WorldWideScience

Sample records for object imitation training

  1. The Impact of Object and Gesture Imitation Training on Language Use in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Lalonde, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: "Reciprocal imitation training" (RIT) is a naturalistic behavioral intervention that teaches imitation to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) within a social-communicative context. RIT has been shown to be effective at teaching spontaneous, generalized object and gesture imitation. In addition, improvements in imitation are…

  2. A Molecular Analysis of Training Multiple versus Single Manipulations to Establish a Generalized Manipulative Imitation Repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Breanne K.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the necessity of training multiple versus single manipulative-imitations per object in order to establish generalized manipulative-imitation. Training took place in Croyden Avenue School's Early Childhood Developmental Delay preschool classroom in Kalamazoo, MI. Two groups of 3 children each were trained to imitate in order to…

  3. Brief Report: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Reciprocal Imitation Training for Teaching Elicited and Spontaneous Imitation to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism exhibit significant deficits in imitation skills. Reciprocal Imitation Training (RIT), a naturalistic imitation intervention, was developed to teach young children with autism to imitate during play. This study used a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of RIT on elicited and spontaneous imitation skills in 21…

  4. Neuroprosthetic Decoder Training as Imitation Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merel, Josh; Carlson, David; Paninski, Liam; Cunningham, John P

    2016-05-01

    Neuroprosthetic brain-computer interfaces function via an algorithm which decodes neural activity of the user into movements of an end effector, such as a cursor or robotic arm. In practice, the decoder is often learned by updating its parameters while the user performs a task. When the user's intention is not directly observable, recent methods have demonstrated value in training the decoder against a surrogate for the user's intended movement. Here we show that training a decoder in this way is a novel variant of an imitation learning problem, where an oracle or expert is employed for supervised training in lieu of direct observations, which are not available. Specifically, we describe how a generic imitation learning meta-algorithm, dataset aggregation (DAgger), can be adapted to train a generic brain-computer interface. By deriving existing learning algorithms for brain-computer interfaces in this framework, we provide a novel analysis of regret (an important metric of learning efficacy) for brain-computer interfaces. This analysis allows us to characterize the space of algorithmic variants and bounds on their regret rates. Existing approaches for decoder learning have been performed in the cursor control setting, but the available design principles for these decoders are such that it has been impossible to scale them to naturalistic settings. Leveraging our findings, we then offer an algorithm that combines imitation learning with optimal control, which should allow for training of arbitrary effectors for which optimal control can generate goal-oriented control. We demonstrate this novel and general BCI algorithm with simulated neuroprosthetic control of a 26 degree-of-freedom model of an arm, a sophisticated and realistic end effector.

  5. Neuroprosthetic Decoder Training as Imitation Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Merel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprosthetic brain-computer interfaces function via an algorithm which decodes neural activity of the user into movements of an end effector, such as a cursor or robotic arm. In practice, the decoder is often learned by updating its parameters while the user performs a task. When the user's intention is not directly observable, recent methods have demonstrated value in training the decoder against a surrogate for the user's intended movement. Here we show that training a decoder in this way is a novel variant of an imitation learning problem, where an oracle or expert is employed for supervised training in lieu of direct observations, which are not available. Specifically, we describe how a generic imitation learning meta-algorithm, dataset aggregation (DAgger, can be adapted to train a generic brain-computer interface. By deriving existing learning algorithms for brain-computer interfaces in this framework, we provide a novel analysis of regret (an important metric of learning efficacy for brain-computer interfaces. This analysis allows us to characterize the space of algorithmic variants and bounds on their regret rates. Existing approaches for decoder learning have been performed in the cursor control setting, but the available design principles for these decoders are such that it has been impossible to scale them to naturalistic settings. Leveraging our findings, we then offer an algorithm that combines imitation learning with optimal control, which should allow for training of arbitrary effectors for which optimal control can generate goal-oriented control. We demonstrate this novel and general BCI algorithm with simulated neuroprosthetic control of a 26 degree-of-freedom model of an arm, a sophisticated and realistic end effector.

  6. Training Social Cognition: From Imitation to Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiesteban, Idalmis; White, Sarah; Cook, Jennifer; Gilbert, Sam J.; Heyes, Cecilia; Bird, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Evidence for successful socio-cognitive training in typical adults is rare. This study attempted to improve Theory of Mind (ToM) and visual perspective taking in healthy adults by training participants to either imitate or to inhibit imitation. Twenty-four hours after training, all participants completed tests of ToM and visual perspective taking.…

  7. Promoting imitation in young children with autism: a comparison of reciprocal imitation training and video modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Teresa A; Wilcox, M Jeanne

    2011-05-01

    The inability to imitate is a salient diagnostic marker for autism. It has been suggested that for children with autism, imitation may be a prerequisite skill that can assist in the development of various skills. Using a multiple baseline design across subjects, the purpose of this research was to determine if two interventions, reciprocal imitation training and video modeling were effective in promoting imitation acquisition in young children with autism. Six boys were matched across various features (i.e., age, language, autism severity) and randomly placed in a treatment condition. Results indicated that all six participants increased their imitation skills to varying degrees in both conditions, and imitation maintained and generalized at higher than baseline levels post treatment.

  8. The role of objects and effects in action imitation: Comparing the imitation of object-related actions vs. gestures in 18-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ziyon; Óturai, Gabriella; Király, Ildikó; Knopf, Monika

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to systematically investigate 18-month-old infants' imitation of object-related actions compared to motorically similar gestures. An additional goal of the study was to examine the role of action effects on infants' imitation of target actions. One group of infants (n=17) observed object-related actions and gestures leading to salient effects (sounds or visual resp. social effects), and the other group (n=16) watched the same actions without effects. Furthermore, this study examined whether infants show a consistent imitation ability for object-related actions and gestures. First, the present study showed that 18-month-old infants imitated object-related actions more frequently than gestures. Second, the presence of an effect significantly increased the imitation rate of object-related actions; however, this difference was not found for gestures. Third, indications for a general imitation ability were found as results on an individual level showed that object-related action imitation significantly correlated with gesture imitation. Implications of the results for theory and future studies are discussed with a focus on the role of objects and effects in 18-month-old infants' action imitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Brief Report: Imitation of Object-Directed Acts in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsiorowski, Anna; Williamson, Rebecca A.; Robins, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) imitate less than typically developing (TD) children; however, the specific features and causes of this deficit are still unclear. The current study investigates the role of joint engagement, specifically children's visual attention to demonstrations, in an object-directed imitation task. This sample…

  10. Promoting Imitation in Young Children with Autism: A Comparison of Reciprocal Imitation Training and Video Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Teresa A.; Wilcox, M. Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    The inability to imitate is a salient diagnostic marker for autism. It has been suggested that for children with autism, imitation may be a prerequisite skill that can assist in the development of various skills. Using a multiple baseline design across subjects, the purpose of this research was to determine if two interventions, reciprocal…

  11. Object words modulate the activity of the mirror neuron system during action imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Tang, Honghong; Ge, Yue; Yang, Suyong; Mai, Xiaoqin; Luo, Yue-Jia; Liu, Chao

    2017-11-01

    Although research has demonstrated that the mirror neuron system (MNS) plays a crucial role in both action imitation and action-related semantic processing, whether action-related words can inversely modulate the MNS activity remains unclear. Here, three types of task-irrelevant words (body parts, verbs, and manufactured objects) were presented to examine the modulation effect of these words on the MNS activity during action observation and imitation. Twenty-two participants were recruited for the fMRI scanning and remaining data from 19 subjects were reported here. Brain activity results showed that word types elicited different modulation effects over nodes of the MNS (i.e., the right inferior frontal gyrus, premotor cortex, inferior parietal lobule, and STS), especially during the imitation stage. Compared with other word conditions, action imitation following manufactured objects words induced stronger activation in these brain regions during the imitation stage. These results were consistent in both task-dependent and -independent ROI analysis. Our findings thus provide evidence for the unique effect of object words on the MNS during imitation of action, which may also confirm the key role of goal inference in action imitation.

  12. Memory and representation in young children with Down syndrome: Exploring deferred imitation and object permanence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, Mechthild; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    1995-01-01

    Deferred imitation and object permanence (OP) were tested in 48 young children with Down syndrome (DS), ranging from 20 to 43 months of age. Deferred imitation and high-level OP (invisible displacements) have long been held to be synchronous developments during sensory-motor "Stage 6" (18-24 months of age in unimpaired children). The results of the current study demonstrate deferred imitation in young children with DS, showing they can learn novel behaviors from observation and retain multiple models in memory. This is the first demonstration of deferred imitation in young children with DS. The average OP level passed in this sample was A-not-B, a task passed at 8-12 months of age in normally developing infants. Analyses showed that individual children who failed high-level OP (invisible displacements) could still perform deferred imitation. This indicates that deferred imitation and OP invisible displacements are not synchronous developments in children with DS. This asynchrony is compatible with new data from unimpaired children suggesting that deferred imitation and high-level OP entail separate and distinctive kinds of memory and representation.

  13. Social Intervention for Adolescents with Autism and Significant Intellectual Disability: Initial Efficacyof Reciprocal Imitation Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Walton, Katherine; Carlsen, Danielle; Hamlin, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism have difficulty with social skills across the lifespan. Few social interventions have been examined for older individuals with autism who also have significant intellectual disabilities (ID). Previous research suggests that reciprocal imitation training (RIT) improves imitation and social engagement in young children with…

  14. Changes in Frontoparietotemporal Connectivity following Do-As-I-Do Imitation Training in Chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Sarah M; Taglialatela, Jared P; Skiba, Sara A; Hopkins, William D

    2018-03-01

    Human imitation is supported by an underlying "mirror system" principally composed of inferior frontal, inferior parietal, and superior temporal cortical regions. Across primate species, differences in frontoparietotemporal connectivity have been hypothesized to explain phylogenetic variation in imitative abilities. However, if and to what extent these regions are involved in imitation in nonhuman primates is unknown. We hypothesized that "Do As I Do" (DAID) imitation training would enhance white matter integrity within and between frontoparietotemporal regions. To this end, four captive chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) were trained to reproduce 23 demonstrated actions, and four age-/sex-matched controls were trained to produce basic husbandry behaviors in response to manual cues. Diffusion tensor images were acquired before and after 600 min of training over an average of 112 days. Bilateral and asymmetrical changes in frontoparietotemporal white matter integrity were compared between DAID trained subjects and controls. We found that imitation trained subjects exhibited leftward shifts in both mean fractional anisotropy and tract strength asymmetry measures in brain regions within the mirror system. This is the first report of training-induced changes in white matter integrity in chimpanzees and suggests that frontoparietotemporal connectivity, particularly in the left hemisphere, may have facilitated the emergence of increasingly complex imitation learning abilities.

  15. Effects of movement imitation training in Parkinson's disease: A virtual reality pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-García, Verónica; Corral-Bergantiños, Yoanna; Espinosa, Nelson; García-Sancho, Carlos; Sanmartín, Gabriel; Flores, Julián; Cudeiro, Javier; Arias, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Hypometria is a clinical motor sign in Parkinson's disease. Its origin likely emerges from basal ganglia dysfunction, leading to an impaired control of inhibitory intracortical motor circuits. Some neurorehabilitation approaches include movement imitation training; besides the effects of motor practice, there might be a benefit due to observation and imitation of un-altered movement patterns. In this sense, virtual reality facilitates the process by customizing motor-patterns to be observed and imitated. To evaluate the effect of a motor-imitation therapy focused on hypometria in Parkinson's disease using virtual reality. We carried out a randomized controlled pilot-study. Sixteen patients were randomly assigned in experimental and control groups. Groups underwent 4-weeks of training based on finger-tapping with the dominant hand, in which imitation was the differential factor (only the experimental group imitated). We evaluated self-paced movement features and cortico-spinal excitability (recruitment curves and silent periods in both hemispheres) before, immediately after, and two weeks after the training period. Movement amplitude increased significantly after the therapy in the experimental group for the trained and un-trained hands. Motor thresholds and silent periods evaluated with transcranial magnetic stimulation were differently modified by training in the two groups; although the changes in the input-output recruitment were similar. This pilot study suggests that movement imitation therapy enhances the effect of motor practice in patients with Parkinson's disease; imitation-training might be helpful for reducing hypometria in these patients. These results must be clarified in future larger trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Imitation, Objects, Tools, and the Rudiments of Language in Human Ontogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzoff, A. N.

    2013-01-01

    Human beings are imitative generalists. We can immediately imitate a wide range of behaviors with great facility, whether they be vocal maneuvers, body postures, or actions on objects. The ontogeny of this skill has been an enduring question in developmental psychology. Classical theory holds that the ability to imitate facial gestures is a milestone that is passed at about one year. Before this time infants are thought to lack the perceptual-cognitive sophistication necessary to match a gesture they can see with one they cannot see themselves perform. A second developmental milestone is the capacity for deferred imitation, i.e. imitation of an absent model. This is said to emerge at about 18 months, in close synchrony with other higher-order activities such as object permanence and tool use, as part of a general cognitive shift from a purely sensory-motor level of functioning to one that allows language. Research suggests that the imitative capacity of young infants has been underestimated. Human infants are capable of imitating facial gestures at birth, with infants less than one day old manifesting this skill. Moreover recent experiments have established deferred imitation well before the predicted age of 18 months. Studies discussed here show that 9-month-olds can duplicate acts after a delay of 24 hours, and that 14-month-olds can retain and duplicate as many as five actions over a 1-week delay. These new findings re-raise questions about the relation between nonverbal cognitive development and language development: What aspects, if any, of these two domains are linked? A hypothesis is delineated that predicts certain very specific relations between particular cognitive and semantic achievements during the one-word stage, and data are reported supporting this hypothesis. Specifically, relations are reported between: (a) the development of object permanence and the use of words encoding disappearance, (b) means-ends understanding (as manifest in tool use) and

  17. Video stimuli reduce object-directed imitation accuracy: a novel two-person motion-tracking approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Arran T; Holmes, Nicholas P

    2015-01-01

    Imitation is an important form of social behavior, and research has aimed to discover and explain the neural and kinematic aspects of imitation. However, much of this research has featured single participants imitating in response to pre-recorded video stimuli. This is in spite of findings that show reduced neural activation to video vs. real life movement stimuli, particularly in the motor cortex. We investigated the degree to which video stimuli may affect the imitation process using a novel motion tracking paradigm with high spatial and temporal resolution. We recorded 14 positions on the hands, arms, and heads of two individuals in an imitation experiment. One individual freely moved within given parameters (moving balls across a series of pegs) and a second participant imitated. This task was performed with either simple (one ball) or complex (three balls) movement difficulty, and either face-to-face or via a live video projection. After an exploratory analysis, three dependent variables were chosen for examination: 3D grip position, joint angles in the arm, and grip aperture. A cross-correlation and multivariate analysis revealed that object-directed imitation task accuracy (as represented by grip position) was reduced in video compared to face-to-face feedback, and in complex compared to simple difficulty. This was most prevalent in the left-right and forward-back motions, relevant to the imitator sitting face-to-face with the actor or with a live projected video of the same actor. The results suggest that for tasks which require object-directed imitation, video stimuli may not be an ecologically valid way to present task materials. However, no similar effects were found in the joint angle and grip aperture variables, suggesting that there are limits to the influence of video stimuli on imitation. The implications of these results are discussed with regards to previous findings, and with suggestions for future experimentation.

