Effect of object functions on tomographic reconstruction a numerical study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babu Rao, C.; Baldev Raj; Ravichandran, V.S.; Munshi, P.
1996-01-01
Convolution back projection is the most widely used algorithm of computed tomography (CT). Theoretical studies show that under ideal conditions, the error in the reconstruction can be correlated with the second fourier space derivative of filter function and with the Laplacian of the object function. This paper looks into the second aspect of the error function. In this paper a systematic numerical study is presented on the effect to object functions on global and local errors. (author)
Henderson, Michael
1997-08-01
The Numerical Analysis Objects project (NAO) is a project in the Mathematics Department of IBM's TJ Watson Research Center. While there are plenty of numerical tools available today, it is not an easy task to combine them into a custom application. NAO is directed at the dual problems of building applications from a set of tools, and creating those tools. There are several "reuse" projects, which focus on the problems of identifying and cataloging tools. NAO is directed at the specific context of scientific computing. Because the type of tools is restricted, problems such as tools with incompatible data structures for input and output, and dissimilar interfaces to tools which solve similar problems can be addressed. The approach we've taken is to define interfaces to those objects used in numerical analysis, such as geometries, functions and operators, and to start collecting (and building) a set of tools which use these interfaces. We have written a class library (a set of abstract classes and implementations) in C++ which demonstrates the approach. Besides the classes, the class library includes "stub" routines which allow the library to be used from C or Fortran, and an interface to a Visual Programming Language. The library has been used to build a simulator for petroleum reservoirs, using a set of tools for discretizing nonlinear differential equations that we have written, and includes "wrapped" versions of packages from the Netlib repository. Documentation can be found on the Web at "http://www.research.ibm.com/nao". I will describe the objects and their interfaces, and give examples ranging from mesh generation to solving differential equations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raket, Lars Lau
We propose a direction it the field of statistics which we will call functional object analysis. This subfields considers the analysis of functional objects defined on continuous domains. In this setting we will focus on model-based statistics, with a particularly emphasis on mixed......-effect formulations, where the observed functional signal is assumed to consist of both fixed and random functional effects. This thesis takes the initial steps toward the development of likelihood-based methodology for functional objects. We first consider analysis of functional data defined on high...
Reasoning about Function Objects
Nordio, Martin; Calcagno, Cristiano; Meyer, Bertrand; Müller, Peter; Tschannen, Julian
Modern object-oriented languages support higher-order implementations through function objects such as delegates in C#, agents in Eiffel, or closures in Scala. Function objects bring a new level of abstraction to the object-oriented programming model, and require a comparable extension to specification and verification techniques. We introduce a verification methodology that extends function objects with auxiliary side-effect free (pure) methods to model logical artifacts: preconditions, postconditions and modifies clauses. These pure methods can be used to specify client code abstractly, that is, independently from specific instantiations of the function objects. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we have implemented an automatic prover, which verifies several non-trivial examples.
Numerical computation of gravitational field for general axisymmetric objects
Fukushima, Toshio
2016-10-01
We developed a numerical method to compute the gravitational field of a general axisymmetric object. The method (I) numerically evaluates a double integral of the ring potential by the split quadrature method using the double exponential rules, and (II) derives the acceleration vector by numerically differentiating the numerically integrated potential by Ridder's algorithm. Numerical comparison with the analytical solutions for a finite uniform spheroid and an infinitely extended object of the Miyamoto-Nagai density distribution confirmed the 13- and 11-digit accuracy of the potential and the acceleration vector computed by the method, respectively. By using the method, we present the gravitational potential contour map and/or the rotation curve of various axisymmetric objects: (I) finite uniform objects covering rhombic spindles and circular toroids, (II) infinitely extended spheroids including Sérsic and Navarro-Frenk-White spheroids, and (III) other axisymmetric objects such as an X/peanut-shaped object like NGC 128, a power-law disc with a central hole like the protoplanetary disc of TW Hya, and a tear-drop-shaped toroid like an axisymmetric equilibrium solution of plasma charge distribution in an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-like tokamak. The method is directly applicable to the electrostatic field and will be easily extended for the magnetostatic field. The FORTRAN 90 programs of the new method and some test results are electronically available.
Linear regression methods a ccording to objective functions
Yasemin Sisman; Sebahattin Bektas
2012-01-01
The aim of the study is to explain the parameter estimation methods and the regression analysis. The simple linear regressionmethods grouped according to the objective function are introduced. The numerical solution is achieved for the simple linear regressionmethods according to objective function of Least Squares and theLeast Absolute Value adjustment methods. The success of the appliedmethods is analyzed using their objective function values.
Theoretical numerical analysis a functional analysis framework
Atkinson, Kendall
2005-01-01
This textbook prepares graduate students for research in numerical analysis/computational mathematics by giving to them a mathematical framework embedded in functional analysis and focused on numerical analysis. This helps the student to move rapidly into a research program. The text covers basic results of functional analysis, approximation theory, Fourier analysis and wavelets, iteration methods for nonlinear equations, finite difference methods, Sobolev spaces and weak formulations of boundary value problems, finite element methods, elliptic variational inequalities and their numerical solu
ZLIB++: Object Oriented Numerical Library for Differential Algebra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan, Yiton T
2003-01-01
New software engineering tools and object-oriented design have a great impact on the software development process. but in high energy physics all major packages were implemented in FORTRAN and porting of these codes to another language is rather complicated, primarily because of their huge size and heavy use of FORTRAN mathematical libraries. But some intrinsic accelerator concepts, such as nested structure of modern accelerators, look very pretty when implemented with the object-oriented approach. In this paper the authors present the object-oriented version of ZLIB, numerical library for differential algebra, and show how the modern approaches can simplify the development and support of accelerator codes, decrease code size, and allow description of complex mathematical transformations by simple language
ZLIB++: Object-oriented numerical library for differential algebra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malitsky, N.; Reshetov, A.; Yan, Y.
1994-01-01
New software engineering tools and object-oriented design have a great impact on the software development process. But in high energy physics all major packages were implemented in FORTRAN and porting of these codes to another language is rather complicated, primarily because of their huge size and heavy use of FORTRAN mathematical libraries. But some intrinsic accelerator concepts, such as nested structure of modern accelerators, look very pretty when implemented with the object-oriented approach. In this paper we present the object-oriented version of ZLIB, numerical library for differential algebra and show how the modern approaches can simplify the development and support of accelerator codes, decrease code size, and allow description of complex mathematical transformations by simple language
Mueller, Silke M; Schiebener, Johannes; Delazer, Margarete; Brand, Matthias
2018-01-22
Many decision situations in everyday life involve mathematical considerations. In decisions under objective risk, i.e., when explicit numeric information is available, executive functions and abilities to handle exact numbers and ratios are predictors of objectively advantageous choices. Although still debated, exact numeric abilities, e.g., normative calculation skills, are assumed to be related to approximate number processing skills. The current study investigates the effects of approximative numeric abilities on decision making under objective risk. Participants (N = 153) performed a paradigm measuring number-comparison, quantity-estimation, risk-estimation, and decision-making skills on the basis of rapid dot comparisons. Additionally, a risky decision-making task with exact numeric information was administered, as well as tasks measuring executive functions and exact numeric abilities, e.g., mental calculation and ratio processing skills, were conducted. Approximative numeric abilities significantly predicted advantageous decision making, even beyond the effects of executive functions and exact numeric skills. Especially being able to make accurate risk estimations seemed to contribute to superior choices. We recommend approximation skills and approximate number processing to be subject of future investigations on decision making under risk.
Numerical methods for hyperbolic differential functional problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roman Ciarski
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the initial boundary value problem for quasilinear first order partial differential functional systems. A general class of difference methods for the problem is constructed. Theorems on the error estimate of approximate solutions for difference functional systems are presented. The convergence results are proved by means of consistency and stability arguments. A numerical example is given.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Lani
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Object-oriented platforms developed for the numerical solution of PDEs must combine flexibility and reusability, in order to ease the integration of new functionalities and algorithms. While designing similar frameworks, a built-in support for high performance should be provided and enforced transparently, especially in parallel simulations. The paper presents solutions developed to effectively tackle these and other more specific problems (data handling and storage, implementation of physical models and numerical methods that have arisen in the development of COOLFluiD, an environment for PDE solvers. Particular attention is devoted to describe a data storage facility, highly suitable for both serial and parallel computing, and to discuss the application of two design patterns, Perspective and Method-Command-Strategy, that support extensibility and run-time flexibility in the implementation of physical models and generic numerical algorithms respectively.
Numerical simulation on quantum turbulence created by an oscillating object
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujiyama, S; Tsubota, M [Department of Physics, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka City, Osaka (Japan)], E-mail: fujiyama@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp
2009-02-01
We have conducted a numerical simulation of vortex dynamics in superfluid {sup 4}He in the presence of an oscillating sphere. The experiment on a vibrating wire that measured the transition from laminar to turbulent flow is modelled in our simulations. The simulation exhibits the details of vortex growth by the oscillating sphere. Our result also shows that a more realistic modelling may change the destiny of the vortex rings detached from the sphere. We have evaluated the force driven by the sphere in the simulation and have confirmed the onset of the quantum turbulence.
Numerical Computational Technique for Scattering from Underwater Objects
T. Ratna Mani; Raj Kumar; Odamapally Vijay Kumar
2013-01-01
This paper presents a computational technique for mono-static and bi-static scattering from underwater objects of different shape such as submarines. The scatter has been computed using finite element time domain (FETD) method, based on the superposition of reflections, from the different elements reaching the receiver at a particular instant in time. The results calculated by this method has been verified with the published results based on ramp response technique. An in-depth parametric s...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kudryashov, Nikolay A.; Shilnikov, Kirill E. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Department of Applied Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2016-06-08
Numerical computation of the three dimensional problem of the freezing interface propagation during the cryosurgery coupled with the multi-objective optimization methods is used in order to improve the efficiency and safety of the cryosurgery operations performing. Prostate cancer treatment and cutaneous cryosurgery are considered. The heat transfer in soft tissue during the thermal exposure to low temperature is described by the Pennes bioheat model and is coupled with an enthalpy method for blurred phase change computations. The finite volume method combined with the control volume approximation of the heat fluxes is applied for the cryosurgery numerical modeling on the tumor tissue of a quite arbitrary shape. The flux relaxation approach is used for the stability improvement of the explicit finite difference schemes. The method of the additional heating elements mounting is studied as an approach to control the cellular necrosis front propagation. Whereas the undestucted tumor tissue and destucted healthy tissue volumes are considered as objective functions, the locations of additional heating elements in cutaneous cryosurgery and cryotips in prostate cancer cryotreatment are considered as objective variables in multi-objective problem. The quasi-gradient method is proposed for the searching of the Pareto front segments as the multi-objective optimization problem solutions.
Programming Scala Scalability = Functional Programming + Objects
Wampler, Dean
2009-01-01
Learn how to be more productive with Scala, a new multi-paradigm language for the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) that integrates features of both object-oriented and functional programming. With this book, you'll discover why Scala is ideal for highly scalable, component-based applications that support concurrency and distribution. Programming Scala clearly explains the advantages of Scala as a JVM language. You'll learn how to leverage the wealth of Java class libraries to meet the practical needs of enterprise and Internet projects more easily. Packed with code examples, this book provides us
Numerical computations of interior transmission eigenvalues for scattering objects with cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peters, Stefan; Kleefeld, Andreas
2016-01-01
In this article we extend the inside-outside duality for acoustic transmission eigenvalue problems by allowing scattering objects that may contain cavities. In this context we provide the functional analytical framework necessary to transfer the techniques that have been used in Kirsch and Lechleiter (2013 Inverse Problems, 29 104011) to derive the inside-outside duality. Additionally, extensive numerical results are presented to show that we are able to successfully detect interior transmission eigenvalues with the inside-outside duality approach for a variety of obstacles with and without cavities in three dimensions. In this context, we also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the inside-outside duality approach from a numerical point of view. Furthermore we derive the integral equations necessary to extend the algorithm in Kleefeld (2013 Inverse Problems, 29 104012) to compute highly accurate interior transmission eigenvalues for scattering objects with cavities, which we will then use as reference values to examine the accuracy of the inside-outside duality algorithm. (paper)
Effect of objective function on multi-objective inverse planning of radiation therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Guoli; Wu Yican; Song Gang; Wang Shifang
2006-01-01
There are two kinds of objective functions in radiotherapy inverse planning: dose distribution-based and Dose-Volume Histogram (DVH)-based functions. The treatment planning in our days is still a trial and error process because the multi-objective problem is solved by transforming it into a single objective problem using a specific set of weights for each object. This work investigates the problem of objective function setting based on Pareto multi-optimization theory, and compares the effect on multi-objective inverse planning of those two kinds of objective functions including calculation time, converge speed, etc. The basis of objective function setting on inverse planning is discussed. (authors)
Tagging the didactic functionality of learning objects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Per Skafte; Brostroem, Stig
2002-01-01
From a components-in-a-network point of view, the most important issues are: a didactically based typing of the learning objects themselves; the entire design superstructure, into which the learning objects must be fitted; and the symmetry of the interfaces, as seen by each pair of the triad...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Shun; Zhang Sijiong
2014-01-01
A numerical model is presented to simulate the influence function of deformable mirror actuators. The numerical model is formed by Bessel Fourier orthogonal functions, which are constituted of Bessel orthogonal functions and a Fourier basis. A detailed comparison is presented between the new Bessel Fourier model, the Zernike model, the Gaussian influence function and the modified Gaussian influence function. Numerical experiments indicate that the new numerical model is easy to use and more accurate compared with other numerical models. The new numerical model can be used for describing deformable mirror performances and numerical simulations of adaptive optics systems. (research papers)
The Functional Architecture of Visual Object Recognition
1991-07-01
different forms of agnosia can provide clues to the representations underlying normal object recognition (Farah, 1990). For example, the pair-wise...patterns of deficit and sparing occur. In a review of 99 published cases of agnosia , the observed patterns of co- occurrence implicated two underlying
Computing complex Airy functions by numerical quadrature
A. Gil (Amparo); J. Segura (Javier); N.M. Temme (Nico)
2001-01-01
textabstractIntegral representations are considered of solutions of the Airydifferential equation w''-z, w=0 for computing Airy functions for complex values of z.In a first method contour integral representations of the Airyfunctions are written as non-oscillating
Objectives and functions of ionizing radiation metrology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rothe, H.
1981-01-01
Proceeding from the fundamental objectives of ionizing radiation metrology, the main tasks of metrological research and assurances of accurate measurements in dosimetry and activity determination are summarized. With a view to the technical performance of these tasks the state-of-the-art and the trends in reproduction and dissemination of dosimetric and activity units are outlined. Problems are derived that should be solved within the framework of the CMEA Standing Commissions on Standardization and on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. (author)
From Functions to Object-Orientation by Abstraction
Diertens, Bob
2012-01-01
In previous work we developed a framework of computational models for function and object execution. The models on an higher level of abstraction in this framework allow for concurrent execution of functions and objects. We show that the computational model for object execution complies with the fundamentals of object-orientation.
Numerical computation of generalized importance functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomit, J.M.; Nasr, M.; Ngyuen van Chi, G.; Pasquet, J.P.; Planchard, J.
1981-01-01
Thus far, an important effort has been devoted to developing and applying generalized perturbation theory in reactor physics analysis. In this work we are interested in the calculation of the importance functions by the method of A. Gandini. We have noted that in this method the convergence of the iterative procedure adopted is not rapid. Hence to accelerate this convergence we have used the semi-iterative technique. Two computer codes have been developed for one and two dimensional calculations (SPHINX-1D and SPHINX-2D). The advantage of our calculation was confirmed by some comparative tests in which the iteration number and the computing time were highly reduced with respect to classical calculation (CIAP-1D and CIAP-2D). (orig.) [de
Kraus, E. I.; Shabalin, I. I.; Shabalin, T. I.
2018-04-01
The main points of development of numerical tools for simulation of deformation and failure of complex technical objects under nonstationary conditions of extreme loading are presented. The possibility of extending the dynamic method for construction of difference grids to the 3D case is shown. A 3D realization of discrete-continuum approach to the deformation and failure of complex technical objects is carried out. The efficiency of the existing software package for 3D modelling is shown.
Numerical Loading of a Maxwellian Probability Distribution Function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewandowski, J.L.V.
2003-01-01
A renormalization procedure for the numerical loading of a Maxwellian probability distribution function (PDF) is formulated. The procedure, which involves the solution of three coupled nonlinear equations, yields a numerically loaded PDF with improved properties for higher velocity moments. This method is particularly useful for low-noise particle-in-cell simulations with electron dynamics
Robust Optimization Using Supremum of the Objective Function for Nonlinear Programming Problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Se Jung; Park, Gyung Jin
2014-01-01
In the robust optimization field, the robustness of the objective function emphasizes an insensitive design. In general, the robustness of the objective function can be achieved by reducing the change of the objective function with respect to the variation of the design variables and parameters. However, in conventional methods, when an insensitive design is emphasized, the performance of the objective function can be deteriorated. Besides, if the numbers of the design variables are increased, the numerical cost is quite high in robust optimization for nonlinear programming problems. In this research, the robustness index for the objective function and a process of robust optimization are proposed. Moreover, a method using the supremum of linearized functions is also proposed to reduce the computational cost. Mathematical examples are solved for the verification of the proposed method and the results are compared with those from the conventional methods. The proposed approach improves the performance of the objective function and its efficiency
Numerical computation of special functions with applications to physics
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Motsepe, K
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Students of mathematical physics, engineering, natural and biological sciences sometimes need to use special functions that are not found in ordinary mathematical software. In this paper a simple universal numerical algorithm is developed to compute...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Junle; Chen, Lingen; Ding, Zemin; Sun, Fengrui
2016-01-01
Ecological performance of a single resonance ESE heat engine with heat leakage is conducted by applying finite time thermodynamics. By introducing Nielsen function and numerical calculations, expressions about power output, efficiency, entropy generation rate and ecological objective function are derived; relationships between ecological objective function and power output, between ecological objective function and efficiency as well as between power output and efficiency are demonstrated; influences of system parameters of heat leakage, boundary energy and resonance width on the optimal performances are investigated in detail; a specific range of boundary energy is given as a compromise to make ESE heat engine system work at optimal operation regions. Comparing performance characteristics with different optimization objective functions, the significance of selecting ecological objective function as the design objective is clarified specifically: when changing the design objective from maximum power output into maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of efficiency is 4.56%, while the power output drop is only 2.68%; when changing the design objective from maximum efficiency to maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of power output is 229.13%, and the efficiency drop is only 13.53%. - Highlights: • An irreversible single resonance energy selective electron heat engine is studied. • Heat leakage between two reservoirs is considered. • Power output, efficiency and ecological objective function are derived. • Optimal performance comparison for three objective functions is carried out.
Conflict between object structural and functional affordances in peripersonal space.
Kalénine, Solène; Wamain, Yannick; Decroix, Jérémy; Coello, Yann
2016-10-01
Recent studies indicate that competition between conflicting action representations slows down planning of object-directed actions. The present study aims to assess whether similar conflict effects exist during manipulable object perception. Twenty-six young adults performed reach-to-grasp and semantic judgements on conflictual objects (with competing structural and functional gestures) and non-conflictual objects (with similar structural and functional gestures) presented at difference distances in a 3D virtual environment. Results highlight a space-dependent conflict between structural and functional affordances. Perceptual judgments on conflictual objects were slower that perceptual judgments on non-conflictual objects, but only when objects were presented within reach. Findings demonstrate that competition between structural and functional affordances during object perception induces a processing cost, and further show that object position in space can bias affordance competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
IMRT optimization with pseudo-biologic objective function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yi, B. Y.; Ahn, S. D.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, S. W.; Choi, E. K.
2002-01-01
The pseudo-biologic objective function has been proposed for the IMRT optimization. It is similar to the biological objective function in mathematical shape, but uses physical parameters. The pseudo-biologic objective function concept is consisted of the target coverage index (TCI) and the organ score index (OSI), was introduced. The TCI was expressed as the sum of all of the weighted bins of target dose volume histogram (DVH). The weights were given as the normal distribution of which the average is 100 % and the standard deviation is ±. The OSI was expressed as similar way. The average of the normal distribution was 0% of the dose and that of standard deviation was selected as a function of limiting dose and its importance. The objective function could be calculated as the product of the TCI and OSI's. The RTP Tool Box (RTB) was used for this study. The constraints applied in the optimization was intuitively clinical experience based numbers, while the physical objective function asks just numbers which are not necessarily based on the clinic, and the parameters for the biologic objective functions are uncertain. The OSI's from the pseudo-biological function showed better results than from the physical functions, while TCI's showed similar tendency. We could show that the pseudo-biologic function can be used for an IMRT objective function on behalf of the biological objective function
A summary of numerical computation for special functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Shanjie
1992-01-01
In the paper, special functions frequently encountered in science and engineering calculations are introduced. The computation of the values of Bessel function and elliptic integrals are taken as the examples, and some common algorithms for computing most special functions, such as series expansion for small argument, asymptotic approximations for large argument, polynomial approximations, recurrence formulas and iteration method, are discussed. In addition, the determination of zeros of some special functions, and the other questions related to numerical computation are also discussed
Modelling of multidimensional quantum systems by the numerical functional integration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lobanov, Yu.Yu.; Zhidkov, E.P.
1990-01-01
The employment of the numerical functional integration for the description of multidimensional systems in quantum and statistical physics is considered. For the multiple functional integrals with respect to Gaussian measures in the full separable metric spaces the new approximation formulas exact on a class of polynomial functionals of a given summary degree are constructed. The use of the formulas is demonstrated on example of computation of the Green function and the ground state energy in multidimensional Calogero model. 15 refs.; 2 tabs
Numerical computation of aeroacoustic transfer functions for realistic airfoils
De Santana, Leandro Dantas; Miotto, Renato Fuzaro; Wolf, William Roberto
2017-01-01
Based on Amiet's theory formalism, we propose a numerical framework to compute the aeroacoustic transfer function of realistic airfoil geometries. The aeroacoustic transfer function relates the amplitude and phase of an incoming periodic gust to the respective unsteady lift response permitting,
Functional imaging of human crossmodal identification and object recognition
Amedi, A; von Kriegstein, K; van Atteveldt, N M; Beauchamp, M S; Naumer, M J
2005-01-01
The perception of objects is a cognitive function of prime importance. In everyday life, object perception benefits from the coordinated interplay of vision, audition, and touch. The different sensory modalities provide both complementary and redundant information about objects, which may improve
Handling of micro objects: investigation of mechanical gripper functional surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gegeckaite, Asta; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo
2007-01-01
between the micro object and the gripper do not allow simple picking and releasing of the object. This effect can be overcome by modifying the functional surface of the gripper. The functional surface of the gripper was modified by different machining techniques. The results of this investigation...
A Numerical Method for Analyzing Electromagnetic Scattering Properties of a Moving Conducting Object
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Kuang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A novel numerical approach is developed to analyze electromagnetic scattering properties of a moving conducting object based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD algorithm. Relativistic boundary conditions are implemented into the FDTD algorithm to calculate the electromagnetic field on the moving boundary. An improved technique is proposed to solve the scattered field in order to improve the computational efficiency and stability of solutions. The time-harmonic scattered field from a one-dimensional moving conducting surface is first simulated by the proposed approach. Numerical results show that the amplitude and frequency of the scattered field suffer a modulation shift. Then the transient scattered field is calculated, and broadband electromagnetic scattering properties of the moving conducting surface are obtained by the fast Fourier transform (FFT. Finally, the scattered field from a two-dimensional moving square cylinder is analyzed. The numerical results demonstrate the Doppler effect of a moving conducting object. The simulated results agree well with analytical results.
LikelihoodLib - Fitting, Function Maximization, and Numerical Analysis
Smirnov, I B
2001-01-01
A new class library is designed for function maximization, minimization, solution of equations and for other problems related to mathematical analysis of multi-parameter functions by numerical iterative methods. When we search the maximum or another special point of a function, we may change and fit all parameters simultaneously, sequentially, recursively, or by any combination of these methods. The discussion is focused on the first the most complicated method, although the others are also supported by the library. For this method we apply: control of precision by interval computations; the calculation of derivatives either by differential arithmetic, or by the method of finite differences with the step lengths which provide suppression of the influence of numerical noise; possible synchronization of the subjective function calls with minimization of the number of iterations; competitive application of various methods for step calculation, and converging to the solution by many trajectories.
Numerical construction of 'optimal' nonoscillating amplitude and phase functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matzkin, A.; Lombardi, M.
2002-01-01
A numerical recipe for the construction of nonoscillating amplitude and phase functions for potentials with a single minimum is given. We give different examples illustrating the recipe, showing the usefulness of the procedure for the construction of basis functions in bound-state scattering processes, such as those described by quantum defect theory. The resulting amplitude and accumulated phase functions are coined as 'optimal' nonoscillating (as a function of the space and energy variables) because they are the counterpart for the quantum problem of the classical action for the analog semiclassical problem
Automated Testcase Generation for Numerical Support Functions in Embedded Systems
Schumann, Johann; Schnieder, Stefan-Alexander
2014-01-01
We present a tool for the automatic generation of test stimuli for small numerical support functions, e.g., code for trigonometric functions, quaternions, filters, or table lookup. Our tool is based on KLEE to produce a set of test stimuli for full path coverage. We use a method of iterative deepening over abstractions to deal with floating-point values. During actual testing the stimuli exercise the code against a reference implementation. We illustrate our approach with results of experiments with low-level trigonometric functions, interpolation routines, and mathematical support functions from an open source UAS autopilot.
Numerical distribution functions of fractional unit root and cointegration tests
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
MacKinnon, James G.; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard
We calculate numerically the asymptotic distribution functions of likelihood ratio tests for fractional unit roots and cointegration rank. Because these distributions depend on a real-valued parameter, b, which must be estimated, simple tabulation is not feasible. Partly due to the presence...
Numerical simulation of thermal fracture in functionally graded
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Numerical simulation of thermal fracture in functionally graded materials using element-free ... Initially, the temperature distribution over the domain is obtained by solving the heat transfer problem. ... Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur 177005, India ... Contact | Site index.
The SU(3) beta function from numerical stochastic perturbation theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Perlt, H. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz Inst. fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G.; Schiller, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2013-09-15
The SU(3) beta function is derived from Wilson loops computed to 20th order in numerical stochastic perturbation theory. An attempt is made to include massless fermions, whose contribution is known analytically to 4th order. The question whether the theory admits an infrared stable fixed point is addressed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Boumaza
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Transient convection heat transfer is of fundamental interest in many industrial and environmental situations, as well as in electronic devices and security of energy systems. Transient fluid flow problems are among the more difficult to analyze and yet are very often encountered in modern day technology. The main objective of this research project is to carry out a theoretical and numerical analysis of transient convective heat transfer in vertical flows, when the thermal field is due to different kinds of variation, in time and space of some boundary conditions, such as wall temperature or wall heat flux. This is achieved by the development of a mathematical model and its resolution by suitable numerical methods, as well as performing various sensitivity analyses. These objectives are achieved through a theoretical investigation of the effects of wall and fluid axial conduction, physical properties and heat capacity of the pipe wall on the transient downward mixed convection in a circular duct experiencing a sudden change in the applied heat flux on the outside surface of a central zone.
From tomography to FWI with a single objective function
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Choi, Yun Seok
2013-01-01
Reflections in our seismic data induce serious nonlinear behavior in the objective function of full waveform inversion (FWI). Thus, without a good initial velocity model, that can produce the reflections within a cycle of the frequency used
Assessment of subjective and objective cognitive function in bipolar disorder
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Demant, Kirsa M; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V
2015-01-01
Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD). However, the evidence regarding the association between subjective cognitive complaints, objective cognitive performance and psychosocial function is sparse and inconsistent. Seventy seven patients with bipolar disorder who presented...
Mapping and Visiting in Functional and Object-oriented Programming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nørmark, Kurt; Thomsen, Bent; Thomsen, Lone Leth
2008-01-01
Mapping and visiting represent different programming styles for traversals of collections of data. Mapping is rooted in the functional programming paradigm, and visiting is rooted in the object-oriented programming paradigm. This paper explores the similarities and differences between mapping...... and visiting, seen across the traditions in the two different programming paradigms. The paper is concluded with recommendations for mapping and visiting in programming languages that support both the functional and the object-oriented paradigms....
Optimizing an objective function under a bivariate probability model
X. Brusset; N.M. Temme (Nico)
2007-01-01
htmlabstractThe motivation of this paper is to obtain an analytical closed form of a quadratic objective function arising from a stochastic decision process with bivariate exponential probability distribution functions that may be dependent. This method is applicable when results need to be
Functional activation of the infant cortex during object processing.
Wilcox, Teresa; Stubbs, Jessica; Hirshkowitz, Amy; Boas, David A
2012-09-01
A great deal is known about the functional organization of the neural structures that mediate visual object processing in the adult observer. These findings have contributed significantly to our conceptual models of object recognition and identification and provided unique insight into the nature of object representations extracted from visual input. In contrast, little is known about the neural basis of object processing in the infant. The current research used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a neuroimaging tool to investigate functional activation of the infant cortex during an object processing task that has been used extensively with infants. The neuroimaging data revealed that the infant cortex is functionally specialized for object processing (i.e., individuation-by-feature) early in the first year but that patterns of activation also change between 3 and 12 months. These changes may reflect functional reorganization of the immature cortex or age-related differences in the cognitive processes engaged during the task. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Classical methods for interpreting objective function minimization as intelligent inference
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Golden, R.M. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)
1996-12-31
Most recognition algorithms and neural networks can be formally viewed as seeking a minimum value of an appropriate objective function during either classification or learning phases. The goal of this paper is to argue that in order to show a recognition algorithm is making intelligent inferences, it is not sufficient to show that the recognition algorithm is computing (or trying to compute) the global minimum of some objective function. One must explicitly define a {open_quotes}relational system{close_quotes} for the recognition algorithm or neural network which identifies the: (i) sample space, (ii) the relevant sigmafield of events generated by the sample space, and (iii) the {open_quotes}relation{close_quotes} for that relational system. Only when such a {open_quotes}relational system{close_quotes} is properly defined, is it possible to formally establish the sense in which computing the global minimum of an objective function is an intelligent, inference.
Modularity-like objective function in annotated networks
Xie, Jia-Rong; Wang, Bing-Hong
2017-12-01
We ascertain the modularity-like objective function whose optimization is equivalent to the maximum likelihood in annotated networks. We demonstrate that the modularity-like objective function is a linear combination of modularity and conditional entropy. In contrast with statistical inference methods, in our method, the influence of the metadata is adjustable; when its influence is strong enough, the metadata can be recovered. Conversely, when it is weak, the detection may correspond to another partition. Between the two, there is a transition. This paper provides a concept for expanding the scope of modularity methods.
From tomography to FWI with a single objective function
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2013-06-10
Reflections in our seismic data induce serious nonlinear behavior in the objective function of full waveform inversion (FWI). Thus, without a good initial velocity model, that can produce the reflections within a cycle of the frequency used in the inversion, convergence to the solution becomes hard. Such velocity models are usually extracted from migration velocity analysis or traveltime tomography, among other means, that are not guaranteed to adhere to the FWI requirements. As such, we promote an objective function based on the misfit in the instantaneous traveltime between the observed and modeled data. This phase based attribute of the wavefield, along with its phase unwrapping features, provide a frequency dependent traveltime function. With strong damping of the of the synthetic, potentially low frequency, data, this attribute admits first arrival traveltime that could be compared with picked ones from the observed data, like in wave equation tomography. As we relax the damping on the synthetic and observed data, the objective function measures the misfit in the phase, however unwrapped in an FWI type inversion. It, thus, provides a single objective function and a natural transition from traveltime tomography to full waveform inversion. A Marmousi example demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach.
Children's use of comparison and function in novel object categorization.
Kimura, Katherine; Hunley, Samuel B; Namy, Laura L
2018-06-01
Although young children often rely on salient perceptual cues, such as shape, when categorizing novel objects, children eventually shift towards deeper relational reasoning about category membership. This study investigates what information young children use to classify novel instances of familiar categories. Specifically, we investigated two sources of information that have the potential to facilitate the classification of novel exemplars: (1) comparison of familiar category instances, and (2) attention to function information that might direct children's attention to functionally relevant perceptual features. Across two experiments, we found that comparing two perceptually similar category members-particularly when function information was also highlighted-led children to discover non-obvious relational features that supported their categorization of novel category instances. Together, these findings demonstrate that comparison may aid in novel object categorization by heightening the salience of less obvious, yet functionally relevant, relational structures that support conceptual reasoning. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Object Oriented and Functional Programming for Symbolic Manipulation
Vlasov, Alexander Yu.
1999-01-01
The advantages of mixed approach with using different kinds of programming techniques for symbolic manipulation are discussed. The main purpose of approach offered is merge the methods of object oriented programming that convenient for presentation data and algorithms for user with advantages of functional languages for data manipulation, internal presentation, and portability of software.
Numerical stochastic perturbation theory in the Schroedinger functional
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brambilla, Michele; Di Renzo, Francesco; Hesse, Dirk; Dalla Brida, Mattia; Sint, Stefan; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron
2013-11-01
The Schroedinger functional (SF) is a powerful and widely used tool for the treatment of a variety of problems in renormalization and related areas. Albeit offering many conceptual advantages, one major downside of the SF scheme is the fact that perturbative calculations quickly become cumbersome with the inclusion of higher orders in the gauge coupling and hence the use of an automated perturbation theory framework is desirable. We present the implementation of the SF in numerical stochastic perturbation theory (NSPT) and compare first results for the running coupling at two loops in pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory with the literature.
Numerical analysis of data in dynamic function studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riihimaeki, E.
1975-01-01
Relations between tracer theories, models for organ function and the numerical solution of parameters from tracer experiments are reviewed. A unified presentation is given in terms of systems theory. Dynamic tracer studies should give the flow and volume of the tracer and, possibly, indications of the internal structure of the organ studied. Proper program writing will facilitate the exchange of the programs between the users and thereby avoid duplication of effort. An important attribute in this respect is machine independence of the programs which is achieved by the use of a high-level language. (author)
Numerical stochastic perturbation theory in the Schroedinger functional
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brambilla, Michele; Di Renzo, Francesco; Hesse, Dirk [Parma Univ. (Italy); INFN, Parma (Italy); Dalla Brida, Mattia [Trinity College Dublin (Ireland). School of Mathematics; Sint, Stefan [Trinity College Dublin (Ireland). School of Mathematics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2013-11-15
The Schroedinger functional (SF) is a powerful and widely used tool for the treatment of a variety of problems in renormalization and related areas. Albeit offering many conceptual advantages, one major downside of the SF scheme is the fact that perturbative calculations quickly become cumbersome with the inclusion of higher orders in the gauge coupling and hence the use of an automated perturbation theory framework is desirable. We present the implementation of the SF in numerical stochastic perturbation theory (NSPT) and compare first results for the running coupling at two loops in pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory with the literature.
Objective Integrated Assessment of Functional Outcomes in Reduction Mammaplasty
Passaro, Ilaria; Malovini, Alberto; Faga, Angela; Toffola, Elena Dalla
2013-01-01
Background: The aim of our study was an objective integrated assessment of the functional outcomes of reduction mammaplasty. Methods: The study involved 17 women undergoing reduction mammaplasty from March 2009 to June 2011. Each patient was assessed before surgery and 2 months postoperatively with the original association of 4 subjective and objective assessment methods: a physiatric clinical examination, the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, the Berg Balance Scale, and a static force platform analysis. Results: All of the tests proved multiple statistically significant associated outcomes demonstrating a significant improvement in the functional status following reduction mammaplasty. Surgical correction of breast hypertrophy could achieve both spinal pain relief and recovery of performance status in everyday life tasks, owing to a muscular postural functional rearrangement with a consistent antigravity muscle activity sparing. Pain reduction in turn could reduce the antalgic stiffness and improved the spinal range of motion. In our sample, the improvement of the spinal range of motion in flexion matched a similar improvement in extension. Recovery of a more favorable postural pattern with reduction of the anterior imbalance was demonstrated by the static force stabilometry. Therefore, postoperatively, all of our patients narrowed the gap between the actual body barycenter and the ideal one. The static force platform assessment also consistently confirmed the effectiveness of an accurate clinical examination of functional impairment from breast hypertrophy. Conclusions: The static force platform assessment might help the clinician to support the diagnosis of functional impairment from a breast hypertrophy with objectively based data. PMID:25289256
Numerical simulation of stage separation of a multi-stage flying object with brake jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirzaei, M.; Shadaram, A.; Nia, B.N.
2005-01-01
In this paper, separation maneuver of a two-stage supersonic flying object is numerically simulated and the influences of supersonic brake jets on separation process are discussed. The finite volume approach is used for solution of unsteady three-dimensional full Navier-Stokes equations on a moving boundary domain. In this simulation, air has considered as a calorically perfect gas and since the flow field is turbulent, two equations κ-ε model has been adopted for turbulence modeling. Shocks, expansions and their reflections have major role on flow pattern between two stages during the separation process and the maneuver is dominantly affected by the main flow and braking jets. The separation process has an unsteady nature and the separation of stages at high Mach numbers induces some aerodynamic problems that may lead to fail the next stage flight. The purpose of this research is to compute the aerodynamic loads on separated stage and, consequently, the relative distance of body components with a good accuracy. The simulation of moving boundary problem is based on moving grid strategy using remeshing method. To validate the simulation, some of the results are compared with experimental data. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, Yamei; Lü, Baida
2010-01-01
The dynamic behavior of spectral Stokes singularities of partially coherent radially polarized beams focused by a high numerical aperture (NA) objective is studied by using the vectorial Debye diffraction theory and complex spectral Stokes fields. It is shown that there exist s 12 , s 23 , and s 31 singularities, as well as P (completely polarized) and U (unpolarized) singularities. The motion, pair creation and annihilation, and changes in the degree of polarization of s 12 , s 23 , and s 31 singularities, and the handedness reversal of s 12 singularities (C-points) may appear by varying a controlling parameter, such as the truncation parameter, NA, or spatial correlation length. The creation and annihilation occur for a pair of s 12 singularities with opposite topological charge but the same handedness, and for a pair of oppositely charged s 23 or s 31 singularities. The critical value of the truncation parameter, at which the pair annihilation takes place, increases as the semi-angle of the aperture lens (or, equivalently, NA) or spatial correlation length increases. The collision of an s 12 singularity with an L-line (s 3 = 0 contour) leads to a V-point, which is located at the intersection of contours of s 12 = 0 and s 23 = 0 (or s 31 = 0) and is unstable
Executive function in fibromyalgia: Comparing subjective and objective measures.
Gelonch, Olga; Garolera, Maite; Valls, Joan; Rosselló, Lluís; Pifarré, Josep
2016-04-01
There is evidence to suggest the existence of an executive dysfunction in people diagnosed with fibromyalgia, although there are certain inconsistencies between studies. Here, we aim to compare executive performance between patients with fibromyalgia and a control group by using subjective and objective cognitive tests, analyzing the influence of patient mood on the results obtained, and studying associations between the two measures. 82 patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia and 42 healthy controls, matched by age and years of education, were assessed using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version (BRIEF-A) as a subjective measure of executive functioning. A selection of objective cognitive tests were also used to measure a series of executive functions and to identify symptoms of depression and anxiety. Patients with fibromyalgia perceived greater difficulties than the control group on all of the BRIEF-A scales. However, after adjustments were made for depression and anxiety the only differences that remained were those associated with the working memory scale and the Metacognition and Global Executive Composite index. In the case of the objective cognitive tests, a significantly worse overall performance was evidenced for the fibromyalgia patients. However, this also disappeared when adjustments were made for depression and anxiety. After this adjustment, fibromyalgia patients only performed significantly worse for the interference effect in the Stroop Test. Although there were no significant associations between most of the objective cognitive tests and the BRIEF-A scales, depression and anxiety exhibited strong associations with almost all of the BRIEF-A scales and with several of the objective cognitive tests. Patients with fibromyalgia showed executive dysfunction in subjective and objective measures, although most of this impairment was associated with mood disturbances. Exceptions to this general rule were observed in the
Automatic processing of unattended object features by functional connectivity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katja Martina Mayer
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Observers can selectively attend to object features that are relevant for a task. However, unattended task-irrelevant features may still be processed and possibly integrated with the attended features. This study investigated the neural mechanisms for processing both task-relevant (attended and task-irrelevant (unattended object features. The Garner paradigm was adapted for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to test whether specific brain areas process the conjunction of features or whether multiple interacting areas are involved in this form of feature integration. Observers attended to shape, colour, or non-rigid motion of novel objects while unattended features changed from trial to trial (change blocks or remained constant (no-change blocks during a given block. This block manipulation allowed us to measure the extent to which unattended features affected neural responses which would reflect the extent to which multiple object features are automatically processed. We did not find Garner interference at the behavioural level. However, we designed the experiment to equate performance across block types so that any fMRI results could not be due solely to differences in task difficulty between change and no-change blocks. Attention to specific features localised several areas known to be involved in object processing. No area showed larger responses on change blocks compared to no-change blocks. However, psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed that several functionally-localised areas showed significant positive interactions with areas in occipito-temporal and frontal areas that depended on block type. Overall, these findings suggest that both regional responses and functional connectivity are crucial for processing multi-featured objects.
Objective function for the environmental assessment of waste
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toy, A.J.; Boegel, J.; Cohen, J.J.
1976-01-01
Various waste management systems were examined in order to determine what the environmental impacts might be and to rank the relative importance of those impacts. This examination determined that radiation dose to man was the most significant, and probably overriding, impact. This report describes methods of providing an objective function for dose to man. The search for an objective function began with a reading of Federal Regulations and the output of various standard setting councils and committees. Ample guidance was found on maximum allowable doses to individuals but no guidance on dose to large populations or criteria by which systems could be compared or optimized. Several other ways were postulated by which waste management systems could be evaluated besides maximum allowable dose to individuals. 0.1 man-rem per MW(e)-year was selected as the measure of system performance. This unit compares a rational estimate of population dose commitment with the concurrent benefit
Fast, multiple optimizations of quadratic dose objective functions in IMRT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Storchi, Pascal R M; Keijzer, Marleen; Heijmen, Ben J M
2006-01-01
Inverse treatment planning for intensity-modulated radiotherapy may include time consuming, multiple minimizations of an objective function. In this paper, methods are presented to speed up the process of (repeated) minimization of the well-known quadratic dose objective function, extended with a smoothing term that ensures generation of clinically acceptable beam profiles. In between two subsequent optimizations, the voxel-dependent importance factors of the quadratic terms will generally be adjusted, based on an intermediate plan evaluation. The objective function has been written in matrix-vector format, facilitating the use of a recently published, fast quadratic minimization algorithm, instead of commonly applied gradient-based methods. This format also reduces the calculation time in between subsequent minimizations, related to adjustment of the voxel-dependent importance factors. Sparse matrices are used to limit the required amount of computer memory. For three patients, comparisons have been made with a gradient method. Mean speed improvements of up to a factor of 37 have been achieved
The functional neuroanatomy of object agnosia: a case study.
Konen, Christina S; Behrmann, Marlene; Nishimura, Mayu; Kastner, Sabine
2011-07-14
Cortical reorganization of visual and object representations following neural injury was examined using fMRI and behavioral investigations. We probed the visual responsivity of the ventral visual cortex of an agnosic patient who was impaired at object recognition following a lesion to the right lateral fusiform gyrus. In both hemispheres, retinotopic mapping revealed typical topographic organization and visual activation of early visual cortex. However, visual responses, object-related, and -selective responses were reduced in regions immediately surrounding the lesion in the right hemisphere, and also, surprisingly, in corresponding locations in the structurally intact left hemisphere. In contrast, hV4 of the right hemisphere showed expanded response properties. These findings indicate that the right lateral fusiform gyrus is critically involved in object recognition and that an impairment to this region has widespread consequences for remote parts of cortex. Finally, functional neural plasticity is possible even when a cortical lesion is sustained in adulthood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Regularized Laplace-Fourier-Domain Full Waveform Inversion Using a Weighted l 2 Objective Function
Jun, Hyunggu; Kwon, Jungmin; Shin, Changsoo; Zhou, Hongbo; Cogan, Mike
2017-03-01
Full waveform inversion (FWI) can be applied to obtain an accurate velocity model that contains important geophysical and geological information. FWI suffers from the local minimum problem when the starting model is not sufficiently close to the true model. Therefore, an accurate macroscale velocity model is essential for successful FWI, and Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI is appropriate for obtaining such a velocity model. However, conventional Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI remains an ill-posed and ill-conditioned problem, meaning that small errors in the data can result in large differences in the inverted model. This approach also suffers from certain limitations related to the logarithmic objective function. To overcome the limitations of conventional Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI, we introduce a weighted l 2 objective function, instead of the logarithmic objective function, as the data-domain objective function, and we also introduce two different model-domain regularizations: first-order Tikhonov regularization and prior model regularization. The weighting matrix for the data-domain objective function is constructed to suitably enhance the far-offset information. Tikhonov regularization smoothes the gradient, and prior model regularization allows reliable prior information to be taken into account. Two hyperparameters are obtained through trial and error and used to control the trade-off and achieve an appropriate balance between the data-domain and model-domain gradients. The application of the proposed regularizations facilitates finding a unique solution via FWI, and the weighted l 2 objective function ensures a more reasonable residual, thereby improving the stability of the gradient calculation. Numerical tests performed using the Marmousi synthetic dataset show that the use of the weighted l 2 objective function and the model-domain regularizations significantly improves the Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI. Because the Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI is improved, the
JAKEF, Gradient or Jacobian Function from Objective Function or Vector Function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hillstrom, K.E.
1988-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: JAKEF is a language processor that accepts as input a single- or double-precision ANSI standard 1977 FORTRAN subroutine defining an objective function f(x), or a vector function F(x), and produces as output a single- or double- precision ANSI standard 1977 FORTRAN subroutine defining the gradient of f(x), or the Jacobian of F(x). 2 - Method of solution: JAKEF is a four-pass compiler consisting of a lexical preprocessor, a parser, a tree-building and flow analysis pass, and a differentiator and output construction pass. The lexical preprocessor reworks the input FORTRAN program to give it a recognizable lexical structure. The parser transforms the pre-processed input into a string of tokens in a post-fix representation of the program tree. The tree-building and flow analysis pass constructs a tree out of the post-fix token string. The differentiator identifies relevant assignment statements; then, if necessary, it analyzes them into component statements governed by a single differentiation rule and augments each of these statements with a call to a member of the run-time support package which implements the differentiation rule. After completing the construction of the main body of the routine, JAKEF inserts calls to support package routines that complete the differentiation. This results in a modified program tree in a form compatible with FORTRAN rules. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Statement functions and Equivalence's that involve the independent variables are not handled correctly. Variables, constants, or functions of type COMPLEX are not recognized. Character sub-string expressions and alternate returns are not permitted
Waveform inversion with exponential damping using a deconvolution-based objective function
Choi, Yun Seok
2016-09-06
The lack of low frequency components in seismic data usually leads full waveform inversion into the local minima of its objective function. An exponential damping of the data, on the other hand, generates artificial low frequencies, which can be used to admit long wavelength updates for waveform inversion. Another feature of exponential damping is that the energy of each trace also exponentially decreases with source-receiver offset, where the leastsquare misfit function does not work well. Thus, we propose a deconvolution-based objective function for waveform inversion with an exponential damping. Since the deconvolution filter includes a division process, it can properly address the unbalanced energy levels of the individual traces of the damped wavefield. Numerical examples demonstrate that our proposed FWI based on the deconvolution filter can generate a convergent long wavelength structure from the artificial low frequency components coming from an exponential damping.
Randhawa, Haseeb S
2012-11-01
Host-parasite interactions generally involve communities of parasites. Within these communities, species will co-exist and/or interact with one another in a manner either benefiting the species involved or to the detriment of one or more of the species. At the level of helminth infracommunities, evidence for intra- and inter-specific competition includes numerical responses, i.e. those regulating helminth intensity of infection, and functional responses, i.e. where the presence of competitors modifies the realised niche of infrapopulations. The objectives of this study are to assess the numerical and functional responses of helminths in infracommunities from 3 rajid skates using general linear models. Despite a lack of numerical responses, functional responses to intra- and inter-specific interactions were observed. A positive correlation between the number of individuals in an infrapopulation and its niche breadth (functional response) was observed for the tapeworms Pseudanthobothrium spp. and Echeneibothrium spp., in all their respective hosts, and for the nematode Pseudanisakis sp. in the little skate. Evidence for inter-specific competition includes niche shifts in Pseudanthobothrium purtoni (ex little skate) and Pseudanisakis sp. (ex thorny skate) in the presence of Pseudanisakis sp. and the tapeworm Grillotia sp., respectively. These results are consistent with other studies in providing evidence for competition between helminths of skates.
A hybrid artificial bee colony algorithm for numerical function optimization
Alqattan, Zakaria N.; Abdullah, Rosni
2015-02-01
Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is one of the swarm intelligence algorithms; it has been introduced by Karaboga in 2005. It is a meta-heuristic optimization search algorithm inspired from the intelligent foraging behavior of the honey bees in nature. Its unique search process made it as one of the most competitive algorithm with some other search algorithms in the area of optimization, such as Genetic algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). However, the ABC performance of the local search process and the bee movement or the solution improvement equation still has some weaknesses. The ABC is good in avoiding trapping at the local optimum but it spends its time searching around unpromising random selected solutions. Inspired by the PSO, we propose a Hybrid Particle-movement ABC algorithm called HPABC, which adapts the particle movement process to improve the exploration of the original ABC algorithm. Numerical benchmark functions were used in order to experimentally test the HPABC algorithm. The results illustrate that the HPABC algorithm can outperform the ABC algorithm in most of the experiments (75% better in accuracy and over 3 times faster).
Models for predicting objective function weights in prostate cancer IMRT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boutilier, Justin J.; Lee, Taewoo; Craig, Tim; Sharpe, Michael B.; Chan, Timothy C. Y.
2015-01-01
Purpose: To develop and evaluate the clinical applicability of advanced machine learning models that simultaneously predict multiple optimization objective function weights from patient geometry for intensity-modulated radiation therapy of prostate cancer. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method was applied retrospectively to determine optimal objective function weights for 315 treated patients. The authors used an overlap volume ratio (OV) of bladder and rectum for different PTV expansions and overlap volume histogram slopes (OVSR and OVSB for the rectum and bladder, respectively) as explanatory variables that quantify patient geometry. Using the optimal weights as ground truth, the authors trained and applied three prediction models: logistic regression (LR), multinomial logistic regression (MLR), and weighted K-nearest neighbor (KNN). The population average of the optimal objective function weights was also calculated. Results: The OV at 0.4 cm and OVSR at 0.1 cm features were found to be the most predictive of the weights. The authors observed comparable performance (i.e., no statistically significant difference) between LR, MLR, and KNN methodologies, with LR appearing to perform the best. All three machine learning models outperformed the population average by a statistically significant amount over a range of clinical metrics including bladder/rectum V53Gy, bladder/rectum V70Gy, and dose to the bladder, rectum, CTV, and PTV. When comparing the weights directly, the LR model predicted bladder and rectum weights that had, on average, a 73% and 74% relative improvement over the population average weights, respectively. The treatment plans resulting from the LR weights had, on average, a rectum V70Gy that was 35% closer to the clinical plan and a bladder V70Gy that was 29% closer, compared to the population average weights. Similar results were observed for all other clinical metrics. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the KNN and MLR
Models for predicting objective function weights in prostate cancer IMRT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boutilier, Justin J., E-mail: j.boutilier@mail.utoronto.ca; Lee, Taewoo [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King’s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada); Craig, Tim [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University of Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148 - 150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Sharpe, Michael B. [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University of Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148 - 150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124 - 100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Chan, Timothy C. Y. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King’s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada and Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124 - 100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada)
2015-04-15
Purpose: To develop and evaluate the clinical applicability of advanced machine learning models that simultaneously predict multiple optimization objective function weights from patient geometry for intensity-modulated radiation therapy of prostate cancer. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method was applied retrospectively to determine optimal objective function weights for 315 treated patients. The authors used an overlap volume ratio (OV) of bladder and rectum for different PTV expansions and overlap volume histogram slopes (OVSR and OVSB for the rectum and bladder, respectively) as explanatory variables that quantify patient geometry. Using the optimal weights as ground truth, the authors trained and applied three prediction models: logistic regression (LR), multinomial logistic regression (MLR), and weighted K-nearest neighbor (KNN). The population average of the optimal objective function weights was also calculated. Results: The OV at 0.4 cm and OVSR at 0.1 cm features were found to be the most predictive of the weights. The authors observed comparable performance (i.e., no statistically significant difference) between LR, MLR, and KNN methodologies, with LR appearing to perform the best. All three machine learning models outperformed the population average by a statistically significant amount over a range of clinical metrics including bladder/rectum V53Gy, bladder/rectum V70Gy, and dose to the bladder, rectum, CTV, and PTV. When comparing the weights directly, the LR model predicted bladder and rectum weights that had, on average, a 73% and 74% relative improvement over the population average weights, respectively. The treatment plans resulting from the LR weights had, on average, a rectum V70Gy that was 35% closer to the clinical plan and a bladder V70Gy that was 29% closer, compared to the population average weights. Similar results were observed for all other clinical metrics. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the KNN and MLR
Pant, Anup D; Dorairaj, Syril K; Amini, Rouzbeh
2018-07-01
Quantifying the mechanical properties of the iris is important, as it provides insight into the pathophysiology of glaucoma. Recent ex vivo studies have shown that the mechanical properties of the iris are different in glaucomatous eyes as compared to normal ones. Notwithstanding the importance of the ex vivo studies, such measurements are severely limited for diagnosis and preclude development of treatment strategies. With the advent of detailed imaging modalities, it is possible to determine the in vivo mechanical properties using inverse finite element (FE) modeling. An inverse modeling approach requires an appropriate objective function for reliable estimation of parameters. In the case of the iris, numerous measurements such as iris chord length (CL) and iris concavity (CV) are made routinely in clinical practice. In this study, we have evaluated five different objective functions chosen based on the iris biometrics (in the presence and absence of clinical measurement errors) to determine the appropriate criterion for inverse modeling. Our results showed that in the absence of experimental measurement error, a combination of iris CL and CV can be used as the objective function. However, with the addition of measurement errors, the objective functions that employ a large number of local displacement values provide more reliable outcomes.
