome-wide experimental identification of protein sorting signals is extremely time-consuming and costly. Effective computational algorithms for de novo discovery of protein sorting signals is needed to improve the understanding of protein sorting mechanisms. We formulated the protein sorting motif discovery problem as a classification problem and proposed a Bayesian classifier based algorithm (BayesMotif) for de novo identification of a common type of protein sorting motifs in which a highly conserved anchor is present along with a less conserved motif regions. A false positive removal procedure is developed to iteratively remove sequences that are unlikely to contain true motifs so that the algorithm can identify motifs from impure input sequences. Experiments on both implanted motif datasets and real-world datasets showed that the enhanced BayesMotif algorithm can identify anchored sorting motifs from pure or impure protein sequence dataset. It also shows that the false positive removal procedure can help to identify true motifs even when there is only 20% of the input sequences containing true motif instances. We proposed BayesMotif, a novel Bayesian classification based algorithm for de novo discovery of a special category of anchored protein sorting motifs from impure datasets. Compared to conventional motif discovery algorithms such as MEME, our algorithm can find less-conserved motifs with short highly conserved anchors. Our algorithm also has the advantage of easy incorporation of additional meta-sequence features such as hydrophobicity or charge of the motifs which may help to overcome the limitations of

  11. Effects of pre-treatment technologies on quantity and quality of source-sorted municipal organic waste for biogas recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Jansen, J.l.C.; Davidsson, Å.

    2007-01-01

    , collection bag material (plastic or paper) and easily degradable organic matter. Furthermore, the particle size of the biomass was related to the pre-treatment technology. The content of plastic in the biomass depended both on the actual collection bag material used in the system and the pre......Source-sorted municipal organic waste collected from different dwelling types in five Danish cities and pre-treated at three different plants was sampled and characterized several times during one year to investigate the origin of any differences in composition of the pre-treated waste introduced...... by city, pre-treatment technology, dwelling type or annual season. The investigated pre-treatment technologies were screw press, disc screen and shredder + magnet. The average quantity of pre-treated organic waste (biomass) produced from the incoming waste varied between the investigated pre...

  12. Persistent Identifiers as Boundary Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M. A.; Fox, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    In 1989, Leigh Star and Jim Griesemer defined the seminal concept of `boundary objects'. These `objects' are what Latour calls `immutable mobiles' that enable communication and collaboration across difference by helping meaning to be understood in different contexts. As Star notes, they are a sort of arrangement that allow different groups to work together without (a priori) consensus. Part of the idea is to recognize and allow for the `interpretive flexibility' that is central to much of the `constructivist' approach in the sociology of science. Persistent Identifiers (PIDs) can clearly act as boundary objects, but people do not usually assume that they enable interpretive flexibility. After all, they are meant to be unambiguous, machine-interpretable identifiers of defined artifacts. In this paper, we argue that PIDs can fill at least two roles: 1) That of the standardized form, where there is strong agreement on what is being represented and how and 2) that of the idealized type, a more conceptual concept that allows many different representations. We further argue that these seemingly abstract conceptions actually help us implement PIDs more effectively to link data, publications, various other artifacts, and especially people. Considering PIDs as boundary objects can help us address issues such as what level of granularity is necessary for PIDs, what metadata should be directly associated with PIDs, and what purpose is the PID serving (reference, provenance, credit, etc.). In short, sociological theory can improve data sharing standards and their implementation in a way that enables broad interdisciplinary data sharing and reuse. We will illustrate this with several specific examples of Earth science data.

  13. Magnetic particle mixing with magnetic micro-convection for microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitenbergs, Guntars; Erglis, Kaspars; Perzynski, Régine; Cēbers, Andrejs

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the magnetic micro-convection phenomenon as a tool for mixing enhancement in microfluidics systems in cases when one of the miscible fluids is a magnetic particle colloid. A system of a water-based magnetic fluid and water is investigated experimentally under homogeneous magnetic field in a Hele–Shaw cell. Subsequent image analysis both qualitatively and quantitatively reveals the high enhancement of mixing efficiency provided by this method. The mixing efficiency dependence on the magnetic field and the physical limits is discussed. A suitable model for a continuous-flow microfluidics setup for mixing with magnetic micro-convection is also proposed and justified with an experiment. In addition, possible applications in improving the speed of ferrohydrodynamic sorting and magnetic label or selected tracer mixing in lab on a chip systems are noted. - Highlights: • We study the magnetic micro-convection as a mixing method in microfluidics. • We show that the method enhances mixing with magnetic field squared dependency. • We propose a flow cell setup for mixing and justify it with a sample experiment. • The mixing method can be easily implemented in an existing microfluidics setup