  18. Object-directed imitation in autism spectrum disorder is differentially influenced by motoric task complexity, but not social contextual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetcuti, Lacey; Hudry, Kristelle; Grant, Megan; Vivanti, Giacomo

    2017-11-01

    We examined the role of social motivation and motor execution factors in object-directed imitation difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. A series of to-be-imitated actions was presented to 35 children with autism spectrum disorder and 20 typically developing children on an Apple ® iPad ® by a socially responsive or aloof model, under conditions of low and high motor demand. There were no differences in imitation performance (i.e. the number of actions reproduced within a fixed sequence), for either group, in response to a model who acted socially responsive or aloof. Children with autism spectrum disorder imitated the high motor demand task more poorly than the low motor demand task, while imitation performance for typically developing children was equivalent across the low and high motor demand conditions. Furthermore, imitative performance in the autism spectrum disorder group was unrelated to social reciprocity, though positively associated with fine motor coordination. These results suggest that difficulties in object-directed imitation in autism spectrum disorder are the result of motor execution difficulties, not reduced social motivation.

  19. Associations between United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) and Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Furman S; Zeger, Scott L; Kolars, Joseph C

    2008-07-01

    Little is known about the associations of previous standardized examination scores with scores on subsequent standardized examinations used to assess medical knowledge in internal medicine residencies. To examine associations of previous standardized test scores on subsequent standardized test scores. Retrospective cohort study. One hundred ninety-five internal medicine residents. Bivariate associations of United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Steps and Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE) scores were determined. Random effects analysis adjusting for repeated administrations of the IM-ITE and other variables known or hypothesized to affect IM-ITE score allowed for discrimination of associations of individual USMLE Step scores on IM-ITE scores. In bivariate associations, USMLE scores explained 17% to 27% of the variance in IME-ITE scores, and previous IM-ITE scores explained 66% of the variance in subsequent IM-ITE scores. Regression coefficients (95% CI) for adjusted associations of each USMLE Step with IM-ITE scores were USMLE-1 0.19 (0.12, 0.27), USMLE-2 0.23 (0.17, 0.30), and USMLE-3 0.19 (0.09, 0.29). No single USMLE Step is more strongly associated with IM-ITE scores than the others. Because previous IM-ITE scores are strongly associated with subsequent IM-ITE scores, appropriate modeling, such as random effects methods, should be used to account for previous IM-ITE administrations in studies for which IM-ITE score is an outcome.

  20. Defining Elemental Imitation Mechanisms: A Comparison of Cognitive and Motor-Spatial Imitation Learning across Object- and Computer-Based Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiaul, Francys; Zimmermann, Laura; Renner, Elizabeth; Schilder, Brian; Barr, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    During the first 5 years of life, the versatility, breadth, and fidelity with which children imitate change dramatically. Currently, there is no model to explain what underlies such significant changes. To that end, the present study examined whether task-independent but domain-specific--elemental--imitation mechanism explains performance across…

  1. What's Special about Human Imitation? A Comparison with Enculturated Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiaul, Francys

    2016-07-07

    What, if anything, is special about human imitation? An evaluation of enculturated apes' imitation skills, a "best case scenario" of non-human apes' imitation performance, reveals important similarities and differences between this special population of apes and human children. Candidates for shared imitation mechanisms include the ability to imitate various familiar transitive responses and object-object actions that involve familiar tools. Candidates for uniquely derived imitation mechanisms include: imitating novel transitive actions and novel tool-using responses as well as imitating opaque or intransitive gestures, regardless of familiarity. While the evidence demonstrates that enculturated apes outperform non-enculturated apes and perform more like human children, all apes, regardless of rearing history, generally excel at imitating familiar, over-rehearsed responses and are poor, relative to human children, at imitating novel, opaque or intransitive responses. Given the similarities between the sensory and motor systems of preschool age human children and non-human apes, it is unlikely that differences in sensory input and/or motor-output alone explain the observed discontinuities in imitation performance. The special rearing history of enculturated apes-including imitation-specific training-further diminishes arguments suggesting that differences are experience-dependent. Here, it is argued that such differences are best explained by distinct, specialized mechanisms that have evolved for copying rules and responses in particular content domains. Uniquely derived social and imitation learning mechanisms may represent adaptations for learning novel communicative gestures and complex tool-use. Given our species' dependence on both language and tools, mechanisms that accelerated learning in these domains are likely to have faced intense selective pressures, starting with the earliest of human ancestors.

  2. To What Extent Do Joint Attention, Imitation, and Object Play Behaviors in Infancy Predict Later Communication and Intellectual Functioning in ASD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kenneth K.; Watson, Linda R.; Baranek, Grace T.; Poe, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which early social communication behaviors predict later communication and intellectual outcomes was investigated via retrospective video analysis. Joint attention, imitation, and complex object play behaviors were coded from edited home videos featuring scenes of 29 children with ASD at 9-12 and/or 15-18 months. A quantitative…

  3. Teaching Caregivers to Implement Video Modeling Imitation Training via iPad for Their Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Teresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism fail to imitate from an early age and this lack of imitation is a salient diagnostic marker for the disorder. For children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), increased imitation skills appear to be related to increased skill development in a variety of areas. Video modeling was recently validated as a technique to support…

  4. Automatic Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  5. Training facilitates object recognition in cubist paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wiesmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To the naïve observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group, trained subjects recognized more objects in the paintings, their response latencies were significantly shorter, and they showed enhanced activation in the parahippocampal cortex, with a parametric increase in the amplitude of the fMRI signal as a function of the number of recognized objects. Moreover, trained subjects were slower to report not recognizing any familiar objects in the paintings and these longer response latencies were correlated with activation in a fronto-parietal network. These findings suggest that trained subjects adopted a visual search strategy and used contextual associations to perform the tasks. Our study supports the proactive brain framework, according to which the brain uses associations to generate predictions.

  6. Increasing Access to an ASD Imitation Intervention via a Telehealth Parent Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, Allison L.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    Systematic research focused on developing and improving strategies for the dissemination and implementation of effective ASD services is essential. An innovative and promising area of research is the use of telehealth programs to train parents of children with ASD in intervention techniques. A hybrid telehealth program, combining self-directed…

  7. Imitation Pedagogy and Ethical Indoctrination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Edward

    1993-01-01

    Examines the claim of 16th-century English humanist educators that they prepared their students for civic life by providing not only technical training in language use but ethical and moral training for negotiating basic life situations. Attempts to determine what might have been the role of imitation exercises informing students' ethical…

  8. Gesture Imitation in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Natasha; Gold, Brian J.; Sekuler, Robert; Park, Sohee

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) are impaired in their ability to imitate gestures and movements generated by others. This impairment in imitation may be linked to difficulties in generating and maintaining internal representations in working memory (WM). We used a novel quantitative technique to investigate the relationship between WM and imitation ability. SZ outpatients and demographically matched healthy control (HC) participants imitated hand gestures. In Experiment 1, participants imitated single gestures. In Experiment 2, they imitated sequences of 2 gestures, either while viewing the gesture online or after a short delay that forced the use of WM. In Experiment 1, imitation errors were increased in SZ compared with HC. Experiment 2 revealed a significant interaction between imitation ability and WM. SZ produced more errors and required more time to imitate when that imitation depended upon WM compared with HC. Moreover, impaired imitation from WM was significantly correlated with the severity of negative symptoms but not with positive symptoms. In sum, gesture imitation was impaired in schizophrenia, especially when the production of an imitation depended upon WM and when an imitation entailed multiple actions. Such a deficit may have downstream consequences for new skill learning. PMID:21765171

  9. Gesture imitation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Natasha; Gold, Brian J; Sekuler, Robert; Park, Sohee

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) are impaired in their ability to imitate gestures and movements generated by others. This impairment in imitation may be linked to difficulties in generating and maintaining internal representations in working memory (WM). We used a novel quantitative technique to investigate the relationship between WM and imitation ability. SZ outpatients and demographically matched healthy control (HC) participants imitated hand gestures. In Experiment 1, participants imitated single gestures. In Experiment 2, they imitated sequences of 2 gestures, either while viewing the gesture online or after a short delay that forced the use of WM. In Experiment 1, imitation errors were increased in SZ compared with HC. Experiment 2 revealed a significant interaction between imitation ability and WM. SZ produced more errors and required more time to imitate when that imitation depended upon WM compared with HC. Moreover, impaired imitation from WM was significantly correlated with the severity of negative symptoms but not with positive symptoms. In sum, gesture imitation was impaired in schizophrenia, especially when the production of an imitation depended upon WM and when an imitation entailed multiple actions. Such a deficit may have downstream consequences for new skill learning.

  10. Examine Ways to Decrease Training Duration While Maintaining Training Objective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    ability to complete a task ( Bandura , 1977) and is related to motivation to learn , post-training self-efficacy, and training transfer (Colquitt...critical role” in “…fostering learning and controlling the social , task, and physical aspects of the discrete learning context” (Surface & Ellington...language instruction. West Conshohocken, PA: Author. Bandura , A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological

  11. Kinematic Measures of Imitation Fidelity in Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Justin H. G.; Casey, Jackie M.; Braadbaart, Lieke; Culmer, Peter R.; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We sought to develop a method for measuring imitation accuracy objectively in primary school children. Children imitated a model drawing shapes on the same computer-tablet interface they saw used in video clips, allowing kinematics of model and observers' actions to be directly compared. Imitation accuracy was reported as a correlation reflecting…

  12. The role of imitation in video-based interventions for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, C J; Moore, D W; Anderson, A; Dillenburger, K

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to bridge the gap between the corpus of imitation research and video-based intervention (VBI) research, and consider the impact imitation skills may be having on VBI outcomes and highlight potential areas for improving efficacy. A review of the imitation literature was conducted focusing on imitation skill deficits in children with autism followed by a critical review of the video modelling literature focusing on pre-intervention assessment of imitation skills and the impact imitation deficits may have on VBI outcomes. Children with autism have specific imitation deficits, which may impact VBI outcomes. Imitation training or procedural modifications made to videos may accommodate for these deficits. There are only six studies where VBI researchers have taken pre-intervention imitation assessments using an assortment of imitation measures. More research is required to develop a standardised multi-dimensional imitation assessment battery that can better inform VBI.

  13. Object Permanence and Relational Words: A Lexical Training Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael; Farrar, Michael Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    Describes a lexical training program developed to teach object, visible movement, and invisible movement words to children at stage 5 (N=7) and stage 6 (N=16) object permanence development. Stage 6 children learned all three types of words equally well, while stage 5 children learned object and visible movement but not invisible movement words.…

  14. Neural correlates of individual differences in manual imitation fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braadbaart, Lieke; Waiter, Gordon D.; Williams, Justin H. G.

    2012-01-01

    Imitation is crucial for social learning, and so it is important to identify what determines between-subject variability in imitation fidelity. This might help explain what makes some people, like those with social difficulties such as in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), significantly worse at performance on these tasks than others. A novel paradigm was developed to provide objective measures of imitation fidelity in which participants used a touchscreen to imitate videos of a model drawing different shapes. Comparisons between model and participants' kinematic data provided three measures of imitative fidelity. We hypothesized that imitative ability would predict variation in BOLD signal whilst performing a simple imitation task in the MRI-scanner. In particular, an overall measure of accuracy (correlation between model and imitator) would predict activity in the overarching imitation system, whereas bias would be subject to more general aspects of motor control. Participants lying in the MRI-scanner were instructed to imitate different grips on a handle, or to watch someone or a circle moving the handle. Our hypothesis was partly confirmed as correlation between model and imitator was mediated by somatosensory cortex but also ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and bias was mediated mainly by cerebellum but also by the medial frontal and parietal cortices and insula. We suggest that this variance differentially reflects cognitive functions such as feedback-sensitivity and reward-dependent learning, contributing significantly to variability in individuals' imitative abilities as characterized by objective kinematic measures. PMID:23087625

  15. Neural correlates of individual differences in manual imitation fidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke eBraadbaart

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Imitation is crucial for social learning, and so it is important to identify what determines between-subject variability in imitation fidelity. This might help explain what makes some people, like those with social difficulties such as in Autism Spectrum Disorder, significantly worse at performance on these tasks than others. A novel paradigm was developed to provide objective measures of imitation fidelity in which participants used a touchscreen to imitate videos of a model drawing different shapes. Comparisons between model and participants’ kinematic data provided three measures of imitative fidelity. We hypothesised that imitative ability would predict variation in BOLD signal whilst performing a simple imitation task in the MRI-scanner. In particular, an overall measure of accuracy (correlation between model and imitator would predict activity in the overarching imitation system, whereas bias would be subject to more general aspects of motor control. Participants lying in the MRI-scanner were instructed to imitate different grips on a handle, or to watch someone or a circle moving the handle. Our hypothesis was partly confirmed as correlation between model and imitator was mediated by somatosensory cortex but also ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and bias was mediated mainly by cerebellum but also by the medial frontal and parietal cortices and insula. We suggest that this variance differentially reflects cognitive functions such as feedback-sensitivity and reward-dependent learning, contributing significantly to variability in individuals’ imitative abilities as characterised by objective kinematic measures.

  16. Imitation and speech: commonalities within Broca's area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Brass, Marcel; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2013-11-01

    The so-called embodiment of communication has attracted considerable interest. Recently a growing number of studies have proposed a link between Broca's area's involvement in action processing and its involvement in speech. The present quantitative meta-analysis set out to test whether neuroimaging studies on imitation and overt speech show overlap within inferior frontal gyrus. By means of activation likelihood estimation (ALE), we investigated concurrence of brain regions activated by object-free hand imitation studies as well as overt speech studies including simple syllable and more complex word production. We found direct overlap between imitation and speech in bilateral pars opercularis (BA 44) within Broca's area. Subtraction analyses revealed no unique localization neither for speech nor for imitation. To verify the potential of ALE subtraction analysis to detect unique involvement within Broca's area, we contrasted the results of a meta-analysis on motor inhibition and imitation and found separable regions involved for imitation. This is the first meta-analysis to compare the neural correlates of imitation and overt speech. The results are in line with the proposed evolutionary roots of speech in imitation.