Objective-function Hybridization in Adjoint Seismic Tomography
Yuan, Y. O.; Bozdag, E.; Simons, F.; Gao, F.
2016-12-01
In the realm of seismic tomography, we are at the threshold of a new era of huge seismic datasets. However, how to assimilate as much information as possible from every seismogram is still a challenge. Cross-correlation measurements are generally tailored to some window selection algorithms, such as FLEXWIN (Maggie et al. 2008), to balance amplitude differences between seismic phases. However, these measurements naturally favor maximum picks in selected windows. It is also difficult to select all usable portions of seismograms in an optimum way that lots of information is generally lost, particularly the scattered waves. Instantaneous phase type of misfits extract information from every wiggle without cutting seismograms into small pieces, however, dealing with cycle skips at short periods can be challenging. For this purpose, we introduce a flexible hybrid approach for adjoint seismic tomography, to combine various objective functions. We initially focus on phase measurements and propose using instantaneous phase to take into account relatively small-magnitude scattered waves at long periods while using cross-correlation measurements on FLEXWIN windows to select distinct body-wave arrivals without complicating measurements due to non-linearities at short periods. To better deal with cycle skips and reliably measure instantaneous phases we design a new misfit function that incorporates instantaneous phase information implicitly instead of measuring it explicitly, through using normalized analytic signals. We present in our synthetic experiments how instantaneous phase, cross-correlation and their hybridization affect tomographic results. The combination of two different phase measurements in a hybrid approach constitutes progress towards using "anything and everything" in a data set, addressing data quality and measurement challenges simultaneously. We further extend hybridisation of misfit functions for amplitude measurements such as cross-correlation amplitude
Daston, Lorraine
2010-01-01
Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...
Controlled short-linkage assembly of functional nano-objects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chaudhary, Shilpi; Kamra, Tripta [Division of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); ENI AB, Malmö (Sweden); Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Uddin, Khan Mohammad Ahsan [Division of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Snezhkova, Olesia [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Jayawardena, H. Surangi N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Lowell, 1 University Ave., Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Yan, Mingdi [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Lowell, 1 University Ave., Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Department of Chemistry, KTH – Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 30, S-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Montelius, Lars [ENI AB, Malmö (Sweden); Schnadt, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.schnadt@sljus.lu.se [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Ye, Lei, E-mail: lei.ye@tbiokem.lth.se [Division of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)
2014-05-01
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fast photoconjugation of nanoparticles on surface. • Non-destructive feature guarantees intact function of nanoparticles. • Direct contact between nano-objects allows efficient photon and electron transfer. • Possibility of generating patterned nanoparticle assemblies on surface. • Open new opportunities for assembling chemical sensors. - Abstract: In this work, we report a method that allows the deterministic, photo-controlled covalent assembly of nanoparticles directly on surface. As a model system, we study the conjugation of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanoparticles on a glass surface and confirm that the immobilized nanoparticles maintain their molecular recognition functionality. The glass slide was first modified with perfluorophenylazide and then used to bind MIP nanoparticles under UV irradiation. After each step the surface was analyzed by water contact angle measurement, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and/or synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The MIP nanoparticles immobilized on the glass surface remained stable and maintained specific binding for the template molecule, propranolol. The method developed in this work allows MIP nanoparticles to be directly coupled to a flat surface, offering a straightforward means to construct robust chemical sensors. Using the reported photo conjugation method, it is possible to generate patterned assembly of nanoparticles using a photomask. Since perfluorophenylazide-based photochemistry works with all kinds of organic material, the method developed in this work is expected to enable immobilization of not only MIPs but also other kinds of organic and inorganic–organic core–shell particles for various applications involving photon or electron transfer.
Controlled short-linkage assembly of functional nano-objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaudhary, Shilpi; Kamra, Tripta; Uddin, Khan Mohammad Ahsan; Snezhkova, Olesia; Jayawardena, H. Surangi N.; Yan, Mingdi; Montelius, Lars; Schnadt, Joachim; Ye, Lei
2014-01-01
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fast photoconjugation of nanoparticles on surface. • Non-destructive feature guarantees intact function of nanoparticles. • Direct contact between nano-objects allows efficient photon and electron transfer. • Possibility of generating patterned nanoparticle assemblies on surface. • Open new opportunities for assembling chemical sensors. - Abstract: In this work, we report a method that allows the deterministic, photo-controlled covalent assembly of nanoparticles directly on surface. As a model system, we study the conjugation of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanoparticles on a glass surface and confirm that the immobilized nanoparticles maintain their molecular recognition functionality. The glass slide was first modified with perfluorophenylazide and then used to bind MIP nanoparticles under UV irradiation. After each step the surface was analyzed by water contact angle measurement, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and/or synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The MIP nanoparticles immobilized on the glass surface remained stable and maintained specific binding for the template molecule, propranolol. The method developed in this work allows MIP nanoparticles to be directly coupled to a flat surface, offering a straightforward means to construct robust chemical sensors. Using the reported photo conjugation method, it is possible to generate patterned assembly of nanoparticles using a photomask. Since perfluorophenylazide-based photochemistry works with all kinds of organic material, the method developed in this work is expected to enable immobilization of not only MIPs but also other kinds of organic and inorganic–organic core–shell particles for various applications involving photon or electron transfer
Numerical analysis on pool boiling using user defined function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ryu, Sung Uk; Jeon, Byong Guk; Kim, Seok; Euh, Dong-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) adopted in the APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus) of Korea is one such application. When PAFS is activated with an actuation signal, steam from the steam generator passes through heat exchanger tubes submerged in a water tank of the PAFS. Outside these heat exchanger tubes, nucleate boiling phenomena appears. In the present work, a numerical study is reported on three-dimensional transient state pool boiling of water having an immersed heat source. The velocity vector fields during the decrease in the water level are numerically investigated in a pool, and the accuracy of the results is checked by comparing the experimental results conducted using the PIV techniques by Kim et al. These numerical results can be used as basic research data for an analysis and prediction of the natural circulation phenomena in the cooling tank of the passive safety system in a nuclear power plant.
Numerical simulation of thermal fracture in functionally graded ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sahil Garg
Initially, the temperature distribution over the domain is obtained by solving the heat ... The goal of producing such engineered material systems is ... developed like using equivalent eigenstrain and distributed .... where ˜W is the strain energy density and nj is the jth ..... Thus, numerical evaluation of interaction integral from.
Embedding objects during 3D printing to add new functionalities.
Yuen, Po Ki
2016-07-01
A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication
Numerical methods for characterization of synchrotron radiation based on the Wigner function method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takashi Tanaka
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Numerical characterization of synchrotron radiation based on the Wigner function method is explored in order to accurately evaluate the light source performance. A number of numerical methods to compute the Wigner functions for typical synchrotron radiation sources such as bending magnets, undulators and wigglers, are presented, which significantly improve the computation efficiency and reduce the total computation time. As a practical example of the numerical characterization, optimization of betatron functions to maximize the brilliance of undulator radiation is discussed.
A cross-correlation objective function for least-squares migration and visco-acoustic imaging
Dutta, Gaurav
2014-08-05
Conventional acoustic least-squares migration inverts for a reflectivity image that best matches the amplitudes of the observed data. However, for field data applications, it is not easy to match the recorded amplitudes because of the visco-elastic nature of the earth and inaccuracies in the estimation of source signature and strength at different shot locations. To relax the requirement for strong amplitude matching of least-squares migration, we use a normalized cross-correlation objective function that is only sensitive to the similarity between the predicted and the observed data. Such a normalized cross-correlation objective function is also equivalent to a time-domain phase inversion method where the main emphasis is only on matching the phase of the data rather than the amplitude. Numerical tests on synthetic and field data show that such an objective function can be used as an alternative to visco-acoustic least-squares reverse time migration (Qp-LSRTM) when there is strong attenuation in the subsurface and the estimation of the attenuation parameter Qp is insufficiently accurate.
A cross-correlation objective function for least-squares migration and visco-acoustic imaging
Dutta, Gaurav; Sinha, Mrinal; Schuster, Gerard T.
2014-01-01
Conventional acoustic least-squares migration inverts for a reflectivity image that best matches the amplitudes of the observed data. However, for field data applications, it is not easy to match the recorded amplitudes because of the visco-elastic nature of the earth and inaccuracies in the estimation of source signature and strength at different shot locations. To relax the requirement for strong amplitude matching of least-squares migration, we use a normalized cross-correlation objective function that is only sensitive to the similarity between the predicted and the observed data. Such a normalized cross-correlation objective function is also equivalent to a time-domain phase inversion method where the main emphasis is only on matching the phase of the data rather than the amplitude. Numerical tests on synthetic and field data show that such an objective function can be used as an alternative to visco-acoustic least-squares reverse time migration (Qp-LSRTM) when there is strong attenuation in the subsurface and the estimation of the attenuation parameter Qp is insufficiently accurate.
Freud, Erez; Ganel, Tzvi; Avidan, Galia; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon
2016-03-01
According to the two visual systems model, the cortical visual system is segregated into a ventral pathway mediating object recognition, and a dorsal pathway mediating visuomotor control. In the present study we examined whether the visual control of action could develop normally even when visual perceptual abilities are compromised from early childhood onward. Using his fingers, LG, an individual with a rare developmental visual object agnosia, manually estimated (perceptual condition) the width of blocks that varied in width and length (but not in overall size), or simply picked them up across their width (grasping condition). LG's perceptual sensitivity to target width was profoundly impaired in the manual estimation task compared to matched controls. In contrast, the sensitivity to object shape during grasping, as measured by maximum grip aperture (MGA), the time to reach the MGA, the reaction time and the total movement time were all normal in LG. Further analysis, however, revealed that LG's sensitivity to object shape during grasping emerged at a later time stage during the movement compared to controls. Taken together, these results demonstrate a dissociation between action and perception of object shape, and also point to a distinction between different stages of the grasping movement, namely planning versus online control. Moreover, the present study implies that visuomotor abilities can develop normally even when perceptual abilities developed in a profoundly impaired fashion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wave drag as the objective function in transonic fighter wing optimization
Phillips, P. S.
1984-01-01
The original computational method for determining wave drag in a three dimensional transonic analysis method was replaced by a wave drag formula based on the loss in momentum across an isentropic shock. This formula was used as the objective function in a numerical optimization procedure to reduce the wave drag of a fighter wing at transonic maneuver conditions. The optimization procedure minimized wave drag through modifications to the wing section contours defined by a wing profile shape function. A significant reduction in wave drag was achieved while maintaining a high lift coefficient. Comparisons of the pressure distributions for the initial and optimized wing geometries showed significant reductions in the leading-edge peaks and shock strength across the span.
Fermion condensation: a strange idea successfully explaining behaviour of numerous objects in nature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaginyan, V.R.; Amusia, M.Ya.; Popov, K.G.
2010-01-01
A theory of fermion condensation quantum phase transition, preserving the extended quasiparticles paradigm and intimately related to the unlimited growth of the effective mass as a function of the temperature, magnetic field, etc., is capable to resolve the problem. We discuss the construction of the theory and show that it delivers theoretical explanations of the vast majority of experimental results in strongly correlated systems such as heavy-fermion metals and quasi-two dimensional Fermi systems. Our analysis is placed in the context of recent salient experimental results. Our calculations of the non-Fermi liquid behavior, the scales, and thermodynamic and transport properties are in good agreement with the heat capacity, magnetization, longitudinal magnetoresistance, and magnetic entropy obtained in remarkable measurements on the heavy-fermion metal YbRh 2 Si 2 .
Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela; Blackman, Jonathan; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence; Pfeiffer, Harald; Buonanno, Alessandra; Pan, Yi; Taracchini, Andrea; SXS Collaboration
2015-04-01
We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors such as LIGO, Virgo and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as 45 . 5M⊙ . We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a loss in detection rate due to modeling error smaller than 0 . 3 % . In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display much greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used.
Explicit appropriate basis function method for numerical solution of stiff systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Wenzhen; Xiao, Hongguang; Li, Haofeng; Chen, Ling
2015-01-01
Highlights: • An explicit numerical method called the appropriate basis function method is presented. • The method differs from the power series method for obtaining approximate numerical solutions. • Two cases show the method is fit for linear and nonlinear stiff systems. • The method is very simple and effective for most of differential equation systems. - Abstract: In this paper, an explicit numerical method, called the appropriate basis function method, is presented. The explicit appropriate basis function method differs from the power series method because it employs an appropriate basis function such as the exponential function, or periodic function, other than a polynomial, to obtain approximate numerical solutions. The method is successful and effective for the numerical solution of the first order ordinary differential equations. Two examples are presented to show the ability of the method for dealing with linear and nonlinear systems of differential equations
Numerical approximations of difference functional equations and applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zdzisław Kamont
2005-01-01
Full Text Available We give a theorem on the error estimate of approximate solutions for difference functional equations of the Volterra type. We apply this general result in the investigation of the stability of difference schemes generated by nonlinear first order partial differential functional equations and by parabolic problems. We show that all known results on difference methods for initial or initial boundary value problems can be obtained as particular cases of this general and simple result. We assume that the right hand sides of equations satisfy nonlinear estimates of the Perron type with respect to functional variables.
Modelling of functionally graded materials by numerical homogenization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmauder, S.; Weber, U. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt
2001-03-01
In this contribution, the mechanical behaviour of different ZrO{sub 2}/NiCr 80 20 compositions is analysed and compared with experimental findings. The microwave-sintered material is found to possess a slightly dominant ceramic matrix for intermediate volume fractions. Its thermal expansion coefficient deviates from the rule of mixture. The modulus and the stress strain behaviour can be simulated by a numerical homogenization procedure, and the influence of residual stresses is found to be negligible. A newly introduced parameter (matricity) describes the mutual circumvention of the phases and is found to strongly control the stress level of the composite, globally as well as locally. Finally, a graded component and a metal/ceramic bi-material are compared for thermal as well as mechanical loading. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehtinen, Ossi; Geiger, Dorin; Lee, Zhongbo; Whitwick, Michael Brian; Chen, Ming-Wei; Kis, Andras; Kaiser, Ute
2015-01-01
Here, we present a numerical post-processing method for removing the effect of anti-symmetric residual aberrations in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images of weakly scattering 2D-objects. The method is based on applying the same aberrations with the opposite phase to the Fourier transform of the recorded image intensity and subsequently inverting the Fourier transform. We present the theoretical justification of the method, and its verification based on simulated images in the case of low-order anti-symmetric aberrations. Ultimately the method is applied to experimental hardware aberration-corrected HRTEM images of single-layer graphene and MoSe 2 resulting in images with strongly reduced residual low-order aberrations, and consequently improved interpretability. Alternatively, this method can be used to estimate by trial and error the residual anti-symmetric aberrations in HRTEM images of weakly scattering objects
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2012-09-25
Traveltime inversion focuses on the geometrical features of the waveform (traveltimes), which is generally smooth, and thus, tends to provide averaged (smoothed) information of the model. On other hand, general waveform inversion uses additional elements of the wavefield including amplitudes to extract higher resolution information, but this comes at the cost of introducing non-linearity to the inversion operator, complicating the convergence process. We use unwrapped phase-based objective functions in waveform inversion as a link between the two general types of inversions in a domain in which such contributions to the inversion process can be easily identified and controlled. The instantaneous traveltime is a measure of the average traveltime of the energy in a trace as a function of frequency. It unwraps the phase of wavefields yielding far less non-linearity in the objective function than that experienced with conventional wavefields, yet it still holds most of the critical wavefield information in its frequency dependency. However, it suffers from non-linearity introduced by the model (or reflectivity), as reflections from independent events in our model interact with each other. Unwrapping the phase of such a model can mitigate this non-linearity as well. Specifically, a simple modification to the inverted domain (or model), can reduce the effect of the model-induced non-linearity and, thus, make the inversion more convergent. Simple numerical examples demonstrate these assertions.
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Choi, Yun Seok
2012-01-01
Traveltime inversion focuses on the geometrical features of the waveform (traveltimes), which is generally smooth, and thus, tends to provide averaged (smoothed) information of the model. On other hand, general waveform inversion uses additional elements of the wavefield including amplitudes to extract higher resolution information, but this comes at the cost of introducing non-linearity to the inversion operator, complicating the convergence process. We use unwrapped phase-based objective functions in waveform inversion as a link between the two general types of inversions in a domain in which such contributions to the inversion process can be easily identified and controlled. The instantaneous traveltime is a measure of the average traveltime of the energy in a trace as a function of frequency. It unwraps the phase of wavefields yielding far less non-linearity in the objective function than that experienced with conventional wavefields, yet it still holds most of the critical wavefield information in its frequency dependency. However, it suffers from non-linearity introduced by the model (or reflectivity), as reflections from independent events in our model interact with each other. Unwrapping the phase of such a model can mitigate this non-linearity as well. Specifically, a simple modification to the inverted domain (or model), can reduce the effect of the model-induced non-linearity and, thus, make the inversion more convergent. Simple numerical examples demonstrate these assertions.
Robustness of Multiple Objective Decision Analysis Preference Functions
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Klimack, William
2002-01-01
.... The impact of these differences was examined to improve implementation efficiency. The robustness of the decision model was examined with respect to the preference functions to reduce the time burden imposed on the decision maker...
Quantifying Functional Reuse from Object Oriented Requirements Specifications
Condori-Fernandez, Nelly; Condori-Fernández, N.; Pastor, O; Daneva, Maia; Abran, A.; Castro, J.; Quer, C.; Carvallo, J. B.; Fernandes da Silva, L.
2008-01-01
Software reuse is essential in improving efficiency and productivity in the software development process. This paper analyses reuse within requirements engineering phase by taking and adapting a standard functional size measurement method, COSMIC FFP. Our proposal attempts to quantify reusability
Numerical solution of neutral functional-differential equations with proportional delays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehmet Giyas Sakar
2017-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, homotopy analysis method is improved with optimal determination of auxiliary parameter by use of residual error function for solving neutral functional-differential equations (NFDEs with proportional delays. Convergence analysis and error estimate of method are given. Some numerical examples are solved and comparisons are made with the existing results. The numerical results show that the homotopy analysis method with residual error function is very effective and simple.
Monotone Approximations of Minimum and Maximum Functions and Multi-objective Problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stipanović, Dušan M.; Tomlin, Claire J.; Leitmann, George
2012-01-01
In this paper the problem of accomplishing multiple objectives by a number of agents represented as dynamic systems is considered. Each agent is assumed to have a goal which is to accomplish one or more objectives where each objective is mathematically formulated using an appropriate objective function. Sufficient conditions for accomplishing objectives are derived using particular convergent approximations of minimum and maximum functions depending on the formulation of the goals and objectives. These approximations are differentiable functions and they monotonically converge to the corresponding minimum or maximum function. Finally, an illustrative pursuit-evasion game example with two evaders and two pursuers is provided.
Monotone Approximations of Minimum and Maximum Functions and Multi-objective Problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stipanovic, Dusan M., E-mail: dusan@illinois.edu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Coordinated Science Laboratory, Department of Industrial and Enterprise Systems Engineering (United States); Tomlin, Claire J., E-mail: tomlin@eecs.berkeley.edu [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (United States); Leitmann, George, E-mail: gleit@berkeley.edu [University of California at Berkeley, College of Engineering (United States)
2012-12-15
In this paper the problem of accomplishing multiple objectives by a number of agents represented as dynamic systems is considered. Each agent is assumed to have a goal which is to accomplish one or more objectives where each objective is mathematically formulated using an appropriate objective function. Sufficient conditions for accomplishing objectives are derived using particular convergent approximations of minimum and maximum functions depending on the formulation of the goals and objectives. These approximations are differentiable functions and they monotonically converge to the corresponding minimum or maximum function. Finally, an illustrative pursuit-evasion game example with two evaders and two pursuers is provided.
Numerical solution of Euler's equation by perturbed functionals
Dey, S. K.
1985-01-01
A perturbed functional iteration has been developed to solve nonlinear systems. It adds at each iteration level, unique perturbation parameters to nonlinear Gauss-Seidel iterates which enhances its convergence properties. As convergence is approached these parameters are damped out. Local linearization along the diagonal has been used to compute these parameters. The method requires no computation of Jacobian or factorization of matrices. Analysis of convergence depends on properties of certain contraction-type mappings, known as D-mappings. In this article, application of this method to solve an implicit finite difference approximation of Euler's equation is studied. Some representative results for the well known shock tube problem and compressible flows in a nozzle are given.
Self-adaptive numerical integrator for analytic functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garribba, S.; Quartapelle, L.; Reina, G.
1978-01-01
A new adaptive algorithm for the integration of analytical functions is presented. The algorithm processes the integration interval by generating local subintervals whose length is controlled through a feedback loop. The control is obtained by means of a relation derived on an analytical basis and valid for an arbitrary integration rule: two different estimates of an integral are used to compute the interval length necessary to obtain an integral estimate with accuracy within the assigned error bounds. The implied method for local generation of subintervals and an effective assumption of error partition among subintervals give rise to an adaptive algorithm provided with a highly accurate and very efficient integration procedure. The particular algorithm obtained by choosing the 6-point Gauss-Legendre integration rule is considered and extensive comparisons are made with other outstanding integration algorithms
Numerical simulations of clinical focused ultrasound functional neurosurgery
Pulkkinen, Aki; Werner, Beat; Martin, Ernst; Hynynen, Kullervo
2014-04-01
A computational model utilizing grid and finite difference methods were developed to simulate focused ultrasound functional neurosurgery interventions. The model couples the propagation of ultrasound in fluids (soft tissues) and solids (skull) with acoustic and visco-elastic wave equations. The computational model was applied to simulate clinical focused ultrasound functional neurosurgery treatments performed in patients suffering from therapy resistant chronic neuropathic pain. Datasets of five patients were used to derive the treatment geometry. Eight sonications performed in the treatments were then simulated with the developed model. Computations were performed by driving the simulated phased array ultrasound transducer with the acoustic parameters used in the treatments. Resulting focal temperatures and size of the thermal foci were compared quantitatively, in addition to qualitative inspection of the simulated pressure and temperature fields. This study found that the computational model and the simulation parameters predicted an average of 24 ± 13% lower focal temperature elevations than observed in the treatments. The size of the simulated thermal focus was found to be 40 ± 13% smaller in the anterior-posterior direction and 22 ± 14% smaller in the inferior-superior direction than in the treatments. The location of the simulated thermal focus was off from the prescribed target by 0.3 ± 0.1 mm, while the peak focal temperature elevation observed in the measurements was off by 1.6 ± 0.6 mm. Although the results of the simulations suggest that there could be some inaccuracies in either the tissue parameters used, or in the simulation methods, the simulations were able to predict the focal spot locations and temperature elevations adequately for initial treatment planning performed to assess, for example, the feasibility of sonication. The accuracy of the simulations could be improved if more precise ultrasound tissue properties (especially of the
Use of Green's functions in the numerical solution of two-point boundary value problems
Gallaher, L. J.; Perlin, I. E.
1974-01-01
This study investigates the use of Green's functions in the numerical solution of the two-point boundary value problem. The first part deals with the role of the Green's function in solving both linear and nonlinear second order ordinary differential equations with boundary conditions and systems of such equations. The second part describes procedures for numerical construction of Green's functions and considers briefly the conditions for their existence. Finally, there is a description of some numerical experiments using nonlinear problems for which the known existence, uniqueness or convergence theorems do not apply. Examples here include some problems in finding rendezvous orbits of the restricted three body system.
A Numerical Method for Lane-Emden Equations Using Hybrid Functions and the Collocation Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Changqing Yang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical method to solve Lane-Emden equations as singular initial value problems is presented in this work. This method is based on the replacement of unknown functions through a truncated series of hybrid of block-pulse functions and Chebyshev polynomials. The collocation method transforms the differential equation into a system of algebraic equations. It also has application in a wide area of differential equations. Corresponding numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jungsoo; Song, Soonho; Lee, Kyo Seung
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Model-based control of dual-loop EGR system is performed. • EGR split index is developed to provide non-dimensional index for optimization. • EGR rates are calibrated using EGR split index at specific operating conditions. • Multi-objective Pareto optimization is performed to minimize NO X and BSFC. • Optimum split strategies are suggested with LP-rich dual-loop EGR at high load. - Abstract: A proposed dual-loop exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) system that combines the features of high-pressure (HP) and low-pressure (LP) systems is considered a key technology for improving the combustion behavior of diesel engines. The fraction of HP and LP flows, known as the EGR split, for a given dual-loop EGR rate play an important role in determining the engine performance and emission characteristics. Therefore, identifying the proper EGR split is important for the engine optimization and calibration processes, which affect the EGR response and deNO X efficiencies. The objective of this research was to develop a dual-loop EGR split strategy using numerical analysis and one-dimensional (1D) cycle simulation. A control system was modeled by coupling the 1D cycle simulation and the control logic. An EGR split index was developed to investigate the HP/LP split effects on the engine performance and emissions. Using the model-based control system, a multi-objective Pareto (MOP) analysis was used to minimize the NO X formation and fuel consumption through optimized engine operating parameters. The MOP analysis was performed using a response surface model extracted from Latin hypercube sampling as a fractional factorial design of experiment. By using an LP rich dual-loop EGR, a high EGR rate was attained at low, medium, and high engine speeds, increasing the applicable load ranges compared to base conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rukolaine, Sergey A.
2010-01-01
Optimal shape design problems of steady-state radiative heat transfer are considered. The optimal shape design problem (in the three-dimensional space) is formulated as an inverse one, i.e., in the form of an operator equation of the first kind with respect to a surface to be optimized. The operator equation is reduced to a minimization problem via a least-squares objective functional. The minimization problem has to be solved numerically. Gradient minimization methods need the gradient of a functional to be minimized. In this paper the shape gradient of the least-squares objective functional is derived with the help of the shape sensitivity analysis and adjoint problem method. In practice a surface to be optimized may be (or, most likely, is to be) given in a parametric form by a finite number of parameters. In this case the objective functional is, in fact, a function in a finite-dimensional space and the shape gradient becomes an ordinary gradient. The gradient of the objective functional, in the case that the surface to be optimized is given in a finite-parametric form, is derived from the shape gradient. A particular case, that a surface to be optimized is a 'two-dimensional' polyhedral one, is considered. The technique, developed in the paper, is applied to a synthetic problem of designing a 'two-dimensional' radiant enclosure.
Selection of Objective Function For Imbalanced Classification: An Industrial Case Study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khan, Abdul Rauf; Schiøler, Henrik; Kulahci, Murat
2017-01-01
In this article we discuss the issue of selecting suitable objective function for Genetic Algorithm to solve an imbalanced classification problem. More precisely, first we discuss the need of specialized objective function to solve a real classification problem from our industrial partner and the...... and then we compare the results of our proposed objective function with commonly used candidates to serve this purpose. Our comparison is based on the analysis of real data collected during the quality control stages of the manufacturing process....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yong Ma
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We present one algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO with penalty function to determine the conflict-free path for mobile objects in four-dimension (three spatial and one-time dimensions with obstacles. The shortest path of the mobile object is set as goal function, which is constrained by conflict-free criterion, path smoothness, and velocity and acceleration requirements. This problem is formulated as a calculus of variation problem (CVP. With parametrization method, the CVP is converted to a time-varying nonlinear programming problem (TNLPP. Constraints of TNLPP are transformed to general TNLPP without any constraints through penalty functions. Then, by using a little calculations and applying the algorithm PSO, the solution of the CVP is consequently obtained. Approach efficiency is confirmed by numerical examples.
Semantic and functional relationships among objects increase the capacity of visual working memory.
O'Donnell, Ryan E; Clement, Andrew; Brockmole, James R
2018-04-12
Visual working memory (VWM) has a limited capacity of approximately 3-4 visual objects. Current theories of VWM propose that a limited pool of resources can be flexibly allocated to objects, allowing them to be represented at varying levels of precision. Factors that influence the allocation of these resources, such as the complexity and perceptual grouping of objects, can thus affect the capacity of VWM. We sought to identify whether semantic and functional relationships between objects could influence the grouping of objects, thereby increasing the functional capacity of VWM. Observers viewed arrays of 8 to-be-remembered objects arranged into 4 pairs. We manipulated both the semantic association and functional interaction between the objects, then probed participants' memory for the arrays. When objects were semantically related, participants' memory for the arrays improved. Participants' memory further improved when semantically related objects were positioned to interact with each other. However, when we increased the spacing between the objects in each pair, the benefits of functional but not semantic relatedness were eliminated. These findings suggest that action-relevant properties of objects can increase the functional capacity of VWM, but only when objects are positioned to directly interact with each other. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
On the convex hull of the simple integer recourse objective function
Klein Haneveld, Willem K.; Stougie, L.; van der Vlerk, Maarten H.
1995-01-01
We consider the objective function of a simple integer recourse problem with fixed technology matrix. Using properties of the expected value function, we prove a relation between the convex hull of this function and the expected value function of a continuous simple recourse program. We present an
Studies on combined model based on functional objectives of large scale complex engineering
Yuting, Wang; Jingchun, Feng; Jiabao, Sun
2018-03-01
As various functions were included in large scale complex engineering, and each function would be conducted with completion of one or more projects, combined projects affecting their functions should be located. Based on the types of project portfolio, the relationship of projects and their functional objectives were analyzed. On that premise, portfolio projects-technics based on their functional objectives were introduced, then we studied and raised the principles of portfolio projects-technics based on the functional objectives of projects. In addition, The processes of combined projects were also constructed. With the help of portfolio projects-technics based on the functional objectives of projects, our research findings laid a good foundation for management of large scale complex engineering portfolio management.
Infants' Developing Sensitivity to Object Function: Attention to Features and Feature Correlations
Baumgartner, Heidi A.; Oakes, Lisa M.
2011-01-01
When learning object function, infants must detect relations among features--for example, that squeezing is associated with squeaking or that objects with wheels roll. Previously, Perone and Oakes (2006) found 10-month-old infants were sensitive to relations between object appearances and actions, but not to relations between appearances and…
The Slippery Road from Actions on Objects to Functions and Variables
Paz, Tamar; Leron, Uri
2009-01-01
Functions are all around us, disguised as actions on concrete objects. Composition of functions, too, is all around us, because these actions can be performed in succession, the output of one serving as the input for the next. In terms of Gray and Tall's (2001) "embodied objects" or Lakoff and Nunez's (2000) "mathematical idea…
Functional imaging of numerical processing in adults and 4-y-old children.
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Jessica F Cantlon
2006-05-01
Full Text Available Adult humans, infants, pre-school children, and non-human animals appear to share a system of approximate numerical processing for non-symbolic stimuli such as arrays of dots or sequences of tones. Behavioral studies of adult humans implicate a link between these non-symbolic numerical abilities and symbolic numerical processing (e.g., similar distance effects in accuracy and reaction-time for arrays of dots and Arabic numerals. However, neuroimaging studies have remained inconclusive on the neural basis of this link. The intraparietal sulcus (IPS is known to respond selectively to symbolic numerical stimuli such as Arabic numerals. Recent studies, however, have arrived at conflicting conclusions regarding the role of the IPS in processing non-symbolic, numerosity arrays in adulthood, and very little is known about the brain basis of numerical processing early in development. Addressing the question of whether there is an early-developing neural basis for abstract numerical processing is essential for understanding the cognitive origins of our uniquely human capacity for math and science. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at 4-Tesla and an event-related fMRI adaptation paradigm, we found that adults showed a greater IPS response to visual arrays that deviated from standard stimuli in their number of elements, than to stimuli that deviated in local element shape. These results support previous claims that there is a neurophysiological link between non-symbolic and symbolic numerical processing in adulthood. In parallel, we tested 4-y-old children with the same fMRI adaptation paradigm as adults to determine whether the neural locus of non-symbolic numerical activity in adults shows continuity in function over development. We found that the IPS responded to numerical deviants similarly in 4-y-old children and adults. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that the neural locus of adult numerical cognition takes form early in
A review on functional and structural brain connectivity in numerical cognition
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Korbinian eMoeller
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Only recently has the complex anatomo-functional system underlying numerical cognition become accessible to evaluation in the living brain. We identified 26 studies investigating brain connectivity in numerical cognition. Despite considerable heterogeneity regarding methodological approaches, populations investigated, and assessment procedures implemented, the results provided largely converging evidence regarding the underlying brain connectivity involved in numerical cognition. Analyses of both functional/effective as well as structural connectivity have consistently corroborated the assumption that numerical cognition is subserved by a fronto-parietal network including (intraparietal as well as (prefrontal cortex sites. Evaluation of structural connectivity has indicated the involvement of fronto-parietal association fibers encompassing the superior longitudinal fasciculus dorsally and the external capsule/extreme capsule system ventrally. Additionally, commissural fibers seem to connect the bilateral intraparietal sulci when number magnitude information is processed. Finally, the identification of projection fibers such as the superior corona radiata indicates connections between cortex and basal ganglia as well as the thalamus in numerical cognition. Studies on functional/effective connectivity further indicated a specific role of the hippocampus. These specifications of brain connectivity augment the triple-code model of number processing and calculation with respect to how grey matter areas associated with specific number-related representations may work together.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lobanov, Yu.Yu.; Shahbagian, R.R.; Zhidkov, E.P.
1991-01-01
A new method for numerical solution of the boundary problem for Schroedinger-like partial differential equations in R n is elaborated. The method is based on representation of multidimensional Green function in the form of multiple functional integral and on the use of approximation formulas which are constructed for such integrals. The convergence of approximations to the exact value is proved, the remainder of the formulas is estimated. Method reduces the initial differential problem to quadratures. 16 refs.; 7 tabs
Numerical studies of the g-hartree density functional in the Thomas-Fermi scaling limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Millack, T.; Weymans, G.
1986-02-01
Methods of finite temperature quantum field theory are used to construct the g-Hartree density functional for atoms. Low and high temperature expansions are discussed in detail. Numerical studies for atomic ground-state configurations are presented in the Thomas-Fermi-Scaling limit. (orig.)
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Cynthia Collette
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Object semantics include object function and manipulation knowledge. Function knowledge refers to the goal attainable by using an object (e.g. the function of a key is to open or close a door while manipulation knowledge refers to gestures one has to execute to use an object appropriately (e.g. a key is held between the thumb and the index, inserted into the door lock and then turned.To date, several studies have assessed function and manipulation knowledge in brain lesion patients as well as in healthy adult populations. In patients with left brain damage, a double dissociation between these two types of knowledge has been reported; on the other hand, behavioral studies in healthy adults show that function knowledge is processed faster than manipulation knowledge. Empirical evidence has shown that object interaction in children differs from that in adults, suggesting that the access to function and manipulation knowledge in children might also differ.To investigate the development of object function and manipulation knowledge, 51 typically developing 8-9-10 year-old children and 17 healthy young adults were tested on a naming task associated with a semantic priming paradigm (190-ms SOA; prime duration: 90 ms in which a series of line drawings of manipulable objects were used. Target objects could be preceded by three priming contexts: related (e.g. knife-scissors for function; key-screwdriver for manipulation, unrelated but visually similar (e.g. glasses-scissors; baseball bat-screwdriver, and purely unrelated (e.g. die-scissors; tissue-screwdriver.Results showed a different developmental pattern of function and manipulation priming effects. Function priming effects were not present in children and emerged only in adults, with faster naming responses for targets preceded by objects sharing the same function. In contrast, manipulation priming effects were already present in 8-year-olds with faster naming responses for targets preceded by objects
2010-01-01
The authors studied functional state before and after the working shift in workers at objects for chemical weapons destruction, analyzed changes in central and peripheral hemodynamics parameters, vegetative regulation of heart rhythm, stabilographic and psychophysiologic values.
Waveform inversion with exponential damping using a deconvolution-based objective function
Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2016-01-01
The lack of low frequency components in seismic data usually leads full waveform inversion into the local minima of its objective function. An exponential damping of the data, on the other hand, generates artificial low frequencies, which can
Lötstedt, Erik; Jentschura, Ulrich D
2009-02-01
In the relativistic and the nonrelativistic theoretical treatment of moderate and high-power laser-matter interaction, the generalized Bessel function occurs naturally when a Schrödinger-Volkov and Dirac-Volkov solution is expanded into plane waves. For the evaluation of cross sections of quantum electrodynamic processes in a linearly polarized laser field, it is often necessary to evaluate large arrays of generalized Bessel functions, of arbitrary index but with fixed arguments. We show that the generalized Bessel function can be evaluated, in a numerically stable way, by utilizing a recurrence relation and a normalization condition only, without having to compute any initial value. We demonstrate the utility of the method by illustrating the quantum-classical correspondence of the Dirac-Volkov solutions via numerical calculations.
Interactive Preference Learning of Utility Functions for Multi-Objective Optimization
Dewancker, Ian; McCourt, Michael; Ainsworth, Samuel
2016-01-01
Real-world engineering systems are typically compared and contrasted using multiple metrics. For practical machine learning systems, performance tuning is often more nuanced than minimizing a single expected loss objective, and it may be more realistically discussed as a multi-objective optimization problem. We propose a novel generative model for scalar-valued utility functions to capture human preferences in a multi-objective optimization setting. We also outline an interactive active learn...
Cowell, Rosemary A.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Saksida, Lisa M.
2010-01-01
We examined the organization and function of the ventral object processing pathway. The prevailing theoretical approach in this field holds that the ventral object processing stream has a modular organization, in which visual perception is carried out in posterior regions and visual memory is carried out, independently, in the anterior temporal…
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Delaram Houshmand Kouchi
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The successful application of hydrological models relies on careful calibration and uncertainty analysis. However, there are many different calibration/uncertainty analysis algorithms, and each could be run with different objective functions. In this paper, we highlight the fact that each combination of optimization algorithm-objective functions may lead to a different set of optimum parameters, while having the same performance; this makes the interpretation of dominant hydrological processes in a watershed highly uncertain. We used three different optimization algorithms (SUFI-2, GLUE, and PSO, and eight different objective functions (R2, bR2, NSE, MNS, RSR, SSQR, KGE, and PBIAS in a SWAT model to calibrate the monthly discharges in two watersheds in Iran. The results show that all three algorithms, using the same objective function, produced acceptable calibration results; however, with significantly different parameter ranges. Similarly, an algorithm using different objective functions also produced acceptable calibration results, but with different parameter ranges. The different calibrated parameter ranges consequently resulted in significantly different water resource estimates. Hence, the parameters and the outputs that they produce in a calibrated model are “conditioned” on the choices of the optimization algorithm and objective function. This adds another level of non-negligible uncertainty to watershed models, calling for more attention and investigation in this area.
A two-level parallel direct search implementation for arbitrarily sized objective functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hutchinson, S.A.; Shadid, N.; Moffat, H.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others
1994-12-31
In the past, many optimization schemes for massively parallel computers have attempted to achieve parallel efficiency using one of two methods. In the case of large and expensive objective function calculations, the optimization itself may be run in serial and the objective function calculations parallelized. In contrast, if the objective function calculations are relatively inexpensive and can be performed on a single processor, then the actual optimization routine itself may be parallelized. In this paper, a scheme based upon the Parallel Direct Search (PDS) technique is presented which allows the objective function calculations to be done on an arbitrarily large number (p{sub 2}) of processors. If, p, the number of processors available, is greater than or equal to 2p{sub 2} then the optimization may be parallelized as well. This allows for efficient use of computational resources since the objective function calculations can be performed on the number of processors that allow for peak parallel efficiency and then further speedup may be achieved by parallelizing the optimization. Results are presented for an optimization problem which involves the solution of a PDE using a finite-element algorithm as part of the objective function calculation. The optimum number of processors for the finite-element calculations is less than p/2. Thus, the PDS method is also parallelized. Performance comparisons are given for a nCUBE 2 implementation.
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Marina Popolizio
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Multiterm fractional differential equations (MTFDEs nowadays represent a widely used tool to model many important processes, particularly for multirate systems. Their numerical solution is then a compelling subject that deserves great attention, not least because of the difficulties to apply general purpose methods for fractional differential equations (FDEs to this case. In this paper, we first transform the MTFDEs into equivalent systems of FDEs, as done by Diethelm and Ford; in this way, the solution can be expressed in terms of Mittag–Leffler (ML functions evaluated at matrix arguments. We then propose to compute it by resorting to the matrix approach proposed by Garrappa and Popolizio. Several numerical tests are presented that clearly show that this matrix approach is very accurate and fast, also in comparison with other numerical methods.
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S.M. Günay
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA often results in impairments in upper extremities, especially in the small joints of hand. Involvement of hand brings limitations in activities of daily living. However, it is commonly observed that patient-reported functional status of hand does not always corresponds to their actual physical performance in the clinical setting. The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the relationship between patient self-reported and objectively measured hand functions in patients with RA. Twenty-six patients (51±13 years with RA diagnosis participated in the study. Hand grip and pinch (lateral, bipod, tripod strengths were measured and Jebsen Hand Function Test (JHFT was performed for objective functional performance. Duruöz Hand Index and Beck Depression Inventory - Turkish version were completed by patients. Grip and all three-pinch strength results significantly correlated with Duruöz Hand Index scores (p<0.05. JHFT results except the sentence writing also correlated with the Duruöz scores (p<0.05. Our results showed that self-reported outcome scales might be used for determining functional level of hand in patients with RA in rheumatology practice. Objective quantitative functional tests are the best methods in evaluating functional level of hand, but require valid and reliable equipment with accurate calibration. Therefore, in case of unavailability of objective assessment tools, patient-reported scales may also reflect the real status of hand functions.
Applications of Kalman filters based on non-linear functions to numerical weather predictions
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G. Galanis
2006-10-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of non-linear functions in classical Kalman filter algorithms on the improvement of regional weather forecasts. The main aim is the implementation of non linear polynomial mappings in a usual linear Kalman filter in order to simulate better non linear problems in numerical weather prediction. In addition, the optimal order of the polynomials applied for such a filter is identified. This work is based on observations and corresponding numerical weather predictions of two meteorological parameters characterized by essential differences in their evolution in time, namely, air temperature and wind speed. It is shown that in both cases, a polynomial of low order is adequate for eliminating any systematic error, while higher order functions lead to instabilities in the filtered results having, at the same time, trivial contribution to the sensitivity of the filter. It is further demonstrated that the filter is independent of the time period and the geographic location of application.
Applications of Kalman filters based on non-linear functions to numerical weather predictions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Galanis
2006-10-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of non-linear functions in classical Kalman filter algorithms on the improvement of regional weather forecasts. The main aim is the implementation of non linear polynomial mappings in a usual linear Kalman filter in order to simulate better non linear problems in numerical weather prediction. In addition, the optimal order of the polynomials applied for such a filter is identified. This work is based on observations and corresponding numerical weather predictions of two meteorological parameters characterized by essential differences in their evolution in time, namely, air temperature and wind speed. It is shown that in both cases, a polynomial of low order is adequate for eliminating any systematic error, while higher order functions lead to instabilities in the filtered results having, at the same time, trivial contribution to the sensitivity of the filter. It is further demonstrated that the filter is independent of the time period and the geographic location of application.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernandes, D.H.; Medeiros, A.R. [Subsea7, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Jacob, B.P.; Lima, B.S.L.P.; Albrecht, C.H. [Universidade Federaldo Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Programas de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia
2009-07-01
This work presents studies regarding the determination of optimal pipeline routes for offshore applications. The assembly of an objective function is presented; this function can be later associated with Evolutionary Algorithm to implement a computational tool for the automatic determination of the most advantageous pipeline route for a given scenario. This tool may reduce computational overheads, avoid mistakes with route interpretation, and minimize costs with respect to submarine pipeline design and installation. The following aspects can be considered in the assembly of the objective function: Geophysical and geotechnical data obtained from the bathymetry and sonography; the influence of the installation method, total pipeline length and number of free spans to be mitigated along the routes as well as vessel time for both cases. Case studies are presented to illustrate the use of the proposed objective function, including a sensitivity analysis intended to identify the relative influence of selected parameters in the evaluation of different routes. (author)
A Review about Functional Illiteracy: Definition, Cognitive, Linguistic and Numerical Aspects
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Réka Vágvölgyi
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Formally, availability of education for children has increased around the world over the last decades. However, despite having a successful formal education career, adults can become functional illiterates. Functional illiteracy means that a person cannot use reading, writing and calculation skills for his/her own and the community’s development. Functional illiteracy has considerable negative effects not only on personal development, but also in economic and social terms. Although functional illiteracy has been highly publicized in mass media in the recent years, there is limited scientific knowledge about the people termed functional illiterates; definition, assessment and differential diagnoses with respect to related numerical and linguistic impairments are rarely studied and controversial.The first goal of our review is to give a comprehensive overview of the research on functional illiteracy by describing gaps in knowledge within the field and to outline and address the basic questions concerning who can be considered as functional illiterates: (1 Do they possess basic skills? (2 In which abilities do they have the largest deficits? (3 Are numerical and linguistic deficits related? (4 What is the fundamental reason for their difficulties? (5 Are there main differences between functional illiterates, illiterates and dyslexics? We will see that despite partial evidence, there is still much research needed to answer these questions.Secondly, we emphasize the timeliness for a new and more precise definition that results in uniform sampling, better diagnosis, conclusion and intervention. We propose the following working definition as the result of the review: functional illiteracy is the incapability to understand complex texts despite adequate schooling, age, language skills, elementary reading skills and IQ. These inabilities must also not be fully explained by sensory, domain-general cognitive, neurological or mental disorders.In sum, we
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Wei Xu
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Purpose: To ascertain the relationship between the operation system function goal decision making and customer demand and competition strategy, can better discover and integrate all available resources (including important capital resources to achieve business opportunities, the establishment of sustainable competitive ability. Because, to achieve business development lead policymakers take great uncertainty, which led to the investment behavior required for the operational activities of resources also bear the enormous risks. Design/methodology/approach: Through principal component analysis on the data collected by questionnaires, the manuscript obtains dominant factors for customer demand, competitive strategy and manufacturing system functional objectives respectively. By these factors, it tests its three hypotheses with the data from northeast of China and draws some conclusions. Findings: The results show that customer demand have a significant positive effect on competitive strategy; competitive strategy have positive influence on manufacturing system functional objectives; customer demand affect the functional objectives, by competitive strategy. Research limitations/implications: In this research, competitive strategy and manufacturing system functional objectives are influenced by customer demand. The conclusion of the research can provide theoretical guidance for Chinese enterprises which carry out manufacturing system functional objectives. Originality/value: In this research, a new measure questionnaire of competition strategy, customer satisfaction and operating system function goal was used, analyzed the influence factors of time, quality, cost, efficiency, service and environment, on the operation of the system. The study shows that the effect of competition strategy and customer demand has a direct impact on the operating system functions, customer demand through competitive strategy of indirect effects operating system functions.
Exponential Convergence for Numerical Solution of Integral Equations Using Radial Basis Functions
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Zakieh Avazzadeh
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We solve some different type of Urysohn integral equations by using the radial basis functions. These types include the linear and nonlinear Fredholm, Volterra, and mixed Volterra-Fredholm integral equations. Our main aim is to investigate the rate of convergence to solve these equations using the radial basis functions which have normic structure that utilize approximation in higher dimensions. Of course, the use of this method often leads to ill-posed systems. Thus we propose an algorithm to improve the results. Numerical results show that this method leads to the exponential convergence for solving integral equations as it was already confirmed for partial and ordinary differential equations.
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Elmira Ashpazzadeh
2018-04-01
Full Text Available A numerical technique based on the Hermite interpolant multiscaling functions is presented for the solution of Convection-diusion equations. The operational matrices of derivative, integration and product are presented for multiscaling functions and are utilized to reduce the solution of linear Convection-diusion equation to the solution of algebraic equations. Because of sparsity of these matrices, this method is computationally very attractive and reduces the CPU time and computer memory. Illustrative examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the new technique.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muldoon, Frank H.; Kuhlmann, Hendrik C.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Suppression of oscillations in a thermocapillary flow is addressed by optimization. • The gradient of the objective function is obtained by solving the adjoint equations. • The issue of choosing an objective function is investigated. - Abstract: The problem of suppressing flow oscillations in a thermocapillary flow is addressed using a gradient-based control strategy. The physical problem addressed is the “open boat” process of crystal growth, the flow in which is driven by thermocapillary and buoyancy effects. The problem is modeled by the two-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier–Stokes and energy equations under the Boussinesq approximation. The goal of the control is to suppress flow oscillations which arise when the driving forces are such that the flow becomes unsteady. The control is a spatially and temporally varying temperature gradient boundary condition at the free surface. The control which minimizes the flow oscillations is found using a conjugate gradient method, where the gradient of the objective function with respect to the control variables is obtained from solving a set of adjoint equations. The issue of choosing an objective function that can be both optimized in a computationally efficient manner and optimization of which provides control that damps the flow oscillations is investigated. Almost complete suppression of the flow oscillations is obtained for certain choices of the objective function.
Croke, B. F.
2008-12-01
The role of performance indicators is to give an accurate indication of the fit between a model and the system being modelled. As all measurements have an associated uncertainty (determining the significance that should be given to the measurement), performance indicators should take into account uncertainties in the observed quantities being modelled as well as in the model predictions (due to uncertainties in inputs, model parameters and model structure). In the presence of significant uncertainty in observed and modelled output of a system, failure to adequately account for variations in the uncertainties means that the objective function only gives a measure of how well the model fits the observations, not how well the model fits the system being modelled. Since in most cases, the interest lies in fitting the system response, it is vital that the objective function(s) be designed to account for these uncertainties. Most objective functions (e.g. those based on the sum of squared residuals) assume homoscedastic uncertainties. If model contribution to the variations in residuals can be ignored, then transformations (e.g. Box-Cox) can be used to remove (or at least significantly reduce) heteroscedasticity. An alternative which is more generally applicable is to explicitly represent the uncertainties in the observed and modelled values in the objective function. Previous work on this topic addressed the modifications to standard objective functions (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, RMSE, chi- squared, coefficient of determination) using the optimal weighted averaging approach. This paper extends this previous work; addressing the issue of serial correlation. A form for an objective function that includes serial correlation will be presented, and the impact on model fit discussed.
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Chan Jason
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pectus excavatum is the most common congenital deformity of the anterior chest wall that, under certain conditions, may pose functional problems due to cardiopulmonary compromise and exercise intolerance. Case presentation We present the case of an otherwise physically-adept 21-year-old Chinese sportsman with idiopathic pectus excavatum, whose symptoms manifested only on bearing a loaded body vest and backpack during physical exercise. Corroborative objective evidence was obtained via load-stressed pulmonary function testing, which demonstrated restrictive lung function. Conclusion This report highlights the possible detrimental synergism of thoracic load stress and pectus excavatum on cardiopulmonary function. Thoracic load-stressed pulmonary function testing provides objective evidence in support of such a synergistic relationship.
