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Sample records for objective function subject

  1. Assessment of subjective and objective cognitive function in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Kirsa M; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD). However, the evidence regarding the association between subjective cognitive complaints, objective cognitive performance and psychosocial function is sparse and inconsistent. Seventy seven patients with bipolar disorder who presented...

  2. Executive function in fibromyalgia: Comparing subjective and objective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelonch, Olga; Garolera, Maite; Valls, Joan; Rosselló, Lluís; Pifarré, Josep

    2016-04-01

    There is evidence to suggest the existence of an executive dysfunction in people diagnosed with fibromyalgia, although there are certain inconsistencies between studies. Here, we aim to compare executive performance between patients with fibromyalgia and a control group by using subjective and objective cognitive tests, analyzing the influence of patient mood on the results obtained, and studying associations between the two measures. 82 patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia and 42 healthy controls, matched by age and years of education, were assessed using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version (BRIEF-A) as a subjective measure of executive functioning. A selection of objective cognitive tests were also used to measure a series of executive functions and to identify symptoms of depression and anxiety. Patients with fibromyalgia perceived greater difficulties than the control group on all of the BRIEF-A scales. However, after adjustments were made for depression and anxiety the only differences that remained were those associated with the working memory scale and the Metacognition and Global Executive Composite index. In the case of the objective cognitive tests, a significantly worse overall performance was evidenced for the fibromyalgia patients. However, this also disappeared when adjustments were made for depression and anxiety. After this adjustment, fibromyalgia patients only performed significantly worse for the interference effect in the Stroop Test. Although there were no significant associations between most of the objective cognitive tests and the BRIEF-A scales, depression and anxiety exhibited strong associations with almost all of the BRIEF-A scales and with several of the objective cognitive tests. Patients with fibromyalgia showed executive dysfunction in subjective and objective measures, although most of this impairment was associated with mood disturbances. Exceptions to this general rule were observed in the

  3. Is there an association between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in patients with affective disorders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne M; Kessing, Lars V; Munkholm, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    .01) but there were no differences between patient groups (P > 0.1). We found no correlation between subjectively experienced and objectively measured cognitive dysfunction in BD (P = 0.7), and a non-significant trend towards a correlation in UD (P = 0.06), which disappeared when controlling for gender (P = 0......Background: Patients with affective disorders experience cognitive dysfunction in addition to their affective symptoms. The relationship between subjectively experienced and objectively measured cognitive function is controversial with several studies reporting no correlation between subjective...... and objective deficits. Aims: To investigate whether there is a correlation between subjectively reported and objectively measured cognitive function in patients with affective disorders, and whether subjective complaints predict objectively measured dysfunction. Methods: The study included 45 participants; 15...

  4. Executive Functions in Older Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder : Objective Performance and Subjective Complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davids, Roeliena C. D.; Groen, Yvonne; Berg, Ina J.; Tucha, Oliver M.; van Balkom, Ingrid D. C.

    Although deficits in Executive Functioning (EF) are reported frequently in young individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), they remain relatively unexplored later in life (> 50 years). We studied objective performance on EF measures (Tower of London, Zoo map, phonetic/semantic fluency) as

  5. Associations of objective and subjective sleep disturbance with cognitive function in older men with comorbid depression and insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Daniel J; Naismith, Sharon L; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen; Hickie, Ian B; Glozier, Nicholas S

    2017-06-01

    To examine whether poor objective and subjective sleep quality are differentially associated with cognitive function. Cross-sectional. Participants were recruited from primary and secondary care, and directly from the community, in Sydney, Australia. The sample consisted of 74 men 50years and older (mean [SD], 58.4 [6.2] years), with comorbid depression and above-threshold insomnia symptoms, participating in a trial of online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. Insomnia severity and depression severity were assessed via self-report. Objective sleep efficiency and duration were measured using actigraphy. Objective cognitive function was measured using 3 subtests of a computerized neuropsychological battery. Poor objective sleep efficiency was associated with slower reaction time (r=-0.249, P=.033) and poorer executive functioning (odds ratio, 4.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-12.69), but not memory. These associations remained after adjusting for age, education, depression severity, cardiovascular risk, and medication. Subjective sleep quality was not related to cognitive function. Among older men with depression and insomnia, objectively measured poor sleep efficiency may be associated with worse cognitive function, independent of depression severity. Objective poor sleep may be underpinned by neurobiological correlates distinct from those underlying subjective poor sleep and depression, and represent a potentially effective modifiable mechanism in interventions to improve cognitive functioning in this population. This supports the use of objective measures of sleep in diagnostic assessments and care. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Correlation between Subjective and Objective Visual Function Test in Optic Neuropathy Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungsoo Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the correlation between visual acuity and quantitative measurements of visual evoked potentials (VEP, optical coherence tomography (OCT, and visual field test (VF in optic neuropathy patients. Methods: We evaluated 28 patients with optic neuropathy. Patients who had pale disc, visual acuity of less than 0.5 and abnormal visual field defect were included. At the first visit, we performed visual acuity and VF as subjective methods and OCT and VEP as objective methods. In the spectral domain OCT, rim volume, average and temporal quadrant retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness were measured. And pattern VEP (N75, P100, N135 latency, and P100 amplitude and Humphrey 24-2 visual field test (mean deviation and pattern standard deviation were obtained. Using Spearman's correlation coefficient, the correlation between visual acuity and various techniques were assessed. Results: Visual acuity was most correlated with the mean deviation of Humphrey perimetry.

  7. Objective Versus Subjective Measures of Executive Functions: Predictors of Participation and Quality of Life in Parkinson Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlagsma, Thialda T; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Dijkstra, Hilde T; Duits, Annelien A; van Laar, Teus; Spikman, Jacoba M

    2017-11-01

    To determine whether objective (neuropsychological tests) and subjective measures (questionnaires) of executive functions (EFs) are associated in patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and to determine to what extent level of participation and quality of life (QoL) of patients with PD can be predicted by these measures of EFs. Correlational research design (case-control and prediction design). Departments of neuropsychology of 3 medical centers. A sample (N=136) of patients with PD (n=42) and their relatives, and controls without PD (n=94). Not applicable. A test battery measuring EFs. In addition, patients, their relatives, and controls completed the Dysexecutive Questionnaire, Brock Adaptive Functioning Questionnaire, and Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale - time management questionnaires measuring complaints about EFs. Participation and QoL were measured with the Impact on Participation and Autonomy scale and the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39, respectively. Patients with PD showed impairments in EFs on objective tests and reported significantly more complaints about EFs than did controls without PD. No associations were found between patients' performances on objective and subjective measures of EFs. However, both objective and subjective measures predicted patients' level of participation. In addition, subjective measures of EFs predicted QoL in patients with PD. These findings show that objective and subjective measures of EFs are not interchangeable and that both approaches predict level of participation and QoL in patients with PD. However, within this context, sex needs to be taken into account. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Subjective vs objective predictors of functional knee joint performance in anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Jensen, Carsten; Aagaard, Per

    2014-01-01

    ) subscales (Sport/Rec and QOL) in ACL-reconstructed patients. METHODS: 23 hamstring auto-graft ACL-reconstructed men (mean age: 27.2 standard deviation 7.5years, BMI: 25.4 standard deviation 3.2 time since surgery: 27 standard deviation 7months) completed KOOS-questionnaire and an objective test-battery: (i...

  9. The association between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive function in older people with previous major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Shiang Chu

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate associations between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive performance in older people with previous major depression-a high-risk sample for cognitive impairment and later dementia. A cross-sectional study was carried out in people aged 60 or over with previous major depression but not fulfilling current major depression criteria according to DSM-IV-TR. People with dementia or Mini-Mental State Examination score less than 17 were excluded. Subjective memory complaint was defined on the basis of a score ≧4 on the subscale of Geriatric Mental State schedule, a maximum score of 8. Older people aged equal or over 60 without any psychiatric diagnosis were enrolled as healthy controls. Cognitive function was evaluated using a series of cognitive tests assessing verbal memory, attention/speed, visuospatial function, verbal fluency, and cognitive flexibility in all participants. One hundred and thirteen older people with previous major depression and forty-six healthy controls were enrolled. Subjective memory complaint was present in more than half of the participants with depression history (55.8%. Among those with major depression history, subjective memory complaint was associated with lower total immediate recall and delayed verbal recall scores after adjustment. The associations between subjective memory complaint and worse memory performance were stronger in participants with lower depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score<7. The results suggest subjective memory complaint may be a valid appraisal of memory performance in older people with previous major depression and consideration should be given to more proactive assessment and follow-up in these clinical samples.

  10. Subjectivity, objectivity, and triangular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The author reviews his ideas on subjectivity, objectivity, and the third position in the psychoanalytic encounter, particularly in clinical work with borderline and narcissistic patients. Using the theories of Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion as a basis, the author describes his concept of triangular space. A case presentation of a particular type of narcissistic patient illustrates the principles discussed.

  11. The association between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive function in older people with previous major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chung-Shiang; Sun, I-Wen; Begum, Aysha; Liu, Shen-Ing; Chang, Ching-Jui; Chiu, Wei-Che; Chen, Chin-Hsin; Tang, Hwang-Shen; Yang, Chia-Li; Lin, Ying-Chin; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Stewart, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate associations between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive performance in older people with previous major depression-a high-risk sample for cognitive impairment and later dementia. A cross-sectional study was carried out in people aged 60 or over with previous major depression but not fulfilling current major depression criteria according to DSM-IV-TR. People with dementia or Mini-Mental State Examination score less than 17 were excluded. Subjective memory complaint was defined on the basis of a score ≧4 on the subscale of Geriatric Mental State schedule, a maximum score of 8. Older people aged equal or over 60 without any psychiatric diagnosis were enrolled as healthy controls. Cognitive function was evaluated using a series of cognitive tests assessing verbal memory, attention/speed, visuospatial function, verbal fluency, and cognitive flexibility in all participants. One hundred and thirteen older people with previous major depression and forty-six healthy controls were enrolled. Subjective memory complaint was present in more than half of the participants with depression history (55.8%). Among those with major depression history, subjective memory complaint was associated with lower total immediate recall and delayed verbal recall scores after adjustment. The associations between subjective memory complaint and worse memory performance were stronger in participants with lower depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scorememory complaint may be a valid appraisal of memory performance in older people with previous major depression and consideration should be given to more proactive assessment and follow-up in these clinical samples.

  12. The discordance between subjectively and objectively measured physical function in women with fibromyalgia: association with catastrophizing and self-efficacy cognitions : The al-Ándalus project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estévez-López, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412501031; Álvarez-Gallardo, I.C.; Segura-Jiménez, V.; Soriano-Maldonado, A.; Borges-Cosic, M; Pulido-Martos, M.; Aparicio, V.A.; Carbonell-Baeza, A.; Delgado-Fernández, M.; Geenen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/087017571

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: People with fibromyalgia experience a disagreement between patient-reported (i.e., subjective) and performance-based (i.e., objective) status. This study aimed to (i) corroborate the discordance between subjectively and objectively measured physical function and (ii) examine whether

  13. Objective and subjective sleep quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination...

  14. Subjective or objective? What matters?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sunega, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2014), s. 35-43 ISSN 2336-2839 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/12/1446 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : comparative housing policy * globalisation Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  15. Objective and subjective psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder: an investigation of the relative importance of neurocognition, social cognition and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Rossell, Susan L

    2014-06-01

    People with bipolar disorder (BD) experience significant psychosocial impairment. Understandings of the nature and causes of such impairment is limited by the lack of research exploring the extent to which subjectively reported functioning should be valued as an indicator of objective dysfunction, or examining the relative influence of neurocognition, social cognition and emotion regulation on these important, but different aspects of psychosocial functioning in the context of mania and depression symptoms. This study aimed to address this paucity of research by conducting a comprehensive investigation of psychosocial functioning in a well characterised group of BD patients. Fifty-one BD patients were compared to 52 healthy controls on objectively and subjectively assessed psychosocial outcomes. Relationships between current mood symptoms, psychosocial function and neurocognitive, social cognitive and emotion regulation measures were also examined in the patient group. Patients had significantly worse scores on the global objective and subjective functioning measures relative to controls. In the patient group, although these scores were correlated, regression analyses showed that variance in each of the measures was explained by different predictors. Depressive symptomatology was the most important predictor of global subjective functioning, and neurocognition had a concurrent and important influence with depressive symptoms on objective psychosocial function. Emotion regulation also had an indirect effect on psychosocial functioning via its influence on depressive symptomatology. As this study was cross-sectional in nature, we are unable to draw precise conclusions regarding contributing pathways involved in psychosocial functioning in BD. These results suggest that patients' own evaluations of their subjective functioning represent important indicators of the extent to which their observable function is impaired. They also highlight the importance of

  16. Processing subject-object ambiguities in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaan, Edith

    1997-01-01

    Various clause types in Dutch and German are at least temporarily ambiguous with respect to the order of subject and object. A number of previous studies regarding the processing of such subject-object ambiguities have reported a preference for a subject-object interpretation. This order preference

  17. Reduction of Subjective and Objective System Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Occam's razor is often used in science to define the minimum criteria to establish a physical or philosophical idea or relationship. Albert Einstein is attributed the saying "everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler". These heuristic ideas are based on a belief that there is a minimum state or set of states for a given system or phenomena. In looking at system complexity, these heuristics point us to an idea that complexity can be reduced to a minimum. How then, do we approach a reduction in complexity? Complexity has been described as a subjective concept and an objective measure of a system. Subjective complexity is based on human cognitive comprehension of the functions and inter relationships of a system. Subjective complexity is defined by the ability to fully comprehend the system. Simplifying complexity, in a subjective sense, is thus gaining a deeper understanding of the system. As Apple's Jonathon Ive has stated," It's not just minimalism or the absence of clutter. It involves digging through the depth of complexity. To be truly simple, you have to go really deep". Simplicity is not the absence of complexity but a deeper understanding of complexity. Subjective complexity, based on this human comprehension, cannot then be discerned from the sociological concept of ignorance. The inability to comprehend a system can be either a lack of knowledge, an inability to understand the intricacies of a system, or both. Reduction in this sense is based purely on a cognitive ability to understand the system and no system then may be truly complex. From this view, education and experience seem to be the keys to reduction or eliminating complexity. Objective complexity, is the measure of the systems functions and interrelationships which exist independent of human comprehension. Jonathon Ive's statement does not say that complexity is removed, only that the complexity is understood. From this standpoint, reduction of complexity can be approached

  18. Functional Object Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raket, Lars Lau

    We propose a direction it the field of statistics which we will call functional object analysis. This subfields considers the analysis of functional objects defined on continuous domains. In this setting we will focus on model-based statistics, with a particularly emphasis on mixed......-effect formulations, where the observed functional signal is assumed to consist of both fixed and random functional effects. This thesis takes the initial steps toward the development of likelihood-based methodology for functional objects. We first consider analysis of functional data defined on high...

  19. Reasoning about Function Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordio, Martin; Calcagno, Cristiano; Meyer, Bertrand; Müller, Peter; Tschannen, Julian

    Modern object-oriented languages support higher-order implementations through function objects such as delegates in C#, agents in Eiffel, or closures in Scala. Function objects bring a new level of abstraction to the object-oriented programming model, and require a comparable extension to specification and verification techniques. We introduce a verification methodology that extends function objects with auxiliary side-effect free (pure) methods to model logical artifacts: preconditions, postconditions and modifies clauses. These pure methods can be used to specify client code abstractly, that is, independently from specific instantiations of the function objects. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we have implemented an automatic prover, which verifies several non-trivial examples.

  20. Activity restriction induced by fear of falling and objective and subjective measures of physical function: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Nandini; Metter, E Jeffrey; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Guralnik, Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2008-04-01

    To examine whether activity restriction specifically induced by fear of falling (FF) contributes to greater risk of disability and decline in physical function. Prospective cohort study. Population-based older cohort. Six hundred seventy-three community-living elderly (> or = 65) participants in the Invecchiare in Chianti Study who reported FF. FF, fear-induced activity restriction, cognition, depressive symptoms, comorbidities, smoking history, and demographic factors were assessed at baseline. Disability in activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and performance on the Short Performance Physical Battery (SPPB) were evaluated at baseline and at the 3-year follow-up. One-quarter (25.5%) of participants did not report any activity restriction, 59.6% reported moderate activity restriction (restriction or avoidance of or = 3 activities). The severe restriction group reported significantly higher IADL disability and worse SPPB scores than the no restriction and moderate restriction groups. Severe activity restriction was a significant independent predictor of worsening ADL disability and accelerated decline in lower extremity performance on SPPB over the 3-year follow-up. Severe and moderate activity restriction were independent predictors of worsening IADL disability. Results were consistent even after adjusting for multiple potential confounders. In an elderly population, activity restriction associated with FF is an independent predictor of decline in physical function. Future intervention studies in geriatric preventive care should directly address risk factors associated with FF and activity restriction to substantiate long-term effects on physical abilities and autonomy of older persons.

  1. Subjective Cognitive Complaints and Objective Cognitive Function in Aging: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Recent Cross-Sectional Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, Bridget; Leathem, Janet; Merrick, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Research investigating how subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs) might reliably indicate impairments in objective cognitive functioning has produced highly varied findings, and despite attempts to synthesise this literature (e.g., Jonker et al. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 983-991, 2000; Reid and MacLullich Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 22(5-6), 471-485, 2006; Crumley et al. Psychology and Aging, 29(2), 250-263, 2014), recent work continues to offer little resolution. This review provides both quantitative and qualitative synthesis of research conducted since the last comprehensive review in 2006, with the aim of identifying reasons for these discrepancies that might provide fruitful avenues for future exploration. Meta-analysis found a small but significant association between SCCs and objective cognitive function, although it was limited by large heterogeneity between studies and evidence of potential publication bias. Often, assessments of SCCs and objective cognitive function were brief or not formally validated. However, studies that employed more comprehensive SCC measures tended to find that SCCs were associated independently with both objective cognitive function and depressive symptoms. Further explicit investigation of how assessment measures relate to reports of SCCs, and the validity of the proposed 'compensation theory' of SCC aetiology, is recommended.

  2. Subjective versus objective assessment of breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henseler, Helga; Smith, Joanna; Bowman, Adrian; Khambay, Balvinder S; Ju, Xiangyang; Ayoub, Ashraf; Ray, Arup K

    2013-05-01

    To date breast assessment has been conducted mainly subjectively. However lately validated objective three-dimensional (3D) imaging was developed. The study aimed to assess breast reconstruction subjectively and objectively and conduct a comparison. In forty-four patients after immediate unilateral breast reconstruction with solely the extended latissimus dorsi flap the breast was captured by validated 3D imaging method and standardized 2D photography. Breast symmetry was subjectively evaluated by six experts who applied the Harris score giving a mark of 1-4 for a poor to excellent result. An error study was conducted by examination of the intra and inter-observer agreement and agreement on controls. By Procrustes analysis an objective asymmetry score was obtained and compared to the subjective assessment. The subjective assessment showed that the inter-observer agreement was good or substantial (p-value: value: fair (p-values: 0.159, 0.134, 0.099) to substantial (p-value: 0.005) intra-observer agreement. The objective assessment revealed that the reconstructed breast showed a significantly smaller volume compared to the opposite side and that the average asymmetry score was 0.052, ranging from 0.019 to 0.136. When comparing the subjective and objective method the relationship between the two scores was highly significant. Subjective breast assessment lacked accuracy and reproducibility. This was the first error study of subjective breast assessment versus an objective validated 3D imaging method based on true 3D parameters. The substantial agreement between established subjective breast assessment and new validated objective method supported the value of the later and we expect its future role to expand. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Subjective and objective cognitive function among older adults with a history of traumatic brain injury: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Raquel C; Langa, Kenneth M; Yaffe, Kristine

    2017-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is extremely common across the lifespan and is an established risk factor for dementia. The cognitive profile of the large and growing population of older adults with prior TBI who do not have a diagnosis of dementia, however, has not been well described. Our aim was to describe the cognitive profile associated with prior TBI exposure among community-dwelling older adults without dementia-an understudied but potentially vulnerable population. In this population-based cohort study, we studied 984 community-dwelling older adults (age 51 y and older and their spouses) without dementia who had been randomly selected from respondents to the 2014 wave of the Health and Retirement Study to participate in a comprehensive TBI survey and who either reported no prior TBI (n = 737) or prior symptomatic TBI resulting in treatment in a hospital (n = 247). Mean time since first TBI was 38 ± 19 y. Outcomes assessed included measures of global cognitive function, verbal episodic memory, semantic fluency, and calculation as well as a measure of subjective memory ("How would you rate your memory at the present time?"). We compared outcomes between the two TBI groups using regression models adjusting for demographics, medical comorbidities, and depression. Sensitivity analyses were performed stratified by TBI severity (no TBI, TBI without loss of consciousness [LOC], and TBI with LOC). Respondents with TBI were younger (mean age 64 ± 10 y versus 68 ± 11 y), were less likely to be female, and had higher prevalence of medical comorbidities and depression than respondents without TBI. Respondents with TBI did not perform significantly differently from respondents without TBI on any measure of objective cognitive function in either raw or adjusted models (fully adjusted: global cognitive function score 15.4 versus 15.2, p = 0.68; verbal episodic memory score 4.4 versus 4.3, p = 0.79; semantic fluency score 15.7 versus 14.0, p = 0.21; calculation impairment

  4. Subjective and objective cognitive function among older adults with a history of traumatic brain injury: A population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel C Gardner

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is extremely common across the lifespan and is an established risk factor for dementia. The cognitive profile of the large and growing population of older adults with prior TBI who do not have a diagnosis of dementia, however, has not been well described. Our aim was to describe the cognitive profile associated with prior TBI exposure among community-dwelling older adults without dementia-an understudied but potentially vulnerable population.In this population-based cohort study, we studied 984 community-dwelling older adults (age 51 y and older and their spouses without dementia who had been randomly selected from respondents to the 2014 wave of the Health and Retirement Study to participate in a comprehensive TBI survey and who either reported no prior TBI (n = 737 or prior symptomatic TBI resulting in treatment in a hospital (n = 247. Mean time since first TBI was 38 ± 19 y. Outcomes assessed included measures of global cognitive function, verbal episodic memory, semantic fluency, and calculation as well as a measure of subjective memory ("How would you rate your memory at the present time?". We compared outcomes between the two TBI groups using regression models adjusting for demographics, medical comorbidities, and depression. Sensitivity analyses were performed stratified by TBI severity (no TBI, TBI without loss of consciousness [LOC], and TBI with LOC. Respondents with TBI were younger (mean age 64 ± 10 y versus 68 ± 11 y, were less likely to be female, and had higher prevalence of medical comorbidities and depression than respondents without TBI. Respondents with TBI did not perform significantly differently from respondents without TBI on any measure of objective cognitive function in either raw or adjusted models (fully adjusted: global cognitive function score 15.4 versus 15.2, p = 0.68; verbal episodic memory score 4.4 versus 4.3, p = 0.79; semantic fluency score 15.7 versus 14.0, p = 0.21; calculation

  5. Information – is it Subjective or Objective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Stanislaw Zaliwski

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals first with the problems of defining information. It is concluded that it is a misunderstanding to take a term and then to look for a definition. Rather a different way ought to be taken: to find the phenomenon first and then assign a name to it. The view that information is the same thing as a structure is considered. Then the processes by which information is created are analyzed. The definition that information is detected difference is closely scrutinized and it is found that information can also be detected sameness. It is argued that information is relative to the observer and for the very reason of the way it is created it is subjective. That extends only to information acquired. The existence of subjective information, however, does not prove information cannot exist objectively.

  6. The subjective experience of object recognition: comparing metacognition for object detection and object categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwese, Julia D I; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Fahrenfort, Johannes J

    2014-05-01

    Perceptual decisions seem to be made automatically and almost instantly. Constructing a unitary subjective conscious experience takes more time. For example, when trying to avoid a collision with a car on a foggy road you brake or steer away in a reflex, before realizing you were in a near accident. This subjective aspect of object recognition has been given little attention. We used metacognition (assessed with confidence ratings) to measure subjective experience during object detection and object categorization for degraded and masked objects, while objective performance was matched. Metacognition was equal for degraded and masked objects, but categorization led to higher metacognition than did detection. This effect turned out to be driven by a difference in metacognition for correct rejection trials, which seemed to be caused by an asymmetry of the distractor stimulus: It does not contain object-related information in the detection task, whereas it does contain such information in the categorization task. Strikingly, this asymmetry selectively impacted metacognitive ability when objective performance was matched. This finding reveals a fundamental difference in how humans reflect versus act on information: When matching the amount of information required to perform two tasks at some objective level of accuracy (acting), metacognitive ability (reflecting) is still better in tasks that rely on positive evidence (categorization) than in tasks that rely more strongly on an absence of evidence (detection).

  7. Objective and subjective measures of fuel poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddams Price, Catherine; Brazier, Karl; Wang, Wenjia

    2012-01-01

    As energy prices continue to rise to reflect the real cost of carbon, the numbers of households in fuel poverty is increasing rapidly. This paper uses a unique data set to explore one alternative measure of fuel poverty based on whether consumers feel able to afford their energy, similar to one introduced by the government a few years ago. We explore the links between an expenditure based and our subjective measure of fuel poverty and compare these differences with those between official measures. Amongst low income households, 28% spent more than a tenth of their income on energy in the home, and so would be likely to qualify as fuel poor under the most usual definition; but only 16% felt unable to afford sufficient energy to keep their homes warm. Amongst this group who felt they had difficulty in affording sufficient energy, less than half were ‘expenditure’ fuel poor. The paper argues that reintroduction of a self-reported measure by the government would be a valuable aid to policy development. - Highlights: ► Defines a subjective measure of fuel poverty (unable to afford heating). ► Fewer households feel fuel poor than meet the official definition of fuel poverty. ► Though they are positively related, different factors affect the two measures. ► Those on standard and prepayment metres more likely to feel fuel poor. ► Large families spend a higher proportion of income on energy but are no more likely to feel fuel poor.

  8. Objective and Subjective Attractiveness and Early Adolescent Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Jasna; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Used data from Pennsylvania Early Adolescent Transitions Study to assess how objective physical attractiveness (PA), indexed by appraisals from others, and subjective PA, indexed by self-appraisals, related to each other and to early adolescent adjustment. Findings indicated low relationship between objective and subjective PA; only subjective PA…

  9. Object attraction effects during subject-verb agreement in Persian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiz, Aazam; Cowles, Wind

    2018-04-01

    Subject-verb agreement provides insight into how grammatical and semantic features interact during sentence production, and prior studies have found attraction errors when an intervening local noun is grammatically part of the subject. Two major types of theories have emerged from these studies: control based and competition-based. The current study used an subject-object-verb language with optional subject-verb agreement, Persian, to test the competition-based hypothesis that intervening object nouns may also cause attraction effects, even though objects are not part of the syntactic relationship between the subject and verb. Our results, which did not require speakers to make grammatical errors, show that objects can be attractors for agreement, but this effect appears to be dependent on the type of plural marker on the object. These results support competition-based theories of agreement production, in which agreement may be influenced by attractors that are outside the scope of the subject-verb relationship.

  10. Comparison of subjective and objective assessments of outcome after traumatic brain injury using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Sanna; Hokkinen, Eeva-Maija; Wilson, Lindsay; Sarajuuri, Jaana; Von Steinbüchel, Nicole; Truelle, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    The aim is to examine two aspects of outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Functional outcome was assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale - Extended (GOSE) and by clinician ratings, while health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed by the Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI). The GOSE and the QOLIBRI were linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to analyse their content. Functional outcome on ICF categories was assessed by rehabilitation clinicians in 55 participants with TBI and was compared to the participants' own judgements of their HRQoL. The QOLIBRI was linked to 42 and the GOSE to 57 two-level ICF categories covering 78% of the categories on the ICF brief core set for TBI. The closest agreement in the views of the professionals and the participants was found on the Physical Problems and Cognition scales of the QOLIBRI. The problems encountered after TBI are well covered by the QOLIBRI and the GOSE. They capture important domains that are not traditionally sufficiently documented, especially in the domains of interpersonal relationships, social and leisure activities, self and the environment. The findings indicate that they are useful and complementary outcome measures for TBI. In rehabilitation, they can serve as tools in assessment, setting meaningful goals and creating therapeutic alliance.

  11. Use of subjective and objective criteria to categorise visual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajla, Garima; Rohatgi, Jolly; Dhaliwal, Upreet

    2014-04-01

    Visual disability is categorised using objective criteria. Subjective measures are not considered. To use subjective criteria along with objective ones to categorise visual disability. Ophthalmology out-patient department; teaching hospital; observational study. Consecutive persons aged >25 years, with vision disability; group-zero: normal range of vision, to group-X: no perception of light, bilaterally. Snellen's vision; binocular contrast sensitivity (Pelli-Robson chart); automated binocular visual field (Humphrey; Esterman test); and vision-related quality of life (Indian Visual Function Questionnaire-33; IND-VFQ33) were recorded. SPSS version-17; Kruskal-wallis test was used to compare contrast sensitivity and visual fields across groups, and Mann-Whitney U test for pair-wise comparison (Bonferroni adjustment; P visual fields were comparable for differing disability grades except when disability was severe (P disability grades but comparable for groups III (78.51 ± 6.86) and IV (82.64 ± 5.80), and groups IV and V (77.23 ± 3.22); these were merged to generate group 345; similarly, global scores were comparable for adjacent groups V and VI (72.53 ± 6.77), VI and VII (74.46 ± 4.32), and VII and VIII (69.12 ± 5.97); these were merged to generate group 5678; thereafter, contrast sensitivity and global and individual IND-VFQ33 scores could differentiate between different grades of disability in the five new groups. Subjective criteria made it possible to objectively reclassify visual disability. Visual disability grades could be redefined to accommodate all from zero-100%.

  12. Subjective experience of architectural objects: A cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare Serbian and Japanese participants in their subjective experience of Serbian and Japanese architectural objects. Subjective experience was operationalized through the ratings on the bipolar scales (e.g. pleasant-unpleasant. In the Preliminary study 1, a set of twelve rating scales was generated. In the Preliminary study 2 twelve Serbian and twelve Japanese architectural objects were specified. In the main experiment two groups of participants, twenty-one Serbian and twenty Japanese, rated twelve Serbian and twelve Japanese objects. A factor analysis extracted three dimensions of subjective experience: Beauty, Firmness and Fullness. Analysis of variance have shown that both Serbian and Japanese participants agreed that Japanese architectural objects looked more beautiful and firmer than Serbian objects. These finding is generally in line with perceptualist hypothesis that stimulus constraints are more effective than culture. However, interactions revealed some cultural differences that are consistent with culturalist hypothesis: compared to Serbian participants, Japanese participants rated Japanese architectural objects as more beautiful, whereas, compared to Japanese, Serbian participants rated Serbian objects as less fragile and emptier than Japanese objects. Generaly, our study have shown that Serbian (Western and Japanese (Eastern participants show general similarity in their subjective experience of architectural objects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179033

  13. Subjective and objective outcomes in randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moustgaard, Helene; Bello, Segun; Miller, Franklin G

    2014-01-01

    explicitly defined the terms. CONCLUSION: The terms "subjective" and "objective" are ambiguous when used to describe outcomes in randomized clinical trials. We suggest that the terms should be defined explicitly when used in connection with the assessment of risk of bias in a clinical trial......OBJECTIVES: The degree of bias in randomized clinical trials varies depending on whether the outcome is subjective or objective. Assessment of the risk of bias in a clinical trial will therefore often involve categorization of the type of outcome. Our primary aim was to examine how the concepts...... "subjective outcome" and "objective outcome" are defined in methodological publications and clinical trial reports. To put this examination into perspective, we also provide an overview of how outcomes are classified more broadly. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A systematic review of methodological publications...

  14. Do subjective assessments of running patterns reflect objective parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussiana, Thibault; Gindre, Cyrille; Mourot, Laurent; Hébert-Losier, Kim

    2017-08-01

    Running patterns are often categorized into subgroups according to common features before data analysis and interpretation. The Volodalen ® method is a simple field-based tool used to classify runners into aerial or terrestrial using a 5-item subjective rating scale. We aimed to validate the Volodalen ® method by quantifying the relationship between its subjective scores and 3D biomechanical measures. Fifty-four runners ran 30 s on a treadmill at 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 km h -1 while their kinematics were assessed subjectively using the Volodalen ® method and objectively using 3D motion capture. For each runner and speed, two researchers scored the five Volodalen ® items on a 1-to-5 scale, which addressed vertical oscillation, upper-body motion, pelvis and foot position at ground contact, and footstrike pattern. Seven 3D biomechanical parameters reflecting the subjective items were also collected and correlated to the subjective scores. Twenty-eight runners were classified as aerial and 26 as terrestrial. Runner classification did not change with speed, but the relative contribution of the biomechanical parameters to the subjective classification was speed dependent. The magnitude of correlations between subjective and objective measures ranged from trivial to very large. Five of the seven objective parameters significantly differed between aerial and terrestrial runners, and these parameters demonstrated the strongest correlations to the subjective scores. Our results support the validity of the Volodalen ® method, whereby the visual appreciation of running gait reflected quantifiable objective parameters. Two minor modifications to the method are proposed to simplify its use and improve agreement between subjective and objective measures.

  15. Objective Academic Achievement and Subjective Personal Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Betty

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between objective academic achievement (OAA) and subjective well-being (SWB). Using a sample of 515 adolescents from ten different high schools across a small country, semi-structured interviews, academic records and observations provided relevant data for the study. OAA was measured from examination results…

  16. Comparing objective and subjective error measures for color constancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gijsenij, A.; Gevers, T.

    2008-01-01

    We compare an objective and a subjective performance measure for color constancy algorithms. Eight hyper-spectral images were rendered under a neutral reference illuminant and four chromatic illuminants (Red, Green, Yellow, Blue). The scenes rendered under the chromatic illuminants were color

  17. Everyday listening questionnaire: correlation between subjective hearing and objective performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Martina; Frohne-Buechner, Carolin; Lesinski-Schiedat, Anke; Lenarz, Thomas; Buechner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Clinical experience has demonstrated that speech understanding by cochlear implant (CI) recipients has improved over recent years with the development of new technology. The Everyday Listening Questionnaire 2 (ELQ 2) was designed to collect information regarding the challenges faced by CI recipients in everyday listening. The aim of this study was to compare self-assessment of CI users using ELQ 2 with objective speech recognition measures and to compare results between users of older and newer coding strategies. During their regular clinical review appointments a group of representative adult CI recipients implanted with the Advanced Bionics implant system were asked to complete the questionnaire. The first 100 patients who agreed to participate in this survey were recruited independent of processor generation and speech coding strategy. Correlations between subjectively scored hearing performance in everyday listening situations and objectively measured speech perception abilities were examined relative to the speech coding strategies used. When subjects were grouped by strategy there were significant differences between users of older 'standard' strategies and users of the newer, currently available strategies (HiRes and HiRes 120), especially in the categories of telephone use and music perception. Significant correlations were found between certain subjective ratings and the objective speech perception data in noise. There is a good correlation between subjective and objective data. Users of more recent speech coding strategies tend to have fewer problems in difficult hearing situations.

  18. Vehicle handling: relationships between subjective and objective measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, R.M.A.F.; Hogema, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    TNO Human Factors and TNO Automotive are investigating relationships between subjective and objective measures in the area of vehicle handling. This paper presents a driving simulator study and a field experiment in which these relationships were investigated. First, in the driving simulator

  19. Objectivity and Subjectivity: an Argument for Rethinking the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectivity and Subjectivity: an Argument for Rethinking the Philosophy Syllabus. ... South African Journal of Philosophy ... The aftermath of the rise of modern physics has been a picture of reality as alienated from our commonly experienced sense of purposes, aims, and intentions as defining our everyday lives, what we ...

  20. Subjective and Objective Evaluation of PBL Outcomes in Preclinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjective and Objective Evaluation of PBL Outcomes in Preclinical Medical Students. ... ABSTRACT: Problem based learning curriculum is widely recognized as a progressive, learner-centered, active learning approach and is currently used in the entire medical curriculum in over 10% of medical schools worldwide.

  1. A Link between Subjective Perceptions of Memory and Physical Function: Implications for Subjective Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Stephanie; Devanand, Davangere; Gurland, Barry

    2018-01-01

    Subjective impairment in memory is a frequently defining feature of subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a state hypothesized to precede objectively apparent cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to hold promise as a non-invasive, inexpensive, preclinical indicator of AD. However, a full model of the factors that contribute to subjective memory (SM), and therefore to SCD, has yet to be articulated. While SM impairment is widely known to be associated with negative affect, the extent to which SM functioning may also reflect other factors, particularly subjective beliefs or perceptions about one's health, is not known. To examine the extent to which SM is associated with subjective perceptions of health more broadly, the current study investigated the link between SM and subjective physical functioning (independent of depressive affect, and objective cognitive and physical function) in an ethnically diverse sample of 471 older adults enrolled in the population-based Northern Manhattan Aging Project. 199 (42%) participants endorsed no difficulty on a 5-point SM index while 272 (58%) endorsed some degree of difficulty. As hypothesized, SM correlated with both depression and subjective physical function, but not with age, education, global cognition, or objective physical function. When objective and subjective physical function were entered in two separate, adjusted linear regressions predicting SM, only subjective physical function and depressive affect independently predicted SM. Subjective perceptions of memory appear to reflect individuals' broader health perceptions in part. Articulating the various correlates of SM will improve identification of SCD specific to preclinical AD.

  2. Accelerated increase and decrease in subjective age as a function of changes in loneliness and objective social indicators over a four-year period: results from the health and retirement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat; Palgi, Yuval; Avidor, Sharon; Bodner, Ehud

    2016-07-01

    The study examined the role of changes in loneliness and objective social indicators in the formation of changes in subjective age over a four-year period. The Health and Retirement Study is a US nationally representative study of older adults over 50 and their spouse of any age. We restricted the sample to individuals, 65 years of age and older (n = 2591). An accelerated increase in subjective age was defined as an increase in subjective age over the two waves greater than five years. An accelerated decrease in subjective age was defined as a difference that was lower than three years. These were examined against a change in subjective age in the range of three to five years (i.e., change consistent with the passage of time). For 23.4% of the sample, changes in subjective age were consistent with the passage of time. A total of 38.3% had an accelerated decrease in subjective age, whereas 38.3% had an accelerated increase. A decrease in loneliness over the two waves resulted in an accelerated decrease in subjective age, whereas an increase in depressive symptoms resulted in an accelerated increase in subjective age. Changes in objective social indicators, physical difficulties or medical comorbidity did not predict changes in subjective age. This is one of very few studies that examined changes in subjective age over time. Changes in subjective age represent an important construct that corresponding to other changes in subjective experiences.

  3. Objective and Subjective Assessment of Digital Pathology Image Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prarthana Shrestha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of an image produced by the Whole Slide Imaging (WSI scanners is of critical importance for using the image in clinical diagnosis. Therefore, it is very important to monitor and ensure the quality of images. Since subjective image quality assessments by pathologists are very time-consuming, expensive and difficult to reproduce, we propose a method for objective assessment based on clinically relevant and perceptual image parameters: sharpness, contrast, brightness, uniform illumination and color separation; derived from a survey of pathologists. We developed techniques to quantify the parameters based on content-dependent absolute pixel performance and to manipulate the parameters in a predefined range resulting in images with content-independent relative quality measures. The method does not require a prior reference model. A subjective assessment of the image quality is performed involving 69 pathologists and 372 images (including 12 optimal quality images and their distorted versions per parameter at 6 different levels. To address the inter-reader variability, a representative rating is determined as a one-tailed 95% confidence interval of the mean rating. The results of the subjective assessment support the validity of the proposed objective image quality assessment method to model the readers’ perception of image quality. The subjective assessment also provides thresholds for determining the acceptable level of objective quality per parameter. The images for both the subjective and objective quality assessment are based on the HercepTestTM slides scanned by the Philips Ultra Fast Scanners, developed at Philips Digital Pathology Solutions. However, the method is applicable also to other types of slides and scanners.

  4. Functional MRI of Multilingual Subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jae Min; Ryoo, Jae Wook; Choi, Dae Seob; Shin, Tae Beom; Chung, Sung Hoon; Kim, Ji Eun; Han, Heon; Kim, Sam Soo; Jeon, Yong Hwan

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate brain activation areas during the processing of languages in multilingual volunteers by functional MRI and to examine the differences between the mother and foreign languages. Nine multilingual (Korean, French, and English speaking) Korean individuals were enrolled in this study. Functional images were acquired during a lexical decision task (LDT) and picture naming task (PNT) in each of the Korean, French and English languages. The areas activated were analyzed topographically in each language and task, and compared between languages. Activation was noted in Broca's area, supramarginal gyrus, fusiform gyrus during the LDT. During the PNT, activation was noted in Broca's area, left prefrontal area, cerebellum, right extrastriated cortex. While Broca's area activation was observed for all languages during LDT, there was more activation in Broca's area and additional activation in the right prefrontal area with foreign languages. During the PNT, there was more activation in the left prefrontal area with foreign languages. Broca's area, which is known as a major language region, was activated by all languages and tasks. The brain activation areas were largely overlapping with the mother and foreign languages. However, there were wider areas of activation and additional different activation areas with foreign languages. These results suggest more cerebral effort during foreign language processing

  5. Historical knowledge and the search for truth: a reading of subjectivity and objectivity in the duality between subject and object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Tadeu Germinatti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents the systematization of theoretical reflections about the debate of neutrality in the human sciences. From the presentation of the conception of scientific neutrality defended by the positivist perspective, a reflection is made on the relation between researcher and object of historical research and its imbrications to the present day. The focus is on the subjective factor and its decisive contribution to research in human science. Thus, the great epistemological richness contained in subjectivity is demonstrated. The methodology used was a bibliographical study, made from researches in classic works of historical science.

  6. Subjective relevance of objective measures for spatial impression (A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lily M.; Gade, Anders Christian

    2000-01-01

    Several objective measures have been proposed to describe the feeling of spatial impression in concert halls, including Lateral Energy Fraction (LF) and Interaural Cross-Correlation Coefficient (IACC). However, previous studies have shown that LF and IACC values did not highly correlate with each...... other at individual seat positions in real halls [J. S. Bradley, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 3525–3535 (1994)]. To investigate the listener envelopment aspect of spatial impression further, subjective paired-comparison tests have been run using signals which have various values for LF, early IACC (from 5...

  7. Subjective Cognitive Complaints and Objective Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin Yong; Lee, Yoonju; Sunwoo, Mun Kyung; Sohn, Young H; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2018-01-01

    Subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs) are very common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the relationship between SCCs and objective cognitive impairment is still unclear. This study aimed to determine whether SCCs are correlated with objective cognitive performance in patients with PD. Totals of 148 cognitively normal patients, 71 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 31 demented patients were recruited consecutively from a movement-disorders clinic. Their SCCs and cognitive performances were evaluated using the Cognitive Complaints Interview (CCI) and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. The CCI score increased with age, duration of PD, and depression score, and was inversely correlated with cognitive performance. The association between CCI score and performance remained significant after adjustment for the depression score, age, and duration of PD. The CCI score could be used to discriminate patients with dementia from cognitively normal and MCI patients [area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.80], but not patients with MCI or dementia from cognitively normal patients (AUC of 0.67). SCCs as measured by the CCI are strongly correlated with objective cognitive performance in patients with PD. The CCI can also be used to screen for dementia in patients with PD. Copyright © 2018 Korean Neurological Association.

  8. Objective versus subjective outcome measures of biofeedback: what really matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Amanda; Rudick, Kristen; Richter, Meg; Zderic, Stephen

    2014-08-01

    Clinical epidemiologic studies suggest that once established, voiding dysfunction can become a lifelong condition if not treated correctly early on in life. Biofeedback is one component of a voiding retraining program to help children with voiding dysfunction. Our goal was to compare objective non-invasive urodynamic data obtained during office biofeedback sessions with patient reported voiding symptom scores. Charts of 55 children referred in 2010 for pelvic floor muscle biofeedback therapy for urinary incontinence were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with any anatomic diagnoses were excluded. Forty-seven (86%) females and eight males (14%) with a mean age of 8.2 years made up the cohort. Uroflow curves, voided volumes, and post-void residuals were recorded at each visit and served as objective data. Volumes were normalized as a percentage of expected bladder capacity according to age. The patient reported symptom score and patient reported outcome (improved, no change or worse) served as subjective measures of intervention. The primary referral diagnoses were day and night wetting in 37 (67%) and daytime incontinence in 18 (33%) children. A history of urinary tract infection (UTI) was noted in 32 (64%) patients, and 25% were maintained on antibiotic prophylaxis during the study period. Twenty-nine percent were maintained on anticholinergic medication. Patients attended an average of 2.5 biofeedback sessions. Voided volumes and post void residual volumes were unchanged, 50% of the abnormal uroflow curves normalized over the course of treatment (p biofeedback were rated an improved in 26 (47%), no change in 15 (27%), worse in three (5%) patients, and not rated in 11 patients (21%). Pelvic floor muscle biofeedback is associated with patient-reported improvement in symptoms, reduction in voiding symptom score, and normalization of uroflow curves, but these improvements are not correlated with objective parameters of voided volumes and post-void residual urine

  9. Object and subject relations in adulthood--towards an integrative model of interpersonal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvelc, Gregor

    2010-12-01

    In the article the author presents a model of interpersonal relationships based on integration of object relations theory and theory of attachment. He proposes three main bipolar dimensions of interpersonal relationships: Independence - Dependence, Connectedness - Alienation and Reciprocity - Self-absorption. The author also proposes that it is important to distinguish between two main types of adult interpersonal relationships: object and subject relations. Object relations describe relationships in which the other person is perceived as an object that serves the satisfaction of the first person's needs. Object relations are a manifestation of the right pole of the three main dimensions of interpersonal relationships (Dependence, Alienation and Self-absorption). Subject relations are a counter-pole to the concept of object relations. They describe relationships with other people who are experienced as subjects with their own wishes, interests and needs. Subject relations are a manifestation of the left pole of the main dimensions (Independence, Connectedness and Reciprocity). In this article the author specifically focuses on definitions of object relations in adulthood through a description of six sub-dimensions of object relations: Symbiotic Merging, Separation Anxiety, Social Isolation, Fear of Engulfment, Egocentrism and Narcissism. Every sub-dimension is described in connection to adaptive and pathological functioning. Further research is needed to test the clinical and scientific validity of the model.

  10. Subjective and objective screening tests for hydroxychloroquine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Catherine; Huynh, Nancy; Vitale, Susan; Wong, Wai T; Ferris, Fredrick L; Sieving, Paul A

    2015-02-01

    To compare subjective and objective clinical tests used in the screening for hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity to multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) reference testing. Prospective, single-center, case control study. Fifty-seven patients with a previous or current history of hydroxychloroquine treatment of more than 5 years' duration. Participants were evaluated with a detailed medical history, dilated ophthalmologic examination, color fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT), automated visual field testing (10-2 visual field mean deviation [VFMD]), and mfERG testing. We used mfERG test parameters as a gold standard to divide participants into 2 groups: those affected by hydroxychloroquine-induced retinal toxicity and those unaffected. We assessed the association of various imaging and psychophysical variables in the affected versus the unaffected group. Fifty-seven study participants (91.2% female; mean age, 55.7±10.4 years; mean duration of hydroxychloroquine treatment, 15.0±7.5 years) were divided into affected (n = 19) and unaffected (n = 38) groups based on mfERG criteria. Mean age and duration of hydroxychloroquine treatment did not differ statistically between groups. Mean OCT retinal thickness measurements in all 9 macular subfields were significantly lower (<40 μm) in the affected group (P < 0.01 for all comparisons) compared with those in the unaffected group. Mean VFMD was 11 dB lower in the affected group (P < 0.0001). Clinical features indicative of retinal toxicity were scored for the 2 groups and were detected in 68.4% versus 0.0% using color fundus photographs, 73.3% versus 9.1% using FAF images, and 84.2% versus 0.0% on the scoring for the perifoveal loss of the photoreceptor ellipsoid zone on SD-OCT for affected and unaffected participants, respectively. Using a polynomial modeling approach, OCT inner ring retinal thickness measurements and Humphrey 10-2 VFMD were

  11. Perception of faces in schizophrenia: Subjective (self-report) vs. objective (psychophysics) assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Ekstrom, Tor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Face perception impairment in schizophrenia has been demonstrated, mostly through experimental studies. How this laboratory-defined behavioral impairment is associated with patients’ perceptual experience of various faces in everyday life is however unclear. This question is important because a first-person account of face perception has direct consequences on social functioning of patients. In this study, we adapted and administered a self-reported questionnaire on narrative perceptual experience of faces along with psychophysical assessments of face perception in schizophrenia. Methods The self-reported questionnaire includes six rating items of face-related functioning in everyday life, providing a subjective measure of face perception. The psychophysical assessment determines perceptual threshold for discriminating different facial identities, providing an objective measure of face perception. Results Compared to controls (n=25), patients (n=35) showed significantly lower scores (worse performance) in the subjective assessment and significantly higher thresholds (worse performance) in the objective assessment. The subjective and objective face perception assessments were moderately correlated in controls but not in patients. The subjective face perception assessments were significantly correlated with measurements of a social cognitive ability (Theory of Mind), again in controls but not in patients. Conclusion These results suggest that in schizophrenia the quality of face-related functioning in everyday life is degraded and the role that basic face discrimination capacity plays in face-related everyday functioning is disrupted. PMID:26938027

  12. Subject, object and tasks of the marketing audit

    OpenAIRE

    Fayzulayeva, K.

    2009-01-01

    In the article issues of the marketing audit theory are considered. Views of different authors on the tasks and objects of the marketing audit and marketing control are suggested. Objectives and principles of marketing audit performing are determined.

  13. Perception of faces in schizophrenia: Subjective (self-report) vs. objective (psychophysics) assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Ekstrom, Tor

    2016-05-01

    Face perception impairment in schizophrenia has been demonstrated, mostly through experimental studies. How this laboratory-defined behavioral impairment is associated with patients' perceptual experience of various faces in everyday life is however unclear. This question is important because a first-person account of face perception has direct consequences on social functioning of patients. In this study, we adapted and administered a self-reported questionnaire on narrative perceptual experience of faces along with psychophysical assessments of face perception in schizophrenia. The self-reported questionnaire includes six rating items of face-related functioning in everyday life, providing a subjective measure of face perception. The psychophysical assessment determines perceptual threshold for discriminating different facial identities, providing an objective measure of face perception. Compared to controls (n = 25), patients (n = 35) showed significantly lower scores (worse performance) in the subjective assessment and significantly higher thresholds (worse performance) in the objective assessment. The subjective and objective face perception assessments were moderately correlated in controls but not in patients. The subjective face perception assessments were significantly correlated with measurements of a social cognitive ability (Theory of Mind), again in controls but not in patients. These results suggest that in schizophrenia the quality of face-related functioning in everyday life is degraded and the role that basic face discrimination capacity plays in face-related everyday functioning is disrupted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Objectivity: A Subject of Discourse in Historical Writing | Oyewale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the problems confronting historians in historical writing is the question of objectivity. Objectivity holds that any historical writing should be based on solid facts, devoid of sentiments, biases and prejudice irrespective of tribes, gender, race, sex, and nation. It is simply referred to as “respect for the truth”. It also means ...

  15. Differentiation chronic post traumatic stress disorder patients from healthy subjects using objective and subjective sleep-related parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasian, Masoud; Jamalabadi, Hamidreza; Abedini, Mina; Ghadami, Mohammad R; Sepehry, Amir A; Knight, David C; Khazaie, Habibolah

    2017-05-22

    Sleep disturbance is common in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, prior work has demonstrated that there are inconsistencies between subjective and objective assessments of sleep disturbance in PTSD. Therefore, we investigated whether subjective or objective sleep assessment has greater clinical utility to differentiate PTSD patients from healthy subjects. Further, we evaluated whether the combination of subjective and objective methods improves the accuracy of classification into patient versus healthy groups, which has important diagnostic implications. We recruited 32 chronic war-induced PTSD patients and 32 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects to participate in this study. Subjective (i.e. from three self-reported sleep questionnaires) and objective sleep-related data (i.e. from actigraphy scores) were collected from each participant. Subjective, objective, and combined (subjective and objective) sleep data were then analyzed using support vector machine classification. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for subjective variables were 89.2%, 89.3%, and 89%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for objective variables were 65%, 62.3%, and 67.8%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for the aggregate variables (combination of subjective and objective variables) were 91.6%, 93.0%, and 90.3%, respectively. Our findings indicate that classification accuracy using subjective measurements is superior to objective measurements and the combination of both assessments appears to improve the classification accuracy for differentiating PTSD patients from healthy individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pulmonary function in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. R.; Isaksen, Jonas Lynggaard; Jemec, G. B.

    2018-01-01

    Psoriasis is a prevalent chronic inflammatory disease associated with comorbidities, e.g. cardiometabolic diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, and depression that may share an inflammatory origin. Smoking increases the risk of psoriasis and the disease has also been linked to chronic obstructive...... pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, with evidence of shared inflammatory cytokine-mediated mechanisms. Moreover, subjects with psoriasis display increased risk of infections, especially respiratory infections including pneumonia. However, only a small single-center study of pulmonary function in subjects...... with psoriasis is available. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. Subjective Analysis and Objective Characterization of Adaptive Bitrate Videos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Tavakoli, Samira; Brunnström, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    The HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) technology allows video service providers to improve the network utilization and thereby increasing the end-users’ Quality of Experience (QoE).This has made HAS a widely used approach for audiovisual delivery. There are several previous studies aiming to identify...... the factors influencing on subjective QoE of adaptation events.However, adapting the video quality typically lasts in a time scale much longer than what current standardized subjective testing methods are designed for, thus making the full matrix design of the experiment on an event level hard to achieve....... In this study, we investigated the overall subjective QoE of 6 minutes long video sequences containing different sequential adaptation events. This was compared to a data set from our previous work performed to evaluate the individual adaptation events. We could then derive a relationship between the overall...

  18. Subjective and Objective Work-Based Identity Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botha, F.C.; Roodt, G.; van de Bunt-Kokhuis, S.G.M.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Roodt, G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to provide a systematic literature review on the selected consequences of work-based identity (WI). The first section of the chapter includes the following subjective consequences: self-report measures on personal alienation, helping behaviour (H-OCB), burnout (consisting

  19. Subjective perception versus objective indicators of overcrowding and housing affordability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sunega, Petr; Lux, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2016), s. 695-717 ISSN 1566-4910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36154G Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Housing * Indicators * Overcrowding * Housing affordability Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.178, year: 2016

  20. Subjective versus objective measures of tic severity in Tourette syndrome - The influence of environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, Meirav; Benaroya-Milshtein, Noa; Gilboa-Sechtman, Eva; Woods, Douglas W; Piacentini, John; Fennig, Silvana; Apter, Alan; Steinberg, Tamar

    2016-08-30

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of environmental challenges on tic expression by subjective and objective measures. The study group consisted of 41 children aged 6-18 years (M=10.15, SD=2.73) with a primary diagnosis of Tourette syndrome. Subjective measures included the Functional Assessment Interview developed for this study and three standard validated instruments. The objective measure was a video-recording of the patients in five daily-life situations: watching television, doing homework, being alone, receiving attention when ticcing, and talking to a stranger. In addition, the effect of premonitory urges on assessment of tic expression was evaluated. The associations between the subjective and objective measures of tic expression were moderate to low. A significantly higher number of tics were observed in the television situation, and a significantly lower number in the alone situation, compared to the other situations. Higher levels of premonitory urge were associated with greater awareness of objectively measured tic expression. In conclusion, tic expression is significantly influenced by the environment. Subjective measures of tic expression may be misleading. These results have implications for refining the clinical assessment of tics, improving research methodology, and developing new therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization of tactical decisions: subjective and objective conditionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Юрійович Булулуков

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article «human» and «objective» factors are investigated that influencing on optimization of tactical decisions. Attention is accented on dependence of the got information about the circumstances of crime from the acceptance of correct decisions an investigator. Connection between efficiency of investigation and acceptance of optimal tactical decisions is underlined. The declared problem is not investigational in literature in a sufficient measure. Its separate aspects found the reflection in works: D. А. Solodova, S. Yu. Yakushina and others. Some questions related to optimization of investigation and making decision an investigator we discover in works: R. S. Belkin, V. А. Juravel, V. Е. Konovalova, V. L. Sinchuk, B. V. Shur, V. Yu. Shepitko. The aim of the article is determination of term «optimization», as it applies to tactical decisions in criminalistics, and also consideration of influence of human and objective factors on the acceptance of optimal decisions at investigation of crimes. In the article etymology of term is considered «optimization» and interpretation of its is given as it applies to the acceptance of tactical decisions. The types of mark human and objective factors, stipulating optimization of tactical decisions. The last assists efficiency of tactics of investigation of crimes. At consideration of «human factors» of influencing on optimization decisions, attention applies on «psychological traps» can take place at making decision. Among them such are named, as: anchoring; status quo; irreversible expenses; desired and actual; incorrect formulation; conceit; reinsurance; constancy of memory. Underlined, absence of unambiguity in the brought list over of «objective factors» influencing at choice tactical decision. The different understanding of «tactical risk» is argued, as a factor influencing on an acceptance tactical decisions. The analysis of «human» and «objective» factors influencing on

  2. Subjective and objective assessment of manual, supported, and automated vehicle control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, A.P. de; Godthelp, J.; Käppler, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper subjective and objective assessments of vehicle control are illustrated by means of ex-periments concerning manipulation of vehicle dynamics, driver support, and automated driving. Subjective ratings are discussed in relation to objective performance measures.

  3. The Constructed Objectivity of Mathematics and the Cognitive Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Giuseppe

    Mathematics is engendered in conjunction with other forms of knowledge, physics in particular. It is a "genealogy of concepts" (Riemann), that stems from our active reconstruction of the world. Mathematics organizes space and time. It stabilizes notions and concepts as no other language, while isolating by them a few intelligible fragments of "reality" at the phenomenal level. Thus an epistemological analysis of mathematics is proposed, as a foundation that departs from and complements the logico-formal approaches: Mathematics is grounded in a formation of sense, of a congnitive and historical nature, which preceeds the explicit formulation of axioms and rules. The genesis of some conceptual invariants will be sketched (numbers, continua, infinity, proofs, etc.). From these, categories as structural invariants (objects) and "invariant preserving maps" (morphisms, functors) are derived, in a reflective equilibrium of theories that parallels our endeavour to gain knowledge of the physical world.

  4. Woman in Roman law: Subject or object of the law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunović Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Rome, legal status of woman and her factual possibilities of impact on public life were in serious discrepancy. General attitude of the legal status of woman in time of Romans is best shown by Papinian, 'In many provisions of our law, the position of woman is worse than of man (D.9.1.5.'. Every free Roman woman was considered a subject of law, according to classical Roman law. Nevertheless, there were extensive legislations that limited her legal and business capacity. Naturally, woman did not have legal personality in all periods of Roman state and her legal status was adjusted to the factual changes that had occurred in Roman society. What makes her position specific in Rome is progressive social role that did not exist in Greek-Asian world. From these previously mentioned views, which were confronting, it is possible to draw some doubts. Was woman really on the margins of political happenings, or was she an actual actor, even initiator, of some political events?.