  14. The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type model: A method to sort single-shell tanks into characteristic groups. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.G.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type (SORWT) model presents a method to categorize Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs) into groups of tanks expected to exhibit similar chemical and physical characteristics based on their major waste types and processing histories. This model has identified 29 different waste-type groups encompassing 135 of the 149 SSTs and 93% of the total waste volume in SSTs. The remaining 14 SSTs and associated wastes could not be grouped according to the established criteria and were placed in an ungrouped category. This letter report will detail the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the SORWT model and present the grouping results. Included with this report is a brief description and approximate compositions of the single-shell tank waste types. In the near future, the validity of the predicted groups will be statistically tested using analysis of variance of characterization data obtained from recent (post-1989) core sampling and analysis activities. In addition, the SORWT model will be used to project the nominal waste characteristics of entire waste type groups that have some recent characterization data available. These subsequent activities will be documented along with these initial results in a comprehensive, formal PNL report cleared for public release by September 1994

  15. The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type Model: A method to sort single-shell tanks into characteristics groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.G.; Anderson, G.S.; Simpson, B.C.

    1995-02-01

    The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type (SORWT) Model is a method to categorize Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTS) into groups of tanks expected to exhibit similar chemical and physical characteristics based on their major waste types and processing histories. The model has identified 24 different waste-type groups encompassing 133 of the 149 SSTs and 93% of the total waste volume in SSTS. The remaining 16 SSTs and associated wastes could not be grouped. according to the established criteria and were placed in an ungrouped category. A detailed statistical verification study has been conducted that employs analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the core sample analysis data collected since 1989. These data cover eight tanks and five SORWT groups. The verification study showed that these five SORWT groups are highly statistically significant; they represent approximately 10% of the total waste volume and 26% of the total sludge volume in SSTS. Future sampling recommendations based on the SORWT Model results include 32 core samples from 16 tanks and 18 auger samples from six tanks. Combining these data with the existing body of information will form the basis for characterizing 98 SSTs (66%). These 98 SSTs represent 78% of the total waste volume, 61% of the total sludge volume, and 88 % of the salt cake volume

  16. The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type model: A method to sort single-shell tanks into characteristic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.G.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-04-01

    The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type (SORWT) model presents a method to categorize Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs) into groups of tank expected to exhibit similar chemical and physical characteristics based on their major waste types and processing histories. This model has identified 29 different waste-type groups encompassing 135 of the 149 SSTs and 93% of the total waste volume in SSTs. The remaining 14 SSTs and associated wastes could not be grouped according to the established criteria and were placed in an ungrouped category. This letter report will detail the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the SORWT model and present the grouping results. In the near future, the validity of the predicted groups will be statistically tested using analysis of variance of characterization data obtained from recent (post-1989) core sampling and analysis activities. In addition, the SORWT model will be used to project the nominal waste characteristics of entire waste type groups that have some recent characterization data available. These subsequent activities will be documented along with these initial results in a comprehensive, formal PNL report cleared for public release by September 1994

  17. Performance comparison analysis library communication cluster system using merge sort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, D. A. R.; Ramadhan, M. E.

    2018-04-01

    Begins by using a single processor, to increase the speed of computing time, the use of multi-processor was introduced. The second paradigm is known as parallel computing, example cluster. The cluster must have the communication potocol for processing, one of it is message passing Interface (MPI). MPI have many library, both of them OPENMPI and MPICH2. Performance of the cluster machine depend on suitable between performance characters of library communication and characters of the problem so this study aims to analyze the comparative performances libraries in handling parallel computing process. The case study in this research are MPICH2 and OpenMPI. This case research execute sorting’s problem to know the performance of cluster system. The sorting problem use mergesort method. The research method is by implementing OpenMPI and MPICH2 on a Linux-based cluster by using five computer virtual then analyze the performance of the system by different scenario tests and three parameters for to know the performance of MPICH2 and OpenMPI. These performances are execution time, speedup and efficiency. The results of this study showed that the addition of each data size makes OpenMPI and MPICH2 have an average speed-up and efficiency tend to increase but at a large data size decreases. increased data size doesn’t necessarily increased speed up and efficiency but only execution time example in 100000 data size. OpenMPI has a execution time greater than MPICH2 example in 1000 data size average execution time with MPICH2 is 0,009721 and OpenMPI is 0,003895 OpenMPI can customize communication needs.