A method for the direct generation of comprehensive numerical solar building transfer functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, T.Y. [The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (China). Dept. of Building Services Engineering
2003-02-01
This paper describes a method for the direct generation of comprehensive numerical room transfer functions with any derived parameters as output, such as operative temperature or thermal load. Complex conductive, convective and radiant heat transfer processes, or any derived thermal parameters in buildings can be explicitly and precisely described by a generalized thermal network. This allows the s-transfer and z-transfer functions to be directly generated, using semi-symbolic analysis techniques, Cayley's expansion of determinant and Heaviside's expansion theorem. A simple algorithm is developed for finding the roots of the denominator in the inverse transform of the s-transfer functions, which ensures that no single root is missing. The techniques have been applied to generating the transfer functions of a passive solar room with floor heating. The example calculation demonstrates the high efficiency of the computational method. (author)
Islam, Naz Niamul; Hannan, M A; Shareef, Hussain; Mohamed, Azah; Salam, M A
2014-01-01
Power oscillation damping controller is designed in linearized model with heuristic optimization techniques. Selection of the objective function is very crucial for damping controller design by optimization algorithms. In this research, comparative analysis has been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of popular objective functions used in power system oscillation damping. Two-stage lead-lag damping controller by means of power system stabilizers is optimized using differential search algorithm for different objective functions. Linearized model simulations are performed to compare the dominant mode's performance and then the nonlinear model is continued to evaluate the damping performance over power system oscillations. All the simulations are conducted in two-area four-machine power system to bring a detailed analysis. Investigated results proved that multiobjective D-shaped function is an effective objective function in terms of moving unstable and lightly damped electromechanical modes into stable region. Thus, D-shape function ultimately improves overall system damping and concurrently enhances power system reliability.
DERIVATIVE OF SET MEASURE FUNCTIONS AND ITS APPLICATION (THEORETICAL BASES OF INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES
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A. A. Bosov
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Purpose. It is necessary to develop the theoretical fundamentals for solving the investment objectives presented in the form of set function as vector optimization tasks or tasks of constrained extremum. Methodology. Set functions and their derivatives of measure are used as research of investment objectives. Necessary condition of set function minimum is proved. In the tasks for constrained extremum the method of Lagrange is used. It is shown that this method can also be used for the set function. It is used the measure for proof, which generalizes the Lebesgue measure, and the concept of set sequence limit is introduced. It is noted that the introduced limit over a measure coincides with the classical Borel limit and can be used in order to prove the existence of derivative from set function over a measure on convergent of sets sequence. Findings. An algorithm of solving the investment objective for constrained extremum in relation to investment objectives was offered. Originality. Scientific novelty lies in the fact that in multivariate objects for constrained extremum one can refuse from immediate enumeration. One can use the proposed algorithm of constructing (selection of options that allow building a convex linear envelope of Pareto solutions. This envelope will let the person who makes a decision (DM, select those options that are "better" from a position of DM, and consider some of the criteria, the formalization of which are difficult or can not be described in mathematical terms. Practical value. Results of the study provide the necessary theoretical substantiation of decision-making in investment objectives, when there is a significant number of an investment objects and immediate enumeration of options is very difficult on time costs even for modern computing techniques.
Numerical suppression of the twin image in in-line holography of a volume of micro-objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denis, L; Fournier, C; Fournel, T; Ducottet, C
2008-01-01
We address the twin-image problem that arises in holography due to the lack of phase information in intensity measurements. This problem is of great importance in in-line holography where spatial elimination of the twin image cannot be carried out as in off-axis holography. A unifying description of existing digital suppression methods is given in the light of deconvolution techniques. Holograms of objects spread in 3D cannot be processed through available approaches. We suggest an iterative algorithm and demonstrate its efficacy on both simulated and real data. This method is suitable to enhance the reconstructed images from a digital hologram of small objects
A study of objective functions for organs with parallel and serial architecture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stavrev, P.V.; Stavreva, N.A.; Round, W.H.
1997-01-01
An objective function analysis when target volumes are deliberately enlarged to account for tumour mobility and consecutive uncertainty in the tumour position in external beam radiotherapy has been carried out. The dose distribution inside the tumour is assumed to have logarithmic dependence on the tumour cell density which assures an iso-local tumour control probability. The normal tissue immediately surrounding the tumour is irradiated homogeneously at a dose level equal to the dose D(R)) delivered at the edge of the tumour The normal tissue in the high dose field is modelled as being organized in identical functional subunits (FSUs) composed of a relatively large number of cells. Two types of organs - having serial and parallel architecture are considered. Implicit averaging over intrapatient normal tissue radiosensitivity variations is done. A function describing the normal tissue survival probability S 0 is constructed. The objective function is given as a product of the total tumour control probability (TCP) and the normal tissue survival probability S 0 . The values of the dose D(R)) which result in a maximum of the objective function are obtained for different combinations of tumour and normal tissue parameters, such as tumour and normal tissue radiosensitivities, number of cells constituting a normal tissue functional unit, total number of normal cells under high dose (D(R)) exposure and functional reserve for organs having parallel architecture. The corresponding TCP and S 0 values are computed and discussed. (authors)
Michels, Lars; O'Gorman, Ruth; Kucian, Karin
2018-04-01
Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a developmental learning disability associated with deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information. Although behavioural training can reduce these deficits, it is unclear which neuronal resources show a functional reorganization due to training. We examined typically developing (TD) children (N=16, mean age: 9.5 years) and age-, gender-, and handedness-matched children with DD (N=15, mean age: 9.5 years) during the performance of a numerical order task with fMRI and functional connectivity before and after 5-weeks of number line training. Using the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) as seed region, DD showed hyperconnectivity in parietal, frontal, visual, and temporal regions before the training controlling for age and IQ. Hyperconnectivity disappeared after training, whereas math abilities improved. Multivariate classification analysis of task-related fMRI data corroborated the connectivity results as the same group of TD could be discriminated from DD before but not after number line training (86.4 vs. 38.9%, respectively). Our results indicate that abnormally high functional connectivity in DD can be normalized on the neuronal level by intensive number line training. As functional connectivity in DD was indistinguishable to TD's connectivity after training, we conclude that training lead to a re-organization of inter-regional task engagement. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
2010-01-01
... pathways and individual receptors as actually exist at the time the plant is licensed. 2. The... Reactor Effluents SECTION I. Introduction. Section 50.34a provides that an application for a construction... guides on design objectives set forth in this section may be used by an applicant for a construction...
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Suguru Arimoto
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A computable model of grasping and manipulation of a 3D rigid object with arbitrary smooth surfaces by multiple robot fingers with smooth fingertip surfaces is derived under rolling contact constraints between surfaces. Geometrical conditions of pure rolling contacts are described through the moving-frame coordinates at each rolling contact point under the postulates: (1 two surfaces share a common single contact point without any mutual penetration and a common tangent plane at the contact point and (2 each path length of running of the contact point on the robot fingertip surface and the object surface is equal. It is shown that a set of Euler-Lagrange equations of motion of the fingers-object system can be derived by introducing Lagrange multipliers corresponding to geometric conditions of contacts. A set of 1st-order differential equations governing rotational motions of each fingertip and the object and updating arc-length parameters should be accompanied with the Euler-Lagrange equations. Further more, nonholonomic constraints arising from twisting between the two normal axes to each tangent plane are rewritten into a set of Frenet-Serre equations with a geometrically given normal curvature and a motion-induced geodesic curvature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buendia, M.; Salvador, R.; Cibrian, R.; Sotoca, J.M.; Laguia, M.
1999-01-01
The projection of structured light is a technique frequently used to determine the surface shape of an object. In this paper, a new procedure is described that efficiently resolves the correspondence between the knots of the projected grid and those obtained on the object when the projection is made. The method is based on the use of three images of the projected grid. In two of them the grid is projected over a flat surface placed, respectively, before and behind the object; both images are used for calibration. In the third image the grid is projected over the object. It is not reliant on accurate determination of the camera and projector pair relative to the grid and object. Once the method is calibrated, we can obtain the surface function by just analysing the projected grid on the object. The procedure is especially suitable for the study of objects without discontinuities or large depth gradients. It can be employed for determining, in a non-invasive way, the patient's back surface function. Symmetry differences permit a quantitative diagnosis of spinal deformities such as scoliosis. (author)
MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly
2016-12-01
The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M age = 4.31 years) were recruited to participate. Comprehensive measures of visual-motor integration skills, object manipulation skills, executive function, and social behaviors were administered in the fall and spring of the preschool year. Our findings indicated that children who had better visual-motor integration skills in the fall had better executive function scores (B = 0.47 [0.20], p gender, Head Start status, and site location, but not after controlling for children's baseline levels of executive function. In addition, children who demonstrated better object manipulation skills in the fall showed significantly stronger social behavior in their classrooms (as rated by teachers) in the spring, including more self-control (B - 0.03 [0.00], p social behavior in the fall and other covariates. Children's visual-motor integration and object manipulation skills in the fall have modest to moderate relations with executive function and social behaviors later in the preschool year. These findings have implications for early learning initiatives and school readiness.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hintermüller, Michael; Rautenberg, Carlos N; Hahn, Jooyoung
2014-01-01
Variable splitting schemes for the function space version of the image reconstruction problem with total variation regularization (TV-problem) in its primal and pre-dual formulations are considered. For the primal splitting formulation, while existence of a solution cannot be guaranteed, it is shown that quasi-minimizers of the penalized problem are asymptotically related to the solution of the original TV-problem. On the other hand, for the pre-dual formulation, a family of parametrized problems is introduced and a parameter dependent contraction of an associated fixed point iteration is established. Moreover, the theory is validated by numerical tests. Additionally, the augmented Lagrangian approach is studied, details on an implementation on a staggered grid are provided and numerical tests are shown. (paper)
Chan, Eugene; Rose, L R Francis; Wang, Chun H
2015-05-01
Existing damage imaging algorithms for detecting and quantifying structural defects, particularly those based on diffraction tomography, assume far-field conditions for the scattered field data. This paper presents a major extension of diffraction tomography that can overcome this limitation and utilises a near-field multi-static data matrix as the input data. This new algorithm, which employs numerical solutions of the dynamic Green's functions, makes it possible to quantitatively image laminar damage even in complex structures for which the dynamic Green's functions are not available analytically. To validate this new method, the numerical Green's functions and the multi-static data matrix for laminar damage in flat and stiffened isotropic plates are first determined using finite element models. Next, these results are time-gated to remove boundary reflections, followed by discrete Fourier transform to obtain the amplitude and phase information for both the baseline (damage-free) and the scattered wave fields. Using these computationally generated results and experimental verification, it is shown that the new imaging algorithm is capable of accurately determining the damage geometry, size and severity for a variety of damage sizes and shapes, including multi-site damage. Some aspects of minimal sensors requirement pertinent to image quality and practical implementation are also briefly discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Davids, Roeliena C. D.; Groen, Yvonne; Berg, Ina J.; Tucha, Oliver M.; van Balkom, Ingrid D. C.
Although deficits in Executive Functioning (EF) are reported frequently in young individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), they remain relatively unexplored later in life (> 50 years). We studied objective performance on EF measures (Tower of London, Zoo map, phonetic/semantic fluency) as
Stienen, Martin N; Smoll, Nicolas R; Joswig, Holger; Corniola, Marco V; Schaller, Karl; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Gautschi, Oliver P
2017-05-01
OBJECTIVE The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is a simple, objective, and standardized method to measure objective functional impairment (OFI) in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD). The objective of the current work was to validate the OFI baseline severity stratification (BSS; with levels of "none," "mild," "moderate," and "severe"). METHODS Data were collected in a prospective IRB-approved 2-center study. Patients were assessed with a comprehensive panel of scales for measuring pain (visual analog scale [VAS] for back and leg pain), functional impairment (Roland-Morris Disability Index [RMDI] and Oswestry Disability Index [ODI]), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL; EQ-5D and SF-12). OFI BSS was determined using age- and sex-adjusted cutoff values. RESULTS A total of 375 consecutive patients scheduled for lumbar spine surgery were included. Each 1-step increase on the OFI BSS corresponded to an increase of 0.53 in the back pain VAS score, 0.69 in the leg pain VAS score, 1.81 points in the RMDI, and 5.93 points in the ODI, as well as to a decrease in HRQOL of -0.073 in the EQ-5D, -1.99 in the SF-12 physical component summary (PCS), and -1.62 in the SF-12 mental component summary (MCS; all p measure of functional impairment for use in daily clinical practice. The presence of OFI indicates the presence of significant functional impairment on subjective outcome measures.
Matzke, Orville R.
The purpose of this study was to formulate a linear programming model to simulate a foundation type support program and to apply this model to a state support program for the public elementary and secondary school districts in the State of Iowa. The model was successful in producing optimal solutions to five objective functions proposed for…
MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M.; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly
2016-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Method: Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M[subscript age] = 4.31 years) were…
Modelling and Order of Acoustic Transfer Functions Due to Reflections from Augmented Objects
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Diemer de Vries
2007-01-01
Full Text Available It is commonly accepted that the sound reflections from real physical objects are much more complicated than what usually is and can be modelled by room acoustics modelling software. The main reason for this limitation is the level of detail inherent in the physical object in terms of its geometrical and acoustic properties. In the present paper, the complexity of the sound reflections from a corridor wall is investigated by modelling the corresponding acoustic transfer functions at several receiver positions in front of the wall. The complexity for different wall configurations has been examined and the changes have been achieved by altering its acoustic image. The results show that for a homogenous flat wall, the complexity is significant and for a wall including various smaller objects, the complexity is highly dependent on the position of the receiver with respect to the objects.
Choi, Yun Seok
2017-05-26
Full waveform inversion (FWI) using an energy-based objective function has the potential to provide long wavelength model information even without low frequency in the data. However, without the back-propagation method (adjoint-state method), its implementation is impractical for the model size of general seismic survey. We derive the gradient of the energy-based objective function using the back-propagation method to make its FWI feasible. We also raise the energy signal to the power of a small positive number to properly handle the energy signal imbalance as a function of offset. Examples demonstrate that the proposed FWI algorithm provides a convergent long wavelength structure model even without low-frequency information, which can be used as a good starting model for the subsequent conventional FWI.
Validity of single-cycle objective functions for multicycle reload design optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kropaczek, D.J.; McElroy, J.; Turinsky, P.J.
1993-01-01
Beyond the equilibrium cycle scoping calculations used for determining numbers of feed assemblies and enrichment estimates, multicycle reload design currently consists of stagewise optimization of single-cycle core loading patterns, typically extending over a short-term planning horizon of perhaps three reload cycles. Particularly in transition cycles, however, optimizing a loading pattern over a single cycle for a stated objective, such as minimum core leakage, may have an adverse impact on subsequent cycles. The penalties paid may be in the form of reduced thermal margin or an increase in feed enrichment due to insufficient reactivity carryover from the open-quotes optimizedclose quotes cycle. In view of current practices, a study was performed that examined the behavior of the loading pattern as a function of the objective functions selected as implemented in the stagewise optimization of single-cycle core loading patterns from initial transition cycle through equilibrium using the FORMOSA-P code. The objective functions studied were region average discharge burnup maximization (with enrichment search) and feed enrichment minimization. It is noted at the beginning that the maximization of region average discharge has no meaning for the equilibrium cycle because region average discharge burnup is explicitly set by the feed size and cycle length independent of the loading pattern. In the nonequilibrium cycle, however, it was reasoned that this objective would provide the maximum reactivity carryover throughout the transition and thus have a direct effect on minimizing the multicycle levelized fuel cost
The motivational function of an objective in physical activity and sport
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Mariusz Lipowski
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Background As a conscious activity of an individual, physical activity (PA constitutes an element of the free-time dimension. The type of goal allows us to distinguish between sport and PA: sport performance vs. psychophysical health. Drawing on the theory of the motivational function of an objective, this study examined the motivational function of an objective in physical activity and sport. Participants and procedures The sample consisted of 2141 individuals: 1163 women aged 16-64 years (M = 23.90, SD = 8.30 and 978 men aged 16-66 years (M = 24.50, SD = 9.40 who completed the Inventory of Physical Activity Objectives (IPAO, which includes the following scales: 1 motivational value, 2 time management, 3 persistence in action, and 4 motivational conflict. There are also questions that allow one to control for variables such as the variety of forms, duration, and frequency of PA, and socio-demographic variables. Results Males presented different motives of physical activity than females. Motives related to shapely body and health were more important for females. The most important motives for males were physical fitness and shapely body. The gender of participants moderates the motivational value of the specific objectives of physical activity and persistence in action. Conclusions With knowledge about the purposefulness of actions, it is possible to support and shape additional motivation experienced by an individual, by setting new, realistic objectives.
Functional Activation in the Ventral Object Processing Pathway during the First Year
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Teresa eWilcox
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Infants' capacity to represent objects in visual working memory changes substantially during the first year of life. There is a growing body of research focused on identifying neural mechanisms that support this emerging capacity, and the extent to which visual object processing elicits different patterns of cortical activation in the infant as compared to the adult. Recent studies have identified areas in temporal and occipital cortex that mediate infants' developing capacity to track objects on the basis of their featural properties. The current research (Experiments 1 and 2 assessed patterns of activation in posterior temporal cortex and occipital cortex using fNIRS in infants 3 to 13 months of age as they viewed occlusion events. In the occlusion events, either the same object or featurally distinct objects emerged to each side of a screen. The outcome of these studies, combined, revealed that in infants 3 to 6 months, posterior temporal cortex was activated to all events, regardless of the featural properties of the objects and whether the event involved one object or two (featurally distinct objects. Infants 7 to 8 infants months showed a waning posterior temporal response and by 10 to 13 months this response was negligible. Additional analysis showed that the age groups did not differ in their visual attention to the events and that changes in HbO were better explained by age in days than head circumference. In contrast to posterior temporal cortex, robust activation was obtained in occipital cortex across all ages tested. One interpretation of these results is that they reflect pruning of the visual object-processing network during the first year. The functional contribution of occipital and posterior temporal cortex, along with higher-level temporal areas, to infants' capacity to keep track of distinct entities in visual working memory is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwon, Jin Gyu; Kim, Tae Ho; Park, Hyun Sun; Cha, Jae Eun; Kim, Moo Hwan
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Suggest the Nusselt number and Fanning friction factor correlation for airfoil-type PCHE. • Show that cost-based optimization is available to airfoil-type PCHE. • Suggest the recuperator design for SCIEL test loop at KAERI by cost-based objective function with correlations from numerical analysis. - Abstract: Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO_2) Brayton cycle gives high efficiency of power cycle with small size. Printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHE) are proper selection for the Brayton cycle because their operability at high temperature and high pressure with small size. Airfoil fin PCHE was suggested by Kim et al. (2008b), it can provide high heat transfer-like zigzag channel PCHE with low pressure drop-like straight channel PCHE. Optimization of the airfoil fin PCHE was not performed like the zigzag channel PCHE. For optimization of the airfoil fin PCHE, the operating condition of the recuperator of SCO_2 Integral Experiment Loop (SCIEL) Brayton cycle test loop at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) was used. We performed CFD analysis for various airfoil fin configurations using ANSYS CFX 15.0, and made correlations for predicting the Nusselt number and the Fanning friction factor. The recuperator was designed by the simple energy balance code with our correlations. Using the cost-based objective function with production cost and operation cost from size and pressure drop of the recuperator, we evaluated airfoil fin configuration by using total cost and suggested the optimization configuration of the airfoil fin PCHE.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwon, Jin Gyu [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Ho [Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Sun, E-mail: hejsunny@postech.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jae Eun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moo Hwan [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-03-15
Highlights: • Suggest the Nusselt number and Fanning friction factor correlation for airfoil-type PCHE. • Show that cost-based optimization is available to airfoil-type PCHE. • Suggest the recuperator design for SCIEL test loop at KAERI by cost-based objective function with correlations from numerical analysis. - Abstract: Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle gives high efficiency of power cycle with small size. Printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHE) are proper selection for the Brayton cycle because their operability at high temperature and high pressure with small size. Airfoil fin PCHE was suggested by Kim et al. (2008b), it can provide high heat transfer-like zigzag channel PCHE with low pressure drop-like straight channel PCHE. Optimization of the airfoil fin PCHE was not performed like the zigzag channel PCHE. For optimization of the airfoil fin PCHE, the operating condition of the recuperator of SCO{sub 2} Integral Experiment Loop (SCIEL) Brayton cycle test loop at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) was used. We performed CFD analysis for various airfoil fin configurations using ANSYS CFX 15.0, and made correlations for predicting the Nusselt number and the Fanning friction factor. The recuperator was designed by the simple energy balance code with our correlations. Using the cost-based objective function with production cost and operation cost from size and pressure drop of the recuperator, we evaluated airfoil fin configuration by using total cost and suggested the optimization configuration of the airfoil fin PCHE.
Predicting objective function weights from patient anatomy in prostate IMRT treatment planning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Taewoo; Hammad, Muhannad; Chan, Timothy C. Y.; Craig, Tim; Sharpe, Michael B.
2013-01-01
Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning typically combines multiple criteria into a single objective function by taking a weighted sum. The authors propose a statistical model that predicts objective function weights from patient anatomy for prostate IMRT treatment planning. This study provides a proof of concept for geometry-driven weight determination. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method (IOM) was used to generate optimal objective function weights for 24 patients using their historical treatment plans (i.e., dose distributions). These IOM weights were around 1% for each of the femoral heads, while bladder and rectum weights varied greatly between patients. A regression model was developed to predict a patient's rectum weight using the ratio of the overlap volume of the rectum and bladder with the planning target volume at a 1 cm expansion as the independent variable. The femoral head weights were fixed to 1% each and the bladder weight was calculated as one minus the rectum and femoral head weights. The model was validated using leave-one-out cross validation. Objective values and dose distributions generated through inverse planning using the predicted weights were compared to those generated using the original IOM weights, as well as an average of the IOM weights across all patients. Results: The IOM weight vectors were on average six times closer to the predicted weight vectors than to the average weight vector, usingl 2 distance. Likewise, the bladder and rectum objective values achieved by the predicted weights were more similar to the objective values achieved by the IOM weights. The difference in objective value performance between the predicted and average weights was statistically significant according to a one-sided sign test. For all patients, the difference in rectum V54.3 Gy, rectum V70.0 Gy, bladder V54.3 Gy, and bladder V70.0 Gy values between the dose distributions generated by the
From tomography to full-waveform inversion with a single objective function
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2014-02-17
In full-waveform inversion (FWI), a gradient-based update of the velocity model requires an initial velocity that produces synthetic data that are within a half-cycle, everywhere, from the field data. Such initial velocity models are usually extracted from migration velocity analysis or traveltime tomography, among other means, and are not guaranteed to adhere to the FWI requirements for an initial velocity model. As such, we evaluated an objective function based on the misfit in the instantaneous traveltime between the observed and modeled data. This phase-based attribute of the wavefield, along with its phase unwrapping characteristics, provided a frequency-dependent traveltime function that was easy to use and quantify, especially compared to conventional phase representation. With a strong Laplace damping of the modeled, potentially low-frequency, data along the time axis, this attribute admitted a first-arrival traveltime that could be compared with picked ones from the observed data, such as in wave equation tomography (WET). As we relax the damping on the synthetic and observed data, the objective function measures the misfit in the phase, however unwrapped. It, thus, provided a single objective function for a natural transition from WET to FWI. A Marmousi example demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach.
Objectively-measured outdoor time and physical and psychological function among older adults.
Harada, Kazuhiro; Lee, Sangyoon; Lee, Sungchul; Bae, Seongryu; Harada, Kenji; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki
2017-10-01
Objective measurements of outdoor time are essential to establishing evidence about the health benefits of going outdoors among older adults. To better understanding the health benefits of going outdoors, clarification of potential mediators to connect going outdoors with health benefits is necessary. The present study aimed to investigate associations of objectively-measured outdoor time with older adults' physical and psychological function, and examine the mediating role of physical activity on these associations. Baseline data from a randomized control trial of physical activity among older adults with global cognitive impairment was used. Data from 192 participants were analyzed. Measures included steps-per-day, objectively-measured outdoor time per day using global positioning systems, physical function (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower-extremity strength), psychological function (depression, well-being) and basic factors. Path analysis showed that outdoor time was significantly associated with steps-per-day (path coefficient = 0.23) and depression (path coefficient = -0.16). Outdoor time was not directly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, lower-extremity strength and well-being. However, steps-per-day was associated with cardiorespiratory fitness (path coefficient = 0.18), lower-extremity strength (path coefficient = -0.22) and well-being (path coefficient = 0.14). We found that objectively-measured outdoor time was indirectly associated with physical function, and both directly and indirectly with psychological function through physical activity among older adults. This finding indicates that going outdoors influences older adults' health outcomes, and is mainly mediated by physical activity. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1455-1462. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Szilágyi, Béla; Blackman, Jonathan; Buonanno, Alessandra; Taracchini, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pan, Yi
2015-07-17
We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as 45.5M_{⊙}. We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a negligible loss in detection rate due to modeling error. In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing calibrated phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urry, C.M.; Padovani, P.
1991-01-01
In a previous paper, Urry and Shafer (1984) showed that the observed luminosity function (LF) of objects that have part or all of their emission relativistically beamed was a double power law, flat at the faint end and steep at the bright end, so that the ratio of beamed sources to parents was a strong function of luminosity. These calculations are extended here for more realistic LFs required for actual tests of a unified theory of AGN. The observed LF of the beam-dominated objects is generally flatter than the parent LF, so that the number density ratio is a strong function of luminosity and can easily be greater than unity at high luminosities, even for gradual low-luminosity cutoffs in the parent LF. Several characteristic break points can be identified depending on the details of the parent LF. The calculations can be used to test unified theories by predicting the observed LF for aligned objects from the LF of the proposed parent population. 6 refs
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Yinghua Yu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In the somatosensory system, it is well known that the bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex (SII receives projections from the unilateral primary somatosensory cortex (SI, and the SII, in turn, sends feedback projections to SI. Most neuroimaging studies have clearly shown bilateral SII activation using only unilateral stimulation for both anatomical and functional connectivity across SII subregions. However, no study has unveiled differences in the functional connectivity of the contra- and ipsilateral SII network that relates to frontoparietal areas during tactile object recognition. Therefore, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and a delayed match-to-sample (DMS task to investigate the contributions of bilateral SII during tactile object recognition. In the fMRI experiment, 14 healthy subjects were presented with tactile angle stimuli on their right index finger and asked to encode three sample stimuli during the encoding phase and one test stimulus during the recognition phase. Then, the subjects indicated whether the angle of test stimulus was presented during the encoding phase. The results showed that contralateral (left SII activity was greater than ipsilateral (right SII activity during the encoding phase, but there was no difference during the recognition phase. A subsequent psycho-physiological interaction (PPI analysis revealed distinct connectivity from the contra- and ipsilateral SII to other regions. The left SII functionally connected to the left SI and right primary and premotor cortex, while the right SII functionally connected to the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC. Our findings suggest that in situations involving unilateral tactile object recognition, contra- and ipsilateral SII will induce an asymmetrical functional connectivity to other brain areas, which may occur by the hand contralateral effect of SII.
A comparison of functional and object-orientedprogramming paradigms in JavaScript
Svensson Sand, Kim; Eliasson, Tord
2017-01-01
There are multiple programming paradigms that have their own set rules forhow code should be written. Programming languages utilize one or multiple ofthese paradigms. In this thesis, we will compare object-oriented programming,that is the most used today with languages such as C++ and Java, and functionalprogramming. Functional programming was introduced in the 1950's butsuered from performance issues, and has not been used much except for in theacademic world. However, for its ability to han...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, J.; Fuller, M.; Vinod, S.; Holloway, L.
2009-01-01
Full text: A Clinician's discrimination between radiation therapy treatment plans is traditionally a subjective process, based on experience and existing protocols. A more objective and quantitative approach to distinguish between treatment plans is to use radiobiological or dosimetric objective functions, based on radiobiological or dosimetric models. The efficacy of models is not well understood, nor is the correlation of the rank of plans resulting from the use of models compared to the traditional subjective approach. One such radiobiological model is the Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP). Dosimetric models or indicators are more accepted in clinical practice. In this study, three radiobiological models, Lyman NTCP, critical volume NTCP and relative seriality NTCP, and three dosimetric models, Mean Lung Dose (MLD) and the Lung volumes irradiated at lOGy (V|0) and 20 G y (V20), were used to rank a series of treatment plans using, harm to normal (Lung) tissue as the objective criterion. None of the models considered in this study showed consistent correlation with the Radiation Oncologists plan ranking. If radiobiological or dosimetric models are to be used in objective functions for lung treatments, based on this study it is recommended that the Lyman NTCP model be used because it will provide most consistency with traditional clinician ranking.
Dissociable intrinsic functional networks support noun-object and verb-action processing.
Yang, Huichao; Lin, Qixiang; Han, Zaizhu; Li, Hongyu; Song, Luping; Chen, Lingjuan; He, Yong; Bi, Yanchao
2017-12-01
The processing mechanism of verbs-actions and nouns-objects is a central topic of language research, with robust evidence for behavioral dissociation. The neural basis for these two major word and/or conceptual classes, however, remains controversial. Two experiments were conducted to study this question from the network perspective. Experiment 1 found that nodes of the same class, obtained through task-evoked brain imaging meta-analyses, were more strongly connected with each other than nodes of different classes during resting-state, forming segregated network modules. Experiment 2 examined the behavioral relevance of these intrinsic networks using data from 88 brain-damaged patients, finding that across patients the relative strength of functional connectivity of the two networks significantly correlated with the noun-object vs. verb-action relative behavioral performances. In summary, we found that verbs-actions and nouns-objects are supported by separable intrinsic functional networks and that the integrity of such networks accounts for the relative noun-object- and verb-action-selective deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Influences of Economic Theories on Accounting Theory: the case of the Objective Function of the Firm
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Lineker Costa Passos
2016-10-01
Full Text Available This essay aims to establish the relationship between the theoretical precepts that guide the accounting disclosure procedures for its stakeholders, both internal and external, and the two main theoretical trends that address the firm’s objective function: the Shareholder theory and the Stakeholder theory. In the perspective of the Shareholder theory, the firm has to define a single objective, which is to maximize shareholder wealth. In the context of Stakeholders theory, the firm must establish a multiple objective, which is to meet the interests of all those involved with its activities. We discuss to what extent theories, standards and accounting practices emanate from the concepts of the two models, especially regarding the users’ demand for useful and relevant information. There is a predominance of Shareholder theory in influencing accounting principles that guide the disclosure of information, although different accounting reports are already discussed and presented, oriented to the Stakeholders of the firm, without establishing a set of concepts that explain and justify them within the scope of Accounting theory. Additionally, it is argued that, all things taken into consideration, both currents of the Economic theory point in the same direction: to seek the wellbeing of the firm’s stakeholders. The research contributes to the accounting literature, in the sense of clarifying the impacts arising from the two economic models that deal with the objective function of the firm in the evolution of Accounting theory, not yet captured directly in the discussion of the fundamentals of accounting theory.
Krause, Christina Miles
2008-01-01
Preschool children's (N = 64) ability to use tactile information and function cues on less-realistic and more-realistic food-appearing, deceptive objects was examined before and after training on the function of deceptive objects. They also responded to appearance and reality questions about deceptive objects. Half of the children (F-S:…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Havu, V.; Blum, V.; Havu, P.; Scheffler, M.
2009-01-01
We consider the problem of developing O(N) scaling grid-based operations needed in many central operations when performing electronic structure calculations with numeric atom-centered orbitals as basis functions. We outline the overall formulation of localized algorithms, and specifically the creation of localized grid batches. The choice of the grid partitioning scheme plays an important role in the performance and memory consumption of the grid-based operations. Three different top-down partitioning methods are investigated, and compared with formally more rigorous yet much more expensive bottom-up algorithms. We show that a conceptually simple top-down grid partitioning scheme achieves essentially the same efficiency as the more rigorous bottom-up approaches.
IR finiteness of the ghost dressing function from numerical resolution of the ghost SD equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boucaud, Ph.; Leroy, J.P.; Yaouanc, A. Le; Micheli, J.; Pene, O.; RodrIguez-Quintero, J.
2008-01-01
We solve numerically the Schwinger-Dyson ghost equation in the Landau gauge for a given, finite at k = 0 gluon propagator (i.e. the infrared exponent of its dressing function, α gluon , is 1) and under the usual assumption of constancy of the ghost-gluon vertex ; we show that there exist two possible types of ghost dressing function solutions, as we have previously inferred from analytical considerations: one which is singular at zero momentum (the infrared exponent of its dressing function, α ghost , (We shall use α G and α F as shorthands for α gluon and α ghost respectively; let us recall that we denote the gluon by a G and the ghost by a F, for ''fantome''.) is gluon +2α ghost = 0 and has therefore α ghost = -1/2, and another one which is finite at the origin with α ghost = 0 and violates the relation. It is most important that the type of solution which is realized depends on the value of the coupling constant. There are regular ones - α F = 0 - for any coupling below some value, while there is only one singular solution - α F <0 -, obtained for a single critical value of the coupling. For all momenta k <.5 GeV where they can be trusted, our lattice data exclude neatly the singular one, and agree very well with the regular solution we obtain at a coupling constant compatible with the bare lattice value.
Field, Charlotte; Allen, Melissa L.; Lewis, Charlie
2016-01-01
We investigate the function bias--generalising words to objects with the same function--in typically developing (TD) children, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with other developmental disorders. Across four trials, a novel object was named and its function was described and demonstrated. Children then selected the other…
Clinical history and biologic age predicted falls better than objective functional tests.
Gerdhem, Paul; Ringsberg, Karin A M; Akesson, Kristina; Obrant, Karl J
2005-03-01
Fall risk assessment is important because the consequences, such as a fracture, may be devastating. The objective of this study was to find the test or tests that best predicted falls in a population-based sample of elderly women. The fall-predictive ability of a questionnaire, a subjective estimate of biologic age and objective functional tests (gait, balance [Romberg and sway test], thigh muscle strength, and visual acuity) were compared in 984 randomly selected women, all 75 years of age. A recalled fall was the most important predictor for future falls. Only recalled falls and intake of psycho-active drugs independently predicted future falls. Women with at least five of the most important fall predictors (previous falls, conditions affecting the balance, tendency to fall, intake of psychoactive medication, inability to stand on one leg, high biologic age) had an odds ratio of 11.27 (95% confidence interval 4.61-27.60) for a fall (sensitivity 70%, specificity 79%). The more time-consuming objective functional tests were of limited importance for fall prediction. A simple clinical history, the inability to stand on one leg, and a subjective estimate of biologic age were more important as part of the fall risk assessment.
Real-time Pipeline for Object Modeling and Grasping Pose Selection via Superquadric Functions
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Giulia Vezzani
2017-11-01
Full Text Available This work provides a novel real-time pipeline for modeling and grasping of unknown objects with a humanoid robot. Such a problem is of great interest for the robotic community, since conventional approaches fail when the shape, dimension, or pose of the objects are missing. Our approach reconstructs in real-time a model for the object under consideration and represents the robot hand both with proper and mathematically usable models, i.e., superquadric functions. The volume graspable by the hand is represented by an ellipsoid and is defined a priori, because the shape of the hand is known in advance. The superquadric representing the object is obtained in real-time from partial vision information instead, e.g., one stereo view of the object under consideration, and provides an approximated 3D full model. The optimization problem we formulate for the grasping pose computation is solved online by using the Ipopt software package and, thus, does not require off-line computation or learning. Even though our approach is for a generic humanoid robot, we developed a complete software architecture for executing this approach on the iCub humanoid robot. Together with that, we also provide a tutorial on how to use this framework. We believe that our work, together with the available code, is of a strong utility for the iCub community for three main reasons: object modeling and grasping are relevant problems for the robotic community, our code can be easily applied on every iCub, and the modular structure of our framework easily allows extensions and communications with external code.
Distribution functions of magnetic nanoparticles determined by a numerical inversion method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bender, P; Balceris, C; Ludwig, F; Posth, O; Bogart, L K; Szczerba, W; Castro, A; Nilsson, L; Costo, R; Gavilán, H; González-Alonso, D; Pedro, I de; Barquín, L Fernández; Johansson, C
2017-01-01
In the present study, we applied a regularized inversion method to extract the particle size, magnetic moment and relaxation-time distribution of magnetic nanoparticles from small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), DC magnetization (DCM) and AC susceptibility (ACS) measurements. For the measurements the particles were colloidally dispersed in water. At first approximation the particles could be assumed to be spherically shaped and homogeneously magnetized single-domain particles. As model functions for the inversion, we used the particle form factor of a sphere (SAXS), the Langevin function (DCM) and the Debye model (ACS). The extracted distributions exhibited features/peaks that could be distinctly attributed to the individually dispersed and non-interacting nanoparticles. Further analysis of these peaks enabled, in combination with a prior characterization of the particle ensemble by electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, a detailed structural and magnetic characterization of the particles. Additionally, all three extracted distributions featured peaks, which indicated deviations of the scattering (SAXS), magnetization (DCM) or relaxation (ACS) behavior from the one expected for individually dispersed, homogeneously magnetized nanoparticles. These deviations could be mainly attributed to partial agglomeration (SAXS, DCM, ACS), uncorrelated surface spins (DCM) and/or intra-well relaxation processes (ACS). The main advantage of the numerical inversion method is that no ad hoc assumptions regarding the line shape of the extracted distribution functions are required, which enabled the detection of these contributions. We highlighted this by comparing the results with the results obtained by standard model fits, where the functional form of the distributions was a priori assumed to be log-normal shaped. (paper)
Objective Function and Learning Algorithm for the General Node Fault Situation.
Xiao, Yi; Feng, Rui-Bin; Leung, Chi-Sing; Sum, John
2016-04-01
Fault tolerance is one interesting property of artificial neural networks. However, the existing fault models are able to describe limited node fault situations only, such as stuck-at-zero and stuck-at-one. There is no general model that is able to describe a large class of node fault situations. This paper studies the performance of faulty radial basis function (RBF) networks for the general node fault situation. We first propose a general node fault model that is able to describe a large class of node fault situations, such as stuck-at-zero, stuck-at-one, and the stuck-at level being with arbitrary distribution. Afterward, we derive an expression to describe the performance of faulty RBF networks. An objective function is then identified from the formula. With the objective function, a training algorithm for the general node situation is developed. Finally, a mean prediction error (MPE) formula that is able to estimate the test set error of faulty networks is derived. The application of the MPE formula in the selection of basis width is elucidated. Simulation experiments are then performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
An objective measure of physical function of elderly outpatients. The Physical Performance Test.
Reuben, D B; Siu, A L
1990-10-01
Direct observation of physical function has the advantage of providing an objective, quantifiable measure of functional capabilities. We have developed the Physical Performance Test (PPT), which assesses multiple domains of physical function using observed performance of tasks that simulate activities of daily living of various degrees of difficulty. Two versions are presented: a nine-item scale that includes writing a sentence, simulated eating, turning 360 degrees, putting on and removing a jacket, lifting a book and putting it on a shelf, picking up a penny from the floor, a 50-foot walk test, and climbing stairs (scored as two items); and a seven-item scale that does not include stairs. The PPT can be completed in less than 10 minutes and requires only a few simple props. We then tested the validity of PPT using 183 subjects (mean age, 79 years) in six settings including four clinical practices (one of Parkinson's disease patients), a board-and-care home, and a senior citizens' apartment. The PPT was reliable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87 and 0.79, interrater reliability = 0.99 and 0.93 for the nine-item and seven-item tests, respectively) and demonstrated concurrent validity with self-reported measures of physical function. Scores on the PPT for both scales were highly correlated (.50 to .80) with modified Rosow-Breslau, Instrumental and Basic Activities of Daily Living scales, and Tinetti gait score. Scores on the PPT were more moderately correlated with self-reported health status, cognitive status, and mental health (.24 to .47), and negatively with age (-.24 and -.18). Thus, the PPT also demonstrated construct validity. The PPT is a promising objective measurement of physical function, but its clinical and research value for screening, monitoring, and prediction will have to be determined.
A novel approach for optimum allocation of FACTS devices using multi-objective function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gitizadeh, M.; Kalantar, M.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a novel approach to find optimum type, location, and capacity of flexible alternating current transmission systems (FACTS) devices in a power system using a multi-objective optimization function. Thyristor controlled series compensator (TCSC) and static var compensator (SVC) are utilized to achieve these objectives: active power loss reduction, new introduced FACTS devices cost reduction, increase the robustness of the security margin against voltage collapse, and voltage deviation reduction. The operational and controlling constraints as well as load constraints are considered in the optimum allocation procedure. Here, a goal attainment method based on simulated annealing is used to approach the global optimum. In addition, the estimated annual load profile has been utilized to the optimum siting and sizing of FACTS devices to approach a practical solution. The standard IEEE 14-bus test system is used to validate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed method
Species loss, delayed numerical responses, and functional compensation in an antbird guild.
Touchton, Janeene M; Smith, James N M
2011-05-01
When a community loses species through fragmentation, its total food consumption may drop. Compensatory responses of remaining species, whereby survivors assume roles of extinct competitors, may reduce the impact of species loss through numerical or functional responses. We measured compensatory responses in two remaining antbird species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, four decades after the loss of their dominant competitor, the Ocellated Antbird, Phaenostictus mcleannani. We compared current abundances and behavior of these two species on Barro Colorado to those reported before the island lost Ocellated Antbirds, and to those in a nearby mainland population where all three species still exist as a space-for-time substitution. The smaller, more subordinate Spotted Antbird, Hylophylax naevioides, responded far more strongly than the larger Bicolored Antbird, Gymnopithys leucaspis, which is functionally more like the Ocellated Antbird. Islandwide density of Spotted Antbirds has more than doubled since the loss of Ocellated Antbirds. Moreover, Spotted Antbirds now spend so much more of their time following ant swarms that their metabolic biomass at these swarms has more than tripled since Ocellated Antbirds disappeared. These responses in Spotted Antbirds were apparently delayed by >20 years. Bicolored Antbirds have not increased substantially in islandwide density or metabolic biomass at ant swarms. We hypothesize that behavioral flexibility, as shown by Spotted Antbirds on Barro Colorado Island, is a major factor governing the extent to which fragmented ecosystems can buffer the impacts of species loss.
Numerical evaluation of integrals containing a spherical Bessel function by product integration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehman, D.R.; Parke, W.C.; Maximon, L.C.
1981-01-01
A method is developed for numerical evaluation of integrals with k-integration range from 0 to infinity that contain a spherical Bessel function j/sub l/(kr) explicitly. The required quadrature weights are easily calculated and the rate of convergence is rapid: only a relatively small number of quadrature points is needed: for an accurate evaluation even when r is large. The quadrature rule is obtained by the method of product integration. With the abscissas chosen to be those of Clenshaw--Curtis and the Chebyshev polynomials as the interpolating polynomials, quadrature weights are obtained that depend on the spherical Bessel function. An inhomogenous recurrence relation is derived from which the weights can be calculated without accumulation of roundoff error. The procedure is summarized as an easily implementable algorithm. Questions of convergence are discussed and the rate of convergence demonstrated for several test integrals. Alternative procedures are given for generating the integration weights and an error analysis of the method is presented
Babier, Aaron; Boutilier, Justin J.; Sharpe, Michael B.; McNiven, Andrea L.; Chan, Timothy C. Y.
2018-05-01
We developed and evaluated a novel inverse optimization (IO) model to estimate objective function weights from clinical dose-volume histograms (DVHs). These weights were used to solve a treatment planning problem to generate ‘inverse plans’ that had similar DVHs to the original clinical DVHs. Our methodology was applied to 217 clinical head and neck cancer treatment plans that were previously delivered at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre in Canada. Inverse plan DVHs were compared to the clinical DVHs using objective function values, dose-volume differences, and frequency of clinical planning criteria satisfaction. Median differences between the clinical and inverse DVHs were within 1.1 Gy. For most structures, the difference in clinical planning criteria satisfaction between the clinical and inverse plans was at most 1.4%. For structures where the two plans differed by more than 1.4% in planning criteria satisfaction, the difference in average criterion violation was less than 0.5 Gy. Overall, the inverse plans were very similar to the clinical plans. Compared with a previous inverse optimization method from the literature, our new inverse plans typically satisfied the same or more clinical criteria, and had consistently lower fluence heterogeneity. Overall, this paper demonstrates that DVHs, which are essentially summary statistics, provide sufficient information to estimate objective function weights that result in high quality treatment plans. However, as with any summary statistic that compresses three-dimensional dose information, care must be taken to avoid generating plans with undesirable features such as hotspots; our computational results suggest that such undesirable spatial features were uncommon. Our IO-based approach can be integrated into the current clinical planning paradigm to better initialize the planning process and improve planning efficiency. It could also be embedded in a knowledge-based planning or adaptive radiation therapy framework to
Kim, J; Eberl, S; Feng, D
2004-01-01
Segmentation of multi-dimensional functional positron emission tomography (PET) studies into regions of interest (ROI) exhibiting similar temporal behavior is useful in diagnosis and evaluation of neurological images. Quantitative evaluation plays a crucial role in measuring the segmentation algorithm's performance. Due to the lack of "ground truth" available for evaluating segmentation of clinical images, automated segmentation results are usually compared with manual delineation of structures which is, however, subjective, and is difficult to perform. Alternatively, segmentation of co-registered anatomical images such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as the ground truth to the PET segmentation. However, this is limited to PET studies which have corresponding MRI. In this study, we introduce a framework for the objective and quantitative evaluation of functional PET study segmentation without the need for manual delineation or registration to anatomical images of the patient. The segmentation ...
Improvements in the sensibility of MSA-GA tool using COFFEE objective function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amorim, A R; Zafalon, G F D; Neves, L A; Valêncio, C R; Machado, J M; Pinto, A R
2015-01-01
The sequence alignment is one of the most important tasks in Bioinformatics, playing an important role in the sequences analysis. There are many strategies to perform sequence alignment, since those use deterministic algorithms, as dynamic programming, until those ones, which use heuristic algorithms, as Progressive, Ant Colony (ACO), Genetic Algorithms (GA), Simulated Annealing (SA), among others. In this work, we have implemented the objective function COFFEE in the MSA-GA tool, in substitution of Weighted Sum-of-Pairs (WSP), to improve the final results. In the tests, we were able to verify the approach using COFFEE function achieved better results in 81% of the lower similarity alignments when compared with WSP approach. Moreover, even in the tests with more similar sets, the approach using COFFEE was better in 43% of the times
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Maciejewska Beata
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper shows the results concerning flow boiling heat transfer in an asymmetrically heated vertical minichannel. The heated element for FC-72 Fluorinert flowing in that minichannel was a thin foil. The foil surface temperature was monitored continuously at 18 points by K-type thermocouples from the outer foil surface. Fluid temperature and pressure in the minichannel inlet and outlet, current supplied to the foil and voltage drop were also monitored. Measurements were carried out at 1 s intervals. The objective was to determine the heat transfer coefficient on the heated foil–fluid contact surface in the minichannel. It was obtained from the Robin boundary condition. The foil temperature was the result of solving the nonstationary two-dimensional inverse boundary problem in the heated foil. Using the FEM combined with Trefftz functions as basis functions solved the problem. The unknown temperature values at nodes were calculated by minimising the adequate functional. The values of local heat transfer coefficients were consistent with the results obtained by the authors in their previous studies when steady-state conditions were analysed. This time, however, these values were analysed as time dependent, which facilitated observation of coefficient changes that were impossible to observe under the steady-state conditions.
Numerical functional integration method for studying the properties of the physical vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lobanov, Yu.Yu.
1998-01-01
The new approach to investigate the physical vacuum in quantum theories including its nonperturbative topological structure is discussed. This approach is based on the representation of the matrix element of the evolution operator in Euclidean metrics in a form of the functional integral with a certain measure in the corresponding space and on the use of approximation formulas which we constructed for this kind of integral. No preliminary discretization of space and time is required, as well as no simplifying assumptions like semiclassical approximation, collective excitations, introduction of ''short-time'' propagators, etc. are necessary in this approach. The method allows to use the more preferable deterministic algorithms instead of the traditional stochastic technique. It has been proven that our approach has important advantages over the other known methods, including the higher efficiency of computations. Examples of application of the method to the numerical study of some potential nuclear models and to the computation of the topological susceptibility and the θ-vacua energy are presented. (author)
Jia, Shouqing; La, Dongsheng; Ma, Xuelian
2018-04-01
The finite difference time domain (FDTD) algorithm and Green function algorithm are implemented into the numerical simulation of electromagnetic waves in Schwarzschild space-time. FDTD method in curved space-time is developed by filling the flat space-time with an equivalent medium. Green function in curved space-time is obtained by solving transport equations. Simulation results validate both the FDTD code and Green function code. The methods developed in this paper offer a tool to solve electromagnetic scattering problems.
Objective Provision Trees of Reactivity Control Safety Function for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Bongsuk; Yang, Huichang; Suh, Namduk
2014-01-01
The purpose of this OPT is first to assure the DiD design during the licensing of Sf, but it will also contribute in evaluating the completeness of regulatory requirements under development by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). Based on the definition of Defense-in-Depth (DiD) levels and safety functions for KALIMER Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), suggested in the reference and, Objective Provision Trees (OPTs) of reactivity control function for level 1, 2, 3 and 4 DiD were developed and suggested in this paper. The challenges and mechanisms and provisions were briefly explained in this paper. Comparing the mechanisms and provisions with the requirements will contribute in identifying the missing requirements. Since the design of Prototype Gen-IV Sf (PGSFR) is not mature yet, the OPT is developed for KALIMER design. Developed level 1 to 4 OPTs in this study can be used for the identification of potential design vulnerabilities. When detailed identification of provisions in terms of design features were achieved through the next step of this study, it can contribute to the establishment of defense-in-depth evaluation frame for the regulatory reviews for the licensing process. In the next stage of this study, other safety function will be researched and findings can be suggested as recommendations for the safety improvement
Objective Provision Trees of Reactivity Control Safety Function for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Bongsuk; Yang, Huichang [TUEV Rheinland Korea Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Namduk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
The purpose of this OPT is first to assure the DiD design during the licensing of Sf, but it will also contribute in evaluating the completeness of regulatory requirements under development by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). Based on the definition of Defense-in-Depth (DiD) levels and safety functions for KALIMER Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), suggested in the reference and, Objective Provision Trees (OPTs) of reactivity control function for level 1, 2, 3 and 4 DiD were developed and suggested in this paper. The challenges and mechanisms and provisions were briefly explained in this paper. Comparing the mechanisms and provisions with the requirements will contribute in identifying the missing requirements. Since the design of Prototype Gen-IV Sf (PGSFR) is not mature yet, the OPT is developed for KALIMER design. Developed level 1 to 4 OPTs in this study can be used for the identification of potential design vulnerabilities. When detailed identification of provisions in terms of design features were achieved through the next step of this study, it can contribute to the establishment of defense-in-depth evaluation frame for the regulatory reviews for the licensing process. In the next stage of this study, other safety function will be researched and findings can be suggested as recommendations for the safety improvement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. A. Eftekhari
Full Text Available AbstractThe differential quadrature method (DQM is one of the most elegant and efficient methods for the numerical solution of partial differential equations arising in engineering and applied sciences. It is simple to use and also straightforward to implement. However, the DQM is well-known to have some difficulty when applied to partial differential equations involving singular functions like the Dirac-delta function. This is caused by the fact that the Dirac-delta function cannot be directly discretized by the DQM. To overcome this difficulty, this paper presents a simple differential quadrature procedure in which the Dirac-delta function is replaced by regularized smooth functions. By regularizing the Dirac-delta function, such singular function is treated as non-singular functions and can be easily and directly discretized using the DQM. To demonstrate the applicability and reliability of the proposed method, it is applied here to solve some moving load problems of beams and rectangular plates, where the location of the moving load is described by a time-dependent Dirac-delta function. The results generated by the proposed method are compared with analytical and numerical results available in the literature. Numerical results reveal that the proposed method can be used as an efficient tool for dynamic analysis of beam- and plate-type structures traversed by moving dynamic loads.
Rough Music and Skimmington in Navarre during the Old Regime: Functions and Objectives
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Javier Ruiz Astiz
2013-12-01
Full Text Available During the Old Regime rough musics ones acted in the majority of the occasions like control mechanisms and repression of the collective behaviors. In them their causes were worth of a series of instruments to heighten their activities, being tried this way to legitimize their actions. The present article has as an aim to study these events rendering a special attention to its functions and objectives. Nevertheless, the main task will consist of deepening in the cases seen in the kingdom of Navarre, organizing them in two groups: 1. weedings; 2. immoral behaviors; 3. government actions. All this with the intention to understand of a satisfactory way these practices of communitarian justice.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paige M Siper
Full Text Available There is a critical need to identify biomarkers and objective outcome measures that can be used to understand underlying neural mechanisms in autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs offer a noninvasive technique to evaluate the functional integrity of neural mechanisms, specifically visual pathways, while probing for disease pathophysiology.Transient VEPs (tVEPs were obtained from 96 unmedicated children, including 37 children with ASD, 36 typically developing (TD children, and 23 unaffected siblings (SIBS. A conventional contrast-reversing checkerboard condition was compared to a novel short-duration condition, which was developed to enable objective data collection from severely affected populations who are often excluded from electroencephalographic (EEG studies.Children with ASD showed significantly smaller amplitudes compared to TD children at two of the earliest critical VEP components, P60-N75 and N75-P100. SIBS showed intermediate responses relative to ASD and TD groups. There were no group differences in response latency. Frequency band analyses indicated significantly weaker responses for the ASD group in bands encompassing gamma-wave activity. Ninety-two percent of children with ASD were able to complete the short-duration condition compared to 68% for the standard condition.The current study establishes the utility of a short-duration tVEP test for use in children at varying levels of functioning and describes neural abnormalities in children with idiopathic ASD. Implications for excitatory/inhibitory balance as well as the potential application of VEP for use in clinical trials are discussed.