  5. Programming Scala Scalability = Functional Programming + Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Wampler, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Learn how to be more productive with Scala, a new multi-paradigm language for the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) that integrates features of both object-oriented and functional programming. With this book, you'll discover why Scala is ideal for highly scalable, component-based applications that support concurrency and distribution. Programming Scala clearly explains the advantages of Scala as a JVM language. You'll learn how to leverage the wealth of Java class libraries to meet the practical needs of enterprise and Internet projects more easily. Packed with code examples, this book provides us

  6. Effect of objective function on multi-objective inverse planning of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoli; Wu Yican; Song Gang; Wang Shifang

    2006-01-01

    There are two kinds of objective functions in radiotherapy inverse planning: dose distribution-based and Dose-Volume Histogram (DVH)-based functions. The treatment planning in our days is still a trial and error process because the multi-objective problem is solved by transforming it into a single objective problem using a specific set of weights for each object. This work investigates the problem of objective function setting based on Pareto multi-optimization theory, and compares the effect on multi-objective inverse planning of those two kinds of objective functions including calculation time, converge speed, etc. The basis of objective function setting on inverse planning is discussed. (authors)

  7. Occlusion and Temporomandibular Function among Subjects with Mandibular Distal Extension Removable Partial Dentures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creugers, N.H.J.; Witter, D.J.; Spijker, A. van 't; Gerritsen, A.E.; Kreulen, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To quantify effects on occlusion and temporomandibular function of mandibular distal extension removable partial dentures in shortened dental arches. Methods. Subjects wearing mandibular extension removable partial dentures (n = 25) were compared with subjects with shortened dental arches

  8. Discrepancy between subjective autobiographical reliving and objective recall: The past as seen by Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigated whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may demonstrate a discrepancy between subjective autobiographical reliving and objective recall. To this end, 31 AD patients and 35 controls were asked to retrieve three autobiographical memories. For each memory, participants were asked to rate its subjective characteristics (e.g., reliving, travel in time, visual imagery…). Besides this subjective assessment, we analyzed recall objectively with regard to specificity. Results showed poorer subjective autobiographical reliving and objective recall in AD patients than in controls. A discrepancy (i.e., higher level of subjective reliving than of objective recall) was observed in AD but not in control participants. Despite a compromise in their objective recall, AD patients seemed to attribute a high value to their subjective autobiographical experience. This discrepancy can be attributed to a potential genuine consciousness experience in which mild AD patients can, to some extent, experience some subjective features of the past. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Objective Integrated Assessment of Functional Outcomes in Reduction Mammaplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaro, Ilaria; Malovini, Alberto; Faga, Angela; Toffola, Elena Dalla

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of our study was an objective integrated assessment of the functional outcomes of reduction mammaplasty. Methods: The study involved 17 women undergoing reduction mammaplasty from March 2009 to June 2011. Each patient was assessed before surgery and 2 months postoperatively with the original association of 4 subjective and objective assessment methods: a physiatric clinical examination, the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, the Berg Balance Scale, and a static force platform analysis. Results: All of the tests proved multiple statistically significant associated outcomes demonstrating a significant improvement in the functional status following reduction mammaplasty. Surgical correction of breast hypertrophy could achieve both spinal pain relief and recovery of performance status in everyday life tasks, owing to a muscular postural functional rearrangement with a consistent antigravity muscle activity sparing. Pain reduction in turn could reduce the antalgic stiffness and improved the spinal range of motion. In our sample, the improvement of the spinal range of motion in flexion matched a similar improvement in extension. Recovery of a more favorable postural pattern with reduction of the anterior imbalance was demonstrated by the static force stabilometry. Therefore, postoperatively, all of our patients narrowed the gap between the actual body barycenter and the ideal one. The static force platform assessment also consistently confirmed the effectiveness of an accurate clinical examination of functional impairment from breast hypertrophy. Conclusions: The static force platform assessment might help the clinician to support the diagnosis of functional impairment from a breast hypertrophy with objectively based data. PMID:25289256

  10. Social Inequalities and Depressive Symptoms in Adults: The Role of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebel, Jens; Maske, Ulrike E; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)-as measured by education, occupation, and income-is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung 'social ladder'. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms. Prospective studies are needed to establish

  11. Social Inequalities and Depressive Symptoms in Adults: The Role of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E.; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)—as measured by education, occupation, and income—is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Methods Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung ‘social ladder’. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). Results After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. Conclusions The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms

  12. Subjective cognitive decline and fall risk in community-dwelling older adults with or without objective cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Tashiro, Yuto; Nozaki, Yuma; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2018-05-01

    The association between subjective cognitive decline and falls has not been clearly determined. Our aim was to explore the effect of subjective cognitive decline on falls in community-dwelling older adults with or without objective cognitive decline. We included 470 older adults (mean age 73.6 ± 5.2; 329 women) living in the community and obtained data on fall history directly from the participants. Subjective cognitive decline was assessed using a self-administered question. Objective cognitive function was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Statistical analyses were carried out separately for participants with objective cognitive decline and those without. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that, among participants without objective cognitive decline, subjective cognitive decline was positively associated with falls [OR 1.91; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.12; p = 0.01). Conversely, among participants with objective cognitive decline, subjective cognitive decline was negatively associated with falls (OR 0.07; 95% CI 0.01-0.85, p = 0.04). The result suggests that the objective-subjective disparity may affect falls in community-dwelling older adults. The presence of subjective cognitive decline was significantly positively associated with falls among cognitively intact older adults. However, among their cognitively impaired peers, the absence of subjective cognitive decline was positively associated with falls.

  13. Tagging the didactic functionality of learning objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Skafte; Brostroem, Stig

    2002-01-01

    From a components-in-a-network point of view, the most important issues are: a didactically based typing of the learning objects themselves; the entire design superstructure, into which the learning objects must be fitted; and the symmetry of the interfaces, as seen by each pair of the triad...

  14. Neural Mechanisms of the Transformation from Objective Value to Subjective Utility: Converting from Count to Worth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A.; Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A.

    2016-01-01

    When deciding, we aim to choose the “best” possible outcome. This is not just selection of the option that is the most numerous or physically largest, as options are translated from objective value (count) to subjective value (worth or utility). We localized the neural instantiation of the value-to-utility transformation to the dorsal anterior midcingulate cortex (daMCC), with independent replication. The daMCC encodes the context-specific information necessary to convert from count to worth. This encoding is not simply a representation of utility or preference, but the interaction of the two. Specifically, the relationship of brain activation to value is dependent on individual preference, with both positive and negative slopes across the population depending on whether each individual's preference results in enhancement or diminishment of the valuation. For a given value, across participants, enhanced daMCC activation corresponds to diminished subjective valuation, deactivation to enhanced subjective valuation, and non-modulated activation with non-modulated subjective valuation. Further, functional connectivity analyses identified brain regions (positive connectivity with the inferior frontal gyrus and negative connectivity with the nucleus accumbens) through which contextual information may be integrated into the daMCC and allow for outputs to modulate valuation signals. All analyses were replicated through an independent within-study replication, with initial testing in the gains domain and replication in the intermixed and mirrored losses trials. We also present and discuss an ancillary finding: we were unable to identify parametric value signals for losses through whole-brain analyses, and ROI analyses of the vmPFC presented non-modulation across loss value levels. These results identify the neural locus of the value-to-utility transformation, and provide a specific computational function for the daMCC in the production of subjective valuation through

  15. Objective and subjective measurement of sleep disturbance in female trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kimberly B; Griffin, Michael G; Galovski, Tara E

    2016-06-30

    Sleep disturbance may be the most often endorsed symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Much of this research is based on subjective reports from trauma survivors; however, objective measures of sleep-related impairment have yielded findings inconsistent with self-report data. More studies investigating subjective and objective assessments concordantly are needed to understand sleep impairment in PTSD. The current study examined PTSD-related sleep disturbance in a female interpersonal violence cohort with full PTSD diagnoses (N=51) assessing subjective (global and daily diary measures) and objective (actigraphy) sleep measures concurrently. PTSD severity was positively associated with global, subjective reports of sleep impairment and insomnia. Subjective measures of sleep (including global sleep impairment, insomnia, and daily sleep diary reports of total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and sleep onset latency) were moderately to strongly correlated. However, no significant correlations between subjective and objective reports of sleep impairment were found in this cohort. Analyses demonstrated an overall elevation in subjectively reported sleep impairment when compared to objective measurement assessed concurrently. Findings demonstrate a lack of agreement between subjective and objective measurements of sleep in a PTSD-positive female cohort, suggesting objective and subjective sleep impairments are distinct sleep parameters that do not necessarily directly co-vary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Control Deficit Subjects are Superior for Man-Made Objects on a Verbal Semantic Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roncero

    2014-04-01

    participant—whereas control deficit subjects’ temporal lobe damage was more severe in the left hemisphere and typically unilateral. Therefore, these results suggest our three tasks were sufficient for differentiating anomic subjects with either a control deficit or a storage deficit. Also, considering the worse performance by control deficit subjects for the verbal version of the Camels and Cactus test, the results are consistent with previous arguments that the left temporal lobe is more specialized for verbal knowledge whereas the right temporal lobe is more specialized for visual knowledge (Gainotti, 2014. We also found, however, that this difference on the word version was isolated to living objects only. For manmade objects, control deficit subjects’ answers were similar to normal elderly controls. Therefore, the results suggest that animacy effects may be less related to a loss of visual semantic knowledge, as predicted by the sensory-functional hypothesis, because control deficit subjects performed well on the visual Camels and Cactus Test. Instead, animacy effects may be more related to the location of atrophy within the left temporal lobe.

  17. The Effects of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status on Subjective Well-Being among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China: The Moderating Role of Subjective Social Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silin Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although previous investigations have agreed that Chinese rural-to-urban migrants’ socioeconomic status (SES increases with their migration, the association between SES and subjective well-being is uncertain. To address this research gap, the present study proposed that the association between objective SES and subjective well-being is mediated by subjective SES. This model was tested with a sample of 432 Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. The results indicate a significant association between objective SES and subjective well-being and a partial mediating effect of subjective SES. Furthermore, subjective social mobility, which is one’s expectation about the possibility to move upward in the social hierarchy, was found to moderate both the direct path from objective SES to subjective well-being and the indirect path from subjective SES to subjective well-being. These findings suggest that Chinese rural-to-urban migrants gained in subjective well-being not only because of direct financial achievement but also because of their perceptions and beliefs about their relative social status.

  18. Subjective Poverty and Its Relation to Objective Poverty Concepts in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandori, Eszter Siposne

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes subjective poverty in Hungary and compares it to the objective poverty concepts. Subjective poverty is defined by examining who people consider to be poor. Based on the Easterlin paradox, the initial hypothesis states that subjective and absolute poverty concepts are highly correlated. Taking into account that Hungary is a…

  19. Objective and subjective rating of tonal noise radiated from UK wind farms: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This final report provides data on the assessment of tonal noise radiation from wind turbines in the United Kingdom. Both objective and subjective assessments of the noise pollution from various wind farms are incorporated in the study. Previous subjective tests are verified here using a larger subject and sample size compared to the initial study. The study also aims to produce an objective automatic tonal assessment procedure which identifies tones and broad band masking noise in wind farm radiated noise spectra. (UK)

  20. Subjective and Objective CPAP Compliance in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ae Choi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective This study aimed to investigate objective and subjective continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP compliance in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. Moreover, we evaluated the factors and benefits associated with good CPAP compliance. Methods Subjects were 153 OSAS patients who underwent polysomnography for CPAP titration. Subjective compliance was defined as reported CPAP use of at least 4 hours a day for five or more days per week, and objective compliance was defined as CPAP use of at least 4 hours a day for more than 70% of the time recorded in the CPAP machine. Results The subjective and objective compliance rates were 34.0% and 20.7%, respectively. Subjectively compliant patients had lower minimum O2 saturation and higher % of time with O2 saturation lower than 90% than did patients declining CPAP treatment. Objectively compliant patients had lower insomnia and depression score and lower minimum O2 saturation than did patients declining CPAP treatment. Daytime sleepiness and subjective sleep quality improved to the same extent in both objectively and subjectively compliant patients. Conclusions Lower insomnia score and more severe OSA correlate with good CPAP compliance. CPAP effect was comparable between subjectively and objectively compliant patients.

  1. Optimising screening for cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder: Validation and evaluation of objective and subjective tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johan Høy; Støttrup, Mette Marie; Nayberg, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    by correlation with established objective and subjective cognitive measures, and decision validity was determined with Receiver-Operating-Characteristic analyses. Correlations and linear regression analyses were conducted to determine the associations between objective and subjective cognitive impairment......Introduction Cognitive impairment is common in bipolar disorder and contributes to socio-occupational difficulties. The objective was to validate and evaluate instruments to screen for and monitor cognitive impairments, and improve the understanding of the association between cognitive measures...

  2. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  3. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sam- ple of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  4. Subjective Sleepiness and Sleep Quality in Adolescents are Related to Objective and Subjective Measures of School Performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, A.; Krabbendam, L.; Dekker, S.; Lee, N.; Groot, R. de; Jolles, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  5. The Functional Architecture of Visual Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    different forms of agnosia can provide clues to the representations underlying normal object recognition (Farah, 1990). For example, the pair-wise...patterns of deficit and sparing occur. In a review of 99 published cases of agnosia , the observed patterns of co- occurrence implicated two underlying

  6. The Subject of Culture Within the Objective Scope of the Philosophy of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Cherepanova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is pointed out that European and worldwide integration processes, the informatization and the competitive character of all the spheres of social life require the overcoming of the tendency of “catching up” that is characteristic of Ukraine — in favour of leaving behind the transformation of the educational sphere, especially the pedagogical one. The attitude of a human being to the world contains theoretical (knowledge and ideas and practical aspects. Created in the process of social development new establishments, things, technologies have a human content; implement human subjectivity — knowledge, intellect, feelings, thinking, volition, convictions, objectives etc. Under discordant challenges of globalization, the philosophy of education can provide an adequate answer, approaches and objectives. The philosophy of education functions as a combination of world view theories (ideas, scientific, cultural, value, moral and ethical principles that predetermine not only the content of education but also a certain type of personality… This takes into account the peculiarities of technogenic (western and traditional (eastern cultures, that is the type of personality: individualistic (the West, collectivistic (the East. The methodological prospects are determined by the correlation of humanitarian, dialogical, synergetic paradigms, the philosophic anthropology and ontology with the accent on culture creation as overcoming the boundaries of the possible (cognition, activity creation of the being by means of culture. The humanitarian and culture creating strategies of the philosophy of education are grounded as conceptually reasonable: integrity and interaction of basic being and value concepts (man-science-culture-art-the style of thinking and objectives — the formation of a personality as a subject of culture. The formation of the subject of culture takes place in a certain social community, among moral rules, customs and

  7. Objectives and functions of ionizing radiation metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, H.

    1981-01-01

    Proceeding from the fundamental objectives of ionizing radiation metrology, the main tasks of metrological research and assurances of accurate measurements in dosimetry and activity determination are summarized. With a view to the technical performance of these tasks the state-of-the-art and the trends in reproduction and dissemination of dosimetric and activity units are outlined. Problems are derived that should be solved within the framework of the CMEA Standing Commissions on Standardization and on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. (author)

  8. From Functions to Object-Orientation by Abstraction

    OpenAIRE

    Diertens, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we developed a framework of computational models for function and object execution. The models on an higher level of abstraction in this framework allow for concurrent execution of functions and objects. We show that the computational model for object execution complies with the fundamentals of object-orientation.

  9. Effect of knowledge of APOE genotype on subjective and objective memory performance in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineweaver, Tara T; Bondi, Mark W; Galasko, Douglas; Salmon, David P

    2014-02-01

    The knowledge that one carries the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele risk factor for Alzheimer's disease was recently found to have little short-term psychological risk. The authors investigated the impact of knowledge of carrying the risk allele on subjective ratings of memory and objective memory test performance of older adults. Using a nested case-control design, the authors administered objective verbal and visual memory tests and self-rating scales of memory function to 144 cognitively normal older adults (ages 52-89) with known APOE genotype who knew (ε4+, N=25; ε4-, N=49) or did not know (ε4+, N=25; ε4-, N=45) their genotype and genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease prior to neuropsychological evaluation. Significant genotype-by-disclosure interaction effects were observed on several memory rating scales and tests of immediate and delayed verbal recall. Older adults who knew their ε4+ genotype judged their memory more harshly and performed worse on an objective verbal memory test than did ε4+ adults who did not know. In contrast, older adults who knew their ε4- genotype judged their memory more positively than did ε4- adults who did not know, but these groups did not differ in objective memory test performance. Informing older adults that they have an APOE genotype associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease can have adverse consequences on their perception of their memory abilities and their performance on objective memory tests. The patient's knowledge of his or her genotype and risk of Alzheimer's disease should be considered when evaluating cognition in the elderly.

  10. Subjective versus objective risk in genetic counseling for hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperduti Isabella

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the fact that genetic counseling in oncology provides information regarding objective risks, it can be found a contrast between the subjective and objective risk. The aims of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of the perceived risk compared to the objective risk estimated by the BRCApro computer model and to evaluate any associations between medical, demographic and psychological variables and the accuracy of risk perception. Methods 130 subjects were given medical-demographic file, Cancer and Genetic Risk Perception, Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale. It was also computed an objective evaluation of the risk by the BRCApro model. Results The subjective risk was significantly higher than objective risk. The risk of tumour was overestimated by 56%, and the genetic risk by 67%. The subjects with less cancer affected relatives significantly overestimated their risk of being mutation carriers and made a more innacurate estimation than high risk subjects. Conclusion The description of this sample shows: general overestimation of the risk, inaccurate perception compared to BRCApro calculation and a more accurate estimation in those subjects with more cancer affected relatives (high risk subjects. No correlation was found between the levels of perception of risk and anxiety and depression. Based on our findings, it is worth pursuing improved communication strategies about the actual cancer and genetic risk, especially for subjects at "intermediate and slightly increased risk" of developing an hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer or of being mutation carrier.

  11. Correlation between subjective and objective hearing tests after unilateral and bilateral cochlear implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, Geerte G.J.; Smulders, Yvette E.; Van Zon, Alice; van Zanten, Gijsbert A.; Grolman, Wilko; Stegeman, Inge

    2017-01-01

    Background: There are many methods for assessing hearing performance after cochlear implantation. Standard evaluations often encompass objective hearing tests only, while patients' subjective experiences gain importance in today's healthcare. The aim of the current study was to analyze the

  12. Alerting and vitalizing effects of color temperature during daytime: findings on subjective and objective indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, K.C.H.J.; Kort, de Y.A.W.; Haans, A.; Gennip, van D. A. P.; Ham, J.; Kort, de Y. A. W.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of correlated colour temperature on alertness, vitality and performance during daytime. Results of a within-groups experiment demonstrate time dependent effects on subjective indicators; objective measures are still being analysed.

  13. Are subjective memory problems related to suggestibility, compliance, false memories, and objective memory performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bergen, Saskia; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between subjective memory beliefs and suggestibility, compliance, false memories, and objective memory performance was studied in a community sample of young and middle-aged people (N = 142). We hypothesized that people with subjective memory problems would exhibit higher suggestibility and compliance levels and would be more susceptible to false recollections than those who are optimistic about their memory. In addition, we expected a discrepancy between subjective memory judgments and objective memory performance. We found that subjective memory judgments correlated significantly with compliance, with more negative memory judgments accompanying higher levels of compliance. Contrary to our expectation, subjective memory problems did not correlate with suggestibility or false recollections. Furthermore, participants were accurate in estimating their objective memory performance.

  14. Usng subjective percentiles and test data for estimating fragility functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, L.L.; Mensing, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Fragility functions are cumulative distribution functions (cdfs) of strengths at failure. They are needed for reliability analyses of systems such as power generation and transmission systems. Subjective opinions supplement sparse test data for estimating fragility functions. Often the opinions are opinions on the percentiles of the fragility function. Subjective percentiles are likely to be less biased than opinions on parameters of cdfs. Solutions to several problems in the estimation of fragility functions are found for subjective percentiles and test data. How subjective percentiles should be used to estimate subjective fragility functions, how subjective percentiles should be combined with test data, how fragility functions for several failure modes should be combined into a composite fragility function, and how inherent randomness and uncertainty due to lack of knowledge should be represented are considered. Subjective percentiles are treated as independent estimates of percentiles. The following are derived: least-squares parameter estimators for normal and lognormal cdfs, based on subjective percentiles (the method is applicable to any invertible cdf); a composite fragility function for combining several failure modes; estimators of variation within and between groups of experts for nonidentically distributed subjective percentiles; weighted least-squares estimators when subjective percentiles have higher variation at higher percents; and weighted least-squares and Bayes parameter estimators based on combining subjective percentiles and test data. 4 figures, 2 tables

  15. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: Associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Daniel B.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement rep...

  16. Social existence: between subjective and objective conditions. Impact on the theoretical discussion on development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura González Serna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to instill reflections on the theoretical debate around the development. The premise for fixing the analysis is to consider the impact of modes of apprehending social existence, since it is demarcated between subjectivities and objective conditions. Different conceptions appear to interpret and represent the individual and collective imagination. Fragmentation between subjectivity and objectivity, constitute an impediment to understanding the generic nature of being that builds and permanently transformed the social existence.

  17. Objective Versus Subjective Military Pilot Selection Methods in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-14

    a computerized test designed to assess pilot skills by measuring spatial orientation and psychomotor skills and multitasking . The second is the...AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2015-0028 Objective Versus Subjective Military Pilot Selection Methods in the United States of America Joe...September 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Objective Versus Subjective Military Pilot Selection Methods in the United States of America 5a. CONTRACT

  18. Employment status and job insecurity: On the subjective appraisal of an objective status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klandermans, B.; Klein Hesselink, J.; Vuuren, T. van

    2010-01-01

    The article argues that job insecurity has subjective aspects that are not determined by the objective levels of security of someone's employment status. These subjective aspects can be divided into two elements: the perceived probability and the perceived severity of job loss. The psychological

  19. Comparing subjective and objective quality assessment of HDR images compressed with JPEG-XT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Ferchiu, Stefan Catalin; Forchhammer, Søren

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a subjective test in which participants evaluate the quality of JPEG-XT compressed HDR images is presented. Results show that for the selected test images and display, the subjective quality reached its saturation point starting around 3bpp. Objective evaluations are obtained...

  20. Subjects and educational objectives of specialized training courses for power plant operators (masters). Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Presentation of training guidelines and subjects taught in a brief survey. The interdisciplinary training schemes are given in particular, including subjects and educational objectives, number of teaching hours. etc. The courses are intended to provide the basic knowledge required for cost-conscious action, law-conscious action, and efficient teamwork. (HAG) [de

  1. Comprehension of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in a Trilingual Acquisition Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Chan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese relative clauses (RCs have word order properties that are distinctly rare across languages of the world; such properties provide a good testing ground to tease apart predictions regarding the relative complexity of subject and object RCs in acquisition and processing. This study considers these special word order properties in a multilingual acquisition context, examining how Cantonese(L1-English(L2-Mandarin(L3 trilingual children process RCs in two Chinese languages differing in exposure conditions. Studying in an English immersion international school, these trilinguals are also under intensive exposure to English. Comparisons of the trilinguals with their monolingual counterparts are made with a focus on the directionality of cross-linguistic influence. The study considers how various factors such as language exposure, structural overlaps in the target languages, typological distance, and language dominance can account for the linguistic abilities and vulnerabilities exhibited by a group of children in a trilingual acquisition context. Twenty-one trilingual 5- to 6-year-olds completed tests of subject- and object- RC comprehension in all three languages. Twenty-four age-matched Cantonese monolinguals and 24 age-matched Mandarin monolinguals served as comparison groups. Despite limited exposure to Mandarin, the trilinguals performed comparable to the monolinguals. Their Cantonese performance uniquely predicts their Mandarin performance, suggesting positive transfer from L1 Cantonese to L3 Mandarin. In Cantonese, however, despite extensive exposure from birth, the trilinguals comprehended object RCs significantly worse than the monolinguals. Error analyses suggested an English-based head-initial analysis, implying negative transfer from L2 English to L1 Cantonese. Overall, we identified a specific case of bi-directional influence between the first and second/third languages. The trilinguals experience facilitation in processing Mandarin

  2. Comprehension of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in a Trilingual Acquisition Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angel; Chen, Si; Matthews, Stephen; Yip, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Chinese relative clauses (RCs) have word order properties that are distinctly rare across languages of the world; such properties provide a good testing ground to tease apart predictions regarding the relative complexity of subject and object RCs in acquisition and processing. This study considers these special word order properties in a multilingual acquisition context, examining how Cantonese(L1)-English(L2)-Mandarin(L3) trilingual children process RCs in two Chinese languages differing in exposure conditions. Studying in an English immersion international school, these trilinguals are also under intensive exposure to English. Comparisons of the trilinguals with their monolingual counterparts are made with a focus on the directionality of cross-linguistic influence. The study considers how various factors such as language exposure, structural overlaps in the target languages, typological distance, and language dominance can account for the linguistic abilities and vulnerabilities exhibited by a group of children in a trilingual acquisition context. Twenty-one trilingual 5- to 6-year-olds completed tests of subject- and object- RC comprehension in all three languages. Twenty-four age-matched Cantonese monolinguals and 24 age-matched Mandarin monolinguals served as comparison groups. Despite limited exposure to Mandarin, the trilinguals performed comparable to the monolinguals. Their Cantonese performance uniquely predicts their Mandarin performance, suggesting positive transfer from L1 Cantonese to L3 Mandarin. In Cantonese, however, despite extensive exposure from birth, the trilinguals comprehended object RCs significantly worse than the monolinguals. Error analyses suggested an English-based head-initial analysis, implying negative transfer from L2 English to L1 Cantonese. Overall, we identified a specific case of bi-directional influence between the first and second/third languages. The trilinguals experience facilitation in processing Mandarin RCs, because

  3. Association between objective and subjective measurements of comfort and discomfort in hand tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.; Bosch, T.; Huysmans, M.A.; Looze, M.P.de; Vink, P.

    2007-01-01

    In the current study, the relationship between objective measurements and subjective experienced comfort and discomfort in using handsaws was examined. Twelve carpenters evaluated five different handsaws. Objective measures of contact pressure (average pressure, pressure area and pressure-time (P-t)

  4. The differential impact of subjective and objective aspects of social engagement on cardiovascular risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamiya, Yumiko

    2010-01-01

    This article provides new insights into the impact of social engagement on CVD risk factors in older adults. We hypothesized that objective (social participation, social ties and marital status) and subjective (emotional support) aspects of social engagement are independently associated with objective measures of cardiovascular risk.

  5. Conflict between object structural and functional affordances in peripersonal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalénine, Solène; Wamain, Yannick; Decroix, Jérémy; Coello, Yann

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that competition between conflicting action representations slows down planning of object-directed actions. The present study aims to assess whether similar conflict effects exist during manipulable object perception. Twenty-six young adults performed reach-to-grasp and semantic judgements on conflictual objects (with competing structural and functional gestures) and non-conflictual objects (with similar structural and functional gestures) presented at difference distances in a 3D virtual environment. Results highlight a space-dependent conflict between structural and functional affordances. Perceptual judgments on conflictual objects were slower that perceptual judgments on non-conflictual objects, but only when objects were presented within reach. Findings demonstrate that competition between structural and functional affordances during object perception induces a processing cost, and further show that object position in space can bias affordance competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Performing Materiality: Rethinking the Subject-Object Relationship as a Site of Exchange in Performance Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Nesreen

    2011-01-01

    This thesis reconsiders the relationship between the human subject and the physical object in performance practice, which has been commonly perceived within hierarchical systems of instrumentalisation. The thesis demonstrates that in processes of performance making and reception, the role of physical objects goes beyond mimesis and direct representation. Physical objects and materials have the capacity to take active parts in a complex and multilayered performance dynamic, articulating ways o...

  7. [Objective and subjective knowledge of HIV/AIDS as predictor of condom use in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Caballero-Hoyos, Ramiro; Hidalgo-San Martín, Alfredo; Santos-Preciado, José Ignacio

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the association between objective and subjective knowledge on HIV/AIDS and condom use. Analysis of a database from an anonymous, self-applied, randomized survey conducted between 1995 and 1996. Study subjects were 1,410 adolescents of four socioeconomic strata from Guadalajara, Mexico. Objective knowledge was assessed with 24 questions regarding HIV/AIDS, and subjective knowledge with the question "how much do you think you know about HIV/AIDS?" The variables associated with condom use were identified using logistic regression analysis and by calculating odds ratios with a 95% confidence interval. The degree of objective knowledge was "average", differentiated by socioeconomic strata (p subjective knowledge, adolescents from the low, medium, and high socioeconomic strata claimed to know "a little", and the ones from the lowest stratum claimed to know "very little". Condom use was higher in males (35.4%), and in adolescents from high socioeconomic strata (p objective and subjective knowledge (r = 0.37, p subjective knowledge was associated with condom use (p Subjective knowledge, belonging to medium and high socioeconomic strata and being male, were predictors of condom use.

  8. The differential impact of subjective and objective aspects of social engagement on cardiovascular risk factors

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamiya, Yumiko

    2010-11-02

    Abstract Background This article provides new insights into the impact of social engagement on CVD risk factors in older adults. We hypothesized that objective (social participation, social ties and marital status) and subjective (emotional support) aspects of social engagement are independently associated with objective measures of cardiovascular risk. Methods Data from the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing (ELSA) were analyzed. The effects of social participation, social ties, marital status, and emotional support on hypertension, obesity, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen were estimated by logistic regression controlling for age, sex, education, physical function, depression, cardiovascular disease, other chronic diseases, physical activity, and smoking. Results Social participation is a consistent predictor of low risk for four risk factors, even after controlling for a wide range of covariates. Being married is associated with lower risk for hypertension. Social ties and emotional support are not significantly associated with any of the cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that participation in social activities has a stronger association with CV risk factors than marital status, social ties or emotional support. Different forms of social engagement may therefore have different implications for the biological risk factors involved.

  9. Aesthetic impact assessment of solar power plants. An objective and a subjective approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Sibille, Ana del Carmen; Cloquell-Ballester, Vicente-Agustin; Cloquell-Ballester, Victor-Andres; Artacho Ramirez, Miguel Angel [Dpto. Proyectos de Ingenieria, Valencia University of Technology, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Solar energy for the production of electric energy is one source of renewable energy which is experiencing most development in recent years. In countries with high solar radiation indices, as is the case of Spain, expectations of installation of large solar power plants are increasing. Most solar power plants are located in rural environments, where the landscape has remained practically unaltered ever since extensive agriculture was introduced. Because of this, one of the most significant environmental impacts of this type of installation is the visual impact derived from the alteration of the landscape. In this work, an indicator is proposed for the quantification of the objective aesthetic impact, based on four criteria: visibility, colour, fractality and concurrence between fixed and mobile panels. The relative importance of each variable and the corresponding value functions are calculated using expert contribution. A study of the subjective aesthetic impact is then carried out using the semantic differential method, to obtain the perception of a sample of individuals of the initial landscapes and of the landscapes altered through the installation of a solar power plant. The indicator and the study of public perception are applied to five real solar power plants, to test their reliability. Subsequently, a different group of individuals is used to determine preferences between the five solar power plants. The study proves that the combined use of objective indicator and subjective study, faithfully explains user preferences corresponding to the combined comparisons of the five cases. It is concluded that the tools proposed for the evaluation of the aesthetic impact of solar power plants are useful for the selection of optimal plant location and most adequate use of panel technology, to minimise aesthetic impact. (author)

  10. Predictors of the discrepancy between objective and subjective cognition in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K. W.; Petersen, Jeff Zarp; Ott, C. V.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The poor relationship between subjective and objective cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder (BD) is well-established. However, beyond simple correlation, this has not been explored further using a methodology that quantifies the degree and direction of the discrepancy. This study...... aimed to develop such a methodology to explore clinical characteristics predictive of subjective-objective discrepancy in a large BD patient cohort. METHODS: Data from 109 remitted BD patients and 110 healthy controls were pooled from previous studies, including neuropsychological test scores, self......-reported cognitive difficulties, and ratings of mood, stress, socio-occupational capacity, and quality of life. Cognitive symptom 'sensitivity' scores were calculated using a novel methodology, with positive scores reflecting disproportionately more subjective complaints than objective impairment and negative values...

  11. The effect of graphic organizers on subjective and objective comprehension of a health education text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kools, Marieke; van de Wiel, Margaretha W J; Ruiter, Robert A C; Crüts, Anica; Kok, Gerjo

    2006-12-01

    This study examined the effect of graphic organizers on the comprehension of a health education brochure text and compared subjective with objective comprehension measures. Graphic organizers are graphical depictions of relations among concepts in a text. Participants read a brochure text about asthma with and without these organizers, and subjective and objective text comprehension was measured. It was found that graphic organizers had effects on four levels of objective comprehension as indicated by open comprehension questions. However, on the subjective comprehension measure using Likert-type scales, the groups with and without graphic organizers did not differ from each other. It is concluded that health education texts could benefit from relatively simple techniques to increase comprehension. Furthermore, in developing health education materials, comprehension should be measured objectively.

  12. IMRT optimization with pseudo-biologic objective function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, B. Y.; Ahn, S. D.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, S. W.; Choi, E. K.

    2002-01-01

    The pseudo-biologic objective function has been proposed for the IMRT optimization. It is similar to the biological objective function in mathematical shape, but uses physical parameters. The pseudo-biologic objective function concept is consisted of the target coverage index (TCI) and the organ score index (OSI), was introduced. The TCI was expressed as the sum of all of the weighted bins of target dose volume histogram (DVH). The weights were given as the normal distribution of which the average is 100 % and the standard deviation is ±. The OSI was expressed as similar way. The average of the normal distribution was 0% of the dose and that of standard deviation was selected as a function of limiting dose and its importance. The objective function could be calculated as the product of the TCI and OSI's. The RTP Tool Box (RTB) was used for this study. The constraints applied in the optimization was intuitively clinical experience based numbers, while the physical objective function asks just numbers which are not necessarily based on the clinic, and the parameters for the biologic objective functions are uncertain. The OSI's from the pseudo-biological function showed better results than from the physical functions, while TCI's showed similar tendency. We could show that the pseudo-biologic function can be used for an IMRT objective function on behalf of the biological objective function

  13. Exploring "fringe" consciousness: the subjective experience of perceptual fluency and its objective bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Rolf; Wurtz, Pascal; Zimmermann, Thomas D

    2004-03-01

    Perceptual fluency is the subjective experience of ease with which an incoming stimulus is processed. Although perceptual fluency is assessed by speed of processing, it remains unclear how objective speed is related to subjective experiences of fluency. We present evidence that speed at different stages of the perceptual process contributes to perceptual fluency. In an experiment, figure-ground contrast influenced detection of briefly presented words, but not their identification at longer exposure durations. Conversely, font in which the word was written influenced identification, but not detection. Both contrast and font influenced subjective fluency. These findings suggest that speed of processing at different stages condensed into a unified subjective experience of perceptual fluency.

  14. Relationships of Muscle Function and Subjective Knee Function in Patients After ACL Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, Stephan; Goetschius, John; Hertel, Jay; Hart, Joe

    2017-07-01

    After anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), relationships between objective measures of muscle function and patient-reported outcomes may change over time. Examining these measures at different time frames after surgery may help develop individualized approaches to improve post-ALCR analysis. To examine the associations between subjective knee function and lower-extremity muscle function in individual patients at various time points after ACLR. Descriptive laboratory study. Fifty-one participants who underwent primary, unilateral ACLR (15 males, 36 females; mean age, 22.9 ± 4.5 years; mean height, 172.4 ± 10.1 cm; mean weight, 68.7 ± 13.1 kg) were separated into 3 groups depending on time since surgery (early, 5 years). Subjective knee function was quantified using the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee form and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Isometric knee extension and flexion strength were collected at 90 deg/s. Single-leg hop performance was measured using the single hop, triple hop, cross-over hop, and 6-m timed hop. Coefficient correlations were calculated between subjective knee function and objective measures of muscle function for each group. The early group demonstrated moderate correlations between the KOOS and unilateral measures of flexion peak torque ( r = 0.514, P = .035) and flexion power ( r = 0.54, P = .027). The middle group demonstrated the strongest correlations between the KOOS and symmetry measures of the single hop ( r = 0.69, P = .002) and extension work ( r = 0.71, P = .002) as well as unilateral measures of the triple hop ( r = 0.52, P = .034) and extension work ( r = 0.66, P = .004). The late group demonstrated strong correlations between the 6-m timed hop symmetry and the IKDC ( r = 0.716, P = .001) and KOOS ( r = 0.71, P = .001). Patients with a post-ACLR status of less than 2 years exhibited stronger relationships with unilateral strength measures to subjective

  15. Linear regression methods a ccording to objective functions

    OpenAIRE

    Yasemin Sisman; Sebahattin Bektas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explain the parameter estimation methods and the regression analysis. The simple linear regressionmethods grouped according to the objective function are introduced. The numerical solution is achieved for the simple linear regressionmethods according to objective function of Least Squares and theLeast Absolute Value adjustment methods. The success of the appliedmethods is analyzed using their objective function values.

  16. Objective and Subjective Evaluation of Reflecting and Diffusing Surfaces in Auditoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Trevor John

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The performance of reflectors and diffusers used in auditoria have been evaluated both objectively and subjectively. Two accurate systems have been developed to measure the scattering from surfaces via the cross correlation function. These have been used to measure the scattering from plane panels, curved panels and quadratic residue diffusers (QRDs). The scattering measurements have been used to test theoretical prediction methods based on the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral equation. Accurate prediction methods were found for all surfaces tested. The limitations of the more approximate methods have been defined. The assumptions behind Schroeder's design of the QRD have been tested and the local reacting admittance assumption found to be valid over a wide frequency range. It was found that the QRD only produces uniform scattering at low frequencies. For an on-axis source the scattering from a curved panel was as good as from a QRD. For an oblique source the QRD produced much more uniform scattering than the curved panel. The subjective measurements evaluated the smallest perceivable change in the early sound field, the part most influenced by reflectors and diffusers. A natural sounding simulation of a concert hall field within an anechoic chamber was used. Standard objective parameters were reasonable values when compared to values found in real halls and subjective preference measurements. A difference limen was measured for early lateral energy fraction (.048 +/-.005); inter aural cross correlation (.075 +/-.008); clarity index (.67 +/-.13 dB); and centre time (8.6 +/- 1.6 ms). It was found that: (i) when changes are made to diffusers and reflectors, changes in spatial impression will usually be larger than those in clarity; and (ii) acousticians can gain most by paying attention to lateral sound in auditoria. It was also found that: (i) diffuse reflections in the early sound field

  17. Objective and subjective outcome of a new transcutaneous bone conduction hearing device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eberhard, Kristine Elisabeth; Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Miyazaki, Hidemi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the objective and subjective outcome of a new transcutaneous bone conduction hearing device. Study Design: Prospective, consecutive case series. Patients: Twelve patients were implanted. Eight patients had a conductive/mixed (con/mix) hearing loss. Four had single sided...... to beneficial outcome. In Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale 12, ''quality of hearing'' scored especially high. The con/mix hearing loss group showed larger benefit especially in SDS, SRT50% in noise and the subjective evaluations, whereas frequency and duration of use were similar. Conclusion......: This study on the first 12 Nordic patients implanted with a new transcutaneous bone conduction hearing device demonstrates significant objective, as well as subjective hearing benefit. Patient satisfaction was high, as was the frequency of use....

  18. Metacognition of visual short-term memory: Dissociation between objective and subjective components of VSTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBona

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the objective accuracy of visual-short term memory (VSTM representations and their subjective conscious experience is unknown. We investigated this issue by assessing how the objective and subjective components of VSTM in a delayed cue-target orientation discrimination task are affected by intervening distracters. On each trial, participants were shown a memory cue (a grating, the orientation of which they were asked to hold in memory. On approximately half of the trials, a distractor grating appeared during the maintenance interval; its orientation was either identical to that of the memory cue, or it differed by 10 or 40 degrees. The distractors were masked and presented briefly, so they were only consciously perceived on a subset of trials. At the end of the delay period, a memory test probe was presented, and participants were asked to indicate whether it was tilted to the left or right relative to the memory cue (VSTM accuracy; objective performance. In order to assess subjective metacognition, participants were asked indicate the vividness of their memory for the original memory cue. Finally, participants were asked rate their awareness of the distracter. Results showed that objective VSTM performance was impaired by distractors only when the distractors were very different from the cue, and that this occurred with both subjectively visible and invisible distractors. Subjective metacognition, however, was impaired by distractors of all orientations, but only when these distractors were subjectively invisible. Our results thus indicate that the objective and subjective components of VSTM are to some extent dissociable.

  19. Effect of object functions on tomographic reconstruction a numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu Rao, C.; Baldev Raj; Ravichandran, V.S.; Munshi, P.

    1996-01-01

    Convolution back projection is the most widely used algorithm of computed tomography (CT). Theoretical studies show that under ideal conditions, the error in the reconstruction can be correlated with the second fourier space derivative of filter function and with the Laplacian of the object function. This paper looks into the second aspect of the error function. In this paper a systematic numerical study is presented on the effect to object functions on global and local errors. (author)

  20. The Neural Correlates of Spatial and Object Working Memory in Elderly and Parkinson's Disease Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Caminiti, Silvia P.; Siri, Chiara; Guidi, Lucia; Antonini, Angelo; Perani, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    This fMRI study deals with the neural correlates of spatial and objects working memory (SWM and OWM) in elderly subjects (ESs) and idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD). Normal aging and IPD can be associated with a WM decline. In IPD population, some studies reported similar SWM and OWM deficits; others reported a greater SWM than OWM impairment. In the present fMRI research, we investigated whether compensated IPD patients and elderly subjects with comparable performance during the execution...

  1. Object and subject of evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koval L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to such topical issue of Criminal Law as Object and Subject of Evasion of Taxes and Other Compulsory Payments. There are analyzed researched crime determination problems, which are connected with subject and object of tax and other compulsory payments evasion. In the course of the research, the author has made the conclusions that the object of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments group is the national economic interests. The direct object is the national economic interests in the sphere of state revenues or the national fiscal interests. While analyzing the law and regulations it is concluded that the subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments is the tax base (income, property, expenses and consumption, taxes, state and local government fees, as well as other payments determined by the State. The author has also concluded that the subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments does not include increase in the tax principal debt, fine and late charge, which are covered by the financial responsibility. The subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments may not include also income from illegal activity or proceeds resulting from criminal offences.

  2. Subjective and objective quantification of physician's workload and performance during radiation therapy planning tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Lukasz M; Mosaly, Prithima R; Hoyle, Lesley M; Jones, Ellen L; Marks, Lawrence B

    2013-01-01

    To quantify, and compare, workload for several common physician-based treatment planning tasks using objective and subjective measures of workload. To assess the relationship between workload and performance to define workload levels where performance could be expected to decline. Nine physicians performed the same 3 tasks on each of 2 cases ("easy" vs "hard"). Workload was assessed objectively throughout the tasks (via monitoring of pupil size and blink rate), and subjectively at the end of each case (via National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index; NASA-TLX). NASA-TLX assesses the 6 dimensions (mental, physical, and temporal demands, frustration, effort, and performance); scores > or ≈ 50 are associated with reduced performance in other industries. Performance was measured using participants' stated willingness to approve the treatment plan. Differences in subjective and objective workload between cases, tasks, and experience were assessed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The correlation between subjective and objective workload measures were assessed via the Pearson correlation test. The relationships between workload and performance measures were assessed using the t test. Eighteen case-wise and 54 task-wise assessments were obtained. Subjective NASA-TLX scores (P .1), were significantly lower for the easy vs hard case. Most correlations between the subjective and objective measures were not significant, except between average blink rate and NASA-TLX scores (r = -0.34, P = .02), for task-wise assessments. Performance appeared to decline at NASA-TLX scores of ≥55. The NASA-TLX may provide a reasonable method to quantify subjective workload for broad activities, and objective physiologic eye-based measures may be useful to monitor workload for more granular tasks within activities. The subjective and objective measures, as herein quantified, do not necessarily track each other, and more work is needed to assess their utilities. From a

  3. A fuzzy MCDM model with objective and subjective weights for evaluating service quality in hotel industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoraghi, Nima; Amiri, Maghsoud; Talebi, Golnaz; Zowghi, Mahdi

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making (FMCDM) model by integrating both subjective and objective weights for ranking and evaluating the service quality in hotels. The objective method selects weights of criteria through mathematical calculation, while the subjective method uses judgments of decision makers. In this paper, we use a combination of weights obtained by both approaches in evaluating service quality in hotel industries. A real case study that considered ranking five hotels is illustrated. Examples are shown to indicate capabilities of the proposed method.

  4. Road-safety education: spatial decentering and subjective or objective picture processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercin, F

    2007-10-01

    The current study examined children's ability to analyse pictures of a risky situation, both in relation to the characteristics of the pictures and in relation to the centering/decentering process of cognitive development. Sixty children aged 6, 9 or 11 years were given an objective or subjective version of a story about a risky situation involving road crossing and were asked to reconstruct it by putting six pictures in chronological order. The type of picture series, objective or subjective, had a different effect on the children's understanding and performance, according to the age. The older children were better at ordering the pictures, but on the subjective version only. The picture-version effect on planning time decreased with age; only the younger children took more time to start touching the pictures. On one hand, it is concluded that for the youngest children, objective representations are essential to analysing pictures showing a risk, whereas the oldest children will profit more from a subjective view. On the other hand, subjective representations, which give a more realistic view, provide an excellent tool for testing children's abilities. Subjective representations can be used to detect potentially risky behaviour in virtual situations (static pictures, or multimedia tools), since it permits one to predict at-risk behaviour in the street and to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures.

  5. Use of memory strategies among younger and older adults: Results from objective and subjective measures

    OpenAIRE

    Fabricio, Aline Teixeira; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Memory plays a fundamental role in the identity of people and in human life, as it enables us to interpret our surroundings and make decisions. It is known that the aging process can be accompanied by cognitive decline in some memory sub systems. However, the use of memory strategies can help encoding and retrieval of new information. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify and compare, using objective and subjective measures, which recall strategies are used spontaneously ...

  6. Subjective and Objective Assessment of Mathematics Anxiety Levels among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Baloğlu, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between college students’ subjective and objective assessment of mathematics anxiety levels. Students rated their general and current mathematics anxiety levels, mathematical ability levels, and confidence in doing mathematics. The Revised Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale was used as an objective measure of their mathematics anxiety levels. Participants were 559 students, 406 (72.6%) women and 151 (27.0%) men. Results showed that perceived general mathe...

  7. Functional imaging of human crossmodal identification and object recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amedi, A; von Kriegstein, K; van Atteveldt, N M; Beauchamp, M S; Naumer, M J

    2005-01-01

    The perception of objects is a cognitive function of prime importance. In everyday life, object perception benefits from the coordinated interplay of vision, audition, and touch. The different sensory modalities provide both complementary and redundant information about objects, which may improve

  8. Handling of micro objects: investigation of mechanical gripper functional surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gegeckaite, Asta; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2007-01-01

    between the micro object and the gripper do not allow simple picking and releasing of the object. This effect can be overcome by modifying the functional surface of the gripper. The functional surface of the gripper was modified by different machining techniques. The results of this investigation...

  9. Subjective and objective measurements of visual fatigue induced by excessive disparities in stereoscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong Ju; Kim, Dongchan; Sohn, Hosik; Lee, Seong-il; Park, Hyun Wook; Ro, Yong Man

    2013-03-01

    As stereoscopic displays have spread, it is important to know what really causes the visual fatigue and discomfort and what happens in the visual system in the brain behind the retina while viewing stereoscopic 3D images on the displays. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used for the objective measurement to assess the human brain regions involved in the processing of the stereoscopic stimuli with excessive disparities. Based on the subjective measurement results, we selected two subsets of comfort videos and discomfort videos in our dataset. Then, a fMRI experiment was conducted with the subsets of comfort and discomfort videos in order to identify which brain regions activated while viewing the discomfort videos in a stereoscopic display. We found that, when viewing a stereoscopic display, the right middle frontal gyrus, the right inferior frontal gyrus, the right intraparietal lobule, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the bilateral cuneus were significantly activated during the processing of excessive disparities, compared to those of small disparities (< 1 degree).

  10. [Subjective and objective indicators of job stress and burnout in a residential home for the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiabane, Elena; Dordoni, Paola; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2016-01-01

    Elderly care workers have a higher risk than other professionals of developing burnout. Despite literature has highlighted the methodological advantage resulting from an integration of subjective and objective measures of stressors, only few studies have investigated job stress and burnout in the Italian elderly care context using this kind of assessment. The aims of this study were: (a) to investigate the level of stress and burnout and their organizational sources in a sample of eldercare workers by means of subjective and objective tools, and b) to compare the stress and burnout levels between health care staff and nursing aides employed in a residential home for the, elderly. The sample of the study included the totality of the elderly workers employed in a residential home for the elderly (N=49; response rate: 100%). The Maslach Burnout Inventory-GS and the Areas of Worklife Scale were used for the subjective assessment of burnout and organizational riskfactors. A check list of objective indicators was used for the objective assessment of job stress. Results from the self-report questionnaires showed high levels of exhaustion and a perception of high workload and unfairness for, the total sample. Objective parameters ofjob stress risk were biomechanical overload, dealing with suffering people and the risk of work-related violence. Nursing aides had greater risk of burnout and reported a greater number of objective sources of stress, compared to health care workers. This exploratory study supports the use of both subjective and objective method for the assessment of job stress risk as the most comprehensive approach for the implementation of preventive and corrective interventions.

  11. Nasal obstruction and smell impairment in nasal polyp disease: correlation between objective and subjective parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hox, V.; Bobic, S.; Callebaux, I.; Jorissen, M.; Hellings, P. W.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (NP) represents an invalidating disorder that causes mainly nasal blockage and loss of smell. The aim of this study is to investigate correlations between individual subjective and objective parameters of stable NP disease. 65 NP patients scored their

  12. The specifics of the Russian market of confectionery: subject-object certainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsarenko Elena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a study of the Russian confectionery market. Determining the specificity of the market in Russia, identified and examined the components of this market with the help of subject - object orientation. As well as the actuality of considering new approaches to promote sales of confectionery products.

  13. Revisiting Individual Creativity Assessment: Triangulation in Subjective and Objective Assessment Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Namgyoo K.; Chun, Monica Youngshin; Lee, Jinju

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the significant development of creativity studies, individual creativity research has not reached a meaningful consensus regarding the most valid and reliable method for assessing individual creativity. This study revisited 2 of the most popular methods for assessing individual creativity: subjective and objective methods. This study…

  14. Assessing College Student Subjective and Objective Knowledge in an Online Financial Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Charity

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This purpose of this correlational study using Joo's (2008) financial wellness framework was to determine the impact of an online financial literacy workshop on student subjective knowledge, dependent on indicators of stress, behavior, and objective knowledge, when controlling for demographic differences at a large public university.…

  15. Objective and subjective need for cosmetic dentistry in the Dutch adult population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgersdijk, R.; Truin, G.J.; Kalsbeek, H.; Hof, M. van 't; Mulder, J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to assess the objective and subjective need for cosmetic dentistry in the Dutch adult population in 1986 a stratified sample of 2784 dentate persons, aged 15-74 yr, participated in the study. The aesthetics of anterior teeth and first premolars in the maxillary mandibular arch were

  16. Position, Possession or Process? Understanding Objective and Subjective Employability during University-to-Work Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay-Somerville, Belgin; Scholarios, Dora

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to understand predictors of objective (i.e. job offers, employment status and employment quality) and subjective (i.e. perceived) graduate employability during university-to-work transitions. Using survey data from two cohorts of graduates in the UK (N = 293), it contrasts three competing theoretical approaches to employability:…

  17. Comparison of Objective and Subjective Life Balance Between Women With and Without a Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Nadine; Denis, Catherine; Payeur, Amélie; Ferron, Amélie; Levesque, Stéphanie; Rivard, Guillaume

    2016-12-01

    Life balance is associated to health, well-being and quality of life and is a target of psychiatric rehabilitation interventions. However, little is known about this life dimension in women living with personality disorders. The purpose of this descriptive-correlational study was to compare and explore relationships between subjective life balance, objective time use, quality of life and perceived stress in women without a mental health disorder (n = 43) and women with a personality disorder (clusters B and C) (n = 30), aged between 18 and 50 years old. The variables were measured with the Life Balance Inventory (subjective life balance), the Occupational Questionnaire (objective time use), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (perceived stress) and the Quality of Life Index (satisfaction and importance with life domains). The analyses showed that women with a personality disorder spend significantly less time in work but more time in daily tasks and leisure. Subjective life balance, quality of life and perceived stress were significantly lower in women with a personality disorder (p life balance was explained by quality of life (R 2  = 27.5 %). In women without a mental illness, subjective life balance was explained by quality of life and motherhood (R 2  = 36.1 %). To support the recovery of women with personality disorders and their quality of life, it is important to address objective and subjective time use to enable accomplishment of a variety of meaningful activities.

  18. Subjective sleep complaints indicate objective sleep problems in psychosomatic patients: a prospective polysomnographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linden M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael Linden,1,2 Marie Dietz,1 Christian Veauthier,3 Ingo Fietze3 1Research Group Psychosomatic Rehabilitation, Charité University Medicine Berlin, 2Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Rehabilitation Centre Seehof, Teltow, 3Interdisciplinary Center of Sleep Medicine, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany Objective: To elucidate the relationship between subjective complaints and polysomnographical parameters in psychosomatic patients.Method: A convenience sample of patients from a psychosomatic inpatient unit were classified according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI as very poor sleepers (PSQI >10, n=80 and good sleepers (PSQI <6, n=19. They then underwent a polysomnography and in the morning rated their previous night’s sleep using a published protocol (Deutschen Gesellschaft für Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin morning protocol [MP].Results: In the polysomnography, significant differences were found between very poor and good sleepers according to the PSQI with respect to sleep efficiency and time awake after sleep onset. When comparing objective PSG and subjective MP, the polysomnographical sleep onset latency was significantly positively correlated with the corresponding parameters of the MP: the subjective sleep onset latency in minutes and the subjective evaluation of sleep onset latency (very short, short, normal, long, very long were positively correlated with the sleep latency measured by polysomnography. The polysomnographical time awake after sleep onset (in minutes was positively correlated with the subjective time awake after sleep onset (in minutes, evaluation of time awake after sleep onset (seldom, normal often, and subjective restfulness. The polysomnographical total sleep time (TST was positively correlated with the subjective TST. Conversely, the polysomnographical TST was negatively correlated with the evaluation of TST (high polysomnographical TST was correlated with the subjective

  19. Objective and subjective indicators of happiness in Brazil: the mediating role of social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Gazi; Wills-Herrera, Eduardo; Hamilton, Marilyn

    2009-04-01

    The authors tested the proposition that monetary household income affects subjective well-being (E. Deiner, E. M. Suh, R. E. Lucas, & H. L. Smith, 1999) through the mediating mechanisms of objective and subjective social classes. The present authors drew a representative sample in a door-to-door survey format from a Brazilian urban center. Using a back-translated version of E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larson, and S. Griffin's (1985) Satisfaction With Life Scale, the present authors demonstrated a significant relation with income. However, this effect was mediated by objectively and subjectively measured social classes. These effects reinforce, extend, and internationally generalize the Person x Situation perspective elaborated by E. Diener et al. (1999).

  20. Correlation of olfactory dysfunction of different etiologies in MRI and comparison with subjective and objective olfactometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektas, Oender; Fleiner, Franca; Sedlmaier, Benedikt; Bauknecht, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background: The clinical diagnosis of olfactory dysfunction of different etiologies has been standardized by the German Working Group of Olfactology and Gustology, but there is no agreement about the most suitable imaging modality for diagnosing this disorder. Material and methods: A total of 24 patients (13 women, 11 men; mean age 52 years) with different types of olfactory dysfunction (anosmia, hyposmia) were examined by objective and subjective olfactometry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the olfactory bulb. Results: There was a positive correlation between objective olfactometry and volumetry of the olfactory bulb but no correlation between subjective olfactometry and MRI. Conclusion: MRI allows an evaluation of the olfactory bulb and appears to be superior to other modalities such as computed tomography (CT). Objective olfactometry remains the gold standard for reliable diagnosis of olfactory dysfunction.

  1. A comparison of subjective and objective measures of physical activity from the Newcastle 85+ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innerd, Paul; Catt, Michael; Collerton, Joanna; Davies, Karen; Trenell, Michael; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Jagger, Carol

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about physical activity (PA) in the very old, the fastest growing age group in the population. We aimed to examine the convergent validity of subjective and objective measures of PA in adults aged over 85 years. A total of 484 participants aged 87-89 years recruited to the Newcastle 85+ study completed a purpose-designed physical activity questionnaire (PAQ), which categorised participants as mildly active, moderately active and very active. Out of them, 337 participants wore a triaxial, raw accelerometer on the right wrist over a 5-7-day period to obtain objective measures of rest/activity, PA intensity and PA type. Data from subjective and objective measurement methods were compared. Self-reported PA was significantly associated with objective measures of the daily sedentary time, low-intensity PA and activity type classified as sedentary, activities of daily living and walking. Objective measures of PA were significantly different when low, moderate and high self-reported PA categories were compared (all P PAQ demonstrated convergent validity with objective measures of PA. Our findings suggest that this PAQ can be used in the very old to rank individuals according to their level of total PA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  2. Accommodation modulates the individual difference between objective and subjective measures of the final convergence step response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainta, S; Hoormann, J; Jaschinski, W

    2009-03-01

    Measuring vergence eye movements with dichoptic nonius lines (subjectively) usually leads to an overestimation of the vergence state after a step response: a subjective vergence overestimation (SVO). We tried to reduce this SVO by presenting a vergence stimulus that decoupled vergence and accommodation during the step response, i.e. reduced the degree of 'forced vergence'. In a mirror-stereoscope, we estimated convergence step responses with nonius lines presented at 1000 ms after a disparity step-stimulus and compared it to objective recordings (EyeLink II; n = 6). We presented a vertical line, a cross/rectangle stimulus and a difference-of-gaussians (DOG) pattern. For 180 min arc step stimuli, the subjective measures revealed a larger final vergence response than the objective measure; for the vertical line this SVO was 20 min arc, while it was significantly smaller for the DOG (12 min arc). For 60 min arc step-responses, no overestimation was observed. Additionally, we measured accommodation, which changed more for the DOG-pattern compared with the line-stimulus; this relative increase correlated with the corresponding relative change of SVO (r = 0.77). Both findings (i.e. no overestimation for small steps and a weaker one for the DOG-pattern) reflect lesser conflicting demand on accommodation and vergence under 'forced-vergence' viewing; consequently, sensory compensation is reduced and subjective and objective measures of vergence step responses tend to agree.

  3. The perceived roles and functions of school science subject advisors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deals with the perceived roles and functions of science subject ad- visors. .... social control, rather than effective management and professional development at school ..... authority, restrictions on travelling, lack of mobile units and sci- ence kits ...