  17. A Parent-Implemented Intervention to Improve Imitation Skills by Children with Autism: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghlawan, Hasan Y.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effects of a modified reciprocal imitation training (RIT) on the imitation skills of children with autism. Two parents were trained and coached to use the modified RIT with their young children with autism in home settings. The modified RIT was composed of contingent imitation, descriptive…

  18. The Development and Validation of a Spanish Elicited Imitation Test of Oral Language Proficiency for the Missionary Training Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carrie A.

    2013-01-01

    The Missionary Training Center (MTC), affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, needs a reliable and cost effective way to measure the oral language proficiency of missionaries learning Spanish. The MTC needed to measure incoming missionaries' Spanish language proficiency for training and classroom assignment as well as to…

  19. Teaching children generalized imitation skills: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Freddy Jackson; Peace, Natalie; Parsons, Rachel

    2009-03-01

    Generalized imitation plays an important role in the acquisition of new skills, in particular language and communication. In this case report a multiple exemplar training procedure, with an errorless learning phase, was used to teach Ben, a 13-year-old child with severe intellectual disabilities, to imitate behaviours modelled by an adult instructor. After exposure to seven multiple exemplars, Ben learned to imitate novel actions to criterion (i.e. generalized imitation). These skills were maintained at 90 percent at 6 week and 18 week follow-up. In line with earlier research, this article provides some further support for the finding that multiple exemplar training can facilitate the reliable emergence of generalized imitation skills. Topographically similar behaviours during the learning phase can be difficult to discriminate and hence can slow the learning process. Future research could explore how generalized imitation supports the development of basic communication and activity skills.

  20. Kinematics and Kinetics of Squats, Drop Jumps and Imitation Jumps of Ski Jumpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Carole A; Keller, Melanie; Ammann, Fabian; Hübner, Klaus; Lindorfer, Julia; Taylor, William R; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2016-03-01

    Squats, drop jumps, and imitation jumps are commonly used training exercises in ski jumping to enhance maximum force, explosive force, and sport-specific skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the kinetics and kinematics of training exercises in ski jumping and to find objective parameters in training exercises that most correlate with the competition performance of ski jumpers. To this end, barbell squats, drop jumps, and imitation jumps were measured in a laboratory environment for 10 elite ski jumpers. Force and motion data were captured, and the influence of maximum vertical force, force difference, vertical take-off velocity, knee moments, knee joint power, and a knee valgus/varus index was evaluated and correlated with their season jump performance. The results indicate that, especially for the imitation jumps, a good correlation exists between the vertical take-off velocity and the personal jump performance on the hill (R = 0.718). Importantly, however, the more the athletes tended toward a valgus knee alignment during the measured movements, the worse their performance (R = 0.729 imitation jumps; R = 0.685 squats). Although an evaluation of the athletes' lower limb alignment during competitive jumping on the hill is still required, these preliminary data suggest that performance training should additionally concentrate on improving knee alignment to increase ski jumping performance.

  1. Reciprocal Imitation Following Adult Imitation by Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Ezell, Shauna; Nadel, Jacqueline; Grace, Ava; Allender, Susan; Siddalingappa, Vijaya

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of adult imitation and adult playfulness on the imitation, social attention and initiation of new behaviours by non-verbal preschoolers with autism. Videotapes taken from a previous study were recoded for the adult's imitation and playful behaviour and the children's imitation, social attention (looking at…

  2. Differential effects of spaced vs. massed training in long-term object-identity and object-location recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Medina, Paola C; Sánchez-Carrasco, Livia; González-Ornelas, Nadia R; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Ramírez-Amaya, Víctor

    2013-08-01

    Here we tested whether the well-known superiority of spaced training over massed training is equally evident in both object identity and object location recognition memory. We trained animals with objects placed in a variable or in a fixed location to produce a location-independent object identity memory or a location-dependent object representation. The training consisted of 5 trials that occurred either on one day (Massed) or over the course of 5 consecutive days (Spaced). The memory test was done in independent groups of animals either 24h or 7 days after the last training trial. In each test the animals were exposed to either a novel object, when trained with the objects in variable locations, or to a familiar object in a novel location, when trained with objects in fixed locations. The difference in time spent exploring the changed versus the familiar objects was used as a measure of recognition memory. For the object-identity-trained animals, spaced training produced clear evidence of recognition memory after both 24h and 7 days, but massed-training animals showed it only after 24h. In contrast, for the object-location-trained animals, recognition memory was evident after both retention intervals and with both training procedures. When objects were placed in variable locations for the two types of training and the test was done with a brand-new location, only the spaced-training animals showed recognition at 24h, but surprisingly, after 7 days, animals trained using both procedures were able to recognize the change, suggesting a post-training consolidation process. We suggest that the two training procedures trigger different neural mechanisms that may differ in the two segregated streams that process object information and that may consolidate differently. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Role of Elicited Verbal Imitation in Toddlers' Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Rosemary; Munro, Natalie; Baker, Elise; McGregor, Karla; Docking, Kimberley; Arciuli, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    This study is about the role of elicited verbal imitation in toddler word learning. Forty-eight toddlers were taught eight nonwords linked to referents. During training, they were asked to imitate the nonwords. Naming of the referents was tested at three intervals (one minute later [uncued], five minutes, and 1-7 days later [cued]) and recognition…

  4. Effects of imitating gestures during encoding or during retrieval of novel verbs on children's test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nooijer, Jacqueline A; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Zwaan, Rolf A

    2013-09-01

    Research has shown that observing and imitating gestures can foster word learning and that imitation might be more beneficial than observation, which is in line with theories of Embodied Cognition. This study investigated when imitation of gestures is most effective, using a 2×2×2×3 mixed design with between-subjects factors Imitation during Encoding (IE; Yes/No) and Imitation during Retrieval (IR; Yes/No), and within-subjects factors Time of Testing (Immediate/Delayed) and Verb Type (Object manipulation/Locomotion/Abstract). Primary school children (N=115) learned 15 novel verbs (five of each type). They were provided with a verbal definition and a video of the gesture. Depending on assigned condition, they additionally received no imitation instructions, instructions to imitate the gesture immediately (i.e., during encoding; IE), instructions to imitate (from memory) during the first posttest (i.e., during retrieval; IR), or both (IE-IR). Based on the literature, all three imitation conditions could be predicted to be more effective than no imitation. On an immediate and delayed posttest, only the object-manipulation verbs were differentially affected by instructional method, with IE and IR being more effective than no imitation on the immediate test; IE-IR and no imitation did not differ significantly. After a one week delay, only IR was more effective than no imitation, suggesting that imitation during retrieval is most effective for learning object-manipulation words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Reality check: Prior exposure facilitates picture book imitation by 15-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, Gabrielle; Heron-Delaney, Michelle

    2016-11-01

    We examined whether 15-month-olds could imitate a novel action sequence from a picture book, and whether or not pre-exposure to the objects before reading the book would facilitate imitation. We found that infants only imitated from a picture book above baseline when they had previously interacted with the objects. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Learning object for teacher training aimed to develop communication skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Esmeralda RODRÍGUEZ RAMÍREZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results and reflections obtained across a research aimed to analyze the quality criteria of an opened learning object oriented to develop communication skills in order to be able to report and validate it according to its content, pedagogic structure, technological structure, graphical and textual language and usability to teacher training, in order to base it theoretically, pedagogically and technologically. The research question was: Which are the quality criteria that a learning object aimed to develop communication skills must cover? Under a quantitative approach, there were electronic questionnaires applied to: 34 Technological University teachers, eight experts about of communicative competence, teaching, technology and graphic design. The results indicated that some of the quality criteria of learning object are: the effective managing of the learning content, the balanced composition of his pedagogic structure, the technological structure efficiency and the proper managing of graphical and textual language.

  7. Kinematics and Kinetics of Squats, Drop Jumps and Imitation Jumps of Ski Jumpers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Carole A.; Keller, Melanie; Ammann, Fabian; Hübner, Klaus; Lindorfer, Julia; Taylor, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pauli, CA, Keller, M, Ammann, F, Hübner, K, Lindorfer, J, Taylor, WR, and Lorenzetti, S. Kinematics and kinetics of squats, drop jumps and imitation jumps of ski jumpers. J Strength Cond Res 30(3): 643–652, 2016—Squats, drop jumps, and imitation jumps are commonly used training exercises in ski jumping to enhance maximum force, explosive force, and sport-specific skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the kinetics and kinematics of training exercises in ski jumping and to find objective parameters in training exercises that most correlate with the competition performance of ski jumpers. To this end, barbell squats, drop jumps, and imitation jumps were measured in a laboratory environment for 10 elite ski jumpers. Force and motion data were captured, and the influence of maximum vertical force, force difference, vertical take-off velocity, knee moments, knee joint power, and a knee valgus/varus index was evaluated and correlated with their season jump performance. The results indicate that, especially for the imitation jumps, a good correlation exists between the vertical take-off velocity and the personal jump performance on the hill (R = 0.718). Importantly, however, the more the athletes tended toward a valgus knee alignment during the measured movements, the worse their performance (R = 0.729 imitation jumps; R = 0.685 squats). Although an evaluation of the athletes' lower limb alignment during competitive jumping on the hill is still required, these preliminary data suggest that performance training should additionally concentrate on improving knee alignment to increase ski jumping performance. PMID:26418370

  8. A specific deficit of imitation in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Hannah J; McIntosh, Rob D; Williams, Justin H G

    2013-12-01

    Imitation is a potentially crucial aspect of social cognitive development. Although deficits in imitation ability have been widely demonstrated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the specificity and significance of the findings is unclear, due largely to methodological limitations. We developed a novel assessment of imitation ability, using objective movement parameters (path length and action duration) derived from a touch-sensitive tablet laptop during drawing actions on an identical tablet. By direct comparison of the kinematics of a model's actions with those of the participant who observed them, measures of imitation accuracy were obtained. By replaying the end-point of the movement as a spot on the screen, imitation accuracy was compared against a "ghost control" condition, with no human actor but only the end-point of the movement seen [object movement reenactment (OMR)]. Hence, demands of the control task were closely matched to the experimental task with respect to motor, memory, and attentional abilities. Adolescents with ASD showed poorer accuracy for copying object size and action duration on both the imitation and OMR tasks, but were significantly more impaired for imitation of object size. Our results provide evidence that some of the imitation deficit in ASD is specific to a self-other mapping problem, and cannot be explained by general factors such as memory, spatial reasoning, motor control, or attention, nor related to the social demands of the testing situation. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Whom Should We Imitate? Imitation Strategy and Industry Knowledge Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posen, Hart E.; Yi, Sangyoon; Lee, Jeho

    Imitation is a common practice within and across industries. Recent research has begun to explore the potential of imitation as a purposeful strategy. But the question of what constitutes a “good” imitation strategy is as yet not well understood. This study examines the efficacy of two canonical ...

  10. The Intersubjective and Transitional Function of Imitation in Early Grandparent-Infant Grandchild Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinaki, Theano; Pratikaki, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Primary objective: Research has provided evidence of the intersubjective function of imitation in grandparent-infant interaction based on the basic aspects of imitation. This lacks the systematic investigation of behaviour dynamics framing spontaneous imitation. The aim of this study was to compare the dyadic expressive behaviours (vocal, kinetic…

  11. Imitation Learning Errors Are Affected by Visual Cues in Both Performance and Observation Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Takashi; Sugimura, Ryoko; Shimada, Hideaki; Hasegawa, Takehiro

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms of action imitation were examined. Previous studies have suggested that success or failure of imitation is determined at the point of observing an action. In other words, cognitive processing after observation is not related to the success of imitation; 20 university students participated in each of three experiments in which they observed a series of object manipulations consisting of four elements (hands, tools, object, and end points) and then imitated the manipulations. In Experiment 1, a specific intially observed element was color coded, and the specific manipulated object at the imitation stage was identically color coded; participants accurately imitated the color coded element. In Experiment 2, a specific element was color coded at the observation but not at the imitation stage, and there were no effects of color coding on imitation. In Experiment 3, participants were verbally instructed to attend to a specific element at the imitation stage, but the verbal instructions had no effect. Thus, the success of imitation may not be determined at the stage of observing an action and color coding can provide a clue for imitation at the imitation stage.

  12. Parietal and premotor cortices: activation reflects imitation accuracy during observation, delayed imitation and concurrent imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Britta; Bischoff, Matthias; Blecker, Carlo; Langhanns, Christine; Kindermann, Stefan; Sauerbier, Isabell; Reiser, Mathias; Stark, Rudolf; Munzert, Jörn; Pilgramm, Sebastian

    2014-10-15

    This study investigated whether activation within areas belonging to the action observation and imitation network reveals a linear relation to the subsequent accuracy of imitating a bimanual rhythmic movement measured via a motion capturing system. 20 participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) when asked to imitate observed bimanual movements either concurrently versus with a delay (2s) or simply to observe the movements without imitation. Results showed that action observation relates to activation within classic mirror-related areas. Activation patterns were more widespread when participants were asked to imitate the movement. During observation with concurrent imitation, activation in the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) was associated negatively with imitation accuracy. During observation in the delayed imitation condition, higher subsequent imitation accuracy was coupled with higher activation in the right superior parietal lobe (SPL) and the left parietal operculum (POp). During the delayed imitation itself, a negative association between imitation accuracy and brain activation was revealed in the right ventral premotor cortex (vPMC). We conclude that the IPL is involved in online comparison and visuospatial attention processes during imitation, the SPL provides a kinesthetic blueprint during movement observation, the POp preserves body identity, and the vPMC recruits motor representations--especially when no concurrent visual guidance is possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Group Dynamics in Automatic Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleibs, Ilka H; Wilson, Neil; Reddy, Geetha; Catmur, Caroline

    Imitation-matching the configural body movements of another individual-plays a crucial part in social interaction. We investigated whether automatic imitation is not only influenced by who we imitate (ingroup vs. outgroup member) but also by the nature of an expected interaction situation (competitive vs. cooperative). In line with assumptions from Social Identity Theory), we predicted that both social group membership and the expected situation impact on the level of automatic imitation. We adopted a 2 (group membership target: ingroup, outgroup) x 2 (situation: cooperative, competitive) design. The dependent variable was the degree to which participants imitated the target in a reaction time automatic imitation task. 99 female students from two British Universities participated. We found a significant two-way interaction on the imitation effect. When interacting in expectation of cooperation, imitation was stronger for an ingroup target compared to an outgroup target. However, this was not the case in the competitive condition where imitation did not differ between ingroup and outgroup target. This demonstrates that the goal structure of an expected interaction will determine the extent to which intergroup relations influence imitation, supporting a social identity approach.