Kendall, Katherine A; Ellerston, Julia; Heller, Amanda; Houtz, Daniel R; Zhang, Chong; Presson, Angela P
2016-08-01
Quantitative, reliable measures of swallowing physiology can be made from an modified barium swallowing study. These quantitative measures have not been previously employed to study large dysphagic patient populations. The present retrospective study of 139 consecutive patients with dysphagia seen in a university tertiary voice and swallowing clinic sought to use objective measures of swallowing physiology to (1) quantify the most prevalent deficits seen in the patient population, (2) identify commonly associated diagnoses and describe the most prevalent swallowing deficits, and (3) determine any correlation between objective deficits and Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) scores and body mass index. Poor pharyngeal constriction (34.5 %) and airway protection deficits (65.5 %) were the most common swallowing abnormalities. Reflux-related dysphagia (36 %), nonspecific pharyngeal dysphagia (24 %), Parkinson disease (16 %), esophageal abnormality (13 %), and brain insult (10 %) were the most common diagnoses. Poor pharyngeal constriction was significantly associated with an esophageal motility abnormality (p dysphagia symptoms as determined by the EAT-10 did not correlate with swallowing function abnormalities. This preliminary study indicates that reflux disease is common in patients with dysphagia and that associated esophageal abnormalities are common in dysphagic populations and may be associated with specific pharyngeal swallowing abnormalities. However, symptom scores from the EAT-10 did not correspond to swallowing pathophysiology.
Structure Optimization of Stand-Alone Renewable Power Systems Based on Multi Object Function
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Jae-Hoon Cho
2016-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for the size optimization of a stand-alone hybrid PV/wind/diesel/battery system while considering the following factors: total annual cost (TAC, loss of power supply probability (LPSP, and the fuel cost of the diesel generator required by the user. A new optimization algorithm and an object function (including a penalty method are also proposed; these assist with designing the best structure for a hybrid system satisfying the constraints. In hybrid energy system sources such as photovoltaic (PV, wind, diesel, and energy storage devices are connected as an electrical load supply. Because the power produced by PV and wind turbine sources is dependent on the variation of the resources (sun and wind and the load demand fluctuates, such a hybrid system must be able to satisfy the load requirements at any time and store the excess energy for use in deficit conditions. Therefore, reliability and cost are the two main criteria when designing a stand-alone hybrid system. Moreover, the operation of a diesel generator is important to achieve greater reliability. In this paper, TAC, LPSP, and the fuel cost of the diesel generator are considered as the objective variables and a hybrid teaching–learning-based optimization algorithm is proposed and used to choose the best structure of a stand-alone hybrid PV/wind/diesel/battery system. Simulation results from MATLAB support the effectiveness of the proposed method and confirm that it is more efficient than conventional methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gisele Tessari Santos
2009-08-01
Full Text Available A large number of financial engineering problems involve non-linear equations with non-linear or time-dependent boundary conditions. Despite available analytical solutions, many classical and modified forms of the well-known Black-Scholes (BS equation require fast and accurate numerical solutions. This work introduces the radial basis function (RBF method as applied to the solution of the BS equation with non-linear boundary conditions, related to path-dependent barrier options. Furthermore, the diffusional method for solving advective-diffusive equations is explored as to its effectiveness to solve BS equations. Cubic and Thin-Plate Spline (TPS radial basis functions were employed and evaluated as to their effectiveness to solve barrier option problems. The numerical results, when compared against analytical solutions, allow affirming that the RBF method is very accurate and easy to be implemented. When the RBF method is applied, the diffusional method leads to the same results as those obtained from the classical formulation of Black-Scholes equation.Muitos problemas de engenharia financeira envolvem equações não-lineares com condições de contorno não-lineares ou dependentes do tempo. Apesar de soluções analíticas disponíveis, várias formas clássicas e modificadas da conhecida equação de Black-Scholes (BS requerem soluções numéricas rápidas e acuradas. Este trabalho introduz o método de função de base radial (RBF aplicado à solução da equação BS com condições de contorno não-lineares relacionadas a opções de barreira dependentes da trajetória. Além disso, explora-se o método difusional para solucionar equações advectivo-difusivas quanto à sua efetividade para solucionar equações BS. Utilizam-se funções de base radial Cúbica e Thin-Plate Spline (TPS, aplicadas à solução de problemas de opções de barreiras. Os resultados numéricos, quando comparados com as soluções analíticas, permitem afirmar
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Block, Martin M.; Durand, Loyal
2011-01-01
We recently derived a very accurate and fast new algorithm for numerically inverting the Laplace transforms needed to obtain gluon distributions from the proton structure function F 2 γp (x,Q 2 ). We numerically inverted the function g(s), s being the variable in Laplace space, to G(v), where v is the variable in ordinary space. We have since discovered that the algorithm does not work if g(s)→0 less rapidly than 1/s as s→∞, e.g., as 1/s β for 0 β-1 and a polynomial in v. We test the algorithm numerically for very small positive β, β=10 -6 obtaining numerical results that imitate the Dirac delta function δ(v). We also devolve the published MSTW2008LO gluon distribution at virtuality Q 2 =5 GeV 2 down to the lower virtuality Q 2 =1.69 GeV 2 . For devolution, β is negative, giving rise to inverse Laplace transforms that are distributions and not proper functions. This requires us to introduce the concept of Hadamard Finite Part integrals, which we discuss in detail. (orig.)
Doehrmann, Oliver; Weigelt, Sarah; Altmann, Christian F; Kaiser, Jochen; Naumer, Marcus J
2010-03-03
Information integration across different sensory modalities contributes to object recognition, the generation of associations and long-term memory representations. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation to investigate the presence of sensory integrative effects at cortical levels as early as nonprimary auditory and extrastriate visual cortices, which are implicated in intermediate stages of object processing. Stimulation consisted of an adapting audiovisual stimulus S(1) and a subsequent stimulus S(2) from the same basic-level category (e.g., cat). The stimuli were carefully balanced with respect to stimulus complexity and semantic congruency and presented in four experimental conditions: (1) the same image and vocalization for S(1) and S(2), (2) the same image and a different vocalization, (3) different images and the same vocalization, or (4) different images and vocalizations. This two-by-two factorial design allowed us to assess the contributions of auditory and visual stimulus repetitions and changes in a statistically orthogonal manner. Responses in visual regions of right fusiform gyrus and right lateral occipital cortex were reduced for repeated visual stimuli (repetition suppression). Surprisingly, left lateral occipital cortex showed stronger responses to repeated auditory stimuli (repetition enhancement). Similarly, auditory regions of interest of the right middle superior temporal gyrus and sulcus exhibited repetition suppression to auditory repetitions and repetition enhancement to visual repetitions. Our findings of crossmodal repetition-related effects in cortices of the respective other sensory modality add to the emerging view that in human subjects sensory integrative mechanisms operate on earlier cortical processing levels than previously assumed.
Biddle, Daniel J; Naismith, Sharon L; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen; Hickie, Ian B; Glozier, Nicholas S
2017-06-01
To examine whether poor objective and subjective sleep quality are differentially associated with cognitive function. Cross-sectional. Participants were recruited from primary and secondary care, and directly from the community, in Sydney, Australia. The sample consisted of 74 men 50years and older (mean [SD], 58.4 [6.2] years), with comorbid depression and above-threshold insomnia symptoms, participating in a trial of online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. Insomnia severity and depression severity were assessed via self-report. Objective sleep efficiency and duration were measured using actigraphy. Objective cognitive function was measured using 3 subtests of a computerized neuropsychological battery. Poor objective sleep efficiency was associated with slower reaction time (r=-0.249, P=.033) and poorer executive functioning (odds ratio, 4.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-12.69), but not memory. These associations remained after adjusting for age, education, depression severity, cardiovascular risk, and medication. Subjective sleep quality was not related to cognitive function. Among older men with depression and insomnia, objectively measured poor sleep efficiency may be associated with worse cognitive function, independent of depression severity. Objective poor sleep may be underpinned by neurobiological correlates distinct from those underlying subjective poor sleep and depression, and represent a potentially effective modifiable mechanism in interventions to improve cognitive functioning in this population. This supports the use of objective measures of sleep in diagnostic assessments and care. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Block, Martin M. [Northwestern University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Evanston, IL (United States); Durand, Loyal [University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics, Madison, WI (United States)
2011-11-15
We recently derived a very accurate and fast new algorithm for numerically inverting the Laplace transforms needed to obtain gluon distributions from the proton structure function F{sub 2}{sup {gamma}}{sup p}(x,Q{sup 2}). We numerically inverted the function g(s), s being the variable in Laplace space, to G(v), where v is the variable in ordinary space. We have since discovered that the algorithm does not work if g(s){yields}0 less rapidly than 1/s as s{yields}{infinity}, e.g., as 1/s{sup {beta}} for 0 <{beta}<1. In this note, we derive a new numerical algorithm for such cases, which holds for all positive and non-integer negative values of {beta}. The new algorithm is exact if the original function G(v) is given by the product of a power v{sup {beta}}{sup -1} and a polynomial in v. We test the algorithm numerically for very small positive {beta}, {beta}=10{sup -6} obtaining numerical results that imitate the Dirac delta function {delta}(v). We also devolve the published MSTW2008LO gluon distribution at virtuality Q{sup 2}=5 GeV{sup 2} down to the lower virtuality Q{sup 2}=1.69 GeV{sup 2}. For devolution, {beta} is negative, giving rise to inverse Laplace transforms that are distributions and not proper functions. This requires us to introduce the concept of Hadamard Finite Part integrals, which we discuss in detail. (orig.)
A new hybrid genetic algorithm for optimizing the single and multivariate objective functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar [Idaho National Laboratory; McCulloch, Richard Chet James [Idaho National Laboratory
2015-07-01
In this work a new hybrid genetic algorithm was developed which combines a rudimentary adaptive steepest ascent hill climbing algorithm with a sophisticated evolutionary algorithm in order to optimize complex multivariate design problems. By combining a highly stochastic algorithm (evolutionary) with a simple deterministic optimization algorithm (adaptive steepest ascent) computational resources are conserved and the solution converges rapidly when compared to either algorithm alone. In genetic algorithms natural selection is mimicked by random events such as breeding and mutation. In the adaptive steepest ascent algorithm each variable is perturbed by a small amount and the variable that caused the most improvement is incremented by a small step. If the direction of most benefit is exactly opposite of the previous direction with the most benefit then the step size is reduced by a factor of 2, thus the step size adapts to the terrain. A graphical user interface was created in MATLAB to provide an interface between the hybrid genetic algorithm and the user. Additional features such as bounding the solution space and weighting the objective functions individually are also built into the interface. The algorithm developed was tested to optimize the functions developed for a wood pelleting process. Using process variables (such as feedstock moisture content, die speed, and preheating temperature) pellet properties were appropriately optimized. Specifically, variables were found which maximized unit density, bulk density, tapped density, and durability while minimizing pellet moisture content and specific energy consumption. The time and computational resources required for the optimization were dramatically decreased using the hybrid genetic algorithm when compared to MATLAB's native evolutionary optimization tool.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olsen, A.; Skjerpe, P.
1989-01-01
This report describes a computer program which is useful in high resolution microscopy. The program is written in EBASIC and calculates the weak phase object contrast transfer function as function of instrumental and imaging parameters. The function is plotted on the PC graphics screen, and by a Print Screen command the function can be copied to the printer. The program runs on both the Hercules graphic card and the IBM CGA card. 2 figs
Alvarez-Segura, T; Gómez-Díaz, A; Ortiz-Bolsico, C; Torres-Lapasió, J R; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C
2015-08-28
Getting useful chemical information from samples containing many compounds is still a challenge to analysts in liquid chromatography. The highest complexity corresponds to samples for which there is no prior knowledge about their chemical composition. Computer-based methodologies are currently considered as the most efficient tools to optimise the chromatographic resolution, and further finding the optimal separation conditions. However, most chromatographic objective functions (COFs) described in the literature to measure the resolution are based on mathematical models fitted with the information obtained from standards, and cannot be applied to samples with unknown compounds. In this work, a new COF based on the automatic measurement of the protruding part of the chromatographic peaks (or peak prominences) that indicates the number of perceptible peaks and global resolution, without the need of standards, is developed. The proposed COF was found satisfactory with regard to the peak purity criterion when applied to artificial peaks and simulated chromatograms of mixtures built using the information of standards. The approach was applied to mixtures of drugs containing unknown impurities and degradation products and to extracts of medicinal herbs, eluted with acetonitrile-water mixtures using isocratic and gradient elution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Torres-Lapasió, J R; Pous-Torres, S; Ortiz-Bolsico, C; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C
2015-01-16
The optimisation of the resolution in high-performance liquid chromatography is traditionally performed attending only to the time information. However, even in the optimal conditions, some peak pairs may remain unresolved. Such incomplete resolution can be still accomplished by deconvolution, which can be carried out with more guarantees of success by including spectral information. In this work, two-way chromatographic objective functions (COFs) that incorporate both time and spectral information were tested, based on the peak purity (analyte peak fraction free of overlapping) and the multivariate selectivity (figure of merit derived from the net analyte signal) concepts. These COFs are sensitive to situations where the components that coelute in a mixture show some spectral differences. Therefore, they are useful to find out experimental conditions where the spectrochromatograms can be recovered by deconvolution. Two-way multivariate selectivity yielded the best performance and was applied to the separation using diode-array detection of a mixture of 25 phenolic compounds, which remained unresolved in the chromatographic order using linear and multi-linear gradients of acetonitrile-water. Peak deconvolution was carried out using the combination of orthogonal projection approach and alternating least squares. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cresti, Alessandro; Grosso, Giuseppe; Parravicini, Giuseppe Pastori
2006-01-01
We have derived closed analytic expressions for the Green's function of an electron in a two-dimensional electron gas threaded by a uniform perpendicular magnetic field, also in the presence of a uniform electric field and of a parabolic spatial confinement. A workable and powerful numerical procedure for the calculation of the Green's functions for a large infinitely extended quantum wire is considered exploiting a lattice model for the wire, the tight-binding representation for the corresponding matrix Green's function, and the Peierls phase factor in the Hamiltonian hopping matrix element to account for the magnetic field. The numerical evaluation of the Green's function has been performed by means of the decimation-renormalization method, and quite satisfactorily compared with the analytic results worked out in this paper. As an example of the versatility of the numerical and analytic tools here presented, the peculiar semilocal character of the magnetic Green's function is studied in detail because of its basic importance in determining magneto-transport properties in mesoscopic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mysina, N Yu; Maksimova, L A; Ryabukho, V P; Gorbatenko, B B
2015-01-01
Investigated are statistical properties of the phase difference of oscillations in speckle-fields at two points in the far-field diffraction region, with different shapes of the scatterer aperture. Statistical and spatial nonuniformity of the probability density function of the field phase difference is established. Numerical experiments show that, for the speckle-fields with an oscillating alternating-sign transverse correlation function, a significant nonuniformity of the probability density function of the phase difference in the correlation region of the field complex amplitude, with the most probable values 0 and p, is observed. A natural statistical interference experiment using Young diagrams has confirmed the results of numerical experiments. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
Hsu, Ching-Chi; Lin, Jinn; Chao, Ching-Kong
2011-12-01
Optimizing the orthopaedic screws can greatly improve their biomechanical performances. However, a methodical design optimization approach requires a long time to search the best design. Thus, the surrogate objective functions of the orthopaedic screws should be accurately developed. To our knowledge, there is no study to evaluate the strengths and limitations of the surrogate methods in developing the objective functions of the orthopaedic screws. Three-dimensional finite element models for both the tibial locking screws and the spinal pedicle screws were constructed and analyzed. Then, the learning data were prepared according to the arrangement of the Taguchi orthogonal array, and the verification data were selected with use of a randomized selection. Finally, the surrogate objective functions were developed by using either the multiple linear regression or the artificial neural network. The applicability and accuracy of those surrogate methods were evaluated and discussed. The multiple linear regression method could successfully construct the objective function of the tibial locking screws, but it failed to develop the objective function of the spinal pedicle screws. The artificial neural network method showed a greater capacity of prediction in developing the objective functions for the tibial locking screws and the spinal pedicle screws than the multiple linear regression method. The artificial neural network method may be a useful option for developing the objective functions of the orthopaedic screws with a greater structural complexity. The surrogate objective functions of the orthopaedic screws could effectively decrease the time and effort required for the design optimization process. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schuster, J.
2018-02-01
Military requirements demand both single and dual-color infrared (IR) imaging systems with both high resolution and sharp contrast. To quantify the performance of these imaging systems, a key measure of performance, the modulation transfer function (MTF), describes how well an optical system reproduces an objects contrast in the image plane at different spatial frequencies. At the center of an IR imaging system is the focal plane array (FPA). IR FPAs are hybrid structures consisting of a semiconductor detector pixel array, typically fabricated from HgCdTe, InGaAs or III-V superlattice materials, hybridized with heat/pressure to a silicon read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) with indium bumps on each pixel providing the mechanical and electrical connection. Due to the growing sophistication of the pixel arrays in these FPAs, sophisticated modeling techniques are required to predict, understand, and benchmark the pixel array MTF that contributes to the total imaging system MTF. To model the pixel array MTF, computationally exhaustive 2D and 3D numerical simulation approaches are required to correctly account for complex architectures and effects such as lateral diffusion from the pixel corners. It is paramount to accurately model the lateral di_usion (pixel crosstalk) as it can become the dominant mechanism limiting the detector MTF if not properly mitigated. Once the detector MTF has been simulated, it is directly decomposed into its constituent contributions to reveal exactly what is limiting the total detector MTF, providing a path for optimization. An overview of the MTF will be given and the simulation approach will be discussed in detail, along with how different simulation parameters effect the MTF calculation. Finally, MTF optimization strategies (crosstalk mitigation) will be discussed.
Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Carter, Alice; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel; Jussila, Katja; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Rahko, Jukka; Ebeling, Hanna; Pauls, David; Moilanen, Irma
2011-01-01
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) have reported to have impairments in face, recognition and face memory, but intact object recognition and object memory. Potential abnormalities, in these fields at the family level of high-functioning children with ASD remains understudied despite, the ever-mounting evidence that ASDs are genetic and…
Asymptotics and Numerics of Polynomials Used in Tricomi and Buchholz Expansions of Kummer functions
J.L. López; N.M. Temme (Nico)
2010-01-01
textabstractExpansions in terms of Bessel functions are considered of the Kummer function ${}_1F_1(a;c,z)$ (or confluent hypergeometric function) as given by Tricomi and Buchholz. The coefficients of these expansions are polynomials in the parameters of the Kummer function and the asymptotic
Bos, F.M.
2010-01-01
Both biological and engineering scientist have always been intrigued by the flight of insects and birds. For a long time, the aerodynamic mechanism behind flapping insect flight was a complete mystery. Recently, several experimental and numerical flow visualisations were performed to investigate the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, H. K.; Yoon, K. H.; Kang, H. S.; Song, G. N.
1998-01-01
For the analysis of the fretting problem of the fuel rods, present paper(Part I) shows the numerical method developed for evaluating the stresses on the contact surfaces between the fuel rods and the spacer grids. Theory of Contact Mechanics was incorporated. Contact area was regarded as a plane strain condition, so plane problem was taken into consideration. Normal stress profile on the contact surface was assumed to be Hertzian. As for the direction of the shear load, a closed load path, e.g. load increase in transverse increase in axial decrease in transverse decrease in axial increase in transverse increase in axial direction was considered for simulating the rod vibration in a reactor core. Partial slip problem was consulted. As for the numerical method, a triangular traction element was utilized and the corresponding influence functions were evaluated. Numerical program has been implemented for the present analysis, of which the validity was verified by comparing the Mindlin-Cattaneo solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Bo Yoon; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Joon Woo; Myung, Jae Sung; Sim, Jung Suk; Seong, Chang Kyu; Kim, Seung Hyup; Choi, Guk Myeong; Chi, Seong Whi
2000-01-01
To correlate the degree of renal cortical enhancement, objectively evaluated by means of spiral CT with the serum level of creatinine, and to determine the extent to which this degree of enhancement may be used to detect renal parenchymal disease. Eighty patients (M:F = 50:30; age + 25-19, (mean 53) years) with available serum level of creatinine who underwent spiral CT between September and October 1999 were included in this study. In fifty patients the findings suggested hepatic or biliary diseases such as hepatoma, biliary cancer, or stone, while in thirty, renal diseases such as cyst, hematoma, or stone appeared to be present. Spiral CT imaging of the cortical phase was obtained at 30-40 seconds after the injection of 120 ml of non-ionic media at a rate of 3 ml/sec. The degree of renal cortical enhancement was calculated by dividing the CT attenuation number of renal cortex at the level of the renal hilum by the CT attenuation number of aorta at the same level. The degree of renal cortical enhancement was compared with the serum level of creatinine, and the degree of renal cortical enhancement in renal parenchymal disease with that of the normal group. Among eighty patients there were five with renal parenchymal disease and 75 with normal renal function. The ratio of the CT attenuation number of renal cortex to that of aorta at the level of the renal hilum ranged between 0.49 and 0.99 (mean, 0.79; standard deviation, 0.15). while the serum level of creatinine ranged between 0.6 and 3.2 mg/dl. There was significant correlation (coefficient of -0.346) and a statistically significant probability of 0.002 between the ratio of the CT attenuation numbers and the serum level of creatinine. There was a significant difference (statistically significant probability of less than 0.01) between those with renal parenchymal disease and the normal group. The use of spiral CT to measure the degree of renal cortical enhancement provides not only an effective index for
Povinelli, Daniel J; Frey, Scott H
2016-09-01
Many species exploit immediately apparent dimensions of objects during tool use and manufacture and operate over internal perceptual representations of objects (they move and reorient objects in space, have rules of operation to deform or modify objects, etc). Humans, however, actively test for functionally relevant object properties before such operations begin, even when no previous percepts of a particular object's qualities in the domain have been established. We hypothesize that such prospective diagnostic interventions are a human specialization of cognitive function that has been entirely overlooked in the neuropsychological literature. We presented chimpanzees with visually identical rakes: one was functional for retrieving a food reward; the other was non-functional (its base was spring-loaded). Initially, they learned that only the functional tool could retrieve a distant reward. In test 1, we explored if they would manually test for the rakes' rigidity during tool selection, but before using it. We found no evidence of such behavior. In test 2, we obliged the apes to deform the non-functional tool's base before using it, in order to evaluate whether this would cause them to switch rakes. It did not. Tests 3-6 attempted to focus the apes' attention on the functionally relevant property (rigidity). Although one ape eventually learned to abandon the non-functional rake before using it, she still did not attempt to test the rakes for rigidity prior to use. While these results underscore the ability of chimpanzees to use novel tools, at the same time they point toward a fundamental (and heretofore unexplored) difference in causal reasoning between humans and apes. We propose that this behavioral difference reflects a human specialization in how object properties are represented, which could have contributed significantly to the evolution of our technological culture. We discuss developing a new line of evolutionarily motivated neuropsychological research on
Snyder, A.; Dietterich, T.; Selker, J. S.
2017-12-01
Many regions of the world lack ground-based weather data due to inadequate or unreliable weather station networks. For example, most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have unreliable, sparse networks of weather stations. The absence of these data can have consequences on weather forecasting, prediction of severe weather events, agricultural planning, and climate change monitoring. The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (TAHMO.org) project seeks to address these problems by deploying and operating a large network of weather stations throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. To design the TAHMO network, we must determine where to place weather stations within each country. We should consider how we can create accurate spatio-temporal maps of weather data and how to balance the desired accuracy of each weather variable of interest (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, etc.). We can express this problem as a joint optimization of multiple weather variables, given a fixed number of weather stations. We use reanalysis data as the best representation of the "true" weather patterns that occur in the region of interest. For each possible combination of sites, we interpolate the reanalysis data between selected locations and calculate the mean average error between the reanalysis ("true") data and the interpolated data. In order to formulate our multi-variate optimization problem, we explore different methods of weighting each weather variable in our objective function. These methods include systematic variation of weights to determine which weather variables have the strongest influence on the network design, as well as combinations targeted for specific purposes. For example, we can use computed evapotranspiration as a metric that combines many weather variables in a way that is meaningful for agricultural and hydrological applications. We compare the errors of the weather station networks produced by each optimization problem formulation. We also compare these
Schönbach, Etienne M; Chaikitmongkol, Voraporn; Annam, Rachel; McDonnell, Emma C; Wolfson, Yulia; Fletcher, Emily; Scholl, Hendrik P N
2017-01-01
We present the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) with a 7-hexagon array as an objective test of macular function that can be recorded in 14 s. We provide normal values and investigate its reproducibility and validity. Healthy participants underwent mfERG testing according to International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV) standards using the Espion Profile/D310 multifocal ERG system (Diagnosys, LLC, Lowell, MA, USA). One standard recording of a 61-hexagon array and 2 repeated recordings of a custom 7-hexagon array were obtained. A total of 13 subjects (mean age 46.9 years) were included. The median response densities were 12.5 nV/deg2 in the center and 5.2 nV/deg2 in the periphery. Intereye correlations were strong in both the center (ρCenter = 0.821; p < 0.0001) and the periphery (ρPeriphery = 0.862; p < 0.0001). Intraeye correlations were even stronger: ρCenter = 0.904 with p < 0.0001 and ρPeriphery = 0.955 with p < 0.0001. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated an acceptable retest mean difference in both the center and periphery, and narrow limits of agreement. We found strong correlations of the center (ρCenter = 0.826; p < 0.0001) and periphery (ρPeriphery = 0.848; p < 0.0001), with recordings obtained by the 61-hexagon method. The 7-hexagon mfERG provides reproducible results in agreement with results obtained according to the ISCEV standard. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Numerical analysis of different neural transfer functions used for best approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gougam, L.A.; Chikhi, A.; Biskri, S.; Chafa, F.
2006-01-01
It is widely recognised that the choice of transfer functions in neural networks is of en importance to their performance. In this paper, different neural transfer functions usec approximation are discussed. We begin with sigmoi'dal functions used most often by diffi authors . At a second step, we use Gaussian functions as previously suggested in refere Finally, we deal with a specified wavelet family. A comparison between the three cases < above is made exhibiting therefore the advantages of each transfer function. The approa< function improves as the dimension N of the elementary task basis increases
A functional analysis of photo-object matching skills of severely retarded adolescents.
Dixon, L S
1981-01-01
Matching-to-sample procedures were used to assess picture representation skills of severely retarded, nonverbal adolescents. Identity matching within the classes of objects and life-size, full-color photos of the objects was first used to assess visual discrimination, a necessary condition for picture representation. Picture representation was then assessed through photo-object matching tasks. Five students demonstrated visual discrimination (identity matching) within the two classes of photo...
A functional analysis of photo-object matching skills of severely retarded adolescents.
Dixon, L S
1981-01-01
Matching-to-sample procedures were used to assess picture representation skills of severely retarded, nonverbal adolescents. Identity matching within the classes of objects and life-size, full-color photos of the objects was first used to assess visual discrimination, a necessary condition for picture representation. Picture representation was then assessed through photo-object matching tasks. Five students demonstrated visual discrimination (identity matching) within the two classes of photos and the objects. Only one student demonstrated photo-object matching. The results of the four students who failed to demonstrate photo-object matching suggested that physical properties of photos (flat, rectangular) and depth dimensions of objects may exert more control over matching than the similarities of the objects and images within the photos. An analysis of figure-ground variables was conducted to provide an empirical basis for program development in the use of pictures. In one series of tests, rectangular shape and background were removed by cutting out the figures in the photos. The edge shape of the photo and the edge shape of the image were then identical. The results suggest that photo-object matching may be facilitated by using cut-out figures rather than the complete rectangular photo.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svendsen, Anne M; Kessing, Lars V; Munkholm, Klaus
2012-01-01
.01) but there were no differences between patient groups (P > 0.1). We found no correlation between subjectively experienced and objectively measured cognitive dysfunction in BD (P = 0.7), and a non-significant trend towards a correlation in UD (P = 0.06), which disappeared when controlling for gender (P = 0......Background: Patients with affective disorders experience cognitive dysfunction in addition to their affective symptoms. The relationship between subjectively experienced and objectively measured cognitive function is controversial with several studies reporting no correlation between subjective...... and objective deficits. Aims: To investigate whether there is a correlation between subjectively reported and objectively measured cognitive function in patients with affective disorders, and whether subjective complaints predict objectively measured dysfunction. Methods: The study included 45 participants; 15...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cherry J.
2000-01-01
Full Text Available There are many methods for separating and purifying proteins from dilute solutions, such as salting out/precipitation, adsorption/chromatography, foam fractionation, and droplet fractionation. In order to determine the optimal condition for a selected separation and purification process, an objective function is developed. The objective function consists of three parameters, which are the protein mass recovery, the separation ratio, and the enzymatic activity ratio. In this paper the objective function is determined as a function of the pH of the bulk solution for egg albumin, cellulase, and sporamin (for foam fractionation and invertase ( for droplet fractionation. It is found that the optimal pH for all the systems except for cellulase is near their isoelectric point.
Wilcox, Teresa; Woods, Rebecca; Chapa, Catherine
2008-01-01
There is evidence for developmental hierarchies in the type of information to which infants attend when reasoning about objects. Investigators have questioned the origin of these hierarchies and how infants come to identify new sources of information when reasoning about objects. The goal of the present experiments was to shed light on this debate…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
А. А. Kondur
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The results of biomechanical analysis of the motor function of the arm of poststroke patient in the process of neuroreha bilitation with exoskeleton of the hand controlled by brain – computer interface are presented in this paper. At the beginning and end of the course it was registered the kinematic portrait of the patient– isolated random movements for each of the seven degrees of freedom as the paretic and intact arms.Angular accelerations were taken as an assessment of muscle forces, the number of reverse movements was taken as an assessment of joint spasticity, and the kinematic content of the movement as a description of pathological synergy arising after stroke. These parameters give an objective numerical asses sment of motor function as well as of rehabilitation technology effectiveness.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. M. N. C. S. Vieira
2013-03-01
Full Text Available A numerical tool was developed for the estimation of gas fluxes across the air–water interface. The primary objective is to use it to estimate CO2 fluxes. Nevertheless application to other gases is easily accomplished by changing the values of the parameters related to the physical properties of the gases. A user-friendly software was developed allowing to build upon a standard kernel a custom-made gas flux model with the preferred parameterizations. These include single or double layer models; several numerical schemes for the effects of wind in the air-side and water-side transfer velocities; the effects of atmospheric stability, surface roughness and turbulence from current drag with the bottom; and the effects on solubility of water temperature, salinity, air temperature and pressure. An analysis was also developed which decomposes the difference between the fluxes in a reference situation and in alternative situations into its several forcing functions. This analysis relies on the Taylor expansion of the gas flux model, requiring the numerical estimation of partial derivatives by a multivariate version of the collocation polynomial. Both the flux model and the difference decomposition analysis were tested with data taken from surveys done in the lagoon system of Ria Formosa, south Portugal, in which the CO2 fluxes were estimated using the infrared gas analyzer (IRGA and floating chamber method, whereas the CO2 concentrations were estimated using the IRGA and degasification chamber. Observations and estimations show a remarkable fit.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heidi J Syväoja
Full Text Available Low levels of physical activity among children have raised concerns over the effects of a physically inactive lifestyle, not only on physical health but also on cognitive prerequisites of learning. This study examined how objectively measured and self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with cognitive functions in school-aged children. The study population consisted of 224 children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (mean age 12.2 years; 56% girls, who participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer. Self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA and screen time were evaluated with the questions used in the "WHO Health Behavior in School-aged Children" study. Cognitive functions including visual memory, executive functions and attention were evaluated with a computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery by using five different tests. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine how objectively measured and self-reported MVPA and sedentary behavior were associated with cognitive functions. High levels of objectively measured MVPA were associated with good performance in the reaction time test. High levels of objectively measured sedentary time were associated with good performance in the sustained attention test. Objectively measured MVPA and sedentary time were not associated with other measures of cognitive functions. High amount of self-reported computer/video game play was associated with weaker performance in working memory test, whereas high amount of computer use was associated with weaker performance in test measuring shifting and flexibility of attention. Self-reported physical activity and total screen time were not associated with any measures of cognitive functions. The results of the present study propose
Ilmer, Steven; And Others
1981-01-01
The study assessed object permanence construct performance in 20 severely handicapped students (4 to 14 years old) who were differentiated by treatment (prompt) condition and motor ability level. Results revealed a trait (motor ability) x treatment interaction. (Author/SB)
Chanthawara, Krittidej; Kaennakham, Sayan; Toutip, Wattana
2016-02-01
The methodology of Dual Reciprocity Boundary Element Method (DRBEM) is applied to the convection-diffusion problems and investigating its performance is our first objective of the work. Seven types of Radial Basis Functions (RBF); Linear, Thin-plate Spline, Cubic, Compactly Supported, Inverse Multiquadric, Quadratic, and that proposed by [12], were closely investigated in order to numerically compare their effectiveness drawbacks etc. and this is taken as our second objective. A sufficient number of simulations were performed covering as many aspects as possible. Varidated against both exacts and other numerical works, the final results imply strongly that the Thin-Plate Spline and Linear type of RBF are superior to others in terms of both solutions' quality and CPU-time spent while the Inverse Multiquadric seems to poorly yield the results. It is also found that DRBEM can perform relatively well at moderate level of convective force and as anticipated becomes unstable when the problem becomes more convective-dominated, as normally found in all classical mesh-dependence methods.
Design of New Test Function Model Based on Multi-objective Optimization Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhaoxia Shang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Space partitioning method, as a new algorism, has been applied to planning and decision-making of investment portfolio more and more often. But currently there are so few testing function for this algorism, which has greatly restrained its further development and application. An innovative test function model is designed in this paper and is used to test the algorism. It is proved that for evaluation of space partitioning method in certain applications, this test function has fairly obvious advantage.
Numerical calculation of a class of highly oscillatory integrals with the Mathieu function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long Yongxing
1992-01-01
The author describes a method for computing highly oscillatory integrals with the Mathieu function. The practice proves that not only the results are highly satisfactory, but also the method is time-saving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jens G. Balchen
1984-10-01
Full Text Available The problem of systematic derivation of a quasi-dynamic optimal control strategy for a non-linear dynamic process based upon a non-quadratic objective function is investigated. The wellknown LQG-control algorithm does not lead to an optimal solution when the process disturbances have non-zero mean. The relationships between the proposed control algorithm and LQG-control are presented. The problem of how to constrain process variables by means of 'penalty' - terms in the objective function is dealt with separately.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jungwook Kim
2018-05-01
Full Text Available The objective function is usually used for verification of the optimization process between observed and simulated flows for the parameter estimation of rainfall–runoff model. However, it does not focus on peak flow and on representative parameter for various rain storm events of the basin, but it can estimate the optimal parameters by minimizing the overall error of observed and simulated flows. Therefore, the aim of this study is to suggest the objective functions that can fit peak flow in hydrograph and estimate the representative parameter of the basin for the events. The Streamflow Synthesis And Reservoir Regulation (SSARR model was employed to perform flood runoff simulation for the Mihocheon stream basin in Geum River, Korea. Optimization was conducted using three calibration methods: genetic algorithm, pattern search, and the Shuffled Complex Evolution method developed at the University of Arizona (SCE-UA. Two objective functions of the Sum of Squared of Residual (SSR and the Weighted Sum of Squared of Residual (WSSR suggested in this study for peak flow optimization were applied. Since the parameters estimated using a single rain storm event do not represent the parameters for various rain storms in the basin, we used the representative objective function that can minimize the sum of objective functions of the events. Six rain storm events were used for the parameter estimation. Four events were used for the calibration and the other two for validation; then, the results by SSR and WSSR were compared. Flow runoff simulation was carried out based on the proposed objective functions, and the objective function of WSSR was found to be more useful than that of SSR in the simulation of peak flow runoff. Representative parameters that minimize the objective function for each of the four rain storm events were estimated. The calibrated observed and simulated flow runoff hydrographs obtained from applying the estimated representative
Goit, Chandra Shekhar; Saitoh, Masato
2013-03-01
Horizontal impedance functions of inclined single piles are measured experimentally for model soil-pile systems with both the effects of local soil nonlinearity and resonant characteristics. Two practical pile inclinations of 5° and 10° in addition to a vertical pile embedded in cohesionless soil and subjected to lateral harmonic pile head loadings for a wide range of frequencies are considered. Results obtained with low-to-high amplitude of lateral loadings on model soil-pile systems encased in a laminar shear box show that the local nonlinearities have a profound impact on the horizontal impedance functions of piles. Horizontal impedance functions of inclined piles are found to be smaller than the vertical pile and the values decrease as the angle of pile inclination increases. Distinct values of horizontal impedance functions are obtained for the `positive' and `negative' cycles of harmonic loadings, leading to asymmetric force-displacement relationships for the inclined piles. Validation of these experimental results is carried out through three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analyses, and the results from the numerical models are in good agreement with the experimental data. Sensitivity analyses conducted on the numerical models suggest that the consideration of local nonlinearity at the vicinity of the soil-pile interface influence the response of the soil-pile systems.
Numerical study on identification of transfer functions in a feedback system and model reduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kishida, Kuniharu
1997-01-01
Identification of transfer function matrices in a feedback system is discussed by using the singular value decomposition of Hankel matrix from the viewpoint of inverse problems. A method of model reduction is considered, and selection criteria are proposed for identification of them. Transformation formula between open loop and closed loop transfer function matrices are determined from the feedback loop structure, and they are needed for identification of open loop transfer function matrices under such a condition where the feedback system is in a minimum phase. Though the identifiability of open loop transfer function matrices can be examined in the framework of innovation model equivalent to the feedback system, there are pole-zero cancellations in the identification of them. The method to reduce a model order of an open loop transfer function is discussed by using the singular value decomposition of a gramian given by the open loop transfer function with higher degree. To check reliability of the present algorithm, a simulation study is performed for an example. (author)
Medvedev, Andrei V.; Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Borisov, Sergey V.; Vanmeter, John
2011-01-01
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a developing technology for low-cost noninvasive functional brain imaging. With multichannel optical instruments, it becomes possible to measure not only local changes in hemoglobin concentrations but also temporal correlations of those changes in different brain regions which gives an optical analog of functional connectivity traditionally measured by fMRI. We recorded hemodynamic activity during the Go-NoGo task from 11 right-handed subjects with probes placed bilaterally over prefrontal areas. Subjects were detecting animals as targets in natural scenes pressing a mouse button. Data were low-pass filtered right versus left hemisphere. Intra- and interhemispheric functional connectivity was also significantly stronger during the task compared to baseline. Functional connectivity between the inferior and the middle frontal regions was significantly stronger in the right hemisphere. Our results demonstrate that optical methods can be used to detect transient changes in functional connectivity during rapid cognitive processes.
Christ, Andreas; Thews, Oliver
2016-04-01
Mathematical models are suitable to simulate complex biological processes by a set of non-linear differential equations. These simulation models can be used as an e-learning tool in medical education. However, in many cases these mathematical systems have to be treated numerically which is computationally intensive. The aim of the study was to develop a system for numerical simulation to be used in an online e-learning environment. In the software system the simulation is located on the server as a CGI application. The user (student) selects the boundary conditions for the simulation (e.g., properties of a simulated patient) on the browser. With these parameters the simulation on the server is started and the simulation result is re-transferred to the browser. With this system two examples of e-learning units were realized. The first one uses a multi-compartment model of the glucose-insulin control loop for the simulation of the plasma glucose level after a simulated meal or during diabetes (including treatment by subcutaneous insulin application). The second one simulates the ion transport leading to the resting and action potential in nerves. The student can vary parameters systematically to explore the biological behavior of the system. The described system is able to simulate complex biological processes and offers the possibility to use these models in an online e-learning environment. As far as the underlying principles can be described mathematically, this type of system can be applied to a broad spectrum of biomedical or natural scientific topics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rao, G Shanker
2006-01-01
About the Book: This book provides an introduction to Numerical Analysis for the students of Mathematics and Engineering. The book is designed in accordance with the common core syllabus of Numerical Analysis of Universities of Andhra Pradesh and also the syllabus prescribed in most of the Indian Universities. Salient features: Approximate and Numerical Solutions of Algebraic and Transcendental Equation Interpolation of Functions Numerical Differentiation and Integration and Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations The last three chapters deal with Curve Fitting, Eigen Values and Eigen Vectors of a Matrix and Regression Analysis. Each chapter is supplemented with a number of worked-out examples as well as number of problems to be solved by the students. This would help in the better understanding of the subject. Contents: Errors Solution of Algebraic and Transcendental Equations Finite Differences Interpolation with Equal Intervals Interpolation with Unequal Int...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Jensen, Carsten; Aagaard, Per
2014-01-01
) subscales (Sport/Rec and QOL) in ACL-reconstructed patients. METHODS: 23 hamstring auto-graft ACL-reconstructed men (mean age: 27.2 standard deviation 7.5years, BMI: 25.4 standard deviation 3.2 time since surgery: 27 standard deviation 7months) completed KOOS-questionnaire and an objective test-battery: (i...
Functional Requirements: 2014 No Child Left Behind--Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives
Minnesota Department of Education, 2014
2014-01-01
This document describes the Minnesota No Child Left Behind (NCLB) calculation as it relates to measuring Title III districts for Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives (AMAO). In 2012, a new assessment was used to measure language proficiency skills for English Learners. New AMAO targets were created, and new values for determining individual…
Baker, John G.
2009-01-01
Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.
Numerical solution of the potential problem by integral equations without Green's functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Mey, G.
1977-01-01
An integral equation technique will be presented to solve Laplace's equation in a two-dimensional area S. The Green's function has been replaced by a particular solution of Laplace equation in order to establish the integral equation. It is shown that accurate results can be obtained provided the pivotal elimination method is used to solve the linear algebraic set
Faxén Sepanian, Varoojan; Paulsson-Björnsson, Liselotte; Kjellberg, Heidrun
2014-01-01
The aims of this study were to 1) evaluate the objective success rate of Class II malocclusion treatment with functional appliances five years after completion of treatment and 2) to compare the remaining objective treatment need with an untreated control group. Records of all listed patients between 18-20 years (n=1054) treated in a general practice were reviewed for the purpose of finding treatments with removable functional appliances. Among all subjects (n=61) who previously had been treated, 58 accepted to participate in the study.The test group was matched with an orthodontically untreated group with no history of objective treatment need. Clinical examination was performed and study casts and photos were taken from both groups.The objective treatment need was evaluated through clinical examination and study cast analysis with weighted Peer Assessment Rating index (wPAR). Twenty patients, (34.5%) (mean wPAR 13.8), succeeded with the functional appliance treatment.The wPAR score (mean 15.0) of the entire test group was significantly higher than the one of the control group (mean 7.3).The group that was treated exclusively with functional appliances had a mean wPAR score of 17.4. Eighteen patients (31.0%) who received retreatment with fixed appliances had a slightly higher mean wPAR (8.6) than the control group. Treatments with functional appliances in a general practice showed a high failure rate and a remaining treatment need. It is the treating dentist's responsibility to motivate the patient to cooperate to the treatment, because as it previously has been shown the treatment with functional appliances is a well-functioning treatment alternative with the cooperation of the patient being sufficient. It is also of importance, already before starting treatment, to estimate the child's cooperation ability and to avoid treatment with removable appliances if the child or parents are reluctant about such a treatment.
Nasehi, Mohammad; Alaghmandan-Motlagh, Niyousha; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Nami, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza
2017-10-01
Previous studies have postulated functional links between GABA and cannabinoid systems in the hippocampus. The aim of the present study was to investigate any possible interaction between these systems in spatial change and object novelty discrimination memory consolidation in the dorsal hippocampus (CA1 region) of NMRI mice. Assessment of the spatial change and object novelty discrimination memory function was carried out in a non-associative task. The experiment comprised mice exposure to an open field containing five objects followed by the examination of their reactivity to object displacement (spatial change) and object substitution (object novelty) after three sessions of habituation. Our results showed that the post-training intraperitoneal administration of the higher dose of ACPA (0.02 mg/kg) impaired both spatial change and novelty discrimination memory functions. Meanwhile, the higher dose of GABA-B receptor agonist, baclofen, impaired the spatial change memory by itself. Moreover, the post-training intra-CA1 microinjection of a subthreshold dose of baclofen increased the ACPA effect on spatial change and novelty discrimination memory at a lower and higher dose, respectively. On the other hand, the lower and higher but not mid-level doses of GABA-B receptor antagonist, phaclofen, could reverse memory deficits induced by ACPA. However, phaclofen at its mid-level dose impaired the novelty discrimination memory and whereas the higher dose impaired the spatial change memory. Based on our findings, GABA-B receptors in the CA1 region appear to modulate the ACPA-induced cannabinoid CB1 signaling upon spatial change and novelty discrimination memory functions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fukang Yin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical method is presented to obtain the approximate solutions of the fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs. The basic idea of this method is to achieve the approximate solutions in a generalized expansion form of two-dimensional fractional-order Legendre functions (2D-FLFs. The operational matrices of integration and derivative for 2D-FLFs are first derived. Then, by these matrices, a system of algebraic equations is obtained from FPDEs. Hence, by solving this system, the unknown 2D-FLFs coefficients can be computed. Three examples are discussed to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the proposed method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cunha Furtado, F. da; Galeao, A.C.N.R.
1984-01-01
A numerical procedure for the integration of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, when expressed in terms of a stream function equation and a vorticity transport equation, is presented. This procedure comprises: the variational formulation of the equations, the construction of the approximation spaces by the finite element method and the discretization via the Galerkin method. For the stationary problems, the system of non-linear algebraic equations resulting from the discretization is solved by the Newton-Raphson algorithm. Finally, for the transient problems, the solution of the non-linear ordinary differential equations resulting from the spatial discretization is accomplished through a Crank-Nicolson scheme. (Author) [pt
Application of numerical methods to the determination of molecular wave functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Douady, Jerome
1969-01-01
A simplified SCF Method is developed. The wave function of molecular systems and spin densities in the case of free radicals are computed from geometrical data. This method, including at the beginning a delocalization of electrons over all the molecular system, two methods which clear out bonding and anti-bonding interactions have been studied and programmed: a) overlap population analysis, b) localisation of molecular orbitals. These methods have been carried out in the case of organic compounds and free radicals. (author) [fr
Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Mynarski, Władysław; Cholewa, Jarosław
2017-12-23
Physical activity is an important factor in maintaining the health and functional fitness of elderly people. The aim of the study was to determine the number of senior women meeting the physical activity guidelines, and their level of functional fitness in comparison to women who are not sufficiently physically active. The study involved 61 women, aged 60-75. Physical activity was monitored on seven consecutive days of the week, using a triaxial accelerometer ActiGraph GT3X. Results of the assessment of physical activity were verified against the Global Recommendations of Physical Activity for Health. The Senior Fitness Test (Fullerton Test) was used to evaluate functional fitness. In the studied group, 36.1% achieved the recommended level of physical activity. All those examined mainly undertook physical activity of low intensity. Vigorous physical activity during the week was noted in only 6 seniors. Women who met the recommendations of physical activity achieved significantly better results in test trials, e.g. Chair Stands, Up and Go, Six Minute Step Test. Adherence to physical activity guidelines was associated with better functional fitness of older women. However, less than half of the examined seniors met the Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health.
Liu, Xu-long; Hong, Wen-xue; Song, Jia-lin; Wu, Zhen-ying
2012-03-01
The skin temperature distribution of a healthy human body exhibits a contralateral symmetry. Some lesions of facial nerve function are associated with an alteration of the thermal distribution of the human body. Since the dissipation of heat through the skin occurs for the most part in the form of infrared radiation, infrared thermography is the method of choice to capture the alteration of the infrared thermal distribution. This paper presents a new method of analysis of the thermal asymmetry named effective thermal area ratio, which is a product of two variables. The first variable is mean temperature difference between the specific facial region and its contralateral region. The second variable is a ratio, which is equal to the area of the abnormal region divided by the total area. Using this new method, we performed a controlled trial to assess the facial nerve function of the healthy subjects and the patients with Bell's palsy respectively. The results show: that the mean specificity and sensitivity of this method are 0.90 and 0.87 respectively, improved by 7% and 26% compared with conventional methods. Spearman correlation coefficient between effective thermal area ratio and the degree of facial nerve function is an average of 0.664. Hence, concerning the diagnosis and assessment of facial nerve function, infrared thermography is a powerful tool; while the effective ther mal area ratio is an efficient clinical indicator.
Determination of the Reliability Function of Nonredundant Element of Power Object
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Namgaladze, D.; Kiziria, T.
2007-01-01
At considering the reliability indices of the system element with recovery, the time of operation and recovery is usually accounted for. But, in practice, there often occur the situations when, after the failure of the system (or its element), it takes considerable time to begin repairing (time for revealing the damages, time for organization of repairing work, delivery of spare parts etc.). The total dead time is called the waiting time. In the present work, the reliability indices of the element of power object with account for the waiting time are determined analytically by using Markovian processes. (author)
A novel algorithm of artificial immune system for high-dimensional function numerical optimization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DU Haifeng; GONG Maoguo; JIAO Licheng; LIU Ruochen
2005-01-01
Based on the clonal selection theory and immune memory theory, a novel artificial immune system algorithm, immune memory clonal programming algorithm (IMCPA), is put forward. Using the theorem of Markov chain, it is proved that IMCPA is convergent. Compared with some other evolutionary programming algorithms (like Breeder genetic algorithm), IMCPA is shown to be an evolutionary strategy capable of solving complex machine learning tasks, like high-dimensional function optimization, which maintains the diversity of the population and avoids prematurity to some extent, and has a higher convergence speed.
Mediating objects: scientific and public functions of models in nineteenth-century biology.
Ludwig, David
2013-01-01
The aim of this article is to examine the scientific and public functions of two- and three-dimensional models in the context of three episodes from nineteenth-century biology. I argue that these models incorporate both data and theory by presenting theoretical assumptions in the light of concrete data or organizing data through theoretical assumptions. Despite their diverse roles in scientific practice, they all can be characterized as mediators between data and theory. Furthermore, I argue that these different mediating functions often reflect their different audiences that included specialized scientists, students, and the general public. In this sense, models in nineteenth-century biology can be understood as mediators between theory, data, and their diverse audiences.
Guinchard, A-C; Ghazaleh, Naghmeh; Saenz, M; Fornari, E; Prior, J O; Maeder, P; Adib, S; Maire, R
2016-11-01
We studied possible brain changes with functional MRI (fMRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in a patient with a rare, high-intensity "objective tinnitus" (high-level SOAEs) in the left ear of 10 years duration, with no associated hearing loss. This is the first case of objective cochlear tinnitus to be investigated with functional neuroimaging. The objective cochlear tinnitus was measured by Spontaneous Otoacoustic Emissions (SOAE) equipment (frequency 9689 Hz, intensity 57 dB SPL) and is clearly audible to anyone standing near the patient. Functional modifications in primary auditory areas and other brain regions were evaluated using 3T and 7T fMRI and FDG-PET. In the fMRI evaluations, a saturation of the auditory cortex at the tinnitus frequency was observed, but the global cortical tonotopic organization remained intact when compared to the results of fMRI of healthy subjects. The FDG-PET showed no evidence of an increase or decrease of activity in the auditory cortices or in the limbic system as compared to normal subjects. In this patient with high-intensity objective cochlear tinnitus, fMRI and FDG-PET showed no significant brain reorganization in auditory areas and/or in the limbic system, as reported in the literature in patients with chronic subjective tinnitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The Correlation between Subjective and Objective Visual Function Test in Optic Neuropathy Patients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ungsoo Kim
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the correlation between visual acuity and quantitative measurements of visual evoked potentials (VEP, optical coherence tomography (OCT, and visual field test (VF in optic neuropathy patients. Methods: We evaluated 28 patients with optic neuropathy. Patients who had pale disc, visual acuity of less than 0.5 and abnormal visual field defect were included. At the first visit, we performed visual acuity and VF as subjective methods and OCT and VEP as objective methods. In the spectral domain OCT, rim volume, average and temporal quadrant retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness were measured. And pattern VEP (N75, P100, N135 latency, and P100 amplitude and Humphrey 24-2 visual field test (mean deviation and pattern standard deviation were obtained. Using Spearman's correlation coefficient, the correlation between visual acuity and various techniques were assessed. Results: Visual acuity was most correlated with the mean deviation of Humphrey perimetry.