  4. Ethnic differences in objective and subjective skin irritation response: an international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E; Kim, S; Lee, J; Cho, S-A; Shin, K

    2014-08-01

    Due to global marketing in the cosmetics industry, it is important to assess ethnic population susceptibility when evaluating the safety of cosmetic products or chemicals. To investigate ethnic variations in skin irritation response to positive irritants. Clinical testing was performed in four countries on two ethnic groups - Asian and Caucasian. We performed patch tests on the subjects' back with 0.5% aqueous sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and 0.15% retinol prepared in 1,3-butylene glycol. Stinging tests were performed using 5% aqueous lactic acid and 0.001% (w/v) capsaicin prepared in 10% ethanol solution separately. The incidence of self-perceived skin sensitivity was similar in the two ethnic groups. However, the incidence of adverse skin reaction to cosmetics appeared significantly higher in Asian (33.0%) than in Caucasian subjects (11.3%). For standard positive irritants such as 0.5% aqueous SLS solution, Asian subjects showed significantly higher scores than Caucasian subjects. The incidence of positive reaction to the 0.15% retinol patch test tended to be higher in Asian than in Caucasian subjects. Our data also showed that neurosensitivity to 5% lactic acid and 0.001% capsaicin was higher in Asian than in Caucasian subjects. Although self-reported skin sensitivity does not appear to differ according to ethnicity, there are ethnic differences in objective and subjective skin irritation responses to several standard positive materials. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Testing thermal comfort of trekking boots: an objective and subjective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arezes, P M; Neves, M M; Teixeira, S F; Leão, C P; Cunha, J L

    2013-07-01

    The study of the thermal comfort of the feet when using a specific type of shoe is of paramount importance, in particular if the main goal of the study is to attend to the needs of users. The main aim of this study was to propose a test battery for thermal comfort analysis and to apply it to the analysis of trekking boots. Methodologically, the project involves both objective and subjective evaluations. An objective evaluation of the thermal properties of the fabrics used in the boots was developed and applied. In addition, the thermal comfort provided when using the boots was also assessed both subjective and objectively. The evaluation of the thermal comfort during use, which was simulated in a laboratory environment, included the measurement of the temperature and moisture of the feet. The subjective assessment was performed using a questionnaire. From the results obtained, it was possible to define an optimal combination of fabrics to apply to trekking boots by considering the provided thermal insulation, air permeability and wicking. The results also revealed that the subjective perception of thermal comfort appears to be more related to the increase in temperature of the feet than to the moisture retention inside the boot. Although the evaluation of knits used in the boots indicated that a particular combination of fibres was optimal for use in the inner layer, the subjective and objective evaluation of thermal comfort revealed that the evaluation provided by users did not necessarily match the technical assessment data. No correlation was observed between the general comfort and specific thermal comfort assessments. Finally, the identification of thermal discomfort by specific foot areas would be useful in the process of designing and developing boots. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Country Selection Model for Sustainable Construction Businesses Using Hybrid of Objective and Subjective Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Wook Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An important issue for international businesses and academia is selecting countries in which to expand in order to achieve entrepreneurial sustainability. This study develops a country selection model for sustainable construction businesses using both objective and subjective information. The objective information consists of 14 variables related to country risk and project performance in 32 countries over 25 years. This hybrid model applies subjective weighting from industrial experts to objective information using a fuzzy LinPreRa-based Analytic Hierarchy Process. The hybrid model yields a more accurate country selection compared to a purely objective information-based model in experienced countries. Interestingly, the hybrid model provides some different predictions with only subjective opinions in unexperienced countries, which implies that expert opinion is not always reliable. In addition, feedback from five experts in top international companies is used to validate the model’s completeness, effectiveness, generality, and applicability. The model is expected to aid decision makers in selecting better candidate countries that lead to sustainable business success.

  7. Measuring Welfare beyond GDP : 'Objective' and 'Subjective' Indicators in Sweden, 1968-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kullenberg

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses a series of negotiations on how to measure welfare and quality of life in Sweden beyond economic indicators. It departs from a 2015 Government Official Report that advanced a strong recommendation to measure only 'objective indicators' of quality of life, rather than relying on what is referred to as 'subjective indicators' such as life satisfaction and happiness. The assertion of strictly 'objective' indicators falls back on a sociological perspective developed in the 1970s, which conceived of welfare as being measurable as 'levels of living', a framework that came to be called 'the Scandinavian model of welfare research'. However, in the mid-2000s, objective indicators were challenged scientifically by the emerging field of happiness studies, which also found political advocates in Sweden who argued that subjective indicators should become an integral part of measuring welfare. This tension between 'subjective' and 'objective' measurements resulted in a controversy between several actors about what should count as a valuable measurement of welfare. As a consequence, we argue that the creation of such value meters is closely intertwined with how welfare is defined, and by what measures welfare should be carried through.

  8. Objective and subjective evaluation of façade sound insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Visentin, Chiara; Markovic, Milos

    2013-01-01

    by filtering recordings of traffic noise with the frequency response of sound insulation measurements. The measurements were performed in typical Italian buildings in accordance with the ISO 140-5 standard. The objectives of the present paper are to compare the subjective evaluations obtained with the two......Façade insulation of several different construction types were subjectively evaluated using two psychoacoustic methods: paired comparisons using a two alternative forced choice (2-AFC) paradigm and direct scaling using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The stimuli used in the evaluations were obtained...

  9. The Influence of Social Interaction on Intuitions of Objectivity and Subjectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Matthew; Knobe, Joshua; Strickland, Brent; Keil, Frank C

    2017-05-01

    We present experimental evidence that people's modes of social interaction influence their construal of truth. Participants who engaged in cooperative interactions were less inclined to agree that there was an objective truth about that topic than were those who engaged in a competitive interaction. Follow-up experiments ruled out alternative explanations and indicated that the changes in objectivity are explained by argumentative mindsets: When people are in cooperative arguments, they see the truth as more subjective. These findings can help inform research on moral objectivism and, more broadly, on the distinctive cognitive consequences of different types of social interaction. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Objective and subjective assessment of tonal components in noise from UK wind farm sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    The level of any tonal components in the noise from a wind farm site can be quantified using objective analysis procedures. These procedures are, however, open to a certain amount of interpretation. an automated assessment procedure has, therefore, been developed which is appropriate to the needs of the wind turbine industry. This paper describes a study to compare the results of objective assessments carried out using this method with the results of carefully controlled subjective listening tests for samples of wind turbine noise from nine U.K. wind farm sites. (author)

  11. From tomography to FWI with a single objective function

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Choi, Yun Seok

    2013-01-01

    Reflections in our seismic data induce serious nonlinear behavior in the objective function of full waveform inversion (FWI). Thus, without a good initial velocity model, that can produce the reflections within a cycle of the frequency used

  12. Mapping and Visiting in Functional and Object-oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt; Thomsen, Bent; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2008-01-01

    Mapping and visiting represent different programming styles for traversals of collections of data.  Mapping is rooted in the functional programming paradigm, and visiting is rooted in the object-oriented programming paradigm.  This paper explores the similarities and differences between mapping...... and visiting, seen across the traditions in the two different programming paradigms. The paper is concluded with recommendations for mapping and visiting in programming languages that support both the functional and the object-oriented paradigms....

  13. The moderating role of objective and subjective numeracy in attribute framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamliel, Eyal; Kreiner, Hamutal; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has found that objective numeracy moderates framing effects: People who are less numerate were found to be more susceptible to goal-framing and attribute-framing effects than people who are highly numerate. This study examined the possibility that subjective numeracy likewise moderates attribute framing in contexts where participants are presented with percentages of success or failure. The results show that compared with highly numerate participants, less numerate participants were more susceptible to the effect of attribute framing. Interestingly, this moderating effect was revealed only when using objective numeracy measures, and not when subjective numeracy measures were used. Future research is suggested to replicate these findings, to establish the generalizability of numeracy as a moderator of other cognitive biases, and to examine several possible theoretical explanations for the differential moderation of attribute-framing bias. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. The difference in subjective and objective complexity in the visual short-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jonas Olsen; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several studies discuss the influence of complexity on the visual short term memory; some have demonstrated that short-term memory is surprisingly stable regardless of content (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997) where others have shown that memory can be influenced by the complexity of stimulus (e.g. Alvarez...... characters. On the contrary expertise or word frequency may reflect what could be termed subjective complexity, as this relate directly to the individual mental categories established. This study will be able to uncover more details on how we should define complexity of objects to be encoded into short-term....... & Cavanagh, 2004). But the term complexity is often not clearly defined. Sørensen (2008; see also Dall, Katsumi, & Sørensen, 2016) suggested that complexity can be related to two different types; objective and subjective complexity. This distinction is supported by a number of studies on the influence...

  15. Subjective and objective measurement of websites quality in a chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Jillbert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the Website of a chemical company, Deza, relative to strategy and Website quality. In an attempt to obtain both an objective and subjective measure of the quality of the Deza website, two assessment methods have been used. Firstly, a subjective assessment was conducted based on the WebQual survey instrument proposed by Barnes and Vidgen (2000. Secondly, a more objective assessment was conducted via an “informational content analysis”, based on the work of Carlson et. al. (2001. Analysis of the results of the WebQual survey suggest that overall, the Deza Website is perceived by the user as being of a higher quality than the Koppers Website, but a lower quality then the Nalon Website. The Information content analysis also ranks the Deza website as being superior to Koppers and inferior to Nalon.

  16. Evaluating Robotic Surgical Skills Performance Under Distractive Environment Using Objective and Subjective Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Irene H; LaGrange, Chad A; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2016-02-01

    Distractions are recognized as a significant factor affecting performance in safety critical domains. Although operating rooms are generally full of distractions, the effect of distractions on robot-assisted surgical (RAS) performance is unclear. Our aim was to investigate the effect of distractions on RAS performance using both objective and subjective measures. Fifteen participants performed a knot-tying task using the da Vinci Surgical System and were exposed to 3 distractions: (1) passive distraction entailed listening to noise with a constant heart rate, (2) active distraction included listening to noise and acknowledging a change of random heart rate from 60 to 120 bpm, and (3) interactive distraction consisted of answering math questions. The objective kinematics of the surgical instrument tips were used to evaluate performance. Electromyography (EMG) of the forearm and hand muscles of the participants were collected. The median EMG frequency (EMG(fmed)) and the EMG envelope (EMG(env)) were analyzed. NASA Task Load Index and Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery score were used to evaluate the subjective performance. One-way repeated analysis of variance was applied to examine the effects of distraction on skills performance. Spearman's correlations were conducted to compare objective and subjective measures. Significant distraction effect was found for all objective kinematics measures (P < .05). There were significant distraction effects for EMG measures (EMG(env), P < .004; EMG(fmed), P = .031). Significant distraction effects were also found for subjective measurements. Distraction impairs surgical skills performance and increases muscle work. Understanding how the surgeons cope with distractions is important in developing surgical education. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. COMPARATIVE ANALISYS BETWEEN THE OBJECTIVE AND THE SUBJECTIVE QUALITY OF LIFE APPROACH - STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinescu Mihaela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality of Life (QOL can be defined as the degree in which the objective needs of an individual are satisfied in relation with the subjective perspective of his well-being. Thus, there are two different approaches in QOL evaluation: the objective approach (which analyzes the quality of life through economic indicators and the subjective approach (which evaluates quality through the individuals opinion and actions. There isn't a widely accepted view referring to the use of one of those two QOL approaches, each having a series of strengths and weaknesses. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages brought by these two approaches in QOL studies. The objective analysis has a series of strengths (among which we mention the fact that allows valide comparisons and the fact that doesn't depend on individuals perception, but has also a series of weaknesses, starting with the dependence on statistical data, which in many cases has incomplete registrations,and ending with the fact that doesn't reflect the real value of the well-being perceived by population. The motives for which the QOL subjective approach is promoted, therefore its strenghts, refer to the fact that it reflects important experiences for each individual and the fact that it reveals how macroeconomic policies satify the individual's needs. Certainly, this type of QOL analysis has also some weaknesses, like the lack of validity and accuracy in the data collected through surveys. Considering all the above, there is a conclusion with a wide aplication in the present context of the economy: we can't make a clear delineation between the two QOL approaches, moreover we can state the fact that the is a strong correlation between those two. Thus, the most precise systems of quality of life evaluation are those which use both objective, and subjective indicators, reaching a high level of aggregation at the national and international level.

  18. Non-invasive Assessments of Subjective and Objective Recovery Characteristics Following an Exhaustive Jump Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenauer, Erich; Clarys, Peter; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Clijsen, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Fast recovery after strenuous exercise is important in sports and is often studied via cryotherapy applications. Cryotherapy has a significant vasoconstrictive effect, which seems to be the leading factor in its effectiveness. The resulting enhanced recovery can be measured by using both objective and subjective parameters. Two commonly measured subjective characteristics of recovery are delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Two important objective recovery characteristics are countermovement jump (CMJ) performance and peak power output (PPO). Here, we provide a detailed protocol to induce muscular exhaustion of the frontal thighs with a self-paced, 3 x 30 countermovement jump protocol (30-s rest between each set). This randomized controlled trial protocol explains how to perform local cryotherapy cuff application (+ 8 °C for 20 min) and thermoneutral cuff application (+ 32 °C for 20 min) on both thighs as two possible post-exercise recovery modalities. Finally, we provide a non-invasive protocol to measure the effects of these two recovery modalities on subjective (i.e., DOMS of both frontal thighs and RPE) and objective recovery (i.e., CMJ and PPO) characteristics 24, 48, and 72 h post-application. The advantage of this method is that it provides a tool for researchers or coaches to induce muscular exhaustion, without using any expensive devices; to implement local cooling strategies; and to measure both subjective and objective recovery, without using invasive methods. Limitations of this protocol are that the 30 s rest period between sets is very short, and the cardiovascular demand is very high. Future studies may find the assessment of maximum voluntary contractions to be a more sensitive assessment of muscular exhaustion compared to CMJs. PMID:28654037

  19. Subjective and objective performance assessment : Performance pay at Trelleborg Forsheda AB

    OpenAIRE

    Luotonen, David; Hasselström, Markus

    2009-01-01

      The purpose of this thesis is to understand the opinions and potential effects of objective and subjective assessments of performance as a basis for performance pay for blue-collar workers. The study takes a qualitative approach to find out how and why four companies - Trelleborg Forsheda, Finnveden Powertrain, Isaberg Rapid and Parker Hannifin- work with salaries, incentive system and performance assessment the way they do. The concept of individual salary is central in this thesis, and in...

  20. Relationship between the nurses’ subjective and objective career success and extraversion and introversion personality types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Najjari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Career success is an evaluating and relational concept between someone's current progress and his/her future ideals of occupation. Researchers have shown personality characteristics are one of the main predictors of success and favorable job performance. Thus, the aim of present study was to determine the relationship between extraversion and introversion personality types and subjective and objective career success among nurses of selected private hospitals in Tehran. Methods: This research was a descriptive correlational study in which 230 nurses were selected from five private hospitals in Tehran as the study sample through Cochran sampling technique. Proportional to the number of nurses at each hospital, samples were selected via convenient random sampling. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Golparvar and Ghazavi career success scale and personal information form were utilized to collect the data. The collected data wereanalyzed by SPSS-19 software using Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results: The results indicated a significant relationship between personality type and subjective and objective career success of the nurses. Further, there was a negatively significant relationship between subjective and objective career success and introversion personality type (sig=0/004, r=-0.391 and sig=0.001, r=-0.415, respectively. However, there was a positively significant relationship between subjective and objective career success and extraversion personality type (sig=0.001, r=0.473 and sig=0.001, r=0.545, respectively. Conclusion: It is essential to take into account the relationship between career success and related factors such as personality in the planning, decisions and technical choices. Besides, favorable environmental factors and effective factors such as knowledge, attitudes and cognitive, emotional and behavioral skills, activity level and the situation of the organization should also be taken into

  1. Objective and Subjective Factors of Perception of Russia’s Image in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Игоревна Ведерникова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the role of international environment influencing the image of Russia. The author reveals the psychological mechanisms of perception of the image of Russia in the EU. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of objective and subjective factors constructive and negative perception of Russia and its political leader. Status conflicts are analyzed in the article as well, including methods and techniques of purposeful distortion of the image of Russia in Europe.

  2. Methods of Information Subjects and Objects Interaction Rules Formalization in the Electronic Trading Platform System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Emanuilova Yandybaeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The methods of information subjects and objects interaction rules formalization in the electronic trading platform system has been developed. They are based on mathematical model of mandatory role-based access control. As a result of the work we have defined set of user roles and constructed roles hierarchy. For the roles hierarchy restrictions have been imposed to ensure the safety of the information system.

  3. Objective measurement of daytime napping, cognitive dysfunction and subjective sleepiness in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolitho, Samuel J; Naismith, Sharon L; Salahuddin, Pierre; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron R; Lewis, Simon J G

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-wake disturbances and concomitant cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) contribute significantly to morbidity in patients and their carers. Subjectively reported daytime sleep disturbance is observed in over half of all patients with PD and has been linked to executive cognitive dysfunction. The current study used daytime actigraphy, a novel objective measure of napping and related this to neuropsychological performance in a sample of PD patients and healthy, age and gender-matched controls. Furthermore this study aimed to identify patients with PD who may benefit from pharmacologic and behavioural intervention to improve these symptoms. Eighty-five PD patients and 21 healthy, age-matched controls completed 14 days of wrist actigraphy within two weeks of neuropsychological testing. Objective napping measures were derived from actigraphy using a standardised protocol and subjective daytime sleepiness was recorded by the previously validated Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Patients with PD had a 225% increase in the mean nap time per day (minutes) as recorded by actigraphy compared to age matched controls (39.2 ± 35.2 vs. 11.5 ± 11.0 minutes respectively, p napping duration between patients, as recorded by actigraphy were not distinguished by their ratings on the subjective measurement of excessive daytime sleepiness. Finally, those patients with excessive daytime napping showed greater cognitive deficits in the domains of attention, semantic verbal fluency and processing speed. This study confirms increased levels of napping in PD, a finding that is concordant with subjective reports. However, subjective self-report measures of excessive daytime sleepiness do not robustly identify excessive napping in PD. Fronto-subcortical cognitive dysfunction was observed in those patients who napped excessively. Furthermore, this study suggests that daytime actigraphy, a non-invasive and inexpensive objective measure of daytime sleep, can identify patients with PD

  4. Objective measurement of daytime napping, cognitive dysfunction and subjective sleepiness in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J Bolitho

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sleep-wake disturbances and concomitant cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD contribute significantly to morbidity in patients and their carers. Subjectively reported daytime sleep disturbance is observed in over half of all patients with PD and has been linked to executive cognitive dysfunction. The current study used daytime actigraphy, a novel objective measure of napping and related this to neuropsychological performance in a sample of PD patients and healthy, age and gender-matched controls. Furthermore this study aimed to identify patients with PD who may benefit from pharmacologic and behavioural intervention to improve these symptoms. METHODS: Eighty-five PD patients and 21 healthy, age-matched controls completed 14 days of wrist actigraphy within two weeks of neuropsychological testing. Objective napping measures were derived from actigraphy using a standardised protocol and subjective daytime sleepiness was recorded by the previously validated Epworth Sleepiness Scale. RESULTS: Patients with PD had a 225% increase in the mean nap time per day (minutes as recorded by actigraphy compared to age matched controls (39.2 ± 35.2 vs. 11.5 ± 11.0 minutes respectively, p < 0.001. Significantly, differences in napping duration between patients, as recorded by actigraphy were not distinguished by their ratings on the subjective measurement of excessive daytime sleepiness. Finally, those patients with excessive daytime napping showed greater cognitive deficits in the domains of attention, semantic verbal fluency and processing speed. CONCLUSION: This study confirms increased levels of napping in PD, a finding that is concordant with subjective reports. However, subjective self-report measures of excessive daytime sleepiness do not robustly identify excessive napping in PD. Fronto-subcortical cognitive dysfunction was observed in those patients who napped excessively. Furthermore, this study suggests that daytime

  5. Objective Measurement of Daytime Napping, Cognitive Dysfunction and Subjective Sleepiness in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolitho, Samuel J.; Naismith, Sharon L.; Salahuddin, Pierre; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron R.; Lewis, Simon J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sleep-wake disturbances and concomitant cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease (PD) contribute significantly to morbidity in patients and their carers. Subjectively reported daytime sleep disturbance is observed in over half of all patients with PD and has been linked to executive cognitive dysfunction. The current study used daytime actigraphy, a novel objective measure of napping and related this to neuropsychological performance in a sample of PD patients and healthy, age and gender-matched controls. Furthermore this study aimed to identify patients with PD who may benefit from pharmacologic and behavioural intervention to improve these symptoms. Methods Eighty-five PD patients and 21 healthy, age-matched controls completed 14 days of wrist actigraphy within two weeks of neuropsychological testing. Objective napping measures were derived from actigraphy using a standardised protocol and subjective daytime sleepiness was recorded by the previously validated Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Results Patients with PD had a 225% increase in the mean nap time per day (minutes) as recorded by actigraphy compared to age matched controls (39.2 ± 35.2 vs. 11.5 ± 11.0 minutes respectively, p napping duration between patients, as recorded by actigraphy were not distinguished by their ratings on the subjective measurement of excessive daytime sleepiness. Finally, those patients with excessive daytime napping showed greater cognitive deficits in the domains of attention, semantic verbal fluency and processing speed. Conclusion This study confirms increased levels of napping in PD, a finding that is concordant with subjective reports. However, subjective self-report measures of excessive daytime sleepiness do not robustly identify excessive napping in PD. Fronto-subcortical cognitive dysfunction was observed in those patients who napped excessively. Furthermore, this study suggests that daytime actigraphy, a non-invasive and inexpensive objective measure of

  6. Objective and subjective nutritional assessment of patients with cancer in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwang, Ang Yee; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2010-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of patients with cancer in palliative care and to examine the interrelationship between objective and subjective nutritional assessment measures. Patients' nutritional status in a palliative care unit of a Malaysian government hospital and a hospice facility were assessed using anthropometric measurements, weight loss at 1/6 months, and the scored patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA). Moderate-to-severe malnutrition was observed in a range from 31% to 69% using both measurements. Common nutritional impact symptoms were pain, xerostomia, and anorexia. Patient-generated subjective global assessment scores were significantly correlated with anthropometric measurements (P nutritional status assessment of patients with cancer in palliative care.

  7. Relationships over time of subjective and objective elements of recovery in persons with schizophreni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rikke; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2015-01-01

    of symptoms with four assessments of self-reports of subjective aspects of recovery. Participants were 101 outpatients with schizophrenia. Symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) while subjective recovery was assessed with the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS). Separate......Recovery from schizophrenia involves both subjective elements such as self-appraised wellness and objective elements such as symptom remission. Less is known about how they interact. To explore this issue, this study examined the relationship over the course of 1 year of four assessments...... Pearson׳s or Spearman׳s rank׳s correlation coefficients, calculated at all four measurement points, revealed the total symptom score was linked with lower levels of overall self-recovery at all four measurement points. The PANSS emotional discomfort subscale was linked with self-reported recovery at all...

  8. Objective assessment of mastication predominance in healthy dentate subjects and patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Y; Kuwatsuru, R; Tsukiyama, Y; Oki, K; Koyano, K

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate mastication predominance in healthy dentate individuals and patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth using objective and subjective methods. The sample comprised 50 healthy dentate individuals (healthy dentate group) and 30 patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth (partially edentulous group). Subjects were asked to freely chew three kinds of test foods (peanuts, beef jerky and chewing gum). Electromyographic activity of the bilateral masseter muscles was recorded. The chewing side (right side or left side) was judged by the level of root mean square electromyographic amplitude. Mastication predominance was then objectively assessed using the mastication predominant score and the mastication predominant index. Self-awareness of mastication predominance was evaluated using a modified visual analogue scale. Mastication predominance scores of the healthy dentate and partially edentulous groups for each test food were analysed. There was a significant difference in the distribution of the mastication predominant index between the two groups (P mastication predominant score was weakly correlated with self-awareness of mastication predominance in the healthy dentate group, whereas strong correlation was observed in the partially edentulous group (P mastication predominance and were more aware of mastication predominance than healthy dentate individuals. Our findings suggest that an objective evaluation of mastication predominance is more precise than a subjective method. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Objective and Subjective Caregiving Burden and Caregiving Behaviours of Parents of Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhind, Charlotte; Salerno, Laura; Hibbs, Rebecca; Micali, Nadia; Schmidt, Ulrike; Gowers, Simon; Macdonald, Pamela; Goddard, Elizabeth; Todd, Gillian; Tchanturia, Kate; Lo Coco, Gianluca; Treasure, Janet

    2016-07-01

    The study aimed to examine caregiving burden and levels of distress, accommodating behaviours, expressed emotion (EE) and carers' skills, in parents of adolescents with anorexia nervosa. A semi-structured interview assessed the objective burden (time spent across caregiving tasks) in parents (n = 196) of adolescents (n = 144) receiving outpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa. Subjective burden (carers' distress), accommodating behaviours, EE and carers' skills were measured by self-report. Mothers, on average, spent 2.5 h/day of care, mainly providing food and emotional support, compared with 1 h/day by fathers. The level of distress and accommodating behaviour was significantly lower in fathers than in mothers. Accommodating behaviours mediated the relationship between objective burden and subjective burden in mothers, whereas EE and carers' skills did not mediate this relationship for either parent. The objective burden for most mothers is high. In order to reduce subjective burden, it may be helpful to target accommodating behaviours. ISRCTN83003225 - Expert Carers Helping Others (ECHO). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. Automaticity and primacy of auditory streaming: Concurrent subjective and objective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billig, Alexander J; Carlyon, Robert P

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments used subjective and objective measures to study the automaticity and primacy of auditory streaming. Listeners heard sequences of "ABA-" triplets, where "A" and "B" were tones of different frequencies and "-" was a silent gap. Segregation was more frequently reported, and rhythmically deviant triplets less well detected, for a greater between-tone frequency separation and later in the sequence. In Experiment 1, performing a competing auditory task for the first part of the sequence led to a reduction in subsequent streaming compared to when the tones were attended throughout. This is consistent with focused attention promoting streaming, and/or with attention switches resetting it. However, the proportion of segregated reports increased more rapidly following a switch than at the start of a sequence, indicating that some streaming occurred automatically. Modeling ruled out a simple "covert attention" account of this finding. Experiment 2 required listeners to perform subjective and objective tasks concurrently. It revealed superior performance during integrated compared to segregated reports, beyond that explained by the codependence of the two measures on stimulus parameters. We argue that listeners have limited access to low-level stimulus representations once perceptual organization has occurred, and that subjective and objective streaming measures partly index the same processes. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Subjective and objective image differences in pediatric computed tomography cardiac angiography using lower iodine concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Choo, Ki Seok; Choi, Yoon Young; Kim, Jin Hyeok; Ryu, Hwaseong; Kim, Yong-Woo; Jeon, Ung Bae; Nam, Kyung Jin; Han, Junhee

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies showed the optimal contrast enhancement with a low-concentration and iso-osmolar contrast media in both adult and pediatric patients. However, low contrast media concentrations are not routinely used due to concerns of suboptimal enhancement of cardiac structures and small vessels. To evaluate the feasibility of using iso-osmolar contrast media containing a low iodine dose for CT cardiac angiography at 80 kilovolts (kVp) in neonates and infants. The iodixanol 270 group consisted of 79 CT scans and the iopromide 370 group of 62 CT scans in patients ≤1 year old. Objective measurement of the contrast enhancement was analyzed and contrast-to-noise ratios of the ascending aorta and left ventricle were calculated. Regarding subjective measurement, a four-point scale system was devised to evaluate degrees of contrast enhancement, image noise, motion artifact and overall image quality of each image set. Reader performance for correctly differentiating iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 by visual assessment was evaluated. Group objective and subjective measurements were nonsignificantly different. Overall sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy for correctly differentiating iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 by visual assessment were 42.8%, 59%, and 50%, respectively. The application of iodixanol 270 achieved optimal enhancement for performing pediatric cardiac CT angiography at 80 kVp in neonates and infants. Objective measurements of contrast enhancement and subjective image quality assessments were not statistically different in the iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 groups. (orig.)

  12. Subjective and objective image differences in pediatric computed tomography cardiac angiography using lower iodine concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jae-Yeon [Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Choo, Ki Seok; Choi, Yoon Young; Kim, Jin Hyeok; Ryu, Hwaseong; Kim, Yong-Woo; Jeon, Ung Bae; Nam, Kyung Jin [Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Han, Junhee [Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Division of Biostatistics, Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Several recent studies showed the optimal contrast enhancement with a low-concentration and iso-osmolar contrast media in both adult and pediatric patients. However, low contrast media concentrations are not routinely used due to concerns of suboptimal enhancement of cardiac structures and small vessels. To evaluate the feasibility of using iso-osmolar contrast media containing a low iodine dose for CT cardiac angiography at 80 kilovolts (kVp) in neonates and infants. The iodixanol 270 group consisted of 79 CT scans and the iopromide 370 group of 62 CT scans in patients ≤1 year old. Objective measurement of the contrast enhancement was analyzed and contrast-to-noise ratios of the ascending aorta and left ventricle were calculated. Regarding subjective measurement, a four-point scale system was devised to evaluate degrees of contrast enhancement, image noise, motion artifact and overall image quality of each image set. Reader performance for correctly differentiating iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 by visual assessment was evaluated. Group objective and subjective measurements were nonsignificantly different. Overall sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy for correctly differentiating iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 by visual assessment were 42.8%, 59%, and 50%, respectively. The application of iodixanol 270 achieved optimal enhancement for performing pediatric cardiac CT angiography at 80 kVp in neonates and infants. Objective measurements of contrast enhancement and subjective image quality assessments were not statistically different in the iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 groups. (orig.)

  13. Physiological and subjective evaluation of a human-robot object hand-over task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehais, Frédéric; Sisbot, Emrah Akin; Alami, Rachid; Causse, Mickaël

    2011-11-01

    In the context of task sharing between a robot companion and its human partners, the notions of safe and compliant hardware are not enough. It is necessary to guarantee ergonomic robot motions. Therefore, we have developed Human Aware Manipulation Planner (Sisbot et al., 2010), a motion planner specifically designed for human-robot object transfer by explicitly taking into account the legibility, the safety and the physical comfort of robot motions. The main objective of this research was to define precise subjective metrics to assess our planner when a human interacts with a robot in an object hand-over task. A second objective was to obtain quantitative data to evaluate the effect of this interaction. Given the short duration, the "relative ease" of the object hand-over task and its qualitative component, classical behavioral measures based on accuracy or reaction time were unsuitable to compare our gestures. In this perspective, we selected three measurements based on the galvanic skin conductance response, the deltoid muscle activity and the ocular activity. To test our assumptions and validate our planner, an experimental set-up involving Jido, a mobile manipulator robot, and a seated human was proposed. For the purpose of the experiment, we have defined three motions that combine different levels of legibility, safety and physical comfort values. After each robot gesture the participants were asked to rate them on a three dimensional subjective scale. It has appeared that the subjective data were in favor of our reference motion. Eventually the three motions elicited different physiological and ocular responses that could be used to partially discriminate them. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and the Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased delta power and discrepancies in objective and subjective sleep measurements in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, Alexandra; Feige, Bernd; Al-Shajlawi, Anam; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin; Richter, Harald; Voderholzer, Ulrich; Lieb, Klaus; Riemann, Dieter

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies have shown depression-like sleep abnormalities in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, findings in BPD are not unequivocal for REM dysregulation, as well as for a decrement of slow wave sleep and sleep continuity disturbances. Earlier findings in sleep EEG abnormalities in BPD may have been confounded by concomitant depressive symptoms. Twenty unmedicated female BPD patients without current comorbid major depression and 20 sex- and age-matched control subjects entered the study. Conventional polysomnographic parameters and for the first time sleep EEG spectral power analysis was performed on two sleep laboratory nights. Subjective sleep parameters were collected by sleep questionnaires in order to assess the relationship between objective and subjective sleep measurements. BPD patients showed a tendency for shortened REM latency and significantly decreased NonREM sleep (stage 2). Spectral EEG analysis showed increased delta power in total NREM sleep as well as in REM sleep in BPD patients. Subjective ratings documented drastically impaired sleep quality in BPD patients for the two weeks before the study and during the two laboratory nights. Not-depressed BPD patients only showed tendencies for depression-like REM sleep abnormalities. Surprisingly, BPD patients displayed higher levels of delta power in the sleep EEG in NREM sleep than healthy control subjects. There was a marked discrepancy between objective and subjective sleep measurements, which indicates an altered perception of sleep in BPD. The underlying psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of these alterations are still unclear and need to be clarified in future studies including interventions on a pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral level.

  15. Optimizing an objective function under a bivariate probability model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Brusset; N.M. Temme (Nico)

    2007-01-01

    htmlabstractThe motivation of this paper is to obtain an analytical closed form of a quadratic objective function arising from a stochastic decision process with bivariate exponential probability distribution functions that may be dependent. This method is applicable when results need to be

  16. Executive function impairment in community elderly subjects with questionable dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Linda C W; Lui, Victor W C; Chiu, Helen F K; Chan, Sandra S M; Tam, Cindy W C

    2005-01-01

    The neurocognitive profile of community-dwelling Chinese subjects with 'questionable' dementia was studied. One hundred and fifty-four ambulatory Chinese subjects were recruited from local social centers for the elderly. Each subject was examined using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (CMMSE), the Chinese version of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog), the Category Verbal Fluency Test (CVFT), digit and visual span tests, and the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. The neurocognitive profile of nondemented subjects (CDR 0) was compared with that of subjects with 'questionable' dementia (CDR 0.5). Subjects with 'questionable' dementia were older, and had lower educational levels and global cognitive assessment scores than the controls (CMMSE and ADAS-Cog; t tests, p < 0.001). In addition, they also had significantly lower scores in delayed recall, reverse span, verbal fluency tests and worse performance in complex motor tasks related to executive function (Mann-Whitney tests, p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that ADAS-Cog, CVFT, and reverse visual span were significant predictors for the CDR of 'questionable' dementia. Aside from memory impairment, executive function deficits were also present in subjects with 'questionable' dementia. To identify groups cognitively at risk for dementia, concomitant assessments of memory and executive function are suggested.

  17. Diurnal rhythm and concordance between objective and subjective hot flashes: the Hilo Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette L; Reza, Angela; Mills, Phoebe; Morrison, Lynn; Rahberg, Nichole; Goodloe, Amber; Sutherland, Michael; Brown, Daniel E

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to test for a diurnal pattern in hot flashes in a multiethnic population living in a hot, humid environment and to examine the rates of concordance between objective and subjective measures of hot flashes using ambulatory and laboratory measures. Study participants aged 45 to 55 years were recruited from the general population of Hilo, HI. Women wore a Biolog hot flash monitor (UFI, Morro Bay, CA), kept a diary for 24 hours, and also participated in 3-hour laboratory measures (n = 199). Diurnal patterns were assessed using polynomial regression. For each woman, objectively recorded hot flashes that matched subjective experience were treated as true-positive readings. Subjective hot flashes were considered the standard for computing false-positive and false-negative readings. True-positive, false-positive, and false-negative readings were compared across ethnic groups by chi analyses. Frequencies of sternal, nuchal, and subjective hot flashes peaked at 1500 +/- 1 hours with no difference by ethnicity. Laboratory results supported the pattern seen in ambulatory monitoring. Sternal and nuchal monitoring showed the same frequency of true-positive measures, but nonsternal electrodes picked up more false-positive readings. Laboratory monitoring showed very low frequencies of false negatives. There were no ethnic differences in the frequency of true-positive or false-positive measures. Women of European descent were more likely to report hot flashes that were not objectively demonstrated (false-negative measures). The diurnal pattern and peak in hot flash occurrence in the hot humid environment of Hilo were similar to results from more temperate environments. Lack of variation in sternal versus nonsternal measures and in true-positive measures across ethnicities suggests no appreciable effect of population variation in sweating patterns.

  18. Subjectively and objectively measured sleep with and without posttraumatic stress disorder and trauma exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Huntley, Edward; Lavela, Joseph; Mellman, Thomas A

    2012-07-01

    Although reports of sleep disturbances are common among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), results of polysomnographic (PSG) studies have inconsistently documented abnormalities and have therefore suggested "sleep state misperception." The authors' study objectives were to compare sleep parameters measured objectively and subjectively in the laboratory and at home in civilians with and without trauma exposure and PTSD. Cross-sectional study. PSG recordings in a sleep laboratory and actigraphic recordings in participants' homes. One hundred three urban-residing African Americans with and without trauma exposure and PTSD who participated in a larger study. N/A. Sleep parameters (total sleep time [TST], sleep onset latency [SOL], and wake after sleep onset [WASO]) were assessed using laboratory PSG and home actigraphy. A sleep diary was completed in the morning after PSG and actigraphy recordings. Habitual TST, SOL, and WASO were assessed using a sleep questionnaire. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale was administered to assess participants' trauma exposure and PTSD diagnostic status. Participants, regardless of their trauma exposure/PTSD status, underestimated WASO in the diary and questionnaire relative to actigraphy and overestimated SOL in the diary relative to PSG. Among participants with current PTSD, TST diary estimates did not differ from the actigraphy measure in contrast with those without current PTSD who overestimated TST. No other significant group differences in discrepancies between subjective and objective sleep measures were found. Discrepancies between subjectively and objectively measured sleep parameters were not associated with trauma exposure or PTSD. This challenges prior assertions that individuals with PTSD overreport their sleep disturbances.

  19. Functional activation of the infant cortex during object processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Teresa; Stubbs, Jessica; Hirshkowitz, Amy; Boas, David A

    2012-09-01

    A great deal is known about the functional organization of the neural structures that mediate visual object processing in the adult observer. These findings have contributed significantly to our conceptual models of object recognition and identification and provided unique insight into the nature of object representations extracted from visual input. In contrast, little is known about the neural basis of object processing in the infant. The current research used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a neuroimaging tool to investigate functional activation of the infant cortex during an object processing task that has been used extensively with infants. The neuroimaging data revealed that the infant cortex is functionally specialized for object processing (i.e., individuation-by-feature) early in the first year but that patterns of activation also change between 3 and 12 months. These changes may reflect functional reorganization of the immature cortex or age-related differences in the cognitive processes engaged during the task. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Subjective and objective analysis of three water pump systems carried by forest firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Daniel J; Graham, Ryan B; Stevenson, Joan M; Costigan, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    The Mark 3 (M3) water power pump is an integral piece of wildfire fighting equipment. However, it is provided to fire stations without a carrying harness. The currently-used carrying harness is very uncomfortable, especially when carrying the pumps considerable distance in a forest to reach a water source. The purpose of this study was to advise the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources on the selection of a new M3 load carriage system. Twenty Fire Rangers wore the three systems (Original, Prototype, and Modified) through a circuit of tasks representative of their working environment. Subjective and objective approaches were combined to assess and rank the M3 carriage systems. Subjective visual analogue scale ratings were obtained for ease of loading/unloading, comfort, system stability, and overall performance. Tri-axial accelerometers were mounted on each pump and at the sternum of each participant to determine relative pump-carrier accelerations. Overall, the Prototype was ranked as the best system; it resulted in the lowest relative pump-carrier accelerations on 10 out of 15 objective measures, and also received a first place ranking on all subjective measures. It was recommended that the Prototype be implemented as the M3 carriage system for fire suppression teams.

  1. Subjective and objective napping and sleep in older adults: are evening naps "bad" for nighttime sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautovich, Natalie D; McCrae, Christina S; Rowe, Meredeth

    2008-09-01

    To compare objective and subjective measurements of napping and to examine the relationship between evening napping and nocturnal sleep in older adults. For 12 days, participants wore actigraphs and completed sleep diaries. Community. One hundred individuals who napped, aged 60 to 89 (including good and poor sleepers with typical age-related medical comorbidities). Twelve days of sleep diary and actigraphy provided subjective and objective napping and sleep data. Evening naps (within 2 hours of bedtime) were characteristic of the sample, with peak nap time occurring between 20:30 and 21:00 (average nap time occurred between 14:30 and 15:00). Two categories of nappers were identified: those who took daytime and evening naps and daytime-only. No participants napped during the evening only. Day-and-evening nappers significantly underreported evening napping and demonstrated lower objectively measured sleep onset latencies (20.0 vs 26.5 minutes), less wake after sleep onset (51.4 vs 72.8 minutes), and higher sleep efficiencies (76.8 vs 82%) than daytime-only nappers. Day and evening napping was prevalent in this sample of community-dwelling good and poor sleepers but was not associated with impaired nocturnal sleep. Although the elimination or restriction of napping is a common element of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia, these results suggest that a uniform recommendation to restrict or eliminate napping (particularly evening napping) may not meet the needs of all older individuals with insomnia.

  2. [Comparison study on subjective and objective measurements of the accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing-jing; Xu, Dan; Huang, Tao; Jiang, Jian; Lü, Fan

    2012-05-01

    To detect the accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratios measured respectively by objective and subjective methods. The differences and its relative factors were explored. Forty young volunteers were measured by eye tracker to get the amount of convergence when fixating at the target at 100 cm, 50 cm, 33 cm and 25 cm and were measured by infrared auto-refractor to get corresponding accommodative responses. AC/A ratio based on these two measurements were compared with the calculated and the gradient AC/A ratio from Von Graefe tests. Mean value of stimulated AC/A ratio measured by eye tracker was higher than the calculated and gradient AC/A ratio by Von Graefe method (P = 0.003, 0.001). There are statistic correlation (r = 0.871, P = 0.000) and difference (P = 0.000) between stimulated AC/A ratio and response AC/A ratios both measured by eye tracker, and the difference trends to be greater with the higher AC/A ratio. The objective AC/A ratio is usually higher than the clinical subjective measurement because of more proximal effect. The response AC/A ratio measured objectively may reveal realistically the mutual effect and relationship between accommodation and convergence and it seems to be more credible to be the monitor parameter on progression of myopia in clinics.

  3. High cardiac vagal control is related to better subjective and objective sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gabriela G; Ford, Brett Q; Mauss, Iris B; Schabus, Manuel; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac vagal control (CVC) has been linked to both physical and mental health. One critical aspect of health, that has not received much attention, is sleep. We hypothesized that adults with higher CVC--operationalized by high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV)--will exhibit better sleep quality assessed both subjectively (i.e., with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objectively (i.e., with polysomnography). HF-HRV was measured in 29 healthy young women during an extended neutral film clip. Participants then underwent full polysomnography to obtain objective measures of sleep quality and HF-HRV during a night of sleep. As expected, higher resting HF-HRV was associated with higher subjective and objective sleep quality (i.e., shorter sleep latency and fewer arousals). HF-HRV during sleep (overall or separated by sleep phases) showed less consistent relationships with sleep quality. These findings indicate that high waking CVC may be a key predictor of healthy sleep. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical interpretation of a masticatory normative indicator analysis of masticatory function in subjects with different occlusal and prosthodontic status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Woda, A.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the masticatory function of subjects characterised by different occlusal and prosthodontic status. Using Optosil((R)) as a test food, the masticatory normative indicator (MNIOPT) was used to differentiate between sufficient ('normal') and impaired masticatory function.

  5. Geometric function theory: a modern view of a classical subject

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowdy, Darren

    2008-01-01

    Geometric function theory is a classical subject. Yet it continues to find new applications in an ever-growing variety of areas such as modern mathematical physics, more traditional fields of physics such as fluid dynamics, nonlinear integrable systems theory and the theory of partial differential equations. This paper surveys, with a view to modern applications, open problems and challenges in this subject. Here we advocate an approach based on the use of the Schottky–Klein prime function within a Schottky model of compact Riemann surfaces. (open problem)

  6. Effect of Colour of Object on Simple Visual Reaction Time in Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita B. Kalyanshetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The measure of simple reaction time has been used to evaluate the processing speed of CNS and the co-ordination between the sensory and motor systems. As the reaction time is influenced by different factors; the impact of colour of objects in modulating the reaction time has been investigated in this study. 200 healthy volunteers (female gender 100 and male gender100 of age group 18-25 yrs were included as subjects. The subjects were presented with two visual stimuli viz; red and green light by using an electronic response analyzer. Paired‘t’ test for comparison of visual reaction time for red and green colour in male gender shows p value<0.05 whereas in female gender shows p<0.001. It was observed that response latency for red colour was lesser than that of green colour which can be explained on the basis of trichromatic theory.

  7. The effect of local cryotherapy on subjective and objective recovery characteristics following an exhaustive jump protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenauer, Erich; Clarys, Peter; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Clijsen, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this controlled trial was to investigate the effects of a single local cryotherapy session on the recovery characteristics over a period of 72 hours. Twenty-two young and healthy female (n=17; mean age: 21.9±1.1 years) and male (n=5;mean age: 25.4±2.8 years) adults participated in this study. Following an exhaustive jump protocol (3×30 countermovement jumps), half of the participants received either a single local cryotherapy application (+8°C) or a single local thermoneutral application (+32°C) of 20-minute duration using two thigh cuffs. Subjective measures of recovery (delayed-onset muscle soreness and ratings of perceived exertion) and objective measures of recovery (vertical jump performance and peak power output) were assessed immediately following the postexercise applications (0 hours) and at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after the jump protocol. Local cryotherapy failed to significantly affect any subjective recovery variable during the 72-hour recovery period (P>0.05). After 72 hours, the ratings of perceived exertion were significantly lower in the thermoneutral group compared to that in the cryotherapy group (P=0.002). No significant differences were observed between the cryotherapy and the thermoneutral groups with respect to any of the objective recovery variables. In this experimental study, a 20-minute cryotherapy cuff application failed to demonstrate a positive effect on any objective measures of recovery. The effects of local thermoneutral application on subjective recovery characteristics were superior when compared to the effects of local cryotherapy application at 72 hours postapplication.

  8. Happiness, subjective and objective oral health status, and oral health behaviors among Korean elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun-Seo; Kim, Hae-Young; Patton, Lauren L; Chun, Jin-Ho; Bae, Kwang-Hak; Lee, Mi-Ok

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to comprehensively assess the association of subjective and objective oral health status and oral health behaviors with happiness, under consideration of demographic, socioeconomic, and general health-related factors. This study also aims to test whether subjective oral health outcomes are better predictors of happiness compared with objective oral health outcomes. The data were collected from 479 community-dwelling elders aged 65 years or over selected by a cluster sampling method. A questionnaire and an oral examination were implemented. A multiple regression method was conducted to assess associations with happiness index (HI). The mean age of the elders was 74.6 years. Mean (standard deviation, SD) HI, EuroQol-visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) and 14-item oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) index were 5.7 (SD 2.3), 59.8 (SD 21.1), and 16.3 (SD 13.1). In the final model, a significant association with HI of the OHIP-14 index (P = 0.091) among all the participants and significant associations of oral symptoms (P = 0.038), wearing a removable denture (P = 0.039), and of the oral health behavior of daily toothbrushing (P = 0.007) among poorer oral health QoL group were confirmed under consideration of other related factors. While correlations of HI to subjective measures of health, EQ-VAS and OHIP-14 score were moderate to weak, those to objective measures of health were only weak or insignificant. Oral impacts which might persistently affect one's daily life need to be considered in designing and delivering public services aimed to promote people's happiness. With oral health impacts and behaviors accounting for 10% of happiness among elders, public and community services for the elderly that support oral health and daily toothbrushing for the dentate are critical for the well-being of our elders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Who does well in life? Conscientious adults excel in both objective and subjective success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela L. Duckworth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates how personality and cognitive ability relate to measures of objective success (income and wealth and subjective success (life satisfaction, positive affect, and lack of negative affect in a representative sample of 9,646 American adults. In cross-sectional analyses controlling for demographic covariates, cognitive ability, and other Big Five traits, conscientiousness demonstrated beneficial associations of small-to-medium magnitude with all success outcomes. In contrast, other traits demonstrated stronger, but less consistently beneficial, relations with outcomes in the same models. For instance, emotional stability demonstrated medium-to-large associations with life satisfaction and affect but a weak association with income and no association with wealth. Likewise, extraversion demonstrated medium-to-large associations with positive affect and life satisfaction but small-to-medium associations with wealth and (lack of negative affect and no association with income. Cognitive ability showed small-to-medium associations with income and wealth but no association with any aspect of subjective success. More agreeable adults were worse off in terms of objective success and life satisfaction, demonstrating small-to-medium inverse associations with those outcomes, but they did not differ from less agreeable adults in positive or negative affect. Likewise, openness to experience demonstrated small-to-medium inverse associations with every success outcome except positive affect, in which more open adults were slightly higher. Notably, in each of the five models predicting objective and subjective success outcomes, individual differences other than conscientiousness explained more variance than did conscientiousness. Thus, the benefits of conscientiousness may be remarkable more for their ubiquity than for their magnitude.

  10. Who does well in life? Conscientious adults excel in both objective and subjective success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L; Weir, David; Tsukayama, Eli; Kwok, David

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates how personality and cognitive ability relate to measures of objective success (income and wealth) and subjective success (life satisfaction, positive affect, and lack of negative affect) in a representative sample of 9,646 American adults. In cross-sectional analyses controlling for demographic covariates, cognitive ability, and other Big Five traits, conscientiousness demonstrated beneficial associations of small-to-medium magnitude with all success outcomes. In contrast, other traits demonstrated stronger, but less consistently beneficial, relations with outcomes in the same models. For instance, emotional stability demonstrated medium-to-large associations with life satisfaction and affect but a weak association with income and no association with wealth. Likewise, extraversion demonstrated medium-to-large associations with positive affect and life satisfaction but small-to-medium associations with wealth and (lack of) negative affect and no association with income. Cognitive ability showed small-to-medium associations with income and wealth but no association with any aspect of subjective success. More agreeable adults were worse off in terms of objective success and life satisfaction, demonstrating small-to-medium inverse associations with those outcomes, but they did not differ from less agreeable adults in positive or negative affect. Likewise, openness to experience demonstrated small-to-medium inverse associations with every success outcome except positive affect, in which more open adults were slightly higher. Notably, in each of the five models predicting objective and subjective success outcomes, individual differences other than conscientiousness explained more variance than did conscientiousness. Thus, the benefits of conscientiousness may be remarkable more for their ubiquity than for their magnitude.

  11. Subjective daytime functioning assessment in people with insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Karol; Nowicka-Sauer, Katarzyna; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Rutkowski, Marcin; Bandosz, Piotr; Nowicki, Zbigniew

    2017-10-29

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of subjective daytime functioning impairment among people with insomnia complaints. Another goal was to establish its relationships with age, gender, type and duration of subjective insomnia. Study group consisted of NATPOL study participants - 2,413 people (1,245 women and 1,168 men) aged 18-79. We extracted group with declared insomnia complaints, consisting of 1,221 people (736 women and 485 men) aged 18-79. Data on insomnia symptoms characteristics, their duration and subjective functioning impairment were further analyzed. Functioning impairment was declared by 825 people (67.7% of those who declared subjective insomnia) and it was more common in women. It was most common among people with insomnia complaints lasting over two weeks - 72.4%. In people with symptoms lasting less than two weeks or for a few days it was 70.7% and 64.9% respectively. People with insomnia symptoms lasting over two weeks accounted for 20% of group with severe functioning impairment. For shorter duration of symptoms it was 8.6% and 6.9% respectively. Among people with mild functioning impairment, persons with symptoms lasting for a few days and less than two weeks were predominant - 32.5% and 35.3% respectively. In people aged 18-24 years mild functioning impairment was predominant (66.66%). Subjective daytime functioning impairment is common in people declaring insomnia symptoms. It is more common in women and its prevalence and intensity are greater in people with longer duration of sleep problems. Its prevalence is not correlated with age and it is the mildest in people aged 18-24.

  12. Classical methods for interpreting objective function minimization as intelligent inference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golden, R.M. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Most recognition algorithms and neural networks can be formally viewed as seeking a minimum value of an appropriate objective function during either classification or learning phases. The goal of this paper is to argue that in order to show a recognition algorithm is making intelligent inferences, it is not sufficient to show that the recognition algorithm is computing (or trying to compute) the global minimum of some objective function. One must explicitly define a {open_quotes}relational system{close_quotes} for the recognition algorithm or neural network which identifies the: (i) sample space, (ii) the relevant sigmafield of events generated by the sample space, and (iii) the {open_quotes}relation{close_quotes} for that relational system. Only when such a {open_quotes}relational system{close_quotes} is properly defined, is it possible to formally establish the sense in which computing the global minimum of an objective function is an intelligent, inference.

  13. Subjective and objective outcome after revision arthroscopic stabilization for recurrent anterior instability versus initial shoulder stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, David; Kraus, Natascha; Pauly, Stephan; Chen, Jianhai; Scheibel, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The value of arthroscopic revision shoulder stabilization after failed instability repair is still a matter of debate. Arthroscopic revision shoulder stabilization using suture anchors provides equivalent subjective and objective results compared with initial arthroscopic instability repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty consecutive patients who underwent arthroscopic revision shoulder stabilization using suture anchors (group 2) were matched for age, gender, and handedness (dominant or nondominant) with 20 patients who had initial arthroscopic instability repair using the same technique (group 1). At the time of follow-up, a complete physical examination of both shoulders and evaluation with the Rowe score, Walch-Duplay score, Melbourne Instability Shoulder Score, Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index, and the Subjective Shoulder Value were performed. In addition, standard radiographs (true AP and axillary views) were taken to evaluate signs of osteoarthritis. After a minimum follow-up of 24 months, no recurrent dislocations were observed in either group. The apprehension sign was positive in 2 cases of revision surgery (0 vs 2; P > .05). No significant differences in the Rowe score (89 vs 81.8 points) were found between groups 1 and 2 (P > .05). However, group 2 revealed significantly lower scores in the Walch-Duplay score (85.3 vs 75.5 points), Melbourne Instability Shoulder Score (90.2 vs 73.7 points), Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (89.8% vs 68.9%), and Subjective Shoulder Value (91.8% vs 69.2%) (P instability arthropathy were found more often in patients with arthroscopic revision surgery (2 vs 5; P > .05). Arthroscopic revision shoulder stabilization is associated with a lower subjective outcome compared with initial arthroscopic stabilization. The objective results found in this study may overestimate the clinical outcome in this patient population.

  14. Subjective rating and objective evaluation of the acoustic and indoor climate conditions in video conferencing rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauervig-Jørgensen, Charlotte; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Toftum, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    Today, face-to-face meetings are frequently replaced by video conferences in order to reduce costs and carbon footprint related to travels and to increase the company efficiency. Yet, complaints about the difficulty of understanding the speech of the participants in both rooms of the video...... conference occur. The aim of this study is to find out the main causes of difficulties in speech communication. Correlation studies between subjective perceptions were conducted through questionnaires and objective acoustic and indoor climate parameters related to video conferencing. Based on four single...

  15. Objective and subjective factors of efficiency and performance of medical audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Biryukov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to analysis factors affecting the effective operation of quality management systems in health care institutions. It is shown important role of quality of carrying out audits, internal and external, in elimination of various kinds of risks and discrepancies in activity of medical institutions. Two main factors were revealed which influencing the quality of audit: 1. Subjective or "human" factor, consisting in sufficient motivation of the top management and internal auditors of medical institutions. 2. Objective or technological factor, consisting in sufficient training of internal auditors, adequacy selected audit methodology, etc.

  16. Foveal cone spacing and cone photopigment density difference: objective measurements in the same subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, S; Tornow, R P; Elsner, A E; Navarro, R

    1997-07-01

    Foveal cone spacing was measured in vivo using an objective technique: ocular speckle interferometry. Cone packing density was computed from cone spacing data. Foveal cone photopigment density difference was measured in the same subjects using retinal densitometry with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Both the cone packing density and cone photopigment density difference decreased sharply with increasing retinal eccentricity. From the comparison of both sets of measurements, the computed amounts of photopigment per cone increased slightly with increasing retinal eccentricity. Consistent with previous results, decreases in cone outer segment length are over-compensated by an increase in the outer segment area, at least in retinal eccentricities up to 1 deg.

  17. What predicts inattention in adolescents? An experience-sampling study comparing chronotype, subjective, and objective sleep parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Timo; Krkovic, Katarina; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-10-01

    Many adolescents sleep insufficiently, which may negatively affect their functioning during the day. To improve sleep interventions, we need a better understanding of the specific sleep-related parameters that predict poor functioning. We investigated to which extent subjective and objective parameters of sleep in the preceding night (state parameters) and the trait variable chronotype predict daytime inattention as an indicator of poor functioning. We conducted an experience-sampling study over one week with 61 adolescents (30 girls, 31 boys; mean age = 15.5 years, standard deviation = 1.1 years). Participants rated their inattention two times each day (morning, afternoon) on a smartphone. Subjective sleep parameters (feeling rested, positive affect upon awakening) were assessed each morning on the smartphone. Objective sleep parameters (total sleep time, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset) were assessed with a permanently worn actigraph. Chronotype was assessed with a self-rated questionnaire at baseline. We tested the effect of subjective and objective state parameters of sleep on daytime inattention, using multilevel multiple regressions. Then, we tested whether the putative effect of the trait parameter chronotype on inattention is mediated through state sleep parameters, again using multilevel regressions. We found that short sleep time, but no other state sleep parameter, predicted inattention to a small effect. As expected, the trait parameter chronotype also predicted inattention: morningness was associated with less inattention. However, this association was not mediated by state sleep parameters. Our results indicate that short sleep time causes inattention in adolescents. Extended sleep time might thus alleviate inattention to some extent. However, it cannot alleviate the effect of being an 'owl'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Subjective and Objective Performance Metrics for Haptically Controlled Robotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Dung Pham

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies in detail how different evaluation methods perform when it comes to describing the performance of haptically controlled mobile manipulators. Particularly, we investigate how well subjective metrics perform compared to objective metrics. To find the best metrics to describe the performance of a control scheme is challenging when human operators are involved; how the user perceives the performance of the controller does not necessarily correspond to the directly measurable metrics normally used in controller evaluation. It is therefore important to study whether there is any correspondence between how the user perceives the performance of a controller, and how it performs in terms of directly measurable metrics such as the time used to perform a task, number of errors, accuracy, and so on. To perform these tests we choose a system that consists of a mobile manipulator that is controlled by an operator through a haptic device. This is a good system for studying different performance metrics as the performance can be determined by subjective metrics based on feedback from the users, and also as objective and directly measurable metrics. The system consists of a robotic arm which provides for interaction and manipulation, which is mounted on a mobile base which extends the workspace of the arm. The operator thus needs to perform both interaction and locomotion using a single haptic device. While the position of the on-board camera is determined by the base motion, the principal control objective is the motion of the manipulator arm. This calls for intelligent control allocation between the base and the manipulator arm in order to obtain intuitive control of both the camera and the arm. We implement three different approaches to the control allocation problem, i.e., whether the vehicle or manipulator arm actuation is applied to generate the desired motion. The performance of the different control schemes is evaluated, and our

  19. Modularity-like objective function in annotated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jia-Rong; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2017-12-01

    We ascertain the modularity-like objective function whose optimization is equivalent to the maximum likelihood in annotated networks. We demonstrate that the modularity-like objective function is a linear combination of modularity and conditional entropy. In contrast with statistical inference methods, in our method, the influence of the metadata is adjustable; when its influence is strong enough, the metadata can be recovered. Conversely, when it is weak, the detection may correspond to another partition. Between the two, there is a transition. This paper provides a concept for expanding the scope of modularity methods.