  14. Imitation of live and televised models by children one to three years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, R B; Parke, R D; Kavanaugh, R D

    1977-01-01

    The results of these studies indicated that children younger than 1 year possess the cognitive capability of translating a perception of a novel action into their own behavior. However, the likelihood of imitation varied as a function of the nature of the target behavior. For example, actions requiring direct social commerce with the examiner were imitated less frequently than simple motor behaviors with objects, and reproducing gestures was more common than vocalizations. Moreover, imitation seemed to depend upon the child's level of mental development--the imitation of coordinated sequences, which requires the child to associate two external events, lagged behind the imitation of single-unit behaviors. There was no evidence for individual traits of general imitativeness, at least not until symbolic relations were involved. Live models were imitated more than TV models but only prior to age 3. While children under 2 years of age were not facile at imitating sequences of behaviors or delaying performance at short time after modeling, older toddlers readily and accurately imitated televised sequences even after a 24-hour delay. Whereas socially extroverted and fearless children imitated live models more than shy children, TV imitation was not related to temperament, home TV viewing habits, or parental education. Finally, the experience of being imitated may facilitate the social cognition of influencing another person.

  15. Integrating complementary views on an exercise into an objectives-based training support toolset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, J. van; Gouweleeuw, R.G.W.

    2000-01-01

    A significant trend in the use of synthetic environments for military unit training is to move away from using generic scenarios that cover a multitude of training objectives. Instead, dedicated scenarios are designed that cover a smaller set of specific training objectives. A few tools exist that

  16. Emulation, imitation, over-imitation and the scope of culture for child and chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; McGuigan, Nicola; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Hopper, Lydia M

    2009-08-27

    We describe our recent studies of imitation and cultural transmission in chimpanzees and children, which question late twentieth-century characterizations of children as imitators, but chimpanzees as emulators. As emulation entails learning only about the results of others' actions, it has been thought to curtail any capacity to sustain cultures. Recent chimpanzee diffusion experiments have by contrast documented a significant capacity for copying local behavioural traditions. Additionally, in recent 'ghost' experiments with no model visible, chimpanzees failed to replicate the object movements on which emulation is supposed to focus. We conclude that chimpanzees rely more on imitation and have greater cultural capacities than previously acknowledged. However, we also find that they selectively apply a range of social learning processes that include emulation. Recent studies demonstrating surprisingly unselective 'over-imitation' in children suggest that children's propensity to imitate has been underestimated too. We discuss the implications of these developments for the nature of social learning and culture in the two species. Finally, our new experiments directly address cumulative cultural learning. Initial results demonstrate a relative conservatism and conformity in chimpanzees' learning, contrasting with cumulative cultural learning in young children. This difference may contribute much to the contrast in these species' capacities for cultural evolution.

  17. Objectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Daston, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...

  18. The imitator of nuclear explosion signals for field operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lusong; Xie Yujun; Tan Youjin; Wang Liping

    1999-01-01

    According to the present system of the nuclear explosion monitoring equipment (NEME), the imitator of nuclear explosion signals for field operation is urgently needed by NEME, which has been fitted out to the army and some new types that will be finalized soon. The authors have made the imitator for the equipment, and as the cause of this research, it can be used not only in training and maintenance for army but also in research and production for scientific research institutions and industrial enterprise. Function of this imitator is to imitate the NEMP, the light and shock wave signals of nuclear explosion in proper order. The time difference of the process accords with the true location of nuclear explosion. This research is of great military importance

  19. An Evaluation of Imitation Recognition Abilities in Typically Developing Children and Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Natalie I; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2015-08-01

    Previous work has indicated that both typically developing children and children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) display a range of imitation recognition behaviors in response to a contingent adult imitator. However, it is unknown how the two groups perform comparatively on this construct. In this study, imitation recognition behaviors for children with ASD and typically developing children were observed during periods of contingent imitation imbedded in a naturalistic imitation task. Results from this study indicate that children with ASD are impaired in their ability to recognize being imitated relative to typically developing peers as demonstrated both by behaviors representing basic social attention and more mature imitation recognition. Display of imitation recognition behaviors was independent of length of contingent imitation period in typically developing children, but rate of engagement in imitation recognition behaviors was positively correlated with length of contingent imitation period in children with ASD. Exploratory findings also suggest a link between the ability to demonstrate recognition of being imitated and ASD symptom severity, language, and object imitation for young children with ASD. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Mirroring "meaningful" actions: sensorimotor learning modulates imitation of goal-directed actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2017-06-19

    Imitation is important in the development of social and technological skills throughout the lifespan. Experiments investigating the acquisition and modulation of imitation (and of its proposed neural substrate, the mirror neuron system) have produced evidence that the capacity for imitation depends on associative learning in which connections are formed between sensory and motor representations of actions. However, evidence that the development of imitation depends on associative learning has been found only for non-goal-directed actions. One reason for the lack of research on goal-directed actions is that imitation of such actions is commonly confounded with the tendency to respond in a spatially compatible manner. However, since the most prominent account of mirror neuron function, and hence of imitation, suggests that these cells encode goal-directed actions, it is important to establish whether sensorimotor learning can also modulate imitation of goal-directed actions. Experiment 1 demonstrated that imitation of goal-directed grasping can be measured while controlling for spatial compatibility, and Experiment 2 showed that this imitation effect can be modulated by sensorimotor training. Together these data support the hypothesis that the capacity for behavioural imitation, and the properties of the mirror neuron system, are constructed in the course of development through associative learning.

  1. Improvement of on-the-job training procedures through utilization of modeling, imitative and other learning techniques. Open file report 2 Jan 80-30 Jun 83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loustaunau, P.E.; Wetherby, C.; Rosenblatt, R.

    1983-06-30

    This report describes a project in which three structured underground coal mine equipment operator training programs were developed. The project was carried out in two parts. In the first part, a study was conducted to determine how on-the-job training is currently conducted in industry, and to determine the overall effectiveness of current on-the-job training. In addition, the possible application of the principles of social learning theory to on-the-job training was investigated. In the second part, three prototype on-the-job training programs were developed for shuttle car, roof bolter, and continuous miner operations. These programs were carefully structured to eliminate the shortcomings of current industrial on-the-job training identified in the study and incorporated the application of relevant principles of social learning theory. The programs are prototypes that underground coal mine training personnel can use as models to develop their own customized equipment operator training programs.

  2. Imitation, Awareness, and Folk Linguistic Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Elizabeth Gentry

    2010-01-01

    Imitations are sophisticated performances displaying regular patterns. The study of imitation allows linguists to understand speakers' perceptions of sociolinguistic variation. In this dissertation, I analyze imitations of non-native accents in order to answer two questions: what can imitation reveal about perception, and how are "folk linguistic…

  3. Royal College surgical objectives of urologic training: A survey of faculty members from Canadian training programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Ahmed S.; Haddad, Richard; Dragomir, Alice; Kassouf, Wassim; Andonian, Sero; Aprikian, Armen G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: According to the Royal College objectives of training in urology, urologic surgical procedures are divided as category A, B and C. We wanted to determine the level of proficiency required and achieved by urology training faculty for Royal College accreditation. Methods: We conducted a survey that was sent electronically to all Canadian urology training faculty. Questions focused on demographics (i.e., years of practice, geographic location, subspecialty, access to robotic surgery), operating room contact with residents, opinion on the level of proficiency required from a list of 54 surgical procedures, and whether their most recent graduates attained category A proficiency in these procedures. Results: The response rate was 43.7% (95/217). Among respondents, 92.6% were full timers, 21.1% practiced urology for less than 5 years and 3.2% for more than 30 years. Responses from Quebec and Ontario formed 69.4% (34.7% each). Of the respondents, 37.9% were uro-oncologists and 75.7% reported having access to robotic surgery. Sixty percent of faculty members operate with R5 residents between 2 to 5 days per month. When respondents were asked which categories should be listed as category A, only 8 procedures received 100% agreement. Also, results varied significantly when analyzed by sub-specialty. For example, almost 50% or more of uro-oncologists believed that radical cystectomy, anterior pelvic exenteration and extended pelvic lymphadenectomy should not be category A. The following procedures had significant disagreement suggesting the need for re-classification: glanular hypospadias repair, boari flap, entero-vesical and vesicovaginal fistulae repair. Overall, more than 80% of faculty reported that their recent graduating residents had achieved category A proficiency, in a subset of procedures. However, more than 50% of all faculty either disagreed or were ambivalent that all of their graduating residents were Category A proficient in several procedures

  4. Homo imitans? Seven reasons why imitation couldn't possibly be associative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-01-19

    Many comparative and developmental psychologists believe that we are Homo imitans; humans are more skilled and prolific imitators than other animals, because we have a special, inborn 'intermodal matching' mechanism that integrates representations of others with representations of the self. In contrast, the associative sequence learning (ASL) model suggests that human infants learn to imitate using mechanisms that they share with other animals, and the rich resources provided by their sociocultural environments. This article answers seven objections to the ASL model: (i) it presents evidence that newborns do not imitate; (ii) argues that infants receive a plentiful supply of the kind of experience necessary for learning to imitate; (iii) suggests that neither infants nor adults can imitate elementally novel actions; (iv) explains why non-human animals have a limited capacity for imitation; (v) discusses the goal-directedness of imitation; (vi) presents evidence that improvement in imitation depends on visual feedback; and (vii) reflects on the view that associative theories steal 'the soul of imitation'. The empirical success of the ASL model indicates that the mechanisms which make imitation possible, by aligning representations of self with representations of others, have been tweaked by cultural evolution, not built from scratch by genetic evolution. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. Imitation with Intention and Memory: an Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Matthey

    2006-01-01

    Three results emerge from a simple experiment on imitation. First, I find behavior which strongly suggests an intention to imitate. Second, players im- itate successful other players rather than repeating successful actions. Third, to find imitation examples, players use several periods of memory. This lends support to learning models with a non-trivial role of memory. The experiment analyzes imitation in an individual learning context. It sup- plements the results obtained for imitation in e...

  6. Nonverbal imitation skills in children with specific language delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohmen, Andrea; Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny

    2013-10-01

    Research in children with language problems has focussed on verbal deficits, and we have less understanding of children's deficits with nonverbal sociocognitive skills which have been proposed to be important for language acquisition. This study was designed to investigate elicited nonverbal imitation in children with specific language delay (SLD). It is argued that difficulties in nonverbal imitation, which do not involve the processing of structural aspects of language, may be indicative of sociocognitive deficits. Participants were German-speaking typically developing children (n=60) and children with SLD (n=45) aged 2-3 ½ years. A novel battery of tasks measured their ability to imitate a range of nonverbal target acts that to a greater or lesser extent involve sociocognitive skills (body movements, instrumental acts on objects, pretend acts). Significant group differences were found for all body movement and pretend act tasks, but not for the instrumental act tasks. The poorer imitative performance of the SLD sample was not explained by motor or nonverbal cognitive skills. Thus, it appeared that the nature of the task affected children's imitation performance. It is argued that the ability to establish a sense of connectedness with the demonstrator was at the core of children's imitation difficulty in the SLD sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Imitation, empathy, and mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoboni, Marco

    2009-01-01

    There is a convergence between cognitive models of imitation, constructs derived from social psychology studies on mimicry and empathy, and recent empirical findings from the neurosciences. The ideomotor framework of human actions assumes a common representational format for action and perception that facilitates imitation. Furthermore, the associative sequence learning model of imitation proposes that experience-based Hebbian learning forms links between sensory processing of the actions of others and motor plans. Social psychology studies have demonstrated that imitation and mimicry are pervasive, automatic, and facilitate empathy. Neuroscience investigations have demonstrated physiological mechanisms of mirroring at single-cell and neural-system levels that support the cognitive and social psychology constructs. Why were these neural mechanisms selected, and what is their adaptive advantage? Neural mirroring solves the "problem of other minds" (how we can access and understand the minds of others) and makes intersubjectivity possible, thus facilitating social behavior.

  8. What’s Special about Human Imitation? A Comparison with Enculturated Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiaul, Francys

    2016-01-01

    What, if anything, is special about human imitation? An evaluation of enculturated apes’ imitation skills, a “best case scenario” of non-human apes’ imitation performance, reveals important similarities and differences between this special population of apes and human children. Candidates for shared imitation mechanisms include the ability to imitate various familiar transitive responses and object–object actions that involve familiar tools. Candidates for uniquely derived imitation mechanisms include: imitating novel transitive actions and novel tool-using responses as well as imitating opaque or intransitive gestures, regardless of familiarity. While the evidence demonstrates that enculturated apes outperform non-enculturated apes and perform more like human children, all apes, regardless of rearing history, generally excel at imitating familiar, over-rehearsed responses and are poor, relative to human children, at imitating novel, opaque or intransitive responses. Given the similarities between the sensory and motor systems of preschool age human children and non-human apes, it is unlikely that differences in sensory input and/or motor-output alone explain the observed discontinuities in imitation performance. The special rearing history of enculturated apes—including imitation-specific training—further diminishes arguments suggesting that differences are experience-dependent. Here, it is argued that such differences are best explained by distinct, specialized mechanisms that have evolved for copying rules and responses in particular content domains. Uniquely derived social and imitation learning mechanisms may represent adaptations for learning novel communicative gestures and complex tool-use. Given our species’ dependence on both language and tools, mechanisms that accelerated learning in these domains are likely to have faced intense selective pressures, starting with the earliest of human ancestors. PMID:27399786

  9. What’s Special about Human Imitation? A Comparison with Enculturated Apes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francys Subiaul

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available What, if anything, is special about human imitation? An evaluation of enculturated apes’ imitation skills, a “best case scenario” of non-human apes’ imitation performance, reveals important similarities and differences between this special population of apes and human children. Candidates for shared imitation mechanisms include the ability to imitate various familiar transitive responses and object–object actions that involve familiar tools. Candidates for uniquely derived imitation mechanisms include: imitating novel transitive actions and novel tool-using responses as well as imitating opaque or intransitive gestures, regardless of familiarity. While the evidence demonstrates that enculturated apes outperform non-enculturated apes and perform more like human children, all apes, regardless of rearing history, generally excel at imitating familiar, over-rehearsed responses and are poor, relative to human children, at imitating novel, opaque or intransitive responses. Given the similarities between the sensory and motor systems of preschool age human children and non-human apes, it is unlikely that differences in sensory input and/or motor-output alone explain the observed discontinuities in imitation performance. The special rearing history of enculturated apes—including imitation-specific training—further diminishes arguments suggesting that differences are experience-dependent. Here, it is argued that such differences are best explained by distinct, specialized mechanisms that have evolved for copying rules and responses in particular content domains. Uniquely derived social and imitation learning mechanisms may represent adaptations for learning novel communicative gestures and complex tool-use. Given our species’ dependence on both language and tools, mechanisms that accelerated learning in these domains are likely to have faced intense selective pressures, starting with the earliest of human ancestors.