Block-pulse functions approach to numerical solution of Abel’s integral equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monireh Nosrati Sahlan
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This study aims to present a computational method for solving Abel’s integral equation of the second kind. The introduced method is based on the use of Block-pulse functions (BPFs via collocation method. Abel’s integral equations as singular Volterra integral equations are hard and heavy in computation, but because of the properties of BPFs, as is reported in examples, this method is more efficient and more accurate than some other methods for solving this class of integral equations. On the other hand, the benefit of this method is low cost of computing operations. The applied method transforms the singular integral equation into triangular linear algebraic system that can be solved easily. An error analysis is worked out and applications are demonstrated through illustrative examples.
Bortolozo, Cassiano Antonio; Bokhonok, Oleg; Porsani, Jorge Luís; Monteiro dos Santos, Fernando Acácio; Diogo, Liliana Alcazar; Slob, Evert
2017-11-01
Ambiguities in geophysical inversion results are always present. How these ambiguities appear in most cases open to interpretation. It is interesting to investigate ambiguities with regard to the parameters of the models under study. Residual Function Dispersion Map (RFDM) can be used to differentiate between global ambiguities and local minima in the objective function. We apply RFDM to Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and TEM Sounding inversion results. Through topographic analysis of the objective function we evaluate the advantages and limitations of electrical sounding data compared with TEM sounding data, and the benefits of joint inversion in comparison with the individual methods. The RFDM analysis proved to be a very interesting tool for understanding the joint inversion method of VES/TEM. Also the advantage of the applicability of the RFDM analyses in real data is explored in this paper to demonstrate not only how the objective function of real data behaves but the applicability of the RFDM approach in real cases. With the analysis of the results, it is possible to understand how the joint inversion can reduce the ambiguity of the methods.
Early patient-reported outcomes versus objective function after total hip and knee arthroplasty
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Luna, I E; Kehlet, H; Peterson, B
2017-01-01
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to assess early physical function after total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA), and the correlation between patient-reported outcome measures, physical performance and actual physical activity (measured by actigraphy). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 80...... patients aged 55 to 80 years undergoing THA or TKA for osteoarthritis were included in this prospective cohort study. The main outcome measure was change in patient reported hip or knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (HOOS/KOOS) from pre-operatively until post-operative day 13 (THA) or 20 (TKA...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baczewski, Andrew David; Shulenburger, Luke; Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Magyar, Rudolph J.
2014-02-01
In recent years, DFT-MD has been shown to be a useful computational tool for exploring the properties of WDM. These calculations achieve excellent agreement with shock compression experiments, which probe the thermodynamic parameters of the Hugoniot state. New X-ray Thomson Scattering diagnostics promise to deliver independent measurements of electronic density and temperature, as well as structural information in shocked systems. However, they require the development of new levels of theory for computing the associated observables within a DFT framework. The experimentally observable x-ray scattering cross section is related to the electronic density-density response function, which is obtainable using TDDFT - a formally exact extension of conventional DFT that describes electron dynamics and excited states. In order to develop a capability for modeling XRTS data and, more generally, to establish a predictive capability for rst principles simulations of matter in extreme conditions, real-time TDDFT with Ehrenfest dynamics has been implemented in an existing PAW code for DFT-MD calculations. The purpose of this report is to record implementation details and benchmarks as the project advances from software development to delivering novel scienti c results. Results range from tests that establish the accuracy, e ciency, and scalability of our implementation, to calculations that are veri ed against accepted results in the literature. Aside from the primary XRTS goal, we identify other more general areas where this new capability will be useful, including stopping power calculations and electron-ion equilibration.
Levchuk, Georgiy; Bobick, Aaron; Jones, Eric
2010-04-01
In this paper, we describe results from experimental analysis of a model designed to recognize activities and functions of moving and static objects from low-resolution wide-area video inputs. Our model is based on representing the activities and functions using three variables: (i) time; (ii) space; and (iii) structures. The activity and function recognition is achieved by imposing lexical, syntactic, and semantic constraints on the lower-level event sequences. In the reported research, we have evaluated the utility and sensitivity of several algorithms derived from natural language processing and pattern recognition domains. We achieved high recognition accuracy for a wide range of activity and function types in the experiments using Electro-Optical (EO) imagery collected by Wide Area Airborne Surveillance (WAAS) platform.
Permutation flow-shop scheduling problem to optimize a quadratic objective function
Ren, Tao; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bingqian; Yuan, Huawei; Bai, Danyu
2017-09-01
A flow-shop scheduling model enables appropriate sequencing for each job and for processing on a set of machines in compliance with identical processing orders. The objective is to achieve a feasible schedule for optimizing a given criterion. Permutation is a special setting of the model in which the processing order of the jobs on the machines is identical for each subsequent step of processing. This article addresses the permutation flow-shop scheduling problem to minimize the criterion of total weighted quadratic completion time. With a probability hypothesis, the asymptotic optimality of the weighted shortest processing time schedule under a consistency condition (WSPT-CC) is proven for sufficiently large-scale problems. However, the worst case performance ratio of the WSPT-CC schedule is the square of the number of machines in certain situations. A discrete differential evolution algorithm, where a new crossover method with multiple-point insertion is used to improve the final outcome, is presented to obtain high-quality solutions for moderate-scale problems. A sequence-independent lower bound is designed for pruning in a branch-and-bound algorithm for small-scale problems. A set of random experiments demonstrates the performance of the lower bound and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CARAIMAN ADRIAN-COSMIN
2015-12-01
Full Text Available As Radu said (2009, pag. 91 [6] logical approach developed by accounting, presentation of an exact image of the heritage, the financial situation and financial results, based on a rational thought, a gradual knowledge domain investigated, concepts, tools and processes that allow a better understanding of the essence of economic phenomena and processes. Theoretical framework brings together a number of concepts that are considered fundamental to regulatory or accounting systems applied at the level of the entity to have clearly specified the coordinates of the base and are able to achieve cohesion between the objective of financial statements as true and fair view, financial information and policy characteristics and estimation techniques as a form of expression towards the recognition and presentation of economic reality. The author considers, in the context of the defined system applied within the accounting entities in general, that principles, presents not only a crucial premise, as well as needed necessity in order to show an exact image of the performance and financial position of the entity.
Tsunami waveform inversion by numerical finite-elements Green’s functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Piatanesi
2001-01-01
Full Text Available During the last few years, the steady increase in the quantity and quality of the data concerning tsunamis has led to an increasing interest in the inversion problem for tsunami data. This work addresses the usually ill-posed problem of the hydrodynamical inversion of tsunami tide-gage records to infer the initial sea perturbation. We use an inversion method for which the data space consists of a given number of waveforms and the model parameter space is represented by the values of the initial water elevation field at a given number of points. The forward model, i.e. the calculation of the synthetic tide-gage records from an initial water elevation field, is based on the linear shallow water equations and is simply solved by applying the appropriate Green’s functions to the known initial state. The inversion of tide-gage records to determine the initial state results in the least square inversion of a rectangular system of linear equations. When the inversions are unconstrained, we found that in order to attain good results, the dimension of the data space has to be much larger than that of the model space parameter. We also show that a large number of waveforms is not sufficient to ensure a good inversion if the corresponding stations do not have a good azimuthal coverage with respect to source directivity. To improve the inversions we use the available a priori information on the source, generally coming from the inversion of seismological data. In this paper we show how to implement very common information about a tsunamigenic seismic source, i.e. the earthquake source region, as a set of spatial constraints. The results are very satisfactory, since even a rough localisation of the source enables us to invert correctly the initial elevation field.
Jang, E.; Kalbacher, T.; He, W.; Shao, H.; Schueth, C.; Kolditz, O.
2014-12-01
Nitrate contamination in shallow groundwater is still one of the common problems in many countries. Because of its high solubility and anionic nature, nitrate can easily leach through soil and persist in groundwater for decades. High nitrate concentration has been suggested as a major cause of accelerated eutrophication, methemoglobinemia and gastric cancer. There are several factors influencing the fate of nitrate in groundwater system, which is e.g. distribution of N- sources to soil and groundwater, distribution and amount of reactive substances maintaining denitrification, rate of nitrate degradation and its kinetics, and geological characteristics of the aquifer. Nitrate transport and redox transformation processes are closely linked to complex and spatially distributed physical and chemical interaction, therefore it is difficult to predict and quantify in the field and laboratory experiment. Models can play a key role in elucidation of nitrate reduction pathway in groundwater system and in the design and evaluation of field tests to investigate in situ remediation technologies as well. The goal of the current study is to predict groundwater vulnerability to nitrate, to identify functional zones of denitrification in heterogeneous aquifer systems and to describe the uncertainty of the predictions due to scale effects. For this aim, we developed a kinetic model using multi-component mass transport code OpenGeoSys coupling with IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The developed model included sequential aerobic and nitrate-based respiration, multi-Monod kinetics, multi-species biogeochemical reactions, and geological characteristics of the groundwater aquifer. Moreover water-rock interaction such as secondary mineral precipitation was also included in this model. In this presentation, we focused on the general modelling approach and present the simulation results of nitrate transport simulation in a hypothetical aquifer systems based on data from
Vlagsma, Thialda T; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Dijkstra, Hilde T; Duits, Annelien A; van Laar, Teus; Spikman, Jacoba M
2017-11-01
To determine whether objective (neuropsychological tests) and subjective measures (questionnaires) of executive functions (EFs) are associated in patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and to determine to what extent level of participation and quality of life (QoL) of patients with PD can be predicted by these measures of EFs. Correlational research design (case-control and prediction design). Departments of neuropsychology of 3 medical centers. A sample (N=136) of patients with PD (n=42) and their relatives, and controls without PD (n=94). Not applicable. A test battery measuring EFs. In addition, patients, their relatives, and controls completed the Dysexecutive Questionnaire, Brock Adaptive Functioning Questionnaire, and Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale - time management questionnaires measuring complaints about EFs. Participation and QoL were measured with the Impact on Participation and Autonomy scale and the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39, respectively. Patients with PD showed impairments in EFs on objective tests and reported significantly more complaints about EFs than did controls without PD. No associations were found between patients' performances on objective and subjective measures of EFs. However, both objective and subjective measures predicted patients' level of participation. In addition, subjective measures of EFs predicted QoL in patients with PD. These findings show that objective and subjective measures of EFs are not interchangeable and that both approaches predict level of participation and QoL in patients with PD. However, within this context, sex needs to be taken into account. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Villalba-Morales, Jesús Daniel; Laier, José Elias
2014-01-01
Structural damage detection has become an important research topic in certain segments of the engineering community. These methodologies occasionally formulate an optimization problem by defining an objective function based on dynamic parameters, with metaheuristics used to find the solution. In this study, damage localization and quantification is performed by an Adaptive Differential Evolution algorithm, which solves the associated optimization problem. Furthermore, this paper looks at the ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Satheesh
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The high pressure differential across the wall of pressure vessels is potentially dangerous and has caused many fatal accidents in the history of their development and operation. For this reason the structural integrity of weldments is critical to the performance of pressure vessels. In recent years much research has been conducted to the study of variations in welding parameters and consumables on the mechanical properties of pressure vessel steel weldments to optimize weld integrity and ensure pressure vessels are safe. The quality of weld is a very important working aspect for the manufacturing and construction industries. Because of high quality and reliability, Submerged Arc Welding (SAW is one of the chief metal joining processes employed in industry. This paper addresses the application of desirability function approach combined with fuzzy logic analysis to optimize the multiple quality characteristics (bead reinforcement, bead width, bead penetration and dilution of submerged arc welding process parameters of SA 516 Grade 70 steels(boiler steel. Experiments were conducted using Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array with varying the weld parameters of welding current, arc voltage, welding speed and electrode stickout. By analyzing the response table and response graph of the fuzzy reasoning grade, optimal parameters were obtained. Solutions from this method can be useful for pressure vessel manufacturers and operators to search an optimal solution of welding condition.
Dorband, J. E.
2017-12-01
The D-Wave 2X has successfully been used for regression analysis to derive carbon flux data from OCO-2 CO2 concentration using neural networks. The samples returned from the D-Wave should represent the minimum of an objective function presented to it. An accurate as possible minimum function value is needed for this analysis. Samples from the D-Wave are near minimum, but seldom are the global minimum of the function due to quantum noise. Two methods for improving the accuracy of minimized values represented by the samples returned from the D-Wave are presented. The first method finds a new sample with a minimum value near each returned D-Wave sample. The second method uses all the returned samples to find a more global minimum sample. We present three use-cases performed using the former method. In the first use case, it is demonstrated that an objective function with random qubits and coupler coefficients had an improved minimum. In the second use case, the samples corrected by the first method can improve the training of a Boltzmann machine neural network. The third use case demonstrated that using the first method can improve virtual qubit accuracy.The later method was also performed on the first use case.
Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper
2016-01-01
Objective To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. Methods This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Results Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pperformance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Conclusions The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations. PMID:27560512
Kwon, Yong-Soo; Cho, Young-Nan; Kim, Moon-Ju; Jin, Hye-Mi; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Kang, Jeong-Hwa; Park, Ki-Jeong; Kim, Tae-Jong; Kee, Hae Jin; Kim, Nacksung; Kee, Seung-Jung; Park, Yong-Wook
2015-05-01
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells contribute to protection against certain microorganism infections. The aims of this study were to examine the levels of MAIT cells in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease patients, to evaluate the clinical relevance of MAIT cell levels, and to investigate the functions of MAIT cells. Patients with pulmonary TB (n = 35), NTM (n = 29), and healthy controls (n = 75) were enrolled in the study. MAIT cell levels and functions were measured by flow cytometry. Circluating MAIT cell levels were found to be reduced in TB and NTM patients. MAIT cell deficiency reflects a variety of clinical conditions. In particular, MAIT cell numbers were significantly correlated with sputum AFB positivity, extent of disease, hemoglobin levels, lymphocyte counts, CRP and ESR levels. MAIT cells in TB patients failed to produce interferon-γ irrespective of the mode of stimulation, whereas NTM patients displayed a defect in MR1-dependent signaling pathway. Notably, an elevated expression of programmed death-1 was also associated with MAIT cell deficiency in TB. This study shows that MAIT cells are numerically and functionally deficient in TB and NTM patients and these deficiencies could contribute to immune system dysreguation in mycobacterial infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suheel Abdullah Malik
Full Text Available In this paper, a new heuristic scheme for the approximate solution of the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation is proposed. The scheme is based on the hybridization of Exp-function method with nature inspired algorithm. The given nonlinear partial differential equation (NPDE through substitution is converted into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (NODE. The travelling wave solution is approximated by the Exp-function method with unknown parameters. The unknown parameters are estimated by transforming the NODE into an equivalent global error minimization problem by using a fitness function. The popular genetic algorithm (GA is used to solve the minimization problem, and to achieve the unknown parameters. The proposed scheme is successfully implemented to solve the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation. The comparison of numerical results with the exact solutions, and the solutions obtained using some traditional methods, including adomian decomposition method (ADM, homotopy perturbation method (HPM, and optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM, show that the suggested scheme is fairly accurate and viable for solving such problems.
Malik, Suheel Abdullah; Qureshi, Ijaz Mansoor; Amir, Muhammad; Malik, Aqdas Naveed; Haq, Ihsanul
2015-01-01
In this paper, a new heuristic scheme for the approximate solution of the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation is proposed. The scheme is based on the hybridization of Exp-function method with nature inspired algorithm. The given nonlinear partial differential equation (NPDE) through substitution is converted into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (NODE). The travelling wave solution is approximated by the Exp-function method with unknown parameters. The unknown parameters are estimated by transforming the NODE into an equivalent global error minimization problem by using a fitness function. The popular genetic algorithm (GA) is used to solve the minimization problem, and to achieve the unknown parameters. The proposed scheme is successfully implemented to solve the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation. The comparison of numerical results with the exact solutions, and the solutions obtained using some traditional methods, including adomian decomposition method (ADM), homotopy perturbation method (HPM), and optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM), show that the suggested scheme is fairly accurate and viable for solving such problems.
Improvement of the R-SWAT-FME framework to support multiple variables and multi-objective functions
Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang
2014-01-01
Application of numerical models is a common practice in the environmental field for investigation and prediction of natural and anthropogenic processes. However, process knowledge, parameter identifiability, sensitivity, and uncertainty analyses are still a challenge for large and complex mathematical models such as the hydrological/water quality model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). In this study, the previously developed R program language-SWAT-Flexible Modeling Environment (R-SWAT-FME) was improved to support multiple model variables and objectives at multiple time steps (i.e., daily, monthly, and annually). This expansion is significant because there is usually more than one variable (e.g., water, nutrients, and pesticides) of interest for environmental models like SWAT. To further facilitate its easy use, we also simplified its application requirements without compromising its merits, such as the user-friendly interface. To evaluate the performance of the improved framework, we used a case study focusing on both streamflow and nitrate nitrogen in the Upper Iowa River Basin (above Marengo) in the United States. Results indicated that the R-SWAT-FME performs well and is comparable to the built-in auto-calibration tool in multi-objective model calibration. Overall, the enhanced R-SWAT-FME can be useful for the SWAT community, and the methods we used can also be valuable for wrapping potential R packages with other environmental models.
Dronova, I.; Gong, P.; Wang, L.; Clinton, N.; Fu, W.; Qi, S.
2011-12-01
Remote sensing-based vegetation classifications representing plant function such as photosynthesis and productivity are challenging in wetlands with complex cover and difficult field access. Recent advances in object-based image analysis (OBIA) and machine-learning algorithms offer new classification tools; however, few comparisons of different algorithms and spatial scales have been discussed to date. We applied OBIA to delineate wetland plant functional types (PFTs) for Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China and Ramsar wetland conservation site, from 30-m Landsat TM scene at the peak of spring growing season. We targeted major PFTs (C3 grasses, C3 forbs and different types of C4 grasses and aquatic vegetation) that are both key players in system's biogeochemical cycles and critical providers of waterbird habitat. Classification results were compared among: a) several object segmentation scales (with average object sizes 900-9000 m2); b) several families of statistical classifiers (including Bayesian, Logistic, Neural Network, Decision Trees and Support Vector Machines) and c) two hierarchical levels of vegetation classification, a generalized 3-class set and more detailed 6-class set. We found that classification benefited from object-based approach which allowed including object shape, texture and context descriptors in classification. While a number of classifiers achieved high accuracy at the finest pixel-equivalent segmentation scale, the highest accuracies and best agreement among algorithms occurred at coarser object scales. No single classifier was consistently superior across all scales, although selected algorithms of Neural Network, Logistic and K-Nearest Neighbors families frequently provided the best discrimination of classes at different scales. The choice of vegetation categories also affected classification accuracy. The 6-class set allowed for higher individual class accuracies but lower overall accuracies than the 3-class set because
Choi, Yun Seok
2017-11-15
Full waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the cycle-skipping problem when the available frequency-band of data is not low enough. We apply an exponential damping to the data to generate artificial low frequencies, which helps FWI avoid cycle skipping. In this case, the least-square misfit function does not properly deal with the exponentially damped wavefield in FWI, because the amplitude of traces decays almost exponentially with increasing offset in a damped wavefield. Thus, we use a deconvolution-based objective function for FWI of the exponentially damped wavefield. The deconvolution filter includes inherently a normalization between the modeled and observed data, thus it can address the unbalanced amplitude of a damped wavefield. We, specifically, normalize the modeled data with the observed data in the frequency-domain to estimate the deconvolution filter and selectively choose a frequency-band for normalization that mainly includes the artificial low frequencies. We calculate the gradient of the objective function using the adjoint-state method. The synthetic and benchmark data examples show that our FWI algorithm generates a convergent long wavelength structure without low frequency information in the recorded data.
Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2017-01-01
Full waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the cycle-skipping problem when the available frequency-band of data is not low enough. We apply an exponential damping to the data to generate artificial low frequencies, which helps FWI avoid cycle skipping. In this case, the least-square misfit function does not properly deal with the exponentially damped wavefield in FWI, because the amplitude of traces decays almost exponentially with increasing offset in a damped wavefield. Thus, we use a deconvolution-based objective function for FWI of the exponentially damped wavefield. The deconvolution filter includes inherently a normalization between the modeled and observed data, thus it can address the unbalanced amplitude of a damped wavefield. We, specifically, normalize the modeled data with the observed data in the frequency-domain to estimate the deconvolution filter and selectively choose a frequency-band for normalization that mainly includes the artificial low frequencies. We calculate the gradient of the objective function using the adjoint-state method. The synthetic and benchmark data examples show that our FWI algorithm generates a convergent long wavelength structure without low frequency information in the recorded data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boutilier, J; Chan, T; Lee, T; Craig, T; Sharpe, M
2014-01-01
Purpose: To develop a statistical model that predicts optimization objective function weights from patient geometry for intensity-modulation radiotherapy (IMRT) of prostate cancer. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method (IOM) is applied retrospectively to determine optimal weights for 51 treated patients. We use an overlap volume ratio (OVR) of bladder and rectum for different PTV expansions in order to quantify patient geometry in explanatory variables. Using the optimal weights as ground truth, we develop and train a logistic regression (LR) model to predict the rectum weight and thus the bladder weight. Post hoc, we fix the weights of the left femoral head, right femoral head, and an artificial structure that encourages conformity to the population average while normalizing the bladder and rectum weights accordingly. The population average of objective function weights is used for comparison. Results: The OVR at 0.7cm was found to be the most predictive of the rectum weights. The LR model performance is statistically significant when compared to the population average over a range of clinical metrics including bladder/rectum V53Gy, bladder/rectum V70Gy, and mean voxel dose to the bladder, rectum, CTV, and PTV. On average, the LR model predicted bladder and rectum weights that are both 63% closer to the optimal weights compared to the population average. The treatment plans resulting from the LR weights have, on average, a rectum V70Gy that is 35% closer to the clinical plan and a bladder V70Gy that is 43% closer. Similar results are seen for bladder V54Gy and rectum V54Gy. Conclusion: Statistical modelling from patient anatomy can be used to determine objective function weights in IMRT for prostate cancer. Our method allows the treatment planners to begin the personalization process from an informed starting point, which may lead to more consistent clinical plans and reduce overall planning time
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Boutilier, J; Chan, T; Lee, T [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Craig, T; Sharpe, M [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); The Princess Margaret Cancer Centre - UHN, Toronto, ON (Canada)
2014-06-15
Purpose: To develop a statistical model that predicts optimization objective function weights from patient geometry for intensity-modulation radiotherapy (IMRT) of prostate cancer. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method (IOM) is applied retrospectively to determine optimal weights for 51 treated patients. We use an overlap volume ratio (OVR) of bladder and rectum for different PTV expansions in order to quantify patient geometry in explanatory variables. Using the optimal weights as ground truth, we develop and train a logistic regression (LR) model to predict the rectum weight and thus the bladder weight. Post hoc, we fix the weights of the left femoral head, right femoral head, and an artificial structure that encourages conformity to the population average while normalizing the bladder and rectum weights accordingly. The population average of objective function weights is used for comparison. Results: The OVR at 0.7cm was found to be the most predictive of the rectum weights. The LR model performance is statistically significant when compared to the population average over a range of clinical metrics including bladder/rectum V53Gy, bladder/rectum V70Gy, and mean voxel dose to the bladder, rectum, CTV, and PTV. On average, the LR model predicted bladder and rectum weights that are both 63% closer to the optimal weights compared to the population average. The treatment plans resulting from the LR weights have, on average, a rectum V70Gy that is 35% closer to the clinical plan and a bladder V70Gy that is 43% closer. Similar results are seen for bladder V54Gy and rectum V54Gy. Conclusion: Statistical modelling from patient anatomy can be used to determine objective function weights in IMRT for prostate cancer. Our method allows the treatment planners to begin the personalization process from an informed starting point, which may lead to more consistent clinical plans and reduce overall planning time.
McLelland, Victoria C.; Chan, David; Ferber, Susanne; Barense, Morgan D.
2014-01-01
Recent research suggests that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is involved in perception as well as in declarative memory. Amnesic patients with focal MTL lesions and semantic dementia patients showed perceptual deficits when discriminating faces and objects. Interestingly, these two patient groups showed different profiles of impairment for familiar and unfamiliar stimuli. For MTL amnesics, the use of familiar relative to unfamiliar stimuli improved discrimination performance. By contrast, patients with semantic dementia—a neurodegenerative condition associated with anterolateral temporal lobe damage—showed no such facilitation from familiar stimuli. Given that the two patient groups had highly overlapping patterns of damage to the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus, and temporal pole, the neuroanatomical substrates underlying their performance discrepancy were unclear. Here, we addressed this question with a multivariate reanalysis of the data presented by Barense et al. (2011), using functional connectivity to examine how stimulus familiarity affected the broader networks with which the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus, and temporal poles interact. In this study, healthy participants were scanned while they performed an odd-one-out perceptual task involving familiar and novel faces or objects. Seed-based analyses revealed that functional connectivity of the right perirhinal cortex and right anterior hippocampus was modulated by the degree of stimulus familiarity. For familiar relative to unfamiliar faces and objects, both right perirhinal cortex and right anterior hippocampus showed enhanced functional correlations with anterior/lateral temporal cortex, temporal pole, and medial/lateral parietal cortex. These findings suggest that in order to benefit from stimulus familiarity, it is necessary to engage not only the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus, but also a network of regions known to represent semantic information. PMID:24624075
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. C. Demirel
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Satellite-based earth observations offer great opportunities to improve spatial model predictions by means of spatial-pattern-oriented model evaluations. In this study, observed spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration (AET are utilised for spatial model calibration tailored to target the pattern performance of the model. The proposed calibration framework combines temporally aggregated observed spatial patterns with a new spatial performance metric and a flexible spatial parameterisation scheme. The mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM is used to simulate streamflow and AET and has been selected due to its soil parameter distribution approach based on pedo-transfer functions and the build in multi-scale parameter regionalisation. In addition two new spatial parameter distribution options have been incorporated in the model in order to increase the flexibility of root fraction coefficient and potential evapotranspiration correction parameterisations, based on soil type and vegetation density. These parameterisations are utilised as they are most relevant for simulated AET patterns from the hydrologic model. Due to the fundamental challenges encountered when evaluating spatial pattern performance using standard metrics, we developed a simple but highly discriminative spatial metric, i.e. one comprised of three easily interpretable components measuring co-location, variation and distribution of the spatial data. The study shows that with flexible spatial model parameterisation used in combination with the appropriate objective functions, the simulated spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration become substantially more similar to the satellite-based estimates. Overall 26 parameters are identified for calibration through a sequential screening approach based on a combination of streamflow and spatial pattern metrics. The robustness of the calibrations is tested using an ensemble of nine calibrations based on different seed numbers using the
Demirel, Mehmet C.; Mai, Juliane; Mendiguren, Gorka; Koch, Julian; Samaniego, Luis; Stisen, Simon
2018-02-01
Satellite-based earth observations offer great opportunities to improve spatial model predictions by means of spatial-pattern-oriented model evaluations. In this study, observed spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration (AET) are utilised for spatial model calibration tailored to target the pattern performance of the model. The proposed calibration framework combines temporally aggregated observed spatial patterns with a new spatial performance metric and a flexible spatial parameterisation scheme. The mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM) is used to simulate streamflow and AET and has been selected due to its soil parameter distribution approach based on pedo-transfer functions and the build in multi-scale parameter regionalisation. In addition two new spatial parameter distribution options have been incorporated in the model in order to increase the flexibility of root fraction coefficient and potential evapotranspiration correction parameterisations, based on soil type and vegetation density. These parameterisations are utilised as they are most relevant for simulated AET patterns from the hydrologic model. Due to the fundamental challenges encountered when evaluating spatial pattern performance using standard metrics, we developed a simple but highly discriminative spatial metric, i.e. one comprised of three easily interpretable components measuring co-location, variation and distribution of the spatial data. The study shows that with flexible spatial model parameterisation used in combination with the appropriate objective functions, the simulated spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration become substantially more similar to the satellite-based estimates. Overall 26 parameters are identified for calibration through a sequential screening approach based on a combination of streamflow and spatial pattern metrics. The robustness of the calibrations is tested using an ensemble of nine calibrations based on different seed numbers using the shuffled complex
Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper
2016-01-01
To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pmotor skills (all Pmotor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations.
Object-based warping: an illusory distortion of space within objects.
Vickery, Timothy J; Chun, Marvin M
2010-12-01
Visual objects are high-level primitives that are fundamental to numerous perceptual functions, such as guidance of attention. We report that objects warp visual perception of space in such a way that spatial distances within objects appear to be larger than spatial distances in ground regions. When two dots were placed inside a rectangular object, they appeared farther apart from one another than two dots with identical spacing outside of the object. To investigate whether this effect was object based, we measured the distortion while manipulating the structure surrounding the dots. Object displays were constructed with a single object, multiple objects, a partially occluded object, and an illusory object. Nonobject displays were constructed to be comparable to object displays in low-level visual attributes. In all cases, the object displays resulted in a more powerful distortion of spatial perception than comparable non-object-based displays. These results suggest that perception of space within objects is warped.
Peroz, Roshan; Holmström, Mats; Mani, Maria
2017-05-01
The present study aimed to evaluate the potential correlations between objective measurements of nasal function and self-assessed nasal symptoms or clinical findings at nasal examination among adults treated for unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), respectively. All UCLP patients born between 1960 and 1987 (n = 109) treated at a tertiary referring center were invited. Participation rate was 76% (n = 83) at a mean of 37 years after the initial surgery. All participants completed the same study protocol including acoustic rhinometry (AR), rhinomanometry (RM), anterior rhinoscopy, and questionnaires regarding self-experienced nasal symptoms. A reduced volume of the anterior nasal cavity on the operated side (measured by AR) correlated to an expressed wish by the patient to change the function of the nose. A similar correlation was seen for the minimal cross-sectional area of anterior nasal cavity on the operated side. Furthermore, correlations were found between smaller volume and area of nasal cavity and a greater frequency of nasal obstruction. No further correlations were found. Objective measurements partly correlate to the clinical picture among adults treated for UCLP. However, these need to be combined with findings at clinical examination and patient self-assessment to represent the complete clinical picture. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Habay, T; Majzoub, S; Perrault, O; Rousseau, C; Pisella, P J
2014-03-01
To assess the functional impact of the severity of dry eye on the quality of vision by measuring an Objective Scatter Index (OSI) using double pass aberrometry. Twenty-eight patients (56 eyes) with dry eye syndromes of varying severity participated in this study. A double-pass aberrometer was used to measure the dynamic changes in the OSI for 20 seconds. The mean and standard deviations of the OSI and the number of blinks occurring during the examination were compared as a function of the clinical severity of dry eye disease. The mean OSI increased with the severity of dry eye syndrome with a significant difference for stages 3 (P0.8) or visual acuity (P>0.2). Standard deviation of the OSI also increased with the severity of dry eye disease, with a significant difference for stages 3 (P0.2). The values of the OSI standard deviation represented the dynamic nature of aberrometric changes related to the instability of the tear film. Quality of vision of patients deteriorated in relation to the severity of their dry eye. The analysis of OSI standard deviation appears to be an objective way to assess the intensity of subjective visual disturbances reported by patients with dry eye syndrome. It also provides a new tool to assess the severity of damage to the ocular surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Matsumoto, Naoya; Okazaki, Shigetoshi; Takamoto, Hisayoshi; Inoue, Takashi; Terakawa, Susumu
2014-02-01
We propose a method for high precision modulation of the pupil function of a microscope objective lens to improve the performance of multifocal multi-photon microscopy (MMM). To modulate the pupil function, we adopt a spatial light modulator (SLM) and place it at the conjugate position of the objective lens. The SLM can generate an arbitrary number of spots to excite the multiple fluorescence spots (MFS) at the desired positions and intensities by applying an appropriate computer-generated hologram (CGH). This flexibility allows us to control the MFS according to the photobleaching level of a fluorescent protein and phototoxicity of a specimen. However, when a large number of excitation spots are generated, the intensity distribution of the MFS is significantly different from the one originally designed due to misalignment of the optical setup and characteristics of the SLM. As a result, the image of a specimen obtained using laser scanning for the MFS has block noise segments because the SLM could not generate a uniform MFS. To improve the intensity distribution of the MFS, we adaptively redesigned the CGH based on the observed MFS. We experimentally demonstrate an improvement in the uniformity of a 10 × 10 MFS grid using a dye solution. The simplicity of the proposed method will allow it to be applied for calibration of MMM before observing living tissue. After the MMM calibration, we performed laser scanning with two-photon excitation to observe a real specimen without detecting block noise segments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1982-03-01
The NWTS-33 series, of which this document is a part, provides guidance for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program in the development and implementation of licensed mined geologic disposal systems for solidified high-level and TRU wastes. Program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria are found in this document. At the present time final criteria have not been issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The criteria in these documents have been developed on the basis of DOE's judgment of what is required to protect the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. It is expected that these criteria will be consistent with regulatory standards. The criteria will be re-evaluated on a periodic basis to ensure that they remain consistent with national waste management policy and regulatory requirements. A re-evaluation will be made when final criteria are promulgated by the NRC and EPA. A background section that briefly describes the mined geologic disposal system and explains the hierarchy and application of the NWTS criteria is included in Section 2.0. Secton 3.0 presents the program objectives, Section 4.0 functional requirements, Secton 5.0 the system performance criteria, and Section 6.0 quality assurance and standards. A draft of this document was issued for public comment in April 1981. Appendix A contains the DOE responses to the comments received. Appendix B is a glossary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin-del-Campo, C.; Francois, J.L.; Barragan, A.M.; Palomera, M.A.
2005-01-01
In this paper we develop a methodology based on the use of the Fuzzy Logic technique to build multi-objective functions to be used in optimization processes applied to in-core nuclear fuel management. As an example, we selected the problem of determining optimal radial fuel enrichment and gadolinia distributions in a typical 'Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)' fuel lattice. The methodology is based on the use of the mathematical capability of Fuzzy Logic to model nonlinear functions of arbitrary complexity. The utility of Fuzzy Logic is to map an input space into an output space, and the primary mechanism for doing this is a list of if-then statements called rules. The rules refer to variables and adjectives that describe those variables and, the Fuzzy Logic technique interprets the values in the input vectors and, based on the set of rules assigns values to the output vector. The methodology was developed for the radial optimization of a BWR lattice where the optimization algorithm employed is Tabu Search. The global objective is to find the optimal distribution of enrichments and burnable poison concentrations in a 10*10 BWR lattice. In order to do that, a fuzzy control inference system was developed using the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox of Matlab and it has been linked to the Tabu Search optimization process. Results show that Tabu Search combined with Fuzzy Logic performs very well, obtaining lattices with optimal fuel utilization. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silvia Pancani
Full Text Available Neck muscle weakness and head drop are well recognised in patients with Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, but an objective characterisation of the consequent head movement impairment is lacking. The aim of this study was to quantitatively characterise head movements in ALS compared to aged matched controls.We evaluated two groups, one of thirteen patients with ALS and one of thirteen age-matched controls, during the execution of a series of controlled head movements, performed while wearing two inertial sensors attached on the forehead and sternum, respectively. We quantified the differences between the two groups from the sensor data using indices of velocity, smoothness and movement coupling (intended as a measure of undesired out of plane movements.Results confirmed a general limitation in the ability of the ALS patients to perform and control head movements. High inter-patient variability was observed due to a wide range of observed functional impairment levels. The ability to extend the head backward and flex it laterally were the most compromised, with significantly lower angular velocity (P 0.8, reduced smoothness and greater presence of coupled movements with respect to the controls. A significant reduction of angular velocity (P 0.8 in extension, axial rotation and lateral flexion was observed when patients were asked to perform the movements as fast as possible.This pilot study is the first study providing a functional objective quantification of head movements in ALS. Further work involving different body areas and correlation with existing methods of evaluating neuromuscular function, such as dynamometry and EMG, is needed to explore the use of this approach as a marker of disease progression in ALS.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Svend Sparre Geertsen
Full Text Available To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests.This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls. Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C. Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension.Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all P<0.001, whereas exercise capacity was only associated with better sustained attention (P<0.046 and spatial working memory (P<0.038. Fine and gross motor skills (all P<0.001, exercise capacity and cognitive functions such as working memory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading comprehension.The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gagne, Nolan L.; Leonard, Kara L.; Rivard, Mark J.
2012-01-01
Purpose: Clinical optimization of Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) eye plaque brachytherapy is currently limited to tumor coverage, consensus prescription dosage, and dose calculations to ocular structures. The biologically effective dose (BED) of temporary brachytherapy treatments is a function of both chosen radionuclide R and implant duration T. This study endeavored to evaluate BED delivered to the tumor volume and surrounding ocular structures as a function of plaque position P, prescription dose, R, and T. Methods: Plaque-heterogeneity-corrected dose distributions were generated with MCNP5 for the range of currently available COMS plaques loaded with sources using three available low-energy radionuclides. These physical dose distributions were imported into the PINNACLE 3 treatment planning system using the TG-43 hybrid technique and used to generate dose volume histograms for a T = 7 day implant within a reference eye geometry including the ciliary body, cornea, eyelid, foveola, lacrimal gland, lens, optic disc, optic nerve, retina, and tumor at eight standard treatment positions. The equation of Dale and Jones was employed to create biologically effective dose volume histograms (BEDVHs), allowing for BED volumetric analysis of all ROIs. Isobiologically effective prescription doses were calculated for T = 5 days down to 0.01 days, with BEDVHs subsequently generated for all ROIs using correspondingly reduced prescription doses. Objective functions were created to evaluate the BEDVHs as a function of R and T. These objective functions are mathematically accessible and sufficiently general to be applied to temporary or permanent brachytherapy implants for a variety of disease sites. Results: Reducing T from 7 to 0.01 days for a 10 mm plaque produced an average BED benefit of 26%, 20%, and 17% for 103 Pd, 125 I, and 131 Cs, respectively, for all P; 16 and 22 mm plaque results were more position-dependent. 103 Pd produced a 16%–35% BED benefit over
Paul, M.; Negahban-Azar, M.
2017-12-01
The hydrologic models usually need to be calibrated against observed streamflow at the outlet of a particular drainage area through a careful model calibration. However, a large number of parameters are required to fit in the model due to their unavailability of the field measurement. Therefore, it is difficult to calibrate the model for a large number of potential uncertain model parameters. This even becomes more challenging if the model is for a large watershed with multiple land uses and various geophysical characteristics. Sensitivity analysis (SA) can be used as a tool to identify most sensitive model parameters which affect the calibrated model performance. There are many different calibration and uncertainty analysis algorithms which can be performed with different objective functions. By incorporating sensitive parameters in streamflow simulation, effects of the suitable algorithm in improving model performance can be demonstrated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) modeling. In this study, the SWAT was applied in the San Joaquin Watershed in California covering 19704 km2 to calibrate the daily streamflow. Recently, sever water stress escalating due to intensified climate variability, prolonged drought and depleting groundwater for agricultural irrigation in this watershed. Therefore it is important to perform a proper uncertainty analysis given the uncertainties inherent in hydrologic modeling to predict the spatial and temporal variation of the hydrologic process to evaluate the impacts of different hydrologic variables. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and uncertainty of the calibrated parameters for predicting streamflow. To evaluate the sensitivity of the calibrated parameters three different optimization algorithms (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting- SUFI-2, Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation- GLUE and Parameter Solution- ParaSol) were used with four different objective functions (coefficient of determination
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Bosov
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets
Koneva, M. S.; Rudenko, O. V.; Usatikov, S. V.; Bugayets, N. A.; Tamova, M. Yu; Fedorova, M. A.
2018-05-01
The increase in the efficiency of the "numerical" technology for solving computational problems of parametric optimization of the technological process of hydroponic germination of wheat grains is considered. In this situation, the quality criteria are contradictory and a part of them is given by implicit functions of many variables. One of the main stages, soaking, determining the time and quality of germinated wheat grain is studied, when grain receives the required amount of moisture and air oxygen for germination and subsequently accumulates enzymes. A solution algorithm for this problem is suggested implemented by means of software packages Statistica v.10 and MathCAD v.15. The use of the proposed mathematical models describing the processes of hydroponic soaking of spring soft wheat varieties made it possible to determine optimal conditions of germination. The results of investigations show that the type of aquatic environment used for soaking has a great influence on the process of water absorption, especially the chemical composition of the germinated material. The use of the anolyte of electrochemically activated water (ECHA-water) intensifies the process from 5.83 to 4 hours for wheat variety «Altayskaya 105» and from 13 to 8.8 hours - for «Pobla Runo».
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dey, Prasenjit; Dad, Ajoy K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Agartala (India)
2016-12-15
The present study aims to predict the heat transfer characteristics around a square cylinder with different corner radii using multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS). Further, the MARS-generated objective function is optimized by particle swarm optimization. The data for the prediction are taken from the recently published article by the present authors [P. Dey, A. Sarkar, A.K. Das, Development of GEP and ANN model to predict the unsteady forced convection over a cylinder, Neural Comput. Appl. (2015). Further, the MARS model is compared with artificial neural network and gene expression programming. It has been found that the MARS model is very efficient in predicting the heat transfer characteristics. It has also been found that MARS is more efficient than artificial neural network and gene expression programming in predicting the forced convection data, and also particle swarm optimization can efficiently optimize the heat transfer rate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narvaez R, Paulo Cesar; Galeano P, Haiver
2002-01-01
Optimal design problem of liquid distribution systems has been viewed as the selection of pipe sizes and pumps, which will minimize overall costs, accomplishing the flow and pressure constraints. There is a set of methods for least cost design of liquids distribution networks (6). In the last years, some of them have been studied broadly: linear programming (1, 4, 5, 7], non-linear programming [8, 9], and genetic algorithms (3, 10, 13). This paper describes the development of a cost equation and the objective function for liquid distribution networks that together to the mathematical model and the solution method of the flow problem developed by Narvaez (11), were used by in a computer model that involves the application of an genetic algorithm to the problem of least cost design of liquids distribution networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhigalov Kirill
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This article is devoted to the integration of cloud technology functions into 3D IP video surveil-lance systems in order to conduct further video Analytics, incoming real-time data, as well as stored video materials on the server in the «cloud». The main attention is devoted to «cloud technologies» usage optimizing the process of recognition of the desired object by increasing the criteria of flexibility and scalability of the system. Transferring image load from the client to the cloud server, to the virtual part of the system. The development of the issues considered in the article in terms of data analysis, which will significantly improve the effectiveness of the implementation of special tasks facing special units.
Hitt, Fernando; Morasse, Christian
2009-01-01
Introduction: In this document we stress the importance of developing in children a structure for advanced numerical-algebraic thinking that can provide an element of control when solving mathematical situations. We analyze pupils' conceptions that induce errors in algebra due to a lack of control in connection with their numerical thinking. We…
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Yuji Tsutsui
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Objective(s: We evaluated edge artifacts in relation to phantom diameter and reconstruction parameters in point spread function (PSF-based positron emission tomography (PET image reconstruction.Methods: PET data were acquired from an original cone-shaped phantom filled with 18F solution (21.9 kBq/mL for 10 min using a Biograph mCT scanner. The images were reconstructed using the baseline ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM algorithm and the OSEM with PSF correction model. The reconstruction parameters included a pixel size of 1.0, 2.0, or 3.0 mm, 1-12 iterations, 24 subsets, and a full width at half maximum (FWHM of the post-filter Gaussian filter of 1.0, 2.0, or 3.0 mm. We compared both the maximum recovery coefficient (RCmax and the mean recovery coefficient (RCmean in the phantom at different diameters.Results: The OSEM images had no edge artifacts, but the OSEM with PSF images had a dense edge delineating the hot phantom at diameters 10 mm or more and a dense spot at the center at diameters of 8 mm or less. The dense edge was clearly observed on images with a small pixel size, a Gaussian filter with a small FWHM, and a high number of iterations. At a phantom diameter of 6-7 mm, the RCmax for the OSEM and OSEM with PSF images was 60% and 140%, respectively (pixel size: 1.0 mm; FWHM of the Gaussian filter: 2.0 mm; iterations: 2. The RCmean of the OSEM with PSF images did not exceed 100%.Conclusion: PSF-based image reconstruction resulted in edge artifacts, the degree of which depends on the pixel size, number of iterations, FWHM of the Gaussian filter, and object size.
Zavaglia, Melissa; Hilgetag, Claus C
2016-06-01
Spatial attention is a prime example for the distributed network functions of the brain. Lesion studies in animal models have been used to investigate intact attentional mechanisms as well as perspectives for rehabilitation in the injured brain. Here, we systematically analyzed behavioral data from cooling deactivation and permanent lesion experiments in the cat, where unilateral deactivation of the posterior parietal cortex (in the vicinity of the posterior middle suprasylvian cortex, pMS) or the superior colliculus (SC) cause a severe neglect in the contralateral hemifield. Counterintuitively, additional deactivation of structures in the opposite hemisphere reverses the deficit. Using such lesion data, we employed a game-theoretical approach, multi-perturbation Shapley value analysis (MSA), for inferring functional contributions and network interactions of bilateral pMS and SC from behavioral performance in visual attention studies. The approach provides an objective theoretical strategy for lesion inferences and allows a unique quantitative characterization of regional functional contributions and interactions on the basis of multi-perturbations. The quantitative analysis demonstrated that right posterior parietal cortex and superior colliculus made the strongest positive contributions to left-field orienting, while left brain regions had negative contributions, implying that their perturbation may reverse the effects of contralateral lesions or improve normal function. An analysis of functional modulations and interactions among the regions revealed redundant interactions (implying functional overlap) between regions within each hemisphere, and synergistic interactions between bilateral regions. To assess the reliability of the MSA method in the face of variable and incomplete input data, we performed a sensitivity analysis, investigating how much the contribution values of the four regions depended on the performance of specific configurations and on the
Extensible numerical library in JAVA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aso, T.; Okazawa, H.; Takashimizu, N.
2001-01-01
The authors present the current status of the project for developing the numerical library in JAVA. The authors have presented how object-oriented techniques improve usage and also development of numerical libraries compared with the conventional way at previous conference. The authors need many functions for data analysis which is not provided within JAVA language, for example, good random number generators, special functions and so on. Authors' development strategy is focused on easiness of implementation and adding new features by users themselves not only by developers. In HPC field, there are other focus efforts to develop numerical libraries in JAVA. However, their focus is on the performance of execution, not easiness of extension. Following the strategy, the authors have designed and implemented more classes for random number generators and so on
Akter, Rashida; Jeong, Bongjin; Choi, Jong-Soon; Rahman, Md Aminur
2016-06-15
An ultrasensitive electrochemical nanostructured immunosensor for a breast cancer biomarker carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) was fabricated using non-covalent functionalized graphene oxides (GO/Py-COOH) as sensor probe and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs)-supported numerous ferritin as labels. The immunosensor was constructed by immobilizing a monoclonal anti-CA 15-3 antibody on the GO modified cysteamine (Cys) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on an Au electrode (Au/Cys) through the amide bond formation between the carboxylic acid groups of GO/Py-COOH and amine groups of anti-CA 15-3. Secondary antibody conjugated MWCNT-supported ferritin labels (Ab2-MWCNT-Ferritin) were prepared through the amide bond formation between amine groups of Ab2 and ferritin and carboxylic acid groups of MWCNTs. The detection of CA 15-3 was based on the enhanced bioelectrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide mediated by hydroquinone (HQ) at the GO/Py-COOH-based sensor probe. The GO/Py-COOH-based sensor probe and Ab2-MWCNT-Ferritin labels were characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique, CA 15-3 can be selectively detected as low as 0.01 ± 0.07 U/mL in human serum samples. Additionally, the proposed CA 15-3 immunosensor showed excellent selectivity and better stability in human serum samples, which demonstrated that the proposed immunosensor has potentials in proteomic researches and diagnostics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stienen, Martin N; Smoll, Nicolas R; Joswig, Holger; Snagowski, Jan; Corniola, Marco V; Schaller, Karl; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Gautschi, Oliver P
2017-06-01
The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test has recently been proposed as a simple and standardized measure for objective functional impairment (OFI) in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD). The study aimed to explore the relationship between a patient's mental health status and both patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and TUG test results. This is a prospective institutional review board-approved two-center study. The sample was composed of 375 consecutive patients scheduled for lumbar spine surgery and a healthy cohort of 110 control subjects. Patients and control subjects were assessed with the TUG test and a comprehensive panel of subjective PROMs of pain intensity (visual analog scale [VAS]), functional impairment (Roland-Morris Disability Index [RMDI]), Oswestry Disability Index [ODI]), as well as health-related quality of life (hrQoL; Euro-Qol [EQ]-5D). Standardized age- and sex-adjusted TUG test T-scores were calculated. The dependent variable was the short-form (SF)-12 mental component summary (MCS) quartiles, and the independent variables were the TUG T-scores and PROMs. Direct and adjusted analyses of covariance were performed to estimate the interaction between the SF-12 MCS quartiles and the independent variables. In patients, there was a significant decrease in the subjective PROMs, notably the VAS back pain (p=.001) and VAS leg pain (p=.035), as well as significant increase in the RMDI (pmental hrQoL on subjective measures of pain, functional impairment, and hrQoL that might lead to bias when evaluating patients with lumbar DDD who suffer from reduced mental hrQoL. The TUG test appears to be a stable instrument and especially helpful in the evaluation of patients with lumbar DDD and mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostroun, V.O.
1980-01-01
Theoretical expressions for the angular and spectral distributions of synchrotron radiation involve modified Bessel functions of fractional order and the integral ∫sup(infinitely)sub(x)Ksub(ν)(eta)d eta. A simple series expression for these quantities which can be evaluated numerically with hand-held programmable calculators is presented. (orig.)
Liu, Qingshan; Wang, Jun
2011-04-01
This paper presents a one-layer recurrent neural network for solving a class of constrained nonsmooth optimization problems with piecewise-linear objective functions. The proposed neural network is guaranteed to be globally convergent in finite time to the optimal solutions under a mild condition on a derived lower bound of a single gain parameter in the model. The number of neurons in the neural network is the same as the number of decision variables of the optimization problem. Compared with existing neural networks for optimization, the proposed neural network has a couple of salient features such as finite-time convergence and a low model complexity. Specific models for two important special cases, namely, linear programming and nonsmooth optimization, are also presented. In addition, applications to the shortest path problem and constrained least absolute deviation problem are discussed with simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness and characteristics of the proposed neural network.
Chu, Chung-Shiang; Sun, I-Wen; Begum, Aysha; Liu, Shen-Ing; Chang, Ching-Jui; Chiu, Wei-Che; Chen, Chin-Hsin; Tang, Hwang-Shen; Yang, Chia-Li; Lin, Ying-Chin; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Stewart, Robert
2017-01-01
The goal of this study is to investigate associations between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive performance in older people with previous major depression-a high-risk sample for cognitive impairment and later dementia. A cross-sectional study was carried out in people aged 60 or over with previous major depression but not fulfilling current major depression criteria according to DSM-IV-TR. People with dementia or Mini-Mental State Examination score less than 17 were excluded. Subjective memory complaint was defined on the basis of a score ≧4 on the subscale of Geriatric Mental State schedule, a maximum score of 8. Older people aged equal or over 60 without any psychiatric diagnosis were enrolled as healthy controls. Cognitive function was evaluated using a series of cognitive tests assessing verbal memory, attention/speed, visuospatial function, verbal fluency, and cognitive flexibility in all participants. One hundred and thirteen older people with previous major depression and forty-six healthy controls were enrolled. Subjective memory complaint was present in more than half of the participants with depression history (55.8%). Among those with major depression history, subjective memory complaint was associated with lower total immediate recall and delayed verbal recall scores after adjustment. The associations between subjective memory complaint and worse memory performance were stronger in participants with lower depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scorememory complaint may be a valid appraisal of memory performance in older people with previous major depression and consideration should be given to more proactive assessment and follow-up in these clinical samples.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chung-Shiang Chu
Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate associations between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive performance in older people with previous major depression-a high-risk sample for cognitive impairment and later dementia. A cross-sectional study was carried out in people aged 60 or over with previous major depression but not fulfilling current major depression criteria according to DSM-IV-TR. People with dementia or Mini-Mental State Examination score less than 17 were excluded. Subjective memory complaint was defined on the basis of a score ≧4 on the subscale of Geriatric Mental State schedule, a maximum score of 8. Older people aged equal or over 60 without any psychiatric diagnosis were enrolled as healthy controls. Cognitive function was evaluated using a series of cognitive tests assessing verbal memory, attention/speed, visuospatial function, verbal fluency, and cognitive flexibility in all participants. One hundred and thirteen older people with previous major depression and forty-six healthy controls were enrolled. Subjective memory complaint was present in more than half of the participants with depression history (55.8%. Among those with major depression history, subjective memory complaint was associated with lower total immediate recall and delayed verbal recall scores after adjustment. The associations between subjective memory complaint and worse memory performance were stronger in participants with lower depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score<7. The results suggest subjective memory complaint may be a valid appraisal of memory performance in older people with previous major depression and consideration should be given to more proactive assessment and follow-up in these clinical samples.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yibo Chen
2015-08-01
Full Text Available In recent years, IoT (Internet of Things technologies have seen great advances, particularly, the IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks (RPL, which provides a powerful and flexible routing framework that can be applied in a variety of application scenarios. In this context, as an important role of IoT, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs can utilize RPL to design efficient routing protocols for a specific application to increase the ubiquity of networks with resource-constrained WSN nodes that are low-cost and easy to deploy. In this article, our work starts with the description of Agricultural Low-power and Lossy Networks (A-LLNs complying with the LLN framework, and to clarify the requirements of this application-oriented routing solution. After a brief review of existing optimization techniques for RPL, our contribution is dedicated to a Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF that can adapt RPL to the environmental monitoring of A-LLNs, through combining energy-aware, reliability-aware, robustness-aware and resource-aware contexts according to the composite routing metrics approach. The correct behavior of this enhanced RPL version (RPAL was verified by performance evaluations on both simulation and field tests. The obtained experimental results confirm that SCAOF can deliver the desired advantages on network lifetime extension, and high reliability and efficiency in different simulation scenarios and hardware testbeds.