  20. Cognitive and social cognitive predictors of change in objective versus subjective quality-of-life in rehabilitation for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Matthew M; Bronfeld, Melanie; Rose, Jennifer

    2012-12-30

    A small but growing body of work has studied the role of cognitive skills in predicting response to integrated programs of rehabilitation in schizophrenia. No studies however, have directly compared the roles and interrelationships of cognition, social cognition and other disease factors in predicting improvements in the separate domains of objective quality-of-life (QOL) and subjective satisfaction with life (SWL) in response to rehabilitation in schizophrenia. Forty-four outpatients with schizophrenia were administered measures of cognition, social cognition, and symptoms at entry to a psychosocial and cognitive rehabilitation program. Change in objective QOL and subjective SWL before and after treatment were measured as outcome variables. Cognitive measures of verbal memory and social cognitive measures of facial affect recognition were linked to improvements in objective QOL, while verbal memory and crystallized verbal skill was linked to improvements in SWL. Facial affect recognition partially mediated the relationship between verbal memory and improvements in objective QOL. The implications of these findings for understanding interrelationships between cognition and social cognition and their role in predicting change in different domains of outcome as a function of behavioral treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The study of subjective and objective evaluation of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Chun-feng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Sleep disorder is one of the most common non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD patients. At present, there are subjective and objective tools to evaluate sleepdisorders. Nevertheless, previous studies commonly used single subjective questionnaires or objective examinations. Therefore, we used the combinations of subjective and objective tools to analyze clinical characteristics of sleep disturbances in PD and investigated differences and consistence between subjective and objective tools. Methods One hundred and sixteen PD patients were eligible to participate into this study. All participants were evaluated by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS in "on" condition, Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y stage, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD 24 items, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, and underwent a video-polysomnography (Video-PSG. Results According to PSQI score of 116 PD patients, the proportion of PD patients with sleep disturbances (PSQI ≥ 7 was 50% (N = 58. Compared to PD patients without sleep disturbances, PD patients with sleep disturbances had lower score of MoCA (23.34 ± 3.50 vs 24.89 ± 3.52; t = 2.377, P = 0.019, higher score of UPDRSⅠ[4.00 (2.00, 5.00 vs 3.00 (2.00, 5.00; U = - 2.306, P = 0.021], UPDRSⅡ[12.00 (9.00, 16.00 vs 10.00 (6.00, 13.00; U = - 1.995, P = 0.046], higher levodopa equivalent daily dose [LED, (508.14 ± 335.85 vs (394.06 ± 236.40 mg/d; t = - 2.115, P = 0.037]. Although PD patients with sleep disturbances had more score of UPDSR Ⅲ and higher H-Y stage, the differences were not significant (P > 0.05. On the other hand, decreased total sleep time (TST, reduced sleep efficiency (SE, increased sleep latency (SL, decreased non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep stage Ⅱ time were found for PD patients with sleep disturbances (P 0.05, for all. The score of PSQI was positively correlated with the score of ESS (r = 0.200, P = 0

  2. Subjective Identity of Kaunas Cityscape: Research Results and Their Relation with Objective Indicators of Urban Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Ribelytė-Knistautienė, Rūta; Kamičaitytė-Virbašienė, Jūratė

    2017-01-01

    Kaunas city identity formants were recently identified preparing Kaunas City Master Plan in 2013. They are divided into four groups: natural, functional, iconic, and conventional symbols. Designation of symbols depicting urban identity is inseparable from the city's history, its culture, and urban development. Due to associativity characteristic to human thinking, history of the specific locality is understood through its inherent natural environment, objects created by human, and culture or ...

  3. From tomography to FWI with a single objective function

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-06-10

    Reflections in our seismic data induce serious nonlinear behavior in the objective function of full waveform inversion (FWI). Thus, without a good initial velocity model, that can produce the reflections within a cycle of the frequency used in the inversion, convergence to the solution becomes hard. Such velocity models are usually extracted from migration velocity analysis or traveltime tomography, among other means, that are not guaranteed to adhere to the FWI requirements. As such, we promote an objective function based on the misfit in the instantaneous traveltime between the observed and modeled data. This phase based attribute of the wavefield, along with its phase unwrapping features, provide a frequency dependent traveltime function. With strong damping of the of the synthetic, potentially low frequency, data, this attribute admits first arrival traveltime that could be compared with picked ones from the observed data, like in wave equation tomography. As we relax the damping on the synthetic and observed data, the objective function measures the misfit in the phase, however unwrapped in an FWI type inversion. It, thus, provides a single objective function and a natural transition from traveltime tomography to full waveform inversion. A Marmousi example demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach.

  4. Children's use of comparison and function in novel object categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Katherine; Hunley, Samuel B; Namy, Laura L

    2018-06-01

    Although young children often rely on salient perceptual cues, such as shape, when categorizing novel objects, children eventually shift towards deeper relational reasoning about category membership. This study investigates what information young children use to classify novel instances of familiar categories. Specifically, we investigated two sources of information that have the potential to facilitate the classification of novel exemplars: (1) comparison of familiar category instances, and (2) attention to function information that might direct children's attention to functionally relevant perceptual features. Across two experiments, we found that comparing two perceptually similar category members-particularly when function information was also highlighted-led children to discover non-obvious relational features that supported their categorization of novel category instances. Together, these findings demonstrate that comparison may aid in novel object categorization by heightening the salience of less obvious, yet functionally relevant, relational structures that support conceptual reasoning. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The Impact of Cataract Surgery on Subjective Visual Functions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-13

    Dec 13, 2016 ... The second eye surgery confers additional gains in terms of VF and QoL in ... subjective visual function (VF) and QoL of our patients.[10-12]. Most similar ... For reprints contact: reprints@medknow.com. How to cite this article: ...

  6. Accelerometry-based gait analysis, an additional objective approach to screen subjects at risk for falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senden, R; Savelberg, H H C M; Grimm, B; Heyligers, I C; Meijer, K

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated whether the Tinetti scale, as a subjective measure for fall risk, is associated with objectively measured gait characteristics. It is studied whether gait parameters are different for groups that are stratified for fall risk using the Tinetti scale. Moreover, the discriminative power of gait parameters to classify elderly according to the Tinetti scale is investigated. Gait of 50 elderly with a Tinneti>24 and 50 elderly with a Tinetti≤24 was analyzed using acceleration-based gait analysis. Validated algorithms were used to derive spatio-temporal gait parameters, harmonic ratio, inter-stride amplitude variability and root mean square (RMS) from the accelerometer data. Clear differences in gait were found between the groups. All gait parameters correlated with the Tinetti scale (r-range: 0.20-0.73). Only walking speed, step length and RMS showed moderate to strong correlations and high discriminative power to classify elderly according to the Tinetti scale. It is concluded that subtle gait changes that have previously been related to fall risk are not captured by the subjective assessment. It is therefore worthwhile to include objective gait assessment in fall risk screening. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. GIS-Based Integration of Subjective and Objective Weighting Methods for Regional Landslides Susceptibility Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhua Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of landslide susceptibility maps is of great importance due to rapid urbanization. The purpose of this study is to present a method to integrate the subjective weight with objective weight for regional landslide susceptibility mapping on the geographical information system (GIS platform. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP, which is subjective, was employed to weight predictive factors’ contribution to landslide occurrence. The frequency ratio (FR method, which is objective, was used to derive subclasses’ frequency ratio with respect to landslides that indicate the relative importance of a subclass within each predictive factor. A case study was carried out at Tsushima Island, Japan, using a historical inventory of 534 landslides and seven predictive factors: elevation, slope, aspect, terrain roughness index (TRI, lithology, land cover and mean annual precipitation (MAP. The landslide susceptibility index (LSI was calculated using the weighted linear combination of factors’ weights and subclasses’ weights. The study area was classified into five susceptibility zones according to the LSI. In addition, the produced susceptibility map was compared with maps generated using the conventional FR and AHP method and validated using the relative landslide index (RLI. The validation result showed that the proposed method performed better than the conventional application of the FR method and AHP method. The obtained landslide susceptibility maps could serve as a scientific basis for urban planning and landslide hazard management.

  8. OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF ADOLESCENT'S ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT NEEDS AND THEIR IMPACT ON SELF-ESTEEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anshika; Mathur, Anmol; Batra, Manu; Makkar, Diljot Kaur; Aggarwal, Vikram Pal; Goyal, Nikita; Kaur, Puneet

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the presence of association between objective and subjective evaluation of orthodontic treatment needs in adolescents and their impact on their self-esteem. Cross-sectional study with adolescents aged 10-17 years old in Sri Ganganagar city, Rajasthan, India. The objective index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) dental health component (DHC) and the subjective aesthetic component (AC) were used to determine the normative and the self-perception need for orthodontic treatment, respectively. The selected students were further examined for dental trauma, tooth loss, and dental caries. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was applied for self-esteem level determination. Linear regression analysis was executed to test the individual association of different independent clinical variables with self-esteem scores. Among 1,140 studied adolescents, the prevalence of dental normative orthodontic treatment need was in 56.9% of individuals, whereas 53.3% of individuals considered themselves as needy for the treatment. Multivariate analyses revealed that out of all dental disorders, DHC followed by AC of IOTN had maximum impact on the self-esteem of the adolescence. Dissatisfaction with dental appearance is a strong predictor for low self-esteem in adolescence.

  9. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P insomnia. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  10. Multivariate assessment of subjective and objective measures of social and family satisfaction in Veterans with history of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orff, Henry J; Hays, Chelsea C; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 20% of current-era Veterans have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI), which can result in persistent postconcussive symptoms. These symptoms may disrupt family and social functioning. We explored psychiatric, postconcussive, and cognitive factors as correlates of objective functioning and subjective satisfaction in family and social relationships. At entry into a supported employment study, 50 unemployed Veterans with a history of mild to moderate TBI and current cognitive impairment were administered baseline assessments. Multivariate stepwise regressions determined that higher levels of depressive symptomatology were strongly associated with less frequent social contact, as well as lower subjective satisfaction with family and social relationships. Worse verbal fluency predicted less frequent social contact, whereas worse processing speed and switching predicted higher levels of subjective satisfaction with family relationships. The pattern of results remained similar when examining those Veterans with only mild TBI. Depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning may impact Veterans' social contact and satisfaction with family and social relationships. Evidence-based interventions addressing depression and cognition may therefore aid in improving community reintegration and satisfaction with social and family relationships.

  11. Subjective and objective outcomes from new BiCROS technology in a veteran sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Victoria A; McArdle, Rachel A; Chisolm, Theresa H

    2012-01-01

    Patients with single-sided deafness (SSD), where one ear has an unaidable hearing loss and the other ear has normal or aidable hearing, often complain of difficulties understanding speech and localizing sound sources, and report a higher self-perceived hearing disability. Patients with SSD may benefit from using contralateral routing of signal (CROS) or bilateral contralateral routing of the signal (BiCROS) amplification. Dissatisfaction of previously available (Bi)CROS devices has been reported, such as, interfering transmissions, low-fidelity sound quality, poor "user-friendly" set-up, and a bulky and cosmetically cumbersome appearance. Recent advances in hearing aid technology have improved (Bi)CROS hearing aids; however, these devices have not been experimentally evaluated. We hypothesized that newer technology with reports of improved digital signal processing, wireless transmission, and physical design would be as good, or better than, our participants' previous-generation BiCROS systems. A within-subjects, pretest-posttest design was executed. Thirty-nine veterans (one female, 38 males; mean age = 74 yr, range = 49-85 yr) from the Audiology Section of the Bay Pines Veterans Affair Healthcare System participated. All participants were previously experienced BiCROS hearing aid users with varying degrees of sensorinerual hearing impairment in their better ear. Participants were provided at least 4 wk of consistent use with the new BiCROS. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSES: Participants completed three research visits. At Visit 1, with their previous BiCROS, and at Visit 3, with their new BiCROS, the following objective and subjective measures were obtained: (1) soundfield speech-in-noise testing using the Words-In-Noise (WIN) test; (2) speech, spatial, and qualities of the hearing scale (SSQ) questionnaire; (3) selected questions from the MarkeTrak questionnaire; and, (4) three open-ended questions. Data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric statistics

  12. INFLUENCE OF SUBJECT AND OBJECTIVES FACTORS OF INFORMATIZATION ON THE PEDAGOGICAL DESIGN EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara O. Pushkareva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a preliminary terminological analysis of the conceptual apparatus in the direction of computer-oriented informatization of pedagogical designing of educational activity in the structure of general secondary education has been made. The influence of the subject and object factors of the informatization of the educational process on the efficiency of pedagogical design is investigated. The existence of a dual problem in the educational sphere, related both to the formatting of an effective informational and educational product, and to the technologically acceptable component of well-organized computer-oriented support for students, is established. It is carried out the analysis of priority in the perception of varieties of information by the subjects of the educational system, as well as revealed that in the perception of computer information by subjects of different status or age there are differences that are related to their individual needs, desires, inclinations. The means of informative support of educational process are considered and recommendations on their use are given.

  13. Object Oriented and Functional Programming for Symbolic Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasov, Alexander Yu.

    1999-01-01

    The advantages of mixed approach with using different kinds of programming techniques for symbolic manipulation are discussed. The main purpose of approach offered is merge the methods of object oriented programming that convenient for presentation data and algorithms for user with advantages of functional languages for data manipulation, internal presentation, and portability of software.

  14. Attitudes and evaluative practices: category vs. item and subjective vs. objective constructions in everyday food assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Sally; Potter, Jonathan

    2003-12-01

    In social psychology, evaluative expressions have traditionally been understood in terms of their relationship to, and as the expression of, underlying 'attitudes'. In contrast, discursive approaches have started to study evaluative expressions as part of varied social practices, considering what such expressions are doing rather than their relationship to attitudinal objects or other putative mental entities. In this study the latter approach will be used to examine the construction of food and drink evaluations in conversation. The data are taken from a corpus of family mealtimes recorded over a period of months. The aim of this study is to highlight two distinctions that are typically obscured in traditional attitude work ('subjective' vs. 'objective' expressions, category vs. item evaluations). A set of extracts is examined to document the presence of these distinctions in talk that evaluates food and the way they are used and rhetorically developed to perform particular activities (accepting/refusing food, complimenting the food provider, persuading someone to eat). The analysis suggests that researchers (a) should be aware of the potential significance of these distinctions; (b) should be cautious when treating evaluative terms as broadly equivalent and (c) should be cautious when blurring categories and instances. This analysis raises the broader question of how far evaluative practices may be specific to particular domains, and what this specificity might consist in. It is concluded that research in this area could benefit from starting to focus on the role of evaluations in practices and charting their association with specific topics and objects.

  15. The Cardiovascular Function Profile and Physical Fitness in Overweight Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawati, E. R.; Lubis, L. D.; Harahap, F. Y.

    2017-03-01

    Obesity in children and young adult is associated with cardiovascular risk in short term and long term. The aim of this study was to describe the profile of the cardiovascular functions parameters and physical fitness in overweight. This is an analytical observational study with cross sectional approach. The samples of this study were 85 randomly selected subjects aged 18 to 24 years with normoweight and body mass index <40. The parameters measures were body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), cardiovascular function parameters (resting pulse, blood pressure, and peak flow meter) and physical fitness parameters (VO2max dengan McArdle step test). The mean BMI was 24,53±4,929. The WC and WHR mean were 86,7±14,10 cms and 0,89±0,073 cm respectively. The mean of resting pulses were higher in normoweight subject (p=0,0209). The mean systole were lower in normoweight subject (p=0,0026). No differences VO2 max between groups (p=0,3888). The peak flow meter was higher in normoweight (p=0,0274). The result of this study indicate that heart rate, systole and peak flow meter are signifantly different between groups. The heart rate and the peak flow meter in the overweight subjects were lower meanwhile the systole blood pressure was higher compared to normoweight subjects.

  16. Subjective and objective knowledge and decisional role preferences in cerebrovascular patients compared to controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riechel C

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Christina Riechel,1,* Anna Christina Alegiani,1,* Sascha Köpke,2 Jürgen Kasper,3,4 Michael Rosenkranz,1,5 Götz Thomalla,1 Christoph Heesen1,4 1Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 2Nursing Research Unit, Institute of Social Medicine and Epidemiology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; 3Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway; 4Institute of Neuroimmunology and Multiple Sclerosis, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 5Department of Neurology, Albertinen-Krankenhaus, Hamburg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Risk knowledge and active role preferences are important for patient involvement in treatment decision-making and adherence. Although knowledge about stroke warning signs and risk factors has received considerable attention, objective knowledge on secondary prevention and further self-esteem subjective knowledge have rarely been studied. The aim of our study was to investigate knowledge and treatment decisional role preferences in cerebrovascular patients compared to controls. Methods: We performed a survey on subjective and objective stroke risk knowledge and autonomy preferences in cerebrovascular patients from our stroke outpatient clinic (n=262 and from pedestrians on the street taken as controls during a “World Stroke Day” (n=274. The questionnaire includes measures for knowledge and decisional role preferences from previously published questionnaires and newly developed measures, for example, subjective knowledge, revealed on a visual analog scale. Results: The overall stroke knowledge was low to moderate, with no differences between patients and controls. Knowledge about secondary prevention was particularly low. Only 10%–15% of participants correctly estimated the stroke absolute risk reduction potential of aspirin. The medical data

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Swallowing Function Between Dysphagia Patients and Healthy Subjects Using High-Resolution Manometry

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Yong-Taek; Yi, Youbin; Lee, Jung-Sang; Kim, Kunwoo; Park, Jung Ho; Yoon, Kyung Jae

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare swallowing function between healthy subjects and patients with pharyngeal dysphagia using high resolution manometry (HRM) and to evaluate the usefulness of HRM for detecting pharyngeal dysphagia. Methods Seventy-five patients with dysphagia and 28 healthy subjects were included in this study. Diagnosis of dysphagia was confirmed by a videofluoroscopy. HRM was performed to measure pressure and timing information at the velopharynx (VP), tongue base (TB), and upper esophage...

  18. Automatic processing of unattended object features by functional connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Martina Mayer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Observers can selectively attend to object features that are relevant for a task. However, unattended task-irrelevant features may still be processed and possibly integrated with the attended features. This study investigated the neural mechanisms for processing both task-relevant (attended and task-irrelevant (unattended object features. The Garner paradigm was adapted for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to test whether specific brain areas process the conjunction of features or whether multiple interacting areas are involved in this form of feature integration. Observers attended to shape, colour, or non-rigid motion of novel objects while unattended features changed from trial to trial (change blocks or remained constant (no-change blocks during a given block. This block manipulation allowed us to measure the extent to which unattended features affected neural responses which would reflect the extent to which multiple object features are automatically processed. We did not find Garner interference at the behavioural level. However, we designed the experiment to equate performance across block types so that any fMRI results could not be due solely to differences in task difficulty between change and no-change blocks. Attention to specific features localised several areas known to be involved in object processing. No area showed larger responses on change blocks compared to no-change blocks. However, psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed that several functionally-localised areas showed significant positive interactions with areas in occipito-temporal and frontal areas that depended on block type. Overall, these findings suggest that both regional responses and functional connectivity are crucial for processing multi-featured objects.

  19. Are binaural recordings needed for subjective and objective annoyance assessment of traffic noise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, Estefanía Cortés; Song, Wookeun; Brunskog, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Humans are annoyed when they are exposed to environmental noise. Traditional measures such as sound pressure levels may not correlate well with how humans perceive annoyance, therefore it is important to investigate psychoacoustic metrics that may correlate better with the perceived annoyance...... of environmental noise than the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level. This study examined whether the use of binaural recordings of sound events improves the correlation between the objective metrics and the perceived annoyance, particularly for road traffic noise. Metrics based on measurement with a single...... microphone and on binaural sound field recordings have been examined and compared. In order to acquire data for the subjective perception of annoyance, a series of listening tests has been carried out. It is concluded that binaural loudness metrics from binaural recordings are better correlated...

  20. Subjective and Objective Quality Assessment of Single-Channel Speech Separation Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Saeidi, Rahim; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on performance evaluation of single-channel speech separation (SCSS) algorithms mostly focused on automatic speech recognition (ASR) accuracy as their performance measure. Assessing the separated signals by different metrics other than this has the benefit that the results...... are expected to carry on to other applications beyond ASR. In this paper, in addition to conventional speech quality metrics (PESQ and SNRloss), we also evaluate the separation systems output using different source separation metrics: blind source separation evaluation (BSS EVAL) and perceptual evaluation...... that PESQ and PEASS quality metrics predict well the subjective quality of separated signals obtained by the separation systems. From the results it is observed that the short-time objective intelligibility (STOI) measure predict the speech intelligibility results....

  1. Imbalance: Objective measures versus subjective self-report in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarovano, Elodie; Wang, Wei; Reynolds, Pam; MacDougall, Hamish G

    2018-01-01

    Dizziness and imbalance are very common complaints in clinical practice. One of the challenges is to evaluate the 'real' risk of falls. Two tools are available: the patient's self-report and the measure of the patient's balance. We evaluated the relationship between these methods using the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and measures of balance while visual inputs are perturbed with Virtual Reality (VR). 90 consecutive patients underwent the DHI questionnaire and the balance test. The DHI questionnaire was used to measure the subject's perception of handicap associated with dizziness. The balance test measured the postural sway in several visual conditions: eyes open, eyes closed, and with an unpredictable visual perturbation using VR at several amplitudes of movement. No correlation was found between the DHI score and the balance measurement. The visual perturbations allow us to characterize patients into three groups: one group with a high DHI score who did not fall on the balance test (5.5%), one group with a low DHI score who failed eyes closed on a compliant surface (9.0%), and one group of the remaining patients (85.5%). The correlation between the DHI score and the balance performance became significant on the remaining group of patients. Both subjective self-report and objective measure are important to characterize a patient. The use of VR visual perturbations allowed us to define three important groups of patients. VR visual perturbations provided additional information that helps explain the lack of correlation between DHI and objective test results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Sustainable Development Indicators With Fuzzy TOPSIS Based on Subjective and Objective Weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nang Idayu Nik Zahari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sustainable development aims at improving and maintaining the well-being of people and the ecology. However, this paper focuses only on the ecological aspects. The selection of the proper ecological protection determinant plays a very important role in improving the environment of Malaysia. This paper will propose a method from Wang and Lee (2009, and Yong (2006 which applies a fuzzy TOPSIS method -- based on subjective and objective weights – to make the required selection. Four alternatives will be tested which are: prevent pollution (A1, conservation (A2, well-manage (A3, and public awareness (A4. Along with these, four criteria need to be considered: water quality factor (C1, land integrity factor (C2, air quality factor (C3, and biodiversity factor (C4. Finally, a numerical example of ecological protection determinant selection is used to illustrate the proposed method. ABSTRAK: Pembangunan lestari bermatlamat memperbaiki dan mengekalkan kesejahteraan rakyat serta ekologi. Walau bagaimanapun, kertas kajian ini hanya memberi tumpuan kepada aspek-aspek ekologi. Pemilihan penentu perlindungan serta keselamatan bagi aspek ekologi memainkan peranan yang amat penting dalam meningkatkan kualiti alam sekitar di Malaysia. Kertas kajian ini telah menggunakan kaedah Wang dan Lee (2009 dan Yong (2006 yang mengaplikasikan kaedah TOPSIS kabur berdasarkan pemberat subjektif dan objektif. Terdapat empat alternatif yang akan diuji iaitu: pencegahan pencemaran (A1, pemuliharaan (A2, pengurusan yang baik (A3, kesedaran orang awam (A4. Selain itu, terdapat empat kriteria yang perlu dipertimbangkan: faktor kualiti air (C1, faktor kualiti tanah (C2, faktor kualiti udara (C3, faktor kepelbagaian biologi (C4. Kesimpulannya, contoh pengiraan untuk memperoleh penentu pemilihan perlindungan ekologi telah digunakan bagi menunjukkan kaedah yang dicadangkan.KEYWORDS: sustainable development; ecological factors; subjective and objective weight; fuzzy TOPSIS

  3. Subjective and objective arousal correspondence and the role of self-monitoring processes in high and low socially anxious youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miers, A.C.; Blöte, A.W.; Sumter, S.R.; Kallen, V.L.; Westenberg, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research found weak correspondence between subjective and objective arousal measures during social-evaluative tasks, particularly in high socially anxious individuals. This study evaluated subjective-objective correspondence in high versus low socially anxious youth (9-17 years). Sixty-six

  4. Impact of iterative reconstructions on objective and subjective emphysema assessment with computed tomography: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Steve P.; Gariani, Joanna; Hachulla, Anne-Lise; Botsikas, Diomidis; Becker, Christoph D.; Montet, Xavier [Geneva University Hospitals, Division of Radiology, Department of Imaging and Medical Information Sciences, Geneva (Switzerland); Adler, Dan [Geneva University Hospitals, Division of Pneumology, Department of Internal Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Karenovics, Wolfram [Geneva University Hospitals, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-07-15

    To prospectively evaluate the impact of iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms on pulmonary emphysema assessment as compared to filtered back projection (FBP). One hundred ten unenhanced chest CT examinations were obtained on two different scanners. Image reconstructions from a single acquisition were done with different levels of IR and compared with FBP on the basis of the emphysema index (EI), lung volume and voxel densities. Objective emphysema assessment was performed with 3D software provided by each manufacturer. Subjective assessment of emphysema was performed as a blinded evaluation. Quantitative and subjective values were compared using repeated ANOVA analysis, Bland-Altman analysis and Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W). Lung volumes are stable on both units, throughout all IR levels (P ≥ 0.057). EI significantly decreases on both units with the use of any level of IR (P < 0.001). The highest levels of IR are responsible for a decrease of 33-36 % of EI. Significant differences in minimal lung density are found between the different algorithms (P < 0.003). Intra- and inter-reader concordance for emphysema characterisation is generally good (W ≥ 0.77 and W ≥ 0.86, respectively). Both commercially available IR algorithms used in this study significantly changed EI but did not alter visual assessment compared to standard FBP reconstruction at identical radiation exposure. (orig.)

  5. Use of memory strategies among younger and older adults: Results from objective and subjective measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Teixeira Fabricio

    Full Text Available Abstract Memory plays a fundamental role in the identity of people and in human life, as it enables us to interpret our surroundings and make decisions. It is known that the aging process can be accompanied by cognitive decline in some memory sub systems. However, the use of memory strategies can help encoding and retrieval of new information. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify and compare, using objective and subjective measures, which recall strategies are used spontaneously by young and older adults. Methods: Twenty-six first-year college students, and thirty-three seniors enrolled at the Third Age University of the same campus, completed a visual memory test including 18 black and white pictures, memorized a short story, and completed an open question about memory strategies, a memory check list to indicate strategies used, and a memory self-efficacy scale. The Bousfield categorization measure was also calculated from the recall protocol. Results: Young adults demonstrated better performance than the older adults on the memory tasks, and were also more confident. Both groups reported using similar strategies. Conclusion: Young and older adults seem to tackle memory tasks in similar ways but young adults outperform seniors.

  6. [The effect of acupuncture in the treatment of insomnia. Clinical study of subjective and objective evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montakab, H; Langel, G

    1994-01-01

    The sleep-wake cycle is the most important circadian rhythm in man and thus constitutes an excellent indicator of internal equilibrium and of health. Sleep disorders, and particularly insomnia, affect a great percentage of the population. In daily practice, an inappropriate treatment may transform a bad sleeper into an insomniac dependent on pharmaceuticals for life. It is therefore necessary to give priority to non-chemical treatments in the management of insomnia. Acupuncture, which offers a personalized treatment, is particularly indicated for reharmonizing a disturbed sleep-wake cycle. Furthermore, there is an interesting similarity between the 5000-year-old theoretical basis of Chinese medicine and the recent scientific discoveries about man's internal rhythms. Clinical and statistical studies of the effects of acupuncture on insomnia are rare and evaluate only the subjective appreciation of sleep. Objective analysis of sleep by polysomnography permits evaluation of sleep architecture and visualizes the site and depth of action of the therapeutic method. Such studies have only been conducted in relation to pharmaceutical treatments. No such study has been carried out for acupuncture. A scientific and objective evaluation of the effects of acupuncture on insomnia by polysomnography could be not only of academic but mainly of great practical interest. If the efficiency of acupuncture is thus verified, this method could be integrated and proposed along with other classical therapeutic technics.

  7. Functional relationship between the cerebrum and cerebellum in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Arai, Hisayuki; Hatano, Nobuyoshi; Abe, Shinei; Katsunuma, Hideyo

    1991-01-01

    To determine whether a functional relationship between the cerebrum and cerebellum exists in normal subjects, the correlation between asymmetry in cerebral blood flow and asymmetry in cerebellar blood flow was investigated. Twenty-one healthy right-handed subjects were studied using SPECT with N-isopropyl-p-( 123 I)iodoamphetamine while in a resting state. The asymmetry index (AI) for both the cerebral and cerebellar hemisphere was calculated as follows. AI=right side - left side/right side + left side/200 (%). A negative correlation was found between AI in the cerebellum and AI in the cerebrum. Especially, AI in the cerebellar hemisphere was significantly correlated with AIs in the upper frontal cortex (r=-0.58, p<0.01), middle frontal cortex (r=-0.55, p<0.02), lower frontal cortex (r=-0.49, p<0.05), and mean cerebral hemisphere (r=-0.52, p<0.02). These results suggest the existence of a functional relationship between the cerebral hemisphere and the contralateral cerebellar hemisphere in the resting state of normal subjects. We strongly suspect that the frontal cortex exert an influence on the function in the contralateral cerebellum, probably due to a transneuronal mechanism, mainly through the corticopontocerebellar pathway. (author)

  8. Objective function for the environmental assessment of waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toy, A.J.; Boegel, J.; Cohen, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    Various waste management systems were examined in order to determine what the environmental impacts might be and to rank the relative importance of those impacts. This examination determined that radiation dose to man was the most significant, and probably overriding, impact. This report describes methods of providing an objective function for dose to man. The search for an objective function began with a reading of Federal Regulations and the output of various standard setting councils and committees. Ample guidance was found on maximum allowable doses to individuals but no guidance on dose to large populations or criteria by which systems could be compared or optimized. Several other ways were postulated by which waste management systems could be evaluated besides maximum allowable dose to individuals. 0.1 man-rem per MW(e)-year was selected as the measure of system performance. This unit compares a rational estimate of population dose commitment with the concurrent benefit

  9. Entrepreneurship and Economic Freedom: Do Objective and Subjective Data Reflect the Same Tendencies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Erkut

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The research question is whether the same tendencies on entrepreneurship, innovation and economic freedom can be captured by subjective (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and objective (Index of Economic Freedom data – and to which extent one can classify countries by different data sources in a theoretical framework based on the national competitiveness of each country. Research Design & Methods: Main method used is the direct discriminant analysis. Since this approach has shortcomings, selected variables from an exhaustive CHAID analysis were used to predict the degree of economic freedom of the country based on the answers of experts. Findings: To determine the degree of economic freedom in a country, the effective enforcement of intellectual property rights legislation and quick access to utilities are the two variables with the most informational content. 86,8% of the original grouped cases was classified correctly – this is above the widely accepted threshold of 75%. Implications & Recommendations: A new trend in entrepreneurial research is to build compound indices based on different data sources. It is important to understand whether parts of a compound index reflect the same tendencies. This paper gives formal empirical evidence supporting this hypothesis. Contribution & Value Added: Coduras and Autio (2013 define a research program on Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, where they suggest that GEM shall be tested against objective data sources such as Index of Economic Freedom. This was the main aim of the analysis, which closes a research gap defined in this research program.

  10. Who is the Scientist-Subject? A Critique of the Neo-Kantian Scientist-Subject in Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison’s Objectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, Esha

    2017-01-01

    The main focus of this essay is to closely engage with the role of scientist-subjectivity in the making of objectivity in Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison’s book Objectivity, and Daston’s later and earlier works On Scientific Observation and The Moral Economy of Science. I have posited four

  11. Fast, multiple optimizations of quadratic dose objective functions in IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Storchi, Pascal R M; Keijzer, Marleen; Heijmen, Ben J M

    2006-01-01

    Inverse treatment planning for intensity-modulated radiotherapy may include time consuming, multiple minimizations of an objective function. In this paper, methods are presented to speed up the process of (repeated) minimization of the well-known quadratic dose objective function, extended with a smoothing term that ensures generation of clinically acceptable beam profiles. In between two subsequent optimizations, the voxel-dependent importance factors of the quadratic terms will generally be adjusted, based on an intermediate plan evaluation. The objective function has been written in matrix-vector format, facilitating the use of a recently published, fast quadratic minimization algorithm, instead of commonly applied gradient-based methods. This format also reduces the calculation time in between subsequent minimizations, related to adjustment of the voxel-dependent importance factors. Sparse matrices are used to limit the required amount of computer memory. For three patients, comparisons have been made with a gradient method. Mean speed improvements of up to a factor of 37 have been achieved

  12. The object of mobile spatial data, the subject in mobile spatial research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Thatcher

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With an estimated one billion smartphones producing over 5 petabytes of data a day, the spatially aware mobile device has become a near ubiquitous presence in daily life. Cogent, excellent research in a variety of fields has explored what the spatial data these devices produce can reveal of society, such as analysis of Foursquare check-ins to reveal patterns of mobility for groups through a city. In such studies, the individual intentions, motivations, and desires behind the production of said data can become lost through computational aggregation and analysis. In this commentary, I argue for a rethinking of the epistemological leap from individual to data point through a (reseating of the reflexive, self-eliciting subject as an object for spatial big data research. To do so, I first situate current research on spatial big data within a computational turn in social sciences that relies overly on the data produced as a stand-in for the subject producing said data. Second, I argue that a recent shift within geography and cognate disciplines toward viewing spatial big data as a form of spatial media allows for study of the sociotechnical processes that produce modern assemblages of data and society. As spatial media, the spatial big data created through mobile device use can be understood as the data of everyday life and as part of the sociotechnical processes that produce individuals, data, and space. Ultimately, to understand the data of everyday life, researchers must write thick descriptions of the stories we tell ourselves about the data we give off to others.

  13. Renal Function and Ultrasound Imaging in Elderly Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Zanoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated in elderly subjects (a the ability of GFR formulas to discriminate chronic kidney disease (CKD, (b the correlation between renal morphology and function, and (c the usefulness of combined r-US and GFR formulas to detect CKD. A total of 72 patients were enrolled (mean age 80 ± 7 years, male sex 44%, serum creatinine 0.98 ± 0.42 mg/dL, and CKD 57%. Cockcroft-Gault showed the highest sensitivity (78% and specificity (94% for CKD and was correlated with kidney volume (R=0.68, P<0.001. All formulas failed to provide a reliable estimate of GFR. In multivariate analysis, Cockcroft-Gault < 52 mL/min and kidney sinus section area < 28 cm2 showed the highest accuracy for the identification of CKD subjects (AUC 0.90, P<0.001. MDRD and CKD-EPI differed significantly for GFR ≥90 mL/min. Conclusions. Cockcroft-Gault < 52 mL/min was able to discriminate subjects with CKD but all formulas failed to provide a reliable estimate of GFR. The combined use of r-US and Cockcroft-Gault formula improved the ability to discriminate CKD in elderly subjects.

  14. Objective and subjective measures of exercise intensity during thermo-neutral and hot yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Corinne N; Lannan, Stephanie M; Zuhl, Micah N; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Nelson, Rachael K

    2018-04-01

    While hot yoga has gained enormous popularity in recent years, owing in part to increased environmental challenge associated with exercise in the heat, it is not clear whether hot yoga is more vigorous than thermo-neutral yoga. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine objective and subjective measures of exercise intensity during constant intensity yoga in a hot and thermo-neutral environment. Using a randomized, crossover design, 14 participants completed 2 identical ∼20-min yoga sessions in a hot (35.3 ± 0.8 °C; humidity: 20.5% ± 1.4%) and thermo-neutral (22.1 ± 0.2 °C; humidity: 27.8% ± 1.6%) environment. Oxygen consumption and heart rate (HR) were recorded as objective measures (percentage of maximal oxygen consumption and percentage of maximal HR (%HRmax)) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded as a subjective measure of exercise intensity. There was no difference in exercise intensity based on percentage of maximal oxygen consumption during hot versus thermo-neutral yoga (30.9% ± 2.3% vs. 30.5% ± 1.8%, p = 0.68). However, exercise intensity was significantly higher during hot versus thermo-neutral yoga based on %HRmax (67.0% ± 2.3% vs. 60.8% ± 1.9%, p = 0.01) and RPE (12 ± 1 vs. 11 ± 1, p = 0.04). According to established exercise intensities, hot yoga was classified as light-intensity exercise based on percentage of maximal oxygen consumption but moderate-intensity exercise based on %HRmax and RPE while thermo-neutral yoga was classified as light-intensity exercise based on percentage of maximal oxygen uptake, %HRmax, and RPE. Despite the added hemodynamic stress and perception that yoga is more strenuous in a hot environment, we observed similar oxygen consumption during hot versus thermo-neutral yoga, classifying both exercise modalities as light-intensity exercise.

  15. Subjective and objective assessment of patients' compression therapy skills as a predicator of ulcer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mościcka, Paulina; Szewczyk, Maria T; Jawień, Arkadiusz; Cierzniakowska, Katarzyna; Cwajda-Białasik, Justyna

    2016-07-01

    To verify whether the subjectively and objectively assessed patient's skills in applying compression therapy constitute a predicting factor of venous ulcer recurrence. Systematic implementation of compression therapy by the patient is a core of prophylaxis for recurrent ulcers. Therefore, patient education constitutes a significant element of care. However, controversies remain if all individuals benefit equally from education. A retrospective analysis. The study included medical records of patients with venous ulcers (n = 351) treated between 2001 and 2011 at the Clinic for Chronic Wounds at Bydgoszcz Clinical Hospital. We compared two groups of patients, (1) with at least one episode of recurrent ulcer during the five-year observation period, and (2) without recurrences throughout the analysed period in terms of their theoretical skills and knowledge on compression therapy recorded at baseline and after one month. Very good self-assessment of a patient's compression therapy skills and weak assessment of these skills by a nurse proved significant risk factors for recurrence of the ulcers on univariate analysis. The significance of these variables as independent risk factors for recurrent ulcers has been also confirmed on multivariate analysis, which also took into account other clinical parameters. Building up proper compression therapy skills among the patients should be the key element of a properly construed nurse-based prophylactic program, as it is the most significant modifiable risk factor for recurrent ulcers. Although the development of compression skills is undeniably important, also other factors should be considered, e.g. surgical correction of superficial reflux. Instruction on compression therapy should be conducted by properly trained nursing personnel - the nurses should have received both content and psychological training. The compression therapy training should contain practical instruction with guided exercises and in-depth objective

  16. The functional neuroanatomy of object agnosia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konen, Christina S; Behrmann, Marlene; Nishimura, Mayu; Kastner, Sabine

    2011-07-14

    Cortical reorganization of visual and object representations following neural injury was examined using fMRI and behavioral investigations. We probed the visual responsivity of the ventral visual cortex of an agnosic patient who was impaired at object recognition following a lesion to the right lateral fusiform gyrus. In both hemispheres, retinotopic mapping revealed typical topographic organization and visual activation of early visual cortex. However, visual responses, object-related, and -selective responses were reduced in regions immediately surrounding the lesion in the right hemisphere, and also, surprisingly, in corresponding locations in the structurally intact left hemisphere. In contrast, hV4 of the right hemisphere showed expanded response properties. These findings indicate that the right lateral fusiform gyrus is critically involved in object recognition and that an impairment to this region has widespread consequences for remote parts of cortex. Finally, functional neural plasticity is possible even when a cortical lesion is sustained in adulthood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Spouse's subjective social status predicts older adults' prospective cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Fung, Helene; Kwok, Timothy

    2017-12-06

    The current study aims to investigate the association between subjective social status (SSS) and prospective cognitive functioning of older adults and their spouses, and to explore the potential mediating roles of health habits and physical activities in this association. Using the longitudinal data of 512 pairs of community-dwelling older couples aged 65-91 years (M = 72.2 ± 4.6), we tested the effects of SSS in cognitive functioning using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. SSS was measured by a self-anchoring social ladder, and cognitive functioning was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Socioeconomic status (i.e. education) was tested as a moderator, and physical activity (measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly) as well as health habits (i.e. tobacco and alcohol consumption) were included as potential mediators. A partner effect of SSS was found only in the low-education group, in which the wife's higher level of SSS in the community was associated with the husband's better cognitive functioning in the follow-up. A small proportion of this effect was found to be partially mediated by participation in housework, such that the wife's higher SSS was associated with the husband's increased housework activity, which was related to higher prospective cognitive functioning. By examining the dyadic effects of SSS with a longitudinal design, our findings extended the understanding on how subjective social status influenced older couples' cognitive health, and provided evidence-based insights for future studies on cognitive health in later life.

  18. [ELDERLY ADULTS IN NURSING HOMES IN THE PROVINCE OF CORDOBA: OBJECTS OF CARE OR LEGAL SUBJECTS?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butinof, Mariana; Guri, Ana Karina; Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Abraham, María Daniela; Vera, Yanina; Gassmann, Jesica

    2015-01-01

    Argentina is among the Ibero-American countries with the greatest old age population, and is going through a process of advanced demographic transition. Elderly adults have long been considered a vulnerable group in need of care. The purpose of this work was to problematize the conceptions underlying the care given to the elderly in nursing homes, and the possible slides this involves from a human rights stance. An approach to this problem was built up by resorting to secondary documentary sources and interviews with key informants located in institutions for the elderly in the Province of Cordoba. This approach revealed a predominantly asylum-oriented conception centered on caring for others as objects, and a noticeable lack of consideration for the elderly as legal subjects, visible in numerous serious infringements of human rights, mostly silenced and rendered invisible. It seems that to overcome these situations it will be necessary not merely to review legal loopholes and current programs but also to reconsider the place given to the elderly in society. Regardless of their age and other social differences, the elderly require the same opportunities to claim full respect and exercise their human rights and fundamental freedoms.

  19. Objective correlate of subjective pain perception by contact heat-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Yelena; Granot, Michal; Nir, Rony-Reuven; Yarnitsky, David

    2008-01-01

    The method of pain-evoked potentials has gained considerable acceptance over the last 3 decades regarding its objectivity, repeatability, and quantifiability. The present study explored whether the relationship between pain-evoked potentials and pain psychophysics obtained by contact heat stimuli is similar to those observed for the conventionally used laser stimulation. Evoked potentials (EPs) were recorded in response to contact heat stimuli at different body sites in 24 healthy volunteers. Stimuli at various temperatures were applied to the forearm (43 degrees C, 46 degrees C, 49 degrees C, and 52 degrees C) and leg (46 degrees C and 49 degrees C). The amplitudes of both components (N2 and P2) were strongly associated with the intensity of the applied stimuli and with subjective pain perception. Yet, regression analysis revealed pain perception and not stimulus intensity as the major contributing factor. A significant correlation was found between the forearm and the leg for both psychophysics and EPs amplitude. Contact heat can generate readily distinguishable evoked potentials on the scalp, consistent between upper and lower limbs. Although these potentials bear positive correlation with both stimulus intensity and pain magnitude, the latter is the main contributor to the evoked brain response.

  20. From object to subject: hybrid identities of indigenous women in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Elizabeth

    2008-12-01

    The use of hybridity today suggests a less coherent, unified and directed process than that found in the Enlightenment science's cultural imperialism, but regardless of this neither concept exists outside power and inequality. Hence, hybridity raises the question of the terms of the mixture and the conditions of mixing. Cultural hybridity produced by colonisation, under the watchful eye of science at the time, and the subsequent life in a modern world since does not obscure the power that was embedded in the moment of colonisation. Indigenous identities are constructed within and by cultural power. While we all live in a global society whose consequences no one can escape, we remain unequal participants and globalisation remains an uneven process. This article argues that power has become a constitutive element in our own hybrid identities in indigenous people's attempts to participate in science and science education. Using the indigenous peoples of Aotearoa New Zealand (called Māori) as a site of identity construction, I argue that the move from being the object of science to the subject of science, through science education in schools, brings with it traces of an earlier meaning of `hybridity' that constantly erupts into the lives of Māori women scientists.

  1. Use of memory strategies among younger and older adults: Results from objective and subjective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricio, Aline Teixeira; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches

    2011-01-01

    Memory plays a fundamental role in the identity of people and in human life, as it enables us to interpret our surroundings and make decisions. It is known that the aging process can be accompanied by cognitive decline in some memory sub systems. However, the use of memory strategies can help encoding and retrieval of new information. The aim of this study was to identify and compare, using objective and subjective measures, which recall strategies are used spontaneously by young and older adults. Twenty-six first-year college students, and thirty-three seniors enrolled at the Third Age University of the same campus, completed a visual memory test including 18 black and white pictures, memorized a short story, and completed an open question about memory strategies, a memory check list to indicate strategies used, and a memory self-efficacy scale. The Bousfield categorization measure was also calculated from the recall protocol. Young adults demonstrated better performance than the older adults on the memory tasks, and were also more confident. Both groups reported using similar strategies. Young and older adults seem to tackle memory tasks in similar ways but young adults outperform seniors.

  2. Objective Physiological Measurements but Not Subjective Reports Moderate the Effect of Hunger on Choice Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabat-Simon, Maytal; Shuster, Anastasia; Sela, Tal; Levy, Dino J.

    2018-01-01

    Hunger is a powerful driver of human behavior, and is therefore of great interest to the study of psychology, economics, and consumer behavior. Assessing hunger levels in experiments is often biased, when using self-report methods, or complex, when using blood tests. We propose a novel way of objectively measuring subjects’ levels of hunger by identifying levels of alpha-amylase (AA) enzyme in their saliva samples. We used this measure to uncover the effect of hunger on different types of choice behaviors. We found that hunger increases risk-seeking behavior in a lottery-choice task, modifies levels of vindictiveness in a social decision-making task, but does not have a detectible effect on economic inconsistency in a budget-set choice task. Importantly, these findings were moderated by AA levels and not by self-report measures. We demonstrate the effects hunger has on choice behavior and the problematic nature of subjective measures of physiological states, and propose to use reliable and valid biologically based methods to overcome these problems. PMID:29875715

  3. From Subjective Trust to Objective Trustworthiness in On-line Social Networks: Overview and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zejda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays dozens of people share their content in the current Web 2.0 space, talk with friends in social networking sites such as Facebook and live on the Net in many other ways. They do all this quite naturally, forgetting the healthy cautiousness sometimes. In real life we rely on trusted people. Do we know how to reflect real-world trust mechanisms into on-line social software? In the article we focused to bring overview on state of the art in main ideas behind a trust processing in online social networking systems. What are common sources of subjective trust, how the trust emerges and what are the sources of trust dynamics? How can be trust captured into the systems, how can be explicit trust processed to infer indirect trust, the trust between users who do not know each other? And what are the ways to infer objective metrics of trust, the reputation or trustworthiness? Finally, we point out selected challenges related to the trust in current highly dynamic social networks.

  4. What is healthy food? Objective nutrient profile scores and subjective lay evaluations in comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, T; Müller, B; Siegrist, M

    2015-12-01

    To date, it is unclear how consumers evaluate the healthiness of individual foods and meals and how consumers' perceptions are related to expert opinions. This knowledge is essential for efficient communication of nutrition information with the goal of promoting healthy eating. This study used the fake food buffet method to investigate health perceptions of selected meals and of 54 individual foods and beverages. Lay consumers' subjective healthiness evaluations of meals and foods were compared to objective nutrient profile scores, which were previously shown to correlate highly with expert opinions. The results show that nutrition profile scores and lay evaluations were highly correlated, which indicates that lay people used similar criteria as experts to evaluate the healthiness of foods. However, lay consumers tended to neglect the amount of saturated fat, protein and sodium for their judgments. Also, it was found that while lay consumers were quite able to evaluate single food products, they had difficulties in evaluating entire meals. Future interventions should focus particularly on educating the consumer about the negative effects of diets high in salt and saturated fat and they should improve the consumer's abilities to evaluate entire meals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Comparison of Objective and Subjective Stress in Homogeneous Male and Female Teams in a Mars Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, S.; Sundaresan, A.

    Introduction The role of stress and its impact on coping performance motivation behavior cognitive functioning and psychological well-being has become a key focus for long duration missions Since all extreme environments are characterized by significant physical demands e g skiing climbing EVAs as well as inescapable environmental characteristics e g imminent danger noise isolation confinement loss of normal sensory stimuli an examination of the impact of prolong stress in analogue environments should provide insight into developing effective support and countermeasures for long duration space crews The presence of even low levels of chronic stressors if not met with functional adaptation and or countermeasures has been shown to produce subjective symptoms of stress persistent performance incompetence accelerated fatiguability altered mood states increased rate of infections and decrements in attention and cognitive Gender has been shown to cut across both individual factors and group factors including response to stress and ways of coping Generally men and women differ in many arenas such as interaction and communication styles need for affiliation responses to crowding privacy and confined spaces Men and women in homogeneous groups interact in significantly different ways than those in mixed groups Therefore differences between genders on subjective and objective responses to stress are of interest The Mars Society Utah Desert Simulation MDRS facility provides a unique opportunity to examine the interaction of

  6. Monaural and binaural subjective modulation transfer functions in simple reverberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Eric Robert; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    conditions, with single reflections at different arrival times in the two ears and with a simulated room impulse response. The monaural data describe a subjective MTF, which is similar to the physical MTF. An interaural modulation phase difference can create an interaural intensity fluctuation, which can......, M.R. (1981) Modulation transfer-functions: Definition and measurement, Acustica, 49, 179-182]. The envelope of a speech signal is critical for intelligibility, and the speech transmission index (STI) predicts the intelligibility of speech through a given transmission channel based on its MTF...

  7. Reproductive function of monkeys subjected to chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artem'eva, N.S.; Kosichenko, L.P.; Andreeva, A.V.; Zvereva, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Marked functional disorders have been detected in reproductive glands of eight female monkeys (as compared to twelve control animals) subjected to protracted (up to eight years) irradiation (cumulative doses 826-3282 R). Irradiated monkeys exhibited a drastically decreased reproductive capacity, early menopause and sterility. Irradiation of preadolescent animals inhibited, in most cases, the puberty processes and disturbed sex cycles. Structural disorders in sex glands, inhibition of the processes of maturation and ovulation of folloculi, death of the mass of germ cells, atypical vegetations of the integmentary epithelium, sclerosing and cystic degeneration of the glandular tissue have been revealed

  8. Static, dynamic balance and functional performance in subjects with and without plantar fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiseane Aguiar Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Plantar fasciitis (PF is characterized by non-inflammatory degeneration and pain under the heel, and is one of the most common foot complaints. The compensations and adjustments made to decrease the discomfort caused by the disease are clinical findings and can be a factor that contributes to impaired balance and decreased functional performance. Objective: To compare functional performance as well as static and dynamic balance among subjects with and without PF. Methods: The sample consisted of 124 subjects of both sexes aged 20-60 years. Participants were divided into two groups: a bilateral PF group (PFG; n = 62 and a control group (CG, n = 62. The following outcomes were analyzed: static and dynamic balance (using functional tests and functional performance (using a questionnaire. We used Student’s t test for independent samples to compare variables between the groups. The alpha error was set at 0.05. Results: Subjects with PF showed greater impairment in their overall dynamic balance performance (p < 0.001 than the control group, except for left posteromedial movement (p = 0.19. The CG showed showed better functional performance (p < 0.001 than the PF group. There was no difference between groups for the variable static balance on stable (p = 0.160 and unstable surfaces (p = 0.085. Conclusion: Subjects with PF displayed smaller reach distances in the overall Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT, demonstrating a deficit in dynamic balance and functional performance when compared with healthy subjects.

  9. JAKEF, Gradient or Jacobian Function from Objective Function or Vector Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillstrom, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: JAKEF is a language processor that accepts as input a single- or double-precision ANSI standard 1977 FORTRAN subroutine defining an objective function f(x), or a vector function F(x), and produces as output a single- or double- precision ANSI standard 1977 FORTRAN subroutine defining the gradient of f(x), or the Jacobian of F(x). 2 - Method of solution: JAKEF is a four-pass compiler consisting of a lexical preprocessor, a parser, a tree-building and flow analysis pass, and a differentiator and output construction pass. The lexical preprocessor reworks the input FORTRAN program to give it a recognizable lexical structure. The parser transforms the pre-processed input into a string of tokens in a post-fix representation of the program tree. The tree-building and flow analysis pass constructs a tree out of the post-fix token string. The differentiator identifies relevant assignment statements; then, if necessary, it analyzes them into component statements governed by a single differentiation rule and augments each of these statements with a call to a member of the run-time support package which implements the differentiation rule. After completing the construction of the main body of the routine, JAKEF inserts calls to support package routines that complete the differentiation. This results in a modified program tree in a form compatible with FORTRAN rules. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Statement functions and Equivalence's that involve the independent variables are not handled correctly. Variables, constants, or functions of type COMPLEX are not recognized. Character sub-string expressions and alternate returns are not permitted

  10. Subjective cognitive impairment: functional MRI during a divided attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, J; Dannhauser, T; Cutinha, D J; Shergill, S S; Walker, Z

    2011-10-01

    Individuals with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) have persistent memory complaints but normal neurocognitive performance. For some, this may represent a pre-mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Given that attentional deficits and associated brain activation changes are present early in the course of AD, we aimed to determine whether SCI is associated with brain activation changes during attentional processing. Eleven SCI subjects and 10 controls completed a divided attention task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. SCI and control groups did not differ in sociodemographic, neurocognitive or behavioural measures. When group activation during the divided attention task was compared, the SCI group demonstrated increased activation in left medial temporal lobe, bilateral thalamus, posterior cingulate and caudate. This pattern of increased activation is similar to the pattern of decreased activation reported during divided attention in AD and may indicate compensatory changes. These findings suggest the presence of early functional changes in SCI; longitudinal studies will help to further elucidate the relationship between SCI and AD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Subjective versus objective assessment in early clinical outcome of modified Lapidus procedure for hallux valgus deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, S; Moerenhout, K; Crevoisier, X

    2016-02-01

    Studies have assessed the outcome of hallux valgus surgeries based on subjective questionnaires, usually the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Score, and radiographic results reporting good to excellent outcome at 6-12 months postoperatively. However, contrasting results were reported by gait studies at 12-24 months postoperatively. In a previous study, we found nine gait parameters which can describe the altered gait in hallux valgus deformity. This study aimed, to assess the outcome of modified Lapidus at 6 months postoperatively, using gait assessment method, to determine if the nine specified gait parameters effectively relates with the clinical scores and the radiological results or add information missed by these commonly used clinical assessments. We assessed 21 participants including 11 controls and 10 patients with moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity. The patient group was followed 6 months postoperatively. The ambulatory gait assessment was performed utilizing pressure insoles and inertial sensors. Clinical assessment includes foot and ankle questionnaires along with radiographic results. Comparison was made using non parametric tests, Phallux valgus surgeries. The existing clinical assessment overestimates the functional outcome at the early postoperative phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  13. Understanding of BRCA1/2 genetic tests results: the importance of objective and subjective numeracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanoch, Yaniv; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Rolison, Jonathan J; Ozanne, Elissa

    2014-10-01

    The majority of women (71%) who undergo BRCA1/2 testing-designed to identify genetic mutations associated with increased risk of cancer-receive results that are termed 'ambiguous' or 'uninformative negative'. How women interpret these results and the association with numerical ability was examined. In this study, 477 women at increased risk for breast and ovarian cancer were recruited via the Cancer Genetics Network. They were presented with information about the four different possible BRCA1/2 test results-positive, true negative, ambiguous and uninformative negative-and asked to indicate which of six options represents the best response. Participants were then asked which treatment options they thought a woman receiving the results should discuss with her doctor. Finally, participants completed measures of objective and subjective numeracy. Almost all of the participants correctly interpreted the positive and negative BRCA1/2 genetic test results. However, they encountered difficulties interpreting the uninformative and ambiguous BRCA1/2 genetic test results. Participants were almost equally likely to think either that the woman had learned nothing from the test result or that she was as likely to develop cancer as the average woman. Highly numerate participants were more likely to correctly interpret inconclusive test results (ambiguous, OR = 1.62; 95% CI [1.28, 2.07]; p psychological ramifications of genetic testing, healthcare professionals should consider devoting extra effort to ensuring proper comprehension of ambiguous and uninformative negative test results by women. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The effect of subjective and objective social class on health-related quality of life: new paradigm using longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-08-08

    To investigate the impact of the gap between subjective and objective social status on health-related quality of life. We analyzed data from 12,350 participants aged ≥ 18 years in the Korean Health Panel Survey. Health-related quality of life was measured by EuroQol-Visual analogue scale. Objective (income and education) and subjective social class (measured by MacArthur scale) was classified into three groups (High, Middle, Low). In terms of a gap between objective and subjective social class, social class was grouped into nine categories ranging from High-High to Low-Low. A linear mixed model was used to investigate the association between the combined social class and health-related quality of life. The impact of the gap between objective and subjective status on Health-related quality of life varied according to the type of gap. Namely, at any given subjective social class, an individual's quality of life declined with a decrease in the objective social class. At any given objective social class (e.g., HH, HM, HL; in terms of both education and income), an individual's quality of life declined with a one-level decrease in subjective social class. Our results suggest that studies of the relationship between social class and health outcomes may consider the multidimensional nature of social status.

  15. Optimization and objective and subjective analysis of thorax image for computerized radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velo, Alexandre F.; Miranda, Jose Ricardo A.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed at optimizing computational chest radiographic images (in previous posterior projection-PA). To this end, we used a homogeneous patient equivalent phantom in Computational Imaging System calibration, in order to obtain a satisfactory noise signal relation for a diagnosis, adjusting to a minimum dose received by the patient. The techniques have been applied in an anthropomorphic phantom (RANDO). The images obtained were evaluated by a radiologist, which identified the best image to determine possible pathologies (fracture or pneumonia). The technique were quantified objectively (Detective Quantum Efficiency - DQE, Modulation Transfer Function MTF, Noise Power Spectrum, NPS). Comparing optimized techniques with the clinical routine, it is concluded that all provide doses below reference levels. However the choice of the best technique for viewing possible pneumonia and/or fracture, was determined based on the first 3D (Dose, Diagnostic, Dollar) and regarded as gold standard. This image presented a reduction of dose and loading of tube around 70.5% and 80% respectively when compared with the clinical routine

  16. Influence of personality on objective and subjective social support among patients with major depressive disorder: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskelä, Ulla; Melartin, Tarja; Rytsälä, Heikki; Jylhä, Pekka; Sokero, Petteri; Lestelä-Mielonen, Paula; Isometsä, Erkki

    2009-10-01

    Personality and social support (SS) influence risk for depression and modify its outcome through multiple pathways. The impact of personality dimensions neuroticism and extraversion on SS among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) has been little studied. In the Vantaa Depression Study, we assessed neuroticism and extraversion with the Eysenck Personality Inventory, objective SS with the Interview Measure of Social Relationships, and subjective SS with the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised at baseline, at 6 and 18 months among 193 major depressive disorder patients diagnosed according to the fourth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DMS-IV). At all time-points, low neuroticism and high extraversion associated significantly with between-subject differences in levels of objective and subjective SS. Lower neuroticism (beta = 0.213, p = 0.003) and higher extraversion (beta = 0.159, p = 0.038) predicted greater within-subject change of subjective, but not objective SS. Thus, neuroticism and extraversion associated with the size of objective and subjective SS and predicted change of subjective SS. Modification of subjective SS, particularly, may indirectly influence future vulnerability to depression.