  10. Imitation in Newborn Infants: Exploring the Range of Gestures Imitated and the Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Moore, M. Keith

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated psychological mechanisms underlying imitation of facial actions in 40 newborn infants. Results showed imitation of head movement and a tongue-protrusion gesture. Subjects imitated from memory after displays had stopped. (RJC)

  11. Acquisition of Automatic Imitation Is Sensitive to Sensorimotor Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Richard; Press, Clare; Dickinson, Anthony; Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The associative sequence learning model proposes that the development of the mirror system depends on the same mechanisms of associative learning that mediate Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. To test this model, two experiments used the reduction of automatic imitation through incompatible sensorimotor training to assess whether mirror…

  12. Imitation by Second-Borns in Adult-Sibling Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Albert F.; LaVoie, Joseph C.

    Five- to seven-year-old second-born children from white, middle-class, intact families were the subjects for this study. Older siblings served as role model for each child, and the parent surrogate models were selected from a pool and trained to act as the child's real parent. The imitation task emphasized verbal, postural, and motor responses of…

  13. Active Motor Training Has Long-term Effects on Infants’ Object Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesen, Sarah E.; Watkins, Rachel M.; Needham, Amy Work

    2016-01-01

    Long-term changes in infants’ behavior as a result of active motor training were studied. Thirty-two infants completed three visits to the laboratory. At the first visit, infants were 3 months old and completed an object exploration assessment. Then the experimenter demonstrated the motor training procedures appropriate for the infant’s experimental condition, and parents took home custom infant mittens (either sticky or non-sticky) and a bag of lightweight toys to practice with their infants. Over the course of the following 2 weeks, infants participated in 10 sessions of either active (sticky) or passive (non-sticky) mittens training at home with their parents. Infants who participated in active mittens training wore mittens with the palms covered in Velcro, allowing them to pick up and move around small toys. Infants who participated in passive mittens training wore non-sticky mittens, and their parents moved the toys through their visual fields on their behalf. After completing the training, infants returned to the lab for the second visit. At visit two, infants participated in another object exploration assessment as well as a reaching assessment. Parents returned the training materials to the lab at the second visit, and were told not to continue any specific training regimen from this point forward. Two months later, when infants were about 5.5 months of age, they returned to the lab for a third visit. At the third visit, infants completed the same two assessments as during the second visit. The results of this study indicate that infants who participated in active motor training engaged in more sophisticated object exploration when compared to infants who received passive training. These findings are consistent with others in the literature showing that active motor training at 3 months of age facilitates the processes of object exploration and engagement. The current results and others reveal that the effects of early experience can last long after

  14. Subjects and educational objectives of specialized training courses for power plant operators (masters). Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Presentation of training guidelines and subjects taught in a brief survey. The interdisciplinary training schemes are given in particular, including subjects and educational objectives, number of teaching hours. etc. The courses are intended to provide the basic knowledge required for cost-conscious action, law-conscious action, and efficient teamwork. (HAG) [de

  15. The Ghost Condition: Imitation Versus Emulation in Young Children's Observational Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Doreen E.; Russell, James

    2004-01-01

    Although observational learning by children may occur through imitating a modeler's actions, it can also occur through learning about an object's dynamic affordances- a process that M. Tomasello (1996) calls "emulation." The relative contributions of imitation and emulation within observational learning were examined in a study with 14- to…

  16. Immediate and Deferred Imitation in Fourteen- and Twenty-Four-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    1985-01-01

    A laboratory procedure was developed for assessing imitation in the second year of life. Results demonstrate that 14- and 24-month-olds can imitate a simple action with an unfamiliar object, both immediately and after a 24-hour delay. Implications for research design and theory of infant memory are discussed. (RH)

  17. Body odors promote automatic imitation in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma, Valentina; Bulgheroni, Maria; Tirindelli, Roberto; Castiello, Umberto

    2013-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorders comprise a range of neurodevelopmental pathologies characterized, among other symptoms, by impaired social interactions. Individuals with this diagnosis are reported to often identify people by repetitively sniffing pieces of clothing or the body odor of family members. Since body odors are known to initiate and mediate many different social behaviors, smelling the body odor of a family member might constitute a sensory-based action promoting social contact. In light of this, we hypothesized that the body odor of a family member would facilitate the appearance of automatic imitation, an essential social skill known to be impaired in autism. We recruited 20 autistic and 20 typically developing children. Body odors were collected from the children's mothers' axillae. A child observed a model (their mother or a stranger mother) execute (or not) a reach-to-grasp action toward an object. Subsequently, she performed the same action. The object was imbued with the child's mother's odor, a stranger mother's odor, or no odor. The actions were videotaped, and movement time was calculated post hoc via a digitalization technique. Automatic imitation effects-expressed in terms of total movement time reduction-appear in autistic children only when exposed to objects paired with their own mother's odor. The maternal odor, which conveys a social message otherwise neglected, helps autistic children to covertly imitate the actions of others. Our results represent a starting point holding theoretical and practical relevance for the development of new strategies to enhance communication and social behavior among autistic individuals. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Do infant Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata) categorize objects without specific training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Chizuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Kamegai, Kimi; Terazawa, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether infant Japanese macaques categorize objects without any training, using a similar technique also used with human infants (the paired-preference method). During the familiarization phase, subjects were presented twice with two pairs of different objects from one global-level category. During the test phase, they were presented twice with a pair consisting of a novel familiar-category object and a novel global-level category object. The subjects were tested with three global-level categories (animal, furniture, and vehicle). It was found that they showed significant novelty preferences as a whole, indicating that they processed similarities between familiarization objects and novel familiar-category objects. These results suggest that subjects responded distinctively to objects without training, indicating the possibility that infant macaques possess the capacity for categorization.

  19. Self-Imitation and Environmental Scaffolding for Robot Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Saunders

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Imitative learning and learning by observation are social mechanisms that allow a robot to acquire knowledge from a human or another robot. However to be able to obtain skills in this way the robot faces many complex issues, one of which is that of finding solutions to the correspondence problem. Evolutionary predecessors to observational imitation may have been self-imitation where an agent avoids the complexities of the correspondence problem by learning and replicating actions it has experienced through the manipulation of its body. We investigate how a robotic control and teaching system using self-imitation can be constructed with reference to psychological models of motor control and ideas from social scaffolding seen in animals. Within these scaffolded environments sets of competencies can be built by constructing hierarchical state/action memory maps of the robot's interaction within that environment. The scaffolding process provides a mechanism to enable learning to be scaled up. The resulting system allows a human trainer to teach a robot new skills and modify skills that the robot may possess. Additionally the system allows the robot to notify the trainer when it is being taught skills it already has in its repertoire and to direct and focus its attention and sensor resources to relevant parts of the skill being executed. We argue that these mechanisms may be a first step towards the transformation from self-imitation to observational imitation. The system is validated on a physical pioneer robot that is taught using self-imitation to track, follow and point to a patterned object.

  20. Self-imitation and Environmental Scaffolding for Robot Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystopher L. Nehaniv

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Imitative learning and learning by observation are social mechanisms that allow a robot to acquire knowledge from a human or another robot. However to be able to obtain skills in this way the robot faces many complex issues, one of which is that of finding solutions to the correspondence problem. Evolutionary predecessors to observational imitation may have been self-imitation where an agent avoids the complexities of the correspondence problem by learning and replicating actions it has experienced through the manipulation of its body. We investigate how a robotic control and teaching system using self-imitation can be constructed with reference to psychological models of motor control and ideas from social scaffolding seen in animals. Within these scaffolded environments sets of competencies can be built by constructing hierarchical state/action memory maps of the robot's interaction within that environment. The scaffolding process provides a mechanism to enable learning to be scaled up. The resulting system allows a human trainer to teach a robot new skills and modify skills that the robot may possess. Additionally the system allows the robot to notify the trainer when it is being taught skills it already has in its repertoire and to direct and focus its attention and sensor resources to relevant parts of the skill being executed. We argue that these mechanisms may be a first step towards the transformation from self-imitation to observational imitation. The system is validated on a physical pioneer robot that is taught using self-imitation to track, follow and point to a patterned object.

  1. Action perception and imitation : a tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, H; Wohlschlager, A; Prinz, W; Hommel, B

    2002-01-01

    Currently, imitation, or performing an act after perceiving it, is in the focus of attention of researchers from many different disciplines. Although this tutorial attempts to provide some interdisciplinary background, it will concentrate on possible cognitive mechanisms that underlie imitation

  2. Innovate or imitate? Behavioural technological change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Zeppini, P.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a behavioural model of technological change with evolutionary switching between boundedly rational costly innovators and free imitators, and study the endogenous interplay of innovation decisions, market price dynamics and technological progress. Innovation and imitation are strategic

  3. Innovate or imitate? Behavioural technological change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Zeppini, P.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a behavioural model of technological change with evolutionary switching between costly innovators and free imitators, and study the endogenous interplay of innovation decisions, market price dynamics and technological progress. Innovation and imitation are strategic substitutes and

  4. The Monosyllable Imitation Test for Toddlers: Influence of Stimulus Characteristics on Imitation, Compliance and Diagnostic Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Rosemary; Munro, Natalie; Baker, Elise; McGregor, Karla; Heard, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although verbal imitation can provide a valuable window into the developing language abilities of toddlers, some toddlers find verbal imitation challenging and will not comply with tests that involve elicited verbal imitation. The characteristics of stimuli that are offered to toddlers for imitation may influence how easy or hard it is…

  5. Children with Autism Are More Imitative with an Imitative Adult than with Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Nadel, Jacqueline; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Russo, Kelly; Vchulek, Diane; Lendi, Kim; Siddalingappa, Vijaya

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism (mean age = 6 years) were videotaped first interacting with a parent and then with an unfamiliar researcher who imitated the child's behaviours. The researcher showed more imitative and playful behaviours than the parents. In turn, the children showed more imitative behaviour when playing with the imitative researcher than…

  6. Elements of a comprehensive theory of infant imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2017-01-01

    Imitation is central to human development. Imitation involves mapping between the perception and production of actions. Imitation after delays implicates preverbal memory. Imitation of people informs us about infants' processing of social events. A comprehensive theory needs to account for the origins, mechanisms, and functions of imitation. Neonatal imitation illuminates how the initial state engenders and supports rapid social learning.

  7. Imitation Therapy for Non-Verbal Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Cindy; Mehta, Jyutika; Fredenburg, Karen; Bartlett, Karen

    2011-01-01

    When imitation skills are not present in young children, speech and language skills typically fail to emerge. There is little information on practices that foster the emergence of imitation skills in general and verbal imitation skills in particular. The present study attempted to add to our limited evidence base regarding accelerating the…

  8. Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology. Training objectives for the medical specialists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Cruces, R.; Vano, E.; Hernandez Armas, J.; Carrera, F.

    2003-01-01

    The Directive 97/43 Euratom on medical exposures and the report RP 116 published by the European Commission on Education and Training in radiation protection for medical exposures, established that interventional radiologists should have a more skilled training for handling X-Ray equipment and a better knowledge about the ways of protecting patients and staff against ionising radiation. To analyse the objectives for training in radiation protection recommended in the European Guideline and to show the most important points and modifications for a better practical application of this guide. An inquiry has been performed into the specific objectives recommended by the European Guideline RP 116 about training on Radiation Protection. Twenty interventional radiologists were requested to fill in the test, pointing out the importance of each objective (0-no necessary, 1-medium importance, 2-very important), and they were encouraged to suggest other more interesting for them not included in the European Guideline. The average scores for each of the objectives included in the European Guideline are shown, and an additional relation of suggested topics has been added to the current list. The scoring system show the priority and importance of the objectives that could be taken into account during the next training courses to be held in Spain and it could be used as a base of discussion in some European meeting in order to improve the European Guideline in the future. (Author) 13 refs

  9. Surfacing the Depths: Thoughts on Imitation, Resonance and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Graham

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines some of the research on imitation that shows it to be much more than simply a behavioural or reflex response, but rather an aspect of the growth of genuine social and psychological interaction and part of an intersubjective process that includes the representation of object relationships. Differentiations between mind,…

  10. Teaching UAVs to Race With Observational Imitation Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Guohao

    2018-03-03

    Recent work has tackled the problem of autonomous navigation by imitating a teacher and learning an end-to-end policy, which directly predicts controls from raw images. However, these approaches tend to be sensitive to mistakes by the teacher and do not scale well to other environments or vehicles. To this end, we propose a modular network architecture that decouples perception from control, and is trained using Observational Imitation Learning (OIL), a novel imitation learning variant that supports online training and automatic selection of optimal behavior from observing multiple teachers. We apply our proposed methodology to the challenging problem of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) racing. We develop a simulator that enables the generation of large amounts of synthetic training data (both UAV captured images and its controls) and also allows for online learning and evaluation. We train a perception network to predict waypoints from raw image data and a control network to predict UAV controls from these waypoints using OIL. Our modular network is able to autonomously fly a UAV through challenging race tracks at high speeds. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our trained network outperforms its teachers, end-to-end baselines, and even human pilots in simulation. The supplementary video can be viewed at https://youtu.be/PeTXSoriflc

  11. Teaching UAVs to Race With Observational Imitation Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Guohao; Mueller, Matthias; Casser, Vincent; Smith, Neil; Michels, Dominik L.; Ghanem, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Recent work has tackled the problem of autonomous navigation by imitating a teacher and learning an end-to-end policy, which directly predicts controls from raw images. However, these approaches tend to be sensitive to mistakes by the teacher and do not scale well to other environments or vehicles. To this end, we propose a modular network architecture that decouples perception from control, and is trained using Observational Imitation Learning (OIL), a novel imitation learning variant that supports online training and automatic selection of optimal behavior from observing multiple teachers. We apply our proposed methodology to the challenging problem of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) racing. We develop a simulator that enables the generation of large amounts of synthetic training data (both UAV captured images and its controls) and also allows for online learning and evaluation. We train a perception network to predict waypoints from raw image data and a control network to predict UAV controls from these waypoints using OIL. Our modular network is able to autonomously fly a UAV through challenging race tracks at high speeds. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our trained network outperforms its teachers, end-to-end baselines, and even human pilots in simulation. The supplementary video can be viewed at https://youtu.be/PeTXSoriflc

  12. Imitation, patent protection and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherjee, A.; Pennings, H.P.G.

    2000-01-01

    Once a new technology has been invented it is shown that the innovator has an incentive to postpone technology adoption when the cost of imitation is high and patent protection is strong. With the possibility of licensing it is shown that licensing oftechnology instead of delaying technology

  13. Learning of spatial relationships between observed and imitated actions allows invariant inverse computation in the frontal mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyuk; Gentili, Rodolphe J; Reggia, James A; Contreras-Vidal, José L

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that the human mirror neuron system can facilitate learning by imitation through coupling of observation and action execution. During imitation of observed actions, the functional relationship between and within the inferior frontal cortex, the posterior parietal cortex, and the superior temporal sulcus can be modeled within the internal model framework. The proposed biologically plausible mirror neuron system model extends currently available models by explicitly modeling the intraparietal sulcus and the superior parietal lobule in implementing the function of a frame of reference transformation during imitation. Moreover, the model posits the ventral premotor cortex as performing an inverse computation. The simulations reveal that: i) the transformation system can learn and represent the changes in extrinsic to intrinsic coordinates when an imitator observes a demonstrator; ii) the inverse model of the imitator's frontal mirror neuron system can be trained to provide the motor plans for the imitated actions.