Chen, Yibo; Chanet, Jean-Pierre; Hou, Kun-Mean; Shi, Hongling; de Sousa, Gil
2015-08-10
In recent years, IoT (Internet of Things) technologies have seen great advances, particularly, the IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks (RPL), which provides a powerful and flexible routing framework that can be applied in a variety of application scenarios. In this context, as an important role of IoT, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can utilize RPL to design efficient routing protocols for a specific application to increase the ubiquity of networks with resource-constrained WSN nodes that are low-cost and easy to deploy. In this article, our work starts with the description of Agricultural Low-power and Lossy Networks (A-LLNs) complying with the LLN framework, and to clarify the requirements of this application-oriented routing solution. After a brief review of existing optimization techniques for RPL, our contribution is dedicated to a Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF) that can adapt RPL to the environmental monitoring of A-LLNs, through combining energy-aware, reliability-aware, robustness-aware and resource-aware contexts according to the composite routing metrics approach. The correct behavior of this enhanced RPL version (RPAL) was verified by performance evaluations on both simulation and field tests. The obtained experimental results confirm that SCAOF can deliver the desired advantages on network lifetime extension, and high reliability and efficiency in different simulation scenarios and hardware testbeds.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krasnenko, V.; Boltrushko, V.; Hizhnyakov, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi Str 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)
2016-04-07
Chemically bound states of benzene molecules with graphene are studied both analytically and numerically. The states are formed by switching off intrabonds of π-electrons in C{sub 6} rings to interbonds. A number of different undistorted and distorted structures are established both with aligned and with transversal mutual orientation of benzene and graphene. The vibronic interactions causing distortions of bound states are found, by using a combination of analytical and numerical considerations. This allows one to determine all electronic transitions of π-electrons without explicit numerical calculations of excited states, to find the conical intersections of potentials, and to show that the mechanism of distortions is the pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect. It is found that the aligned distorted benzene molecule placed between two graphene sheets makes a chemical bond with both of them, which may be used for fastening of graphene sheets together.
Estévez-López, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412501031; Álvarez-Gallardo, I.C.; Segura-Jiménez, V.; Soriano-Maldonado, A.; Borges-Cosic, M; Pulido-Martos, M.; Aparicio, V.A.; Carbonell-Baeza, A.; Delgado-Fernández, M.; Geenen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/087017571
2018-01-01
Purpose: People with fibromyalgia experience a disagreement between patient-reported (i.e., subjective) and performance-based (i.e., objective) status. This study aimed to (i) corroborate the discordance between subjectively and objectively measured physical function and (ii) examine whether
van der Werf-Eldering, Marieke J.; Burger, Huibert; Jabben, Nienke; Holthausen, Esther A. E.; Aleman, Andre; Nolen, Willem A.
Objectives: To investigate the association between cognitive complaints and objective cognitive functioning in bipolar patients, with a focus on the moderating role of depressive symptoms. Methods: The association between cognitive complaints (measured by the total score and four subscales of the
Georgopoulos, A P; Whang, K; Georgopoulos, M A; Tagaris, G A; Amirikian, B; Richter, W; Kim, S G; Uğurbil, K
2001-01-01
We studied the brain activation patterns in two visual image processing tasks requiring judgements on object construction (FIT task) or object sameness (SAME task). Eight right-handed healthy human subjects (four women and four men) performed the two tasks in a randomized block design while 5-mm, multislice functional images of the whole brain were acquired using a 4-tesla system using blood oxygenation dependent (BOLD) activation. Pairs of objects were picked randomly from a set of 25 oriented fragments of a square and presented to the subjects approximately every 5 sec. In the FIT task, subjects had to indicate, by pushing one of two buttons, whether the two fragments could match to form a perfect square, whereas in the SAME task they had to decide whether they were the same or not. In a control task, preceding and following each of the two tasks above, a single square was presented at the same rate and subjects pushed any of the two keys at random. Functional activation maps were constructed based on a combination of conservative criteria. The areas with activated pixels were identified using Talairach coordinates and anatomical landmarks, and the number of activated pixels was determined for each area. Altogether, 379 pixels were activated. The counts of activated pixels did not differ significantly between the two tasks or between the two genders. However, there were significantly more activated pixels in the left (n = 218) than the right side of the brain (n = 161). Of the 379 activated pixels, 371 were located in the cerebral cortex. The Talairach coordinates of these pixels were analyzed with respect to their overall distribution in the two tasks. These distributions differed significantly between the two tasks. With respect to individual dimensions, the two tasks differed significantly in the anterior--posterior and superior--inferior distributions but not in the left--right (including mediolateral, within the left or right side) distribution. Specifically
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wells, Jered R.; Dobbins, James T. III
2012-01-01
Purpose: The modulation transfer function (MTF) of medical imaging devices is commonly reported in the form of orthogonal one-dimensional (1D) measurements made near the vertical and horizontal axes with a slit or edge test device. A more complete description is found by measuring the two-dimensional (2D) MTF. Some 2D test devices have been proposed, but there are some issues associated with their use: (1) they are not generally available; (2) they may require many images; (3) the results may have diminished accuracy; and (4) their implementation may be particularly cumbersome. This current work proposes the application of commonly available 1D test devices for practical and accurate estimation of the 2D presampled MTF of digital imaging systems. Methods: Theory was developed and applied to ensure adequate fine sampling of the system line spread function for 1D test devices at orientations other than approximately vertical and horizontal. Methods were also derived and tested for slit nonuniformity correction at arbitrary angle. Techniques were validated with experimental measurements at ten angles using an edge test object and three angles using a slit test device on an indirect-detection flat-panel system [GE Revolution XQ/i (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI)]. The 2D MTF was estimated through a simple surface fit with interpolation based on Delaunay triangulation of the 1D edge-based MTF measurements. Validation by synthesis was also performed with simulated images from a hypothetical direct-detection flat-panel device. Results: The 2D MTF derived from physical measurements yielded an average relative precision error of 0.26% for frequencies below the cutoff (2.5 mm −1 ) and approximate circular symmetry at frequencies below 4 mm −1 . While slit analysis generally agreed with the results of edge analysis, the two showed subtle differences at frequencies above 4 mm −1 . Slit measurement near 45° revealed radial asymmetry in the MTF resulting from the square
Wisneski, Kimberly J; Johnson, Michelle J
2007-03-23
Robotic therapy is at the forefront of stroke rehabilitation. The Activities of Daily Living Exercise Robot (ADLER) was developed to improve carryover of gains after training by combining the benefits of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) training (motivation and functional task practice with real objects), with the benefits of robot mediated therapy (repeatability and reliability). In combining these two therapy techniques, we seek to develop a new model for trajectory generation that will support functional movements to real objects during robot training. We studied natural movements to real objects and report on how initial reaching movements are affected by real objects and how these movements deviate from the straight line paths predicted by the minimum jerk model, typically used to generate trajectories in robot training environments. We highlight key issues that to be considered in modelling natural trajectories. Movement data was collected as eight normal subjects completed ADLs such as drinking and eating. Three conditions were considered: object absent, imagined, and present. This data was compared to predicted trajectories generated from implementing the minimum jerk model. The deviations in both the plane of the table (XY) and the sagittal plane of torso (XZ) were examined for both reaches to a cup and to a spoon. Velocity profiles and curvature were also quantified for all trajectories. We hypothesized that movements performed with functional task constraints and objects would deviate from the minimum jerk trajectory model more than those performed under imaginary or object absent conditions. Trajectory deviations from the predicted minimum jerk model for these reaches were shown to depend on three variables: object presence, object orientation, and plane of movement. When subjects completed the cup reach their movements were more curved than for the spoon reach. The object present condition for the cup reach showed more curvature than in the object
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wisneski Kimberly J
2007-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Robotic therapy is at the forefront of stroke rehabilitation. The Activities of Daily Living Exercise Robot (ADLER was developed to improve carryover of gains after training by combining the benefits of Activities of Daily Living (ADL training (motivation and functional task practice with real objects, with the benefits of robot mediated therapy (repeatability and reliability. In combining these two therapy techniques, we seek to develop a new model for trajectory generation that will support functional movements to real objects during robot training. We studied natural movements to real objects and report on how initial reaching movements are affected by real objects and how these movements deviate from the straight line paths predicted by the minimum jerk model, typically used to generate trajectories in robot training environments. We highlight key issues that to be considered in modelling natural trajectories. Methods Movement data was collected as eight normal subjects completed ADLs such as drinking and eating. Three conditions were considered: object absent, imagined, and present. This data was compared to predicted trajectories generated from implementing the minimum jerk model. The deviations in both the plane of the table (XY and the saggital plane of torso (XZ were examined for both reaches to a cup and to a spoon. Velocity profiles and curvature were also quantified for all trajectories. Results We hypothesized that movements performed with functional task constraints and objects would deviate from the minimum jerk trajectory model more than those performed under imaginary or object absent conditions. Trajectory deviations from the predicted minimum jerk model for these reaches were shown to depend on three variables: object presence, object orientation, and plane of movement. When subjects completed the cup reach their movements were more curved than for the spoon reach. The object present condition for the cup
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piran, T.
1982-01-01
There are many recent developments in numerical relativity, but there remain important unsolved theoretical and practical problems. The author reviews existing numerical approaches to solution of the exact Einstein equations. A framework for classification and comparison of different numerical schemes is presented. Recent numerical codes are compared using this framework. The discussion focuses on new developments and on currently open questions, excluding a review of numerical techniques. (Auth.)
Beaton, Elliott A.; Stoddard, Joel; Lai, Song; Lackey, John; Shi, Jianrong; Ross, Judith L.; Simon, Tony J.
2010-01-01
Turner syndrome is associated with spatial and numerical cognitive impairments. We hypothesized that these nonverbal cognitive impairments result from limits in spatial and temporal processing, particularly as it affects attention. To examine spatiotemporal attention in girls with Turner syndrome versus typically developing controls, we used a…
T.M. Dunster (Mark); A. Gil (Amparo); J. Segura (Javier); N.M. Temme (Nico)
2017-01-01
textabstractConical functions appear in a large number of applications in physics and engineering. In this paper we describe an extension of our module Conical (Gil et al., 2012) for the computation of conical functions. Specifically, the module includes now a routine for computing the function
Wang, Jinlong; Lu, Mai; Hu, Yanwen; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Pan, Qiangqiang
2015-12-01
Neuron is the basic unit of the biological neural system. The Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model is one of the most realistic neuron models on the electrophysiological characteristic description of neuron. Hardware implementation of neuron could provide new research ideas to clinical treatment of spinal cord injury, bionics and artificial intelligence. Based on the HH model neuron and the DSP Builder technology, in the present study, a single HH model neuron hardware implementation was completed in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The neuron implemented in FPGA was stimulated by different types of current, the action potential response characteristics were analyzed, and the correlation coefficient between numerical simulation result and hardware implementation result were calculated. The results showed that neuronal action potential response of FPGA was highly consistent with numerical simulation result. This work lays the foundation for hardware implementation of neural network.
Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban; Nemoto, Takahiro; Lecomte, Vivien
2017-06-01
Rare trajectories of stochastic systems are important to understand because of their potential impact. However, their properties are by definition difficult to sample directly. Population dynamics provides a numerical tool allowing their study, by means of simulating a large number of copies of the system, which are subjected to selection rules that favor the rare trajectories of interest. Such algorithms are plagued by finite simulation time and finite population size, effects that can render their use delicate. In this paper, we present a numerical approach which uses the finite-time and finite-size scalings of estimators of the large deviation functions associated to the distribution of rare trajectories. The method we propose allows one to extract the infinite-time and infinite-size limit of these estimators, which-as shown on the contact process-provides a significant improvement of the large deviation function estimators compared to the standard one.
Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban; Nemoto, Takahiro; Lecomte, Vivien
2017-06-01
Rare trajectories of stochastic systems are important to understand because of their potential impact. However, their properties are by definition difficult to sample directly. Population dynamics provides a numerical tool allowing their study, by means of simulating a large number of copies of the system, which are subjected to selection rules that favor the rare trajectories of interest. Such algorithms are plagued by finite simulation time and finite population size, effects that can render their use delicate. In this paper, we present a numerical approach which uses the finite-time and finite-size scalings of estimators of the large deviation functions associated to the distribution of rare trajectories. The method we propose allows one to extract the infinite-time and infinite-size limit of these estimators, which—as shown on the contact process—provides a significant improvement of the large deviation function estimators compared to the standard one.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas
2015-01-01
This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bahl, Björn; Söhler, Theo; Hennen, Maike; Bardow, André, E-mail: andre.bardow@ltt.rwth-aachen.de [Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)
2018-01-08
Two-stage synthesis problems simultaneously consider here-and-now decisions (e.g., optimal investment) and wait-and-see decisions (e.g., optimal operation). The optimal synthesis of energy systems reveals such a two-stage character. The synthesis of energy systems involves multiple large time series such as energy demands and energy prices. Since problem size increases with the size of the time series, synthesis of energy systems leads to complex optimization problems. To reduce the problem size without loosing solution quality, we propose a method for time-series aggregation to identify typical periods. Typical periods retain the chronology of time steps, which enables modeling of energy systems, e.g., with storage units or start-up cost. The aim of the proposed method is to obtain few typical periods with few time steps per period, while accurately representing the objective function of the full time series, e.g., cost. Thus, we determine the error of time-series aggregation as the cost difference between operating the optimal design for the aggregated time series and for the full time series. Thereby, we rigorously bound the maximum performance loss of the optimal energy system design. In an initial step, the proposed method identifies the best length of typical periods by autocorrelation analysis. Subsequently, an adaptive procedure determines aggregated typical periods employing the clustering algorithm k-medoids, which groups similar periods into clusters and selects one representative period per cluster. Moreover, the number of time steps per period is aggregated by a novel clustering algorithm maintaining chronology of the time steps in the periods. The method is iteratively repeated until the error falls below a threshold value. A case study based on a real-world synthesis problem of an energy system shows that time-series aggregation from 8,760 time steps to 2 typical periods with each 2 time steps results in an error smaller than the optimality gap of
Colombo, Barbara; Balzarotti, Stefania; Mazzucchelli, Nicla
2016-04-01
Prior research has shown that right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be crucial in cognitive control of affective impulses during decision making. The present study examines whether modulation of r-DLPFC with transcranial direct current stimulation influences attentional behavior and decision-making in a purchase task requiring participants to choose either emotional/attractive or functional/useful objects. 30 participants were shown sixteen pairs of emotionally or functionally designed products while their eye-movements were recorded. Participants were asked to judge aesthetics and usefulness of each object, and to decide which object of each pair they would buy. Results revealed that participants decided to buy the functionally designed objects more often regardless of condition; however, participants receiving anodal stimulation were faster in decision making. Although stimulation of r-DLPFC did not affect the actual purchasing choice and had little effect on visual exploration during decision making, it influenced perceived usefulness and attractiveness, with temporary inhibition of r-DLPFC leading to evaluate functional objects as less attractive. Finally, anodal stimulation led to judge the objects as more useful. The implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Rossell, Susan L
2014-06-01
People with bipolar disorder (BD) experience significant psychosocial impairment. Understandings of the nature and causes of such impairment is limited by the lack of research exploring the extent to which subjectively reported functioning should be valued as an indicator of objective dysfunction, or examining the relative influence of neurocognition, social cognition and emotion regulation on these important, but different aspects of psychosocial functioning in the context of mania and depression symptoms. This study aimed to address this paucity of research by conducting a comprehensive investigation of psychosocial functioning in a well characterised group of BD patients. Fifty-one BD patients were compared to 52 healthy controls on objectively and subjectively assessed psychosocial outcomes. Relationships between current mood symptoms, psychosocial function and neurocognitive, social cognitive and emotion regulation measures were also examined in the patient group. Patients had significantly worse scores on the global objective and subjective functioning measures relative to controls. In the patient group, although these scores were correlated, regression analyses showed that variance in each of the measures was explained by different predictors. Depressive symptomatology was the most important predictor of global subjective functioning, and neurocognition had a concurrent and important influence with depressive symptoms on objective psychosocial function. Emotion regulation also had an indirect effect on psychosocial functioning via its influence on depressive symptomatology. As this study was cross-sectional in nature, we are unable to draw precise conclusions regarding contributing pathways involved in psychosocial functioning in BD. These results suggest that patients' own evaluations of their subjective functioning represent important indicators of the extent to which their observable function is impaired. They also highlight the importance of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sathish ePeriyasamy
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In silico representation of cellular systems needs to represent the adaptive dynamics of biological cells, recognizing a cell’s multi-objective topology formed by spatially and temporally cohesive intracellular structures. The design of these models needs to address the hierarchical and concurrent nature of cellular functions and incorporate the ability to self-organise in response to transitions between healthy and pathological phases, and adapt accordingly. The functions of biological systems are constantly evolving, due to the ever changing demands of their environment. Biological systems meet these demands by pursuing objectives, aided by their constituents, giving rise to biological functions. A biological cell is organised into an objective/task hierarchy. These objective hierarchy corresponds to the nested nature of temporally cohesive structures and representing them will facilitate in studying pleiotropy and polygeny by modeling causalities propagating across multiple interconnected intracellular processes. Although biological adaptations occur in physiological, developmental and reproductive timescales, the paper is focused on adaptations that occur within physiological timescales, where the biomolecular activities contributing to functional organisation, play a key role in cellular physiology. The paper proposes a multi-scale and multi-objective modelling approach from the bottom-up by representing temporally cohesive structures for multi-tasking of intracellular processes. Further the paper characterises the properties and constraints that are consequential to the organisational and adaptive dynamics in biological cells.
Khabaza, I M
1960-01-01
Numerical Analysis is an elementary introduction to numerical analysis, its applications, limitations, and pitfalls. Methods suitable for digital computers are emphasized, but some desk computations are also described. Topics covered range from the use of digital computers in numerical work to errors in computations using desk machines, finite difference methods, and numerical solution of ordinary differential equations. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the importance of digital computers in numerical analysis, followed by a discussion on errors in comput
Shibata, Masaru
2016-01-01
This book is composed of two parts: First part describes basics in numerical relativity, that is, the formulations and methods for a solution of Einstein's equation and general relativistic matter field equations. This part will be helpful for beginners of numerical relativity who would like to understand the content of numerical relativity and its background. The second part focuses on the application of numerical relativity. A wide variety of scientific numerical results are introduced focusing in particular on the merger of binary neutron stars and black holes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1981-04-01
At the present time, final repository criteria have not been issued by the responsible agencies. This document describes general objectives, requirements, and criteria that the DOE intends to apply in the interim to the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. These objectives, requirements, and criteria have been developed on the basis of DOE's analysis of what is needed to achieve the National objective of safe waste disposal in an environmentally acceptable and economic manner and are expected to be consistent with anticipated regulatory standards. The qualitative statements in this document address the broad issues of public and occupational health and safety, institutional acceptability, engineering feasibility, and economic considerations. A comprehensive set of criteria, general and project specific, of which these are a part, will constitute a portion of the technical basis for preparation and submittal by the DOE of formal documents to support future license applications for nuclear waste repositories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1981-04-01
At the present time, final repository criteria have not been issued by the responsible agencies. This document describes general objectives, requirements, and criteria that the DOE intends to apply in the interim to the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. These objectives, requirements, and criteria have been developed on the basis of DOE's analysis of what is needed to achieve the National objective of safe waste disposal in an environmentally acceptable and economic manner and are expected to be consistent with anticipated regulatory standards. The qualitative statements in this document address the broad issues of public and occupational health and safety, institutional acceptability, engineering feasibility, and economic considerations. A comprehensive set of criteria, general and project specific, of which these are a part, will constitute a portion of the technical basis for preparation and submittal by the DOE of formal documents to support future license applications for nuclear waste repositories.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deb, M.K.; Kennon, S.R.
1998-04-01
A cooperative R&D effort between industry and the US government, this project, under the HPPP (High Performance Parallel Processing) initiative of the Dept. of Energy, started the investigations into parallel object-oriented (OO) numerics. The basic goal was to research and utilize the emerging technologies to create a physics-independent computational kernel for applications using adaptive finite element method. The industrial team included Computational Mechanics Co., Inc. (COMCO) of Austin, TX (as the primary contractor), Scientific Computing Associates, Inc. (SCA) of New Haven, CT, Texaco and CONVEX. Sandia National Laboratory (Albq., NM) was the technology partner from the government side. COMCO had the responsibility of the main kernel design and development, SCA had the lead in parallel solver technology and guidance on OO technologies was Sandia`s main expertise in this venture. CONVEX and Texaco supported the partnership by hardware resource and application knowledge, respectively. As such, a minimum of fifty-percent cost-sharing was provided by the industry partnership during this project. This report describes the R&D activities and provides some details about the prototype kernel and example applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tim Wehner
Full Text Available Numerous experimental fracture healing studies are performed on rats, in which different experimental, mechanical parameters are applied, thereby prohibiting direct comparison between each other. Numerical fracture healing simulation models are able to predict courses of fracture healing and offer support for pre-planning animal experiments and for post-hoc comparison between outcomes of different in vivo studies. The aims of this study are to adapt a pre-existing fracture healing simulation algorithm for sheep and humans to the rat, to corroborate it using the data of numerous different rat experiments, and to provide healing predictions for future rat experiments. First, material properties of different tissue types involved were adjusted by comparing experimentally measured callus stiffness to respective simulated values obtained in three finite element (FE models. This yielded values for Young's moduli of cortical bone, woven bone, cartilage, and connective tissue of 15,750 MPa, 1,000 MPa, 5 MPa, and 1 MPa, respectively. Next, thresholds in the underlying mechanoregulatory tissue differentiation rules were calibrated by modifying model parameters so that predicted fracture callus stiffness matched experimental data from a study that used rigid and flexible fixators. This resulted in strain thresholds at higher magnitudes than in models for sheep and humans. The resulting numerical model was then used to simulate numerous fracture healing scenarios from literature, showing a considerable mismatch in only 6 of 21 cases. Based on this corroborated model, a fit curve function was derived which predicts the increase of callus stiffness dependent on bodyweight, fixation stiffness, and fracture gap size. By mathematically predicting the time course of the healing process prior to the animal studies, the data presented in this work provides support for planning new fracture healing experiments in rats. Furthermore, it allows one to transfer and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asenjo Juan A
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Functionally relevant artificial or natural mutations are difficult to assess or predict if no structure-function information is available for a protein. This is especially important to correctly identify functionally significant non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs or to design a site-directed mutagenesis strategy for a target protein. A new and powerful methodology is proposed to guide these two decision strategies, based only on conservation rules of physicochemical properties of amino acids extracted from a multiple alignment of a protein family where the target protein belongs, with no need of explicit structure-function relationships. Results A statistical analysis is performed over each amino acid position in the multiple protein alignment, based on different amino acid physical or chemical characteristics, including hydrophobicity, side-chain volume, charge and protein conformational parameters. The variances of each of these properties at each position are combined to obtain a global statistical indicator of the conservation degree of each property. Different types of physicochemical conservation are defined to characterize relevant and irrelevant positions. The differences between statistical variances are taken together as the basis of hypothesis tests at each position to search for functionally significant mutable sites and to identify specific mutagenesis targets. The outcome is used to statistically predict physicochemical consensus sequences based on different properties and to calculate the amino acid propensities at each position in a given protein. Hence, amino acid positions are identified that are putatively responsible for function, specificity, stability or binding interactions in a family of proteins. Once these key functional positions are identified, position-specific statistical distributions are applied to divide the 20 common protein amino acids in each position of the protein
Downs, Nathan; Parisi, Alfio V.; Galligan, Linda; Turner, Joanna; Amar, Abdurazaq; King, Rachel; Ultra, Filipina; Butler, Harry
2016-01-01
A short series of practical classroom mathematics activities employing the use of a large and publicly accessible scientific data set are presented for use by students in years 9 and 10. The activities introduce and build understanding of integral calculus and trigonometric functions through the presentation of practical problem solving that…
Pagiatakis, Catherine; Tardif, Jean-Claude; L'Allier, Philippe L; Mongrain, Rosaire
2015-09-18
The intervention of coronary bifurcation lesions is associated with higher rates of peri- and post-procedural clinical events compared to the treatment of isolated lesions. Overall, the factors that influence the dynamics of these types of configurations are still not well understood. A geometric multiscale model, consisting of a 3D representation of the left main coronary artery bifurcation and a 0D representation of the rest of the cardiovascular system, was developed. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the 3D domain were executed by implementing the multiscale algorithm, in order to characterize the functionality of different multilesional configurations as a function of stenosis severity. The investigation found that coronary branch steal has a significant impact on the functionality of the disease and can render a two-lesion configuration more severe compared to a three-lesion configuration. As a result of the complexity of this phenomenon, it was also suggested that certain lesion configurations could result in false negatives in diagnosis when employing a pullback pressure recording across the tandem lesions. In conclusion, this study showed that coronary bifurcation lesions are subject to intricate haemodynamic interactions which render the characterization of their functionality complex and could have significant clinical implications with regards to their diagnosis and prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burmester, Bridget; Leathem, Janet; Merrick, Paul
2016-12-01
Research investigating how subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs) might reliably indicate impairments in objective cognitive functioning has produced highly varied findings, and despite attempts to synthesise this literature (e.g., Jonker et al. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 983-991, 2000; Reid and MacLullich Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 22(5-6), 471-485, 2006; Crumley et al. Psychology and Aging, 29(2), 250-263, 2014), recent work continues to offer little resolution. This review provides both quantitative and qualitative synthesis of research conducted since the last comprehensive review in 2006, with the aim of identifying reasons for these discrepancies that might provide fruitful avenues for future exploration. Meta-analysis found a small but significant association between SCCs and objective cognitive function, although it was limited by large heterogeneity between studies and evidence of potential publication bias. Often, assessments of SCCs and objective cognitive function were brief or not formally validated. However, studies that employed more comprehensive SCC measures tended to find that SCCs were associated independently with both objective cognitive function and depressive symptoms. Further explicit investigation of how assessment measures relate to reports of SCCs, and the validity of the proposed 'compensation theory' of SCC aetiology, is recommended.
On numerical Bessel transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sommer, B.; Zabolitzky, J.G.
1979-01-01
The authors present a computer program to calculate the three dimensional Fourier or Bessel transforms and definite integrals with Bessel functions. Numerical integration of systems containing Bessel functions occurs in many physical problems, e.g. electromagnetic form factor of nuclei, all transitions involving multipole expansions at high momenta. Filon's integration rule is extended to spherical Bessel functions. The numerical error is of the order of the Simpson error term of the function which has to be transformed. Thus one gets a stable integral even at large arguments of the transformed function. (Auth.)
Williams, C. A.; Wallace, L. M.; Bartlow, N. M.
2017-12-01
Slow slip events (SSEs) have been observed throughout the world, and the existence of these events has fundamentally altered our understanding of the possible ranges of slip behavior at subduction plate boundaries. In New Zealand, SSEs occur along the Hikurangi Margin, with shallower events in the north and deeper events to the south. In a recent study, Williams and Wallace (2015) found that static SSE inversions that consider elastic property variations provided significantly different results than those based on an elastic half-space. For deeper events, the heterogeneous models predicted smaller amounts of slip, while for shallower events the heterogeneous model predicted larger amounts of slip. In this study, we extend our initial work to examine the temporal variations in slip. We generate Green's functions using the PyLith finite element code (Aagaard et al., 2013) to allow consideration of elastic property variations provided by the New Zealand-wide seismic velocity model (Eberhart-Phillips et al., 2010). These Green's functions are then integrated to provide Green's functions compatible with the Network Inversion Filter (NIF, Segall and Matthews,1997; McGuire and Segall, 2003; Miyazaki et al.,2006). We examine 12 SSEs occurring along the Hikurangi Margin during 2010 and 2011, and compare the results using heterogeneous Green's functions with those of Bartlow et al. (2014), who examined the same set of SSEs with the NIF using a uniform elastic half-space model. The use of heterogeneous Green's functions should provide a more accurate picture of the slip distribution and evolution of the SSEs. This will aid in understanding the correlations between SSEs and seismicity and/or tremor and the role of SSEs in the accommodation of plate motion budgets in New Zealand.
2012-01-01
Background Several conflict processing studies aimed to dissociate neuroimaging phenomena related to stimulus and response conflict processing. However, previous studies typically did not include a paradigm-independent measure of either stimulus or response conflict. Here we have combined electro-myography (EMG) with event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in order to determine whether a particularly robust marker of conflict processing, the N450 ERP effect usually related to the activity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC), is related to stimulus- or to response-conflict processing. EMG provided paradigm-independent measure of response conflict. In a numerical Stroop paradigm participants compared pairs of digits and pressed a button on the side where they saw the larger digit. 50% of digit-pairs were preceded by an effective cue which provided accurate information about the required response. 50% of trials were preceded by a neutral cue which did not communicate the side of response. Results EMG showed that response conflict was significantly larger in neutrally than in effectively cued trials. The N450 was similar when response conflict was high and when it was low. Conclusions We conclude that the N450 is related to stimulus or abstract, rather than to response conflict detection/resolution. Findings may enable timing ACC conflict effects. PMID:22452924
Szűcs, Dénes; Soltész, Fruzsina
2012-03-27
Several conflict processing studies aimed to dissociate neuroimaging phenomena related to stimulus and response conflict processing. However, previous studies typically did not include a paradigm-independent measure of either stimulus or response conflict. Here we have combined electro-myography (EMG) with event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in order to determine whether a particularly robust marker of conflict processing, the N450 ERP effect usually related to the activity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC), is related to stimulus- or to response-conflict processing. EMG provided paradigm-independent measure of response conflict. In a numerical Stroop paradigm participants compared pairs of digits and pressed a button on the side where they saw the larger digit. 50% of digit-pairs were preceded by an effective cue which provided accurate information about the required response. 50% of trials were preceded by a neutral cue which did not communicate the side of response. EMG showed that response conflict was significantly larger in neutrally than in effectively cued trials. The N450 was similar when response conflict was high and when it was low. We conclude that the N450 is related to stimulus or abstract, rather than to response conflict detection/resolution. Findings may enable timing ACC conflict effects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ixaru, G.L.
1978-03-01
The method developed in the previous paper (preprint, C.I.Ph. (Bucharest), MC-2-78, 1978) is here investigated from computational point of view. Special emphasis is paid to the two basic descriptors of the efficiency: the volume of memory required and the computational effort (timing). Next, two experimental cases are reported. They (i) confirm the theoretical estimates for the rate cf convergence of each version of the present method and (ii) show that the present method is substantially faster than the others. Specifically, it is found that for typical physical problems it is faster by a factor of ten up to twenty than the methods commonly used, viz. Numerov and de Vogelaere. The data reported also allow an inUirect comparison with the method of Gordon. I l/ allow an indirect comparison with the method of Gordon. It is shown that, while this exhibits the same rate as our basic, lowest order version, the computational effort for the latter is, in case of systems with nine equations, only half than for the method of Gordon. At the end of the paper some types of physical problems are suggested which should be the most benefitting if solved numerically with the present method. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peña Ramírez, K.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Martín, E. L.; Petr-Gotzens, M. G.
2012-01-01
We report on our analysis of the VISTA Orion ZY JHK s photometric data (completeness magnitudes of Z = 22.6 and J = 21.0 mag) focusing on a circular area of 2798.4 arcmin 2 around the young σ Orionis star cluster (∼3 Myr, ∼352 pc, and solar metallicity). The combination of the VISTA photometry with optical, WISE and Spitzer data allows us to identify a total of 210 σ Orionis member candidates with masses in the interval 0.25-0.004 M ☉ , 23 of which are new planetary-mass object findings. These discoveries double the number of cluster planetary-mass candidates known so far. One object has colors compatible with a T spectral type. The σ Orionis cluster harbors about as many brown dwarfs (69, 0.072-0.012 M ☉ ) and planetary-mass objects (37, 0.012-0.004 M ☉ ) as very low mass stars (104, 0.25-0.072 M ☉ ). Based on Spitzer data, we derive a disk frequency of ∼40% for very low mass stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary-mass objects in σ Orionis. The radial density distributions of these three mass intervals are alike: all are spatially concentrated within an effective radius of 12' (1.2 pc) around the multiple star σ Ori, and no obvious segregation between disk-bearing and diskless objects is observed. Using the VISTA data and the Mayrit catalog, we derive the cluster mass spectrum (ΔN/ΔM ∼ M –α ) from ∼19 to 0.006 M ☉ (VISTA ZJ completeness), which is reasonably described by two power-law expressions with indices of α = 1.7 ± 0.2 for M > 0.35 M ☉ , and α = 0.6 ± 0.2 for M ☉ . The σ Orionis mass spectrum smoothly extends into the planetary-mass regime down to 0.004 M ☉ . Our findings of T-type sources ( ☉ ) in the VISTA σ Orionis exploration appear to be smaller than what is predicted by the extrapolation of the cluster mass spectrum down to the survey J-band completeness.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pena Ramirez, K.; Bejar, V. J. S. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/. Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Martin, E. L. [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Crta. Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Petr-Gotzens, M. G., E-mail: karla@iac.es, E-mail: vbejar@iac.es, E-mail: mosorio@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: ege@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: mpetr@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)
2012-07-20
We report on our analysis of the VISTA Orion ZY JHK{sub s} photometric data (completeness magnitudes of Z = 22.6 and J = 21.0 mag) focusing on a circular area of 2798.4 arcmin{sup 2} around the young {sigma} Orionis star cluster ({approx}3 Myr, {approx}352 pc, and solar metallicity). The combination of the VISTA photometry with optical, WISE and Spitzer data allows us to identify a total of 210 {sigma} Orionis member candidates with masses in the interval 0.25-0.004 M{sub Sun }, 23 of which are new planetary-mass object findings. These discoveries double the number of cluster planetary-mass candidates known so far. One object has colors compatible with a T spectral type. The {sigma} Orionis cluster harbors about as many brown dwarfs (69, 0.072-0.012 M{sub Sun }) and planetary-mass objects (37, 0.012-0.004 M{sub Sun }) as very low mass stars (104, 0.25-0.072 M{sub Sun }). Based on Spitzer data, we derive a disk frequency of {approx}40% for very low mass stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary-mass objects in {sigma} Orionis. The radial density distributions of these three mass intervals are alike: all are spatially concentrated within an effective radius of 12' (1.2 pc) around the multiple star {sigma} Ori, and no obvious segregation between disk-bearing and diskless objects is observed. Using the VISTA data and the Mayrit catalog, we derive the cluster mass spectrum ({Delta}N/{Delta}M {approx} M{sup -{alpha}}) from {approx}19 to 0.006 M{sub Sun} (VISTA ZJ completeness), which is reasonably described by two power-law expressions with indices of {alpha} = 1.7 {+-} 0.2 for M > 0.35 M{sub Sun }, and {alpha} = 0.6 {+-} 0.2 for M < 0.35 M{sub Sun }. The {sigma} Orionis mass spectrum smoothly extends into the planetary-mass regime down to 0.004 M{sub Sun }. Our findings of T-type sources (<0.004 M{sub Sun }) in the VISTA {sigma} Orionis exploration appear to be smaller than what is predicted by the extrapolation of the cluster mass spectrum down to the survey J
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barragan M, A.M.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Palomera P, M.A.
2005-01-01
A methodology based on Fuzzy Logic for the construction of the objective function of the optimization problems of nuclear fuel is described. It was created an inference system that responds, in certain form, as a human expert when it has the task of qualifying different radial designs of fuel cells. Specifically it is detailed how an inference system based based on Fuzzy Logic that has five enter variables and one exit variable was built, which corresponds to the objective function for the radial design of a fuel cell for a BWR. The use of Fuzzy with Mat lab offered the visualization capacity of the exit variable in function of one or two enter variables at the same time. This allowed to build, in appropriate way, the combination of the inference rules and the membership functions of those diffuse sets used for each one of the enter variables. The obtained objective function was used in an optimization process based on Taboo search. The new methodology was proven for the design of a cell used in a fuel assemble of the Laguna Verde reactor obtaining excellent results. (Author)
Zimmermann, Kathrin; Eschen, Anne
2017-04-01
Object-location memory (OLM) enables us to keep track of the locations of objects in our environment. The neurocognitive model of OLM (Postma, A., Kessels, R. P. C., & Van Asselen, M. (2004). The neuropsychology of object-location memory. In G. L. Allen (Ed.), Human spatial memory: Remembering where (pp. 143-160). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, Postma, A., Kessels, R. P. C., & Van Asselen, M. (2008). How the brain remembers and forgets where things are: The neurocognition of object-location memory. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 1339-1345. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.05.001 ) proposes that distinct brain regions are specialised for different subprocesses of OLM (object processing, location processing, and object-location binding; categorical and coordinate OLM; egocentric and allocentric OLM). It was based mainly on findings from lesion studies. However, recent episodic memory studies point to a contribution of additional or different brain regions to object and location processing within episodic OLM. To evaluate and update the neurocognitive model of OLM, we therefore conducted a systematic literature search for lesion as well as functional neuroimaging studies contrasting small-space episodic OLM with object memory or location memory. We identified 10 relevant lesion studies and 8 relevant functional neuroimaging studies. We could confirm some of the proposals of the neurocognitive model of OLM, but also differing hypotheses from episodic memory research, about which brain regions are involved in the different subprocesses of small-space episodic OLM. In addition, we were able to identify new brain regions as well as important research gaps.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst
2016-01-01
the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between...... sustained attention (Pmemory (Pmemory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Demirel, Mehmet C.; Mai, Juliane; Mendiguren Gonzalez, Gorka
2018-01-01
selected due to its soil parameter distribution approach based on pedo-transfer functions and the build in multi-scale parameter regionalisation. In addition two new spatial parameter distribution options have been incorporated in the model in order to increase the flexibility of root fraction coefficient...
White, Tobin
2009-01-01
This paper introduces an applied problem-solving task, set in the context of cryptography and embedded in a network of computer-based tools. This designed learning environment engaged students in a series of collaborative problem-solving activities intended to introduce the topic of functions through a set of linked representations. In a…
Farris, Emily A; Ring, Jeremiah; Black, Jeffrey; Lyon, G Reid; Odegard, Timothy N
2016-04-01
An object rhyming task that does not require text reading and is suitable for younger children was used to predict gains in word level reading skills following an intensive 2-year reading intervention for children with developmental dyslexia. The task evoked activation in bilateral inferior frontal regions. Growth in untimed pseudoword reading was associated with increased pre-intervention activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus, and growth in timed word reading was associated with pre-intervention activation of the left and right inferior frontal gyri. These analyses help identify pre-intervention factors that facilitate reading skill improvements in children with developmental dyslexia.
Siegler, Robert S.; Braithwaite, David W.
2016-01-01
In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of numerical development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. Numerical magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from non-symbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger…
Bright, William
In most languages encountered by linguists, the numerals, considered as a paradigmatic set, constitute a morpho-syntactic problem of only moderate complexity. The Indo-Aryan language family of North India, however, presents a curious contrast. The relatively regular numeral system of Sanskrit, as it has developed historically into the modern…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sternbeck, A.
2006-07-18
Within the framework of lattice QCD we investigate different aspects of QCD in Landau gauge using Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, we focus on the low momentum behavior of gluon and ghost propagators. The gauge group is SU(3). Different systematic effects on the gluon and ghost propagators are studied. We demonstrate the ghost dressing function to systematically depend on the choice of Gribov copies at low momentum, while the influence on the gluon dressing function is not resolvable. Also the eigenvalue distribution of the Faddeev-Popov operator is sensitive to Gribov copies. We show that the influence of dynamical Wilson fermions on the ghost propagator is negligible at the momenta available to us. On the contrary, fermions affect the gluon propagator at large and intermediate momenta. In addition, we analyze data for both propagators obtained on asymmetric lattices and compare these results with data obtained on symmetric lattices. We compare our data with results from studies of Dyson-Schwinger equations for the gluon and ghost propagators. We demonstrate that the infrared behavior of both propagators, as found in this thesis, is consistent with different criteria for confinement. However, the running coupling constant, given as a renormalization-group-invariant combination of the gluon and ghost dressing functions, does not expose a finite infrared fixed point. Rather the data are in favor of an infrared vanishing coupling constant. We also report on a first nonperturbative computation of the SU(3) ghost-gluon-vertex renormalization constant. We present results of an investigation of the spectral properties of the Faddeev-Popov operator. For this we have calculated the low-lying eigenvalues and eigenmodes of the Faddeev-Popov operator. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sternbeck, A.
2006-01-01
Within the framework of lattice QCD we investigate different aspects of QCD in Landau gauge using Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, we focus on the low momentum behavior of gluon and ghost propagators. The gauge group is SU(3). Different systematic effects on the gluon and ghost propagators are studied. We demonstrate the ghost dressing function to systematically depend on the choice of Gribov copies at low momentum, while the influence on the gluon dressing function is not resolvable. Also the eigenvalue distribution of the Faddeev-Popov operator is sensitive to Gribov copies. We show that the influence of dynamical Wilson fermions on the ghost propagator is negligible at the momenta available to us. On the contrary, fermions affect the gluon propagator at large and intermediate momenta. In addition, we analyze data for both propagators obtained on asymmetric lattices and compare these results with data obtained on symmetric lattices. We compare our data with results from studies of Dyson-Schwinger equations for the gluon and ghost propagators. We demonstrate that the infrared behavior of both propagators, as found in this thesis, is consistent with different criteria for confinement. However, the running coupling constant, given as a renormalization-group-invariant combination of the gluon and ghost dressing functions, does not expose a finite infrared fixed point. Rather the data are in favor of an infrared vanishing coupling constant. We also report on a first nonperturbative computation of the SU(3) ghost-gluon-vertex renormalization constant. We present results of an investigation of the spectral properties of the Faddeev-Popov operator. For this we have calculated the low-lying eigenvalues and eigenmodes of the Faddeev-Popov operator. (orig.)
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Hristova Mariana
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Simple data correlation of flashpoint data of binary mixture has been developed on a basic of rational reciprocal function. The new approximation requires has only two coefficients and needs the flashpoint temperature of the pure flammable component to be known. The approximation has been tested by literature data concerning aqueous-alcohol solution and compared to calculations performed by several thermodynamic models predicting flashpoint temperatures. The suggested approximation provides accuracy comparable and to some extent better than that of the thermodynamic methods.
Applications of neural network to numerical analyses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeda, Tatsuoki; Fukuhara, Makoto; Ma, Xiao-Feng; Liaqat, Ali
1999-01-01
Applications of a multi-layer neural network to numerical analyses are described. We are mainly concerned with the computed tomography and the solution of differential equations. In both cases as the objective functions for the training process of the neural network we employed residuals of the integral equation or the differential equations. This is different from the conventional neural network training where sum of the squared errors of the output values is adopted as the objective function. For model problems both the methods gave satisfactory results and the methods are considered promising for some kind of problems. (author)
Freedman, M. I.; Sipcic, S.; Tseng, K.
1985-01-01
A frequency domain Green's Function Method for unsteady supersonic potential flow around complex aircraft configurations is presented. The focus is on the supersonic range wherein the linear potential flow assumption is valid. In this range the effects of the nonlinear terms in the unsteady supersonic compressible velocity potential equation are negligible and therefore these terms will be omitted. The Green's function method is employed in order to convert the potential flow differential equation into an integral one. This integral equation is then discretized, through standard finite element technique, to yield a linear algebraic system of equations relating the unknown potential to its prescribed co-normalwash (boundary condition) on the surface of the aircraft. The arbitrary complex aircraft configuration (e.g., finite-thickness wing, wing-body-tail) is discretized into hyperboloidal (twisted quadrilateral) panels. The potential and co-normalwash are assumed to vary linearly within each panel. The long range goal is to develop a comprehensive theory for unsteady supersonic potential aerodynamic which is capable of yielding accurate results even in the low supersonic (i.e., high transonic) range.
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Liu Gu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Turbulent flow in multi-function micro-plasma spray, as well as the trajectories and state-changing course of alumina particles in the plasma jet were simulated. The distribution of temperature and velocity of the plasma jet and in-flight alumina particles is discussed. Calculations show that particles are heated and accelerated sufficiently by the plasma flame due to a longer travel time than that of external injection system, therefore, possess higher temperature and velocity. Alumina particles temperature and velocity increase rapidly along the jet axis at the initial stage, but then decrease gradually. The velocity and surface temperature of in-flight alumina particles are measured by Spray Watch-2i system. The velocity and surface temperature of alumina particles measured agree well with the simulation results, confirming that the simulation model is suitable for the prediction of the turbulent flow and the particle characteristics, which also reveals the superiority of the plasma spray gun in this multi-function micro-plasma spraying system.
Smeland, Olav B; Frei, Oleksandr; Kauppi, Karolina; Hill, W David; Li, Wen; Wang, Yunpeng; Krull, Florian; Bettella, Francesco; Eriksen, Jon A; Witoelar, Aree; Davies, Gail; Fan, Chun C; Thompson, Wesley K; Lam, Max; Lencz, Todd; Chen, Chi-Hua; Ueland, Torill; Jönsson, Erik G; Djurovic, Srdjan; Deary, Ian J; Dale, Anders M; Andreassen, Ole A
2017-10-01
Schizophrenia is associated with widespread cognitive impairments. Although cognitive deficits are one of the factors most strongly associated with functional outcome in schizophrenia, current treatment strategies largely fail to ameliorate these impairments. To develop more efficient treatment strategies in patients with schizophrenia, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of these cognitive deficits is needed. Accumulating evidence indicates that genetic risk of schizophrenia may contribute to cognitive dysfunction. To identify genomic regions jointly influencing schizophrenia and the cognitive domains of reaction time and verbal-numerical reasoning, as well as general cognitive function, a phenotype that captures the shared variation in performance across cognitive domains. Combining data from genome-wide association studies from multiple phenotypes using conditional false discovery rate analysis provides increased power to discover genetic variants and could elucidate shared molecular genetic mechanisms. Data from the following genome-wide association studies, published from July 24, 2014, to January 17, 2017, were combined: schizophrenia in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium cohort (n = 79 757 [cases, 34 486; controls, 45 271]); verbal-numerical reasoning (n = 36 035) and reaction time (n = 111 483) in the UK Biobank cohort; and general cognitive function in CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) (n = 53 949) and COGENT (Cognitive Genomics Consortium) (n = 27 888). Genetic loci identified by conditional false discovery rate analysis. Brain messenger RNA expression and brain expression quantitative trait locus functionality were determined. Among the participants in the genome-wide association studies, 21 loci jointly influencing schizophrenia and cognitive traits were identified: 2 loci shared between schizophrenia and verbal-numerical reasoning, 6 loci shared between schizophrenia and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buryi, E V; Kosygin, A A
2004-01-01
It is shown that, when the angular resolution of a receiving optical system is insufficient, the angular dimensions of a located object can be estimated and its shape can be reconstructed by estimating the parameters of the fourth-order correlation function (CF) of scattered coherent radiation. The reliability of the estimates of CF counts obtained by the method of a discrete spatial convolution of the intensity-field counts, the possibility of estimating the CF profile counts by the method of one-dimensional convolution of intensity counts, and the applicability of the method for reconstructing the object shape are confirmed experimentally. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
Walter, Kimberly N; Petry, Nancy M
2016-05-01
This cross-sectional study evaluated lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts in 170 HIV/AIDS patients with substance use disorders and the impact of suicide attempt history on subjective indices of quality of life and objective indices of cognitive and physical functioning. All patients met the diagnostic criteria for past-year cocaine or opioid use disorders and 27% of patients also had co-occurring alcohol use disorders. Compared to their counterparts without a history of a suicide attempt, patients with a history of a suicide attempt (n = 60, 35.3%) had significantly poorer emotional and cognitive quality of life scores (ps quality-of-life scores. Lifetime suicide attempt status was unrelated to objective indices of cognitive functioning, but there was a non-significant trend (p = .07) toward lower viral loads in those with a lifetime suicide attempt relative to those without. The findings indicate that suicide attempt histories are prevalent among HIV/AIDS patients with substance use disorders and relate to poorer perceived emotional and cognitive quality of life, but not objective functioning. HIV/AIDS patients with substance use disorders should be screened for lifetime histories of suicide attempts and offered assistance to improve perceived emotional and cognitive functioning. © The Author(s) 2016.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Xuan; Ito, Haruhiko; Torikai, Eiko
2012-01-01
We calculate the different geometric isomers of spin clusters composed of a small number of alkali-metal atoms using the UB3LYP density-functional method. The electron density distribution of clusters changes according to the value of total spin. Steric structures as well as planar structures arise when the number of atoms increases. The lowest spin state is the most stable and Li n , Na n , K n , Rb n , and Cs n with n = 2–8 can be formed in higher spin states. In the highest spin state, the preparation of clusters depends on the kind and the number of constituent atoms. The interaction energy between alkali-metal atoms and rare-gas atoms is smaller than the binding energy of spin clusters. Consequently, it is possible to self-organize the alkali-metal-atom clusters on a non-wetting substrate coated with rare-gas atoms.
Deshpande, Nandini; Metter, E Jeffrey; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Guralnik, Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi
2008-04-01
To examine whether activity restriction specifically induced by fear of falling (FF) contributes to greater risk of disability and decline in physical function. Prospective cohort study. Population-based older cohort. Six hundred seventy-three community-living elderly (> or = 65) participants in the Invecchiare in Chianti Study who reported FF. FF, fear-induced activity restriction, cognition, depressive symptoms, comorbidities, smoking history, and demographic factors were assessed at baseline. Disability in activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and performance on the Short Performance Physical Battery (SPPB) were evaluated at baseline and at the 3-year follow-up. One-quarter (25.5%) of participants did not report any activity restriction, 59.6% reported moderate activity restriction (restriction or avoidance of or = 3 activities). The severe restriction group reported significantly higher IADL disability and worse SPPB scores than the no restriction and moderate restriction groups. Severe activity restriction was a significant independent predictor of worsening ADL disability and accelerated decline in lower extremity performance on SPPB over the 3-year follow-up. Severe and moderate activity restriction were independent predictors of worsening IADL disability. Results were consistent even after adjusting for multiple potential confounders. In an elderly population, activity restriction associated with FF is an independent predictor of decline in physical function. Future intervention studies in geriatric preventive care should directly address risk factors associated with FF and activity restriction to substantiate long-term effects on physical abilities and autonomy of older persons.