  17. Subjects and educational objectives of specialized training courses for shift supervisors in nuclear power plants. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Presentation of subjects taught, curricula, educational objectives of training courses for shift supervisors in nuclear power plants. The curricula for nuclear engineering fundamentals include subjects such as nuclear physics, reactor physics, reactor safety, radiation protection, legal provisions, job safety, reactor technology, applied thermohydraulics and thermodynamics, materials. (HAG) [de

  18. Fourier power, subjective distance, and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescroart, Mark D.; Stansbury, Dustin E.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA), Retrosplenial Complex (RSC), and the Occipital Place Area (OPA). It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1) 2D features related to Fourier power; (2) 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3) abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM) to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue. PMID:26594164

  19. Models for predicting objective function weights in prostate cancer IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutilier, Justin J.; Lee, Taewoo; Craig, Tim; Sharpe, Michael B.; Chan, Timothy C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate the clinical applicability of advanced machine learning models that simultaneously predict multiple optimization objective function weights from patient geometry for intensity-modulated radiation therapy of prostate cancer. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method was applied retrospectively to determine optimal objective function weights for 315 treated patients. The authors used an overlap volume ratio (OV) of bladder and rectum for different PTV expansions and overlap volume histogram slopes (OVSR and OVSB for the rectum and bladder, respectively) as explanatory variables that quantify patient geometry. Using the optimal weights as ground truth, the authors trained and applied three prediction models: logistic regression (LR), multinomial logistic regression (MLR), and weighted K-nearest neighbor (KNN). The population average of the optimal objective function weights was also calculated. Results: The OV at 0.4 cm and OVSR at 0.1 cm features were found to be the most predictive of the weights. The authors observed comparable performance (i.e., no statistically significant difference) between LR, MLR, and KNN methodologies, with LR appearing to perform the best. All three machine learning models outperformed the population average by a statistically significant amount over a range of clinical metrics including bladder/rectum V53Gy, bladder/rectum V70Gy, and dose to the bladder, rectum, CTV, and PTV. When comparing the weights directly, the LR model predicted bladder and rectum weights that had, on average, a 73% and 74% relative improvement over the population average weights, respectively. The treatment plans resulting from the LR weights had, on average, a rectum V70Gy that was 35% closer to the clinical plan and a bladder V70Gy that was 29% closer, compared to the population average weights. Similar results were observed for all other clinical metrics. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the KNN and MLR

  20. Models for predicting objective function weights in prostate cancer IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutilier, Justin J., E-mail: j.boutilier@mail.utoronto.ca; Lee, Taewoo [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King’s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada); Craig, Tim [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University of Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148 - 150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Sharpe, Michael B. [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University of Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148 - 150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124 - 100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Chan, Timothy C. Y. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King’s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada and Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124 - 100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate the clinical applicability of advanced machine learning models that simultaneously predict multiple optimization objective function weights from patient geometry for intensity-modulated radiation therapy of prostate cancer. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method was applied retrospectively to determine optimal objective function weights for 315 treated patients. The authors used an overlap volume ratio (OV) of bladder and rectum for different PTV expansions and overlap volume histogram slopes (OVSR and OVSB for the rectum and bladder, respectively) as explanatory variables that quantify patient geometry. Using the optimal weights as ground truth, the authors trained and applied three prediction models: logistic regression (LR), multinomial logistic regression (MLR), and weighted K-nearest neighbor (KNN). The population average of the optimal objective function weights was also calculated. Results: The OV at 0.4 cm and OVSR at 0.1 cm features were found to be the most predictive of the weights. The authors observed comparable performance (i.e., no statistically significant difference) between LR, MLR, and KNN methodologies, with LR appearing to perform the best. All three machine learning models outperformed the population average by a statistically significant amount over a range of clinical metrics including bladder/rectum V53Gy, bladder/rectum V70Gy, and dose to the bladder, rectum, CTV, and PTV. When comparing the weights directly, the LR model predicted bladder and rectum weights that had, on average, a 73% and 74% relative improvement over the population average weights, respectively. The treatment plans resulting from the LR weights had, on average, a rectum V70Gy that was 35% closer to the clinical plan and a bladder V70Gy that was 29% closer, compared to the population average weights. Similar results were observed for all other clinical metrics. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the KNN and MLR

  1. Objective and subjective quality assessment of geometry compression of reconstructed 3D Humans in a 3D virtual room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.N. Mekuria (Rufael); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); A. Frisiello (Antonella); I. Doumanis (Ioannis)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractCompression of 3D object based video is relevant for 3D Immersive applications. Nevertheless, the perceptual aspects of the degradation introduced by codecs for meshes and point clouds are not well understood. In this paper we evaluate the subjective and objective degradations introduced

  2. The relationship between social functioning and subjective memory complaints in older persons : a population-based longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Jisca S; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Zuidema, Sytse U; Stolk, Ronald P; Zuidersma, Marij; Smidt, Nynke

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Poor social functioning is associated with cognitive decline in older adults. It is unclear whether social functioning is also associated with subjective memory complaints (SMC). We investigated the association between social functioning and incident SMC and SMC recovery. METHODS: A

  3. Inter-relationships between objective and subjective measures of the residential environment among urban African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Messer, Lynne; Slaughter-Acey, Jaime; Misra, Dawn P

    2017-03-01

    The inter-relationships between objective (census based) and subjective (resident reported) measures of the residential environment is understudied in African American (AA) populations. Using data from the Life Influences on Fetal Environments Study (2009-2011; n = 1387) of AA women, we quantified the area-level variation in subjective reports of residential healthy food availability, walkability, safety, and disorder that can be accounted for with an objective neighborhood disadvantage index (NDI). Two-level generalized linear models estimated associations between objective and subjective measures of the residential environment, accounting for individual-level covariates. In unconditional models, intraclass correlation coefficients for block-group variance in subjective reports ranged from 11% (healthy food availability) to 30% (safety). Models accounting for the NDI (vs. both NDI and individual-level covariates) accounted for more variance in healthy food availability (23% vs. 8%) and social disorder (40% vs. 38%). The NDI and individual-level variables accounted for 39% and 51% of the area-level variation in walkability and safety, respectively. Associations between subjective and objective measures of the residential environment were significant and in the expected direction. Future studies on neighborhood effects on health, especially among AAs, should include a wide range of residential environment measures, including subjective, objective, and spatial contextual variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A study of the image quality of computed tomography adaptive statistical iterative reconstructed brain images using subjective and objective methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangat, J.; Morgan, J.; Benson, E.; Baath, M.; Lewis, M.; Reilly, A.

    2016-01-01

    The recent reintroduction of iterative reconstruction in computed tomography has facilitated the realisation of major dose saving. The aim of this article was to investigate the possibility of achieving further savings at a site with well-established Adaptive Statistical iterative Reconstruction (ASiR TM ) (GE Healthcare) brain protocols. An adult patient study was conducted with observers making visual grading assessments using image quality criteria, which were compared with the frequency domain metrics, noise power spectrum and modulation transfer function. Subjective image quality equivalency was found in the 40-70% ASiR TM range, leading to the proposal of ranges for the objective metrics defining acceptable image quality. Based on the findings of both the patient-based and objective studies of the ASiR TM /tube-current combinations tested, 60%/305 mA was found to fall within all, but one, of these ranges. Therefore, it is recommended that an ASiR TM level of 60%, with a noise index of 12.20, is a viable alternative to the currently used protocol featuring a 40% ASiR TM level and a noise index of 11.20, potentially representing a 16% dose saving. (authors)

  5. The impact of subjective cognitive fatigue and depression on cognitive function in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Daniel; Doniger, Glen M; Wissemann, Karl; Zarif, Myassar; Bumstead, Barbara; Buhse, Marijean; Fafard, Lori; Lavi, Idit; Wilken, Jeffrey; Gudesblatt, Mark

    2018-02-01

    The association between subjective cognitive fatigue and objective cognitive dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) has been studied, with conflicting results. To explore the impact of fatigue on cognitive function, while controlling for the influence of depression, disability, comorbidities, and psychotropic medications. PwMS completed a computerized cognitive testing battery with age- and education-adjusted cognitive domain scores. Disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)), cognitive fatigue, and depression were concurrently evaluated. In all, 699 PwMS were included. Both cognitive fatigue and depression were significantly and negatively correlated with the same cognitive domains: information processing speed, executive function, attention, motor function, and memory (-0.15 ⩽ r ⩽ -0.14 for cognitive fatigue; -0.24 ⩽ r ⩽ -0.19 for depression). Multivariate analysis revealed significant but small independent correlations only between depression and neuropsychological test results, while cognitive fatigue had no independent correlation with objective cognitive function except for a trend toward impaired motor function in highly fatigued PwMS. Depression and cognitive fatigue accounted for no more than 6% of the variance in objective cognitive domain scores. Cognitive fatigue is not independently related to objective cognitive impairment. Depression may influence cognitive function of PwMS primarily when it is severe. Cognitive impairment in PwMS should not be ascribed to fatigue or mild depression.

  6. Objective-function Hybridization in Adjoint Seismic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y. O.; Bozdag, E.; Simons, F.; Gao, F.

    2016-12-01

    In the realm of seismic tomography, we are at the threshold of a new era of huge seismic datasets. However, how to assimilate as much information as possible from every seismogram is still a challenge. Cross-correlation measurements are generally tailored to some window selection algorithms, such as FLEXWIN (Maggie et al. 2008), to balance amplitude differences between seismic phases. However, these measurements naturally favor maximum picks in selected windows. It is also difficult to select all usable portions of seismograms in an optimum way that lots of information is generally lost, particularly the scattered waves. Instantaneous phase type of misfits extract information from every wiggle without cutting seismograms into small pieces, however, dealing with cycle skips at short periods can be challenging. For this purpose, we introduce a flexible hybrid approach for adjoint seismic tomography, to combine various objective functions. We initially focus on phase measurements and propose using instantaneous phase to take into account relatively small-magnitude scattered waves at long periods while using cross-correlation measurements on FLEXWIN windows to select distinct body-wave arrivals without complicating measurements due to non-linearities at short periods. To better deal with cycle skips and reliably measure instantaneous phases we design a new misfit function that incorporates instantaneous phase information implicitly instead of measuring it explicitly, through using normalized analytic signals. We present in our synthetic experiments how instantaneous phase, cross-correlation and their hybridization affect tomographic results. The combination of two different phase measurements in a hybrid approach constitutes progress towards using "anything and everything" in a data set, addressing data quality and measurement challenges simultaneously. We further extend hybridisation of misfit functions for amplitude measurements such as cross-correlation amplitude

  7. Sex differences in objective measures of sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Anne; Metzler, Thomas J; Ruoff, Leslie M; Inslicht, Sabra S; Rao, Madhu; Talbot, Lisa S; Neylan, Thomas C

    2013-12-01

    A growing literature shows prominent sex effects for risk for post-traumatic stress disorder and associated medical comorbid burden. Previous research indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with reduced slow wave sleep, which may have implications for overall health, and abnormalities in rapid eye movement sleep, which have been implicated in specific post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, but most research has been conducted in male subjects. We therefore sought to compare objective measures of sleep in male and female post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with age- and sex-matched control subjects. We used a cross-sectional, 2 × 2 design (post-traumatic stress disorder/control × female/male) involving83 medically healthy, non-medicated adults aged 19-39 years in the inpatient sleep laboratory. Visual electroencephalographic analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower slow wave sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 7.63, P = 0.007) and slow wave sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 6.11, P = 0.016). There was also a group × sex interaction effect for rapid eye movement sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 4.08, P = 0.047) and rapid eye movement sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 4.30, P = 0.041), explained by greater rapid eye movement sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder females compared to control females, a difference not seen in male subjects. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower energy in the delta spectrum (F(3,82)  = 6.79, P = 0.011) in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Slow wave sleep and delta findings were more pronounced in males. Removal of post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder, who had greater post-traumatic stress disorder severity, strengthened delta effects but reduced rapid eye movement effects to non-significance. These findings support previous evidence that post

  8. Beyond Objects, Beyond Subjects: Giorgio Agamben on Animality, Particularlity and the End of Onto-theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colby Dickinson

    2011-06-01

    , one beyond the traditional binary divisions of subject and object, or of universal and particular. In the end, as Agamben illustrates repeatedly, there is only the ‘thingness’ that each thing is, and which must be safeguarded in its precarity, thus paving the way (through a messianic intervention for an ethical discourse to appear.It is a final gesture toward the messianic, then, toward a religiously-inflected terminology which hovers over his entire oeuvre, that will ultimately guide Agamben’s ‘political’ project back toward its canonical moment most clearly identifiable within the Christian heritage. As his reading of Benjamin’s relationship to Saint Paul indicates, there is much to be discerned for him in the transition from Judaic law (with its representational logic to Christian ‘forms of life’ (with its paradigmatic focus. Rather than be content with a simple re-affirmation of Christian claims, however, Agamben deftly maneuvers his own position toward one of exposing the logic of Christianity as that which reveals a deep investment in a pantheistic worldview, one which theology can no longer afford to ignore.

  9. Wealth, justice and freedom: Objective and subjective measures predicting poor mental health in a study across eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Saskia; Velten, Julia; Neher, Torsten; Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Macro-level factors (MF) such as wealth, justice and freedom measured with objective country-level indicators (objective MF), for instance the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), have been investigated in relation to health and well-being, but rarely in connection with depression, anxiety and stress subsumed as poor mental health. Also, a combination of different objective MF and of how individuals perceive those MF (subjective MF) has not been taken into consideration. In the present study, we combined subjective and objective measures of wealth, justice and freedom and examined their relationship with poor mental health. Population-based interviews were conducted in France, Germany, Poland, Russia, Spain, Sweden, U.K. and U.S.A. (n ≈ 1000 per country). GDP, GINI coefficient, Justice Index and Freedom Index were used as objective MF, whereas subjective MF were perceived wealth, justice and freedom measured at the individual level. Poor mental health was assessed as a combination of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. In a random-intercept-model, GINI coefficient and Freedom Index were significant positive country-level, and perceived wealth, justice, and freedom significant negative individual-level predictors of symptoms of poor mental health. Multiple subjective and objective MF should be combined to assess the macrosystem's relationship with poor mental health more precisely. The relationship between MF and poor mental health indicates that the macrosystem should be taken into account as relevant context for mental health problems, too.

  10. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Applications: Proton NMR In Biological Objects Subjected To Magic Angle Spinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2005-01-01

    Proton NMR in Biological Objects Submitted to Magic Angle Spinning, In Encyclopedia of Analytical Science, Second Edition (Paul J. Worsfold, Alan Townshend and Colin F. Poole, eds.), Elsevier, Oxford 6:333-342. Published January 1, 2005. Proposal Number 10896

  11. Apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object that is subjected to external vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1997-04-22

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

  12. Objectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Daston, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...

  13. Controlled short-linkage assembly of functional nano-objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, Shilpi; Kamra, Tripta [Division of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); ENI AB, Malmö (Sweden); Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Uddin, Khan Mohammad Ahsan [Division of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Snezhkova, Olesia [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Jayawardena, H. Surangi N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Lowell, 1 University Ave., Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Yan, Mingdi [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Lowell, 1 University Ave., Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Department of Chemistry, KTH – Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 30, S-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Montelius, Lars [ENI AB, Malmö (Sweden); Schnadt, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.schnadt@sljus.lu.se [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Ye, Lei, E-mail: lei.ye@tbiokem.lth.se [Division of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fast photoconjugation of nanoparticles on surface. • Non-destructive feature guarantees intact function of nanoparticles. • Direct contact between nano-objects allows efficient photon and electron transfer. • Possibility of generating patterned nanoparticle assemblies on surface. • Open new opportunities for assembling chemical sensors. - Abstract: In this work, we report a method that allows the deterministic, photo-controlled covalent assembly of nanoparticles directly on surface. As a model system, we study the conjugation of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanoparticles on a glass surface and confirm that the immobilized nanoparticles maintain their molecular recognition functionality. The glass slide was first modified with perfluorophenylazide and then used to bind MIP nanoparticles under UV irradiation. After each step the surface was analyzed by water contact angle measurement, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and/or synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The MIP nanoparticles immobilized on the glass surface remained stable and maintained specific binding for the template molecule, propranolol. The method developed in this work allows MIP nanoparticles to be directly coupled to a flat surface, offering a straightforward means to construct robust chemical sensors. Using the reported photo conjugation method, it is possible to generate patterned assembly of nanoparticles using a photomask. Since perfluorophenylazide-based photochemistry works with all kinds of organic material, the method developed in this work is expected to enable immobilization of not only MIPs but also other kinds of organic and inorganic–organic core–shell particles for various applications involving photon or electron transfer.

  14. Controlled short-linkage assembly of functional nano-objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Shilpi; Kamra, Tripta; Uddin, Khan Mohammad Ahsan; Snezhkova, Olesia; Jayawardena, H. Surangi N.; Yan, Mingdi; Montelius, Lars; Schnadt, Joachim; Ye, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fast photoconjugation of nanoparticles on surface. • Non-destructive feature guarantees intact function of nanoparticles. • Direct contact between nano-objects allows efficient photon and electron transfer. • Possibility of generating patterned nanoparticle assemblies on surface. • Open new opportunities for assembling chemical sensors. - Abstract: In this work, we report a method that allows the deterministic, photo-controlled covalent assembly of nanoparticles directly on surface. As a model system, we study the conjugation of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanoparticles on a glass surface and confirm that the immobilized nanoparticles maintain their molecular recognition functionality. The glass slide was first modified with perfluorophenylazide and then used to bind MIP nanoparticles under UV irradiation. After each step the surface was analyzed by water contact angle measurement, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and/or synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The MIP nanoparticles immobilized on the glass surface remained stable and maintained specific binding for the template molecule, propranolol. The method developed in this work allows MIP nanoparticles to be directly coupled to a flat surface, offering a straightforward means to construct robust chemical sensors. Using the reported photo conjugation method, it is possible to generate patterned assembly of nanoparticles using a photomask. Since perfluorophenylazide-based photochemistry works with all kinds of organic material, the method developed in this work is expected to enable immobilization of not only MIPs but also other kinds of organic and inorganic–organic core–shell particles for various applications involving photon or electron transfer

  15. In search of the comfortable indoor environment: A comparison of the utility of objective and subjective indicators of indoor comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, Niklas; Skoog, Jennie [Building Services Engineering, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Vaestfjaell, Daniel [Department of Psychology, Goeteborg University (Sweden)

    2007-05-15

    Today, many procedures for assessing the indoor environment rely on both subjective and objective indicators (e.g. ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004; ISO 10551). It is however unclear how these two types of measurements are related to perceived comfort. This article aims at assessing the relative utility of subjective (rating scale measures) and objective indicators of perceived comfort of indoor environments. In a hospital setting, physical environmental variables (e.g. temperature, relative humidity and noise level) were simultaneously measured as respondents (both patients and staff) rated their perception of the indoor environment. Regression analyses indicated that the subjective sensory ratings were significantly better than objective indicators at predicting overall rated indoor comfort. These results are discussed in relation to existing measurement procedures and standards. (author)

  16. Effect of hyperthyroidism on renal functions among Sudanese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, O. M; Alfaki, H. M

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of hyperthyroidism disorders and renal functions. This is done by determining the thyroid and the thyroid related hormones levels and by determining the concentration of urea, creatinine, uric acid and the level of serum K"+ and Na"+ in the study and control groups. This study was conducted on thirty two patients with hyperthyroidism from the radiation and Isotopes Center in Khartoum(RICK) and 39 healthy subjects were studied as controls. The patients samples showed lower mean value of creatinine compared to the control group. However, these values were within the normal range(0.5-.085 mg/dl), while the mean value of Na"+ concentration was 161±9.4 mEq/L (normal range 135-145 mEq/L); the median was 157 mEq/L(ragging-181 mEq/L). In comparison between thyroid and the kidney functions parameters of the control group and the groups with hyperthyroidism, it was observed that there was a pronounced difference in the T4 concentration (p-value<0.05). This change was accompanied by a significant difference between these groups in the TSH concentrations. According to the statistical analysis, there were significant differences between the control group and the hyperthyroidism group, in the Na, creatinine and urea concentrations while there were no differences in the K"+ and uric acid concentrations. In the control group there are negative correlations between the T3 and Na on one hand and the T4 and urea concentrations on the other hand. The TSH showed positive correlation with Na"+ and K"+.Similarly, significant positive correlations were observed between the K"+,urea and Na"+ concentration. The test group showed only significant correlation between the T4 and T3.(Author)

  17. Objectivity applied to embodied subjects in health care and social security medicine: definition of a comprehensive concept of cognitive objectivity and criteria for its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Hans Magnus; Barbosa da Silva, António

    2018-03-02

    The article defines a comprehensive concept of cognitive objectivity (CCCO) applied to embodied subjects in health care. The aims of this study were: (1) to specify some necessary conditions for the definition of a CCCO that will allow objective descriptions and assessments in health care, (2) to formulate criteria for application of such a CCCO, and (3) to investigate the usefulness of the criteria in work disability assessments in medical certificates from health care provided for social security purposes. The study design was based on a philosophical conceptual analysis of objectivity and subjectivity, the phenomenological notions 'embodied subject', 'life-world', 'phenomenological object' and 'empathy', and an interpretation of certificates as texts. The study material consisted of 18 disability assessments from a total collection of 86 medical certificates provided for social security purposes, written in a Norwegian hospital-based mental health clinic. Four necessary conditions identified for defining a CCCO were: (A) acknowledging the patient's social context and life-world, (B) perceiving patients as cognitive objects providing a variety of meaningful data (clinical, psychometric, and behavioural data - i.e. activities and actions, meaningful expressions and self-reflection), (C) interpreting data in context, and (D) using general epistemological principles. The criteria corresponding to these conditions were: (a) describing the patient's social context and recognizing the patient's perspective, (b) taking into consideration a variety of quantitative and qualitative data drawn from the clinician's perceptions of the patient as embodied subject, (c) being aware of the need to interpret the data in context, and (d) applying epistemological principles (professional expertise, dialogical intersubjectivity, impartiality, accuracy and correctness). Genuine communication is presupposed. These criteria were tested in the work disability assessments of medical

  18. Subjective and objective measures of socioeconomic status: predictors of cardiovascular risk in college students in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchday, Sonia; Chhabra, Rosy; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Almeida, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health changes as a society develops. In developed countries, high SES is associated with better health, but in developing countries, high SES is associated with poorer health. However, measuring SES is difficult in countries like India, where the traditional class and caste system are interwoven and complex. The current study explored the relationship between subjective and objective indices of SES and between SES and the metabolic syndrome among Asian Indians residing in Mumbai, India. Participants were a subset of young adults (N = 112, median age 19 years, 24% male) who were part of larger study assessing psychosocial correlates of the metabolic syndrome. SES was assessed through objective (father's education) and subjective (SES ladder) indices. Data indicated that high subjective SES was correlated with fasting blood sugar (r = .28, P < .003), and father's education was correlated with high cholesterol (r = .32, P < .005). Subjective and objective indices of SES were also correlated with each other (r = .24, P < .04). These data reiterate that the link between SES and health is obvious from an early age, regardless of the measures used to assess SES. Given the complexity of assessing SES in developing countries, objective subjective indices should be used in assessing SES.

  19. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bootstrap Signal-to-Noise Confidence Intervals: An Objective Method for Subject Exclusion and Quality Control in ERP Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Nathan A.; Gannon, Matthew A.; Long, Stephanie M.; Young, Madeleine E.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of event-related potential (ERP) data includes several steps to ensure that ERPs meet an appropriate level of signal quality. One such step, subject exclusion, rejects subject data if ERP waveforms fail to meet an appropriate level of signal quality. Subject exclusion is an important quality control step in the ERP analysis pipeline as it ensures that statistical inference is based only upon those subjects exhibiting clear evoked brain responses. This critical quality control step is most often performed simply through visual inspection of subject-level ERPs by investigators. Such an approach is qualitative, subjective, and susceptible to investigator bias, as there are no standards as to what constitutes an ERP of sufficient signal quality. Here, we describe a standardized and objective method for quantifying waveform quality in individual subjects and establishing criteria for subject exclusion. The approach uses bootstrap resampling of ERP waveforms (from a pool of all available trials) to compute a signal-to-noise ratio confidence interval (SNR-CI) for individual subject waveforms. The lower bound of this SNR-CI (SNRLB) yields an effective and objective measure of signal quality as it ensures that ERP waveforms statistically exceed a desired signal-to-noise criterion. SNRLB provides a quantifiable metric of individual subject ERP quality and eliminates the need for subjective evaluation of waveform quality by the investigator. We detail the SNR-CI methodology, establish the efficacy of employing this approach with Monte Carlo simulations, and demonstrate its utility in practice when applied to ERP datasets. PMID:26903849

  1. Spencer-Brown vs. Probability and Statistics: Entropy’s Testimony on Subjective and Objective Randomness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Michael Stern

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the role of entropy in Bayesian statistics, focusing on its use as a tool for detection, recognition and validation of eigen-solutions. “Objects as eigen-solutions” is a key metaphor of the cognitive constructivism epistemological framework developed by the philosopher Heinz von Foerster. Special attention is given to some objections to the concepts of probability, statistics and randomization posed by George Spencer-Brown, a figure of great influence in the field of radical constructivism.

  2. The significance of the choice of radiobiological (NTCP) models in treatment plan objective functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.; Fuller, M.; Vinod, S.; Holloway, L.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A Clinician's discrimination between radiation therapy treatment plans is traditionally a subjective process, based on experience and existing protocols. A more objective and quantitative approach to distinguish between treatment plans is to use radiobiological or dosimetric objective functions, based on radiobiological or dosimetric models. The efficacy of models is not well understood, nor is the correlation of the rank of plans resulting from the use of models compared to the traditional subjective approach. One such radiobiological model is the Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP). Dosimetric models or indicators are more accepted in clinical practice. In this study, three radiobiological models, Lyman NTCP, critical volume NTCP and relative seriality NTCP, and three dosimetric models, Mean Lung Dose (MLD) and the Lung volumes irradiated at lOGy (V|0) and 20 G y (V20), were used to rank a series of treatment plans using, harm to normal (Lung) tissue as the objective criterion. None of the models considered in this study showed consistent correlation with the Radiation Oncologists plan ranking. If radiobiological or dosimetric models are to be used in objective functions for lung treatments, based on this study it is recommended that the Lyman NTCP model be used because it will provide most consistency with traditional clinician ranking.

  3. Validation of the baseline severity stratification of objective functional impairment in lumbar degenerative disc disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, Martin N; Smoll, Nicolas R; Joswig, Holger; Corniola, Marco V; Schaller, Karl; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Gautschi, Oliver P

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is a simple, objective, and standardized method to measure objective functional impairment (OFI) in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD). The objective of the current work was to validate the OFI baseline severity stratification (BSS; with levels of "none," "mild," "moderate," and "severe"). METHODS Data were collected in a prospective IRB-approved 2-center study. Patients were assessed with a comprehensive panel of scales for measuring pain (visual analog scale [VAS] for back and leg pain), functional impairment (Roland-Morris Disability Index [RMDI] and Oswestry Disability Index [ODI]), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL; EQ-5D and SF-12). OFI BSS was determined using age- and sex-adjusted cutoff values. RESULTS A total of 375 consecutive patients scheduled for lumbar spine surgery were included. Each 1-step increase on the OFI BSS corresponded to an increase of 0.53 in the back pain VAS score, 0.69 in the leg pain VAS score, 1.81 points in the RMDI, and 5.93 points in the ODI, as well as to a decrease in HRQOL of -0.073 in the EQ-5D, -1.99 in the SF-12 physical component summary (PCS), and -1.62 in the SF-12 mental component summary (MCS; all p measure of functional impairment for use in daily clinical practice. The presence of OFI indicates the presence of significant functional impairment on subjective outcome measures.

  4. Pulmonary Function Tests In Young Healthy Subjects Of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Rastogi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives : The diagnosis of disease done by skiagram can be substantiated by pulmonary function tests. Substantial data of Indians on PFTs is not available. The present study therefore has been planned on young healthy north Indians.Setting : 119 males and 49 female medical students of North India.Measurements : PFT's, T.V. FEV1, FVC, FER and PEFR were measured. P<0.05 was considered as significant.Results : In North Indian males, mean T. V was 437.56 ± 65.83 ml, FEV1 3.26 ±041 L, FVC 3.82 ± 0.48 L, FER 85.09 ± 2.42% and PEFR was 495.42 ± 101.82 L / min. In North Indian females, average T. V was 386.12 ± 37.90 ml, FEV1 2.39 ± 0.38 L, FVC 2.79 ± 0.43 L, FER 85.38 ± 257% and PEFR was 307.12 ± 75.74 L / min.Conclusions: Males in comparison to females had more value of PFTs. All the PFTs showed positive correlation with Height, Weight and Surface area except Tidal Volume and FER.

  5. Embedding objects during 3D printing to add new functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2016-07-01

    A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication

  6. Does Occupational Mobility Influence Health among Working Women? Comparing Objective and Subjective Measures of Work Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Shippee, Tetyana P.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational mobility is highly valued in American society, but is it consequential to women's health? Previous studies have yielded inconsistent results, but most measured occupational mobility by identifying transitions across occupational categories. Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, this study (1) compares objective and subjective…

  7. Object formation and subject formation: The innovation campus in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    A central question within planning theory is how changes between the relations of ‘grand institutions’ such as state, market and education influence the formation of objects ‘on the ground’. Drawing upon Foucault’s work, this article contributes to the understanding of these relations and argues

  8. Pleasant touch moderates the subjective but not objective aspects of body perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Marie Lloyd

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Un-myelinated C tactile afferents (CT afferents are a key finding in affective touch. These fibres, which activate in response to a caress-like touch to hairy skin (CT afferents are not found in palm skin, may have more in common with interoceptive systems encoding body ownership, than afferent systems processing other tactile stimuli. We tested whether subjective embodiment of a rubber hand (measured through questionnaire items was increased when tactile stimulation was applied to the back of the hand at a rate optimal for CT afferents (3cm/s vs. stimulation of glabrous skin (on the palm of the hand or at a non-optimal rate (30cm/s, which should not activate these fibres. We also collected ratings of tactile pleasantness and a measure of perceived limb position, proprioceptive drift, which is mediated by different mechanisms of multisensory integration than those responsible for feelings of ownership. The results of a multiple regression analysis revealed that proprioceptive drift was a significant predictor of subjective strength of the illusion when tactile stimuli were applied to the back of the hand, regardless of stroking speed. This relationship was modified by pleasantness, with higher ratings when stimulation was applied to the back of the hand at the slower vs. faster stroking speed. Pleasantness was also a unique predictor of illusion strength when fast stroking was applied to the palm of the hand. However, there were no conditions under which pleasantness was a significant predictor of drift. Since the illusion was demonstrated at a non-optimal stroking speed an integrative role for CT afferents within the illusion cannot be fully supported. Pleasant touch, however, does moderate the subjective aspects of the rubber hand illusion, which under certain tactile conditions may interact with proprioceptive information about the body or have a unique influence on subjective body perception.

  9. Tracking Systems for Virtual Rehabilitation: Objective Performance vs. Subjective Experience. A Practical Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lloréns

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Motion tracking systems are commonly used in virtual reality-based interventions to detect movements in the real world and transfer them to the virtual environment. There are different tracking solutions based on different physical principles, which mainly define their performance parameters. However, special requirements have to be considered for rehabilitation purposes. This paper studies and compares the accuracy and jitter of three tracking solutions (optical, electromagnetic, and skeleton tracking in a practical scenario and analyzes the subjective perceptions of 19 healthy subjects, 22 stroke survivors, and 14 physical therapists. The optical tracking system provided the best accuracy (1.074 ± 0.417 cm while the electromagnetic device provided the most inaccurate results (11.027 ± 2.364 cm. However, this tracking solution provided the best jitter values (0.324 ± 0.093 cm, in contrast to the skeleton tracking, which had the worst results (1.522 ± 0.858 cm. Healthy individuals and professionals preferred the skeleton tracking solution rather than the optical and electromagnetic solution (in that order. Individuals with stroke chose the optical solution over the other options. Our results show that subjective perceptions and preferences are far from being constant among different populations, thus suggesting that these considerations, together with the performance parameters, should be also taken into account when designing a rehabilitation system.

  10. Changes after voice therapy in objective and subjective voice measurements of pediatric patients with vocal nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcaner, Ciler Zahide; Karatayli Ozgursoy, Selmin; Ozgursoy, Selmin Karatayli; Sati, Isil; Dursun, Gursel

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficiency of the voice therapy in children with vocal nodules by using the acoustic analysis and subjective assessment. Thirty-nine patients with vocal fold nodules, aged between 7 and 14, were included in the study. Each subject had voice therapy led by an experienced voice therapist once a week. All diagnostic and follow-up workouts were performed before the voice therapy and after the third or the sixth month. Transoral and/or transnasal videostroboscopic examination and acoustic analysis were achieved using multi-dimensional voice program (MDVP) and subjective analysis with GRBAS scale. As for the perceptual assessment, the difference was significant for four parameters out of five. A significant improvement was found in the acoustic analysis parameters of jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio. The voice therapy which was planned according to patients' needs, age, compliance and response to therapy had positive effects on pediatric patients with vocal nodules. Acoustic analysis and GRBAS may be used successfully in the follow-up of pediatric vocal nodule treatment.

  11. Subjective facial skin type, based on the sebum related symptoms, can reflect the objective casual sebum level in acne patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, C W; Choi, J W; Youn, S W

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between the subjective skin type and the casual sebum level was not fully clarified. To investigate the characteristics of subjective skin type and to find the relationship between the subjective skin types and the skin type-related symptoms, casual sebum level, along with the objective skin type. Seven hundred and nine patients, clinically diagnosed with acne, were included. The questionnaire and the casual sebum level measurement were performed. The determining symptoms of each subjective skin type were investigated. The 95% confidence interval of casual sebum level of each subjective skin type was calculated. The most frequent subjective skin type was the combination type. The dryness, tightness, and oiliness can be conclusive symptoms in determining the subjective skin type. The mean and the 95% confidence interval of the casual sebum level was highest in the oily skin type, followed by the combination, normal, and dry skin type. We found that the subjective skin type was determined by the skin type-related symptoms. The 95% confidence intervals of the casual sebum level of each subjective skin type were established. Based on the skin type-related symptoms, the casual sebum level of acne patients can be estimated. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Understanding women's experience of memory over the menopausal transition: subjective and objective memory in pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkenstein, Anne E; Bryant, Christina A; Judd, Fiona K; Ong, Ben; Kinsella, Glynda J

    2016-12-01

    Many women complain of forgetfulness during the menopausal transition. This study aimed to examine women's subjective perception of memory and their objective memory performance across the menopausal transition. One hundred thirty women, aged 40 to 60 years were recruited from outpatient Menopause and Gynaecological clinics at the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne. Women were divided into menopausal stage groups according to the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop criteria based on menstrual patterns. All women completed self-report measures of depressive, anxiety, vasomotor, and sleep symptoms; attitude to menopause; and various aspects of memory, including memory contentment, frequency of forgetting, sense of control over memory, and use of memory strategies. Women also completed a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation assessing memory and executive function. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessment showed no difference between premenopausal (n = 36), perimenopausal (n = 54), and postmenopausal (n = 40) groups in performance on memory and executive tasks. Perimenopausal women, however, reported significantly more frequent forgetting (η = 0.09, P memory (η = 0.08, P memory. During the menopausal transition women with a more negative attitude to menopause and more intense depressive, anxiety, vasomotor, and sleep symptoms are more vulnerable to feeling less content with their memory.

  13. Asymmetric Functional Connectivity of the Contra- and Ipsilateral Secondary Somatosensory Cortex during Tactile Object Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghua Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the somatosensory system, it is well known that the bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex (SII receives projections from the unilateral primary somatosensory cortex (SI, and the SII, in turn, sends feedback projections to SI. Most neuroimaging studies have clearly shown bilateral SII activation using only unilateral stimulation for both anatomical and functional connectivity across SII subregions. However, no study has unveiled differences in the functional connectivity of the contra- and ipsilateral SII network that relates to frontoparietal areas during tactile object recognition. Therefore, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and a delayed match-to-sample (DMS task to investigate the contributions of bilateral SII during tactile object recognition. In the fMRI experiment, 14 healthy subjects were presented with tactile angle stimuli on their right index finger and asked to encode three sample stimuli during the encoding phase and one test stimulus during the recognition phase. Then, the subjects indicated whether the angle of test stimulus was presented during the encoding phase. The results showed that contralateral (left SII activity was greater than ipsilateral (right SII activity during the encoding phase, but there was no difference during the recognition phase. A subsequent psycho-physiological interaction (PPI analysis revealed distinct connectivity from the contra- and ipsilateral SII to other regions. The left SII functionally connected to the left SI and right primary and premotor cortex, while the right SII functionally connected to the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC. Our findings suggest that in situations involving unilateral tactile object recognition, contra- and ipsilateral SII will induce an asymmetrical functional connectivity to other brain areas, which may occur by the hand contralateral effect of SII.

  14. Aortic stiffness and hypotension episodes are associated with impaired cognitive function in older subjects with subjective complaints of memory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuteri, Angelo; Tesauro, Manfredi; Guglini, Letizia; Lauro, Davide; Fini, Massimo; Di Daniele, Nicola

    2013-11-20

    Though CV risk factors and markers of arterial aging are recognized risky for cognition, no study has simultaneously investigated the impact of multiple cardiac, arterial (large and small vessels), and hemodynamic parameters on cognitive function in older subjects. Two hundred eighty older subjects with subjective complaints of memory loss and no previous stroke (mean age 78.3 ± 6.3 years) were studied. Global cognitive function was evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cognitive impairment was defined as a MMSE cognitive function-controlling for age, sex, education, depression, traditional CV risk factors, and medications. LV mass was no longer associated with cognition in multiple regression. Older subjects with stiffer arteries or episodes of hypotension presented a 4-fold and an 11-fold, respectively, greater odds for progression from normal cognitive function to cognitive impairment. A synergistic effect between PWV, WML, and hypotension was observed: the occurrence of any two of PWV, WML, or hypotension was accompanied by lower MMSE; in the presence of all three factors, a further significant decline in cognitive function was observed. Systemic hemodynamic parameters (higher PWV and hypotension) together with cerebral microvascular damage (WML) are significantly associated with poorer cognitive function and may identify older subjects with subjective complaints of memory loss at higher risk of cognitive decline. © 2013.

  15. Functional dissociation between action and perception of object shape in developmental visual object agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Erez; Ganel, Tzvi; Avidan, Galia; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    According to the two visual systems model, the cortical visual system is segregated into a ventral pathway mediating object recognition, and a dorsal pathway mediating visuomotor control. In the present study we examined whether the visual control of action could develop normally even when visual perceptual abilities are compromised from early childhood onward. Using his fingers, LG, an individual with a rare developmental visual object agnosia, manually estimated (perceptual condition) the width of blocks that varied in width and length (but not in overall size), or simply picked them up across their width (grasping condition). LG's perceptual sensitivity to target width was profoundly impaired in the manual estimation task compared to matched controls. In contrast, the sensitivity to object shape during grasping, as measured by maximum grip aperture (MGA), the time to reach the MGA, the reaction time and the total movement time were all normal in LG. Further analysis, however, revealed that LG's sensitivity to object shape during grasping emerged at a later time stage during the movement compared to controls. Taken together, these results demonstrate a dissociation between action and perception of object shape, and also point to a distinction between different stages of the grasping movement, namely planning versus online control. Moreover, the present study implies that visuomotor abilities can develop normally even when perceptual abilities developed in a profoundly impaired fashion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Objective but Not Subjective Short Sleep Duration Associated with Increased Risk for Hypertension in Individuals with Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, Christina J; Edinger, Jack D; Wyatt, James K; Krystal, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    To examine the relationship between hypertension prevalence in individuals with insomnia who have short total sleep duration insomnia disorder (MAge = 46.2 y, SDAge = 13.7 y) participated in this study at two large university medical centers. Two nights of polysomnography, 2 w of sleep diaries, questionnaires focused on sleep, medical, psychological, and health history, including presence/absence of hypertension were collected. Logistic regressions assessed the odds ratios of hypertension among persons with insomnia with short sleep duration insomnia with a sleep duration ≥ 6 h, measured both objectively and subjectively. Consistent with previous studies using objective total sleep duration, individuals with insomnia and short sleep duration insomnia with sleep duration ≥ 6 h. Increased risk for hypertension was independent of major confounding factors frequently associated with insomnia or hypertension. No significant risk was observed using subjectively determined total sleep time groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that the best balance of sensitivity and specificity using subjective total sleep time was at a 6-h cutoff, but the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve showed low accuracy and did not have good discriminant value. Objectively measured short sleep duration increased the odds of reporting hypertension more than threefold after adjusting for potential confounders; this relationship was not significant for subjectively measured sleep duration. This research supports emerging evidence that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with an increased risk of comorbid hypertension. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. Wealth, justice and freedom: Objective and subjective measures predicting poor mental health in a study across eight countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Scholten

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Multiple subjective and objective MF should be combined to assess the macrosystem’s relationship with poor mental health more precisely. The relationship between MF and poor mental health indicates that the macrosystem should be taken into account as relevant context for mental health problems, too.

  18. Effects of background music on objective and subjective performance measures in an auditory BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijie Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have explored brain computer interface (BCI systems based on auditory stimuli, which could help patients with visual impairments. Usability and user satisfaction are important considerations in any BCI. Although background music can influence emotion and performance in other task environments, and many users may wish to listen to music while using a BCI, auditory and other BCIs are typically studied without background music. Some work has explored the possibility of using polyphonic music in auditory BCI systems. However, this approach requires users with good musical skills, and has not been explored in online experiments. Our hypothesis was that an auditory BCI with background music would be preferred by subjects over a similar BCI without background music, without any difference in BCI performance. We introduce a simple paradigm (which does not require musical skill using percussion instrument sound stimuli and background music, and evaluated it in both offline and online experiments. The result showed that subjects preferred the auditory BCI with background music. Different performance measures did not reveal any significant performance effect when comparing background music vs. no background. Since the addition of background music does not impair BCI performance but is preferred by users, auditory (and perhaps other BCIs should consider including it. Our study also indicates that auditory BCIs can be effective even if the auditory channel is simultaneously otherwise engaged.

  19. Antidopaminergic medication in healthy subjects provokes subjective and objective mental impairments tightly correlated with perturbation of biogenic monoamine metabolism and prolactin secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović T

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tanja Veselinović,1,2 Ingo Vernaleken,1,2 Paul Cumming,3,4 Uwe Henning,5 Lina Winkler,1,2 Peter Kaleta,1,2 Michael Paulzen,1,2 Christian Luckhaus,6 Gerhard Gründer1,2,7 1Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics, Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, 2Translational Brain Medicine, Jülich Aachen Research Alliance (JARA, Jülich, Germany; 3IHBI, School of Psychology and Counselling, Queensland University of Technology, 4QIMR Berghofer Institute, Brisbane, Australia; 5Neurobiochemical Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, 6LWL University Hospital Bochum, Department of Psychiatry, Division of Cognitive Neuropsychiatry and Psychiatric Preventive Medicine, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, 7Department of Molecular Neuroimaging, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany Objectives: Off-label prescription of antipsychotics to patients without psychotic symptoms has become a routine matter for many psychiatrists and also some general practitioners. Nonetheless, little is known about the possibly detrimental effects of antidopaminergic medications on general psychopathology, subjective mental state, or a possible association with physiological parameters in nonpsychotic individuals.Methods: In this randomized, single-blinded study, groups of healthy volunteers (n=18 received low doses of reserpine, aripiprazole, haloperidol, or placebo on 7 successive days. Relevant physiological parameters (plasma prolactin, concentrations of catecholamine metabolites in plasma, and 24-hour urine and each subject’s mental state (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, visual analogue scale, Beck Depression Inventory II were assessed at the start and end of the trial.Results: Of the three active treatments, only reserpine caused a significant increase in some plasma- and urine-catecholamine metabolites, but all three medications evoked objective

  20. Objective and subjective performance of scleral lenses and new advances in scleral lens technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Scleral lenses are widely recognized for their ability to markedly improve quality of life and giving back patients their ability to perform daily activities, mainly as a result of restoring visual function and/or reduction of ocular discomfort and pain.Scleral lenses are an important front-line

  1. Objective and Subjective Responses to Low Relative Humidity in an Office Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagercrantz, Love Per; Wyon, David; Meyer, H. W.

    2003-01-01

    and objective (clinical) measurements were applied. The following effects of increased humidity were significant, though small: the air was evaluated as less dry (though still on the dry side of neutral), eyes smarted less (by 10% of full scale) eye irritation decreased (by 11%), symptoms of dry throat, mouth......The impact of dry indoor air on comfort and health in winter was investigated in a crossover intervention study in two floors of an office building in northern Sweden. The indoor air humidity (normally 10-20% RH) was raised to 23-24% RH, one floor at a time, using steam humidifiers. Questionnaires...

  2. The brain, a choice subject for radioisotopic functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziere, B.

    1996-01-01

    Progresses realized in the use of radioisotopes and in tomographic imaging techniques have permitted to access to the visualization of the human body functions. The application of this radioisotopic functional imaging (or emission tomography functional imaging) has been particularly fruitful in the study of brain functioning. This method is the only exploratory method for the biochemical aspects of the cerebral functioning and is used both by the physiologist and the therapist. (J.S.)

  3. Relationship between Objective and Subjective Atmospheric Visibility and Its Influence on Willingness to Accept or Pay in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangkang Yu

    Full Text Available This study is to distinguish the objective and subjective measures of atmospheric visibility, and investigate the relationship between the two measures as well as the effect on the people's behavioral intentions on air pollution in China. A mixed method was adopted in this study combining both lab experiments to measure objective atmospheric visibility and a questionnaire survey to measure subjective atmospheric visibility. The regression results show that: (a The people's perception of atmospheric visibility is based on objective information about the ambient air (Relative Humidity, PM2.5, Atmospheric Visibility and there are some turning points that could enable people to distinguish good and poor air quality; (b The people's perception of visibility has a significant effect on either their willingness-to-accept (WTA the visibility or on their willingness-to-pay (WTP for improving the air quality;

  4. Controls and art inquiries at the intersection of the subjective and the objective

    CERN Document Server

    Egerstedt, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Dancing humanoids, robotic art installations, and music generated by mathematically precise methods are no longer science fiction; in fact they are the subject of this book.  This first-of-its-kind anthology assembles technical research that makes such creations possible.  In order to mechanize something as enigmatic and personal as dance, researchers must delve deeply into two distinct academic disciplines: control theory and art.  Broadly, this research uses techniques from the world of art to inspire methods in control, enables artistic endeavours using advanced control theory, and aids in the analysis of art using metrics devised by a systems theoretic approach.  To ensure that artistic influences are well represented, the individual chapters are focused so that they relate their contribution to the arts meaningfully and explicitly. Specially composed introductions set up the contributions either in terms of inspiration by artistic principles or their contribution to the arts through new analysis tool...

  5. Consistency between subjectively and objectively measured hazard perception skills among young male drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abele, Liva; Haustein, Sonja; Møller, Mette

    2018-01-01

    . Subjective measures of HPS include self-reports derived based on the Hazard Perception Questionnaire (HPQ), Driving Skill Questionnaire (DSQ), and Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (BSSS). Results show that drivers who respond to the hazards on time, as compared to drivers who do not respond, have higher scores......Young male drivers have lower hazard perception skills (HPS) than older and more experienced drivers and a tendency to overestimate their skills in hazardous situations. Both factors contribute to an over-representation in traffic accidents. Based on a sample of 63 drivers aged 18-24, this study...... negatively when the hazard is visible. To enhance the HPS among young drivers, the results of this study suggest that specific hazard perception training is relevant, especially for hazards that require more advanced HPS....

  6. Clinical history and biologic age predicted falls better than objective functional tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdhem, Paul; Ringsberg, Karin A M; Akesson, Kristina; Obrant, Karl J

    2005-03-01

    Fall risk assessment is important because the consequences, such as a fracture, may be devastating. The objective of this study was to find the test or tests that best predicted falls in a population-based sample of elderly women. The fall-predictive ability of a questionnaire, a subjective estimate of biologic age and objective functional tests (gait, balance [Romberg and sway test], thigh muscle strength, and visual acuity) were compared in 984 randomly selected women, all 75 years of age. A recalled fall was the most important predictor for future falls. Only recalled falls and intake of psycho-active drugs independently predicted future falls. Women with at least five of the most important fall predictors (previous falls, conditions affecting the balance, tendency to fall, intake of psychoactive medication, inability to stand on one leg, high biologic age) had an odds ratio of 11.27 (95% confidence interval 4.61-27.60) for a fall (sensitivity 70%, specificity 79%). The more time-consuming objective functional tests were of limited importance for fall prediction. A simple clinical history, the inability to stand on one leg, and a subjective estimate of biologic age were more important as part of the fall risk assessment.

  7. Objective and subjective analysis of women's voice with idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riviana Rodrigues das Graças

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the voice quality of women with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and those without it. METHODS: An evaluation was performed including 19 female patients diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, with an average age of 66 years, and 27 women with an average of 67 years-old in the Control Group. The assessment was performed by computed acoustic analysis and perceptual evaluation. RESULTS: Parkinson's disease patients presented moderate rough and unstable voice quality. The parameters of grade, roughness, and instability had higher scores in Parkinson's disease patients with statistically significant differences. Acoustic measures of Jitter and period perturbation quotient (PPQ significantly differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Parkinson's disease female individuals showed more vocal alterations compared to the Control Group, when both perceptual and acoustic evaluations were analyzed.

  8. [THE LEGAL STATUS OF ELEMENTS AND PRODUCTS OF THE HUMAN BODY: OBJECT OR SUBJECT OF LAW?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lameigné, Anaïs Gayte-Papon

    2015-07-01

    The 2004 Act on bioethics has amended the 1994 Act regarding the donation and the use of elements and products of the human body, medically assisted procreation and prenatal diagnosis. The very purpose of these laws led the legislature not to attempt the summa divisio order distinguishing the object to the person. The analysis of bioethical laws reveals the consecration of the non-commercialization of the human body at the expense of its unavailability. Bioethical laws appear to be catalysts of biological scientific advances releasing the status of the components and the products of the human body while framing it. By limiting scientific opportunities, they prevent human beings from trying to play the sorcerer's apprentice.

  9. Socioeconomic Status, Subjective Social Status, and Perceived Stress: Associations with Stress Physiology and Executive Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Alexandra; Noble, Kimberly G; Blair, Clancy

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have investigated associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and indicators of children's physiological and cognitive self-regulation. Although objective measures of family SES may be good proxies for families' experiences of disadvantage, less is known about subjective aspects of families' experiences. We hypothesize that subjective social status (SSS) and perceived stress may be important independent predictors of children's stress physiology and executive functioning (EF). Eighty-two children from diverse SES backgrounds were administered EF measures and provided saliva samples for cortisol assay. Caregivers reported on objective SES, SSS, and perceived stress. Results suggest that SES and SSS are both independently and positively related to EF. In models predicting stress physiology, higher perceived stress was associated with lower baseline cortisol. Moreover, SES and age interacted to predict cortisol levels such that among younger children, lower SES was associated with higher cortisol, whereas among older children, lower SES was associated with lower cortisol. Results highlight the importance of considering both objective and subjective indicators of families' SES and stressful experiences in relation to multiple aspects of children's self-regulation.

  10. Radiographic changes of the pelvis in Labrador and Golden Retrievers after juvenile pubic symphysiodesis: objective and subjective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiocchi, S; Vezzoni, L; Vezzoni, A; Bronzo, V; Rossi, F

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that juvenile pubic symphysiodesis (JPS) results in pelvic changes that can be identified radiographically in adult dogs. The medical records at the Clinica Veterinaria Vezzoni were searched for standard ventro-dorsal views of the pelvis of adult Labrador and Golden Retrievers that had undergone JPS or had not undergone surgery. The objective assessment of radiographs included the analysis of various pelvic measurements. Subjective evaluation of radiographs was undertaken by 18 specialists and 21 general practitioners and was based on five criteria relating to 1) the acetabular fossae, 2) the pubic symphysis, 3) the margin of the cranial pubic area, 4) the pubic rami, and 5) the obturator foramen. The radiographs of 42 Labrador Retrievers and 16 Golden Retrievers were evaluated. The most useful criteria were the radiographic measurement of the shape of the obturator foramen and two different ratios of length to width of the pubic rami; these values were significantly smaller in dogs after JPS. The pelvic canal width was the same in both groups. All objective measurements were repeatable within and between evaluators. The most reliable subjective criterion was number 4, followed by number 5 in Golden Retrievers and by 2 in Labrador Retrievers. Our objective and subjective evaluations were simple and yielded useful and repeatable results. There was no significant difference between general practitioners and specialists with regard to subjective evaluation, which indicates that these evaluation criteria can be used by small animal clinicians after minimal training.

  11. Objective QbTest and subjective evaluation of stimulant treatment in adult attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlenga, D; Jasperse, M; Gehlhaar, S K; Sandra Kooij, J J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the QbTest as an objective measure versus self-reported ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) before and during stimulant treatment in adults with ADHD. We used the subjective ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), and the objective computerized QbTest, which is a 20-minute unconditional identical pairs test that measures attention, impulsivity, and also hyperactivity using a motion-tracking system. Patients were assessed before (baseline) and during medical treatment with stimulants (follow-up) in an observational study design. Data of n=145 patients at baseline and n=82 patients at follow-up were analyzed. There were significant symptom reductions on all symptom domains, but correlations between the tests were weak. Improvement on the QbTest was independent of the patient's age, gender, educational level, ADHD subtype, co-morbid disorders, and use of other medications. Patients with worst QbTest results at baseline showed most improvement at follow-up. The QbTest was more sensitive to medication effects than the ADHD-RS. QbTest objectified clinical significant medication effect in 54% of patients who subjectively did not report any clinical effects. Symptoms dimensions of objective and subjective tests refer to different psychological constructs. The QbTest is a valuable addition to existing subjective measures to assess medication effects in ADHD patients who have difficulties reporting treatment effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of thermal comfort in university classrooms through objective approach and subjective preference analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Maria Anna; Liuzzi, Stefania; Stefanizzi, Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Assessing thermal comfort becomes more relevant when the aim is to maximise learning and productivity performances, as typically occurs in offices and schools. However, if, in the offices, the Fanger model well represents the thermal occupant response, then on the contrary, in schools, adaptive mechanisms significantly influence the occupants' thermal preference. In this study, an experimental approach was performed in the Polytechnic University of Bari, during the first days of March, in free running conditions. First, the results of questionnaires were compared according to the application of the Fanger model and the adaptive model; second, using a subjective scale, a complete analysis was performed on thermal preference in terms of acceptability, neutrality and preference, with particular focus on the influence of gender. The user possibility to control the indoor plant system produced a significant impact on the thermal sensation and the acceptability of the thermal environment. Gender was also demonstrated to greatly influence the thermal judgement of the thermal environment when an outdoor cold climate occurs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Objective and subjective rating of tonal noise radiated from UK wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The radiation of noise to the environment is currently a major issue with regard to U.K. wind farm developments. The reason for this concern is not that wind turbines are unduly noisy, but rather because wind farms are often located in rural areas where background noise levels can fall very low. The fact that background noise levels fall so low in these areas means that the permissible noise radiation from wind farms must also be kept similarly low if nuisance to local residents is to be avoided. However, ensuring that the overall noise level of the wind farm does not exceed the pre-existing background noise level by more than a set amount is not the whole story. Noise radiated from wind turbines can exhibit characteristics that set it apart from the natural background noises typically found in quiet rural areas, where ''natural'' background noises might include the sound of the wind blowing through trees, or the sound of running water. One of the acoustic characteristics that can be attributed to some wind turbines is the radiation of tonal noise from mechanical plant located in the nacelles. It is well accepted that tonal components in otherwise broad band, or ''characterless'', noise, can increase the subjective perception of that noise. Account for increased annoyance due to tones is found in both of the British Standards which relate to environmental noise; BS4142 and BS7445. (UK)

  14. Subjective, but not objective, lingering effects of multiple past concussions in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian L; McKay, Carly D; Mrazik, Martin; Barlow, Karen M; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Emery, Carolyn A

    2013-09-01

    The existing literature on lingering effects from concussions in children and adolescents is limited and mixed, and there are no clear answers for patients, clinicians, researchers, or policy makers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether there are lingering effects of past concussions in adolescent athletes. Participants in this study included 643 competitive Bantam and Midget hockey players (most elite 20% by division of play) between 13 and 17 years of age (mean age=15.5, SD=1.2). Concussion history at baseline assessment was retrospectively documented using a pre-season questionnaire (PSQ), which was completed at home by parents and players in advance of baseline testing. Players with English as a second language, self-reported attention or learning disorders, a concussion within 6 months of baseline, or suspected invalid test profiles were excluded from these analyses. Demographically adjusted standard scores for the five composites/domains and raw symptom ratings from the brief Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) computerized battery were analyzed. Adolescent athletes with one or two or more prior concussions did not have significantly worse neurocognitive functioning on ImPACT than did those with no previous concussions. There were significantly more symptoms reported in those with two or more prior concussions than in those with no or one prior concussion. Adolescents with multiple previous concussions had higher levels of baseline symptoms, but there were not group differences in neurocognitive functioning using this brief computerized battery.

  15. The association between objective income and subjective financial need and depressive symptoms in South Koreans aged 60 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woorim; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Ju, Yeong Jun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the gap between objective income and subjective financial need on depressive symptoms in individuals aged 60 and older. Data from the 2011 and 2013 Korean Retirement and Income Study were used. A total of 4891 individuals aged 60 and older were included at baseline. The Generalized Estimating Equation model was used to examine the association between the gap in objective income and subjective financial need and the presence of depressive symptoms, which were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Compared to individuals in the middle objective income-middle subjective financial need group, individuals in the low-low category (odds ratio (OR): 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.61) and the low-middle category (OR: 1.26, 95%CI: 1.09-1.45) showed a statistically significant higher likelihood of having depressive symptoms. In contrast, participants in the middle-low (OR: 0.74, 95%CI: 0.54-0.99), high-low (OR: 0.50, 95%CI: 0.34-0.73), high-middle (OR: 0.74, 95%CI: 0.63-0.87), and high-high categories (OR: 0.74, 95%CI: 0.55-0.99) were less likely to exhibit depressive symptoms. Additionally, the lower likelihood of depressive symptoms found in middle- and high-income groups with lower levels of subjective financial need was strong among individuals with chronic disease. Differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms generally exist between individuals of the same income category depending on perceived income adequacy. Therefore, it is important to consider discrepancies in objective income and subjective financial need when assessing risk factors for depressive symptoms in older populations. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  16. A chronometric exploration of high-resolution 'sensitive TMS masking' effects on subjective and objective measures of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Tom A; Herring, Jim; Sack, Alexander T

    2011-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can induce masking by interfering with ongoing neural activity in early visual cortex. Previous work has explored the chronometry of occipital involvement in vision by using single pulses of TMS with high temporal resolution. However, conventionally TMS intensities have been high and the only measure used to evaluate masking was objective in nature. Recent studies have begun to incorporate subjective measures of vision, alongside objective ones. The current study goes beyond previous work in two regards. First, we explored both objective vision (an orientation discrimination task) and subjective vision (a stimulus visibility rating on a four-point scale), across a wide range of time windows with high temporal resolution. Second, we used a very sensitive TMS-masking paradigm: stimulation was at relatively low TMS intensities, with a figure-8 coil, and the small stimulus was difficult to discriminate already at baseline level. We hypothesized that this should increase the effective temporal resolution of our paradigm. Perhaps for this reason, we are able to report a rather interesting masking curve. Within the classical-masking time window, previously reported to encompass broad SOAs anywhere between 60 and 120 ms, we report not one, but at least two dips in objective performance, with no masking in-between. The subjective measure of vision did not mirror this pattern. These preliminary data from our exploratory design suggest that, with sensitive TMS masking, we might be able to reveal visual processes in early visual cortex previously unreported.