  14. Glucocorticoid effects on object recognition memory require training-associated emotional arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Shoki; Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L

    2004-01-20

    Considerable evidence implicates glucocorticoid hormones in the regulation of memory consolidation and memory retrieval. The present experiments investigated whether the influence of these hormones on memory depends on the level of emotional arousal induced by the training experience. We investigated this issue in male Sprague-Dawley rats by examining the effects of immediate posttraining systemic injections of the glucocorticoid corticosterone on object recognition memory under two conditions that differed in their training-associated emotional arousal. In rats that were not previously habituated to the experimental context, corticosterone (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg, s.c.) administered immediately after a 3-min training trial enhanced 24-hr retention performance in an inverted-U shaped dose-response relationship. In contrast, corticosterone did not affect 24-hr retention of rats that received extensive prior habituation to the experimental context and, thus, had decreased novelty-induced emotional arousal during training. Additionally, immediate posttraining administration of corticosterone to nonhabituated rats, in doses that enhanced 24-hr retention, impaired object recognition performance at a 1-hr retention interval whereas corticosterone administered after training to well-habituated rats did not impair 1-hr retention. Thus, the present findings suggest that training-induced emotional arousal may be essential for glucocorticoid effects on object recognition memory.

  15. European Training and Research in Peritoneal Dialysis: scientific objectives, training, implementation and impact of the programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Tom L; Ferrantelli, Evelina; van Wier-van der Schaaf, Tanja; Beelen, Robert H J

    2014-03-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) offers many advantages over hospital-based haemodialysis, including better quality of life. Despite this, there is a general under-utilisation of PD in Europe, which, to some extent, can be attributed to a lack of knowledge and education amongst renal clinicians and nurses. The specific aim of the European Training and Research in Peritoneal Dialysis (EuTRiPD) programme is to address this lack of knowledge, to develop a minimum of five biomarkers that allow the prediction of outcome in PD and three therapeutic treatments to improve outcome in PD. EuTRiPD is a EU-wide consortium with clinical, academic and commercial partners set up to address this knowledge gap. By training through research and close collaboration between academic and commercial entities we hope to improve the outcome and uptake of PD. It is the goal of EuTRiPD to improve the currently hampered diagnostic therapeutic developments in renal replacement therapy (RRT) and structure existing high-quality PD-related research across Europe. It is hoped that EuTRiPD can and will have a significant impact on socio-economic and scientific aspects of PD. It is the aim for EuTRiPD to boost the uptake of PD throughout Europe by making PD the obvious choice for patients. © 2013 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  16. Self-guided training for deep brain stimulation planning using objective assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Matthew S; Zhao, Yulong; Haegelen, Claire; Essert, Caroline; Fernandez-Vidal, Sara; Bardinet, Eric; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor; Jannin, Pierre

    2018-04-04

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an increasingly common treatment for neurodegenerative diseases. Neurosurgeons must have thorough procedural, anatomical, and functional knowledge to plan electrode trajectories and thus ensure treatment efficacy and patient safety. Developing this knowledge requires extensive training. We propose a training approach with objective assessment of neurosurgeon proficiency in DBS planning. To assess proficiency, we propose analyzing both the viability of the planned trajectory and the manner in which the operator arrived at the trajectory. To improve understanding, we suggest a self-guided training course for DBS planning using real-time feedback. To validate the proposed measures of proficiency and training course, two experts and six novices followed the training course, and we monitored their proficiency measures throughout. At baseline, experts planned higher quality trajectories and did so more efficiently. As novices progressed through the training course, their proficiency measures increased significantly, trending toward expert measures. We developed and validated measures which reliably discriminate proficiency levels. These measures are integrated into a training course, which quantitatively improves trainee performance. The proposed training course can be used to improve trainees' proficiency, and the quantitative measures allow trainees' progress to be monitored.

  17. Motor facilitation during real-time movement imitation in Parkinson's disease: a virtual reality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-García, Verónica; Arias, Pablo; Sanmartín, Gabriel; Espinosa, Nelson; Flores, Julian; Grieve, Kenneth L; Cudeiro, Javier

    2013-12-01

    Impaired temporal stability and poor motor unit recruitment are key impairments in Parkinsonian motor control during a whole spectrum of rhythmic movements, from simple finger tapping to gait. Therapies based on imitation can be designed for patients with motor impairments and virtual-reality (VR) offers a new perspective. Motor actions are known to depend upon the dopaminergic system, whose involvement in imitation is unknown. We sought to understand this role and the underlying possibilities for motor rehabilitation, by observing the execution of different motor-patterns during imitation in a VR environment in subjects with and without dopaminergic deficits. 10 OFF-dose idiopathic Parkinson's Disease patients (PD), 9 age-matched and 9 young-subjects participated. Subjects performed finger-tapping at their "comfort" and "slow-comfort" rates, while immersed in VR presenting their "avatar" in 1st person perspective. Imitation was evaluated by asking subjects to replicate finger-tapping patterns different to their natural one. The finger-pattern presented matched their comfort and comfort-slow rates, but without a pause on the table (continuously moving). Patients were able to adapt their finger-tapping correctly, showing that in comparison with the control groups, the dopaminergic deficiency of PD did not impair imitation. During imitation the magnitude of EMG increased and the temporal variability of movement decreased. PD-patients have unaltered ability to imitate instructed motor-patterns, suggesting that a fully-functional dopaminergic system is not essential for such imitation. It should be further investigated if imitation training over a period of time induces positive off-line motor adaptations with transfer to non-imitation tasks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Objective assessment in residency-based training for transoral robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Martin; Malpani, Anand; Li, Ryan; Tantillo, Thomas; Jog, Amod; Blanco, Ray; Ha, Patrick K; Califano, Joseph; Kumar, Rajesh; Richmon, Jeremy

    2012-10-01

    To develop a robotic surgery training regimen integrating objective skill assessment for otolaryngology and head and neck surgery trainees consisting of training modules of increasing complexity leading up to procedure-specific training. In particular, we investigated applications of such a training approach for surgical extirpation of oropharyngeal tumors via a transoral approach using the da Vinci robotic system. Prospective blinded data collection and objective evaluation (Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills [OSATS]) of three distinct phases using the da Vinci robotic surgical system in an academic university medical engineering/computer science laboratory setting. Between September 2010 and July 2011, eight otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents and four staff experts from an academic hospital participated in three distinct phases of robotic surgery training involving 1) robotic platform operational skills, 2) set up of the patient side system, and 3) a complete ex vivo surgical extirpation of an oropharyngeal tumor located in the base of tongue. Trainees performed multiple (four) approximately equally spaced training sessions in each stage of the training. In addition to trainees, baseline performance data were obtained for the experts. Each surgical stage was documented with motion and event data captured from the application programming interfaces of the da Vinci system, as well as separate video cameras as appropriate. All data were assessed using automated skill measures of task efficiency and correlated with structured assessment (OSATS and similar Likert scale) from three experts to assess expert and trainee differences and compute automated and expert assessed learning curves. Our data show that such training results in an improved didactic robotic knowledge base and improved clinical efficiency with respect to the set up and console manipulation. Experts (e.g., average OSATS, 25; standard deviation [SD], 3.1; module 1, suturing

  19. Overseas Training and National Development Objectives in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moock, Joyce Lewinger

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on the impact of overseas training on national development objectives in Sub-Saharan Africa. Reviews the current economic crisis in Africa and the need for high-level, skilled workers. Examines the advantages and disadvantages of foreign study as a means of developing competent indigenous professionals. Notes pertinent research issues. (SB)

  20. Neural systems for preparatory control of imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Katy A; Iacoboni, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Humans have an automatic tendency to imitate others. Previous studies on how we control these tendencies have focused on reactive mechanisms, where inhibition of imitation is implemented after seeing an action. This work suggests that reactive control of imitation draws on at least partially specialized mechanisms. Here, we examine preparatory imitation control, where advance information allows control processes to be employed before an action is observed. Drawing on dual route models from the spatial compatibility literature, we compare control processes using biological and non-biological stimuli to determine whether preparatory imitation control recruits specialized neural systems that are similar to those observed in reactive imitation control. Results indicate that preparatory control involves anterior prefrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, posterior parietal and early visual cortices regardless of whether automatic responses are evoked by biological (imitative) or non-biological stimuli. These results indicate both that preparatory control of imitation uses general mechanisms, and that preparatory control of imitation draws on different neural systems from reactive imitation control. Based on the regions involved, we hypothesize that preparatory control is implemented through top-down attentional biasing of visual processing.

  1. Imitation, mirror neurons and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J H; Whiten, A; Suddendorf, T; Perrett, D I

    2001-06-01

    Various deficits in the cognitive functioning of people with autism have been documented in recent years but these provide only partial explanations for the condition. We focus instead on an imitative disturbance involving difficulties both in copying actions and in inhibiting more stereotyped mimicking, such as echolalia. A candidate for the neural basis of this disturbance may be found in a recently discovered class of neurons in frontal cortex, 'mirror neurons' (MNs). These neurons show activity in relation both to specific actions performed by self and matching actions performed by others, providing a potential bridge between minds. MN systems exist in primates without imitative and 'theory of mind' abilities and we suggest that in order for them to have become utilized to perform social cognitive functions, sophisticated cortical neuronal systems have evolved in which MNs function as key elements. Early developmental failures of MN systems are likely to result in a consequent cascade of developmental impairments characterised by the clinical syndrome of autism.

  2. Prediction and imitation in speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eGambi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that intra- and inter-speaker variability in speech are correlated. Interlocutors have been shown to converge on various phonetic dimensions. In addition, speakers imitate the phonetic properties of voices they are exposed to in shadowing, repetition, and even passive listening tasks. We review three theoretical accounts of speech imitation and convergence phenomena: (i the Episodic Theory (ET of speech perception and production (Goldinger, 1998; (ii the Motor Theory (MT of speech perception (Liberman and Whalen, 2000;Galantucci et al., 2006 ; (iii Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT; Giles et al., 1991;Giles and Coupland, 1991. We argue that no account is able to explain all the available evidence. In particular, there is a need to integrate low-level, mechanistic accounts (like ET and MT and higher-level accounts (like CAT. We propose that this is possible within the framework of an integrated theory of production and comprehension (Pickering & Garrod, in press. Similarly to both ET and MT, this theory assumes parity between production and perception. Uniquely, however, it posits that listeners simulate speakers’ utterances by computing forward-model predictions at many different levels, which are then compared to the incoming phonetic input. In our account phonetic imitation can be achieved via the same mechanism that is responsible for sensorimotor adaptation; i.e. the correction of prediction errors. In addition, the model assumes that the degree to which sensory prediction errors lead to motor adjustments is context-dependent. The notion of context subsumes both the preceding linguistic input and non-linguistic attributes of the situation (e.g., the speaker’s and listener’s social identities, their conversational roles, the listener’s intention to imitate.

  3. Imitation, mirror neurons and autism

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Justin H.G.; Whiten, Andrew; Suddendorf, Thomas; Perrett, David I.

    2001-01-01

    Various deficits in the cognitive functioning of people with autism have been documented in recent years but these provide only partial explanations for the condition. We focus instead on an imitative disturbance involving difficulties both in copying actions and in inhibiting more stereotyped mimicking, such as echolalia. A candidate for the neural basis of this disturbance may be found in a recently discovered class of neurons in frontal cortex, 'mirror neurons' (MNs). These neurons show ac...

  4. Import vs. Imitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölcze, Zsófia

    2012-01-01

    In recent years archaeological research has developed a radically new theoretical approach to prehistoric material culture. Objects are no longer regarded as simple products of human behavior, but rather as agents interacting with people on multiple levels. As such, artifacts play an active role ...... of swords of the type Hajdúsámson-Apa from Stensgård, Torupgårde and Dystrup in Denmark....