Hatem, S M; Hu, L; Ragé, M; Gierasimowicz, A; Plaghki, L; Bouhassira, D; Attal, N; Iannetti, G D; Mouraux, A
2012-12-01
To assess the clinical usefulness of an automated analysis of event-related potentials (ERPs). Nociceptive laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and non-nociceptive somatosensory electrically-evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded in 37 patients with syringomyelia and 21 controls. LEP and SEP peak amplitudes and latencies were estimated using a single-trial automated approach based on time-frequency wavelet filtering and multiple linear regression, as well as a conventional approach based on visual inspection. The amplitudes and latencies of normal and abnormal LEP and SEP peaks were identified reliably using both approaches, with similar sensitivity and specificity. Because the automated approach provided an unbiased solution to account for average waveforms where no ERP could be identified visually, it revealed significant differences between patients and controls that were not revealed using the visual approach. The automated analysis of ERPs characterized reliably and objectively LEP and SEP waveforms in patients. The automated single-trial analysis can be used to characterize normal and abnormal ERPs with a similar sensitivity and specificity as visual inspection. While this does not justify its use in a routine clinical setting, the technique could be useful to avoid observer-dependent biases in clinical research. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
FUNCTIONS OF HYDROLOGICAL OBJECTS IN THE AREAS OF POST-MINING OPEN PIT “WŁADYSŁAWÓW”
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Mirosława Maria Gilewska
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Operated by lignite mine “Adams” coal deposits are located in the upland area of the Turkish, belonging to the South Plains macro-region of Wielkopolska. A feature of this region are not only low rainfall, but also the lack of water reservoirs and large rivers. Mining activity has caused major changes in the hydrological network, not just for liquidation, postpone or reconstruction of riverbeds, but also the creation of new objects that collect water. These include settling the waters “dirty”, as well as reservoirs formed in excavation voids as part of a water reclamation. After the end of coal mining operation of these facilities is dependent on hydrology and hydraulic engineering conditions. This problem will be shown on the example of dirty water clarifier and final excavation undergoing water reclamation opencast mining areas Władysławów. Outcrop ended its activities in 2013. The final excavation is no outflow basin with a capacity of 42 million m3, located within the river basin Topiec constituting the left-hand tributary of the Warta.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu Xuan, E-mail: liu.x.ad@m.titech.ac.jp; Ito, Haruhiko [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Torikai, Eiko [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi (Japan)
2012-08-15
We calculate the different geometric isomers of spin clusters composed of a small number of alkali-metal atoms using the UB3LYP density-functional method. The electron density distribution of clusters changes according to the value of total spin. Steric structures as well as planar structures arise when the number of atoms increases. The lowest spin state is the most stable and Li{sub n}, Na{sub n}, K{sub n}, Rb{sub n}, and Cs{sub n} with n = 2-8 can be formed in higher spin states. In the highest spin state, the preparation of clusters depends on the kind and the number of constituent atoms. The interaction energy between alkali-metal atoms and rare-gas atoms is smaller than the binding energy of spin clusters. Consequently, it is possible to self-organize the alkali-metal-atom clusters on a non-wetting substrate coated with rare-gas atoms.
van Genderen, Simon; van den Borne, Carlie; Geusens, Piet; van der Linden, Sjef; Boonen, Annelies; Plasqui, Guy
2014-04-01
Physical functioning can be assessed by different approaches that are characterized by increasing levels of individual appraisal. There is insufficient insight into which approach is the most informative in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) compared with control subjects. The objective of this study was to compare patients with AS and control subjects regarding 3 approaches of functioning: experienced ability to perform activities (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index [BASFI]), self-reported amount of physical activity (PA) (Baecke questionnaire), and the objectively measured amount of PA (triaxial accelerometer). This case-control study included 24 AS patients and 24 control subjects (matched for age, gender, and body mass index). Subjects completed the BASFI and Baecke questionnaire and wore a triaxial accelerometer. Subjects also completed other self-reported measures on disease activity (Bath AS Disease Activity Index), fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory), and overall health (EuroQol visual analog scale). Both groups included 14 men (58%), and the mean age was 48 years. Patients scored significantly worse on the BASFI (3.9 vs 0.2) than their healthy peers, whereas PA assessed by Baecke and the accelerometer did not differ between groups. Correlations between approaches of physical functioning were low to moderate. Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index was associated with disease activity (r = 0.49) and physical fatigue (0.73) and Baecke with physical and activity related fatigue (r = 0.54 and r = 0.54), but total PA assessed by accelerometer was not associated with any of these experience-based health outcomes. Different approaches of the concept physical functioning in patients with AS provide different information. Compared with matched control subjects, patients with AS report more difficulties but report and objectively perform the same amount of PA.
Scott, L Ridgway
2011-01-01
Computational science is fundamentally changing how technological questions are addressed. The design of aircraft, automobiles, and even racing sailboats is now done by computational simulation. The mathematical foundation of this new approach is numerical analysis, which studies algorithms for computing expressions defined with real numbers. Emphasizing the theory behind the computation, this book provides a rigorous and self-contained introduction to numerical analysis and presents the advanced mathematics that underpin industrial software, including complete details that are missing from most textbooks. Using an inquiry-based learning approach, Numerical Analysis is written in a narrative style, provides historical background, and includes many of the proofs and technical details in exercises. Students will be able to go beyond an elementary understanding of numerical simulation and develop deep insights into the foundations of the subject. They will no longer have to accept the mathematical gaps that ex...
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Edoardo Del Pezzo
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Seismic coda measurements retrieve parameters linked to the physical characteristics of rock volumes illuminated by high frequency scattered waves. Space weighting functions (SWF and kernels are different tools that model the spatial sensitivity of coda envelopes to scattering and absorption anomalies in these rock matrices, allowing coda-wave attenuation ( Q c o d a imaging. This note clarifies the difference between SWF and sensitivity kernels developed for coda wave imaging. It extends the SWF previously developed in 2D to the third dimension by using radiative transfer and the diffusion equation, based on the assumption that variations of Q c o d a depend solely on variations of the extinction length. When applied to active data (Deception Island, Antarctica, 3D SWF images strongly resemble 2D images, making this 3D extension redundant. On the other hand, diffusion does not efficiently model coda waveforms when using earthquake datasets spanning depths between 0 and 20 km, such as at Mount St. Helens volcano. In this setting, scattering attenuation and absorption suffer tradeoffs and cannot be separated by fitting a single seismogram energy envelope for SWF imaging. We propose that an approximate analytical 3D SWF, similar in shape to the common coda kernels used in literature, can still be used in a space weighted back-projection approach. While Q c o d a is not a physical parameter of the propagation medium, its spatially-dependent modeling allows improved reconstruction of crustal-scale tectonic and geological features. It is even more efficient as a velocity independent imaging tool for magma and fluid storage when applied to deep volcanism.
An integrated numerical protection system (SPIN)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savornin, J.L.; Bouchet, J.M.; Furet, J.L.; Jover, P.; Sala, A.
1978-01-01
Developments in technology have now made it possible to perform more sophisticated protection functions which follow more closely the physical phenomena to be monitored. For this reason the Commissariat a l'energie atomique, Merlin-Gerin, Cerci and Framatome have embarked on the joint development of an Integrated Numerical Protection System (SPIN) which will fulfil this objective and will improve the safety and availability of power stations. The system described involves the use of programmed numerical techniques and a structure based on multiprocessors. The architecture has a redundancy of four. Throughout the development of the project the validity of the studies was confirmed by experiments. A first numerical model of a protection function was tested in the laboratory and is now in operation in a power station. A set of models was then introduced for checking the main components of the equipment finally chosen prior to building and testing a prototype. (author)
Rinkel, R N P M; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I M; de Bree, R; Aaronson, N K; Leemans, C R
2015-04-01
The objective of this study was to test the construct validity of the patient-reported outcomes Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and Speech Handicap Index (SHI) in relation to objectively measured oral function among patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer. The study sample consisted of patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer. Outcome measures were the SWAL-QOL and the SHI, and the Functional Rehabilitation Outcomes Grade (FROG), a test to measure oral and shoulder function. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to test associations between the SHI and SWAL-QOL scales, and the FROG scales. During a study period of 3 months, 38 patients (21 males, 17 females; mean age 54 years) were included who visited the outpatient clinic for follow-up care 6-155 months after surgical treatment (n = 14) or combined surgery and radiotherapy (n = 24) for oral (n = 21) or oropharyngeal cancer (n = 17). Most SWAL-QOL and SHI scales (except the SWAL-QOL Fatigue scale) correlated significantly with one or more FROG oral function scales. None of the SWAL-QOL and SHI scales correlated significantly with the FROG shoulder function scale. These results support the construct validity of the SWAL-QOL and SHI questionnaires for assessing speech and swallowing problems in daily life that are moderately but significantly related to oral function. A multidimensional assessment protocol is recommended for use in clinical practice and for research purposes for measuring oral function and swallowing- and speech-related problems in daily life among head and neck cancer patients.
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P. Benettin
2018-04-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the tran-SAS package, which includes a set of codes to model solute transport and water residence times through a hydrological system. The model is based on a catchment-scale approach that aims at reproducing the integrated response of the system at one of its outlets. The codes are implemented in MATLAB and are meant to be easy to edit, so that users with minimal programming knowledge can adapt them to the desired application. The problem of large-scale solute transport has both theoretical and practical implications. On the one side, the ability to represent the ensemble of water flow trajectories through a heterogeneous system helps unraveling streamflow generation processes and allows us to make inferences on plant–water interactions. On the other side, transport models are a practical tool that can be used to estimate the persistence of solutes in the environment. The core of the package is based on the implementation of an age master equation (ME, which is solved using general StorAge Selection (SAS functions. The age ME is first converted into a set of ordinary differential equations, each addressing the transport of an individual precipitation input through the catchment, and then it is discretized using an explicit numerical scheme. Results show that the implementation is efficient and allows the model to run in short times. The numerical accuracy is critically evaluated and it is shown to be satisfactory in most cases of hydrologic interest. Additionally, a higher-order implementation is provided within the package to evaluate and, if necessary, to improve the numerical accuracy of the results. The codes can be used to model streamflow age and solute concentration, but a number of additional outputs can be obtained by editing the codes to further advance the ability to understand and model catchment transport processes.
Benettin, Paolo; Bertuzzo, Enrico
2018-04-01
This paper presents the tran-SAS package, which includes a set of codes to model solute transport and water residence times through a hydrological system. The model is based on a catchment-scale approach that aims at reproducing the integrated response of the system at one of its outlets. The codes are implemented in MATLAB and are meant to be easy to edit, so that users with minimal programming knowledge can adapt them to the desired application. The problem of large-scale solute transport has both theoretical and practical implications. On the one side, the ability to represent the ensemble of water flow trajectories through a heterogeneous system helps unraveling streamflow generation processes and allows us to make inferences on plant-water interactions. On the other side, transport models are a practical tool that can be used to estimate the persistence of solutes in the environment. The core of the package is based on the implementation of an age master equation (ME), which is solved using general StorAge Selection (SAS) functions. The age ME is first converted into a set of ordinary differential equations, each addressing the transport of an individual precipitation input through the catchment, and then it is discretized using an explicit numerical scheme. Results show that the implementation is efficient and allows the model to run in short times. The numerical accuracy is critically evaluated and it is shown to be satisfactory in most cases of hydrologic interest. Additionally, a higher-order implementation is provided within the package to evaluate and, if necessary, to improve the numerical accuracy of the results. The codes can be used to model streamflow age and solute concentration, but a number of additional outputs can be obtained by editing the codes to further advance the ability to understand and model catchment transport processes.
Gagné, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Malo, Lison; Doyon, René; Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Donaldson, Jessica K.; Lépine, Sébastien; Lafrenière, David; Artigau, Étienne; Burgasser, Adam J.; Looper, Dagny; Boucher, Anne; Beletsky, Yuri; Camnasio, Sara; Brunette, Charles; Arboit, Geneviève
2017-02-01
A determination of the initial mass function (IMF) of the current, incomplete census of the 10 Myr-old TW Hya association (TWA) is presented. This census is built from a literature compilation supplemented with new spectra and 17 new radial velocities from ongoing membership surveys, as well as a reanalysis of Hipparcos data that confirmed HR 4334 (A2 Vn) as a member. Although the dominant uncertainty in the IMF remains census incompleteness, a detailed statistical treatment is carried out to make the IMF determination independent of binning while accounting for small number statistics. The currently known high-likelihood members are fitted by a log-normal distribution with a central mass of {0.21}-0.06+0.11 M ⊙ and a characteristic width of {0.8}-0.1+0.2 dex in the 12 M Jup-2 M ⊙ range, whereas a Salpeter power law with α ={2.2}-0.5+1.1 best describes the IMF slope in the 0.1-2 M ⊙ range. This characteristic width is higher than other young associations, which may be due to incompleteness in the current census of low-mass TWA stars. A tentative overpopulation of isolated planetary-mass members similar to 2MASS J11472421-2040204 and 2MASS J11193254-1137466 is identified: this indicates that there might be as many as {10}-5+13 similar members of TWA with hot-start model-dependent masses estimated at ˜5-7 M Jup, most of which would be too faint to be detected in 2MASS. Our new radial velocity measurements corroborate the membership of 2MASS J11472421-2040204, and secure TWA 28 (M8.5 γ), TWA 29 (M9.5 γ), and TWA 33 (M4.5 e) as members. The discovery of 2MASS J09553336-0208403, a young L7-type interloper unrelated to TWA, is also presented.
Lambrakos, S. G.
2018-04-01
Inverse thermal analysis of Ti-6Al-4V friction stir welds is presented that demonstrates application of a methodology using numerical-analytical basis functions and temperature-field constraint conditions. This analysis provides parametric representation of friction-stir-weld temperature histories that can be adopted as input data to computational procedures for prediction of solid-state phase transformations and mechanical response. These parameterized temperature histories can be used for inverse thermal analysis of friction stir welds having process conditions similar those considered here. Case studies are presented for inverse thermal analysis of friction stir welds that use three-dimensional constraint conditions on calculated temperature fields, which are associated with experimentally measured transformation boundaries and weld-stir-zone cross sections.
Brezinski, C
2012-01-01
Numerical analysis has witnessed many significant developments in the 20th century. This book brings together 16 papers dealing with historical developments, survey papers and papers on recent trends in selected areas of numerical analysis, such as: approximation and interpolation, solution of linear systems and eigenvalue problems, iterative methods, quadrature rules, solution of ordinary-, partial- and integral equations. The papers are reprinted from the 7-volume project of the Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics on '/homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html<
Tamaki, Tetsuro; Hirata, Maki; Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Saito, Kosuke; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Soeda, Shuichi; Uchiyama, Yoshiyasu; Watanabe, Masahiko
2016-01-01
Losses in vital functions of the somatic motor and sensory nervous system are induced by severe long-gap peripheral nerve transection injury. In such cases, autologous nerve grafts are the gold standard treatment, despite the unavoidable sacrifice of other healthy functions, whereas the prognosis is not always favorable. Here, we use human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (Sk-SCs) to reconstitute the function after long nerve-gap injury. Muscles samples were obtained from the amputated legs from 9 patients following unforeseen accidents. The Sk-SCs were isolated using conditioned collagenase solution, and sorted as CD34+/45- (Sk-34) and CD34-/45-/29+ (Sk-DN/29+) cells. Cells were separately cultured/expanded under optimal conditions for 2 weeks, then injected into the athymic nude mice sciatic nerve long-gap model (7-mm) bridging an acellular conduit. After 8-12 weeks, active cell engraftment was observed only in the Sk-34 cell transplanted group, showing preferential differentiation into Schwann cells and perineurial/endoneurial cells, as well as formation of the myelin sheath and perineurium/endoneurium surrounding regenerated axons, resulted in 87% of numerical recovery. Differentiation into vascular cell lineage (pericyte and endothelial cells) were also observed. A significant tetanic tension recovery (over 90%) of downstream muscles following electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve (at upper portion of the gap) was also achieved. In contrast, Sk-DN/29+ cells were completely eliminated during the first 4 weeks, but relatively higher numerical (83% vs. 41% in axon) and functional (80% vs. 60% in tetanus) recovery than control were observed. Noteworthy, significant increase in the formation of vascular networks in the conduit during the early stage (first 2 weeks) of recovery was observed in both groups with the expression of key factors (mRNA and protein levels), suggesting the paracrine effects to angiogenesis. These results suggested that the human Sk
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tetsuro Tamaki
Full Text Available Losses in vital functions of the somatic motor and sensory nervous system are induced by severe long-gap peripheral nerve transection injury. In such cases, autologous nerve grafts are the gold standard treatment, despite the unavoidable sacrifice of other healthy functions, whereas the prognosis is not always favorable. Here, we use human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (Sk-SCs to reconstitute the function after long nerve-gap injury. Muscles samples were obtained from the amputated legs from 9 patients following unforeseen accidents. The Sk-SCs were isolated using conditioned collagenase solution, and sorted as CD34+/45- (Sk-34 and CD34-/45-/29+ (Sk-DN/29+ cells. Cells were separately cultured/expanded under optimal conditions for 2 weeks, then injected into the athymic nude mice sciatic nerve long-gap model (7-mm bridging an acellular conduit. After 8-12 weeks, active cell engraftment was observed only in the Sk-34 cell transplanted group, showing preferential differentiation into Schwann cells and perineurial/endoneurial cells, as well as formation of the myelin sheath and perineurium/endoneurium surrounding regenerated axons, resulted in 87% of numerical recovery. Differentiation into vascular cell lineage (pericyte and endothelial cells were also observed. A significant tetanic tension recovery (over 90% of downstream muscles following electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve (at upper portion of the gap was also achieved. In contrast, Sk-DN/29+ cells were completely eliminated during the first 4 weeks, but relatively higher numerical (83% vs. 41% in axon and functional (80% vs. 60% in tetanus recovery than control were observed. Noteworthy, significant increase in the formation of vascular networks in the conduit during the early stage (first 2 weeks of recovery was observed in both groups with the expression of key factors (mRNA and protein levels, suggesting the paracrine effects to angiogenesis. These results suggested that the
Czerniawski, Jennifer; Miyashita, Teiko; Lewandowski, Gail; Guzowski, John F
2015-02-01
Neuroinflammation is implicated in impairments in neuronal function and cognition that arise with aging, trauma, and/or disease. Therefore, understanding the underlying basis of the effect of immune system activation on neural function could lead to therapies for treating cognitive decline. Although neuroinflammation is widely thought to preferentially impair hippocampus-dependent memory, data on the effects of cytokines on cognition are mixed. One possible explanation for these inconsistent results is that cytokines may disrupt specific neural processes underlying some forms of memory but not others. In an earlier study, we tested the effect of systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on retrieval of hippocampus-dependent context memory and neural circuit function in CA3 and CA1 (Czerniawski and Guzowski, 2014). Paralleling impairment in context discrimination memory, we observed changes in neural circuit function consistent with disrupted pattern separation function. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation selectively disrupts memory retrieval in tasks requiring hippocampal pattern separation processes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats given LPS systemically prior to testing exhibited intact performance in tasks that do not require hippocampal pattern separation processes: novel object recognition and spatial memory in the water maze. By contrast, memory retrieval in a task thought to require hippocampal pattern separation, context-object discrimination, was strongly impaired in LPS-treated rats in the absence of any gross effects on exploratory activity or motivation. These data show that LPS administration does not impair memory retrieval in all hippocampus-dependent tasks, and support the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation impairs context discrimination memory via disruption of pattern separation processes in hippocampus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Highly uniform parallel microfabrication using a large numerical aperture system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Zi-Yu; Su, Ya-Hui, E-mail: ustcsyh@ahu.edu.cn, E-mail: dongwu@ustc.edu.cn [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Zhang, Chen-Chu; Hu, Yan-Lei; Wang, Chao-Wei; Li, Jia-Wen; Chu, Jia-Ru; Wu, Dong, E-mail: ustcsyh@ahu.edu.cn, E-mail: dongwu@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Precision Machinery and Precision Instrumentation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)
2016-07-11
In this letter, we report an improved algorithm to produce accurate phase patterns for generating highly uniform diffraction-limited multifocal arrays in a large numerical aperture objective system. It is shown that based on the original diffraction integral, the uniformity of the diffraction-limited focal arrays can be improved from ∼75% to >97%, owing to the critical consideration of the aperture function and apodization effect associated with a large numerical aperture objective. The experimental results, e.g., 3 × 3 arrays of square and triangle, seven microlens arrays with high uniformity, further verify the advantage of the improved algorithm. This algorithm enables the laser parallel processing technology to realize uniform microstructures and functional devices in the microfabrication system with a large numerical aperture objective.
Database functionality for learning objects
Sessink, O.D.T.; Beeftink, H.H.; Hartog, R.J.M.
2005-01-01
The development of student-activating digital learning material in six research projects revealed several shortcomings in the current learning management systems. Once the SCORM 2004 and the IMS Sharable State Persistence specifications are implemented in learning management systems, some of these
Xue, Yingen; Meats, Alan; Beattie, G Andrew C; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Herron, Grant A
2009-08-01
Occasional pesticide application in integrated pest management to at least part of a crop requires that any biological control agents must re-invade previously sprayed areas in order that resurgent pests can be constrained. The ability of the phytoseiid predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis to feed on adult two-spotted spider mite (TSSM) Tetranychus urticae on excised leaf discs in both control conditions and in a treatment with a sub lethal residue of agricultural mineral oil (AMO) was assessed. The predator exhibited a Type II functional response with the asymptote significantly higher in the AMO conditions due to the fact that the prey grew slower and reached a smaller size in this treatment. In terms of prey volume eaten, the satiation level of the predator was unchanged by the AMO deposits. The numbers of eggs produced by adult P. persimilis females at densities of 4, 8 and 16 TSSM adult females/disc in the control were significantly higher than those in the AMO treatment, but were similar for the higher density levels, 32 and 64 prey per disc. Thus the functional response in terms of volume of prey eaten explained the numerical response in terms of predator eggs produced. The presence of AMO deposits when the prey were at high density had no effect on predator efficiency (volume eaten) but resulted in a lower intake than that in control conditions when there was a greater distance between prey.
Aimaijiang, Yiliyaer; Otomaru, Takafumi; Taniguchi, Hisashi
2016-04-01
This preliminary study examined whether the type of surgery performed for head and neck lesion was associated perceived chewing ability, objective masticatory function, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in patients who required a dento-maxillary prosthesis postoperatively. Thirty-eight patients with a dento-maxillary prosthesis were divided into three groups according to the type of surgery received: marginal mandibulectomy, segmental mandibulectomy with bony reconstruction, or glossectomy. Perceived chewing ability, objective mixing ability, and OHRQoL were evaluated using a food intake questionnaire, color-changeable chewing gum, and the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), respectively. Differences in the scores obtained by the three measures were compared between the surgical groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and associations between the scores in each group were analyzed by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. Objective mixing ability was found to be significantly low only in patients who underwent glossectomy. No other measures differed significantly between the surgical groups. Perceived chewing ability and objective mixing ability were significantly associated in the marginal mandibulectomy and glossectomy groups but not in the segmental mandibulectomy group. Furthermore, GOHAI score was significantly associated with perceived chewing ability and objective mixing ability in the marginal mandibulectomy group. Within the limitations of this study, the present findings suggest that the type of surgery received might influence food mixing ability. Associations among food mixing ability, perceived chewing and OHRQoL are not accountable depending on the type of surgery received, indicating the presence of other contributing factors to be considered. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nakamura, T
1993-01-01
In GR13 we heard many reports on recent. progress as well as future plans of detection of gravitational waves. According to these reports (see the report of the workshop on the detection of gravitational waves by Paik in this volume), it is highly probable that the sensitivity of detectors such as laser interferometers and ultra low temperature resonant bars will reach the level of h ~ 10—21 by 1998. in this level we may expect the detection of the gravitational waves from astrophysical sources such as coalescing binary neutron stars once a year or so. Therefore the progress in numerical relativity is urgently required to predict the wave pattern and amplitude of the gravitational waves from realistic astrophysical sources. The time left for numerical relativists is only six years or so although there are so many difﬁculties in principle as well as in practice.
Bugayenko, Yegor
2017-01-01
There are 23 practical recommendations for object-oriented programmers. Most of them are completely against everything you've read in other books. For example, static methods, NULL references, getters, setters, and mutable classes are called evil. Compound variable names, validators, private static literals, configurable objects, inheritance, annotations, MVC, dependency injection containers, reflection, ORM and even algorithms are our enemies.
Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)
2011-01-01
An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.
Han, Bora; Tijus, Charles; Le Barillier, Florence; Nadel, Jacqueline
2015-12-01
A morphing procedure has been designed to compare directly the perception of emotional expressions and of moving objects. Morphing tasks were presented to 12 low-functioning teenagers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (LF ASD) compared to 12 developmental age-matched typical children and a group presenting ceiling performance. In a first study, when presented with morphed stimuli of objects and emotional faces, LF ASD showed an intact perception of object change of state together with an impaired perception of emotional facial change of state. In a second study, an eye-tracker recorded visual exploration of morphed emotional stimuli displayed by a human face and a robotic set-up. Facing the morphed robotic stimuli, LF ASD displayed equal duration of fixations toward emotional regions and toward mechanical sources of motion, while the typical groups tracked the emotional regions only. Altogether the findings of the two studies suggest that individuals with ASD process motion rather than emotional signals when facing facial expressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
How to Circumvent Church Numerals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goldberg, Mayer; Torgersen, Mads
2002-01-01
In this work we consider a standard numeral system in the lambda-calculus, and the elementary arithmetic and Boolean functions and predicates defined on this numeral system, and show how to construct terms that "circumvent" or "defeat" these functions: The equality predicate is satisfied when com...
Numerical Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werneth, Charles M; Dhar, Mallika; Maung, Khin Maung; Sirola, Christopher; Norbury, John W
2010-01-01
A numerical Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization procedure is presented for constructing an orthonormal basis function set from a non-orthonormal set, when the number of basis functions is large. This method will provide a pedagogical illustration of the Gram-Schmidt procedure and can be presented in classes on numerical methods or computational physics.
Miller, Christopher B.; Bartlett, Delwyn J.; Mullins, Anna E.; Dodds, Kirsty L.; Gordon, Christopher J.; Kyle, Simon D.; Kim, Jong Won; D'Rozario, Angela L.; Lee, Rico S.C.; Comas, Maria; Marshall, Nathaniel S.; Yee, Brendon J.; Espie, Colin A.; Grunstein, Ronald R.
2016-01-01
Study Objectives: To empirically derive and evaluate potential clusters of Insomnia Disorder through cluster analysis from polysomnography (PSG). We hypothesized that clusters would differ on neurocognitive performance, sleep-onset measures of quantitative (q)-EEG and heart rate variability (HRV). Methods: Research volunteers with Insomnia Disorder (DSM-5) completed a neurocognitive assessment and overnight PSG measures of total sleep time (TST), wake time after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep onset latency (SOL) were used to determine clusters. Results: From 96 volunteers with Insomnia Disorder, cluster analysis derived at least two clusters from objective sleep parameters: Insomnia with normal objective sleep duration (I-NSD: n = 53) and Insomnia with short sleep duration (I-SSD: n = 43). At sleep onset, differences in HRV between I-NSD and I-SSD clusters suggest attenuated parasympathetic activity in I-SSD (P insomnia clusters derived from cluster analysis differ in sleep onset HRV. Preliminary data suggest evidence for three clusters in insomnia with differences for sustained attention and sleep-onset q-EEG. Clinical Trial Registration: Insomnia 100 sleep study: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) identification number 12612000049875. URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=347742. Citation: Miller CB, Bartlett DJ, Mullins AE, Dodds KL, Gordon CJ, Kyle SD, Kim JW, D'Rozario AL, Lee RS, Comas M, Marshall NS, Yee BJ, Espie CA, Grunstein RR. Clusters of Insomnia Disorder: an exploratory cluster analysis of objective sleep parameters reveals differences in neurocognitive functioning, quantitative EEG, and heart rate variability. SLEEP 2016;39(11):1993–2004. PMID:27568796
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutz, M.
1976-01-01
After some disconnected comments on the MIT bag and string models for extended hadrons, I review current understanding of extended objects in classical conventional relativistic field theories and their quantum mechanical interpretation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
CAMPBELL, PHILIP L.; PIERSON, LYNDON G.; WITZKE, EDWARD L.
1999-01-01
In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2014-01-01
Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...
Cognition in Domestic Dogs: Object Permanence & Social Cueing
Clotfelter, Ethan D.; Hollis, Karen L.
2008-01-01
Cognition is a general term describing the mental capacities of an animal, and often includes the ability to categorize, remember, and communicate about objects in the environment. Numerous regions of the telencephalon (cerebral cortex and limbic system) are responsible for these cognitive functions. Although many researchers have used traditional…
Numerical simulation in astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyama, Shoken
1985-01-01
There have been many numerical simulations of hydrodynamical problems in astrophysics, e.g. processes of star formation, supernova explosion and formation of neutron stars, and general relativistic collapse of star to form black hole. The codes are made to be suitable for computing such problems. In astrophysical hydrodynamical problems, there are the characteristics: problems of self-gravity or external gravity acting, objects of scales very large or very short, objects changing by short period or long time scale, problems of magnetic force and/or centrifugal force acting. In this paper, we present one of methods of numerical simulations which may satisfy these requirements, so-called smoothed particle methods. We then introduce the methods briefly. Then, we show one of the applications of the methods to astrophysical problem (fragmentation and collapse of rotating isothermal cloud). (Mori, K.)
Jacques, Ian
1987-01-01
This book is primarily intended for undergraduates in mathematics, the physical sciences and engineering. It introduces students to most of the techniques forming the core component of courses in numerical analysis. The text is divided into eight chapters which are largely self-contained. However, with a subject as intricately woven as mathematics, there is inevitably some interdependence between them. The level of difficulty varies and, although emphasis is firmly placed on the methods themselves rather than their analysis, we have not hesitated to include theoretical material when we consider it to be sufficiently interesting. However, it should be possible to omit those parts that do seem daunting while still being able to follow the worked examples and to tackle the exercises accompanying each section. Familiarity with the basic results of analysis and linear algebra is assumed since these are normally taught in first courses on mathematical methods. For reference purposes a list of theorems used in the t...
Hartman, Sheri J; Nelson, Sandahl H; Myers, Emily; Natarajan, Loki; Sears, Dorothy D; Palmer, Barton W; Weiner, Lauren S; Parker, Barbara A; Patterson, Ruth E
2018-01-01
Increasing physical activity can improve cognition in healthy and cognitively impaired adults; however, the benefits for cancer survivors are unknown. The current study examined a 12-week physical activity intervention, compared with a control condition, on objective and self-reported cognition among breast cancer survivors. Sedentary breast cancer survivors were randomized to an exercise arm (n = 43) or a control arm (n = 44). At baseline and at 12 weeks, objective cognition was measured with the National Institutes of Health Cognitive Toolbox, and self-reported cognition using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System scales. Linear mixed-effects regression models tested intervention effects for changes in cognition scores. On average, participants (n = 87) were aged 57 years (standard deviation, 10.4 years) and were 2.5 years (standard deviation, 1.3 years) post surgery. Scores on the Oral Symbol Digit subscale (a measure of processing speed) evidenced differential improvement in the exercise arm versus the control arm (b = 2.01; P cognition were not statistically significant but were suggestive of potential group differences. Time since surgery moderated the correlation, and participants who were ≤2 years post surgery had a significantly greater improvement in Oral Symbol Digit score (exercise vs control (b = 4.00; P 2 years postsurgery (b = -1.19; P = .40). A significant dose response was observed with greater increased physical activity associated with objective and self-reported cognition in the exercise arm. The exercise intervention significantly improved processing speed, but only among those who had been diagnosed with breast cancer within the past 2 years. Slowed processing speed can have substantial implications for independent functioning, supporting the potential importance of early implementation of an exercise intervention among patients with breast cancer. Cancer 2018;124:192-202. © 2017
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lessard, Etienne; Pouliot, Jean
2001-01-01
An anatomy-based dose optimization algorithm is developed to automatically and rapidly produce a highly conformal dose coverage of the target volume while minimizing urethra, bladder, and rectal doses in the delivery of an high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost for the treatment of prostate cancer. The dwell times are optimized using an inverse planning simulated annealing algorithm (IPSA) governed entirely from the anatomy extracted from a CT and by a dedicated objective function (cost function) reflecting clinical prescription and constraints. With this inverse planning approach, the focus is on the physician's prescription and constraint instead of on the technical limitations. Consequently, the physician's control on the treatment is improved. The capacity of this algorithm to represent the physician's prescription is presented for a clinical prostate case. The computation time (CPU) for IPSA optimization is less than 1 min (41 s for 142 915 iterations) for a typical clinical case, allowing fast and practical dose optimization. The achievement of highly conformal dose coverage to the target volume opens the possibility to deliver a higher dose to the prostate without inducing overdosage of urethra and normal tissues surrounding the prostate. Moreover, using the same concept, it will be possible to deliver a boost dose to a delimited tumor volume within the prostate. Finally, this method can be easily extended to other anatomical sites
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tybjerg, Karin
2017-01-01
of exhibiting epistemic objects that utilize their knowledge-generating potential and allow them to continue to stimulate curiosity and generate knowledge in the exhibition. The epistemic potential of the objects can then be made to work together with the function of the exhibition as a knowledge-generating set...
Dørum, Erlend S; Kaufmann, Tobias; Alnæs, Dag; Andreassen, Ole A; Richard, Geneviève; Kolskår, Knut K; Nordvik, Jan Egil; Westlye, Lars T
2017-03-01
Age-related differences in cognitive agility vary greatly between individuals and cognitive functions. This heterogeneity is partly mirrored in individual differences in brain network connectivity as revealed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), suggesting potential imaging biomarkers for age-related cognitive decline. However, although convenient in its simplicity, the resting state is essentially an unconstrained paradigm with minimal experimental control. Here, based on the conception that the magnitude and characteristics of age-related differences in brain connectivity is dependent on cognitive context and effort, we tested the hypothesis that experimentally increasing cognitive load boosts the sensitivity to age and changes the discriminative network configurations. To this end, we obtained fMRI data from younger (n=25, mean age 24.16±5.11) and older (n=22, mean age 65.09±7.53) healthy adults during rest and two load levels of continuous multiple object tracking (MOT). Brain network nodes and their time-series were estimated using independent component analysis (ICA) and dual regression, and the edges in the brain networks were defined as the regularized partial temporal correlations between each of the node pairs at the individual level. Using machine learning based on a cross-validated regularized linear discriminant analysis (rLDA) we attempted to classify groups and cognitive load from the full set of edge-wise functional connectivity indices. While group classification using resting-state data was highly above chance (approx. 70% accuracy), functional connectivity (FC) obtained during MOT strongly increased classification performance, with 82% accuracy for the young and 95% accuracy for the old group at the highest load level. Further, machine learning revealed stronger differentiation between rest and task in young compared to older individuals, supporting the notion of network dedifferentiation in cognitive aging. Task
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer
2009-01-01
-- an outline which at the same time indicates the need for transformations of the Durkheimian model on decisive points. Thus, thirdly, it returns to Durkheim and undertakes to develop his concepts in a direction suitable for a sociological theory of fashion. Finally, it discusses the theoretical implications......This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.
1996-01-01
The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)
Objects, materiality and meaning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne
2008-01-01
The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function...... of the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the object and the selection of materials. Through the manipulation of shape and materials can symbolic and sensory information...... be written into the object. The materials are therefore carriers of communication, even though this is dependent of the cultural context and the environment which the object will be part of. However the designer has only minor influence on those....
Transportation package design using numerical optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harding, D.C.; Witkowski, W.R.
1993-01-01
Since the design of transportation packages involves a complex coupling of structural, thermal and radiation shielding analyses and must follow very strict design constraints, numerical optimization provides the potential for more efficient container designs. In numerical optimization, the requirements of the design problem are mathematically formulated through the use of an objective function and constraints. The objective function(s), e.g., package weight, cost, volume, or combination thereof, is the function to be minimized or maximized by altering a set of design variables that define the package's shape and dimensions. Constraints are limitations on the performance of the system, such as resisting structural and thermal accident environments. Two constraints defined for an example wire mesh composite Type B package are: 1) deformation in the containment vessel seal region remains small enough throughout the 10 CFR-71 accident conditions to meet containment criteria, and 2) the elastomeric seal region remains below its operational temperature limit to guarantee seal integrity in the fire environment. The first constraint of a minimum energy absorbing layer thickness is evaluated with finite element analyses of the proposed dynamic crush accident criteria. The second constraint is evaluated with a 1-D transient thermal finite difference code parametrized for variable composite layer thicknesses, and is integrated with the optimization process. (J.P.N.)
Kostuj, Tanja; Stief, Felix; Hartmann, Kirsten Anna; Schaper, Katharina; Arabmotlagh, Mohammad; Baums, Mike H; Meurer, Andrea; Krummenauer, Frank; Lieske, Sebastian
2018-04-05
After cross-cultural adaption for the German translation of the Ankle-Hindfoot Scale of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS-AHS) and agreement analysis with the Foot Function Index (FFI-D), the following gait analysis study using the Oxford Foot Model (OFM) was carried out to show which of the two scores better correlates with objective gait dysfunction. Results of the AOFAS-AHS and FFI-D, as well as data from three-dimensional gait analysis were collected from 20 patients with mild to severe ankle and hindfoot pathologies.Kinematic and kinetic gait data were correlated with the results of the total AOFAS scale and FFI-D as well as the results of those items representing hindfoot function in the AOFAS-AHS assessment. With respect to the foot disorders in our patients (osteoarthritis and prearthritic conditions), we correlated the total range of motion (ROM) in the ankle and subtalar joints as identified by the OFM with values identified during clinical examination 'translated' into score values. Furthermore, reduced walking speed, reduced step length and reduced maximum ankle power generation during push-off were taken into account and correlated to gait abnormalities described in the scores. An analysis of correlations with CIs between the FFI-D and the AOFAS-AHS items and the gait parameters was performed by means of the Jonckheere-Terpstra test; furthermore, exploratory factor analysis was applied to identify common information structures and thereby redundancy in the FFI-D and the AOFAS-AHS items. Objective findings for hindfoot disorders, namely a reduced ROM, in the ankle and subtalar joints, respectively, as well as reduced ankle power generation during push-off, showed a better correlation with the AOFAS-AHS total score-as well as AOFAS-AHS items representing ROM in the ankle, subtalar joints and gait function-compared with the FFI-D score.Factor analysis, however, could not identify FFI-D items consistently related to these three
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malhotra, G.; Seshadri, N.; Gupta, A.; Das, B.K.; Gambhir, S.; Pradhan, P.K.; Bhagat, J.K.
2002-01-01
Aim: Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) measurements are used to distinguish other causes of thyrotoxicosis from hyperthyroidism. However it is a cumbersome technique requiring patients' visit for two or more days. Thyroid to parotid ratio (TP ratio) which is a ratio of Technetium-99m pertechnetate counts in thyroid to those in parotid glands is a new objective parameter for evaluation of thyroid function. The aim of present study was to compare TP ratio with RAIU in patients of thyrotoxicosis. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 15 patients (13 males and 2 females) who were clinically and biochemically hyperthyroid. All of these patients underwent Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy followed by RAIU on two separate occasions. The technetium thyroid scan was done 20 minutes after intravenous application of 185 MBq (5 mCi) of the radiotracer. Both anterior and oblique views of the neck region were acquired under a standard large field of view gamma camera with LEAP collimation. The TP ratio was calculated from anterior view by drawing the region of interest over the thyroid and two regions of interest over each parotid gland. The counts of thyroid region were compared with each parotid and average of two sides was taken as TP ratio. The radioactive iodine uptake was estimated at 2,4,24, and 48 hours after oral administration of 925 KBq (25 microcuries) of I-131 in all patients with a thyroid probe by the standard technique. Apart from this 10 controls (5 males and 5 females) who were clinically and biochemically euthyroid were also included in the study and they underwent same studies as the cases. All patients with nodular disease of thyroid, past history of thyroiditis and parotitis were excluded from the study. Results: The scintigraphic findings in all patients revealed a diffusely concentrating thyroid gland with no evidence of hot or cold areas. The RAIU and TP ratio in both cases and controls is presented.: S.E: Standard error. There was a
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Robering, Klaus
2014-01-01
Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these obj......Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...
Gardner, Raquel C; Langa, Kenneth M; Yaffe, Kristine
2017-03-01
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is extremely common across the lifespan and is an established risk factor for dementia. The cognitive profile of the large and growing population of older adults with prior TBI who do not have a diagnosis of dementia, however, has not been well described. Our aim was to describe the cognitive profile associated with prior TBI exposure among community-dwelling older adults without dementia-an understudied but potentially vulnerable population. In this population-based cohort study, we studied 984 community-dwelling older adults (age 51 y and older and their spouses) without dementia who had been randomly selected from respondents to the 2014 wave of the Health and Retirement Study to participate in a comprehensive TBI survey and who either reported no prior TBI (n = 737) or prior symptomatic TBI resulting in treatment in a hospital (n = 247). Mean time since first TBI was 38 ± 19 y. Outcomes assessed included measures of global cognitive function, verbal episodic memory, semantic fluency, and calculation as well as a measure of subjective memory ("How would you rate your memory at the present time?"). We compared outcomes between the two TBI groups using regression models adjusting for demographics, medical comorbidities, and depression. Sensitivity analyses were performed stratified by TBI severity (no TBI, TBI without loss of consciousness [LOC], and TBI with LOC). Respondents with TBI were younger (mean age 64 ± 10 y versus 68 ± 11 y), were less likely to be female, and had higher prevalence of medical comorbidities and depression than respondents without TBI. Respondents with TBI did not perform significantly differently from respondents without TBI on any measure of objective cognitive function in either raw or adjusted models (fully adjusted: global cognitive function score 15.4 versus 15.2, p = 0.68; verbal episodic memory score 4.4 versus 4.3, p = 0.79; semantic fluency score 15.7 versus 14.0, p = 0.21; calculation impairment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raquel C Gardner
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is extremely common across the lifespan and is an established risk factor for dementia. The cognitive profile of the large and growing population of older adults with prior TBI who do not have a diagnosis of dementia, however, has not been well described. Our aim was to describe the cognitive profile associated with prior TBI exposure among community-dwelling older adults without dementia-an understudied but potentially vulnerable population.In this population-based cohort study, we studied 984 community-dwelling older adults (age 51 y and older and their spouses without dementia who had been randomly selected from respondents to the 2014 wave of the Health and Retirement Study to participate in a comprehensive TBI survey and who either reported no prior TBI (n = 737 or prior symptomatic TBI resulting in treatment in a hospital (n = 247. Mean time since first TBI was 38 ± 19 y. Outcomes assessed included measures of global cognitive function, verbal episodic memory, semantic fluency, and calculation as well as a measure of subjective memory ("How would you rate your memory at the present time?". We compared outcomes between the two TBI groups using regression models adjusting for demographics, medical comorbidities, and depression. Sensitivity analyses were performed stratified by TBI severity (no TBI, TBI without loss of consciousness [LOC], and TBI with LOC. Respondents with TBI were younger (mean age 64 ± 10 y versus 68 ± 11 y, were less likely to be female, and had higher prevalence of medical comorbidities and depression than respondents without TBI. Respondents with TBI did not perform significantly differently from respondents without TBI on any measure of objective cognitive function in either raw or adjusted models (fully adjusted: global cognitive function score 15.4 versus 15.2, p = 0.68; verbal episodic memory score 4.4 versus 4.3, p = 0.79; semantic fluency score 15.7 versus 14.0, p = 0.21; calculation
Glonnegger, Hannah; Beyle, Aline; Cerff, Bernhard; Gräber, Susanne; Csoti, Ilona; Berg, Daniela; Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga
2016-07-06
There is need for multidimensional quantitative assessment of cognitive driven activities of daily living (ADL) functions in Parkinson's disease (PD). To determine whether there is an ADL profile related to cognitive impairment in PD assessed by the Multiple Object Test (MOT). We assumed MOT performance to be lower in PD patients versus controls and in PD patients with more severe cognitive impairment. 50 PD patients with no cognitive impairment (PD-NC), 54 patients with PD-mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), 29 with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and 40 healthy controls (HC) were investigated. Besides comprehensive cognitive testing, the MOT, a performance based test consisting of five routine tasks (e.g., preparing a cup of coffee), was applied. Quantitative (total errors and time) and qualitative (error type) MOT parameters were analyzed. Total time and number of MOT errors was increased in PD patients compared to controls (p < 0.001). These parameters also differentiated PDD patients from other cognitive groups (p < 0.05). No control subject had ≥ 4 errors in the MOT, but 30% of PD patients, especially PDD, scored above this cut-off. Omission (p < 0.001) and mislocation (p < 0.03) errors were more prominent in PDD than other cognitive groups. Perplexity errors did not differ between PD-MCI and PDD but between PD-NC and PDD (p = 0.01). MOT parameters discriminating between cognitive groups correlated mainly with lower test performance in psychomotor speed and executive function. Performance based testing is promising to identify quantitative and qualitative ADL aspects differentiating between different cognitive groups which might be helpful for an early detection of PDD.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braams, B.J.; Chung, H.-K.
2011-01-01
This is the 21st meeting of the International Atomic and Molecular Data Centres Network. The traditional DCN meeting objectives are: to exchange information about activities in the Centres and review progress; to coordinate work in the Centres; to assess priorities in data evaluation and data production; to make plans for specific evaluations; and to evaluate and revise procedures for collection and exchange of bibliographical and numerical data. All of these are objectives for the present meeting too. In addition to the presentations from DCN and prospective DCN members we have two participants from outside the field of fusion data: Dr N. Mason will tell us about coordination of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre and Dr S. Simakov will describe the manner in which nuclear structure and cross-section database development is coordinated by our colleagues in the Nuclear Data Section. In the discussions on Thursday and Friday there are two topics that need special attention this year: the future of our bibliographical data compilation and ways in which we can strengthen data evaluation activities, all with emphasis on collision processes and plasma-material interaction. The first 3 Data Centre Network meetings were held in 1977, 1980 and 1982 and the reports of those meetings make interesting reading and can still provide inspiration for the present meeting. I show some excerpts in the presentation. In 1977 the emphasis was on the coordination of the bibliographical database, AMBDAS, and a collision data index, CIAMDA, as the initial activities of the Network and of the newly formed IAEA A+M Data Unit. In 1980 the central topic of discussion at the meeting shifted to the numerical database and to data evaluation. The Network recommended that numerical data be reviewed by a selected group of scientists and that no unevaluated numerical A+M collision data should be distributed by the IAEA. The report of the meeting in 1982 shows that the bibliographical
A probabilistic multi objective CLSC model with Genetic algorithm-ε_Constraint approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alireza TaheriMoghadam
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper an uncertain multi objective closed-loop supply chain is developed. The first objective function is maximizing the total profit. The second objective function is minimizing the use of row materials. In the other word, the second objective function is maximizing the amount of remanufacturing and recycling. Genetic algorithm is used for optimization and for finding the pareto optimal line, Epsilon-constraint method is used. Finally a numerical example is solved with proposed approach and performance of the model is evaluated in different sizes. The results show that this approach is effective and useful for managerial decisions.
Multilevel Monte Carlo Approaches for Numerical Homogenization
Efendiev, Yalchin R.
2015-10-01
In this article, we study the application of multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) approaches to numerical random homogenization. Our objective is to compute the expectation of some functionals of the homogenized coefficients, or of the homogenized solutions. This is accomplished within MLMC by considering different sizes of representative volumes (RVEs). Many inexpensive computations with the smallest RVE size are combined with fewer expensive computations performed on larger RVEs. Likewise, when it comes to homogenized solutions, different levels of coarse-grid meshes are used to solve the homogenized equation. We show that, by carefully selecting the number of realizations at each level, we can achieve a speed-up in the computations in comparison to a standard Monte Carlo method. Numerical results are presented for both one-dimensional and two-dimensional test-cases that illustrate the efficiency of the approach.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mussati, Sergio F.; Gernaey, Krist V.; Morosuk, Tatiana; Mussati, Miguel C.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A NLP model is used for simultaneous optimization of sizes and operating conditions. • Total exergy loss rate and transfer area are optimized as single objective functions. • Theoretical and practical bounds for cost optimization problems are computed. • A systematic solution strategy is proposed for total annual cost optimization. • Relevance of components is ranked by heat transfer area, exergy loss rate, and cost. - Abstract: Based on a nonlinear mathematical programming model, the sizes and operating conditions of the process units of single-effect absorption refrigeration systems operating with a LiBr–H_2O solution are optimized for a specified cooling capacity by minimizing three single objective functions: the total exergy loss rate, the total heat transfer area, and the total annual cost of the system. It was found that the optimal solution obtained by minimization of the total exergy loss rate provides “theoretical” upper bounds not only for the total heat transfer area of the system but also for each process unit and all stream temperatures, while the optimal solution obtained by minimization of the total heat transfer area provides the lower bounds for these model variables, to solve a cost optimization problem. The minimization of the total exergy loss rate by varying parametrically the available total heat transfer area between these bounds was also performed, allowing to see how the optimal distribution of the available total heat transfer area among the system components, as well as the operating conditions (stream temperature, pressure, composition, and mass flow rate) and heat loads, vary qualitatively and quantitatively with increasing available total heat transfer area. These optimization results allowed to find a “practical” value of the total heat transfer area, i.e. no benefits can be obtained by increasing the available total heat transfer area above this value since the minimal total exergy loss value cannot
Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Wang, Ruikang K.; Chen, Fangyi; Nuttall, Alfred L.
2013-03-01
Most of the optical coherence tomographic (OCT) systems for high resolution imaging of biological specimens are based on refractive type microscope objectives, which are optimized for specific wave length of the optical source. In this study, we present the feasibility of using commercially available reflective type objective for high sensitive and high resolution structural and functional imaging of cochlear microstructures of an excised guinea pig through intact temporal bone. Unlike conventional refractive type microscopic objective, reflective objective are free from chromatic aberrations due to their all-reflecting nature and can support a broadband of spectrum with very high light collection efficiency.
Multi-objective possibilistic model for portfolio selection with transaction cost
Jana, P.; Roy, T. K.; Mazumder, S. K.
2009-06-01
In this paper, we introduce the possibilistic mean value and variance of continuous distribution, rather than probability distributions. We propose a multi-objective Portfolio based model and added another entropy objective function to generate a well diversified asset portfolio within optimal asset allocation. For quantifying any potential return and risk, portfolio liquidity is taken into account and a multi-objective non-linear programming model for portfolio rebalancing with transaction cost is proposed. The models are illustrated with numerical examples.
Gamifying Video Object Segmentation.
Spampinato, Concetto; Palazzo, Simone; Giordano, Daniela
2017-10-01
Video object segmentation can be considered as one of the most challenging computer vision problems. Indeed, so far, no existing solution is able to effectively deal with the peculiarities of real-world videos, especially in cases of articulated motion and object occlusions; limitations that appear more evident when we compare the performance of automated methods with the human one. However, manually segmenting objects in videos is largely impractical as it requires a lot of time and concentration. To address this problem, in this paper we propose an interactive video object segmentation method, which exploits, on one hand, the capability of humans to identify correctly objects in visual scenes, and on the other hand, the collective human brainpower to solve challenging and large-scale tasks. In particular, our method relies on a game with a purpose to collect human inputs on object locations, followed by an accurate segmentation phase achieved by optimizing an energy function encoding spatial and temporal constraints between object regions as well as human-provided location priors. Performance analysis carried out on complex video benchmarks, and exploiting data provided by over 60 users, demonstrated that our method shows a better trade-off between annotation times and segmentation accuracy than interactive video annotation and automated video object segmentation approaches.
Technical objectives of inspection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sorenson, R.J.; Stewart, K.B.; Schneider, R.A.
1976-01-01
The various technical objectives of inspection are discussed in a very general manner. The discussion includes how the inspection function is related to the assumed threat, the various degrees of assurance and reliance on criteria, and the hierarchy of assurance which is obtained from the various types or levels of inspection
T.M. Dunster (Mark); A. Gil (Amparo); J. Segura (Javier); N.M. Temme (Nico)
2014-01-01
textabstractWe consider the problem of computing satisfactory pair of solutions of the differential equation for Legendre functions of non-negative integer order $\\mu$ and degree $-\\frac12+i\\tau$, where $\\tau$ is a non-negative real parameter. Solutions of this equation are the conical functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Donald David Hoffman
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexist-ing physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have defi-nite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are com-pendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a conscious agent. We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale.
Numerical simulation in plasma physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samarskii, A.A.
1980-01-01
Plasma physics is not only a field for development of physical theories and mathematical models but also an object of application of the computational experiment comprising analytical and numerical methods adapted for computers. The author considers only MHD plasma physics problems. Examples treated are dissipative structures in plasma; MHD model of solar dynamo; supernova explosion simulation; and plasma compression by a liner. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Junfeng; Newell, John D.; Wang, Chao; Chan, Kung-Sik; Jin, Dakai; Saha, Punam K.; Sieren, Jered P.; Barr, R. G.; Han, MeiLan K.; Kazerooni, Ella; Cooper, Christopher B.; Couper, David; Hoffman, Eric A.