  17. Measuring Treatment Outcomes in Comorbid Insomnia and Fibromyalgia: Concordance of Subjective and Objective Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Jennifer M; Crew, Earl C; Krietsch, Kendra; Roth, Alicia J; Vatthauer, Karlyn; Robinson, Michael E; Staud, Roland; Berry, Richard B; McCrae, Christina S

    2016-02-01

    In insomnia, actigraphy tends to underestimate wake time compared to diaries and PSG. When chronic pain co-occurs with insomnia, sleep may be more fragmented, including more movement and arousals. However, individuals may not be consciously aware of these arousals. We examined the baseline concordance of diaries, actigraphy, and PSG as well as the ability of each assessment method to detect changes in sleep following cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Adults with insomnia and fibromyalgia (n = 113) were randomized to CBT-I, CBT for pain, or waitlist control. At baseline and posttreatment, participants completed one night of PSG and two weeks of diaries/actigraphy. At baseline, objective measures estimated lower SOL, higher TST, and higher SE than diaries (ps treatment-related changes. PSG values did not change significantly for any sleep parameters. However, diaries showed improvements in SOL, WASO, and SE, and actigraphy also detected the WASO and SE improvements (ps treatment-related changes than PSG; PSG failed to detect any improvements, but actigraphy demonstrated changes in WASO and SE, which were also found with diaries. In comorbid insomnia/fibromyalgia, actigraphy may therefore have utility in measuring treatment outcomes. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  18. Objective and subjective burden in relatives of patients with schizophrenia and its influence on care relationships in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra; Urzúa, Alfonso; Jamett, Patricio Rojas; Irarrazaval, Matias

    2016-03-30

    This study examined the burden on family members of patients with schizophrenia in a Chilean community. Sixty-five caregivers underwent the Subjective and Objective Family Burden Interview. The results showed moderate to high levels of subjective burden and low levels of support from others in providing care. Burden and containment of disturbed behaviour were correlated with worse relationships between patients and caregivers, with the latter spending less time working outside the home. The assessed sample showed a similar pattern of burden to that of caregivers from developed countries; however, the extent of the burden tended to be higher in Chilean caregivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Occlusion and Temporomandibular Function among Subjects with Mandibular Distal Extension Removable Partial Dentures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creugers, N. H. J.; Witter, D. J.; Van 't Spijker, A.; Gerritsen, A. E.; Kreulen, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To quantify effects on occlusion and temporomandibular function of mandibular distal extension removable partial dentures in shortened dental arches. Methods. Subjects wearing mandibular extension removable partial dentures (n = 25) were compared with subjects with shortened dental arches without extension (n = 74) and with subjects who had worn a mandibular extension removable partial denture in the past (n = 19). Subjects with complete dentitions (n = 72) were controls. Data were collected at baseline and at 3-, 6-, and 9-year observations. Results. Occlusal activity in terms of reported awareness of bruxism and occlusal tooth wear of lower anterior teeth did not differ significantly between the groups. In contrast, occlusal tooth wear of premolars in shortened dental arches with or without extension dentures was significantly higher than in the controls. Differences amongst groups with respect to signs and symptoms related to temporomandibular disorders were not found. Occlusal support of the dentures did not influence anterior spatial relationship. Occlusal contacts of the denture teeth decreased from 70% for second premolars via 50% for first molars, to 30% for second molars. Conclusions. Mandibular distal extension removable partial dentures in moderate shortened dental arches had no effects on occlusion and temporomandibular function. PMID:20671961

  20. Occlusion and Temporomandibular Function among Subjects with Mandibular Distal Extension Removable Partial Dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. J. Creugers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To quantify effects on occlusion and temporomandibular function of mandibular distal extension removable partial dentures in shortened dental arches. Methods. Subjects wearing mandibular extension removable partial dentures (n=25 were compared with subjects with shortened dental arches without extension (n=74 and with subjects who had worn a mandibular extension removable partial denture in the past (n=19. Subjects with complete dentitions (n=72 were controls. Data were collected at baseline and at 3-, 6-, and 9-year observations. Results. Occlusal activity in terms of reported awareness of bruxism and occlusal tooth wear of lower anterior teeth did not differ significantly between the groups. In contrast, occlusal tooth wear of premolars in shortened dental arches with or without extension dentures was significantly higher than in the controls. Differences amongst groups with respect to signs and symptoms related to temporomandibular disorders were not found. Occlusal support of the dentures did not influence anterior spatial relationship. Occlusal contacts of the denture teeth decreased from 70% for second premolars via 50% for first molars, to 30% for second molars. Conclusions. Mandibular distal extension removable partial dentures in moderate shortened dental arches had no effects on occlusion and temporomandibular function.

  1. The perceived roles and functions of school science subject advisors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The science subject advisor can play an important role in upgrading ... literature study highlighted practices in the UK and the US that are ... South Africa has recently adopted a strate- ... (North West Province) felt that a solution to their teaching problems ..... teachers, clustering of schools, practical work, cross teaching,.

  2. Robustness of Multiple Objective Decision Analysis Preference Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Bayesian Decision Theory and Utilitarian Ethics ,” American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 68: 223-228 (May 1978). Hartsough, Bruce R. “A...1983). Morrell, Darryl and Eric Driver. “ Bayesian Network Implementation of Levi’s Epistemic Utility Decision Theory ,” International Journal Of...elicitation efficiency for the decision maker. Subject Terms Decision Analysis, Utility Theory , Elicitation Error, Operations Research, Decision

  3. A multicenter study on objective and subjective benefits with a transcutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Dan Dupont; Boldsen, Soren Kjaergaard; Jensen, Anne Marie

    2017-01-01

    Examination of objective as well as subjective outcomes with a new transcutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid device. The study was designed as a prospective multicenter consecutive case-series study involving tertiary referral centers at two Danish University Hospitals. A total of 23 patients were...... implanted. Three were lost to follow-up. Patients had single-sided deafness, conductive or mixed hearing loss. Intervention: Rehabilitative. Aided and unaided sound field hearing was evaluated objectively using (1) pure warble tone thresholds, (2) pure-tone average (PTA4), (3) speech discrimination score...... (SDS) in quiet, and (4) speech reception threshold 50% at 70 dB SPL noise level (SRT50%). Subjective benefit was evaluated by three validated questionnaires: (1) the IOI-HA, (2) the SSQ-12, and (3) a questionnaire evaluating both the frequency and the duration of hearing aid usage. The mean aided PTA4...

  4. Robustness of Multiple Objective Decision Analysis Preference Functions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klimack, William

    2002-01-01

    .... The impact of these differences was examined to improve implementation efficiency. The robustness of the decision model was examined with respect to the preference functions to reduce the time burden imposed on the decision maker...

  5. Quantifying Functional Reuse from Object Oriented Requirements Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Condori-Fernandez, Nelly; Condori-Fernández, N.; Pastor, O; Daneva, Maia; Abran, A.; Castro, J.; Quer, C.; Carvallo, J. B.; Fernandes da Silva, L.

    2008-01-01

    Software reuse is essential in improving efficiency and productivity in the software development process. This paper analyses reuse within requirements engineering phase by taking and adapting a standard functional size measurement method, COSMIC FFP. Our proposal attempts to quantify reusability

  6. Comfort in palliative sedation (Compas): a transdisciplinary mixed method study protocol for linking objective assessments to subjective experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Stefaan; Laureys, Steven; Poelaert, Jan; Bilsen, Johan; Theuns, Peter; Deschepper, Reginald

    2018-04-18

    In case of untreatable suffering at the end of life, palliative sedation may be chosen to assure comfort by reducing the patient's level of consciousness. An important question here is whether such sedated patients are completely free of pain. Because these patients cannot communicate anymore, caregivers have to rely on observation to assess the patient's comfort. Recently however, more sophisticated techniques from the neurosciences have shown that sometimes consciousness and pain are undetectable with these traditional behavioral methods. The aim of this study is to better understand how unconscious palliative sedated patients experience the last days of their life and to find out if they are really free of pain. In this study we will observe 40 patients starting with initiation of palliative sedation until death. Assessment of comfort based on behavioral observations will be related with the results from a NeuroSense monitor, an EEG-based monitor used for evaluation of the adequacy of anesthesia and sedation in the operating room and an ECG-based Analgesia Nociception Index (ANI) monitor, which informs about comfort or discomfort condition, based on the parasympathetic tone. An innovative and challenging aspect of this study is its qualitative approach; "objective" and "subjective" data will be linked to achieve a holistic understanding of the study topic. The following data will be collected: assessment of pain/comfort by the patients themselves (if possible) by scoring a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS); brain function monitoring; monitoring of parasympathetic tone; caregivers' assessment (pain, awareness, communication); relatives' perception of the quality of the dying process; assessment by 2 trained investigators using observational scales; video and audio registration. Measuring pain and awareness in non-communicative dying patients is both technically and ethically challenging. ANI and EEG have shown to be promising technologies to detect pain that otherwise

  7. Tile relations between subjective or objective risky driving and motives for risky driving or attitudes towards road safety

    OpenAIRE

    Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė, Kristina; Markšaitytė, Rasa; Endriulaitienė, Auksė; Šeibokaitė, Laura; Pranckevičienė, Aistė

    2012-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate how the factors of motivation and attitudes about traffic safety are related to risky driving evaluated by young drivers both subjectively and objectively. Risky driving was evaluated in three ways: self-knowledge, driving in a simulation environment, and recalled violations of road traffic regulations as well as accidents caused. 226 respondents aged 18–29 answered the questions from the self-knowledge questionnaire, 40 of them participated in the experiment of dri...

  8. Diurnal rhythm and concordance between objective and subjective hot flashes: The Hilo Women’s Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette L.; Reza, Angela; Mills, Phoebe; Morrison, Lynn; Rahberg, Nichole; Goodloe, Amber; Sutherland, Michael; Brown, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test for a diurnal pattern in hot flashes in a multi-ethnic population living in a hot, humid environment. To examine rates of concordance between objective and subjective measures of hot flashes using ambulatory and laboratory measures. Methods Study participants aged 45–55 were recruited from the general population of Hilo, Hawaii. Women wore a Biolog hot flash monitor, kept a diary for 24-hours, and also participated in 3-hour laboratory measures (n=199). Diurnal patterns were assessed using polynomial regression. For each woman, objectively recorded hot flashes that matched subjective experience were treated as true positive readings. Subjective hot flashes were considered the standard for computing false positive and false negative readings. True positive, false positive, and false negative readings were compared across ethnic groups by chi-square analyses. Results Frequencies of sternal, nuchal and subjective hot flashes peaked at 15:00 ± 1 hour with no difference by ethnicity. Laboratory results supported the pattern seen in ambulatory monitoring. Sternal and nuchal monitoring showed the same frequency of true positive measures, but non-sternal electrodes picked up more false positive readings. Laboratory monitoring showed very low frequencies of false negatives. There were no ethnic differences in the frequency of true positive or false positive measures. Women of European descent were more likely to report hot flashes that were not objectively demonstrated (false negative measures). Conclusions The diurnal pattern and peak in hot flash occurrence in the hot humid environment of Hilo was similar to results from more temperate environments. Lack of variation in sternal vs. non-sternal measures, and in true positive measures across ethnicities suggests no appreciable effect of population variation in sweating patterns. PMID:20220538

  9. Subjective and objective symptoms of psychical load in nuclear power plant operators in connection with shift operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozeny, J.; Prochazkova, Z.

    1992-01-01

    A group of 56 operators (mean age=34.6 years, S.D. 3.4 year, range=30-40 years; university graduates of technical direction) in a nuclear power plant was followed during the morning, afternoon and night shift from the standpoint of subjective symptoms (an evaluation scale assessed at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the shift) and objective symptoms (critical flicker frequency determined at the same time) of the psychical load. No significant differences were found by multivariation analysis between subjective perception of the work load and its objective reflection. The night shift, where the load lies particularly in the monotony of stimuli, appears to exert a higher psychical load aimed at maintaining mental activity when compared with the afternoon and morning shift. In contrast to subjective assessment of the psychical condition where the data fluctuated during the whole shift, the psychical activity reflected in the objective data, decreased until the middle of the shift when stabilization occurred. (author) 1 tab., 8 refs

  10. TMS effects on subjective and objective measures of vision: stimulation intensity and pre- versus post-stimulus masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Tom A; Cornelsen, Sonja; Jacobs, Christianne; Sack, Alexander T

    2011-12-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to mask visual stimuli, disrupting visual task performance or preventing visual awareness. While TMS masking studies generally fix stimulation intensity, we hypothesized that varying the intensity of TMS pulses in a masking paradigm might inform several ongoing debates concerning TMS disruption of vision as measured subjectively versus objectively, and pre-stimulus (forward) versus post-stimulus (backward) TMS masking. We here show that both pre-stimulus TMS pulses and post-stimulus TMS pulses could strongly mask visual stimuli. We found no dissociations between TMS effects on the subjective and objective measures of vision for any masking window or intensity, ruling out the option that TMS intensity levels determine whether dissociations between subjective and objective vision are obtained. For the post-stimulus time window particularly, we suggest that these data provide new constraints for (e.g. recurrent) models of vision and visual awareness. Finally, our data are in line with the idea that pre-stimulus masking operates differently from conventional post-stimulus masking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modal functions. Properties and application for simulation of subject regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudkevich, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    New type of information structures for simulation of undefined information in information retrieval systems is suggested. Main properties of modal functions have been proved. Algorithm of their applications for data retrieval is presented. 9 refs

  12. A method for measuring quality of life through subjective weighting of functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stineman, Margaret G; Wechsler, Barbara; Ross, Richard; Maislin, Greg

    2003-04-01

    To apply a new tool to understand the quality of life (QOL) implications of patients' functional status. Results from the Features-Resource Trade-Off Game were used to form utility weights by ranking functional activities by the relative value of achieving independence in each activity compared with all other component activities. The utility weights were combined with patients' actual levels of performance across the same activities to produce QOL-weighted functional status scores and to form "value rulers" to order activities by perceived importance. Persons with severe disabilities living in the community and clinicians practicing in various rehabilitation disciplines. Two panels of 5 consumers with disabilities and 2 panels of 5 rehabilitation clinicians. The 4 panels played the Features Resource Trade-Off Game by using the FIMT(TM) instrument definitions. Utility weights for each of the 18 FIM items, QOL-weighted FIM scores, and value rulers. All 4 panels valued the achievement of independence in cognitive and communication activities more than independence in physical activities. Consequently, the unweighted FIM scores of patients who have severe physical disabilities but relatively intact cognitive skills will underestimate QOL, while inflating QOL in those with low levels of independence in cognition and communication but higher physical function. Independence in some activities is more valued than in others; thus, 2 people with the same numeric functional status score could experience very different QOL. QOL-weighted functional status scores translate objectively measured functional status into its subjective meaning. This new technology for measuring subjective function-related QOL has a variety of applications to clinical, educational, and research practices.

  13. Objective Indicators of Physical Activity and Sedentary Time and Associations with Subjective Well-Being in Adults Aged 70 and Over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Withall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the associations of the volume and intensity of physical activity and the volume of sedentary time with subjective well-being in a diverse group of 228 older adults in the UK (111 female, mean age 78.2 years (SD 5.8. Physical activity (PA and sedentary behaviour were assessed by accelerometry deriving mean steps per day, mean moderate/vigorous PA minutes per hour (MVPA min·h−1 and minutes of sedentary time per hour (ST min·h−1. Lower limb function was assessed by the Short Physical Performance Battery. Subjective well-being was assessed using the SF-12 health status scale, the Ageing Well Profile and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Linear regressions were used to investigate associations between the independent variables which included physical activity (steps and MVPA, sedentary time, participant characteristics (gender, age, BMI, education, number of medical conditions, and lower limb function and dependent variables which included mental and physical well-being. Steps, MVPA and lower limb function were independently and moderately positively associated with perceived physical well-being but relationships with mental well-being variables were weak. No significant associations between sedentary behaviours and well-being were observed. The association between objectively evaluated physical activity and function and subjective evaluations of physical well-being suggest that improving perceptions of physical health and function may provide an important target for physical activity programmes. This in turn may drive further activity participation.

  14. Induction Based Training leads to Highly Significant Improvements of Objective and Subjective Suturing Ability in Junior Doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Garry

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Simulation based training has shown to be of benefit in the education of medical students. However, the impact of induction based clinical simulation on surgical ability of qualified doctors remains unclear.The aim of this study was to establish if a 60 minute teaching session integrated into an Emergency Medicine speciality induction program produces statistically significant improvements in objective and subjective suturing abilities of junior doctors commencing an Emergency Medicine rotation.Methods: The objective suturing abilities of 16 Foundation Year Two doctors were analysed using a validated OSATs scale prior to a novel teaching intervention. The doctors then undertook an intensive hour long workshop receiving one to one feedback before undergoing repeat OSATs assessment.Subjective ability was measured using a 5 point likert scale and self-assessed competency reporting interrupted suturing before and after the intervention. Photographs of wound closure before and after the intervention were recorded for further blinded assessment of impact of intervention. A survey regarding continued ability was repeated at four months following the intervention. The study took place on 7/12/16 during the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust Emergency Medicine induction in the Royal Victoria Hospital Belfast. The hospital is a regional level 1 trauma centre that has annual departmental attendances in excess of 200,000.All new junior doctors commencing the Emergency Medicine rotation were invited to partake in the study. All 16 agreed. The group consisted of a mixture of undergraduate and postgraduate medicaldoctors who all had 16 months experience working in a variety of medical or surgical jobs previously.Results: Following the teaching intervention objective and subjective abilities in interrupted suturing showed statistically significant improvement (P>0.005. Self-reporting of competency of independently suturingwounds improved from 50

  15. Changes in nasorespiratory function in association with maxillary distraction osteogenesis in subjects with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kiyo; Ono, Takashi; Mochida, Masumi; Ohyama, Kimie

    2006-01-01

    The current study aimed to determine how nasorespiratory function changes in association with maxillary distraction osteogenesis (DO). Furthermore, with regard to impaired nasorespiratory function, the possibility of a relationship between the cleft side and laterality and any effect of maxillary distraction osteogenesis was investigated. In this descriptive, prospective clinical report, subjective and objective data regarding nasorespiratory function before and after maxillary distraction osteogenesis were compared. Data from 13 subjects with cleft lip and palate were used. Subjects had a severe maxillary deficiency and underwent distraction osteogenesis using a rigid external device system. The subjective measure was the score on a questionnaire regarding nasorespiratory function using a visual analog scale. The objective measure was nasal resistance. The visual analog scale score for two items significantly decreased just after distraction osteogenesis. Nasal resistance also significantly decreased 1 year after distraction osteogenesis. Moreover, nasal resistance on the cleft side was significantly greater than that on the noncleft side just before and 1 year after distraction osteogenesis. There was a significant positive correlation between changes in the visual analog scale score and nasal resistance. These results suggest that nasorespiratory function changes in association with maxillary distraction osteogenesis in subjects with cleft lip and palate. Moreover, it appears that nasal obstruction on the cleft side does not change in subjects with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

  16. Neuropsychological Impairment in Detoxified Alcohol-Dependent Subjects with Preserved Psychosocial Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Martelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundChronic alcoholism and its related cognitive impairments are associated with increased social, relational, and professional deficits which have a variable overall impact on social integration. These impairments are known to have varying severities and have rarely been studied among healthy alcohol-dependent subjects with preserved psychosocial functioning. Thus, the objective of this study is to describe neuropsychological performance in this particular population.MethodTwenty-nine socially adjusted alcohol-dependent men, hospitalized for a first or second withdrawal and abstinent for 3 weeks minimum, were compared to 29 healthy non-alcoholic controls. All subjects underwent clinical and psychiatric examination, neuropsychological tests of memory (M, working memory (WM, and executive functions (EF. Comparisons were performed using Student’s t-tests or Mann–Whitney U tests.ResultsNo group differences were found on the Self-Reported Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR or in the Mini-Mental State Examination. Compared to controls, patients had greater episodic, spatial, and WM deficits as well as slightly altered executive functions. In contrast, their executive functions (spontaneous flexibility, criteria generation, rule maintenance, and inhibitory control were relatively preserved.ConclusionOur sample of socially and professionally integrated alcoholic patients shows fewer cognitive deficits than described in previous studies. Our results suggest that early on, alcohol-dependent subjects develop compensatory adaptation processes to preserve social function and adaptation. Minor cognitive impairments should be screened early in the disease to integrate cognitive interventions into the health-care plan to thus eventually prevent further socio-professional marginalization.

  17. An objective evaluation framework for segmentation techniques of functional positron emission tomography studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, J; Eberl, S; Feng, D

    2004-01-01

    Segmentation of multi-dimensional functional positron emission tomography (PET) studies into regions of interest (ROI) exhibiting similar temporal behavior is useful in diagnosis and evaluation of neurological images. Quantitative evaluation plays a crucial role in measuring the segmentation algorithm's performance. Due to the lack of "ground truth" available for evaluating segmentation of clinical images, automated segmentation results are usually compared with manual delineation of structures which is, however, subjective, and is difficult to perform. Alternatively, segmentation of co-registered anatomical images such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as the ground truth to the PET segmentation. However, this is limited to PET studies which have corresponding MRI. In this study, we introduce a framework for the objective and quantitative evaluation of functional PET study segmentation without the need for manual delineation or registration to anatomical images of the patient. The segmentation ...

  18. Monotone Approximations of Minimum and Maximum Functions and Multi-objective Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipanović, Dušan M.; Tomlin, Claire J.; Leitmann, George

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the problem of accomplishing multiple objectives by a number of agents represented as dynamic systems is considered. Each agent is assumed to have a goal which is to accomplish one or more objectives where each objective is mathematically formulated using an appropriate objective function. Sufficient conditions for accomplishing objectives are derived using particular convergent approximations of minimum and maximum functions depending on the formulation of the goals and objectives. These approximations are differentiable functions and they monotonically converge to the corresponding minimum or maximum function. Finally, an illustrative pursuit-evasion game example with two evaders and two pursuers is provided.

  19. Monotone Approximations of Minimum and Maximum Functions and Multi-objective Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipanovic, Dusan M., E-mail: dusan@illinois.edu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Coordinated Science Laboratory, Department of Industrial and Enterprise Systems Engineering (United States); Tomlin, Claire J., E-mail: tomlin@eecs.berkeley.edu [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (United States); Leitmann, George, E-mail: gleit@berkeley.edu [University of California at Berkeley, College of Engineering (United States)

    2012-12-15

    In this paper the problem of accomplishing multiple objectives by a number of agents represented as dynamic systems is considered. Each agent is assumed to have a goal which is to accomplish one or more objectives where each objective is mathematically formulated using an appropriate objective function. Sufficient conditions for accomplishing objectives are derived using particular convergent approximations of minimum and maximum functions depending on the formulation of the goals and objectives. These approximations are differentiable functions and they monotonically converge to the corresponding minimum or maximum function. Finally, an illustrative pursuit-evasion game example with two evaders and two pursuers is provided.

  20. The Impact of Cataract Surgery on Subjective Visual Functions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the impact of cataract surgery on visual functions (VFs) and quality of life (QoL) in patients with cataract at the National Eye Center, Kaduna. Methods: VFs and QoL questionnaires were administered to the patients preoperatively and 6 weeks postoperatively. Correlation was assessed among ...

  1. Ultrasonographic Assessment of Diaphragm Function in Critically Ill Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbrello, Michele; Formenti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The majority of patients admitted to the ICU require mechanical ventilation as a part of their process of care. However, mechanical ventilation itself or the underlying disease can lead to dysfunction of the diaphragm, a condition that may contribute to the failure of weaning from mechanical ventilation. However, extended time on the ventilator increases health-care costs and greatly increases patient morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, symptoms and signs of muscle disease in a bedridden (or bed rest-only) ICU patient are often difficult to assess because of concomitant confounding factors. Conventional assessment of diaphragm function lacks specific, noninvasive, time-saving, and easily performed bedside tools or requires patient cooperation. Recently, the use of ultrasound has raised great interest as a simple, noninvasive method of quantification of diaphragm contractile activity. In this review, we discuss the physiology and the relevant pathophysiology of diaphragm function, and we summarize the recent findings concerning the evaluation of its (dys)function in critically ill patients, with a special focus on the role of ultrasounds. We describe how to assess diaphragm excursion and diaphragm thickening during breathing and the meaning of these measurements under spontaneous or mechanical ventilation as well as the reference values in health and disease. The spread of ultrasonographic assessment of diaphragm function may possibly result in timely identification of patients with diaphragm dysfunction and to a potential improvement in the assessment of recovery from diaphragm weakness. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  2. Turning subjective into objective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, Maria João; Cardoso, Jaime; Amaral, Natália

    2007-01-01

    and consensus over the esthetic evaluation of conservative treatment for breast cancer. Breast 2005] of participants provided the same classification this would be considered a consensual evaluation for that case. For cases where such agreement was not reached, consensus was obtained using a nominal group...

  3. Effect of Biopolishing On Warm–Cool Feeling of Knitted Fabric: A Subjective and An Objective Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangat Asif

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soft and clean surface of fabric without any floating fibers is one of the factors important for better marketing of clothing. The most common method for having such clean fabric surface is the removal of protruding (floating fiber from the surface of the fabric. Many studies have proved that enzymatic treatment, commonly called biopolishing, removes the floating fibers from the surface of fabric and gives a smooth surface to the fabric. This study is an effort to assess and measure the impact of biopolishing of knitted fabric through objective and subjective evaluation on warm-cool feeling of fabric because of change in surface profile of the fabric. For testing purposes, 31 knitted fabric samples of various kinds were produced. Alambeta has been used for measuring thermal absorptivity values of fabric. Thermal absorptivity is an indicator of warm-cool feeling. For subjective evaluation, a group of 30 people were asked to give their opinion about warm-cool feeling. Both subjective and objective assessments confirm that biopolishing has a significant impact on warm-cool feeling. Fabric gives cool feeling after biopolishing. This study explores that clean surface will have higher thermal absorptivity and will give cool feeling when it will be touched by human skin.

  4. Analysis and optimization with ecological objective function of irreversible single resonance energy selective electron heat engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Junle; Chen, Lingen; Ding, Zemin; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-01-01

    Ecological performance of a single resonance ESE heat engine with heat leakage is conducted by applying finite time thermodynamics. By introducing Nielsen function and numerical calculations, expressions about power output, efficiency, entropy generation rate and ecological objective function are derived; relationships between ecological objective function and power output, between ecological objective function and efficiency as well as between power output and efficiency are demonstrated; influences of system parameters of heat leakage, boundary energy and resonance width on the optimal performances are investigated in detail; a specific range of boundary energy is given as a compromise to make ESE heat engine system work at optimal operation regions. Comparing performance characteristics with different optimization objective functions, the significance of selecting ecological objective function as the design objective is clarified specifically: when changing the design objective from maximum power output into maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of efficiency is 4.56%, while the power output drop is only 2.68%; when changing the design objective from maximum efficiency to maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of power output is 229.13%, and the efficiency drop is only 13.53%. - Highlights: • An irreversible single resonance energy selective electron heat engine is studied. • Heat leakage between two reservoirs is considered. • Power output, efficiency and ecological objective function are derived. • Optimal performance comparison for three objective functions is carried out.

  5. OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF ADOLESCENT’S ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT NEEDS AND THEIR IMPACT ON SELF-ESTEEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anshika; Mathur, Anmol; Batra, Manu; Makkar, Diljot Kaur; Aggarwal, Vikram Pal; Goyal, Nikita; Kaur, Puneet

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the presence of association between objective and subjective evaluation of orthodontic treatment needs in adolescents and their impact on their self-esteem. Methods: Cross-sectional study with adolescents aged 10-17 years old in Sri Ganganagar city, Rajasthan, India. The objective index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) dental health component (DHC) and the subjective aesthetic component (AC) were used to determine the normative and the self-perception need for orthodontic treatment, respectively. The selected students were further examined for dental trauma, tooth loss, and dental caries. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was applied for self-esteem level determination. Linear regression analysis was executed to test the individual association of different independent clinical variables with self-esteem scores. Results: Among 1,140 studied adolescents, the prevalence of dental normative orthodontic treatment need was in 56.9% of individuals, whereas 53.3% of individuals considered themselves as needy for the treatment. Multivariate analyses revealed that out of all dental disorders, DHC followed by AC of IOTN had maximum impact on the self-esteem of the adolescence. Conclusions: Dissatisfaction with dental appearance is a strong predictor for low self-esteem in adolescence. PMID:28977320

  6. Comparison of range of motion and function of subjects with reverse anatomy Bayley-Walker shoulder replacement with those of normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjedi, Milad; Lovell, Cara; Johnson, Garth R

    2011-12-01

    Patients with rotator cuff tear and degenerative shoulder joint disease commonly experience severe pain and reduced performance during activities of daily living. A popular way to treat these patients is by means of reverse anatomy shoulder prosthesis. Studying the kinematics of subjects with reverse anatomy implant would be useful in order to gain knowledge about functionality of different designs. It is hypothesized that the kinematics of these subjects, in the absence of rotator cuff muscles, differs from that of normal subjects. In this study the upper limb kinematics of 12 subjects with a Bayley-Walker reverse anatomy shoulder prosthesis while performing tasks common in everyday activities and those that represent the range of motion was analyzed and compared to that of 12 normal subjects. Each patient also completed an Oxford Shoulder Score. Substantial reduction in the Bayley-Walker subjects' ranges of motion was observed compared to normal subjects. The mean abduction angle decreased from 109° (±20) for normal subjects to 64° (±25). A similar trend was observed during flexion and axial rotation tasks. Furthermore, the normal group showed less variable ranges of motion performing the standard tasks, whereas for the prosthetic group this varied greatly, which is likely to be dependent on muscle strength. Although the decreased range of motion was prominent, subjects were able to complete most of the tasks by compensating with their elbow and trunk. The most challenging task for Bayley-Walker subjects was lifting an object to head height. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Objective confirmation of subjective measures of human well-being: evidence from the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Andrew J; Wu, Stephen

    2010-01-29

    A huge research literature, across the behavioral and social sciences, uses information on individuals' subjective well-being. These are responses to questions--asked by survey interviewers or medical personnel--such as, "How happy do you feel on a scale from 1 to 4?" Yet there is little scientific evidence that such data are meaningful. This study examines a 2005-2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System random sample of 1.3 million U.S. citizens. Life satisfaction in each U.S. state is measured. Across America, people's answers trace out the same pattern of quality of life as previously estimated, from solely nonsubjective data, in one branch of economics (so-called "compensating differentials" neoclassical theory, originally from Adam Smith). There is a state-by-state match (r = 0.6, P < 0.001) between subjective and objective well-being. This result has some potential to help to unify disciplines.

  8. An investigation into the strength of the association and agreement levels between subjective and objective sleep duration in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Arora

    Full Text Available The majority of adolescent sleep research has utilized self-reported sleep duration and some have based information on a solitary question. Whilst some have claimed to have validated sleep survey data with objective actigraphy measures in adolescents, the statistical approach applied only demonstrates the strength of the association between subjective and objective sleep duration data and does not reflect if these different methods actually agree.Data were collected as part of the Midlands Adolescents Schools Sleep Education Study (MASSES. Adolescents (n=225 aged 11-13 years provided estimates for weekday, weekend and combined sleep duration based on self-reported survey data, a 7-day sleep diary, and wrist-worn actigraphy.We assessed the strength of the relationship as well as agreement levels between subjective and objectively determined sleep duration (weekday, weekend and combined. Subjective diary sleep duration was significantly correlated with actigraphy estimates for weekday and weekend sleep duration r=0.30, p ≤ 0.001 and r=0.31, p ≤ 0.001 respectively. Pitman's test demonstrated no significant difference in the variance between weekend sleep duration (r=0.09, p=0.16 and combined sleep duration (r=0.12, p=0.08 indicating acceptable agreement between actigraphy and sleep diary sleep duration only. Self-reported sleep duration estimates (weekday, weekend and combined did not agree with actigraphy determined sleep duration.Sleep diaries are a cost-effective alternative to survey/questionnaire data. Self-reported measures of sleep duration in adolescents do not agree with actigraphy measures and should be avoided where possible. Previous adolescent sleep studies that have utilized self-reported survey data may not provide a complete representation of sleep on the outcome measure of interest.

  9. Comparison of subjective and objective methods to determine the retinal arterio-venous ratio using fundus photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekka Heitmar

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Grader education and experience leads to inter-grader differences but more importantly, subjective grading is not capable to pick up subtle differences across healthy individuals and does not represent true AVR when compared with an objective assessment method. Technology advancements mean we no longer rely on opthalmoscopic evaluation but can capture and store fundus images with retinal cameras, enabling us to measure vessel calibre more accurately compared to visual estimation; hence it should be integrated in optometric practise for improved accuracy and reliability of clinical assessments of retinal vessel calibres.

  10. Association between objective and subjective binge eating and psychopathology during a psychological treatment trial for bulimic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Accurso, Erin C; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Ellison, Jo; Smith, Tracey L; Klein, Marjorie H; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-12-01

    Although loss of control (LOC) while eating is a core construct of bulimia nervosa (BN), questions remain regarding its validity and prognostic significance independent of overeating. We examined trajectories of objective and subjective binge eating (OBE and SBE, respectively; i.e., LOC eating episodes involving an objectively or subjectively large amount of food) among adults participating in psychological treatments for BN-spectrum disorders (n = 80). We also explored whether changes in the frequency of these eating episodes differentially predicted changes in eating-related and general psychopathology and, conversely, whether changes in eating-related and general psychopathology predicted differential changes in the frequency of these eating episodes. Linear mixed models with repeated measures revealed that OBE decreased twice as rapidly as SBE throughout treatment and 4-month follow-up. Generalized linear models revealed that baseline to end-of-treatment reductions in SBE frequency predicted baseline to 4-month follow-up changes in eating-related psychopathology, depression, and anxiety, while changes in OBE frequency were not predictive of psychopathology at 4-month follow-up. Zero-inflation models indicated that baseline to end-of-treatment changes in eating-related psychopathology and depression symptoms predicted baseline to 4-month follow-up changes in OBE frequency, while changes in anxiety and self-esteem did not. Baseline to end-of-treatment changes in eating-related psychopathology, self-esteem, and anxiety predicted baseline to 4-month follow-up changes in SBE frequency, while baseline to end-of-treatment changes in depression did not. Based on these findings, LOC accompanied by objective overeating may reflect distress at having consumed an objectively large amount of food, whereas LOC accompanied by subjective overeating may reflect more generalized distress related to one's eating- and mood-related psychopathology. BN treatments should

  11. Long-term functional, subjective and psychological results after single digit replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse the long-term functional, subjective, and psychological results after single-digit replantation. Methods: Thirty cases of digital replantation (14 thumbs, 12 index fingers, 2 middle fingers, 1 ring finger, and 1 little finger in 30 patients (7 females and 23 males with a mean age of 44.2 years (20–65 years were evaluated at the end of a mean follow-up time of 36 months (19–50 months. The active range of motion of joints, grip and pinch strength, cutaneous sensibility, upper-extremity functioning, and subjective satisfaction were determined using the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH questionnaire and the Michigan Hand Outcomes questionnaire (MHQ. Psychological sequelae, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, were assessed. A correlation analysis among variables was also performed. Results: The mean score for the DASH questionnaire was 6.6 (range: 0–39.2. The symptom of cold intolerance occurred in 53% of the patients. Two patients were diagnosed with depression, and only one patient exhibited PTSD. The DASH score had a good statistical correlation with total grip strength, pinch grip strength, and static two-point discrimination (S-2PD (P < 0.05. Several aspects of the MHQ were also statistically relevant to some or all of the three objective results. Furthermore, the grip strength showed significant correlation with DASH and most aspects of the MHQ in multivariate logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Total grip strength is the most important factor positively related to subjective outcomes. The incidence rates of psychological symptoms after digit replantation are very low at long-term follow-up. Level of evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. Keywords: Digit Replantation, DASH score, Posttraumatic stress disorder

  12. Life Estimation of PWR Steam Generator U-Tubes Subjected to Foreign Object-Induced Fretting Wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Jhung, Myung Jo; Kim, Woong Sik; Kim, Hho Jung

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the remaining life prediction of steam generator (SG) U-tubes, which are intact initially, subjected to fretting-wear degradation due to the interaction between a vibrating tube and a foreign object in operating nuclear power plants. The operating SG shell-side flow field conditions are obtained from a three-dimensional SG flow calculation using the ATHOS3 code. Modal analyses are performed for the finite element models of U-tubes to get the natural frequency, corresponding mode shape, and participation factor. The wear rate of a U-tube caused by a foreign object is calculated using the Archard formula, and the remaining life of the tube is predicted. Also discussed in this study are the effects of the tube modal characteristics, external flow velocity, and tube internal pressure on the estimated results of the remaining life of the tube

  13. Subjective and Objective Napping and Sleep in Older Adults: Are Evening Naps ‘Bad’ for Nighttime Sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautovich, Natalie D.; McCrae, Christina S.; Rowe, Meredeth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare objective and subjective measurements of napping, and to examine the relationship between evening napping and nocturnal sleep in older adults. Design For twelve days, participants wore actigraphs and completed sleep diaries. Setting Community Participants 100 individuals who napped, 60–89 years (including good and poor sleepers with typical age-related medical comorbidities). Measurements Twelve days of sleep diary and actigraphy provided subjective and objective napping and sleep data. Results Evening naps (within 2 hours of bedtime) were characteristic of the sample with peak nap time occurring between 20:30–21:00 (average nap time occurred between 14:30–15:00). Two categories of nappers were identified: 1) day/evening – those who took both daytime and evening naps, and 2) daytime-only. Interestingly, no participants napped during the evening only. Day/evening nappers significantly underreported evening napping and demonstrated lower objectively measured sleep onset latencies (20 vs 26.5 minutes), less wake after sleep onset (51.4 vs 72.8 minutes), and higher sleep efficiencies (76.8 vs 82%) than daytime-only nappers. Conclusion Day/evening napping was prevalent amongst this sample of community-dwelling good/poor sleepers, but was not associated with impaired nocturnal sleep. Although the elimination or restriction of napping is a common element of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi), these results suggest that a uniform recommendation to restrict/eliminate napping (particularly evening napping) may not meet the needs of all older individuals with insomnia. PMID:18691289

  14. Robust Optimization Using Supremum of the Objective Function for Nonlinear Programming Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Se Jung; Park, Gyung Jin

    2014-01-01

    In the robust optimization field, the robustness of the objective function emphasizes an insensitive design. In general, the robustness of the objective function can be achieved by reducing the change of the objective function with respect to the variation of the design variables and parameters. However, in conventional methods, when an insensitive design is emphasized, the performance of the objective function can be deteriorated. Besides, if the numbers of the design variables are increased, the numerical cost is quite high in robust optimization for nonlinear programming problems. In this research, the robustness index for the objective function and a process of robust optimization are proposed. Moreover, a method using the supremum of linearized functions is also proposed to reduce the computational cost. Mathematical examples are solved for the verification of the proposed method and the results are compared with those from the conventional methods. The proposed approach improves the performance of the objective function and its efficiency

  15. An objective measure of physical function of elderly outpatients. The Physical Performance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, D B; Siu, A L

    1990-10-01

    Direct observation of physical function has the advantage of providing an objective, quantifiable measure of functional capabilities. We have developed the Physical Performance Test (PPT), which assesses multiple domains of physical function using observed performance of tasks that simulate activities of daily living of various degrees of difficulty. Two versions are presented: a nine-item scale that includes writing a sentence, simulated eating, turning 360 degrees, putting on and removing a jacket, lifting a book and putting it on a shelf, picking up a penny from the floor, a 50-foot walk test, and climbing stairs (scored as two items); and a seven-item scale that does not include stairs. The PPT can be completed in less than 10 minutes and requires only a few simple props. We then tested the validity of PPT using 183 subjects (mean age, 79 years) in six settings including four clinical practices (one of Parkinson's disease patients), a board-and-care home, and a senior citizens' apartment. The PPT was reliable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87 and 0.79, interrater reliability = 0.99 and 0.93 for the nine-item and seven-item tests, respectively) and demonstrated concurrent validity with self-reported measures of physical function. Scores on the PPT for both scales were highly correlated (.50 to .80) with modified Rosow-Breslau, Instrumental and Basic Activities of Daily Living scales, and Tinetti gait score. Scores on the PPT were more moderately correlated with self-reported health status, cognitive status, and mental health (.24 to .47), and negatively with age (-.24 and -.18). Thus, the PPT also demonstrated construct validity. The PPT is a promising objective measurement of physical function, but its clinical and research value for screening, monitoring, and prediction will have to be determined.

  16. Analyzing Brain Functions by Subject Classification of Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Data Using Convolutional Neural Networks Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Hiwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is suitable for noninvasive mapping of relative changes in regional cortical activity but is limited for quantitative comparisons among cortical sites, subjects, and populations. We have developed a convolutional neural network (CNN analysis method that learns feature vectors for accurate identification of group differences in fNIRS responses. In this study, subject gender was classified using CNN analysis of fNIRS data. fNIRS data were acquired from male and female subjects during a visual number memory task performed in a white noise environment because previous studies had revealed that the pattern of cortical blood flow during the task differed between males and females. A learned classifier accurately distinguished males from females based on distinct fNIRS signals from regions of interest (ROI including the inferior frontal gyrus and premotor areas that were identified by the learning algorithm. These cortical regions are associated with memory storage, attention, and task motor response. The accuracy of the classifier suggests stable gender-based differences in cerebral blood flow during this task. The proposed CNN analysis method can objectively identify ROIs using fNIRS time series data for machine learning to distinguish features between groups.

  17. Employee subjective well-being and physiological functioning: An integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuykendall, Lauren; Tay, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that worker subjective well-being influences physiological functioning-an early signal of poor health outcomes. While several theoretical perspectives provide insights on this relationship, the literature lacks an integrative framework explaining the relationship. We develop a conceptual model explaining the link between subjective well-being and physiological functioning in the context of work. Integrating positive psychology and occupational stress perspectives, our model explains the relationship between subjective well-being and physiological functioning as a result of the direct influence of subjective well-being on physiological functioning and of their common relationships with work stress and personal resources, both of which are influenced by job conditions.

  18. Subjective and Objective Measures of Dryness Symptoms in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome: Capturing the Discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzina, Oriana M; Gallagher, Peter; Mitchell, Sheryl; Bowman, Simon J; Griffiths, Bridget; Hindmarsh, Victoria; Hargreaves, Ben; Price, Elizabeth J; Pease, Colin T; Emery, Paul; Lanyon, Peter; Bombardieri, Michele; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Pitzalis, Costantino; Hunter, John; Gupta, Monica; McLaren, John; Cooper, Anne M; Regan, Marian; Giles, Ian P; Isenberg, David A; Saravanan, Vadivelu; Coady, David; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; McHugh, Neil J; Young-Min, Steven A; Moots, Robert J; Gendi, Nagui; Akil, Mohammed; MacKay, Kirsten; Ng, W Fai; Robinson, Lucy J

    2017-11-01

    To develop a novel method for capturing the discrepancy between objective tests and subjective dryness symptoms (a sensitivity scale) and to explore predictors of dryness sensitivity. Archive data from the UK Primary Sjögren's Syndrome Registry (n = 688) were used. Patients were classified on a scale from -5 (stoical) to +5 (sensitive) depending on the degree of discrepancy between their objective and subjective symptoms classes. Sensitivity scores were correlated with demographic variables, disease-related factors, and symptoms of pain, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Patients were on average relatively stoical for both types of dryness symptoms (mean ± SD ocular dryness -0.42 ± 2.2 and -1.24 ± 1.6 oral dryness). Twenty-seven percent of patients were classified as sensitive to ocular dryness and 9% to oral dryness. Hierarchical regression analyses identified the strongest predictor of ocular dryness sensitivity to be self-reported pain and that of oral dryness sensitivity to be self-reported fatigue. Ocular and oral dryness sensitivity can be classified on a continuous scale. The 2 symptom types are predicted by different variables. A large number of factors remain to be explored that may impact symptom sensitivity in primary Sjögren's syndrome, and the proposed method could be used to identify relatively sensitive and stoical patients for future studies. © 2016, The Authors. Arthritis Care & Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Rheumatology.

  19. Objective and subjective evaluation of power plants and their non-radioactive emissions using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzimouratidis, Athanasios I.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2007-01-01

    Non-nuclear power plant emissions are of great concern to the public and to scientists alike. As energy demand tends to rise rapidly, especially in the developing countries, the negative effects to human health and to the environment from gaseous emissions together with hazardous particulate matter released by power plants can no longer be ignored. In this study, the impact of non-radioactive emissions is evaluated with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) by synthesizing objective and subjective criteria. There are five main emissions to be evaluated, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 -eq), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and particulates or particulate matter (PM). Objective evaluation is achieved by expressing the impact of each emission released in monetary terms following generally accepted market rules, international agreements and protocols. That is, the Euro per kilogram of each emission exceeding a specific limit that should be paid as a penalty for environmental pollution and human health damage. Subjective assessment requires an intuitive expression of the percentage of damage to human health and to the ecosystem that each emission causes. Sensitivity analysis is then used in order to examine how change of input data affects final results. Finally, 10 main types of power plant are evaluated according to the level and kind of emissions they release. These types are coal/lignite, oil, natural gas turbine, natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), nuclear, hydro, wind, photovoltaic, biomass and geothermal

  20. Subjective and objective observation of skin graft recovery on Indonesian local cat with different periods of transplantation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin; Gunanti; Handharyani, Ekowati; Noviana, Deni

    2016-05-01

    The success of a skin graft in a cat is highly dependent on the granulation formed by the base of recipient bed. Granulation by the base of recipient bed will form after several days after injury. This research aimed to observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats with different periods of donor skin placement. Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old, weighing 3-4 kg were divided into three groups. The first surgery for creating defect wound of 2 cm×2 cm in size was performed in the whole group. The wound was left for several days with the respective interval for each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days), Group II (for 4 days), and Group III (for 6 days). In the whole group, the second surgery was done by the harvesting skin of thoracic area which then applied on recipient bed of respective groups. The donor skin on Group II was accepted faster compared to Group I and Group III. The donor skin did not show color differences compared to surrounding skin, painless, bright red in bleeding test had faster both hair growth and drug absorption. Test toward the size of donor skin and the effect of drugs did not show a significant difference between each group. The observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats on Group II were accepted faster compared to Group I and III.

  1. Objective and subjective quality assessment of geometry compression of reconstructed 3D humans in a 3D virtual room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuria, Rufael; Cesar, Pablo; Doumanis, Ioannis; Frisiello, Antonella

    2015-09-01

    Compression of 3D object based video is relevant for 3D Immersive applications. Nevertheless, the perceptual aspects of the degradation introduced by codecs for meshes and point clouds are not well understood. In this paper we evaluate the subjective and objective degradations introduced by such codecs in a state of art 3D immersive virtual room. In the 3D immersive virtual room, users are captured with multiple cameras, and their surfaces are reconstructed as photorealistic colored/textured 3D meshes or point clouds. To test the perceptual effect of compression and transmission, we render degraded versions with different frame rates in different contexts (near/far) in the scene. A quantitative subjective study with 16 users shows that negligible distortion of decoded surfaces compared to the original reconstructions can be achieved in the 3D virtual room. In addition, a qualitative task based analysis in a full prototype field trial shows increased presence, emotion, user and state recognition of the reconstructed 3D Human representation compared to animated computer avatars.

  2. The special status of verbal knowledge in semantic memory: evidence from performance of semantically impaired subjects on verbalizable and non-verbalizable versions of the object decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannino, Gian Daniele; Perri, Roberta; Monaco, Marco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Luzzi, Simona; Carlesimo, Giovanni A

    2014-01-01

    According to the semantic hub hypothesis, a supramodal semantic hub is equally needed to deal with verbal and extraverbal "surface" representations. Damage to the supramodal hub is thought to underlie the crossmodal impairment observed in selective semantic deficits. In the present paper, we provide evidence supporting an alternative view: we hold that semantic impairment is not equal across domains but affects verbal behavior disproportionately. We investigated our hypothesis by manipulating the verbal load in an object decision task. Two pathological groups showing different levels of semantic impairment were enrolled together with their normal controls. The severe group included 10 subjects with semantic dementia and the mild group 10 subjects with Alzheimer's disease. In keeping with our hypothesis, when shifting from the low verbal load to the high verbal load condition, brain-damaged individuals, as compared to controls, showed a disproportionate impairment as a function of the severity of their semantic deficit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. It felt fluent, and I liked it: subjective feeling of fluency rather than objective fluency determines liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Michael; Leder, Helmut; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    According to the processing-fluency explanation of aesthetics, more fluently processed stimuli are preferred (R. Reber, N. Schwarz, & P. Winkielman, 2004, Processing fluency and aesthetic pleasure: Is beauty in the perceiver's processing experience? Personality and Social Psychology Review, Vol. 8, pp. 364-382.). In this view, the subjective feeling of ease of processing is considered important, but this has not been directly tested in perceptual processing. In two experiments, we therefore objectively manipulated fluency (ease of processing) with subliminal perceptual priming (Study 1) and variations in presentation durations (Study 2). We assessed the impact of objective fluency on feelings of fluency and liking, as well as their interdependence. In line with the processing-fluency account, we found that objectively more fluent images were indeed judged as more fluent and were also liked more. Moreover, differences in liking were even stronger when data were analyzed according to felt fluency. These findings demonstrate that perceptual fluency is not only explicitly felt, it can also be reported and is an important determinant of liking. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Selection of Objective Function For Imbalanced Classification: An Industrial Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Abdul Rauf; Schiøler, Henrik; Kulahci, Murat

    2017-01-01

    In this article we discuss the issue of selecting suitable objective function for Genetic Algorithm to solve an imbalanced classification problem. More precisely, first we discuss the need of specialized objective function to solve a real classification problem from our industrial partner and the...... and then we compare the results of our proposed objective function with commonly used candidates to serve this purpose. Our comparison is based on the analysis of real data collected during the quality control stages of the manufacturing process....

  5. Added value of integrated circuit detector in head CT: objective and subjective image quality in comparison to conventional detector design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Andreas; Bender, Benjamin; Spira, Daniel; Schabel, Christoph; Bhadelia, Rafeeque; Claussen, Claus; Ernemann, Ulrike; Brodoefel, Harald

    2014-12-01

    A new computed tomography (CT) detector with integrated electric components and shorter conducting pathways has recently been introduced to decrease system inherent electronic noise. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential benefit of such integrated circuit detector (ICD) in head CT by comparing objective and subjective image quality in low-dose examinations with a conventional detector design. Using a conventional detector, reduced-dose noncontrast head CT (255 mAs; effective dose, 1.7 mSv) was performed in 25 consecutive patients. Following transition to ICD, 25 consecutive patients were scanned using identical imaging parameters. Images in both groups were reconstructed with iterative reconstruction (IR) and filtered back projection (FBP) and assessed in terms of quantitative and qualitative image quality. Acquisition of head CT using ICD increased signal-to-noise ratio of gray and white matter by 14% (10.0 ± 1.6 vs. 11.4 ± 2.5; P = .02) and 17% (8.2 ± 0.8 vs. 9.6 ± 1.5; P = .000). The associated improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio was 12% (2.0 ± 0.5 vs. 2.2 ± 0.6; P = .121). In addition, there was a 51% increase in objective image sharpness (582 ± 85 vs. 884.5 ± 191; change in HU/Pixel; P < .000). Compared to standard acquisitions, subjective grading of noise and overall image quality scores were significantly improved with ICD (2.1 ± 0.3 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3; P < .000; 2.0 ± 0.5 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3; P = .001). Moreover, streak artifacts in the posterior fossa were substantially reduced (2.3 ± 0.7 vs. 1.7 ± 0.5; P = .004). At the same radiation level, acquisition of head CT with ICD achieves superior objective and subjective image quality and provides potential for significant dose reduction. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Overcoming the Subject-Object Dichotomy in Urban Modeling: Axial Maps as Geometric Representations of Affordances in the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Marcus

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The world is witnessing unprecedented urbanization, bringing extreme challenges to contemporary practices in urban planning and design. This calls for improved urban models that can generate new knowledge and enhance practical skill. Importantly, any urban model embodies a conception of the relation between humans and the physical environment. In urban modeling this is typically conceived of as a relation between human subjects and an environmental object, thereby reproducing a humans-environment dichotomy. Alternative modeling traditions, such as space syntax that originates in architecture rather than geography, have tried to overcome this dichotomy. Central in this effort is the development of new representations of urban space, such as in the case of space syntax, the axial map. This form of representation aims to integrate both human behavior and the physical environment into one and the same description. Interestingly, models based on these representations have proved to better capture pedestrian movement than regular models. Pedestrian movement, as well as other kinds of human flows in urban space, is essential for urban modeling, since increasingly flows of this kind are understood as the driver in urban processes. Critical for a full understanding of space syntax modeling is the ontology of its' representations, such as the axial map. Space syntax theory here often refers to James Gibson's “Theory of affordances,” where the concept of affordances, in a manner similar to axial maps, aims to bridge the subject-object dichotomy by neither constituting physical properties of the environment or human behavior, but rather what emerges in the meeting between the two. In extension of this, the axial map can be interpreted as a representation of how the physical form of the environment affords human accessibility and visibility in urban space. This paper presents a close examination of the form of representations developed in space syntax

  7. Association between subjective risk perception and objective risk estimation in patients with atrial fibrillation: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweiker, David; Zweiker, Robert; Winkler, Elisabeth; Roesch, Konstantina; Schumacher, Martin; Stepan, Vinzenz; Krippl, Peter; Bauer, Norbert; Heine, Martin; Reicht, Gerhard; Zweiker, Gudrun; Sprenger, Martin; Watzinger, Norbert

    2017-09-25

    Oral anticoagulation (OAC) is state-of-the-art therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common arrhythmia worldwide. However, little is known about the perception of patients with AF and how it correlates with risk scores used by their physicians. Therefore, we correlated patients' estimates of their own stroke and bleeding risk with the objectively predicted individual risk using CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc and HAS-BLED scores. Cross-sectional prevalence study using convenience sampling and telephone follow-up. Eight hospital departments and one general practitioner in Austria. Patients' perception of stroke and bleeding risk was opposed to commonly used risk scoring. Patients with newly diagnosed AF and indication for anticoagulation. Comparison of subjective risk perception with CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc and HAS-BLED scores showing possible discrepancies between subjective and objective risk estimation. Patients' judgement of their own knowledge on AF and education were also correlated with accuracy of subjective risk appraisal. Ninety-one patients (age 73±11 years, 45% female) were included in this study. Subjective stroke and bleeding risk estimation did not correlate with risk scores (ρ=0.08 and ρ=0.17). The majority of patients (57%) underestimated the individual stroke risk. Patients feared stroke more than bleeding (67% vs 10%). There was no relationship between accurate perception of stroke and bleeding risks and education level. However, we found a correlation between the patients' judgement of their own knowledge of AF and correct assessment of individual stroke risk (ρ=0.24, p=0.02). During follow-up, patients experienced the following events: death (n=5), stroke (n=2), bleeding (n=1). OAC discontinuation rate despite indication was 3%. In this cross-sectional analysis of OAC-naive patients with AF, we found major differences between patients' perceptions and physicians' assessments of risks and benefits of OAC. To ensure shared decision-making and informed

  8. Long-term adherence to antimuscarinic drugs when treating overactive bladder in the older: Subjective reason and objective factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Vladimirovich Kosilov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Comparison of subjective reasons for the refusal of antimuscarinic treatment and the state of objective economic, social, psychological and health status markers in the elderly with overactive bladder. Materials and Methods: One thousand seven hundred thirty-six (1,736 patients participated in the experiment: 1,036 or 59.7% of women, and 700 or 40.3% of men aged over 60 years (average age, 68.1 years who took antimuscarinic (AM drugs during the year. The control of objective parameters was carried out by studying patients’ medical records, the use of overactive bladder questionnaire short form and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Shor-Form Health Survey, voiding diaries, uroflowmetry, as well as income certificates from the Tax Inspectorate, support documentation for expenses on drugs. Results: Fifty-two point six percent (52.6% of patients preserved adherence to treatment during the first 6 months, 30.1% – during the follow-up period. The average time of reaching a 30-day break in the AM drugs administration was 174 days. In 36.5% of cases of the refusal of treatment, patients referred to medical reasons for the refusal, in 31.6% of cases disturbance was established in objective health status markers (differences were significant in 30% of the follow-up time. The percentage of refusals of treatment for social and psychological reasons (13.2% was significantly lower (p≤0.05, than the percentage of individuals with statuses altered objectively (21.9%. Conclusions: A significant share of elderly patients taking AM drugs when treating overactive bladder is inclined to overestimate the importance of health factors influencing their decisions and to underestimate the importance of social and psychological factors, and an urologist should take it into account for the efficacy evaluation.

  9. Comparison of objective and subjective factors in the adherence to antimuscarinics when treating overactive bladder in employed persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosilov, Kirill Vladimirovich; Loparev, Sergey; Kuzina, Irina; Prokofyeva, Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    This study examines subjective reasons for the refusal of treatment and the state of objective status markers of various factors influencing the resistance of patients when treating overactive bladder by antimuscarinic drugs (AMs). The socioeconomic and medical parameters were studied in 2465 patients aged 18-60 years (1446 women (58.7%), 1019 men (41.3%); mean age was 52.1) taking AMs during the year. The study control was carried out by studying passport data, employers' income certificates, patients' ambulatory medical records, the use of OABq-SF and MOS SF-36 questionnaires, voiding diaries and uroflowmetry. The average time to reach the 30-day break in the AM administration was 177 days. During the 12-month follow up, 74.7% of patients discontinued their participation. In total, 35.9% of patients stated medical reasons for the refusal of AM treatment; in 31.9% of individuals in the group the deviation of objective health status markers from average sample values was established. Economic reasons for the refusal were given by 20.4% of patients; in 18.5% of individuals economic status markers were different from average sample values. In 24.1% of cases of refusal of treatment, patients indicated social and psychological reasons; objective social and psychological status markers were altered in 35.9%. The percentage of patients indicating economic and medical reasons for the refusal of AM treatment is statistically uniform with respect to the percentage of patients with objective disturbances of health and economic statuses. The percentage of patients indicating social and psychological factors as a reason for the refusal of treatment was significantly lower than the percentage of patients with altered social and psychological status markers. These results can be used in practical healthcare when predicting adherence to AM use.