  18. High performance transistors via aligned polyfluorene-sorted carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Gerald J.; Joo, Yongho; Singha Roy, Susmit; Gopalan, Padma; Arnold, Michael S.

    2014-02-01

    We evaluate the performance of exceptionally electronic-type sorted, semiconducting, aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) in field effect transistors (FETs). High on-conductance and high on/off conductance modulation are simultaneously achieved at channel lengths which are both shorter and longer than individual s-SWCNTs. The s-SWCNTs are isolated from heterogeneous mixtures using a polyfluorene-derivative as a selective agent and aligned on substrates via dose-controlled, floating evaporative self-assembly at densities of ˜50 s-SWCNTs μm-1. At a channel length of 9 μm the s-SWCNTs percolate to span the FET channel, and the on/off ratio and charge transport mobility are 2.2 × 107 and 46 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. At a channel length of 400 nm, a large fraction of the s-SWCNTs directly span the channel, and the on-conductance per width is 61 μS μm-1 and the on/off ratio is 4 × 105. These results are considerably better than previous solution-processed FETs, which have suffered from poor on/off ratio due to spurious metallic nanotubes that bridge the channel. 4071 individual and small bundles of s-SWCNTs are tested in 400 nm channel length FETs, and all show semiconducting behavior, demonstrating the high fidelity of polyfluorenes as selective agents and the promise of assembling s-SWCNTs from solution to create high performance semiconductor electronic devices.

  19. High performance transistors via aligned polyfluorene-sorted carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Gerald J.; Joo, Yongho; Singha Roy, Susmit; Gopalan, Padma; Arnold, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the performance of exceptionally electronic-type sorted, semiconducting, aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) in field effect transistors (FETs). High on-conductance and high on/off conductance modulation are simultaneously achieved at channel lengths which are both shorter and longer than individual s-SWCNTs. The s-SWCNTs are isolated from heterogeneous mixtures using a polyfluorene-derivative as a selective agent and aligned on substrates via dose-controlled, floating evaporative self-assembly at densities of ∼50 s-SWCNTs μm −1 . At a channel length of 9 μm the s-SWCNTs percolate to span the FET channel, and the on/off ratio and charge transport mobility are 2.2 × 10 7 and 46 cm 2  V −1  s −1 , respectively. At a channel length of 400 nm, a large fraction of the s-SWCNTs directly span the channel, and the on-conductance per width is 61 μS μm −1 and the on/off ratio is 4 × 10 5 . These results are considerably better than previous solution-processed FETs, which have suffered from poor on/off ratio due to spurious metallic nanotubes that bridge the channel. 4071 individual and small bundles of s-SWCNTs are tested in 400 nm channel length FETs, and all show semiconducting behavior, demonstrating the high fidelity of polyfluorenes as selective agents and the promise of assembling s-SWCNTs from solution to create high performance semiconductor electronic devices

  20. High performance transistors via aligned polyfluorene-sorted carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Gerald J.; Joo, Yongho; Singha Roy, Susmit; Gopalan, Padma; Arnold, Michael S., E-mail: msarnold@wisc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1509 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    We evaluate the performance of exceptionally electronic-type sorted, semiconducting, aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) in field effect transistors (FETs). High on-conductance and high on/off conductance modulation are simultaneously achieved at channel lengths which are both shorter and longer than individual s-SWCNTs. The s-SWCNTs are isolated from heterogeneous mixtures using a polyfluorene-derivative as a selective agent and aligned on substrates via dose-controlled, floating evaporative self-assembly at densities of ∼50 s-SWCNTs μm{sup −1}. At a channel length of 9 μm the s-SWCNTs percolate to span the FET channel, and the on/off ratio and charge transport mobility are 2.2 × 10{sup 7} and 46 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, respectively. At a channel length of 400 nm, a large fraction of the s-SWCNTs directly span the channel, and the on-conductance per width is 61 μS μm{sup −1} and the on/off ratio is 4 × 10{sup 5}. These results are considerably better than previous solution-processed FETs, which have suffered from poor on/off ratio due to spurious metallic nanotubes that bridge the channel. 4071 individual and small bundles of s-SWCNTs are tested in 400 nm channel length FETs, and all show semiconducting behavior, demonstrating the high fidelity of polyfluorenes as selective agents and the promise of assembling s-SWCNTs from solution to create high performance semiconductor electronic devices.