2016-01-01
Purpose: A test object (phantom) is an important tool to evaluate comparability and stability of CT scanners used in multicenter and longitudinal studies. However, there are many sources of error that can interfere with the test object-derived quantitative measurements. Here the authors investigated three major possible sources of operator error in the use of a test object employed to assess pulmonary density-related as well as airway-related metrics. Methods: Two kinds of experiments were carried out to assess measurement variability caused by imperfect scanning status. The first one consisted of three experiments. A COPDGene test object was scanned using a dual source multidetector computed tomographic scanner (Siemens Somatom Flash) with the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) inspiration protocol (120 kV, 110 mAs, pitch = 1, slice thickness = 0.75 mm, slice spacing = 0.5 mm) to evaluate the effects of tilt angle, water bottle offset, and air bubble size. After analysis of these results, a guideline was reached in order to achieve more reliable results for this test object. Next the authors applied the above findings to 2272 test object scans collected over 4 years as part of the SPIROMICS study. The authors compared changes of the data consistency before and after excluding the scans that failed to pass the guideline. Results: This study established the following limits for the test object: tilt index ≤0.3, water bottle offset limits of [−6.6 mm, 7.4 mm], and no air bubble within the water bottle, where tilt index is a measure incorporating two tilt angles around x- and y-axis. With 95% confidence, the density measurement variation for all five interested materials in the test object (acrylic, water, lung, inside air, and outside air) resulting from all three error sources can be limited to ±0.9 HU (summed in quadrature), when all the requirements are satisfied. The authors applied these criteria to 2272 SPIROMICS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, Junfeng; Newell, John D. [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Wang, Chao; Chan, Kung-Sik [Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Jin, Dakai; Saha, Punam K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Sieren, Jered P. [Department of Radiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Barr, R. G. [Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032 (United States); Han, MeiLan K. [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Kazerooni, Ella [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Cooper, Christopher B. [Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Couper, David [Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Hoffman, Eric A., E-mail: eric-hoffman@uiowa.edu [Departments of Radiology, Medicine and Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)
2016-05-15
Purpose: A test object (phantom) is an important tool to evaluate comparability and stability of CT scanners used in multicenter and longitudinal studies. However, there are many sources of error that can interfere with the test object-derived quantitative measurements. Here the authors investigated three major possible sources of operator error in the use of a test object employed to assess pulmonary density-related as well as airway-related metrics. Methods: Two kinds of experiments were carried out to assess measurement variability caused by imperfect scanning status. The first one consisted of three experiments. A COPDGene test object was scanned using a dual source multidetector computed tomographic scanner (Siemens Somatom Flash) with the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) inspiration protocol (120 kV, 110 mAs, pitch = 1, slice thickness = 0.75 mm, slice spacing = 0.5 mm) to evaluate the effects of tilt angle, water bottle offset, and air bubble size. After analysis of these results, a guideline was reached in order to achieve more reliable results for this test object. Next the authors applied the above findings to 2272 test object scans collected over 4 years as part of the SPIROMICS study. The authors compared changes of the data consistency before and after excluding the scans that failed to pass the guideline. Results: This study established the following limits for the test object: tilt index ≤0.3, water bottle offset limits of [−6.6 mm, 7.4 mm], and no air bubble within the water bottle, where tilt index is a measure incorporating two tilt angles around x- and y-axis. With 95% confidence, the density measurement variation for all five interested materials in the test object (acrylic, water, lung, inside air, and outside air) resulting from all three error sources can be limited to ±0.9 HU (summed in quadrature), when all the requirements are satisfied. The authors applied these criteria to 2272 SPIROMICS
Poon, Kenneth K.; Watson, Linda R.; Baranek, Grace T.; Poe, Michele D.
2012-01-01
The extent to which early social communication behaviors predict later communication and intellectual outcomes was investigated via retrospective video analysis. Joint attention, imitation, and complex object play behaviors were coded from edited home videos featuring scenes of 29 children with ASD at 9-12 and/or 15-18 months. A quantitative…
Tan, Jianbo; Liu, Dongdong; Huang, Chundong; Li, Xueliang; He, Jun; Xu, Qin; Zhang, Li
2017-08-01
Herein, a novel photoinitiated polymerization-induced self-assembly formulation via photoinitiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer dispersion polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (PGMA) in ethanol-water at room temperature is reported. It is demonstrated that conducting polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) at low temperatures is crucial for obtaining colloidal stable PGMA-based diblock copolymer nano-objects. Good control is maintained during the photo-PISA process with a high rate of polymerization. The polymerization can be switched between "ON" and "OFF" in response to visible light. A phase diagram is constructed by varying monomer concentration and degree of polymerization. The PGMA-based diblock copolymer nano-objects can be further cross-linked by using a bifunctional primary amine reagent. Finally, silver nanoparticles are loaded within cross-linked vesicles via in situ reduction, exhibiting good catalytic properties. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thaís Helena Ferreira Santos
2012-12-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar objetivamente as alterações de crianças e adolescentes incluídos no espectro do autismo de acordo com o grau de severidade definido a partir das respostas ao Functional Communication Profile - Revised (FCP-R. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas 50 crianças (idade média 7 anos e 11 meses com diagnósticos no espectro do autismo que foram avaliados segundo os critérios do FCP-R. As respostas obtidas foram pontuadas e classificadas de acordo com a severidade e realizada análise estatística pertinente. RESULTADOS: A caracterização dessa população evidenciou dados concordantes com a literatura, mostrando prejuízos nas áreas de linguagem (expressiva e receptiva, comportamento e pragmática, principalmente. Os indivíduos que não possuem habilidades verbais evidenciaram, ainda, alterações referentes aos domínios fala e fluência. CONCLUSÃO: O FCP-R foi sensível para caracterizar a população estudada, mostrando-se ainda mais eficaz para a avaliação individualizada.PURPOSE: To objectively characterize the alterations of autistic children and adolescents as to their severity degree, according to the answers to the Functional Communication Profile - Revised (FCP-R. METHODS: Subjects were 50 children (mean age 7 years 11 months with diagnosis within the autism spectrum that were assessed according to the FCP-R criteria. Answers were scored and classified according to severity, and the results were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: This group characterization evidenced results that agree with the literature, showing disorders mainly in the areas of language (expressive and receptive, behavior and pragmatics. Individuals without verbal communication also showed speech and fluency disorders. CONCLUSION: The FCP-R was sensitive to characterize the studied population, and even more efficient for individual assessment.
Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Hanich, Laurie B.
2010-01-01
Turner syndrome is a common genetic disorder associated with select deficits in executive functions, working memory and mathematics. In Study 1, we examined growth trajectories of skills in these areas, from grades 1 to 6, among girls with or without Turner syndrome. Rates of growth and performance levels at 6th grade, on an untimed math…
Numerical Optimization in Microfluidics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg
2017-01-01
Numerical modelling can illuminate the working mechanism and limitations of microfluidic devices. Such insights are useful in their own right, but one can take advantage of numerical modelling in a systematic way using numerical optimization. In this chapter we will discuss when and how numerical...... optimization is best used....
Methods of numerical relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piran, T.
1983-01-01
Numerical Relativity is an alternative to analytical methods for obtaining solutions for Einstein equations. Numerical methods are particularly useful for studying generation of gravitational radiation by potential strong sources. The author reviews the analytical background, the numerical analysis aspects and techniques and some of the difficulties involved in numerical relativity. (Auth.)
Parand, K.; Nikarya, M.
2017-11-01
In this paper a novel method will be introduced to solve a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE). In the proposed method, we use the spectral collocation method based on Bessel functions of the first kind and the Jacobian free Newton-generalized minimum residual (JFNGMRes) method with adaptive preconditioner. In this work a nonlinear PDE has been converted to a nonlinear system of algebraic equations using the collocation method based on Bessel functions without any linearization, discretization or getting the help of any other methods. Finally, by using JFNGMRes, the solution of the nonlinear algebraic system is achieved. To illustrate the reliability and efficiency of the proposed method, we solve some examples of the famous Fisher equation. We compare our results with other methods.
F.M. Cramwinckel (Florien); D. de Cremer (David); M.H. van Dijke (Marius)
2013-01-01
textabstractWe studied the role of social dynamics in moral decision-making and behavior by investigating how physical sensations of dirtiness versus cleanliness influence moral behavior in leader-subordinate relationships, and whether a leader's self-interest functions as a boundary condition to
Cramwinckel, F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/339458739; De Cremer, D.; van Dijke, M.
2012-01-01
We studied the role of social dynamics in moral decision-making and behavior by investigating how physical sensations of dirtiness versus cleanliness inﬂuence moral behavior in leader–subordinate relationships, and whether a leader’s self-interest functions as a boundary condition to this effect. A
Alfianto, E.; Rusydi, F.; Aisyah, N. D.; Fadilla, R. N.; Dipojono, H. K.; Martoprawiro, M. A.
2017-05-01
This study implemented DFT method into the C++ programming language with object-oriented programming rules (expressive software). The use of expressive software results in getting a simple programming structure, which is similar to mathematical formula. This will facilitate the scientific community to develop the software. We validate our software by calculating the energy band structure of Silica, Carbon, and Germanium with FCC structure using the Projector Augmented Wave (PAW) method then compare the results to Quantum Espresso calculation’s results. This study shows that the accuracy of the software is 85% compared to Quantum Espresso.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alfianto, E; Rusydi, F; Aisyah, N D; Dipojono, H K; Martoprawiro, M A; Fadilla, R N
2017-01-01
This study implemented DFT method into the C++ programming language with object-oriented programming rules (expressive software). The use of expressive software results in getting a simple programming structure, which is similar to mathematical formula. This will facilitate the scientific community to develop the software. We validate our software by calculating the energy band structure of Silica, Carbon, and Germanium with FCC structure using the Projector Augmented Wave (PAW) method then compare the results to Quantum Espresso calculation’s results. This study shows that the accuracy of the software is 85% compared to Quantum Espresso. (paper)
Miller, Christopher B; Bartlett, Delwyn J; Mullins, Anna E; Dodds, Kirsty L; Gordon, Christopher J; Kyle, Simon D; Kim, Jong Won; D'Rozario, Angela L; Lee, Rico S C; Comas, Maria; Marshall, Nathaniel S; Yee, Brendon J; Espie, Colin A; Grunstein, Ronald R
2016-11-01
To empirically derive and evaluate potential clusters of Insomnia Disorder through cluster analysis from polysomnography (PSG). We hypothesized that clusters would differ on neurocognitive performance, sleep-onset measures of quantitative ( q )-EEG and heart rate variability (HRV). Research volunteers with Insomnia Disorder (DSM-5) completed a neurocognitive assessment and overnight PSG measures of total sleep time (TST), wake time after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep onset latency (SOL) were used to determine clusters. From 96 volunteers with Insomnia Disorder, cluster analysis derived at least two clusters from objective sleep parameters: Insomnia with normal objective sleep duration (I-NSD: n = 53) and Insomnia with short sleep duration (I-SSD: n = 43). At sleep onset, differences in HRV between I-NSD and I-SSD clusters suggest attenuated parasympathetic activity in I-SSD (P insomnia clusters derived from cluster analysis differ in sleep onset HRV. Preliminary data suggest evidence for three clusters in insomnia with differences for sustained attention and sleep-onset q -EEG. Insomnia 100 sleep study: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) identification number 12612000049875. URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=347742. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Risk Management of Jettisoned Objects in LEO
Bacon, John B.; Gray, Charles
2011-01-01
The construction and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS) has led to the release of many objects into its orbital plane, usually during the course of an extra-vehicular activity (EVA). Such releases are often unintentional, but in a growing number of cases, the jettison has been intentional, conducted after a careful assessment of the net risk to the partnership and to other objects in space. Since its launch in 1998 the ISS has contributed on average at least one additional debris object that is simultaneously in orbit with the station, although the number varies widely from zero to eight at any one moment. All of these objects present potential risks to other objects in orbit. Whether it comes from known and tracked orbiting objects or from unknown or untrackable objects, collision with orbital debris can have disastrous consequences. Objects greater than 10cm are generally well documented and tracked, allowing orbiting spacecraft or satellites opportunities to perform evasive maneuvers (commonly known as Debris Avoidance Maneuvers, or DAMs) in the event that imminent collision is predicted. The issue with smaller debris; however, is that it is too numerous to be tracked effectively and yet still poses disastrous consequences if it intercepts a larger object. Due to the immense kinetic energy of any item in orbit, collision with debris as small as 1cm can have catastrophic consequences for many orbiting satellites or spacecraft. Faced with the growing orbital debris threat and the potentially catastrophic consequences of a collision-generated debris shower originating in an orbit crossing the ISS altitude band, in 2007 the ISS program manger asked program specialists to coordinate a multilateral jettison policy amongst the ISS partners. This policy would define the acceptable risk trade rationale for intentional release of a debris object, and other mandatory constraints on such jettisons to minimize the residual risks whenever a jettison was
Parand, Kourosh; Mahdi Moayeri, Mohammad; Latifi, Sobhan; Delkhosh, Mehdi
2017-07-01
In this paper, a spectral method based on the four kinds of rational Chebyshev functions is proposed to approximate the solution of the boundary layer flow of an Eyring-Powell fluid over a stretching sheet. First, by using the quasilinearization method (QLM), the model which is a nonlinear ordinary differential equation is converted to a sequence of linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). By applying the proposed method on the ODEs in each iteration, the equations are converted to a system of linear algebraic equations. The results indicate the high accuracy and convergence of our method. Moreover, the effects of the Eyring-Powell fluid material parameters are discussed.
Koskinen, Sanna; Hokkinen, Eeva-Maija; Wilson, Lindsay; Sarajuuri, Jaana; Von Steinbüchel, Nicole; Truelle, Jean-Luc
2011-01-01
The aim is to examine two aspects of outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Functional outcome was assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale - Extended (GOSE) and by clinician ratings, while health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed by the Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI). The GOSE and the QOLIBRI were linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to analyse their content. Functional outcome on ICF categories was assessed by rehabilitation clinicians in 55 participants with TBI and was compared to the participants' own judgements of their HRQoL. The QOLIBRI was linked to 42 and the GOSE to 57 two-level ICF categories covering 78% of the categories on the ICF brief core set for TBI. The closest agreement in the views of the professionals and the participants was found on the Physical Problems and Cognition scales of the QOLIBRI. The problems encountered after TBI are well covered by the QOLIBRI and the GOSE. They capture important domains that are not traditionally sufficiently documented, especially in the domains of interpersonal relationships, social and leisure activities, self and the environment. The findings indicate that they are useful and complementary outcome measures for TBI. In rehabilitation, they can serve as tools in assessment, setting meaningful goals and creating therapeutic alliance.
Multi-objective optimization of a plate and frame heat exchanger via genetic algorithm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Najafi, Hamidreza; Najafi, Behzad [K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran (Iran)
2010-06-15
In the present paper, a plate and frame heat exchanger is considered. Multi-objective optimization using genetic algorithm is developed in order to obtain a set of geometric design parameters, which lead to minimum pressure drop and the maximum overall heat transfer coefficient. Vividly, considered objective functions are conflicting and no single solution can satisfy both objectives simultaneously. Multi-objective optimization procedure yields a set of optimal solutions, called Pareto front, each of which is a trade-off between objectives and can be selected by the user, regarding the application and the project's limits. The presented work takes care of numerous geometric parameters in the presence of logical constraints. A sensitivity analysis is also carried out to study the effects of different geometric parameters on the considered objective functions. Modeling the system and implementing the multi-objective optimization via genetic algorithm has been performed by MATLAB. (orig.)
Spurious Numerical Solutions Of Differential Equations
Lafon, A.; Yee, H. C.
1995-01-01
Paper presents detailed study of spurious steady-state numerical solutions of differential equations that contain nonlinear source terms. Main objectives of this study are (1) to investigate how well numerical steady-state solutions of model nonlinear reaction/convection boundary-value problem mimic true steady-state solutions and (2) to relate findings of this investigation to implications for interpretation of numerical results from computational-fluid-dynamics algorithms and computer codes used to simulate reacting flows.
Early object relations into new objects.
Downey, T W
2001-01-01
Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious
Counting with symmetric functions
Mendes, Anthony
2015-01-01
This monograph provides a self-contained introduction to symmetric functions and their use in enumerative combinatorics. It is the first book to explore many of the methods and results that the authors present. Numerous exercises are included throughout, along with full solutions, to illustrate concepts and also highlight many interesting mathematical ideas. The text begins by introducing fundamental combinatorial objects such as permutations and integer partitions, as well as generating functions. Symmetric functions are considered in the next chapter, with a unique emphasis on the combinatorics of the transition matrices between bases of symmetric functions. Chapter 3 uses this introductory material to describe how to find an assortment of generating functions for permutation statistics, and then these techniques are extended to find generating functions for a variety of objects in Chapter 4. The next two chapters present the Robinson-Schensted-Knuth algorithm and a method for proving Pólya’s enu...
Gaps in nonsymmetric numerical semigroups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fel, Leonid G.; Aicardi, Francesca
2006-12-01
There exist two different types of gaps in the nonsymmetric numerical semigroups S(d 1 , . . . , d m ) finitely generated by a minimal set of positive integers {d 1 , . . . , d m }. We give the generating functions for the corresponding sets of gaps. Detailed description of both gap types is given for the 1st nontrivial case m = 3. (author)
Numerical analysis of electromagnetic fields
Zhou Pei Bai
1993-01-01
Numerical methods for solving boundary value problems have developed rapidly. Knowledge of these methods is important both for engineers and scientists. There are many books published that deal with various approximate methods such as the finite element method, the boundary element method and so on. However, there is no textbook that includes all of these methods. This book is intended to fill this gap. The book is designed to be suitable for graduate students in engineering science, for senior undergraduate students as well as for scientists and engineers who are interested in electromagnetic fields. Objective Numerical calculation is the combination of mathematical methods and field theory. A great number of mathematical concepts, principles and techniques are discussed and many computational techniques are considered in dealing with practical problems. The purpose of this book is to provide students with a solid background in numerical analysis of the field problems. The book emphasizes the basic theories ...
Duggal, Niharika A; Upton, Jane; Phillips, Anna C; Sapey, Elizabeth; Lord, Janet M
2013-10-01
Autoimmunity increases with aging indicative of reduced immune tolerance, but the mechanisms involved are poorly defined. In recent years, subsets of B cells with immunoregulatory properties have been identified in murine models of autoimmune disorders, and these cells downregulate immune responses via secretion of IL10. In humans, immature transitional B cells with a CD19(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) phenotype have been reported to regulate immune responses via IL10 production. We found the frequency and numbers of CD19(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) cells were reduced in the PBMC pool with age. IL10 expression and secretion following activation via either CD40, or Toll-like receptors was also impaired in CD19(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) B cells from healthy older donors. When investigating the mechanisms involved, we found that CD19(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) B-cell function was compromised by age-related effects on both T cells and B cells: specifically, CD40 ligand expression was lower in CD4 T cells from older donors following CD3 stimulation, and signalling through CD40 was impaired in CD19(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) B cells from elders as evidenced by reduced phosphorylation (Y705) and activation of STAT3. However, there was no age-associated change in expression of costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 on CD19(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) cells, suggesting IL10-dependent immune suppression is impaired, but contact-dependent suppressive capacity is intact with age. Finally, we found a negative correlation between CD19(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) B-cell IL10 production and autoantibody (Rheumatoid factor) levels in older adults. We therefore propose that an age-related decline in CD19(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) B cell number and function may contribute towards the increased autoimmunity and reduced immune tolerance seen with aging. © 2013 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Aelterman, Nathalie; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van Keer, Hilde; Van den Berghe, Lynn; De Meyer, Jotie; Haerens, Leen
2012-08-01
Despite evidence for the utility of self-determination theory in physical education, few studies used objective indicators of physical activity and mapped out between-class, relative to between-student, differences in physical activity. This study investigated whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and rated collective engagement in physical education were associated with autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation at the between-class and between-student levels. Participants were 739 pupils (46.3% boys, Mage = 14.36 ±1.94) from 46 secondary school classes in Flanders (Belgium). Multilevel analyses indicated that 37% and 63% of the variance in MVPA was explained by between-student and between-class differences, respectively. Students' personal autonomous motivation related positively to MVPA. Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement. Average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement. The findings are discussed in light of self-determination theory's emphasis on quality of motivation.
SODA: Smart Objects, Dumb Archives
Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Shen, Stewart N. T.
2004-01-01
We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs). The SODA model transfers functionality traditionally associated with archives to the archived objects themselves. We are exploiting this shift of responsibility to facilitate other DL goals, such as interoperability, object intelligence and mobility, and heterogeneity. Objects in a SODA DL negotiate presentation of content and handle their own terms and conditions. In this paper we present implementations of our smart objects, buckets, and our dumb archive (DA). We discuss the status of buckets and DA and how they are used in a variety of DL projects.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boo, Myung-Hwan [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Chang-Kyun; Kim, Hyun-Su [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Choeng-Ryul [ELSOLTEC, Inc., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)
2017-05-15
Owing to the fact that thermal fatigue is a well-known damage mechanism in nuclear power plants, accurate stress and fatigue evaluation are highly important. Operating experience shows that the design condition is conservative compared to the actual one. Therefore, various fatigue monitoring methods have been extensively utilized to consider the actual operating data. However, defining the local temperature in the piping is difficult because temperature-measuring instruments are limited. The purpose of this paper is to define accurate local temperature in the piping and evaluate thermal stress using Green’s function (GF) by performing a series of computational fluid dynamics analyses considering the complex fluid conditions. Also, the thermal stress is determined by adopting GF and comparing it with that of the design condition. The fluid dynamics analysis result indicates that the fluid temperature slowly varies compared to the designed one even when the flow rate changes abruptly. In addition, the resulting thermal stress can significantly decrease when reflecting the actual temperature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Douady, Jerome
1969-10-01
A simplified SCF Method is developed. The wave function of molecular systems and spin densities in the case of free radicals are computed from geometrical data. This method, including at the beginning a delocalization of electrons over all the molecular system, two methods which clear out bonding and anti-bonding interactions have been studied and programmed: a) overlap population analysis, b) localisation of molecular orbitals. These methods have been carried out in the case of organic compounds and free radicals. (author) [French] Mise en oeuvre d'une methode de champ self-consistant simplifie qui, a partir des donnees geometriques, permet de calculer la fonction d'onde des systemes moleculaires et les densites de spin dans le cas des radicaux libres. Cette methode introduisant au depart une delocalisation des electrons sur tout le systeme moleculaire, deux methodes permettant de rendre compte du caractere liant et antiliant de ces electrons ont ete etudiees et programmees: a) analyse des populations de recouvrement, b) localisation des orbitales moleculaires. Ces methodes ont ete appliquees a divers composes organiques radicalaires et non radicalaires. (auteur)
A secure localization framework of RAIN RFID objects for ambient assisted living
Khalid, Ahmad
2017-01-01
Internet of things (IoT) is currently on our doorsteps. Numerous domains have beneted from this technology. It ranges from a simple application such as identifying an object up to handling a more complex system. The Radio Frequency IDentication (RFID) is one of the enabling technologies that drive the IoT to its position today. It is small, cheap and does not require any additional power sources. Along with its ubiquitous functionality, this technology enables the positioning of an object wit...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maglevanny, I.I., E-mail: sianko@list.ru [Volgograd State Social Pedagogical University, 27 Lenin Avenue, Volgograd 400131 (Russian Federation); Smolar, V.A. [Volgograd State Technical University, 28 Lenin Avenue, Volgograd 400131 (Russian Federation)
2016-01-15
We introduce a new technique of interpolation of the energy-loss function (ELF) in solids sampled by empirical optical spectra. Finding appropriate interpolation methods for ELFs poses several challenges. The sampled ELFs are usually very heterogeneous, can originate from various sources thus so called “data gaps” can appear, and significant discontinuities and multiple high outliers can be present. As a result an interpolation based on those data may not perform well at predicting reasonable physical results. Reliable interpolation tools, suitable for ELF applications, should therefore satisfy several important demands: accuracy and predictive power, robustness and computational efficiency, and ease of use. We examined the effect on the fitting quality due to different interpolation schemes with emphasis on ELF mesh optimization procedures and we argue that the optimal fitting should be based on preliminary log–log scaling data transforms by which the non-uniformity of sampled data distribution may be considerably reduced. The transformed data are then interpolated by local monotonicity preserving Steffen spline. The result is a piece-wise smooth fitting curve with continuous first-order derivatives that passes through all data points without spurious oscillations. Local extrema can occur only at grid points where they are given by the data, but not in between two adjacent grid points. It is found that proposed technique gives the most accurate results and also that its computational time is short. Thus, it is feasible using this simple method to address practical problems associated with interaction between a bulk material and a moving electron. A compact C++ implementation of our algorithm is also presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maglevanny, I.I.; Smolar, V.A.
2016-01-01
We introduce a new technique of interpolation of the energy-loss function (ELF) in solids sampled by empirical optical spectra. Finding appropriate interpolation methods for ELFs poses several challenges. The sampled ELFs are usually very heterogeneous, can originate from various sources thus so called “data gaps” can appear, and significant discontinuities and multiple high outliers can be present. As a result an interpolation based on those data may not perform well at predicting reasonable physical results. Reliable interpolation tools, suitable for ELF applications, should therefore satisfy several important demands: accuracy and predictive power, robustness and computational efficiency, and ease of use. We examined the effect on the fitting quality due to different interpolation schemes with emphasis on ELF mesh optimization procedures and we argue that the optimal fitting should be based on preliminary log–log scaling data transforms by which the non-uniformity of sampled data distribution may be considerably reduced. The transformed data are then interpolated by local monotonicity preserving Steffen spline. The result is a piece-wise smooth fitting curve with continuous first-order derivatives that passes through all data points without spurious oscillations. Local extrema can occur only at grid points where they are given by the data, but not in between two adjacent grid points. It is found that proposed technique gives the most accurate results and also that its computational time is short. Thus, it is feasible using this simple method to address practical problems associated with interaction between a bulk material and a moving electron. A compact C++ implementation of our algorithm is also presented.
Smith, K; Abasolo, Daniel Emilio; Escudero, J
2016-01-01
The Cluster-Span Threshold (CST) is a recently introduced unbiased threshold for functional connectivity networks. This binarisation technique offers a natural trade-off of sparsity and density of information by balancing the ratio of closed to open triples in the network topology. Here we present findings comparing it with the Union of Shortest Paths (USP), another recently proposed objective method. We analyse standard network metrics of binarised networks for sensitivity to clinical Alzhei...
Matlab programming for numerical analysis
Lopez, Cesar
2014-01-01
MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. Programming MATLAB for Numerical Analysis introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. You will first become
Hefnawy, Mohamed M; Sultan, Maha A; Al-Johar, Haya I; Kassem, Mohamed G; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y
2012-01-01
Multiple response simultaneous optimization employing Derringer's desirability function was used for the development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous determination of rosiglitazone (RSG) and glimepiride (GLM) in plasma and formulations. Twenty experiments, taking the two resolutions, the analysis time, and the capillary current as the responses with three important factors--buffer morality, volte and column temperature--were used to design mathematical models. The experimental responses were fitted into a second order polynomial and the six responses were simultaneously optimized to predict the optimum conditions for the effective separation of the studied compounds. The separation was carried out by using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with a silica capillary column and diode array detector at 210 nm. The optimum assay conditions were 52 mmol l⁻¹ phosphate buffer, pH 7, and voltage of 22 kV at 29 °C. The method showed good agreement between the experimental data and predictive value throughout the studied parameter space. The assay limit of detection was 0.02 µg ml⁻¹ and the effective working range at relative standard deviation (RSD) of ≤ 5% was 0.05-16 µg ml⁻¹ (r = 0.999) for both drugs. Analytical recoveries of the studied drugs from spiked plasma were 97.2-101.9 ± 0.31-3.0%. The precision of the assay was satisfactory; RSD was 1.07 and 1.14 for intra- and inter-assay precision, respectively. The proposed method has a great value in routine analysis of RSG and GLM for its therapeutic monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cosmic objects and elementary particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rozental, I L [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kosmicheskikh Issledovanij
1977-02-01
Considered are the connections between the parameters of elementary particles (mass ''size'') and the characteristics of stars (the main sequence stars, white dwarf stars and pulsars). Presented is the elementary theory of black hole radiation in the framework of which all the regularities of the process are derived. The emphiric numerical sequence connecting nucleon mass and universe constants (G, h, c) with the masses of some cosmic objects is given.
Numerical methods in software and analysis
Rice, John R
1992-01-01
Numerical Methods, Software, and Analysis, Second Edition introduces science and engineering students to the methods, tools, and ideas of numerical computation. Introductory courses in numerical methods face a fundamental problem-there is too little time to learn too much. This text solves that problem by using high-quality mathematical software. In fact, the objective of the text is to present scientific problem solving using standard mathematical software. This book discusses numerous programs and software packages focusing on the IMSL library (including the PROTRAN system) and ACM Algorithm
Numerical aerodynamic simulation (NAS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peterson, V.L.; Ballhaus, W.F. Jr.; Bailey, F.R.
1984-01-01
The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program is designed to provide a leading-edge computational capability to the aerospace community. It was recognized early in the program that, in addition to more advanced computers, the entire computational process ranging from problem formulation to publication of results needed to be improved to realize the full impact of computational aerodynamics. Therefore, the NAS Program has been structured to focus on the development of a complete system that can be upgraded periodically with minimum impact on the user and on the inventory of applications software. The implementation phase of the program is now under way. It is based upon nearly 8 yr of study and should culminate in an initial operational capability before 1986. The objective of this paper is fivefold: 1) to discuss the factors motivating the NAS program, 2) to provide a history of the activity, 3) to describe each of the elements of the processing-system network, 4) to outline the proposed allocation of time to users of the facility, and 5) to describe some of the candidate problems being considered for the first benchmark codes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱咏北; 张俊梅
2014-01-01
文章从音乐课程的基础理论入手，对音乐课程目标的内涵与特点、功能与价值取向等问题进行了阐述。认为音乐课程目标的功能包括指导功能、选择功能和评价功能，音乐课程目标的价值取向有音乐学科本位价值取向、个体本位价值取向和音乐文化本位价值取向等几种，这些观点颇有理论创新价值和实践指导意义。%This paper elaborates the connotation, the characteristics, the functions and the value o-rientation of the music course objective on the basis of the fundamental theory of music course. The author thinks that the music course objective includes guidance function, selection function and evaluation function. The value orientations of music course goals consist of music subject standard value orientation, individual standard value orientation and value orientation of music culture. These innovative ideas are of theoretical value and practical guiding significance.
Quasi-objects, Cult Objects and Fashion Objects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer
2011-01-01
This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serres’ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics. T...... as a unique opportunity for studying the interchange between these two forms of fetishism and their respective phenomenologies. Finally, returning to Serres, I briefly consider the theoretical consequences of introducing the fashion object as a quasi-object.......This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serres’ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics....... These two phenomenologies are, so I argue, essential to quasi-object theory, yet largely ignored by Serres’ sociological interpreters. They correspond with the two different theories of fetishism found in Marx and Durkheim, respectively. In the second half of the article, I introduce the fashion object...
Schmithorst, Vincent J; Brown, Rhonda Douglas
2004-07-01
The suitability of a previously hypothesized triple-code model of numerical processing, involving analog magnitude, auditory verbal, and visual Arabic codes of representation, was investigated for the complex mathematical task of the mental addition and subtraction of fractions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 15 normal adult subjects were processed using exploratory group Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Separate task-related components were found with activation in bilateral inferior parietal, left perisylvian, and ventral occipitotemporal areas. These results support the hypothesized triple-code model corresponding to the activated regions found in the individual components and indicate that the triple-code model may be a suitable framework for analyzing the neuropsychological bases of the performance of complex mathematical tasks. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.
Lehman, Rosemary
2007-01-01
This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)
Intuitive modeling of vaporish objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sokolov, Dmitry; Gentil, Christian
2015-01-01
Attempts to model gases in computer graphics started in the late 1970s. Since that time, there have been many approaches developed. In this paper we present a non-physical method allowing to create vaporish objects like clouds or smoky characters. The idea is to create a few sketches describing the rough shape of the final vaporish object. These sketches will be used as condensation sets of Iterated Function Systems, providing intuitive control over the object. The advantages of the new method are: simplicity, good control of resulting shapes and ease of eventual object animation.
Numerical solution of Boltzmann's equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sod, G.A.
1976-04-01
The numerical solution of Boltzmann's equation is considered for a gas model consisting of rigid spheres by means of Hilbert's expansion. If only the first two terms of the expansion are retained, Boltzmann's equation reduces to the Boltzmann-Hilbert integral equation. Successive terms in the Hilbert expansion are obtained by solving the same integral equation with a different source term. The Boltzmann-Hilbert integral equation is solved by a new very fast numerical method. The success of the method rests upon the simultaneous use of four judiciously chosen expansions; Hilbert's expansion for the distribution function, another expansion of the distribution function in terms of Hermite polynomials, the expansion of the kernel in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Hilbert operator, and an expansion involved in solving a system of linear equations through a singular value decomposition. The numerical method is applied to the study of the shock structure in one space dimension. Numerical results are presented for Mach numbers of 1.1 and 1.6. 94 refs, 7 tables, 1 fig
Multi-Objective Optimization of Grillages Applying the Genetic Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Darius Mačiūnas
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The article analyzes the optimization of grillage-type foundations seeking for the least possible reactive forces in the poles for a given number of poles and for the least possible bending moments of absolute values in the connecting beams of the grillage. Therefore, we suggest using a compromise objective function (to be minimized that consists of the maximum reactive force arising in all poles and the maximum bending moment of the absolute value in connecting beams; both components include the given weights. The variables of task design are pole positions under connecting beams. The optimization task is solved applying the algorithm containing all the initial data of the problem. Reactive forces and bending moments are calculated using an original program (finite element method is applied. This program is integrated into the optimization algorithm using the “black-box” principle. The “black-box” finite element program sends back the corresponding value of the objective function. Numerical experiments revealed the optimal quantity of points to compute bending moments. The obtained results show a certain ratio of weights in the objective function where the contribution of reactive forces and bending moments to the objective function are equivalent. This solution can serve as a pilot project for more detailed design.Article in Lithuanian
Numerical methods for hydrodynamic stability problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujimura, Kaoru
1985-11-01
Numerical methods for solving the Orr-Sommerfeld equation, which is the fundamental equation of the hydrodynamic stability theory for various shear flows, are reviewed and typical numerical results are presented. The methods of asymptotic solution, finite difference methods, initial value methods and expansions in orthogonal functions are compared. (author)
Objectives, Evaluation, and the Improvement of Education
Anderson, Lorin W.
2005-01-01
For five years, from 1995 until 2000, a group of eight educators and researchers met twice annually in Syracuse, NY, for the purpose of revising Bloom's Taxonomy. Based in part on the structure of educational objectives, in part on advances in cognitive psychology, and in part on numerous other attempts to classify educational objectives that were…
Concurrent Models for Object Execution
Diertens, Bob
2012-01-01
In previous work we developed a framework of computational models for the concurrent execution of functions on different levels of abstraction. It shows that the traditional sequential execution of function is just a possible implementation of an abstract computational model that allows for the concurrent execution of functions. We use this framework as base for the development of abstract computational models that allow for the concurrent execution of objects.
Numerical methods using Matlab
Lindfield, George
2012-01-01
Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of useful and important numerical algorithms that can be implemented into MATLAB for a graphical interpretation to help researchers analyze a particular outcome. Many worked examples are given together with exercises and solutions to illustrate how numerical methods can be used to study problems that have applications in the biosciences, chaos, optimization, engineering and science across the board. Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of use
Uncertainty Quantification in Numerical Aerodynamics
Litvinenko, Alexander; Matthies, Hermann G.; Liu, Dishi; Schillings, Claudia; Schulz, Volker
2017-01-01
In numerical section we compares five methods, including quasi-Monte Carlo quadrature, polynomial chaos with coefficients determined by sparse quadrature and gradient-enhanced version of Kriging, radial basis functions and point collocation polynomial chaos, in their efficiency in estimating statistics of aerodynamic performance upon random perturbation to the airfoil geometry [D.Liu et al '17]. For modeling we used the TAU code, developed in DLR, Germany.
Rough multiple objective decision making
Xu, Jiuping
2011-01-01
Rough Set TheoryBasic concepts and properties of rough sets Rough Membership Rough Intervals Rough FunctionApplications of Rough SetsMultiple Objective Rough Decision Making Reverse Logistics Problem with Rough Interval Parameters MODM based Rough Approximation for Feasible RegionEVRMCCRMDCRM Reverse Logistics Network Design Problem of Suji Renewable Resource MarketBilevel Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Hierarchical Supply Chain Planning Problem with Rough Interval Parameters Bilevel Decision Making ModelBL-EVRM BL-CCRMBL-DCRMApplication to Supply Chain Planning of Mianyang Co., LtdStochastic Multiple Objective Rough Decision Multi-Objective Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling UnderRough Random EnvironmentRandom Variable Stochastic EVRM Stochastic CCRM Stochastic DCRM Multi-Objective rc-PSP/mM/Ro-Ra for Longtan Hydropower StationFuzzy Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Allocation Problem under Fuzzy Environment Fuzzy Variable Fu-EVRM Fu-CCRM Fu-DCRM Earth-Rock Work Allocation Problem.
Towards Objective Measures of Functional Hearing Abilities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Innes-Brown, Hamish; Tsongas, Renee; Marozeau, Jeremy
2016-01-01
Aims People with impaired hearing often have difficulties in hearing sounds in a noisy background. This problem is partially a result of the auditory systems reduced capacity to process temporal information in the sound signal. In this study we examined the relationships between perceptual...... was positively correlated with TFS sensitivity, and negatively correlated with age. TFS sensitivity was also positively correlated with stimulus encoding accuracy for the complex harmonic stimulus, while increasing age was associated with lower stimulus encoding accuracy for the modulated tone stimulus...
Semantic memory in object use.
Silveri, Maria Caterina; Ciccarelli, Nicoletta
2009-10-01
We studied five patients with semantic memory disorders, four with semantic dementia and one with herpes simplex virus encephalitis, to investigate the involvement of semantic conceptual knowledge in object use. Comparisons between patients who had semantic deficits of different severity, as well as the follow-up, showed that the ability to use objects was largely preserved when the deficit was mild but progressively decayed as the deficit became more severe. Naming was generally more impaired than object use. Production tasks (pantomime execution and actual object use) and comprehension tasks (pantomime recognition and action recognition) as well as functional knowledge about objects were impaired when the semantic deficit was severe. Semantic and unrelated errors were produced during object use, but actions were always fluent and patients performed normally on a novel tools task in which the semantic demand was minimal. Patients with severe semantic deficits scored borderline on ideational apraxia tasks. Our data indicate that functional semantic knowledge is crucial for using objects in a conventional way and suggest that non-semantic factors, mainly non-declarative components of memory, might compensate to some extent for semantic disorders and guarantee some residual ability to use very common objects independently of semantic knowledge.
Customer requirement modeling and mapping of numerical control machine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhongqi Sheng
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In order to better obtain information about customer requirement and develop products meeting customer requirement, it is necessary to systematically analyze and handle the customer requirement. This article uses the product service system of numerical control machine as research objective and studies the customer requirement modeling and mapping oriented toward configuration design. It introduces the conception of requirement unit, expounds the customer requirement decomposition rules, and establishes customer requirement model; it builds the house of quality using quality function deployment and confirms the weight of technical feature of product and service; it explores the relevance rules between data using rough set theory, establishes rule database, and solves the target value of technical feature of product. Using economical turning center series numerical control machine as an example, it verifies the rationality of proposed customer requirement model.
INTERACTIONS OF FLOWING PLASMA WITH COLLECTING SPHERE/OBJECTS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
HUTCHINSON, IAN H.
2013-10-31
The proposer’s computational flowing plasma group, supported in part by NSF/DOE since 2006, has been enormously productive. It has published 22 journal articles, of which 3 are in Physical Review Letters; received a total of 330 citations, and made 5 invited and numerous contributed presentations at international conferences. In addition, other groups have published at least 3 papers [20-22] based upon results they have obtained from the SCEPTIC code, developed by the proposer. The codes developed for this subject are Particle In Cell (PIC) codes, representing the entire ion distribution function and its variation in space in the vicinity of an absorbing object.
Hiding objects and creating illusions above a carpet filter using a Fourier optics approach.
Wu, Kedi; Wang, Guo Ping
2010-09-13
Invisibility carpet cloaks are usually used to hide an object beneath carpet. In this paper we propose and demonstrate a carpet filter to hide objects and create illusions above the filter by using a Fourier optics method. Instead of using transformation optics, we get electromagnetic parameters of the filter by optical transfer functions, which play the role of modulating the propagation of the scattering angular spectrum directly from an object above the filter. By further adding a functional layer onto the filter, we can even camouflage the object so that it appears to be a different object. The analytical results are confirmed by numerical simulations. Our method is completely different from the current coordinate transfer method and may provide another point of view to more clearly understand the mechanism of invisibility cloaks.
Numerical simulations of time-resolved quantum electronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaury, Benoit; Weston, Joseph; Santin, Matthieu; Houzet, Manuel; Groth, Christoph; Waintal, Xavier
2014-01-01
Numerical simulation has become a major tool in quantum electronics both for fundamental and applied purposes. While for a long time those simulations focused on stationary properties (e.g. DC currents), the recent experimental trend toward GHz frequencies and beyond has triggered a new interest for handling time-dependent perturbations. As the experimental frequencies get higher, it becomes possible to conceive experiments which are both time-resolved and fast enough to probe the internal quantum dynamics of the system. This paper discusses the technical aspects–mathematical and numerical–associated with the numerical simulations of such a setup in the time domain (i.e. beyond the single-frequency AC limit). After a short review of the state of the art, we develop a theoretical framework for the calculation of time-resolved observables in a general multiterminal system subject to an arbitrary time-dependent perturbation (oscillating electrostatic gates, voltage pulses, time-varying magnetic fields, etc.) The approach is mathematically equivalent to (i) the time-dependent scattering formalism, (ii) the time-resolved non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism and (iii) the partition-free approach. The central object of our theory is a wave function that obeys a simple Schrödinger equation with an additional source term that accounts for the electrons injected from the electrodes. The time-resolved observables (current, density, etc.) and the (inelastic) scattering matrix are simply expressed in terms of this wave function. We use our approach to develop a numerical technique for simulating time-resolved quantum transport. We find that the use of this wave function is advantageous for numerical simulations resulting in a speed up of many orders of magnitude with respect to the direct integration of NEGF equations. Our technique allows one to simulate realistic situations beyond simple models, a subject that was until now beyond the simulation
Numerical relativity and asymptotic flatness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deadman, E; Stewart, J M
2009-01-01
It is highly plausible that the region of spacetime far from an isolated gravitating body is, in some sense, asymptotically Minkowskian. However theoretical studies of the full nonlinear theory, initiated by Bondi et al (1962 Proc. R. Soc. A 269 21-51), Sachs (1962 Proc. R. Soc. A 270 103-26) and Newman and Unti (1962 J. Math. Phys. 3 891-901), rely on careful, clever, a priori choices of a chart (and tetrad) and so are not readily accessible to the numerical relativist, who chooses her/his chart on the basis of quite different grounds. This paper seeks to close this gap. Starting from data available in a typical numerical evolution, we construct a chart and tetrad which are, asymptotically, sufficiently close to the theoretical ones, so that the key concepts of the Bondi news function, Bondi mass and its rate of decrease can be estimated. In particular, these estimates can be expressed in the numerical relativist's chart as numerical relativity recipes.
Lan, C. Edward; Ge, Fuying
1989-01-01
Control system design for general nonlinear flight dynamic models is considered through numerical simulation. The design is accomplished through a numerical optimizer coupled with analysis of flight dynamic equations. The general flight dynamic equations are numerically integrated and dynamic characteristics are then identified from the dynamic response. The design variables are determined iteratively by the optimizer to optimize a prescribed objective function which is related to desired dynamic characteristics. Generality of the method allows nonlinear effects to aerodynamics and dynamic coupling to be considered in the design process. To demonstrate the method, nonlinear simulation models for an F-5A and an F-16 configurations are used to design dampers to satisfy specifications on flying qualities and control systems to prevent departure. The results indicate that the present method is simple in formulation and effective in satisfying the design objectives.
On Sums of Numerical Series and Fourier Series
Pavao, H. Germano; de Oliveira, E. Capelas
2008-01-01
We discuss a class of trigonometric functions whose corresponding Fourier series, on a conveniently chosen interval, can be used to calculate several numerical series. Particular cases are presented and two recent results involving numerical series are recovered. (Contains 1 note.)
Excel spreadsheet in teaching numerical methods
Djamila, Harimi
2017-09-01
One of the important objectives in teaching numerical methods for undergraduates’ students is to bring into the comprehension of numerical methods algorithms. Although, manual calculation is important in understanding the procedure, it is time consuming and prone to error. This is specifically the case when considering the iteration procedure used in many numerical methods. Currently, many commercial programs are useful in teaching numerical methods such as Matlab, Maple, and Mathematica. These are usually not user-friendly by the uninitiated. Excel spreadsheet offers an initial level of programming, which it can be used either in or off campus. The students will not be distracted with writing codes. It must be emphasized that general commercial software is required to be introduced later to more elaborated questions. This article aims to report on a teaching numerical methods strategy for undergraduates engineering programs. It is directed to students, lecturers and researchers in engineering field.
Ziegler, Gerhard
2011-01-01
Distance protection provides the basis for network protection in transmission systems and meshed distribution systems. This book covers the fundamentals of distance protection and the special features of numerical technology. The emphasis is placed on the application of numerical distance relays in distribution and transmission systems.This book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of power system protection, as well as the experienced user, entering the area of numerical distance protection. Furthermore it serves as a reference guide for s
Singh, Devraj
2015-01-01
Numerical Problems in Physics, Volume 1 is intended to serve the need of the students pursuing graduate and post graduate courses in universities with Physics and Materials Science as subject including those appearing in engineering, medical, and civil services entrance examinations. KEY FEATURES: * 29 chapters on Optics, Wave & Oscillations, Electromagnetic Field Theory, Solid State Physics & Modern Physics * 540 solved numerical problems of various universities and ompetitive examinations * 523 multiple choice questions for quick and clear understanding of subject matter * 567 unsolved numerical problems for grasping concepts of the various topic in Physics * 49 Figures for understanding problems and concept
Numerical methods in simulation of resistance welding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Zhang, Wenqi
2015-01-01
Finite element simulation of resistance welding requires coupling betweenmechanical, thermal and electrical models. This paper presents the numerical models and theircouplings that are utilized in the computer program SORPAS. A mechanical model based onthe irreducible flow formulation is utilized...... a resistance welding point of view, the most essential coupling between the above mentioned models is the heat generation by electrical current due to Joule heating. The interaction between multiple objects is anothercritical feature of the numerical simulation of resistance welding because it influences...... thecontact area and the distribution of contact pressure. The numerical simulation of resistancewelding is illustrated by a spot welding example that includes subsequent tensile shear testing...
Khemis, A; Duteil, L; Coudert, A C; Tillet, Y; Dereure, O; Ortonne, J P
2012-10-01
Topical or systemic antiviral drugs reduce the duration of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) recurrences but may not alleviate functional symptoms. To assess the efficacy and safety of CS20 (Acura 24(®) ) protective barrier gel versus topical aciclovir and placebo in resolving functional symptoms in HSV-1 labial recurrences. A prospective, randomized, single-centre, assessor-blinded study of CS20 versus topical aciclovir or placebo. The primary endpoint was the total score of four herpes-related functional symptoms (pain, burning, itching, and tingling sensations), evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS). Secondary endpoints encompassed objective skin changes (oedema, crusting and erythema), evaluated by specific clinical scores. In a study of 106 patients, compared with placebo, a significant improvement in total functional symptom score was observed after 1 day of treatment in the CS20 group, but only after 7 days of treatment in the topical aciclovir group. Burning sensations were significantly reduced by CS20 compared with aciclovir (Days 1-2) or placebo (Days 1-7). Compared to placebo, CS20 significantly reduced pain intensity on Days 1-6. CS20 induced significant and early improvements in the clinical scores for oedema and crusting compared with placebo. Time to cure was similar for CS20 and aciclovir. The treatments were well tolerated and adverse events were comparable in the three treatment groups. Limitations The single-centre and single-blind design of the study and the preselection of patients. CS20 showed superior effectiveness against functional symptoms (pain and burning) associated with HSV-1 labial recurrences and was similar to aciclovir for time to cure. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Specification of Concurrent Objects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Morten U.
relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract...
Paradigms in object recognition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.
1999-09-01
A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Disney, M.J.; Veron, P.
1977-01-01
The properties of BL Lacertae objects are discussed including their spectra, variability, and brightness. The historical development of observation, and the conclusion that these objects are possibly quasar-related objects rather than variable stars as originally supposed are treated. The possible mechanisms for the unusual luminosity of these objects are considered
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filip, Diane; Lindegaard, Hanne
2016-01-01
The Object Game is an exploratory design game and an experiment of developing a tangible object that can spark dialogue and retrospection between collaborative partners and act as a boundary object. The objective of this article is to show and elaborate on the development of the Object Game......, and to provide case examples of the game in action. The Object Game has two parts – Story-building and Co-rating of objects – with the aim of stimulating a collaborative reflection on knowledge sharing with different objects. In Story-building, the participants visualize their knowledge sharing process...... these facilitated knowledge transfer, knowledge exchange, knowledge generation, and knowledge integration. The participants collaborative reflected on their use of different objects for knowledge sharing and learn which objects have been effective (and which have not been effective) in their collaborative...
Remarks on numerical semigroups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torres, F.
1995-12-01
We extend results on Weierstrass semigroups at ramified points of double covering of curves to any numerical semigroup whose genus is large enough. As an application we strengthen the properties concerning Weierstrass weights state in [To]. (author). 25 refs
Numerical semigroups and applications
Assi, Abdallah
2016-01-01
This work presents applications of numerical semigroups in Algebraic Geometry, Number Theory, and Coding Theory. Background on numerical semigroups is presented in the first two chapters, which introduce basic notation and fundamental concepts and irreducible numerical semigroups. The focus is in particular on free semigroups, which are irreducible; semigroups associated with planar curves are of this kind. The authors also introduce semigroups associated with irreducible meromorphic series, and show how these are used in order to present the properties of planar curves. Invariants of non-unique factorizations for numerical semigroups are also studied. These invariants are computationally accessible in this setting, and thus this monograph can be used as an introduction to Factorization Theory. Since factorizations and divisibility are strongly connected, the authors show some applications to AG Codes in the final section. The book will be of value for undergraduate students (especially those at a higher leve...
Mastorakis, Nikos E
2009-01-01
Features contributions that are focused on significant aspects of current numerical methods and computational mathematics. This book carries chapters that advanced methods and various variations on known techniques that can solve difficult scientific problems efficiently.
Introductory numerical analysis
Pettofrezzo, Anthony J
2006-01-01
Written for undergraduates who require a familiarity with the principles behind numerical analysis, this classical treatment encompasses finite differences, least squares theory, and harmonic analysis. Over 70 examples and 280 exercises. 1967 edition.
Introduction to numerical analysis
Hildebrand, F B
1987-01-01
Well-known, respected introduction, updated to integrate concepts and procedures associated with computers. Computation, approximation, interpolation, numerical differentiation and integration, smoothing of data, other topics in lucid presentation. Includes 150 additional problems in this edition. Bibliography.
Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.
Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan
2013-07-09
Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage.
Numerical ability predicts mortgage default
Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan
2013-01-01
Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one’s mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401
Numerical analysis of bifurcations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guckenheimer, J.
1996-01-01
This paper is a brief survey of numerical methods for computing bifurcations of generic families of dynamical systems. Emphasis is placed upon algorithms that reflect the structure of the underlying mathematical theory while retaining numerical efficiency. Significant improvements in the computational analysis of dynamical systems are to be expected from more reliance of geometric insight coming from dynamical systems theory. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Numerical computations with GPUs
Kindratenko, Volodymyr
2014-01-01
This book brings together research on numerical methods adapted for Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). It explains recent efforts to adapt classic numerical methods, including solution of linear equations and FFT, for massively parallel GPU architectures. This volume consolidates recent research and adaptations, covering widely used methods that are at the core of many scientific and engineering computations. Each chapter is written by authors working on a specific group of methods; these leading experts provide mathematical background, parallel algorithms and implementation details leading to
Infrared radiation parameterizations in numerical climate models
Chou, Ming-Dah; Kratz, David P.; Ridgway, William
1991-01-01
This study presents various approaches to parameterizing the broadband transmission functions for utilization in numerical climate models. One-parameter scaling is applied to approximate a nonhomogeneous path with an equivalent homogeneous path, and the diffuse transmittances are either interpolated from precomputed tables or fit by analytical functions. Two-parameter scaling is applied to parameterizing the carbon dioxide and ozone transmission functions in both the lower and middle atmosphere. Parameterizations are given for the nitrous oxide and methane diffuse transmission functions.
Truth as a Mathematical Object
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean-Yves Béziau
2010-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper we discuss in which sense truth is considered as a mathematical object in propositional logic. After clarifying how this concept is used in classical logic, through the notions of truth-table, truth-function and bivaluation, we examine some generalizations of it in non-classical logics: many-valued matrix semantics with three and four values, non-truth-functional bivalent semantics, Kripke possible world semantics.
Towards lexicographic multi-objective linear programming using grossone methodology
Cococcioni, Marco; Pappalardo, Massimo; Sergeyev, Yaroslav D.
2016-10-01
Lexicographic Multi-Objective Linear Programming (LMOLP) problems can be solved in two ways: preemptive and nonpreemptive. The preemptive approach requires the solution of a series of LP problems, with changing constraints (each time the next objective is added, a new constraint appears). The nonpreemptive approach is based on a scalarization of the multiple objectives into a single-objective linear function by a weighted combination of the given objectives. It requires the specification of a set of weights, which is not straightforward and can be time consuming. In this work we present both mathematical and software ingredients necessary to solve LMOLP problems using a recently introduced computational methodology (allowing one to work numerically with infinities and infinitesimals) based on the concept of grossone. The ultimate goal of such an attempt is an implementation of a simplex-like algorithm, able to solve the original LMOLP problem by solving only one single-objective problem and without the need to specify finite weights. The expected advantages are therefore obvious.
Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.
Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi
2015-10-01
The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.
Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kohske Takahashi
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.