  10. Airway function, inflammation and regulatory T cell function in subjects in asthma remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Turcott, Hélène; Plante, Sophie; Chakir, Jamila

    2012-01-01

    Factors associated with asthma remission need to be determined, particularly when remission occurs in adulthood. To evaluate airway responsiveness and inflammation in adult patients in asthma remission compared with adults with mild, persistent symptomatic asthma. Adenosine monophosphate and methacholine responsiveness were evaluated in 26 patients in complete remission of asthma, 16 patients in symptomatic remission of asthma, 29 mild asthmatic patients and 15 healthy controls. Blood sampling and induced sputum were also obtained to measure inflammatory parameters. Perception of breathlessness at 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s was similar among groups. In subjects with symptomatic remission of asthma, responsiveness to adenosine monophosphate and methacholine was intermediate between mild asthma and complete asthma remission, with the latter group similar to controls. Asthma remission was associated with a shorter duration of disease. Blood immunoglobulin E levels were significantly increased in the asthma group, and blood eosinophils were significantly elevated in the complete asthma remission, symptomatic remission and asthma groups compared with controls. The suppressive function of regulatory T cells was lower in asthma and remission groups compared with controls. A continuum of asthma remission was observed, with patients in complete asthma remission presenting features similar to controls, while patients in symptomatic asthma remission appeared to be in an intermediate state between complete asthma remission and symptomatic asthma. Remission was associated with a shorter disease duration. Despite remission of asthma, a decreased suppressor function of regulatory T cells was observed, which may predispose patients to future recurrence of the disease.

  11. Study of tonotopic brain changes with functional MRI and FDG-PET in a patient with unilateral objective cochlear tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinchard, A-C; Ghazaleh, Naghmeh; Saenz, M; Fornari, E; Prior, J O; Maeder, P; Adib, S; Maire, R

    2016-11-01

    We studied possible brain changes with functional MRI (fMRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in a patient with a rare, high-intensity "objective tinnitus" (high-level SOAEs) in the left ear of 10 years duration, with no associated hearing loss. This is the first case of objective cochlear tinnitus to be investigated with functional neuroimaging. The objective cochlear tinnitus was measured by Spontaneous Otoacoustic Emissions (SOAE) equipment (frequency 9689 Hz, intensity 57 dB SPL) and is clearly audible to anyone standing near the patient. Functional modifications in primary auditory areas and other brain regions were evaluated using 3T and 7T fMRI and FDG-PET. In the fMRI evaluations, a saturation of the auditory cortex at the tinnitus frequency was observed, but the global cortical tonotopic organization remained intact when compared to the results of fMRI of healthy subjects. The FDG-PET showed no evidence of an increase or decrease of activity in the auditory cortices or in the limbic system as compared to normal subjects. In this patient with high-intensity objective cochlear tinnitus, fMRI and FDG-PET showed no significant brain reorganization in auditory areas and/or in the limbic system, as reported in the literature in patients with chronic subjective tinnitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Two years' outcome of thread lifting with absorbable barbed PDO threads: Innovative score for objective and subjective assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Yasser Helmy

    2018-02-01

    Thread-lifting rejuvenation procedures have evolved again, with the development of absorbable threads. Although they have gained popularity among plastic surgeons and dermatologists, very few articles have been written in literature about absorbable threads. This study aims to evaluate two years' outcome of thread lifting using absorbable barbed threads for facial rejuvenation. Prospective comparative stud both objectively and subjectively and follow-up assessment for 24 months. Thread lifting for face rejuvenation has significant long-lasting effects that include skin lifting from 3-10 mm and high degree of patients' satisfaction with less incidence rate of complications, about 4.8%. Augmented results are obtained when thread lifting is combined with other lifting and rejuvenation modalities. Significant facial rejuvenation is achieved by thread lifting and highly augmented results are observed when they are combined with Botox, fillers, and/or platelet rich plasma (PRP) rejuvenations.

  13. Semantic and functional relationships among objects increase the capacity of visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Ryan E; Clement, Andrew; Brockmole, James R

    2018-04-12

    Visual working memory (VWM) has a limited capacity of approximately 3-4 visual objects. Current theories of VWM propose that a limited pool of resources can be flexibly allocated to objects, allowing them to be represented at varying levels of precision. Factors that influence the allocation of these resources, such as the complexity and perceptual grouping of objects, can thus affect the capacity of VWM. We sought to identify whether semantic and functional relationships between objects could influence the grouping of objects, thereby increasing the functional capacity of VWM. Observers viewed arrays of 8 to-be-remembered objects arranged into 4 pairs. We manipulated both the semantic association and functional interaction between the objects, then probed participants' memory for the arrays. When objects were semantically related, participants' memory for the arrays improved. Participants' memory further improved when semantically related objects were positioned to interact with each other. However, when we increased the spacing between the objects in each pair, the benefits of functional but not semantic relatedness were eliminated. These findings suggest that action-relevant properties of objects can increase the functional capacity of VWM, but only when objects are positioned to directly interact with each other. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Valsartan Improves β-Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Subjects With Impaired Glucose Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zijl, Nynke J.; Moors, Chantalle C.M.; Goossens, Gijs H.; Hermans, Marc M.H.; Blaak, Ellen E.; Diamant, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recently, the Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research Trial demonstrated that treatment with the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) valsartan for 5 years resulted in a relative reduction of 14% in the incidence of type 2 diabetes in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM). We investigated whether improvements in β-cell function and/or insulin sensitivity underlie these preventive effects of the ARB valsartan in the onset of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this randomized controlled, double-blind, two-center study, the effects of 26 weeks of valsartan (320 mg daily; n = 40) or placebo (n = 39) on β-cell function and insulin sensitivity were assessed in subjects with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance, using a combined hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamp with subsequent arginine stimulation and a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Treatment effects were analyzed using ANCOVA, adjusting for center, glucometabolic status, and sex. RESULTS Valsartan increased first-phase (P = 0.028) and second-phase (P = 0.002) glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared with placebo, whereas the enhanced arginine-stimulated insulin secretion was comparable between groups (P = 0.25). In addition, valsartan increased the OGTT-derived insulinogenic index (representing first-phase insulin secretion after an oral glucose load; P = 0.027). Clamp-derived insulin sensitivity was significantly increased with valsartan compared with placebo (P = 0.049). Valsartan treatment significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with placebo (P valsartan treatment increased glucose-stimulated insulin release and insulin sensitivity in normotensive subjects with IGM. These findings may partly explain the beneficial effects of valsartan in the reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21330640

  15. Subjective and objective observation of skin graft recovery on Indonesian local cat with different periods of transplantation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The success of a skin graft in a cat is highly dependent on the granulation formed by the base of recipient bed. Granulation by the base of recipient bed will form after several days after injury. This research aimed to observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats with different periods of donor skin placement. Materials and Methods: Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old, weighing 3-4 kg were divided into three groups. The first surgery for creating defect wound of 2 cm×2 cm in size was performed in the whole group. The wound was left for several days with the respective interval for each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days, Group II (for 4 days, and Group III (for 6 days. In the whole group, the second surgery was done by the harvesting skin of thoracic area which then applied on recipient bed of respective groups. Result: The donor skin on Group II was accepted faster compared to Group I and Group III. The donor skin did not show color differences compared to surrounding skin, painless, bright red in bleeding test had faster both hair growth and drug absorption. Test toward the size of donor skin and the effect of drugs did not show a significant difference between each group. Conclusion: The observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats on Group II were accepted faster compared to Group I and III.

  16. The Neural Correlates of Spatial and Object Working Memory in Elderly and Parkinson’s Disease Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia P. Caminiti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This fMRI study deals with the neural correlates of spatial and objects working memory (SWM and OWM in elderly subjects (ESs and idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD. Normal aging and IPD can be associated with a WM decline. In IPD population, some studies reported similar SWM and OWM deficits; others reported a greater SWM than OWM impairment. In the present fMRI research, we investigated whether compensated IPD patients and elderly subjects with comparable performance during the execution of SWM and OWM tasks would present differences in WM-related brain activations. We found that the two groups recruited a prevalent left frontoparietal network when performing the SWM task and a bilateral network during OWM task execution. More specifically, the ESs showed bilateral frontal and subcortical activations in SWM, at difference with the IPD patients who showed a strict left lateralized network, consistent with frontostriatal degeneration in IPD. The overall brain activation in the IPD group was more extended as number of voxels with respect to ESs, suggesting underlying compensatory mechanisms. In conclusion, notwithstanding comparable WM performance, the two groups showed consistencies and differences in the WM activated networks. The latter underline the compensatory processes of normal typical and pathological aging.

  17. The Impact of Shift Work on Brazilian Train Drivers with Different Chronotypes: A Comparative Analysis through Objective and Subjective Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Fernandes Jr., Silvio; Stetner Antonietti, Leandro; Saba, Amanda; Paulino de Faria, Alexandre; Maculano Esteves, Andrea; Tufik, Sergio; Túlio de Mello, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare sleep pattern, tiredness sensation and quality of life between different chronotypes in train drivers from a Brazilian transportation company. Subjects and Methods Ninety-one train drivers, working a rotary work schedule including night shift, were divided into three groups according to their chronotype (morning types, intermediate or evening types) and were assessed for their sleep and quality of life, as characterized by a subjective questionnaire and the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), applied before and immediately after the night shift. The pattern of activity and rest was measured for 10 days by actigraphy, and the chronotype was determined through the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Results Forty-one (45.1s%) individuals were classified as morning type, 44 (48.4s%) were classified as intermediate and 6 (6.6s%) as evening type. The evening types had a tendency to remain awake for a longer period of time before the night shift (p = 0.05) and scored worse overall for quality of life compared to morning types (p = 0.11). There was no significant difference between the groups regarding variability in the PVT performance, even when covaried by the period of waking time before the test. There was no significant difference either in feelings of fatigue before and after starting the shift. Conclusion Although the evening type number was small, evening type individuals scored worse relative to sleep and quality of life than morning type individuals. PMID:23328130

  18. Subjective cognitive concerns are associated with objective memory performance in Caucasian but not African-American persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jonathan D; Rentz, Dorene M; Aghjayan, Sarah L; Buckley, Rachel F; Meneide, Tamy-Fee; Sperling, Reisa A; Amariglio, Rebecca E

    2017-11-01

    subjective cognitive concerns (SCC) have been proposed as a means of identifying individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the utility of SCCs has not been well-explored for African-Americans, who are twice as likely to develop AD dementia as Caucasians. We investigated whether race affects the association between SCCs and objective memory performance. we used a composite of three SCC questionnaires, and three challenging episodic memory tests. We studied 289 (61% female; African-American n = 47) clinically normal older individuals. Two hierarchical linear regressions assessed the modifying role of race on the association between SCC and objective memory performance. The first regression was conducted on the full sample, while the second matched the racial groups on age, estimated verbal IQ and socioeconomic status. in the full sample, both groups reported similar levels of SCCs, P = 0.10, although African-Americans performed worse on the memory tasks, P memory among Caucasians, r = -0.401, the correlation was not found among African-Americans, r = -0.052. results suggest that the dissociation between SCCs and memory performance in African-Americans may indicate qualitative differences in how diverse groups endorse cognitive concerns, even after considering socioeconomic and educational factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Multi-objective optimal planning of the stand-alone microgrid system based on different benefit subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Li; Wang, Nan; Lu, Hai; Li, Xialin; Wang, Chengshan

    2016-01-01

    As an important means to realize the energetic complementarity and improve the efficiency of renewable resources, the stand-alone microgrid (SAMG) system gains attention increasingly, especially in islands and remote areas. In this paper, considering the interest conflict of the distribution company and the distributed generation owner, a new multi-objective optimal planning model is formulated for medium voltage SAMG. Besides, to avoid the power constraint of distributed generation (DG) once the over-limit voltage occurs, a novel two-step power dispatch control method including the voltage regulation strategy is proposed, in which the absorption of distributed power by energy storage system (ESS) and the reactive power adjustment though its power control system are used to regulate voltage. The goal of this paper is to search the Pareto-optimal front of the site and capacity of DG as well as the contract price between both parties, and thus can provide effective references for practical planning of SAMG. Considering the high cost of ESS, the investment analysis of ESS is also discussed in the paper. - Highlights: • A multi-objective planning model based on different benefit subjects is proposed. • A two-step power dispatch method including the voltage regulation is proposed. • The economical efficiency of the proposed model is analyzed. • The effective reference for the stand-alone microgrid planning is provided.

  20. Bradykinin or acetylcholine as vasodilators to test endothelial venous function in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida R. Rabelo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The evaluation of endothelial function has been performed in the arterial bed, but recently evaluation within the venous system has also been explored. Endothelial function studies employ different drugs that act as endothelium-dependent vasodilatory response inductors. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to compare the endothelium-dependent venous vasodilator response mediated by either acetylcholine or bradykinin in healthy volunteers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in vein diameter after phenylephrine-induced venoconstriction were measured to compare venodilation induced by acetylcholine or bradykinin (linear variable differential transformer dorsal hand vein technique. We studied 23 healthy volunteers; 31% were male, and the subject had a mean age of 33 ± 8 years and a mean body mass index of 23 ± 2 kg/m². The maximum endothelium-dependent venodilation was similar for both drugs (p = 0.13, as well as the mean responses for each dose of both drugs (r = 0.96. The maximum responses to acetylcholine and bradykinin also had good agreement. CONCLUSION: There were no differences between acetylcholine and bradykinin as venodilators in this endothelial venous function investigation.

  1. On the convex hull of the simple integer recourse objective function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haneveld, Willem K.; Stougie, L.; van der Vlerk, Maarten H.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the objective function of a simple integer recourse problem with fixed technology matrix. Using properties of the expected value function, we prove a relation between the convex hull of this function and the expected value function of a continuous simple recourse program. We present an

  2. Prevalence of Hand-transmitted Vibration Exposure among Grass-cutting Workers using Objective and Subjective Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmir, N. A.; Yahya, M. N.

    2017-01-01

    Extended exposure to hand-transmitted vibration from vibrating machine is associated with an increased occurrence of symptoms of occupational disease related to hand disorder. The present case study is to determine the prevalence and correlation of significant subjective as well as objective variables that induce to hand arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) among hand-held grass-cutting workers in Malaysia. Thus, recommendations are made for grass-cutting workers and grass maintenance service management based on findings. A cross sectional study using adopted subjective Hand Arm Vibration Exposure Risk Assessment (HAVERA) questionnaire from Vibration Injury Network on hand disorder signs and symptoms was distributed to a sample of one hundred and sixty eight male workers from grass and turf maintenance industry that use vibrating machine as part of their work. For objective measure, hand-transmitted vibration measurement was collected on site during operation by the following ISO 5349-1, 2001. Two groups were identified in this research comprising of high exposure group and low-moderate exposure group. Workers also gave information about their personal identification, social history, workers’ health, occupational history and machine safety inspection. There was positive HAVS symptoms relationship between the low-moderate exposure group and high exposure group among hand-held grass-cutting workers. The prevalence ratio (PR) was considered high for experiencing white colour change at fingers and fingers go numb which are 3.63 (1.41 to 9.39) and 4.24 (2.18 to 8.27), respectively. The estimated daily vibration exposure, A(8) differs between 2.1 to 20.7 ms-2 for right hand while 2.7 to 29.1 ms-2 for left hand. The subjects claimed that the feel of numbness at left hand is much stronger compared to right hand. The results suggest that HAVS is diagnosed in Malaysia especially in agriculture sector. The A(8) indicates that the exposure value is more than exposure limit value

  3. Studies on combined model based on functional objectives of large scale complex engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuting, Wang; Jingchun, Feng; Jiabao, Sun

    2018-03-01

    As various functions were included in large scale complex engineering, and each function would be conducted with completion of one or more projects, combined projects affecting their functions should be located. Based on the types of project portfolio, the relationship of projects and their functional objectives were analyzed. On that premise, portfolio projects-technics based on their functional objectives were introduced, then we studied and raised the principles of portfolio projects-technics based on the functional objectives of projects. In addition, The processes of combined projects were also constructed. With the help of portfolio projects-technics based on the functional objectives of projects, our research findings laid a good foundation for management of large scale complex engineering portfolio management.

  4. Infants' Developing Sensitivity to Object Function: Attention to Features and Feature Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Heidi A.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    When learning object function, infants must detect relations among features--for example, that squeezing is associated with squeaking or that objects with wheels roll. Previously, Perone and Oakes (2006) found 10-month-old infants were sensitive to relations between object appearances and actions, but not to relations between appearances and…

  5. The Slippery Road from Actions on Objects to Functions and Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Tamar; Leron, Uri

    2009-01-01

    Functions are all around us, disguised as actions on concrete objects. Composition of functions, too, is all around us, because these actions can be performed in succession, the output of one serving as the input for the next. In terms of Gray and Tall's (2001) "embodied objects" or Lakoff and Nunez's (2000) "mathematical idea…

  6. Fighting Depression: Action Video Game Play May Reduce Rumination and Increase Subjective and Objective Cognition in Depressed Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Berna, Fabrice; Lüdtke, Thies; Gallinat, Jürgen; Moritz, Steffen

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are common in depression and may persist following the resolution of affective symptoms. However, therapeutic strategies that successfully target cognitive impairments are lacking. Recent work has demonstrated that playing action video games leads to improvements in cognition, in particular executive function, in healthy individuals. We therefore set out to test whether playing video games can reduce symptoms associated with depression. We focussed on depressive symptoms and on rumination, since rumination is a good predictor of depression and may contribute to triggering depression. We recruited 68 clinically depressed individuals (mean age: 46 years, 47 females) that were randomized into the training group playing a fast paced action video game for 6 weeks or a waitlist control group. Before and after training participants completed online questionnaires and a neuropsychological test battery. Only participants who actually played the game were included in the analysis. The final sample consisted of n = 21 training group and n = 29 waitlist control group. The training group showed significantly higher subjective cognitive ability, as well as lower self-reported rumination at posttest in contrast to the control group (although these findings do not survive Bonferroni correction). On a subsample with cognitive performance data ( n = 19) we detected an improvement in executive function (Trail Making Task A and B) in the training compared with the control group. The results show that the fast paced action video game employed in the present study improved Trail Making performance and may reduce rumination and enhance subjective cognitive ability. Future research may focus on the investigation of the precise cognitive profile of effects.

  7. Fighting Depression: Action Video Game Play May Reduce Rumination and Increase Subjective and Objective Cognition in Depressed Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Kühn

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits are common in depression and may persist following the resolution of affective symptoms. However, therapeutic strategies that successfully target cognitive impairments are lacking. Recent work has demonstrated that playing action video games leads to improvements in cognition, in particular executive function, in healthy individuals. We therefore set out to test whether playing video games can reduce symptoms associated with depression. We focussed on depressive symptoms and on rumination, since rumination is a good predictor of depression and may contribute to triggering depression. We recruited 68 clinically depressed individuals (mean age: 46 years, 47 females that were randomized into the training group playing a fast paced action video game for 6 weeks or a waitlist control group. Before and after training participants completed online questionnaires and a neuropsychological test battery. Only participants who actually played the game were included in the analysis. The final sample consisted of n = 21 training group and n = 29 waitlist control group. The training group showed significantly higher subjective cognitive ability, as well as lower self-reported rumination at posttest in contrast to the control group (although these findings do not survive Bonferroni correction. On a subsample with cognitive performance data (n = 19 we detected an improvement in executive function (Trail Making Task A and B in the training compared with the control group. The results show that the fast paced action video game employed in the present study improved Trail Making performance and may reduce rumination and enhance subjective cognitive ability. Future research may focus on the investigation of the precise cognitive profile of effects.

  8. Associations Between Parental SES and Children's Health-Related Quality of Life: The Role of Objective and Subjective Social Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kay W; Wallander, Jan L; Peskin, Melissa; Cuccaro, Paula; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A

    2018-06-01

    We examined (1) the relationship that parental objective social status (OSS) and subjective social status (SSS) have with children's health-related quality of life (HRQOL), (2) whether SSS mediates the association between OSS and HRQOL, and (3) whether these associations differ among Black, Latino, and White children. Data came from 4,824 Black, Latino, and White 5th graders in the Healthy PassagesTM study. OSS was measured as parent educational attainment and net equivalent household income. SSS was measured by parent rating of community and national standing on the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status. Child HRQOL was measured with child report on the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) physical and psychosocial scales. Structural equation modeling path analysis was conducted using Mplus version 7.4. The data supported the hypothesized measurement and structural models. Whereas parental OSS was positively related to psychosocial HRQOL for all three racial/ethnic groups and to physical HRQOL for Latino children, parental SSS was not related to either for any of the racial/ethnic groups. Therefore, mediation by SSS was not supported for any group. OSS was confirmed to have stronger association with children's HRQOL than parental SSS. This is in contrast to some research on adults, raising the questions of how best to assess SSS relevant to children and at what point in development SSS may influence children's health and well-being. The persistent relationship found between parental OSS and child health suggests that efforts to improve low socioeconomic resources in families may contribute to improve children's health.

  9. Subjective Cognitive Complaints and Functional Disability in Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder and Their Nonaffected First-Degree Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Lam, Jaeger; McMain, Shelley F

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the contributions of subjective cognitive complaints to functional disability in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their nonaffected relatives. Method: Patients with BPD (n = 26), their first-degree biological relatives (n = 17), and nonpsychiatric control subjects (n = 31) completed a self-report measure of cognitive difficulties and rated the severity of their functional disability on the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Results: After accounting for group differences in age and severity of depressive symptoms, patients and relatives endorsed more inattention and memory problems than control subjects. Whereas probands reported greater disability than relatives and control subjects across all functional domains, relatives described more difficulties than control subjects in managing multiple life activities, including domestic activities and occupational and academic functioning, and participating in society. For both probands and relatives, inattention and memory problems were linked primarily to difficulties with life activities, independent of depression and other comorbid psychiatric disorders. Conclusions: Problems with inattention and forgetfulness may lead to difficulties carrying out activities of daily living and occupational or academic problems in patients with BPD, as well as their nonaffected first-degree relatives. PMID:25007408

  10. Next Day Subjective and Objective Recovery Indices Following Acute Low and High Training Loads in Academy Rugby Union Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Noon

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of selected subjective and objective monitoring assessments in detecting changes in group and individual responses to low and high load bouts of high intensity intermittent exercise. In a counterbalanced crossover design, Thirteen Academy Rugby Union players (mean ± SD: age: 18 ± 1 years performed a low load (15 min and a high load (90 min bout of high intensity intermittent exercise (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test one week apart. Monitoring assessments were performed immediately prior to and 20 h following each trial. Subjective self-report Well-being Questionnaire (WQ items showed small to large deteriorations following the high load compared to low load (d = 0.4–1.5, p = 0.03–0.57. A very large increase in resting HR (HRrest (d = 2.1, p = 0.02, moderate decrease in heart rate variability (HRV indices (d = 0.7, p = 0.04 and d = 0.7, p = 0.01 for the natural logarithm of the standard deviation of R-R intervals (ln SDNN and the root square of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals (rMSSD, respectively and no change in countermovement jump (d = 0.0, p = 0.97 were evident following the high load compared to low load. Individual WQ responses revealed 7/9, 7/9, 6/9, 6/9, 5/9, 3/9 and 1/9 participants reported deteriorations in recovery, sleep quality, motivation, muscle soreness, fatigue, stress and appetite, respectively, following the high load compared to low load. Individual analysis indicated a negative response following the high load compared to low load in HRrest, ln SDNN and ln rMSSD for 4/6, 2/6 and 1/6 participants, respectively. Selected WQ items detected group and individual responses to high load and low load highlighting their potential utility. However, objective assessments lacked the sensitivity to detect small individual changes.

  11. Multi-subject Manifold Alignment of Functional Network Structures via Joint Diagonalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenning, Karl-Heinz; Kollndorfer, Kathrin; Schöpf, Veronika; Prayer, Daniela; Langs, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging group studies rely on the ability to establish correspondence across individuals. This enables location specific comparison of functional brain characteristics. Registration is often based on morphology and does not take variability of functional localization into account. This can lead to a loss of specificity, or confounds when studying diseases. In this paper we propose multi-subject functional registration by manifold alignment via coupled joint diagonalization. The functional network structure of each subject is encoded in a diffusion map, where functional relationships are decoupled from spatial position. Two-step manifold alignment estimates initial correspondences between functionally equivalent regions. Then, coupled joint diagonalization establishes common eigenbases across all individuals, and refines the functional correspondences. We evaluate our approach on fMRI data acquired during a language paradigm. Experiments demonstrate the benefits in matching accuracy achieved by coupled joint diagonalization compared to previously proposed functional alignment approaches, or alignment based on structural correspondences.

  12. Subjective and objective evaluation of one’s physical fitness – the role of self-esteem, motivation, and the need for social approval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Piasecka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose of the work: Physical fitness is an important aspect of human life that can have an impact on biological, social, and psychological functioning. The aim of the research was to compare students who were engaged and those who were not engaged in sport in terms of self-evaluation of own physical fitness and performance in the Functional Movement ScreenTM. The analyses also included the role of motivation, self-esteem, and the need for social approval. Material and method: The participants of the study were students who do sports (n = 30 and those who are not engaged in a sport activity (n = 30 at one Polish university (aged 18-24 years, Mage = 21,23; SD = 1,5. The following instruments were used in the research: Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Social Approval Test (TAS-27, Sport Motivation Scale-II (SMS-II, Functional Movement ScreenTM (FMSTM, Survey about own physical fitness and sport related information.Results: The results revealed that active and inactive students differed in the subjective scores in the FMSTM and evaluation of own physical fitness. However, in both groups similar scores in self-esteem and the need for social approval were present. Subjective evaluation (made by the subjects of own performance in the FMSTM was rated lower than objective one (made by the researchers in both groups. The FMSTM scores (both objective and subjective were related to different types of motivation. The lowest mean values were noted for external motivation and amotivation. Conclusions: The research has shown differences, in evaluation of physical fitness and FMSTM score - which can inform about the risk of potential injury - between the students who were engaged and those who were not engaged in sport. Motivation, need for social approval and self-esteem were mutually related. They can play an important role in shaping the belief about one's physical fitness and the effect of one's performance, although further investigations are

  13. Influence of cilazapril on memory functions and sleep behaviour in comparison with metoprolol and placebo in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, B; Herrmann, W M

    1989-01-01

    1. In a controlled, randomized, double-blind study the influence of cilazapril and metoprolol on learning and memory functions and on sleep behaviour was investigated in healthy young volunteers under steady-state conditions. Twenty-three subjects were given either 2.5 mg cilazapril, 200 mg metoprolol, or placebo for 14 days in a latin square design separated by washout periods of 7 days. 2. To test memory functions different modalities--verbal, visual, numerical associative and two dimensional spatial memory were tested for recent anterograde recall, both short-term (less than 10 s) and middle-term (up to 15 min) were selected. The test had a content similar to that used in daily life situations. The sleep behaviour was tested both by objective (all night sleep EEG) and subjective measures. 3. Neither antihypertensive drug had an observable influence on memory performance at the dosages used under steady-state conditions. However, sleep was disturbed during metoprolol, while cilazapril could not be differentiated from placebo. The effects of metoprolol on sleep behaviour were observed in the objective and subjective measures. There was more frequent awakening during the night with the subjective complaint of difficulties in sleeping through. 4. From this study it is concluded that cilazapril has no major effect on memory functions and sleep behaviour. This is only true for the dosages given and under steady-state conditions.

  14. The impact of differences between subjective and objective social class on life satisfaction among the Korean population in early old age: Analysis of Korean longitudinal study on aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Several previous studies have established the relationship between the effects of socioeconomic status or subjective social strata on life satisfaction. However, no previous study has examined the relationship between social class and life satisfaction in terms of a disparity between subjective and objective social status. To investigate the relationship between differences in subjective and objective social class and life satisfaction. Data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging with 8252 participants aged 45 or older was used. Life satisfaction was measured by the question, "How satisfied are you with your quality of life?" The main independent variable was differences in objective (income and education) and subjective social class, which was classified according to nine categories (ranging from high-high to low-low). This association was investigated by linear mixed model due to two waves data nested within individuals. Lower social class (income, education, subjective social class) was associated with dissatisfaction. The impact of objective and subjective social class on life satisfaction varied according to the level of differences in objective and subjective social class. Namely, an individual's life satisfaction declined as objective social classes decreased at the same level of subjective social class (i.e., HH, MH, LH). In both dimensions of objective social class (education and income), an individual's life satisfaction declined as subjective social class decreased by one level (i.e., HH, HM, HL). Our findings indicated that social supports is needed to improve the life satisfaction among the population aged 45 or more with low social class. The government should place increased focus on policies that encourage not only the life satisfaction of the Korean elderly with low objective social class, but also subjective social class. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Subjective cognitive complaints, psychosocial factors and nursing work function in nurses providing direct patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbe, Tammy; Kimble, Laura P; Rubenstein, Cynthia

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relationships among subjective cognitive complaints, psychosocial factors and nursing work function in nurses providing direct patient care. Cognitive functioning is a critical component for nurses in the assurance of error prevention, identification and correction when caring for patients. Negative changes in nurses' cognitive and psychosocial functioning can adversely affect nursing care and patient outcomes. A descriptive correlational design with stratified random sampling. The sample included 96 nurses from the major geographic regions of the United States. Over 9 months in 2016-2017, data were collected using a web-based survey. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine relationships among subjective cognitive complaints, psychosocial factors and nursing work function. Overall, participants reported minimal work function impairment and low levels of subjective cognitive complaints, depression and stress. In multivariate analyses, depression was not associated with nurses' work function. However, perceived stress and subjective concerns about cognitive function were associated with greater impairment of work function. Nurses experiencing subjective cognitive complaints should be encouraged to address personal and environmental factors that are associated with their cognitive status. Additionally, stress reduction in nurses should be a high priority as a potential intervention to promote optimal functioning of nurses providing direct patient care. Healthcare institutions should integrate individual and institutional strategies to reduce factors contributing to workplace stress. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Influence of temple headache frequency on physical functioning and emotional functioning in subjects with temporomandibular disorder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Thomas; John, Mike T; Ohrbach, Richard; Schiffman, Eric L; Truelove, Edmond L; Anderson, Gary C

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of headache frequency with patient-reported physical functioning and emotional functioning in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) subjects with concurrent temple headache. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) Validation Project identified, as a subset of 614 TMD cases and 91 controls (n = 705), 309 subjects with concurrent TMD pain diagnoses (RDC/TMD) and temple headache. The temple headaches were subdivided into infrequent, frequent, and chronic headache according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICHD-II). Study variables included self-report measures of physical functioning (Jaw Function Limitation Scale [JFLS], Graded Chronic Pain Scale [GCPS], Short Form-12 [SF-12]) and emotional functioning (depression and anxiety as measured by the Symptom Checklist-90R/SCL-90R). Differences among the three headache subgroups were characterized by increasing headache frequency. The relationship between ordered headache frequency and physical as well as emotional functioning was analyzed using linear regression and trend tests for proportions. Physical functioning, as assessed with the JFLS (P headache frequency. Emotional functioning, reflected in depression and anxiety, was also associated with increased frequency of headache (both P Headache frequency was substantially correlated with reduced physical functioning and emotional functioning in subjects with TMD and concurrent temple headaches. A secondary finding was that headache was precipitated by jaw activities more often in subjects with more frequent temple headaches.

  17. The tell-tale heart: heart rate fluctuations index objective and subjective events during a game of chess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, María J; Petroni, Agustín; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Sigman, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    During a decision-making process, the body changes. These somatic changes have been related to specific cognitive events and also have been postulated to assist decision-making indexing possible outcomes of different options. We used chess to analyze heart rate (HR) modulations on specific cognitive events. In a chess game, players have a limited time-budget to make about 40 moves (decisions) that can be objectively evaluated and retrospectively assigned to specific subjectively perceived events, such as setting a goal and the process to reach a known goal. We show that HR signals events: it predicts the conception of a plan, the concrete analysis of variations or the likelihood to blunder by fluctuations before to the move, and it reflects reactions, such as a blunder made by the opponent, by fluctuations subsequent to the move. Our data demonstrate that even if HR constitutes a relatively broad marker integrating a myriad of physiological variables, its dynamic is rich enough to reveal relevant episodes of inner thought.

  18. A subjective and objective fuzzy-based analytical hierarchy process model for prioritization of lean product development practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O. Aikhuele

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a subjective and objective fuzzy-based Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP model is proposed. The model which is based on a newly defined evaluation matrix replaces the fuzzy comparison matrix (FCM in the traditional fuzzy AHP model, which has been found ineffective and time-consuming when criteria/alternatives are increased. The main advantage of the new model is that it is straightforward and completely eliminates the repetitive adjustment of data that is common with the FCM in traditional AHP model. The model reduces the complete dependen-cy on human judgment in prioritization assessment since the weights values are solved automati-cally using the evaluation matrix and the modified priority weight formula in the proposed mod-el. By virtue of a numerical case study, the model is successfully applied in the determination of the implementation priorities of lean practices for a product development environment and com-pared with similar computational methods in the literature.

  19. Differences in the eyes of the beholders: The roles of subjective and objective judgments in sexual harassment claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Katherine M K; Farnum, Katlyn S; Wiener, Richard L; Allen, Jill; Nuss, Gwenith D; Gervais, Sarah J

    2016-06-01

    In 2 studies, we found support for current sexual harassment jurisprudence. Currently, the courts use a 2-prong test to determine the viability of a sexual harassment claim: that the adverse treatment is sufficiently severe or pervasive to alter conditions of employment based on a protected class from the perspective of the individual complainant (subjective prong) and from the perspective of a reasonable person (objective prong). In Experiment 1, trained male undergraduate research assistants administered sequential objectifying gazes and comments to undergraduate female research participants. We found that the pervasive objectification delivered by multiple men (compared with 1 man) did not elicit more negative emotion or harm the experiencers' task performance, although it did lead them to make increased judgments of sexual harassment. In Experiment 2, observers (who viewed a recording of an experiencer's interactions with the male research assistants) and predictors (who read a protocol describing the facts of the interaction) anticipated the female targets would experience negative emotions, show impaired performance, as well as find more evidence in the interaction of sexual harassment. Observers' judgments mirrored those of the experiencers' while predictors' judgments demonstrated affective forecasting errors. Predictors were more likely to anticipate more negative emotion, worse performance, and greater likelihood of sexual harassment. Overall, these studies demonstrate the impact and importance of considering perceptions of sexual harassment from multiple perspectives and viewpoints. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. High Cycle Fatigue Performance in Laser Shock Peened TC4 Titanium Alloys Subjected to Foreign Object Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sihai; Nie, Xiangfan; Zhou, Liucheng; Li, Yiming; He, Weifeng

    2018-03-01

    During their service, titanium alloys are likely to suffer from the foreign object damage (FOD), resulting in a decrease in their fatigue strength. Laser shock peening (LSP) has been proved to effectively increase the damage tolerance of military engine components by introducing a magnitude compressive residual stress in the near-surface layer of alloys. In this paper, smooth specimens of a TC4 titanium alloy were used and treated by LSP and subsequently exposed to FOD, which was simulated by firing a steel sphere with a nominal velocity of 300 m/s, at 90° with the leading edge of the LSP-treated region using a light gas gun. All impacted specimens were then subjected to fatigue loading. The results showed that LSP could effectively improve the fatigue strength of the damaged specimens. The effect of LSP on the fatigue strength was assessed through fracture observations, microhardness tests and residual stress analyses. The residual stresses due to the plastic deformation caused by LSP and the FOD impact, which were found to play a crucial role on the fatigue strength, were determined using the commercial software ABAQUS.

  1. Subjective alveolar nerve function after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy or distraction osteogenesis of mandible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, E.M.; Horsthuis, R.B.G.; de Lange, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present retrospective cohort study compared the subjective inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) function after distraction osteogenesis (DOG) and bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) in mandibular advancement surgery. Materials and Methods: Treatment consisted of correction of a

  2. Subjective Alveolar Nerve Function After Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy or Distraction Osteogenesis of Mandible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Erik M.; Horsthuis, Roy B. G.; de Lange, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present retrospective cohort study compared the subjective inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) function after distraction osteogenesis (DOG) and bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) in mandibular advancement surgery. Materials and Methods: Treatment consisted of correction of a

  3. A method for computing the stationary points of a function subject to linear equality constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uko, U.L.

    1989-09-01

    We give a new method for the numerical calculation of stationary points of a function when it is subject to equality constraints. An application to the solution of linear equations is given, together with a numerical example. (author). 5 refs

  4. The development of object function and manipulation knowledge: evidence from a semantic priming study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Collette

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Object semantics include object function and manipulation knowledge. Function knowledge refers to the goal attainable by using an object (e.g. the function of a key is to open or close a door while manipulation knowledge refers to gestures one has to execute to use an object appropriately (e.g. a key is held between the thumb and the index, inserted into the door lock and then turned.To date, several studies have assessed function and manipulation knowledge in brain lesion patients as well as in healthy adult populations. In patients with left brain damage, a double dissociation between these two types of knowledge has been reported; on the other hand, behavioral studies in healthy adults show that function knowledge is processed faster than manipulation knowledge. Empirical evidence has shown that object interaction in children differs from that in adults, suggesting that the access to function and manipulation knowledge in children might also differ.To investigate the development of object function and manipulation knowledge, 51 typically developing 8-9-10 year-old children and 17 healthy young adults were tested on a naming task associated with a semantic priming paradigm (190-ms SOA; prime duration: 90 ms in which a series of line drawings of manipulable objects were used. Target objects could be preceded by three priming contexts: related (e.g. knife-scissors for function; key-screwdriver for manipulation, unrelated but visually similar (e.g. glasses-scissors; baseball bat-screwdriver, and purely unrelated (e.g. die-scissors; tissue-screwdriver.Results showed a different developmental pattern of function and manipulation priming effects. Function priming effects were not present in children and emerged only in adults, with faster naming responses for targets preceded by objects sharing the same function. In contrast, manipulation priming effects were already present in 8-year-olds with faster naming responses for targets preceded by objects

  5. Metabolic mapping of functional activity in human subjects with the [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.H.; Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.

    1981-01-01

    The 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose technique was used to measure regional cerebral glucose utilization by human subjects during functional activation. Normal male volunteers subjected to one or more sensory stimuli exhibited focal increases in glucose metabolism in response to the stimulus. These results demonstrate that the technique is capable of providing functional maps in vivo related to both body region and submodality of sensory information in the human brain

  6. Effect of Pitching Consecutive Days in Youth Fast-Pitch Softball Tournaments on Objective Shoulder Strength and Subjective Shoulder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillington, S Andrew; Brophy, Robert H; Wright, Rick W; Smith, Matthew V

    2017-05-01

    The windmill pitching motion has been associated with risk for shoulder injury. Because there are no pitching limits on youth fast-pitch softball pitchers, these athletes often pitch multiple games across consecutive days. Strength changes, fatigue levels, and shoulder pain that develop among female fast-pitch pitchers over the course of consecutive days of pitching have not been investigated. Over the course of 2- and 3-day fast-pitch softball tournaments, pitchers will develop progressive objective weakness and increased subjective shoulder fatigue and pain without complete recovery between days. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Fourteen female fast-pitch softball pitchers between the ages of 14 and 18 years were evaluated for strength and fatigue changes across 2- and 3-day tournaments. At the beginning and end of each day of tournament play, pitchers were asked to quantify shoulder fatigue and shoulder pain levels of their dominant throwing arm using a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS). Shoulder abduction, flexion, external rotation, internal rotation, elbow flexion, and elbow extension strength measurements were gathered using a handheld dynamometer. Over the course of an average single day of tournament participation, pitchers developed significant increases in VAS scores for shoulder fatigue (median, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.0) and pain (median, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.5-2.3) and significant strength loss in all tested motions. Pitchers also developed significant increases in VAS shoulder fatigue (median, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.5-5.5), VAS shoulder pain (median, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.0-4.5), and strength loss in all tested motions over the entire tournament. Shoulder pain, fatigue, and strength do not fully recover between days. The accumulation of subjective shoulder pain and fatigue over the course of tournament play were closely correlated. Among youth female fast-pitch softball pitchers, there is a progressive increase in shoulder fatigue, pain, and weakness over the

  7. Effect of pitching consecutive days in youth softball tournaments on objective shoulder strength and subjective shoulder symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillington, S. Andrew; Brophy, Robert H.; Wright, Rick W.; Smith, Matthew V.

    2017-01-01

    Background The windmill pitching motion has been associated with risk for shoulder injury. Since there are no pitching limits on youth fast-pitch softball pitchers, these athletes often pitch multiple games across consecutive days. Strength changes, fatigue levels, and shoulder pain that develop among female fast-pitch pitchers over the course of consecutive days of pitching have not been investigated. Hypothesis Over the course of 2 and 3-day fast-pitch softball tournaments, pitchers will develop progressive objective weakness and increased subjective shoulder fatigue and pain without complete recovery between days. Study Design Cross-Sectional Study. Methods Female fast-pitch softball pitchers between the ages of 14 and 18 who were pitching in 2 and 3-day tournaments were recruited for study participation. At the beginning and end of each day of tournament play, pitchers were asked to quantify shoulder fatigue and shoulder pain levels of their dominant throwing arm using a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS). Shoulder abduction, flexion, external rotation, internal rotation, elbow flexion, and elbow extension strength measurements were gathered using a hand-held dynamometer. Results Over the course of an average single day of tournament participation, pitchers developed significant increases in VAS shoulder fatigue (2.0, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.0), and pain (1.3, 95% CI: 0.5 to 2.3) and significant strength loss in all tested motions. Pitchers also developed significant increases in VAS shoulder fatigue (3.5, 95% CI: 1.5 to 5.5), VAS shoulder pain (2.5, 95% CI: 1.0 to 4.5) and strength loss in all tested motions over the entire tournament. Shoulder pain, fatigue, and strength do not fully recover between days. The accumulation of subjective shoulder pain and fatigue over the course of tournament play were closely correlated. Conclusion Among youth female fast-pitch softball pitchers, there is a progressive increase in shoulder fatigue, pain, and weakness over the course

  8. [Changes in functional state during occupational activities in workers at objects for chemical weapons destruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The authors studied functional state before and after the working shift in workers at objects for chemical weapons destruction, analyzed changes in central and peripheral hemodynamics parameters, vegetative regulation of heart rhythm, stabilographic and psychophysiologic values.

  9. Waveform inversion with exponential damping using a deconvolution-based objective function

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-01-01

    The lack of low frequency components in seismic data usually leads full waveform inversion into the local minima of its objective function. An exponential damping of the data, on the other hand, generates artificial low frequencies, which can

  10. Objective and subjective comparison of standard 2-D and fully 3-D reconstructed data on a PET/CT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Klaus; Rüdy, Matthias; Treyer, Valerie; Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Burger, Cyrill; Hany, Thomas F

    2007-07-01

    The relative advantage of fully 3-D versus 2-D mode for whole-body imaging is currently the focus of considerable expert debate. The nature of 3-D PET acquisition for FDG PET/CT theoretically allows a shorter scan time and improved efficiency of FDG use than in the standard 2-D acquisition. We therefore objectively and subjectively compared standard 2-D and fully 3-D reconstructed data for FDG PET/CT on a research PET/CT system. In a total of 36 patients (mean 58.9 years, range 17.3-78.9 years; 21 male, 15 female) referred for known or suspected malignancy, FDG PET/CT was performed using a research PET/CT system with advanced detector technology with improved sensitivity and spatial resolution. After 45 min uptake, a low-dose CT (40 mAs) from head to thigh was performed followed by 2-D PET (emission 3 min per field) and 3-D PET (emission 1.5 min per field) with both seven slices overlap to cover the identical anatomical region. Acquisition time was therefore 50% less (seven fields; 21 min vs. 10.5 min). PET data was acquired in a randomized fashion, so in 50% of the cases 2-D data was acquired first. CT data was used for attenuation correction. 2-D (OSEM) and 3-D PET images were iteratively reconstructed. Subjective analysis of 2-D and 3-D images was performed by two readers in a blinded, randomized fashion evaluating the following criteria: sharpness of organs (liver, chest wall/lung), overall image quality and detectability and dignity of each identified lesion. Objective analysis of PET data was investigated measuring maximum standard uptake value with lean body mass (SUV(max,LBM)) of identified lesions. On average, per patient, the SUV(max) was 7.86 (SD 7.79) for 2-D and 6.96 (SD 5.19) for 3-D. On a lesion basis, the average SUV(max) was 7.65 (SD 7.79) for 2-D and 6.75 (SD 5.89) for 3-D. The absolute difference on a paired t-test of SUV 3-D-2-D based on each measured lesion was significant with an average of -0.956 (P=0.002) and an average of -0.884 on a

  11. SUBJECTIVE AND OBJECTIVE ESTIMATION OF THE LEVEL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SERVICE OF CONSERVING HEALTH STATUS IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2014-06-01

    . One of the most important publications in which this connection is emphasized is the report of the American Ministry of Health, called Physical activity and health (1996, which gives a number of useful effects on health status of people who participated in some form of physical activity. Exact minimal volume and intensity of physical activity enough to cause positive effects on health status is still unknown, so the estimation of elements of physical form related to health became important for many institutions occupied with health of people. Discussion: For each of the above mentioned elements of physical form related to health, there were different subjective and objective procedures established that can be used for their estimation. Carpensen CJ. Powell KE, Cristenson GM Besides (1985, it is very important to take into account a clear aim for which a certain estimation is done, because it enables implementation of the most appropriate protocol for estimation of each element of physical form. In that sense, subjective and objective estimation of the level of physical activity of an individual is essential for preservation and improvement of their health status. References: American College for Sports Medicine, Guildelines for exericise testing and Prescription.8th ed. Philadelphia: 2009 Lippincott Williams&Wilkins, 248-52. Carpensen CJ, Powell KE, Cristenson GM (1985. Physical activity , ehercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for healt-related research. Public Health Rep., 100(2, 126-31. U.S. Department of Healt and Human Services and Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention. Physical Activity and health: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta (GA: 1996 National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 89-90.

  12. Physical activity and sedentary behavior measured objectively and subjectively in overweight and obese adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janney, Carol A; Ganguli, Rohan; Tang, Gong; Cauley, Jane A; Holleman, Robert G; Richardson, Caroline R; Kriska, Andrea M

    2015-10-01

    Describe objective and subjective physical activity levels and time spent being sedentary in adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (SZO/SA). Baseline physical activity and sedentary behaviors were assessed among 46 overweight and obese community-dwelling adults (aged 18-70 years; BMI > 27 kg/m(2)) diagnosed with SZO/SA by DSM-IV-TR, with mild symptom severity (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score physical activity levels, measured using actigraphs, in WAIST were compared to a nationally representative sample of users (n = 46) and nonusers (n = 46) of mental health service (MHS) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2004) matched by sex, BMI, and age. On average, adults with SZO/SA wore actigraphs more than 15 h/d for 7 days averaging 151,000 counts/d. The majority of monitoring time (81%) was classified as sedentary (approximately 13 h/d). Moderate/vigorous and light physical activity accounted for only 2% (19 min/d) and 17% (157 min/d) of monitoring time/d, respectively. Primary source of activity was household activities (409 ± 438 min/wk). Fifty-three percent reported walking for transportation or leisure. Adults with SZO/SA were significantly less active (176 min/d) and more sedentary (756 min/d) than NHANES users of MHS (293 and 640 min/d, respectively) and nonusers of MHS (338 and 552 min/d, respectively) (P physical activity; and significantly less active than NHANES users and nonusers of MHS. This sedentary lifestyle is significantly lower than those of other inactive US populations, is costly for the individual and community, and highlights the need for physical activity promotion and interventions in this high risk population. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  13. Condiciones objetivas y subjetivas de trabajo y trastornos psicofísicos Objective and subjective working conditions and psychophysical disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Pulido-Navarro

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la relación entre las condiciones laborales, los trastornos psicofísicos y la valoración sobre el contenido del trabajo en una industria químico farmacéutica en México. Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal a través de la aplicación de tres instrumentos: una guía de observación del proceso de trabajo, una guía para valorar las condiciones de seguridad e higiene en la empresa y una encuesta epidemiológica (N = 377. Los resultados muestran un proceso laboral muy automatizado, pero con una organización del trabajo principalmente fordista. Se encontraron fuertes asociaciones entre conjuntos de exigencias y conjuntos patológicos. La percepción que la población en estudio tiene de su trabajo (valoración, satisfacción, contenido, apoyo social muestra relación con algunos daños a la salud. Se pudo concluir que tanto las condiciones objetivas de trabajo como las subjetivas juegan un papel importante en la generación de enfermedades en los trabajadores.The relationship between working conditions, psychophysical disorders, and employees' attitudes towards their jobs were analyzed in a pharmaceutical factory in Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted using three instruments: guided observation of job processes, guided evaluation of health and safety conditions, and an epidemiological questionnaire (N = 377. Tasks were found to be automated to a considerable degree, but organization was basically Fordist. Strong associations were found between sets of job requirements and certain groups of health outcomes. In the study population, perception of the job (attitude, satisfaction, control, and social support showed an association with certain health problems. The study concluded that both subjective and objective occupational conditions play an important role in workers' health.

  14. Water Resource Vulnerability Characteristics by District’s Population Size in a Changing Climate Using Subjective and Objective Weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Sung Chung

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to derive water resource vulnerability characteristics for South Korea according to individual district populations in a changing climate. The definition of water resource vulnerability in this study consists of potential flood damage and potential water scarcity. To quantify these vulnerabilities, key factors, or indicators affecting vulnerability, are integrated with a technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS, which is a multi-criteria decision-making approach to determine the optimal alternative by considering both the best and worst solutions. The weight for each indicator is determined based on both the Delphi technique and Shannon’s entropy, which are employed to reduce the uncertainty in the process of determining the weights. The Delphi technique reflects expert opinions, and Shannon’s entropy reflects the uncertainty of the performance data. Under A1B climate change scenarios, medium-sized districts (200,000–300,000 inhabitants are the most vulnerable regarding potential flood damage; the largest districts (exceeding 500,000 inhabitants are found to be the most vulnerable with respect to potential water scarcity. This result indicates that the local governments of cities or districts with more than 200,000 inhabitants should implement better preventative measures for water resources. In addition, the Delphi and entropy methods show the same rankings for flood vulnerability; however, these approaches produce slightly different rankings regarding water scarcity vulnerability. Therefore, it is suggested that rankings from not only subjective but also objective weights should be considered in making a final decision to implement specific adaptive measures to climate change.

  15. From digital earth to digital neighbourhood: A study of subjective measures of walkability attributes in objectively assessed digital neighbourhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, S; Ho, C S

    2014-01-01

    According to IEA report (2011), about 23% of the World's CO 2 emissions result from transport and this is one of the few areas where emissions are still rapidly increasing. The use of private vehicles is one of the principle contributors to green house gas emissions from transport sector. Therefore this paper focuses on the shift to more sustainable and low carbon forms of transportation mode such as walking. Neighbourhood built environment attributes may influence walkability. For this study, the author used a modified version of the ''Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale'' to make comparison between respondents' perceptions regarding attributes of two neighborhoods of Putrajaya. The 21st Century really needs planners to use the Digital Earth Concept, to go from global to regional to national to very local issues, using integrated, advanced technologies such as earth observation, GIS, virtual reality, etc. For this research, two (2) neighborhoods of different densities (High and Low density) were selected. A sample total of 381(195 and 186) between 7 to 65 years old participants were selected For subjective measures we used 54 questions questionnaire survey where as for the objective measures we used desktop 9.3 version of Arc GIS soft ware. Our results shows that respondents who reside in high-walkable neighbourhood precinct 9 in Putrajaya rated factors such as residential density, land use mix, proximity to destination and street connectivity, consistently higher then did respondents of the low walkable neighbourhood precinct 8 in Putrajaya

  16. Original article Subjective and objective determinants of the satisfaction from the cooperation in a dance couple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Budnik-Przybylska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Dance is an extremely complicated sports discipline, which combines features of the “original” form of dance associated with the expression of self and one’s emotions while maintaining the qualities of a competitive sport. It is particularly important for the cooperation of a couple to develop a relationship during training so that the partners feel satisfaction from working with each other, but are also pleased with the results in the discipline in which they train. The aim of this study was to analyse the factors responsible for the satisfaction with cooperation in a couple, which included, among other things, the dance level, degree of involvement and responsibility of each partner for the development of the couple. Participants and procedure The study involved 30 dance couples aged 13-26 years (M = 16.48, SD = 2.16. Participants completed two questionnaires (Own Poll and the Dyadic Trust Scale [DTS] and provided demographic information in a quiet environment, usually at their education or training facilities. Results The results indicated the importance of their own and perceived partner involvement in the development of the couple for the satisfaction from the success in the sport. It is surprising, however, that the results reveal no association between dance experience and satisfaction of practising sport analysed in the study. Conclusions Satisfaction plays an important role in relationships of pair dancers. In dancing, satisfaction may derive from subjective rather than objective factors, mainly those related to the relationship in the couple.

  17. Disorganized Symptoms and Executive Functioning Predict Impaired Social Functioning in Subjects at Risk for Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Eslami, Ali; Jahshan, Carol; Cadenhead, Kristin S.

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of social functioning deficits were assessed in 22 individuals “at risk” for psychosis. Disorganized symptoms and executive functioning predicted social functioning at follow-up. Early intervention efforts that focus on social and cognitive skills are indicated in this vulnerable population.

  18. Interactive Preference Learning of Utility Functions for Multi-Objective Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Dewancker, Ian; McCourt, Michael; Ainsworth, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Real-world engineering systems are typically compared and contrasted using multiple metrics. For practical machine learning systems, performance tuning is often more nuanced than minimizing a single expected loss objective, and it may be more realistically discussed as a multi-objective optimization problem. We propose a novel generative model for scalar-valued utility functions to capture human preferences in a multi-objective optimization setting. We also outline an interactive active learn...

  19. Functional Dissociations within the Ventral Object Processing Pathway: Cognitive Modules or a Hierarchical Continuum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Rosemary A.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Saksida, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the organization and function of the ventral object processing pathway. The prevailing theoretical approach in this field holds that the ventral object processing stream has a modular organization, in which visual perception is carried out in posterior regions and visual memory is carried out, independently, in the anterior temporal…

  20. Baseline social amotivation predicts 1-year functioning in UHR subjects: A validation and prospective investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Max; Abdul Rashid, Nur Amirah; Lee, Sara-Ann; Lim, Jeanette; Foussias, George; Fervaha, Gagan; Ruhrman, Stephan; Remington, Gary; Lee, Jimmy

    2015-12-01

    Social amotivation and diminished expression have been reported to underlie negative symptomatology in schizophrenia. In the current study we sought to establish and validate these negative symptom domains in a large cohort of schizophrenia subjects (n=887) and individuals who are deemed to be Ultra-High Risk (UHR) for psychosis. Confirmatory factor analysis conducted on PANSS item domains demonstrate that the dual negative symptom domains exist in schizophrenia and UHR subjects. We further sought to examine if these negative symptom domains were associated with functioning in UHR subjects. Linear regression analyses confirmed that social amotivation predicted functioning in UHR subjects prospectively at 1 year follow up. Results suggest that the association between social amotivation and functioning is generalisable beyond schizophrenia populations to those who are at-risk of developing psychosis. Social amotivation may be an important dimensional clinical construct to be studied across a range of psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  1. Employee subjective well-being and physiological functioning: An integrative model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Kuykendall

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that worker subjective well-being influences physiological functioning—an early signal of poor health outcomes. While several theoretical perspectives provide insights on this relationship, the literature lacks an integrative framework explaining the relationship. We develop a conceptual model explaining the link between subjective well-being and physiological functioning in the context of work. Integrating positive psychology and occupational stress perspectives, our model explains the relationship between subjective well-being and physiological functioning as a result of the direct influence of subjective well-being on physiological functioning and of their common relationships with work stress and personal resources, both of which are influenced by job conditions.

  2. Audiovisual functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation reveals multisensory integration effects in object-related sensory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehrmann, Oliver; Weigelt, Sarah; Altmann, Christian F; Kaiser, Jochen; Naumer, Marcus J

    2010-03-03

    Information integration across different sensory modalities contributes to object recognition, the generation of associations and long-term memory representations. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation to investigate the presence of sensory integrative effects at cortical levels as early as nonprimary auditory and extrastriate visual cortices, which are implicated in intermediate stages of object processing. Stimulation consisted of an adapting audiovisual stimulus S(1) and a subsequent stimulus S(2) from the same basic-level category (e.g., cat). The stimuli were carefully balanced with respect to stimulus complexity and semantic congruency and presented in four experimental conditions: (1) the same image and vocalization for S(1) and S(2), (2) the same image and a different vocalization, (3) different images and the same vocalization, or (4) different images and vocalizations. This two-by-two factorial design allowed us to assess the contributions of auditory and visual stimulus repetitions and changes in a statistically orthogonal manner. Responses in visual regions of right fusiform gyrus and right lateral occipital cortex were reduced for repeated visual stimuli (repetition suppression). Surprisingly, left lateral occipital cortex showed stronger responses to repeated auditory stimuli (repetition enhancement). Similarly, auditory regions of interest of the right middle superior temporal gyrus and sulcus exhibited repetition suppression to auditory repetitions and repetition enhancement to visual repetitions. Our findings of crossmodal repetition-related effects in cortices of the respective other sensory modality add to the emerging view that in human subjects sensory integrative mechanisms operate on earlier cortical processing levels than previously assumed.

  3. Sensitivity of Calibrated Parameters and Water Resource Estimates on Different Objective Functions and Optimization Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaram Houshmand Kouchi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The successful application of hydrological models relies on careful calibration and uncertainty analysis. However, there are many different calibration/uncertainty analysis algorithms, and each could be run with different objective functions. In this paper, we highlight the fact that each combination of optimization algorithm-objective functions may lead to a different set of optimum parameters, while having the same performance; this makes the interpretation of dominant hydrological processes in a watershed highly uncertain. We used three different optimization algorithms (SUFI-2, GLUE, and PSO, and eight different objective functions (R2, bR2, NSE, MNS, RSR, SSQR, KGE, and PBIAS in a SWAT model to calibrate the monthly discharges in two watersheds in Iran. The results show that all three algorithms, using the same objective function, produced acceptable calibration results; however, with significantly different parameter ranges. Similarly, an algorithm using different objective functions also produced acceptable calibration results, but with different parameter ranges. The different calibrated parameter ranges consequently resulted in significantly different water resource estimates. Hence, the parameters and the outputs that they produce in a calibrated model are “conditioned” on the choices of the optimization algorithm and objective function. This adds another level of non-negligible uncertainty to watershed models, calling for more attention and investigation in this area.

  4. A two-level parallel direct search implementation for arbitrarily sized objective functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, S.A.; Shadid, N.; Moffat, H.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    In the past, many optimization schemes for massively parallel computers have attempted to achieve parallel efficiency using one of two methods. In the case of large and expensive objective function calculations, the optimization itself may be run in serial and the objective function calculations parallelized. In contrast, if the objective function calculations are relatively inexpensive and can be performed on a single processor, then the actual optimization routine itself may be parallelized. In this paper, a scheme based upon the Parallel Direct Search (PDS) technique is presented which allows the objective function calculations to be done on an arbitrarily large number (p{sub 2}) of processors. If, p, the number of processors available, is greater than or equal to 2p{sub 2} then the optimization may be parallelized as well. This allows for efficient use of computational resources since the objective function calculations can be performed on the number of processors that allow for peak parallel efficiency and then further speedup may be achieved by parallelizing the optimization. Results are presented for an optimization problem which involves the solution of a PDE using a finite-element algorithm as part of the objective function calculation. The optimum number of processors for the finite-element calculations is less than p/2. Thus, the PDS method is also parallelized. Performance comparisons are given for a nCUBE 2 implementation.

  5. Quantifying functional connectivity in multi-subject fMRI data using component models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Churchill, Nathan William; Mørup, Morten

    2017-01-01

    of functional connectivity, evaluated on both simulated and experimental resting-state fMRI data. It was demonstrated that highly flexible subject-specific component subspaces, as well as very constrained average models, are poor predictors of whole-brain functional connectivity, whereas the best...