  5. Second Language Word Learning through Repetition and Imitation: Functional Networks as a Function of Learning Phase and Language Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi-Saidi, Ladan; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and Aim : Repetition and imitation are among the oldest second language (L2) teaching approaches and are frequently used in the context of L2 learning and language therapy, despite some heavy criticism. Current neuroimaging techniques allow the neural mechanisms underlying repetition and imitation to be examined. This fMRI study examines the influence of verbal repetition and imitation on network configuration. Integration changes within and between the cognitive control and language networks were studied, in a pair of linguistically close languages (Spanish and French), and compared to our previous work on a distant language pair (Ghazi-Saidi et al., 2013). Methods : Twelve healthy native Spanish-speaking (L1) adults, and 12 healthy native Persian-speaking adults learned 130 new French (L2) words, through a computerized audiovisual repetition and imitation program. The program presented colored photos of objects. Participants were instructed to look at each photo and pronounce its name as closely as possible to the native template (imitate). Repetition was encouraged as many times as necessary to learn the object's name; phonological cues were provided if necessary. Participants practiced for 15 min, over 30 days, and were tested while naming the same items during fMRI scanning, at week 1 (shallow learning phase) and week 4 (consolidation phase) of training. To compare this set of data with our previous work on Persian speakers, a similar data analysis plan including accuracy rates (AR), response times (RT), and functional integration values for the language and cognitive control network at each measure point was included, with further L1-L2 direct comparisons across the two populations. Results and Discussion : The evidence shows that learning L2 words through repetition induces neuroplasticity at the network level. Specifically, L2 word learners showed increased network integration after 3 weeks of training, with both close and distant language

  6. Enhanced Automatic Action Imitation and Intact Imitation-Inhibition in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Arndis; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Skewes, Joshua Charles; Roepstorff, Andreas; Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel; Mors, Ole; Bliksted, Vibeke

    2018-02-21

    Imitation plays a key role in social learning and in facilitating social interactions and likely constitutes a basic building block of social cognition that supports higher-level social abilities. Recent findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia have imitation impairments that could contribute to the social impairments associated with the disorder. However, extant studies have specifically assessed voluntary imitation or automatic imitation of emotional stimuli without controlling for potential confounders. The imitation impairments seen might therefore be secondary to other cognitive, motoric, or emotional deficits associated with the disorder. To overcome this issue, we used an automatic imitation paradigm with nonemotional stimuli to assess automatic imitation and the top-down modulation of imitation where participants were required to lift one of 2 fingers according to a number shown on the screen while observing the same or the other finger movement. In addition, we used a control task with a visual cue in place of a moving finger, to isolate the effect of observing finger movement from other visual cueing effects. Data from 33 patients (31 medicated) and 40 matched healthy controls were analyzed. Patients displayed enhanced imitation and intact top-down modulation of imitation. The enhanced imitation seen in patients may have been medication induced as larger effects were seen in patients receiving higher antipsychotic doses. In sum, we did not find an imitation impairment in schizophrenia. The results suggest that previous findings of impaired imitation in schizophrenia might have been due to other cognitive, motoric, and/or emotional deficits.

  7. Imitation Modeling and Institutional Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Y. Barbashin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the use of imitation modeling in the conduct of institutional research. The institutional approach is based on the observation of social behavior. To understand a social process means to determine the key rules that individuals use, undertaking social actions associated with this process or phenomenon. This does not mean that institutions determine behavioral reactions, although there are a number of social situations where the majority of individuals follow the dominant rules. If the main laws of development of the institutional patterns are known, one can describe most of the social processes accurately. The author believes that the main difficulty with the analysis of institutional processes is their recursive nature: from the standards of behavior one may find the proposed actions of social agents who follow, obey or violate institutions, but the possibility of reconstructive analysis is not obvious. The author demonstrates how the institutional approach is applied to the analysis of social behavior. The article describes the basic principles and methodology of imitation modeling. Imitation modeling reveals the importance of institutions in structuring social transactions. The article concludes that in the long term institutional processes are not determined by initial conditions.

  8. An exploration of imitation recognition in young children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Natalie I; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2013-10-01

    The ability to recognize when one is being imitated has been hypothesized to be an important developmental process related to the emergence of more advanced social-cognitive skills. While a series of behaviors indicating progressively more mature imitation recognition (IR) skills has been assessed in typically developing children, empirical work with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has largely focused on basic social responses to an imitative adult (e.g. increases in eye contact). Limited work has explored more mature IR behaviors in this population. This study compared the degree to which children with ASD engage in different behaviors thought to be indicative of IR during a naturalistic imitation task and the relationship between different types of IR behaviors and social-cognitive skills (i.e. imitation, language, social reciprocity, and joint attention). Thirty children with ASD were administered standardized measures of cognitive level, language, joint attention, social reciprocity, and imitation. IR behaviors were observed during periods of contingent imitation by an adult. Participants engaged more frequently in less mature (e.g. looking at the experimenter's toy or face) than more mature IR behaviors (e.g. testing the experimenter's intent to imitate). After controlling for developmental level, social reciprocity, object imitation, and gesture imitation were positively correlated with more mature IR. These findings suggest that the development of more mature IR skills is related to the development of other social-cognitive skills in children with ASD and provide additional empirical support for reports of more mature IR observed in this population. , Inc. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Accent imitation positively affects language attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Adank, Patti; Stewart, Andrew J.; Connell, Louise; Wood, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    People in conversation tend to accommodate the way they speak. It has been assumed that this tendency to imitate each other's speech patterns serves to increase liking between partners in a conversation. Previous experiments examined the effect of perceived social attractiveness on the tendency to imitate someone else's speech and found that vocal imitation increased when perceived attractiveness was higher. The present experiment extends this research by examining the inverse relationship an...

  10. Accent Imitation Positively Affects Language Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Patti eAdank; Patti eAdank; Andrew J. Stewart; Louise eConnell; Jeffrey eWood

    2013-01-01

    People in conversation tend to accommodate the way they speak. It has been assumed that this tendency to imitate each other’s speech patterns serves to increase liking between partners in a conversation. Previous experiments examined the effect of perceived social attractiveness on the tendency to imitate someone else’s speech and found that vocal imitation increased when perceived attractiveness was higher. The present experiment extends this research by examining the inverse relationship an...

  11. The neural basis of the imitation drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanawa, Sugiko; Sugiura, Motoaki; Nozawa, Takayuki; Kotozaki, Yuka; Yomogida, Yukihito; Ihara, Mizuki; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Thyreau, Benjamin; Izumi, Shinichi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous imitation is assumed to underlie the acquisition of important skills by infants, including language and social interaction. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine the neural basis of 'spontaneously' driven imitation, which has not yet been fully investigated. Healthy participants were presented with movie clips of meaningless bimanual actions and instructed to observe and imitate them during an fMRI scan. The participants were subsequently shown the movie clips again and asked to evaluate the strength of their 'urge to imitate' (Urge) for each action. We searched for cortical areas where the degree of activation positively correlated with Urge scores; significant positive correlations were observed in the right supplementary motor area (SMA) and bilateral midcingulate cortex (MCC) under the imitation condition. These areas were not explained by explicit reasons for imitation or the kinematic characteristics of the actions. Previous studies performed in monkeys and humans have implicated the SMA and MCC/caudal cingulate zone in voluntary actions. This study also confirmed the functional connectivity between Urge and imitation performance using a psychophysiological interaction analysis. Thus, our findings reveal the critical neural components that underlie spontaneous imitation and provide possible reasons why infants imitate spontaneously. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. The effect of different imitation models on theaccuracy and speed of imitation of movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Hitomi; Kimura, Teiji; Goh, Ah-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy, speed and subjective ease of imitation of movement using three different imitation models. [Subjects] Thirty-four right-handed healthy males participated in this study. [Methods] The imitation task chosen for this study was an asymmetric combined motion of the upper and lower limbs. Three kinds of imitation models were displayed on a screen as follows: a) third person perspective mirror imitation (3PM), b) third person perspective anatomical imitation (3PA), and c) first person perspective ipsilateral imitation (1PI). Subjects were instructed to imitate the movement shown on a screen as quickly and as accurately as possible. They executed four sets of the movement with each set consisting of one trial of each of the three imitation models. [Results] 3PM was the most accurate, and 1PI was the fastest in speed and subjective ease of imitation, compared with the other two imitation models. [Conclusion] These results suggest that 1PI and 3PM, which do not require mental rotation of the movement task as required by 3PA, should be considered more suitable imitation models for teaching healthy subjects how to move.

  13. Glucocorticoid effects on object recognition memory require training-associated emotional arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, Shoki; Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Considerable evidence implicates glucocorticoid hormones in the regulation of memory consolidation and memory retrieval. The present experiments investigated whether the influence of these hormones on memory depends on the level of emotional arousal induced by the training experience. We investigated this issue in male Sprague–Dawley rats by examining the effects of immediate posttraining systemic injections of the glucocorticoid corticosterone on object recognition memory under two condition...

  14. Intercomparison and harmonization of methodologies, identification of future objectives in radioecology, training and exchange of scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1993-01-01

    Global objectives of the project are: cooperation and the exchange of information between radioecologists from countries outside EC and from countries which are not associated with the Radiation Protection Research Programme, in order to stimulate interactions that would increase the understanding of Radioecology problems; training of young scientists will be emphasized in the IUR new programme; IUR will develop a curriculum for a basic course in radioecology; furthermore IUR will play various roles in the field of informing the public. (R.P.)

  15. Transfer after process-based object-location memory training in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; von Bastian, Claudia C; Röcke, Christina; Martin, Mike; Eschen, Anne

    2016-11-01

    A substantial part of age-related episodic memory decline has been attributed to the decreasing ability of older adults to encode and retrieve associations among simultaneously processed information units from long-term memory. In addition, this ability seems to share unique variance with reasoning. In this study, we therefore examined whether process-based training of the ability to learn and remember associations has the potential to induce transfer effects to untrained episodic memory and reasoning tasks in healthy older adults (60-75 years). For this purpose, the experimental group (n = 36) completed 30 sessions of process-based object-location memory training, while the active control group (n = 31) practiced visual perception on the same material. Near (spatial episodic memory), intermediate (verbal episodic memory), and far transfer effects (reasoning) were each assessed with multiple tasks at four measurements (before, midway through, immediately after, and 4 months after training). Linear mixed-effects models revealed transfer effects on spatial episodic memory and reasoning that were still observed 4 months after training. These results provide first empirical evidence that process-based training can enhance healthy older adults' associative memory performance and positively affect untrained episodic memory and reasoning abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Conditioning exercises in ski jumping: biomechanical relationship of squat jumps, imitation jumps, and hill jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, Silvio; Ammann, Fabian; Windmüller, Sabrina; Häberle, Ramona; Müller, Sören; Gross, Micah; Plüss, Michael; Plüss, Stefan; Schödler, Berni; Hübner, Klaus

    2017-11-22

    As hill jumps are very time-consuming, ski jumping athletes often perform various imitation jumps during training. The performed jumps should be similar to hill jumps, but a direct comparison of the kinetic and kinematic parameters has not been performed yet. Therefore, this study aimed to correlate 11 common parameters during hill jumps (Oberstdorf Germany), squat jumps (wearing indoor shoes), and various imitation jumps (rolling 4°, rolling flat, static; jumping equipment or indoor shoes) on a custom-built instrumented vehicle with a catch by the coach. During the performed jumps, force and video data of the take-off of 10 athletes were measured. The imitation and squat jumps were then ranked. The main difference between the hill jumps and the imitation and squat jumps is the higher maximal force loading rate during the hill jumps. Imitation jumps performed on a rolling platform, on flat ground were the most similar to hill jumps in terms of the force-time, and leg joint kinematic properties. Thus, non-hill jumps with a technical focus should be performed from a rolling platform with a flat inrun with normal indoor shoes or jumping equipment, and high normal force loading rates should be the main focus of imitation training.

  17. Age-related changes in learning across early childhood: a new imitation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Kelly; Gerhardstein, Peter; Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2013-11-01

    Imitation plays a critical role in social and cognitive development, but the social learning mechanisms contributing to the development of imitation are not well understood. We developed a new imitation task designed to examine social learning mechanisms across the early childhood period. The new task involves assembly of abstract-shaped puzzle pieces in an arbitrary sequence on a magnet board. Additionally, we introduce a new scoring system that extends traditional goal-directed imitation scoring to include measures of both children's success at copying gestures (sliding the puzzle pieces) and goals (connecting the puzzle pieces). In Experiment 1, we demonstrated an age-invariant baseline from 1.5 to 3.5 years of age, accompanied by age-related changes in success at copying goals and gestures from a live demonstrator. In Experiment 2, we applied our new task to learning following a video demonstration. Imitation performance in the video demonstration group lagged behind that of the live demonstration group, showing a protracted video deficit effect. Across both experiments, children were more likely to copy gestures at earlier ages, suggesting mimicry, and only later copy both goals and gestures, suggesting imitation. Taken together, the findings suggest that different social learning strategies may predominate in imitation learning dependent upon the degree of object affordance, task novelty, and task complexity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Acquisition of automatic imitation is sensitive to sensorimotor contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Richard; Press, Clare; Dickinson, Anthony; Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-08-01

    The associative sequence learning model proposes that the development of the mirror system depends on the same mechanisms of associative learning that mediate Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. To test this model, two experiments used the reduction of automatic imitation through incompatible sensorimotor training to assess whether mirror system plasticity is sensitive to contingency (i.e., the extent to which activation of one representation predicts activation of another). In Experiment 1, residual automatic imitation was measured following incompatible training in which the action stimulus was a perfect predictor of the response (contingent) or not at all predictive of the response (noncontingent). A contingency effect was observed: There was less automatic imitation indicative of more learning in the contingent group. Experiment 2 replicated this contingency effect and showed that, as predicted by associative learning theory, it can be abolished by signaling trials in which the response occurs in the absence of an action stimulus. These findings support the view that mirror system development depends on associative learning and indicate that this learning is not purely Hebbian. If this is correct, associative learning theory could be used to explain, predict, and intervene in mirror system development.

  19. The Imitation of Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, John

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Metaphor and analogy are the scaffolding of science. Kepler's theory of the retinal picture could not have been built without the analogy between an eye and a camera obscura, and, two hundred and fifty years later, Charles Darwin devoted most of the first chapter of The origin of Species to discussion of pigeon fanciers. Unlike Darwin, Kepler was bewitched by his own imagination and was led to wonder "how this image or picture is joined to the visual faculty, which is situated in the retina and in the (optic) nerve, and whether it is placed within the hollows of the brain, before the soul or tribunal of the visual faculty, or whether the visual faculty, like a magistrate sent by the soul from the administrative chamber of the brain, descends into the optic nerve or retina to meet this image, as though to a lower court" (Kepler, pp. 151-2). The theory of the retinal image answered the crucial question of medieval optics: the scaffolding had served its purpose and should have been dismantled. Instead, Kepler mistook it for a part of the building: what he construed as a scientific problem was nothing more than the extension of a metaphor. As a result, and in spite of his remarkable achievement, he left the theory of vision in a state of confusion. I intend to show that Descartes revolutionized visual theory by manipulating the pair of analogies which had dominated visual theory since its inception and by advancing a theory of depiction which has since become orthodox. Advocates of the first analogy suggest that seeing the world is rather like seeing pictures of it; Kepler's analogy between the eye and a camera obscura, which was anticipated by Leonardo de Vinci, was a variation on this theme. Advocates of the second analogy compare vision to the use of a walking-stick: the air transmits an impression of a visible object to the eye rather as a walking-stick enables us to find our way

  20. Learning of Spatial Relationships between Observed and Imitated Actions allows Invariant Inverse Computation in the Frontal Mirror Neuron System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyuk; Gentili, Rodolphe J.; Reggia, James A.; Contreras-Vidal, José L.