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Swallowing Function Between Dysphagia Patients and Healthy Subjects Using High-Resolution Manometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare swallowing function between healthy subjects and patients with pharyngeal dysphagia using high resolution manometry (HRM) and to evaluate the usefulness of HRM for detecting pharyngeal dysphagia. Methods Seventy-five patients with dysphagia and 28 healthy subjects were included in this study. Diagnosis of dysphagia was confirmed by a videofluoroscopy. HRM was performed to measure pressure and timing information at the velopharynx (VP), tongue base (TB), and upper esophageal sphincter (UES). HRM parameters were compared between dysphagia and healthy groups. Optimal threshold values of significant HRM parameters for dysphagia were determined. Results VP maximal pressure, TB maximal pressure, UES relaxation duration, and UES resting pressure were lower in the dysphagia group than those in healthy group. UES minimal pressure was higher in dysphagia group than in the healthy group. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to validate optimal threshold values for significant HRM parameters to identify patients with pharyngeal dysphagia. With maximal VP pressure at a threshold value of 144.0 mmHg, dysphagia was identified with 96.4% sensitivity and 74.7% specificity. With maximal TB pressure at a threshold value of 158.0 mmHg, dysphagia was identified with 96.4% sensitivity and 77.3% specificity. At a threshold value of 2.0 mmHg for UES minimal pressure, dysphagia was diagnosed at 74.7% sensitivity and 60.7% specificity. Lastly, UES relaxation duration of dysphagia. Conclusion We present evidence that HRM could be a useful evaluation tool for detecting pharyngeal dysphagia. PMID:29201816

  7. Fundamental Study of Bed Bath Technique : Subjective and Objective Evaluations of Epidermal Effects of Bed Bathing Using Bar Soap and Water-Dissolved Liquid Soap

    OpenAIRE

    月田, 佳寿美; 竹田, 千佐子; 長谷川, 智子; 白川, かおる

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify epidermal effects of bed bathing using bar soap and water-dissolved liquid soap (liquid soap). Method: The subjects were 33 healthy female college students. Subjects' arms were cleaned by two methods, using bar soap and liquid soap. The following objective data were collected from the subjects: skin sebum, moisturization, pH, and feelings of skin conditions (rashes, redness, itchiness, and irritation). Results : 1. Cleansing effects of both methods on oily dirt seemed no d...

  8. OBJECT KINETIC MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS OF RADIATION DAMAGE IN TUNGSTEN SUBJECTED TO NEUTRON FLUX WITH PKA SPECTRUM CORRESPONDING TO THE HFIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandipati, Giridhar; Setyawan, Wahyu; Heinisch, Howard L.; Roche, Kenneth J.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wirth, Brian D.

    2015-12-31

    The objective of this work is to study the damage accumulation in pure tungsten (W) subjected to neutron bombardment with a primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectrum corresponding to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), using the object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) method.

  9. Functional capacity of people with early osteoarthritis : a comparison between subjects from the cohort hip and cohort knee (CHECK) and healthy ageing workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieleman, H. J.; van Ittersum, M. W.; Groothoff, J. W.; Oostveen, J. C. M.; Oosterveld, F. G. J.; van der Schans, C. P.; Soer, R.; Reneman, M. F.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) increases, but the impact of the disorder on peoples' functional capacity is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare self-reported health status and functional capacity of subjects with early OA of hip and/or knee to reference data of

  10. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin improves beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired fasting glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzschneider, Kristina M; Tong, Jenny; Montgomery, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of treatment with the dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor vildagliptin on insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 22 subjects with IFG (11 female and 11 male, mean +/- SD...... age 59.6 +/- 11.5 years) were treated orally with 100 mg vildagliptin once daily in a single-blind study. Subjects received placebo for 2 weeks (run-in) followed by vildagliptin for 6 weeks (treatment) and then placebo for 2 weeks (washout). A frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test....... RESULTS: Fasting plasma glucose did not change after 6 weeks of vildagliptin treatment. With treatment, mean +/- SEM AIR(g) increased from 224 +/- 44 to 286 +/- 52 pmol/l (P

  11. Relationship between patient-reported and objective measurements of hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Günay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA often results in impairments in upper extremities, especially in the small joints of hand. Involvement of hand brings limitations in activities of daily living. However, it is commonly observed that patient-reported functional status of hand does not always corresponds to their actual physical performance in the clinical setting. The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the relationship between patient self-reported and objectively measured hand functions in patients with RA. Twenty-six patients (51±13 years with RA diagnosis participated in the study. Hand grip and pinch (lateral, bipod, tripod strengths were measured and Jebsen Hand Function Test (JHFT was performed for objective functional performance. Duruöz Hand Index and Beck Depression Inventory - Turkish version were completed by patients. Grip and all three-pinch strength results significantly correlated with Duruöz Hand Index scores (p<0.05. JHFT results except the sentence writing also correlated with the Duruöz scores (p<0.05. Our results showed that self-reported outcome scales might be used for determining functional level of hand in patients with RA in rheumatology practice. Objective quantitative functional tests are the best methods in evaluating functional level of hand, but require valid and reliable equipment with accurate calibration. Therefore, in case of unavailability of objective assessment tools, patient-reported scales may also reflect the real status of hand functions.

  12. SOBRE LO OBJETIVO, LO SUBJETIVO Y LO CAPRICHOSO EN ARQUITECTURA / On the objective, the subjective and the capricious in Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Montero Fernández

    2010-11-01

    buildings thinking that the ideas are within. Despite all, they are forced to recognize that this work is absurd because it leads us to nothing, perhaps only to the destruction of thought in favour of the ineffective knowledge of the reality.The other understanding that we propose consists of an alternative attitude, that which restores the subjective over the objective, to take note of the world that surrounds us, of the subjects that interest us, of universal ideas in order to establish a mechanism of knowledge, so that each one establishes creative short circuits that allow us to advance. Nobody must confuse the subjective with the capricious, with the absurdly brilliant or falsely artistic.Successively, the journeys and the evolution of architectural ideas offered in this issue attempt an approach that demands an active atitude on the part of the reader so that, if they wish, they can assume certain ideas that may arise as references or guidelines to follow in their creative work.

  13. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in human subjects with function-altering melanocortin-4 receptor variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    In rodents, hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression appears to be regulated by melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) activity. The impact of MC4R genetic variation on circulating BDNF in humans is unknown. The objective of this study is to compare BDNF concentrations of subjects wi...

  14. Functional connectivity in the prefrontal cortex measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during ultrarapid object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Andrei V.; Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Borisov, Sergey V.; Vanmeter, John

    2011-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a developing technology for low-cost noninvasive functional brain imaging. With multichannel optical instruments, it becomes possible to measure not only local changes in hemoglobin concentrations but also temporal correlations of those changes in different brain regions which gives an optical analog of functional connectivity traditionally measured by fMRI. We recorded hemodynamic activity during the Go-NoGo task from 11 right-handed subjects with probes placed bilaterally over prefrontal areas. Subjects were detecting animals as targets in natural scenes pressing a mouse button. Data were low-pass filtered right versus left hemisphere. Intra- and interhemispheric functional connectivity was also significantly stronger during the task compared to baseline. Functional connectivity between the inferior and the middle frontal regions was significantly stronger in the right hemisphere. Our results demonstrate that optical methods can be used to detect transient changes in functional connectivity during rapid cognitive processes.

  15. Regularized Laplace-Fourier-Domain Full Waveform Inversion Using a Weighted l 2 Objective Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hyunggu; Kwon, Jungmin; Shin, Changsoo; Zhou, Hongbo; Cogan, Mike

    2017-03-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) can be applied to obtain an accurate velocity model that contains important geophysical and geological information. FWI suffers from the local minimum problem when the starting model is not sufficiently close to the true model. Therefore, an accurate macroscale velocity model is essential for successful FWI, and Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI is appropriate for obtaining such a velocity model. However, conventional Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI remains an ill-posed and ill-conditioned problem, meaning that small errors in the data can result in large differences in the inverted model. This approach also suffers from certain limitations related to the logarithmic objective function. To overcome the limitations of conventional Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI, we introduce a weighted l 2 objective function, instead of the logarithmic objective function, as the data-domain objective function, and we also introduce two different model-domain regularizations: first-order Tikhonov regularization and prior model regularization. The weighting matrix for the data-domain objective function is constructed to suitably enhance the far-offset information. Tikhonov regularization smoothes the gradient, and prior model regularization allows reliable prior information to be taken into account. Two hyperparameters are obtained through trial and error and used to control the trade-off and achieve an appropriate balance between the data-domain and model-domain gradients. The application of the proposed regularizations facilitates finding a unique solution via FWI, and the weighted l 2 objective function ensures a more reasonable residual, thereby improving the stability of the gradient calculation. Numerical tests performed using the Marmousi synthetic dataset show that the use of the weighted l 2 objective function and the model-domain regularizations significantly improves the Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI. Because the Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI is improved, the

  16. A long-term controlled follow-up study of objective treatment need on young adults treated with functional appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faxén Sepanian, Varoojan; Paulsson-Björnsson, Liselotte; Kjellberg, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to 1) evaluate the objective success rate of Class II malocclusion treatment with functional appliances five years after completion of treatment and 2) to compare the remaining objective treatment need with an untreated control group. Records of all listed patients between 18-20 years (n=1054) treated in a general practice were reviewed for the purpose of finding treatments with removable functional appliances. Among all subjects (n=61) who previously had been treated, 58 accepted to participate in the study.The test group was matched with an orthodontically untreated group with no history of objective treatment need. Clinical examination was performed and study casts and photos were taken from both groups.The objective treatment need was evaluated through clinical examination and study cast analysis with weighted Peer Assessment Rating index (wPAR). Twenty patients, (34.5%) (mean wPAR 13.8), succeeded with the functional appliance treatment.The wPAR score (mean 15.0) of the entire test group was significantly higher than the one of the control group (mean 7.3).The group that was treated exclusively with functional appliances had a mean wPAR score of 17.4. Eighteen patients (31.0%) who received retreatment with fixed appliances had a slightly higher mean wPAR (8.6) than the control group. Treatments with functional appliances in a general practice showed a high failure rate and a remaining treatment need. It is the treating dentist's responsibility to motivate the patient to cooperate to the treatment, because as it previously has been shown the treatment with functional appliances is a well-functioning treatment alternative with the cooperation of the patient being sufficient. It is also of importance, already before starting treatment, to estimate the child's cooperation ability and to avoid treatment with removable appliances if the child or parents are reluctant about such a treatment.

  17. A proposal of multi-objective function for submarine rigid pipelines route optimization via evolutionary algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, D.H.; Medeiros, A.R. [Subsea7, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Jacob, B.P.; Lima, B.S.L.P.; Albrecht, C.H. [Universidade Federaldo Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Programas de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia

    2009-07-01

    This work presents studies regarding the determination of optimal pipeline routes for offshore applications. The assembly of an objective function is presented; this function can be later associated with Evolutionary Algorithm to implement a computational tool for the automatic determination of the most advantageous pipeline route for a given scenario. This tool may reduce computational overheads, avoid mistakes with route interpretation, and minimize costs with respect to submarine pipeline design and installation. The following aspects can be considered in the assembly of the objective function: Geophysical and geotechnical data obtained from the bathymetry and sonography; the influence of the installation method, total pipeline length and number of free spans to be mitigated along the routes as well as vessel time for both cases. Case studies are presented to illustrate the use of the proposed objective function, including a sensitivity analysis intended to identify the relative influence of selected parameters in the evaluation of different routes. (author)

  18. Subjective and objective peer approval evaluations and self-esteem development: A test of reciprocal, prospective, and long-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenenfelder-Steiger, Andrea E; Harris, Michelle A; Fend, Helmut A

    2016-10-01

    A large body of literature suggests a clear, concurrent association between peer approval and self-esteem in adolescence. However, little empirical work exists on either the prospective or reciprocal relation between peer approval and self-esteem during this age period. Moreover, it is unclear from past research whether both subjectively perceived peer approval and objectively measured peer approval are related to subsequent self-esteem over time (and vice versa) and whether these paths have long-term associations into adulthood. Using data from a large longitudinal study that covers a time span of 2 decades, we examined reciprocal, prospective relations between self-esteem and peer approval during ages 12-16 in addition to long-term relations between these variables and later social constructs at age 35. Cross-lagged regression analyses revealed small but persistent effect sizes from both types of peer approval to subsequent self-esteem in adolescence, controlling for prior self-esteem. However, effects in the reverse direction were not confirmed. These findings support the notion that peer relationships serve an important function for later self-esteem, consistent with many theoretical tenets of the importance of peers for building a strong identity. Finally, we found long-term relations between adult social constructs and adolescent objective and subjective peer approval as well as self-esteem. Therefore, not only do peer relationships play a role in self-esteem development across adolescence, but they remain impactful throughout adulthood. In sum, the current findings highlight the lasting, yet small link between peer relationships and self-esteem development and call for investigations of further influential factors for self-esteem over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Altered Functional Connectivity of the Default Mode Network in Low-Empathy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Jun; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Hyo Eun; Han, Kiwan; Jeong, Bumseok; Kim, Jae Jin; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Ji Woong

    2017-09-01

    Empathy is the ability to identify with or make a vicariously experience of another person's feelings or thoughts based on memory and/or self-referential mental simulation. The default mode network in particular is related to self-referential empathy. In order to elucidate the possible neural mechanisms underlying empathy, we investigated the functional connectivity of the default mode network in subjects from a general population. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 19 low-empathy subjects and 18 medium-empathy subjects. An independent component analysis was used to identify the default mode network, and differences in functional connectivity strength were compared between the two groups. The low-empathy group showed lower functional connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann areas 9 and 32) within the default mode network, compared to the medium-empathy group. The results of the present study suggest that empathy is related to functional connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex within the default mode network. Functional decreases in connectivity among low-empathy subjects may reflect an impairment of self-referential mental simulation. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017.

  20. Relationship between macular pigment and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuffo, Kwadwo Owusu; Nolan, John M; Peto, Tunde; Stack, Jim; Leung, Irene; Corcoran, Laura; Beatty, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between macular pigment (MP) and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 121 subjects with early AMD enrolled as part of the Central Retinal Enrichment Supplementation Trial (CREST; ISRCTN13894787) were assessed using a range of psychophysical measures of visual function, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), letter contrast sensitivity (CS), mesopic and photopic CS, mesopic and photopic glare disability (GD), photostress recovery time (PRT), reading performance and subjective visual function, using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25). MP was measured using customised heterochromatic flicker photometry. Letter CS, mesopic and photopic CS, photopic GD and mean reading speed were each significantly (p0.05, for all). MP relates positively to many measures of visual function in unsupplemented subjects with early AMD. The CREST trial will investigate whether enrichment of MP influences visual function among those afflicted with this condition. ISRCTN13894787. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. The relationship among customer demand, competitive strategy and manufacturing system functional objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To ascertain the relationship between the operation system function goal decision making and customer demand and competition strategy, can better discover and integrate all available resources (including important capital resources to achieve business opportunities, the establishment of sustainable competitive ability. Because, to achieve business development lead policymakers take great uncertainty, which led to the investment behavior required for the operational activities of resources also bear the enormous risks. Design/methodology/approach: Through principal component analysis on the data collected by questionnaires, the manuscript obtains dominant factors for customer demand, competitive strategy and manufacturing system functional objectives respectively. By these factors, it tests its three hypotheses with the data from northeast of China and draws some conclusions. Findings: The results show that customer demand have a significant positive effect on competitive strategy; competitive strategy have positive influence on manufacturing system functional objectives; customer demand affect the functional objectives, by competitive strategy. Research limitations/implications: In this research, competitive strategy and manufacturing system functional objectives are influenced by customer demand. The conclusion of the research can provide theoretical guidance for Chinese enterprises which carry out manufacturing system functional objectives. Originality/value: In this research, a new measure questionnaire of competition strategy, customer satisfaction and operating system function goal was used, analyzed the influence factors of time, quality, cost, efficiency, service and environment, on the operation of the system. The study shows that the effect of competition strategy and customer demand has a direct impact on the operating system functions, customer demand through competitive strategy of indirect effects operating system functions.

  2. Objective function choice for control of a thermocapillary flow using an adjoint-based control strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muldoon, Frank H.; Kuhlmann, Hendrik C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Suppression of oscillations in a thermocapillary flow is addressed by optimization. • The gradient of the objective function is obtained by solving the adjoint equations. • The issue of choosing an objective function is investigated. - Abstract: The problem of suppressing flow oscillations in a thermocapillary flow is addressed using a gradient-based control strategy. The physical problem addressed is the “open boat” process of crystal growth, the flow in which is driven by thermocapillary and buoyancy effects. The problem is modeled by the two-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier–Stokes and energy equations under the Boussinesq approximation. The goal of the control is to suppress flow oscillations which arise when the driving forces are such that the flow becomes unsteady. The control is a spatially and temporally varying temperature gradient boundary condition at the free surface. The control which minimizes the flow oscillations is found using a conjugate gradient method, where the gradient of the objective function with respect to the control variables is obtained from solving a set of adjoint equations. The issue of choosing an objective function that can be both optimized in a computationally efficient manner and optimization of which provides control that damps the flow oscillations is investigated. Almost complete suppression of the flow oscillations is obtained for certain choices of the objective function.

  3. EFFECT OF MODIFIED CONSTRAINT INDUCED THERAPY ON UPPERLIMB FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY IN YOUNG STROKE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Prakash Pappala

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of modified constraint induced therapy on upper limb functional recovery in young stroke subjects. Most of the stroke rehabilitation units following conventional rehabilitation methods for treatment of the stroke patients where these methods have been proved to be less useful especially in the young stroke subjects. Hence the purpose of this study is to see the effect of modified constraint induced therapy which is a task specific training method for upperlimb in young stroke subjects. Methods: Total of 40 young stroke subjects who is having minimal motor criterion and met other inclusion criteria were recruited from department of physiotherapy, g.s.l.general hospital. Pre and post intervention measures were taken using Wolf motor function test and Jebsen Taylor hand function test. Results: In this study had shown significant improvements in the modified constraint induced therapy group when compared to the conventional rehabilitation alone. P value between groups was < 0.05. Conclusion: In this study concludes that addition of 15 minutes modified constraint induced movement therapy to conventional physiotherapy is a useful adjunct in functional recovery of upper limb among young stroke subjects

  4. Representing uncertainty in objective functions: extension to include the influence of serial correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croke, B. F.

    2008-12-01

    The role of performance indicators is to give an accurate indication of the fit between a model and the system being modelled. As all measurements have an associated uncertainty (determining the significance that should be given to the measurement), performance indicators should take into account uncertainties in the observed quantities being modelled as well as in the model predictions (due to uncertainties in inputs, model parameters and model structure). In the presence of significant uncertainty in observed and modelled output of a system, failure to adequately account for variations in the uncertainties means that the objective function only gives a measure of how well the model fits the observations, not how well the model fits the system being modelled. Since in most cases, the interest lies in fitting the system response, it is vital that the objective function(s) be designed to account for these uncertainties. Most objective functions (e.g. those based on the sum of squared residuals) assume homoscedastic uncertainties. If model contribution to the variations in residuals can be ignored, then transformations (e.g. Box-Cox) can be used to remove (or at least significantly reduce) heteroscedasticity. An alternative which is more generally applicable is to explicitly represent the uncertainties in the observed and modelled values in the objective function. Previous work on this topic addressed the modifications to standard objective functions (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, RMSE, chi- squared, coefficient of determination) using the optimal weighted averaging approach. This paper extends this previous work; addressing the issue of serial correlation. A form for an objective function that includes serial correlation will be presented, and the impact on model fit discussed.

  5. Objective effect manifestation of pectus excavatum on load-stressed pulmonary function testing: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Jason

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pectus excavatum is the most common congenital deformity of the anterior chest wall that, under certain conditions, may pose functional problems due to cardiopulmonary compromise and exercise intolerance. Case presentation We present the case of an otherwise physically-adept 21-year-old Chinese sportsman with idiopathic pectus excavatum, whose symptoms manifested only on bearing a loaded body vest and backpack during physical exercise. Corroborative objective evidence was obtained via load-stressed pulmonary function testing, which demonstrated restrictive lung function. Conclusion This report highlights the possible detrimental synergism of thoracic load stress and pectus excavatum on cardiopulmonary function. Thoracic load-stressed pulmonary function testing provides objective evidence in support of such a synergistic relationship.

  6. Kidney function and size in normal subjects before and during growth hormone administration for one week

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Orskov, H; Andersen, A R

    1981-01-01

    Kidney function and size were studied in seven normal male subjects before and after administration of highly purified human growth hormone for 1 week. Glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow (steady-state infusion technique with urinary collections using 125I-iothalamate and 131I-hippuran)......Kidney function and size were studied in seven normal male subjects before and after administration of highly purified human growth hormone for 1 week. Glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow (steady-state infusion technique with urinary collections using 125I-iothalamate and 131I...

  7. Comparative study of popular objective functions for damping power system oscillations in multimachine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Naz Niamul; Hannan, M A; Shareef, Hussain; Mohamed, Azah; Salam, M A

    2014-01-01

    Power oscillation damping controller is designed in linearized model with heuristic optimization techniques. Selection of the objective function is very crucial for damping controller design by optimization algorithms. In this research, comparative analysis has been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of popular objective functions used in power system oscillation damping. Two-stage lead-lag damping controller by means of power system stabilizers is optimized using differential search algorithm for different objective functions. Linearized model simulations are performed to compare the dominant mode's performance and then the nonlinear model is continued to evaluate the damping performance over power system oscillations. All the simulations are conducted in two-area four-machine power system to bring a detailed analysis. Investigated results proved that multiobjective D-shaped function is an effective objective function in terms of moving unstable and lightly damped electromechanical modes into stable region. Thus, D-shape function ultimately improves overall system damping and concurrently enhances power system reliability.

  8. Objective and Subjective Measures of Simultaneous vs Sequential Bilateral Cochlear Implants in Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijenga, Véronique J C; Ramakers, Geerte G J; Smulders, Yvette E; van Zon, Alice; Stegeman, Inge; Smit, Adriana L; Stokroos, Robert J; Hendrice, Nadia; Free, Rolien H; Maat, Bert; Frijns, Johan H M; Briaire, Jeroen J; Mylanus, E A M; Huinck, Wendy J; Van Zanten, Gijsbert A; Grolman, Wilko

    2017-09-01

    all secondary outcome measures except for localization with a 30° angle between loudspeakers (difference, -10% [95% CI, -20.1% to 0.0%]). In the sequential BiCI group, all participants performed significantly better after the BiCIs on speech intelligibility in noise from spatially separated sources and on all localization tests, which was consistent with most of the participants' self-reported hearing capabilities. Speech intelligibility-in-noise results improved in the simultaneous BiCI group up to 3 years following the BiCIs. This study shows comparable objective and subjective hearing results 1 year after receiving simultaneous BiCIs and sequential BiCIs with an interval of 2 years between implants. It also shows a significant benefit of sequential BiCIs over a unilateral cochlear implant. Until 3 years after receiving simultaneous BiCIs, speech intelligibility in noise significantly improved compared with previous years. trialregister.nl Identifier: NTR1722.

  9. DERIVATIVE OF SET MEASURE FUNCTIONS AND ITS APPLICATION (THEORETICAL BASES OF INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. It is necessary to develop the theoretical fundamentals for solving the investment objectives presented in the form of set function as vector optimization tasks or tasks of constrained extremum. Methodology. Set functions and their derivatives of measure are used as research of investment objectives. Necessary condition of set function minimum is proved. In the tasks for constrained extremum the method of Lagrange is used. It is shown that this method can also be used for the set function. It is used the measure for proof, which generalizes the Lebesgue measure, and the concept of set sequence limit is introduced. It is noted that the introduced limit over a measure coincides with the classical Borel limit and can be used in order to prove the existence of derivative from set function over a measure on convergent of sets sequence. Findings. An algorithm of solving the investment objective for constrained extremum in relation to investment objectives was offered. Originality. Scientific novelty lies in the fact that in multivariate objects for constrained extremum one can refuse from immediate enumeration. One can use the proposed algorithm of constructing (selection of options that allow building a convex linear envelope of Pareto solutions. This envelope will let the person who makes a decision (DM, select those options that are "better" from a position of DM, and consider some of the criteria, the formalization of which are difficult or can not be described in mathematical terms. Practical value. Results of the study provide the necessary theoretical substantiation of decision-making in investment objectives, when there is a significant number of an investment objects and immediate enumeration of options is very difficult on time costs even for modern computing techniques.

  10. 7-Hexagon Multifocal Electroretinography for an Objective Functional Assessment of the Macula in 14 Seconds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbach, Etienne M; Chaikitmongkol, Voraporn; Annam, Rachel; McDonnell, Emma C; Wolfson, Yulia; Fletcher, Emily; Scholl, Hendrik P N

    2017-01-01

    We present the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) with a 7-hexagon array as an objective test of macular function that can be recorded in 14 s. We provide normal values and investigate its reproducibility and validity. Healthy participants underwent mfERG testing according to International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV) standards using the Espion Profile/D310 multifocal ERG system (Diagnosys, LLC, Lowell, MA, USA). One standard recording of a 61-hexagon array and 2 repeated recordings of a custom 7-hexagon array were obtained. A total of 13 subjects (mean age 46.9 years) were included. The median response densities were 12.5 nV/deg2 in the center and 5.2 nV/deg2 in the periphery. Intereye correlations were strong in both the center (ρCenter = 0.821; p < 0.0001) and the periphery (ρPeriphery = 0.862; p < 0.0001). Intraeye correlations were even stronger: ρCenter = 0.904 with p < 0.0001 and ρPeriphery = 0.955 with p < 0.0001. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated an acceptable retest mean difference in both the center and periphery, and narrow limits of agreement. We found strong correlations of the center (ρCenter = 0.826; p < 0.0001) and periphery (ρPeriphery = 0.848; p < 0.0001), with recordings obtained by the 61-hexagon method. The 7-hexagon mfERG provides reproducible results in agreement with results obtained according to the ISCEV standard. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Cognitive and functional patterns of nondemented subjects with equivocal visual amyloid PET findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payoux, P.; Delrieu, J.; Gallini, A.; Cantet, C.; Voisin, T.; Gillette-Guyonnet, S.; Vellas, B.; Adel, D.; Salabert, A.S.; Hitzel, A.; Tafani, M.; Verbizier, D. de; Darcourt, J.; Fernandez, P.; Monteil, J.; Carrie, I.; Pontecorvo, M.; Andrieu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite good to excellent inter-reader agreement in the evaluation of amyloid load on PET scans in subjects with Alzheimer's disease, some equivocal findings have been reported in the literature. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of subjects with equivocal PET images. Nondemented subjects aged 70 years or more were enrolled from the MAPT trial. Cognitive and functional assessments were conducted at baseline, at 6 months, and annually for 3 years. During the follow-up period, 271 subjects had 18 F-AV45 PET scans. Images were visually assessed by three observers and classified as positive, negative or equivocal (if one observer disagreed). After debate, equivocal images were reclassified as positive (EP+) or negative (EP-). Scans were also classified by semiautomated quantitative analysis using mean amyloid uptake of cortical regions. We evaluated agreement among the observers, and between visual and quantitative assessments using kappa coefficients, and compared the clinical characteristics of the subjects according to their PET results. In 158 subjects (58.30 %) the PET scan was negative for amyloid, in 77 (28.41 %) the scan was positive and in 36 (13.28 %) the scan was equivocal. Agreement among the three observers was excellent (kappa 0.80). Subjects with equivocal images were more frequently men (58 % vs. 37 %) and exhibited intermediate scores on cognitive and functional scales between those of subjects with positive and negative scans. Amyloid load differed between the EP- and negative groups and between the EP+ and positive groups after reclassification. Equivocal amyloid PET images could represent a neuroimaging entity with intermediate amyloid load but without a specific neuropsychological pattern. Clinical follow-up to assess cognitive evolution in subjects with equivocal scans is needed. (orig.)

  12. Cognitive and functional patterns of nondemented subjects with equivocal visual amyloid PET findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payoux, P. [Purpan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); INSERM U825, CHU Purpan, Toulouse Cedex (France); Delrieu, J. [Purpan University Hospital, Gerontopole, Department of Geriatrics, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); INSERM UMR 1027, Toulouse (France); Gallini, A.; Cantet, C.; Voisin, T.; Gillette-Guyonnet, S.; Vellas, B. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Purpan University Hospital, Gerontopole, Department of Geriatrics, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); INSERM UMR 1027, Toulouse (France); Adel, D.; Salabert, A.S. [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Hitzel, A. [Purpan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Tafani, M. [Purpan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Verbizier, D. de [Montpellier University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Montpellier (France); Darcourt, J. [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nuclear Medicine Department, Nice (France); University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nice (France); Fernandez, P. [Pellegrin University Hospital Bordeaux, Nuclear Medicine Department, Bordeaux (France); University Bordeaux II, CNRS UMR 5287 - INCIA, Victor Segalen, Bordeaux (France); Monteil, J. [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Limoges (France); University of Limoges, Limoges (France); Carrie, I. [Purpan University Hospital, Gerontopole, Department of Geriatrics, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Pontecorvo, M. [Avid Radiopharmaceuticals, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Andrieu, S. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Purpan University Hospital, Gerontopole, Department of Geriatrics, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); INSERM UMR 1027, Toulouse (France); CHU Toulouse, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Toulouse (France)

    2015-08-15

    Despite good to excellent inter-reader agreement in the evaluation of amyloid load on PET scans in subjects with Alzheimer's disease, some equivocal findings have been reported in the literature. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of subjects with equivocal PET images. Nondemented subjects aged 70 years or more were enrolled from the MAPT trial. Cognitive and functional assessments were conducted at baseline, at 6 months, and annually for 3 years. During the follow-up period, 271 subjects had {sup 18}F-AV45 PET scans. Images were visually assessed by three observers and classified as positive, negative or equivocal (if one observer disagreed). After debate, equivocal images were reclassified as positive (EP+) or negative (EP-). Scans were also classified by semiautomated quantitative analysis using mean amyloid uptake of cortical regions. We evaluated agreement among the observers, and between visual and quantitative assessments using kappa coefficients, and compared the clinical characteristics of the subjects according to their PET results. In 158 subjects (58.30 %) the PET scan was negative for amyloid, in 77 (28.41 %) the scan was positive and in 36 (13.28 %) the scan was equivocal. Agreement among the three observers was excellent (kappa 0.80). Subjects with equivocal images were more frequently men (58 % vs. 37 %) and exhibited intermediate scores on cognitive and functional scales between those of subjects with positive and negative scans. Amyloid load differed between the EP- and negative groups and between the EP+ and positive groups after reclassification. Equivocal amyloid PET images could represent a neuroimaging entity with intermediate amyloid load but without a specific neuropsychological pattern. Clinical follow-up to assess cognitive evolution in subjects with equivocal scans is needed. (orig.)

  13. Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of a solid object that is subjected to external vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1995-04-25

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

  14. A study of objective functions for organs with parallel and serial architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavrev, P.V.; Stavreva, N.A.; Round, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    An objective function analysis when target volumes are deliberately enlarged to account for tumour mobility and consecutive uncertainty in the tumour position in external beam radiotherapy has been carried out. The dose distribution inside the tumour is assumed to have logarithmic dependence on the tumour cell density which assures an iso-local tumour control probability. The normal tissue immediately surrounding the tumour is irradiated homogeneously at a dose level equal to the dose D(R)) delivered at the edge of the tumour The normal tissue in the high dose field is modelled as being organized in identical functional subunits (FSUs) composed of a relatively large number of cells. Two types of organs - having serial and parallel architecture are considered. Implicit averaging over intrapatient normal tissue radiosensitivity variations is done. A function describing the normal tissue survival probability S 0 is constructed. The objective function is given as a product of the total tumour control probability (TCP) and the normal tissue survival probability S 0 . The values of the dose D(R)) which result in a maximum of the objective function are obtained for different combinations of tumour and normal tissue parameters, such as tumour and normal tissue radiosensitivities, number of cells constituting a normal tissue functional unit, total number of normal cells under high dose (D(R)) exposure and functional reserve for organs having parallel architecture. The corresponding TCP and S 0 values are computed and discussed. (authors)

  15. Cortical phase changes measured using 7-T MRI in subjects with subjective cognitive impairment, and their association with cognitive function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooden, van Sanneke; Buijs, Mathijs; Vliet, van Marjolein E.; Versluis, Maarten J.; Webb, Andrew G.; Oleksik, Ania M.; Wiel, van de Lotte; Middelkoop, Huub A.M.; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Weverling-Rynsburger, Annelies W.E.; Goos, Jeroen D.C.; Flier, van der Wiesje M.; Koene, Ted; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Nieuwerth-van de Rest, Ondine; Slagboom, P.E.; Buchem, van Mark A.; Grond, van der Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Studies have suggested that, in subjects with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like changes may occur in the brain. Recently, an in vivo study has indicated the potential of ultra-high-field MRI to visualize amyloid-beta (Aβ)-associated changes in the cortex in

  16. β-cell function is associated with metabolic syndrome in Mexican subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Baez-Duarte, Blanca G; Sánchez-Guillén, María Del Carmen; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo; Zamora-Ginez, Irma; Leon-Chavez, Bertha Alicia; Revilla-Monsalve, Cristina; Islas-Andrade, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Aims The clinical diagnosis of metabolic syndrome does not find any parameters to evaluate the insulin sensitivity (IS) or β-cell function. The evaluation of these parameters would detect early risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between β-cell function and presence of metabolic syndrome in Mexican subjects. Material and methods This study is part of the Mexican Survey on the Prevention of Diabetes (MexDiab Study) with headquarters in ...

  17. Determination of the object surface function by structured light: application to the study of spinal deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buendia, M.; Salvador, R.; Cibrian, R.; Sotoca, J.M.; Laguia, M.

    1999-01-01

    The projection of structured light is a technique frequently used to determine the surface shape of an object. In this paper, a new procedure is described that efficiently resolves the correspondence between the knots of the projected grid and those obtained on the object when the projection is made. The method is based on the use of three images of the projected grid. In two of them the grid is projected over a flat surface placed, respectively, before and behind the object; both images are used for calibration. In the third image the grid is projected over the object. It is not reliant on accurate determination of the camera and projector pair relative to the grid and object. Once the method is calibrated, we can obtain the surface function by just analysing the projected grid on the object. The procedure is especially suitable for the study of objects without discontinuities or large depth gradients. It can be employed for determining, in a non-invasive way, the patient's back surface function. Symmetry differences permit a quantitative diagnosis of spinal deformities such as scoliosis. (author)

  18. Functional connectivity with ventromedial prefrontal cortex reflects subjective value for social rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David V; Clithero, John A; Boltuck, Sarah E; Huettel, Scott A

    2014-12-01

    According to many studies, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) encodes the subjective value of disparate rewards on a common scale. Yet, a host of other reward factors-likely represented outside of VMPFC-must be integrated to construct such signals for valuation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we tested whether the interactions between posterior VMPFC and functionally connected brain regions predict subjective value. During fMRI scanning, participants rated the attractiveness of unfamiliar faces. We found that activation in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior VMPFC and caudate increased with higher attractiveness ratings. Using data from a post-scan task in which participants spent money to view attractive faces, we quantified each individual's subjective value for attractiveness. We found that connectivity between posterior VMPFC and regions frequently modulated by social information-including the temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) and middle temporal gyrus-was correlated with individual differences in subjective value. Crucially, these additional regions explained unique variation in subjective value beyond that extracted from value regions alone. These findings indicate not only that posterior VMPFC interacts with additional brain regions during valuation, but also that these additional regions carry information employed to construct the subjective value for social reward. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Relations of Preschoolers' Visual-Motor and Object Manipulation Skills With Executive Function and Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M age  = 4.31 years) were recruited to participate. Comprehensive measures of visual-motor integration skills, object manipulation skills, executive function, and social behaviors were administered in the fall and spring of the preschool year. Our findings indicated that children who had better visual-motor integration skills in the fall had better executive function scores (B = 0.47 [0.20], p gender, Head Start status, and site location, but not after controlling for children's baseline levels of executive function. In addition, children who demonstrated better object manipulation skills in the fall showed significantly stronger social behavior in their classrooms (as rated by teachers) in the spring, including more self-control (B - 0.03 [0.00], p social behavior in the fall and other covariates. Children's visual-motor integration and object manipulation skills in the fall have modest to moderate relations with executive function and social behaviors later in the preschool year. These findings have implications for early learning initiatives and school readiness.

  20. Influence of the mental health status on a new measure of objective functional impairment in lumbar degenerative disc disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, Martin N; Smoll, Nicolas R; Joswig, Holger; Snagowski, Jan; Corniola, Marco V; Schaller, Karl; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Gautschi, Oliver P

    2017-06-01

    The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test has recently been proposed as a simple and standardized measure for objective functional impairment (OFI) in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD). The study aimed to explore the relationship between a patient's mental health status and both patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and TUG test results. This is a prospective institutional review board-approved two-center study. The sample was composed of 375 consecutive patients scheduled for lumbar spine surgery and a healthy cohort of 110 control subjects. Patients and control subjects were assessed with the TUG test and a comprehensive panel of subjective PROMs of pain intensity (visual analog scale [VAS]), functional impairment (Roland-Morris Disability Index [RMDI]), Oswestry Disability Index [ODI]), as well as health-related quality of life (hrQoL; Euro-Qol [EQ]-5D). Standardized age- and sex-adjusted TUG test T-scores were calculated. The dependent variable was the short-form (SF)-12 mental component summary (MCS) quartiles, and the independent variables were the TUG T-scores and PROMs. Direct and adjusted analyses of covariance were performed to estimate the interaction between the SF-12 MCS quartiles and the independent variables. In patients, there was a significant decrease in the subjective PROMs, notably the VAS back pain (p=.001) and VAS leg pain (p=.035), as well as significant increase in the RMDI (pmental hrQoL on subjective measures of pain, functional impairment, and hrQoL that might lead to bias when evaluating patients with lumbar DDD who suffer from reduced mental hrQoL. The TUG test appears to be a stable instrument and especially helpful in the evaluation of patients with lumbar DDD and mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Discrepancies between genital responses and subjective sexual function during testosterone substitution in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuiten, A.; Laan, E.; Panhuysen, G.; Everaerd, W.; de Haan, E.; Koppeschaar, H.; Vroon, P.

    1996-01-01

    Psychosexual dysfunction is often suggested the cause of the disturbed eating habits associated with hypothalamic secondary amenorrhea. In contrast, we explored the possibility that impaired sexual function may result from reduced levels of testosterone in amenorrheic subjects as a consequence of

  2. The Influence of Executive Functioning on Facial and Subjective Pain Responses in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline is known to reduce reliability of subjective pain reports. Although facial expressions of pain are generally considered to be less affected by this decline, empirical support for this assumption is sparse. The present study therefore examined how cognitive functioning relates to facial expressions of pain and whether cognition acts as a moderator between nociceptive intensity and facial reactivity. Facial and subjective responses of 51 elderly participants to mechanical stimulation at three intensities levels (50 kPa, 200 kPa, and 400 kPa) were assessed. Moreover, participants completed a neuropsychological examination of executive functioning (planning, cognitive inhibition, and working memory), episodic memory, and psychomotor speed. The results showed that executive functioning has a unique relationship with facial reactivity at low pain intensity levels (200 kPa). Moreover, cognitive inhibition (but not other executive functions) moderated the effect of pressure intensity on facial pain expressions, suggesting that the relationship between pressure intensity and facial reactivity was less pronounced in participants with high levels of cognitive inhibition. A similar interaction effect was found for cognitive inhibition and subjective pain report. Consequently, caution is needed when interpreting facial (as well as subjective) pain responses in individuals with a high level of cognitive inhibition. PMID:27274618

  3. Subjective and objective perceptions of specular gloss and surface roughness of esthetic resin composites before and after artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucci-Pfister, Nadine; Göhring, Till N

    2009-04-01

    To correlate measurements of specular gloss and surface roughness of resin composite materials with subjective perception of luster before and after artificial aging. Polished specimens of eight composites were compared with human enamel (HE): microfilled SR Adoro (SR); microhybrid Artemis (AR), Enamel HFO (EHFO), Miris (MI), Tetric Ceram (TC), Venus (VE); and nanohybrid CeramX (CX) and nanofilled Filtek Supreme (FS). Before, during and after artificial aging (6000 thermal changes between 5 degrees C and 50 degrees C in an artificial oral environment, 240 hours storage in a container with ethanol, 300 minutes of toothbrushing), specular gloss and surface roughness were measured. Initial and endpoint gloss results were correlated with subjective luster rankings of 10 individuals. Artificial aging resulted in minor (EHFO, CX, FS), moderate (SR, MI, TC, VE) to high (AR) increases in surface roughness. Specular gloss decreased linearly for SR and FS, but decreased after an initial increase for all other materials. Subjectively, AR and FS were rated more and TC, VE and CX less lustrous than HE at baseline. After aging, luster of EHFO and FS was ranked higher and AR, TC, and VE lower than HE. Surface roughness was consistent with subjective perceptions (correlation coefficient: initial r = 0.913; endpoint r = 0.944, P artificial aging (initial r = 0.616, P = 0.1084; endpoint r = 0.834, P = 0.0072).

  4. The application of autologous serum eye drops in severe dry eye patients; subjective and objective parameters before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsova, Katerina; Brejchova, Kristyna; Krabcova, Ivana; Filipec, Martin; Al Fakih, Aref; Palos, Michalis; Vesela, Viera

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of autologous serum (AS) eye drops on the ocular surface of patients with bilateral severe dry eye and to draw a comparison between the clinical and laboratory examinations and the degree of subjective symptoms before and after serum treatment. A three-month prospective study was conducted on 17 patients with severe dry eye. AS eye drops were applied a maximum of 12 times a day together with regular therapy. Dry eye status was evaluated by clinical examination (visual acuity, Schirmer test, tear film breakup time, vital staining, tear film debris and meniscus), conjunctival impression cytology (epithelial and goblet cell density, snake-like chromatin, HLA-DR-positive and apoptotic cells) and subjectively by the patients. The application of AS eye drops led to a significant improvement in the Schirmer test (p treatment. A significant decrease (p eyes. We found that three-month AS treatment led especially to the improvement of ocular surface dryness and damage of the epithelium. The improvement of dry eye after AS treatment correlated well with the clinical, laboratory and subjective findings. From the patients' subjective point of view, the positive effect of AS decreased with time, but still persisted up to three months after the end of therapy.

  5. Intraindividual evaluation of the influence of iterative reconstruction and filter kernel on subjective and objective image quality in computed tomography of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhk, J.H. [Univ. Medical Center, Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Laqmani, A.; Schultzendorff, H.C. von; Hammerle, D.; Adam, G.; Regier, M. [Univ. Medical Center, Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Sehner, S. [Univ. Medical Center, Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Inst. of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology; Fiehler, J. [Univ. Medical Center, Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Neuroradiology; Nagel, H.D. [Dr. HD Nagel, Science and Technology for Radiology, Buchholz (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: To intraindividually evaluate the potential of 4th generation iterative reconstruction (IR) on brain CT with regard to subjective and objective image quality. Methods: 31 consecutive raw data sets of clinical routine native sequential brain CT scans were reconstructed with IR level 0 (= filtered back projection), 1, 3 and 4; 3 different brain filter kernels (smooth/standard/sharp) were applied respectively. Five independent radiologists with different levels of experience performed subjective image rating. Detailed ROI analysis of image contrast and noise was performed. Statistical analysis was carried out by applying a random intercept model. Results: Subjective scores for the smooth and the standard kernels were best at low IR levels, but both, in particular the smooth kernel, scored inferior with an increasing IR level. The sharp kernel scored lowest at IR 0, while the scores substantially increased at high IR levels, reaching significantly best scores at IR 4. Objective measurements revealed an overall increase in contrast-to-noise ratio at higher IR levels, which was highest when applying the soft filter kernel. The absolute grey-white contrast decreased with an increasing IR level and was highest when applying the sharp filter kernel. All subjective effects were independent of the raters' experience and the patients' age and sex. Conclusion: Different combinations of IR level and filter kernel substantially influence subjective and objective image quality of brain CT. (orig.)

  6. Intraindividual evaluation of the influence of iterative reconstruction and filter kernel on subjective and objective image quality in computed tomography of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhk, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To intraindividually evaluate the potential of 4th generation iterative reconstruction (IR) on brain CT with regard to subjective and objective image quality. Methods: 31 consecutive raw data sets of clinical routine native sequential brain CT scans were reconstructed with IR level 0 (= filtered back projection), 1, 3 and 4; 3 different brain filter kernels (smooth/standard/sharp) were applied respectively. Five independent radiologists with different levels of experience performed subjective image rating. Detailed ROI analysis of image contrast and noise was performed. Statistical analysis was carried out by applying a random intercept model. Results: Subjective scores for the smooth and the standard kernels were best at low IR levels, but both, in particular the smooth kernel, scored inferior with an increasing IR level. The sharp kernel scored lowest at IR 0, while the scores substantially increased at high IR levels, reaching significantly best scores at IR 4. Objective measurements revealed an overall increase in contrast-to-noise ratio at higher IR levels, which was highest when applying the soft filter kernel. The absolute grey-white contrast decreased with an increasing IR level and was highest when applying the sharp filter kernel. All subjective effects were independent of the raters' experience and the patients' age and sex. Conclusion: Different combinations of IR level and filter kernel substantially influence subjective and objective image quality of brain CT. (orig.)

  7. Eligibility for Statin Treatment in Korean Subjects with Reduced Renal Function: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Sub Moon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between statin eligibility and the degree of renal dysfunction using the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III and the American College of Cardiology (ACC/American Heart Association (AHA guidelines in Korean adults.MethodsRenal function was assessed in 18,746 participants of the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study from January 2011 to December 2012. Subjects were divided into three groups according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR: stage 1, eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2; stage 2, eGFR 60 to 89 mL/min/1.73 m2; and stages 3 to 5, eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Statin eligibility in these groups was determined using the ATP III and ACC/AHA guidelines, and the risk for 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS and Pooled Cohort Equation (PCE.ResultsThere were 3,546 (18.9% and 4,048 (21.5% statin-eligible subjects according to ATP III and ACC/AHA guidelines, respectively. The proportion of statin-eligible subjects increased as renal function deteriorated. Statin eligibility by the ACC/AHA guidelines showed better agreement with the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO recommendations compared to the ATP III guidelines in subjects with stage 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD (κ value, 0.689 vs. 0.531. When the 10-year ASCVD risk was assessed using the FRS and PCE, the mean risk calculated by both equations significantly increased as renal function declined.ConclusionsThe proportion of statin-eligible subjects significantly increased according to worsening renal function in this Korean cohort. ACC/AHA guideline showed better agreement for statin eligibility with that recommended by KDIGO guideline compared to ATP III in subjects with CKD.

  8. Within-Subject Correlation Analysis to Detect Functional Areas Associated With Response Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Yamasaki

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional areas in fMRI studies are often detected by brain-behavior correlation, calculating across-subject correlation between the behavioral index and the brain activity related to a function of interest. Within-subject correlation analysis is also employed in a single subject level, which utilizes cognitive fluctuations in a shorter time period by correlating the behavioral index with the brain activity across trials. In the present study, the within-subject analysis was applied to the stop-signal task, a standard task to probe response inhibition, where efficiency of response inhibition can be evaluated by the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT. Since the SSRT is estimated, by definition, not in a trial basis but from pooled trials, the correlation across runs was calculated between the SSRT and the brain activity related to response inhibition. The within-subject correlation revealed negative correlations in the anterior cingulate cortex and the cerebellum. Moreover, the dissociation pattern was observed in the within-subject analysis when earlier vs. later parts of the runs were analyzed: negative correlation was dominant in earlier runs, whereas positive correlation was dominant in later runs. Regions of interest analyses revealed that the negative correlation in the anterior cingulate cortex, but not in the cerebellum, was dominant in earlier runs, suggesting multiple mechanisms associated with inhibitory processes that fluctuate on a run-by-run basis. These results indicate that the within-subject analysis compliments the across-subject analysis by highlighting different aspects of cognitive/affective processes related to response inhibition.

  9. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  10. Objective and subjective measures of simultaneous vs sequential bilateral cochlear implants in adults : A randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenga, Véronique J.C.; Ramakers, Geerte G.J.; Smulders, Yvette E.; Van Zon, Alice; Stegeman, Inge; Smit, Adriana L.; Stokroos, Robert J.; Hendrice, Nadia; Free, Rolien H.; Maat, Bert; Frijns, Johan H M; Briaire, Jeroen J; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M; Huinck, Wendy J.; van Zanten, Gijsbert A.; Grolman, Wilko

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: To date, no randomized clinical trial on the comparison between simultaneous and sequential bilateral cochlear implants (BiCIs) has been performed.  OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hearing capabilities and the self-reported benefits of simultaneous BiCIs compared with those of sequential

  11. Objective and Subjective Measures of Simultaneous vs Sequential Bilateral Cochlear Implants in Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenga, V.J.; Ramakers, G.G.; Smulders, Y.E.; Zon, A. van; Stegeman, I.; Smit, A.L.; Stokroos, R.J.; Hendrice, N.; Free, R.H.; Maat, B.; Frijns, J.H.; Briaire, J.J.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Huinck, W.J.; Zanten, G.A.; Grolman, W.

    2017-01-01

    Importance: To date, no randomized clinical trial on the comparison between simultaneous and sequential bilateral cochlear implants (BiCIs) has been performed. Objective: To investigate the hearing capabilities and the self-reported benefits of simultaneous BiCIs compared with those of sequential

  12. A Linear Programming Model to Optimize Various Objective Functions of a Foundation Type State Support Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, Orville R.

    The purpose of this study was to formulate a linear programming model to simulate a foundation type support program and to apply this model to a state support program for the public elementary and secondary school districts in the State of Iowa. The model was successful in producing optimal solutions to five objective functions proposed for…

  13. Relations of Preschoolers' Visual-Motor and Object Manipulation Skills with Executive Function and Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M.; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Method: Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M[subscript age] = 4.31 years) were…

  14. Appropriate Objective Functions for Quantifying Iris Mechanical Properties Using Inverse Finite Element Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Anup D; Dorairaj, Syril K; Amini, Rouzbeh

    2018-07-01

    Quantifying the mechanical properties of the iris is important, as it provides insight into the pathophysiology of glaucoma. Recent ex vivo studies have shown that the mechanical properties of the iris are different in glaucomatous eyes as compared to normal ones. Notwithstanding the importance of the ex vivo studies, such measurements are severely limited for diagnosis and preclude development of treatment strategies. With the advent of detailed imaging modalities, it is possible to determine the in vivo mechanical properties using inverse finite element (FE) modeling. An inverse modeling approach requires an appropriate objective function for reliable estimation of parameters. In the case of the iris, numerous measurements such as iris chord length (CL) and iris concavity (CV) are made routinely in clinical practice. In this study, we have evaluated five different objective functions chosen based on the iris biometrics (in the presence and absence of clinical measurement errors) to determine the appropriate criterion for inverse modeling. Our results showed that in the absence of experimental measurement error, a combination of iris CL and CV can be used as the objective function. However, with the addition of measurement errors, the objective functions that employ a large number of local displacement values provide more reliable outcomes.

  15. Subjective vs. objective evaluation of gallbladder opacification during oral cholecystography in comparative clinical trials: implications for studies involving visual assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fon, G.T.; Hunter, T.B.; Berk, R.N.; Patton, D.D.; Capp, M.P.

    1982-01-01

    Radiographs and CT images taken during oral cholecystography in dogs were interpreted in an independent, blind fashion by three radiologists on two occasions and visual assessment of gallbladder density compared to the actual CT values. While there was significant intra- and inter-observer variation, the mean scores for the observers' interpretations of both radiographs and prints correlated well with the actual CT values (p > 0.05). In five out of six comparisons between first and second readings, the observers gave a lower score on the second reading. The considerable variation reflects the problems inherent in subjective evaluation of agents that produce small but measurable differences in radiographic density. Studies involving such subjective data have to be carefully designed in order to obtain meaningful results

  16. Structural and functional associations of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex with subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Koike, Takahiko; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Yoshida, Yumiko; Takahashi, Haruka K; Nakagawa, Eri; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-07-01

    Happiness is one of the most fundamental human goals, which has led researchers to examine the source of individual happiness. Happiness has usually been discussed regarding two aspects (a temporary positive emotion and a trait-like long-term sense of being happy) that are interrelated; for example, individuals with a high level of trait-like subjective happiness tend to rate events as more pleasant. In this study, we hypothesized that the interaction between the two aspects of happiness could be explained by the interaction between structure and function in certain brain regions. Thus, we first assessed the association between gray matter density (GMD) of healthy participants and trait-like subjective happiness using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Further, to assess the association between the GMD and brain function, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using the task of positive emotion induction (imagination of several emotional life events). VBM indicated that the subjective happiness was positively correlated with the GMD of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC). Functional MRI demonstrated that experimentally induced temporal happy feelings were positively correlated with subjective happiness level and rACC activity. The rACC response to positive events was also positively correlated with its GMD. These results provide convergent structural and functional evidence that the rACC is related to happiness and suggest that the interaction between structure and function in the rACC may explain the trait-state interaction in happiness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Intranasal trigeminal function in subjects with and without an intact sense of smell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannilli, E; Gerber, J; Frasnelli, J; Hummel, T

    2007-03-30

    The intranasal trigeminal system is involved in the perception of odors. To investigate the cerebral processing of sensory information from the trigeminal nerve in detail we studied subjects with and without olfactory function using functional magnetic resonance imaging. A normosmic group (n=12) was compared with a group of anosmic subjects (n=11). For trigeminal stimulation gaseous CO(2) was used. Following right-sided stimulation with CO(2) controls exhibited a stronger right-sided cerebral activation than anosmic subjects. Stronger activation was found in controls compared to anosmic subjects for the right prefrontal cortex, the right somatosensory cortex (SI), and the left parietal insula. In contrast, relatively higher activation was found in anosmic subjects for the left supplementary motor area in the frontal lobe, the right superior and middle temporal lobe, the left parahippocampal gyrus in the limbic lobe, and the sub-lobar region of the left putamen and right insula which was mostly due to a decreased BOLD signal of controls in these areas. Additional conjunction analysis revealed that activated areas common to the two groups were the cerebellum and the right premotor frontal cortex. These data suggest that the processing of the trigeminally mediated information is different in the presence or absence of an intact sense of smell, pointing towards the intimate connection between the two chemosensory systems.

  18. Objectively measured sedentary behaviour and moderate and vigorous physical activity in different school subjects: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerli Mooses

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence shows the positive influence of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA and negative influence of sedentary time on health and academic achievement. Although schools can significantly contribute to overall physical activity, little is known about MVPA and sedentary behaviour in different school subjects in different grades. Methods Physical activity of 646 students from 18 schools (94 classes and from three school stages (grades 1–9, aged 7–16 was measured with accelerometry for 5 school days. Time and proportion of MVPA and sedentary time, also average sedentary bout length was calculated for native language (Estonian, mathematics, science, foreign language, music and crafts lessons. Results A total of 6363 lessons were measured, with lesson duration of 45 min. The average lesson time MVPA remained below 2.2 min in all school stages and in all subjects. Students in grades 4–6 had greatest decline in the proportion of lesson time MVPA in science (β = −1.9, 95%CI −3.1– -0.6 and music (−1.2, −2.1– -0.4 and in grades 7–9 in music (−1.7, −3.1– -0.3 lessons compared to grades 1–3. In grades 1–3 students spent on average 76% of lesson time (34.0 ± 7.0 min as sedentary, whereas in grades 7–9 the average proportion of sedentary time was 87% (38.9 ± 5.7 min. An average sedentary bout length increased from 13 min in grades 1–3 to 20 min in grades 7–9. An increase in sedentary bout length from grades 1–3 compared to grades 7–9 was present in most subjects, except crafts, with smallest increase in foreign language (6 min, 3.5–8.9 and greatest in music lessons (16.6 min, 11.9–21.3. Lessons with prolonged sedentary bouts formed a maximum 36% of all lessons in grades 1–3 and 73% in grades 7–9. Conclusion The long sedentary time, bout length and low MVPA in most subjects were unfavourable in respect of both health and academic achievement. Significantly

  19. Effect of Xerostomia on the Functional Capacity of Subjects with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins E Silva, Marília; Carvalho, Camila Nunes; Carvalho, Alessandra de Albuquerque Tavares; Leão, Jair Carneiro; Duarte, Angela Luzia Pinto; Gueiros, Luiz Alcino

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the intensity of xerostomia and hyposalivation in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as the effects of these conditions on functional incapacity and disease activity. The study sample comprised 236 individuals of both sexes who had RA. All the individuals were submitted to clinical evaluation and unstimulated sialometry. Functional capacity was determined by using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), xerostomia was assessed using the Xerostomia Inventory, and disease activity was evaluated with the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28). The effect of Sjögren syndrome (SS) was analyzed, and the sample was divided into 2 groups: RA (191 subjects) and RA/SS (45 subjects). The Xerostomia Inventory showed positive and significant correlation with fatigue (r = 0.243; p xerostomia (OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.84-8.23, p Xerostomia demonstrated an adverse effect on quality of life of subjects with RA, being associated with a reduction in functional capacity. In this clinical setting, xerostomia can be monitored as a marker of worse clinical evolution.

  20. Modelling and Order of Acoustic Transfer Functions Due to Reflections from Augmented Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diemer de Vries

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly accepted that the sound reflections from real physical objects are much more complicated than what usually is and can be modelled by room acoustics modelling software. The main reason for this limitation is the level of detail inherent in the physical object in terms of its geometrical and acoustic properties. In the present paper, the complexity of the sound reflections from a corridor wall is investigated by modelling the corresponding acoustic transfer functions at several receiver positions in front of the wall. The complexity for different wall configurations has been examined and the changes have been achieved by altering its acoustic image. The results show that for a homogenous flat wall, the complexity is significant and for a wall including various smaller objects, the complexity is highly dependent on the position of the receiver with respect to the objects.

  1. Waveform inversion with exponential damping using a deconvolution-based objective function

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2016-09-06

    The lack of low frequency components in seismic data usually leads full waveform inversion into the local minima of its objective function. An exponential damping of the data, on the other hand, generates artificial low frequencies, which can be used to admit long wavelength updates for waveform inversion. Another feature of exponential damping is that the energy of each trace also exponentially decreases with source-receiver offset, where the leastsquare misfit function does not work well. Thus, we propose a deconvolution-based objective function for waveform inversion with an exponential damping. Since the deconvolution filter includes a division process, it can properly address the unbalanced energy levels of the individual traces of the damped wavefield. Numerical examples demonstrate that our proposed FWI based on the deconvolution filter can generate a convergent long wavelength structure from the artificial low frequency components coming from an exponential damping.

  2. Full Waveform Inversion Using an Energy-Based Objective Function with Efficient Calculation of the Gradient

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2017-05-26

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) using an energy-based objective function has the potential to provide long wavelength model information even without low frequency in the data. However, without the back-propagation method (adjoint-state method), its implementation is impractical for the model size of general seismic survey. We derive the gradient of the energy-based objective function using the back-propagation method to make its FWI feasible. We also raise the energy signal to the power of a small positive number to properly handle the energy signal imbalance as a function of offset. Examples demonstrate that the proposed FWI algorithm provides a convergent long wavelength structure model even without low-frequency information, which can be used as a good starting model for the subsequent conventional FWI.