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the human mirror neuron system can facilitate learning by imitation through coupling of observation and action execution. During imitation of observed actions, the functional relationship between and within the inferior frontal cortex, the posterior parietal cortex, and the superior temporal sulcus can be modeled within the internal model framework. The proposed biologically plausible mirror neuron system model extends currently available models by explicitly modeling the intraparietal sulcus and the superior parietal lobule in implementing the function of a frame of reference transformation during imitation. Moreover, the model posits the ventral premotor cortex as performing an inverse computation. The simulations reveal that: i) the transformation system can learn and represent the changes in extrinsic to intrinsic coordinates when an imitator observes a demonstrator; ii) the inverse model of the imitator’s frontal mirror neuron system can be trained to provide the motor plans for the imitated actions. PMID:22255261

  1. Accent imitation positively affects language attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adank, Patti; Stewart, Andrew J; Connell, Louise; Wood, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    People in conversation tend to accommodate the way they speak. It has been assumed that this tendency to imitate each other's speech patterns serves to increase liking between partners in a conversation. Previous experiments examined the effect of perceived social attractiveness on the tendency to imitate someone else's speech and found that vocal imitation increased when perceived attractiveness was higher. The present experiment extends this research by examining the inverse relationship and examines how overt vocal imitation affects attitudes. Participants listened to sentences spoken by two speakers of a regional accent (Glaswegian) of English. They vocally repeated (speaking in their own accent without imitating) the sentences spoken by a Glaswegian speaker, and subsequently imitated sentences spoken by a second Glaswegian speaker (order counterbalanced across participants). After each repeating or imitation session, participants completed a questionnaire probing the speakers' perceived power, competence, and social attractiveness. Imitating had a positive effect on the perceived social attractiveness of the speaker compared to repeating. These results are interpreted in light of Communication Accommodation Theory.

  2. Virtual Battlespace Behavior Generation Through Class Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    to improve believability in an empirically measurable way, we focus on incorporating verifiability into our agent behaviors. Throughout the rest of...accuracy for low values of α. 39 The “Stealth” class imitation accuracies are also interesting. Not only is it inca - pable of imitating the appropriate

  3. Imitation in Undergraduate Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiangyuan; Guo, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology and neuroscience has demonstrated the critical role of imitation in human learning. Self-report questionnaires collected from 456 undergraduate students in two U.S. institutions and one Chinese institution demonstrated that undergraduate students from both U.S. and Chinese cultures used various imitations in…

  4. Accent Imitation Positively Affects Language Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti eAdank

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available People in conversation tend to accommodate the way they speak. It has been assumed that this tendency to imitate each other’s speech patterns serves to increase liking between partners in a conversation. Previous experiments examined the effect of perceived social attractiveness on the tendency to imitate someone else’s speech and found that vocal imitation increased when perceived attractiveness was higher. The present experiment extends this research by examining the inverse relationship and examines how overt vocal imitation affects attitudes. Participants listened to sentences spoken by two speakers of a regional accent (Glaswegian of English. They vocally repeated (speaking in their own accent without imitating the sentences spoken by a Glaswegian speaker, and subsequently imitated sentences spoken by a second Glaswegian speaker (order counterbalanced across participants. After each repeating or imitation session, participants completed a questionnaire probing the speakers’ perceived power, competence, and social attractiveness. Imitating had a positive effect on the perceived social attractiveness of the speaker compared to repeating. These results are interpreted in light of Communication Accommodation Theory.

  5. Race modulates neural activity during imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losin, Elizabeth A. Reynolds; Iacoboni, Marco; Martin, Alia; Cross, Katy A.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2014-01-01

    Imitation plays a central role in the acquisition of culture. People preferentially imitate others who are self-similar, prestigious or successful. Because race can indicate a person's self-similarity or status, race influences whom people imitate. Prior studies of the neural underpinnings of imitation have not considered the effects of race. Here we measured neural activity with fMRI while European American participants imitated meaningless gestures performed by actors of their own race, and two racial outgroups, African American, and Chinese American. Participants also passively observed the actions of these actors and their portraits. Frontal, parietal and occipital areas were differentially activated while participants imitated actors of different races. More activity was present when imitating African Americans than the other racial groups, perhaps reflecting participants' reported lack of experience with and negative attitudes towards this group, or the group's lower perceived social status. This pattern of neural activity was not found when participants passively observed the gestures of the actors or simply looked at their faces. Instead, during face-viewing neural responses were overall greater for own-race individuals, consistent with prior race perception studies not involving imitation. Our findings represent a first step in elucidating neural mechanisms involved in cultural learning, a process that influences almost every aspect of our lives but has thus far received little neuroscientific study. PMID:22062193

  6. What drives young children to over-imitate? Investigating the effects of age, context, action type, and transitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Zanna; Over, Harriet; Tennie, Claudio

    2018-02-01

    Imitation underlies many traits thought to characterize our species, which includes the transmission and acquisition of language, material culture, norms, rituals, and conventions. From early childhood, humans show an intriguing willingness to imitate behaviors, even those that have no obvious function. This phenomenon, known as "over-imitation," is thought to explain some of the key differences between human cultures as compared with those of nonhuman animals. Here, we used a single integrative paradigm to simultaneously investigate several key factors proposed to shape children's over-imitation: age, context, transitivity, and action type. We compared typically developing children aged 4-6years in a task involving actions verbally framed as being instrumental, normative, or communicative in function. Within these contexts, we explored whether children were more likely to over-imitate transitive versus intransitive actions and manual versus body part actions. Results showed an interaction between age and context; as children got older, they were more likely to imitate within a normative context, whereas younger children were more likely to imitate in instrumental contexts. Younger children were more likely to imitate transitive actions (actions on objects) than intransitive actions compared with older children. Our results show that children are highly sensitive to even minimal cues to perceived context and flexibly adapt their imitation accordingly. As they get older, children's imitation appears to become less object bound, less focused on instrumental outcomes, and more sensitive to normative cues. This shift is consistent with the proposal that over-imitation becomes increasingly social in its function as children move through childhood and beyond. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mimicry and automatic imitation are not correlated

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Den Bossche, Sofie; Cracco, Emiel; Bardi, Lara; Rigoni, Davide; Brass, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    It is widely known that individuals have a tendency to imitate each other. However, different psychological disciplines assess imitation in different manners. While social psychologists assess mimicry by means of action observation, cognitive psychologists assess automatic imitation with reaction time based measures on a trial-by-trial basis. Although these methods differ in crucial methodological aspects, both phenomena are assumed to rely on similar underlying mechanisms. This raises the fundamental question whether mimicry and automatic imitation are actually correlated. In the present research we assessed both phenomena and did not find a meaningful correlation. Moreover, personality traits such as empathy, autism traits, and traits related to self- versus other-focus did not correlate with mimicry or automatic imitation either. Theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:28877197

  8. Automatic imitation: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cracco, Emiel; Bardi, Lara; Desmet, Charlotte; Genschow, Oliver; Rigoni, Davide; De Coster, Lize; Radkova, Ina; Deschrijver, Eliane; Brass, Marcel

    2018-05-01

    Automatic imitation is the finding that movement execution is facilitated by compatible and impeded by incompatible observed movements. In the past 15 years, automatic imitation has been studied to understand the relation between perception and action in social interaction. Although research on this topic started in cognitive science, interest quickly spread to related disciplines such as social psychology, clinical psychology, and neuroscience. However, important theoretical questions have remained unanswered. Therefore, in the present meta-analysis, we evaluated seven key questions on automatic imitation. The results, based on 161 studies containing 226 experiments, revealed an overall effect size of g z = 0.95, 95% CI [0.88, 1.02]. Moderator analyses identified automatic imitation as a flexible, largely automatic process that is driven by movement and effector compatibility, but is also influenced by spatial compatibility. Automatic imitation was found to be stronger for forced choice tasks than for simple response tasks, for human agents than for nonhuman agents, and for goalless actions than for goal-directed actions. However, it was not modulated by more subtle factors such as animacy beliefs, motion profiles, or visual perspective. Finally, there was no evidence for a relation between automatic imitation and either empathy or autism. Among other things, these findings point toward actor-imitator similarity as a crucial modulator of automatic imitation and challenge the view that imitative tendencies are an indicator of social functioning. The current meta-analysis has important theoretical implications and sheds light on longstanding controversies in the literature on automatic imitation and related domains. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes) also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by) are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by) through a different system (the voice apparatus). The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products), human vocal imitations, and computational “auditory sketches” (created by algorithmic computations). The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access long

  10. Object-Location Training Elicits an Overlapping but Temporally Distinct Transcriptional Profile from Contextual Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Mathieu; Hawk, Joshua D.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Giese, Karl P.; Abel, Ted

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampus-dependent learning is known to induce changes in gene expression, but information on gene expression differences between different learning paradigms that require the hippocampus is limited. The bulk of studies investigating RNA expression after learning use the contextual fear conditioning task, which couples a novel environment with a footshock. Although contextual fear conditioning has been useful in discovering gene targets, gene expression after spatial memory tasks has received less attention. In this study, we used the object-location memory task and studied gene expression at two time points after learning in a high-throughput manner using a microfluidic qPCR approach. We found that expression of the classic immediate-early genes changes after object-location training in a fashion similar to that observed after contextual fear conditioning. However, the temporal dynamics of gene expression are different between the two tasks, with object-location memory producing gene expression changes that last at least 2 hours. Our findings indicate that different training paradigms may give rise to distinct temporal dynamics of gene expression after learning. PMID:25242102

  11. Object-location training elicits an overlapping but temporally distinct transcriptional profile from contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplawski, Shane G; Schoch, Hannah; Wimmer, Mathieu; Hawk, Joshua D; Walsh, Jennifer L; Giese, Karl P; Abel, Ted

    2014-12-01

    Hippocampus-dependent learning is known to induce changes in gene expression, but information on gene expression differences between different learning paradigms that require the hippocampus is limited. The bulk of studies investigating RNA expression after learning use the contextual fear conditioning task, which couples a novel environment with a footshock. Although contextual fear conditioning has been useful in discovering gene targets, gene expression after spatial memory tasks has received less attention. In this study, we used the object-location memory task and studied gene expression at two time points after learning in a high-throughput manner using a microfluidic qPCR approach. We found that expression of the classic immediate-early genes changes after object-location training in a fashion similar to that observed after contextual fear conditioning. However, the temporal dynamics of gene expression are different between the two tasks, with object-location memory producing gene expression changes that last at least 2 hours. Our findings indicate that different training paradigms may give rise to distinct temporal dynamics of gene expression after learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Standard object recognition memory and "what" and "where" components: Improvement by post-training epinephrine in highly habituated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Berbel, Patricia; Costa-Miserachs, David; Torras-Garcia, Meritxell; Coll-Andreu, Margalida; Portell-Cortés, Isabel

    2010-02-11

    The present work examined whether post-training systemic epinephrine (EPI) is able to modulate short-term (3h) and long-term (24 h and 48 h) memory of standard object recognition, as well as long-term (24 h) memory of separate "what" (object identity) and "where" (object location) components of object recognition. Although object recognition training is associated to low arousal levels, all the animals received habituation to the training box in order to further reduce emotional arousal. Post-training EPI improved long-term (24 h and 48 h), but not short-term (3 h), memory in the standard object recognition task, as well as 24 h memory for both object identity and object location. These data indicate that post-training epinephrine: (1) facilitates long-term memory for standard object recognition; (2) exerts separate facilitatory effects on "what" (object identity) and "where" (object location) components of object recognition; and (3) is capable of improving memory for a low arousing task even in highly habituated rats.

  13. Preserved Imitation of Known Gestures in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Joana C.; Rumiati, Raffaella I.; Siugzdaite, Roma; Brambilla, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that children with autism are particularly deficient at imitating novel gestures or gestures without goals. In the present study, we asked high-functioning autistic children and age-matched typically developing children to imitate several types of gestures that could be either already known or novel to them. Known gestures either conveyed a communicative meaning (i.e., intransitive) or involved the use of objects (i.e., transitive). We observed a significant interaction between gesture type and group of participants, with children with autism performing known gestures better than novel gestures. However, imitation of intransitive and transitive gestures did not differ across groups. These findings are discussed in light of a dual-route model for action imitation. PMID:24062956

  14. Deferred imitation in 18-month-olds from two cultural contexts: the case of Cameroonian Nso farmer and German-middle class infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Sonja; Lamm, Bettina; Graf, Frauke; Knopf, Monika

    2013-12-01

    Imitative learning has been described in naturalistic studies for different cultures, but lab-based research studying imitative learning across different cultural contexts is almost missing. Therefore, imitative learning was assessed with 18-month-old German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer infants - representing two highly different eco-cultural contexts associated with different cultural models, the psychological autonomy and the hierarchical relatedness - by using the deferred imitation paradigm. Study 1 revealed that the infants from both cultural contexts performed a higher number of target actions in the deferred imitation than in the baseline phase. Moreover, it was found that German middle-class infants showed a higher mean imitation rate as they performed more target actions in the deferred imitation phase compared with Cameroonian Nso farmer infants. It was speculated that the opportunity to manipulate the test objects directly after the demonstration of the target actions could enhance the mean deferred imitation rate of the Cameroonian Nso farmer infants which was confirmed in Study 2. Possible explanations for the differences in the amount of imitated target actions of German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer infants are discussed considering the object-related, dyadic setting of the imitation paradigm with respect to the different learning contexts underlying the different cultural models of learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Mozart is not a Pavarotti: singers outperform instrumentalists on foreign accent imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiner, Markus; Reiterer, Susanne Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have shown that people with higher musical aptitude were also better in oral language imitation tasks. However, whether singing capacity and instrument playing contribute differently to the imitation of speech has been ignored so far. Research has just recently started to understand that instrumentalists develop quite distinct skills when compared to vocalists. In the same vein the role of the vocal motor system in language acquisition processes has poorly been investigated as most investigations (neurobiological and behavioral) favor to examine speech perception. We set out to test whether the vocal motor system can influence an ability to learn, produce and perceive new languages by contrasting instrumentalists and vocalists. Therefore, we investigated 96 participants, 27 instrumentalists, 33 vocalists and 36 non-musicians/non-singers. They were tested for their abilities to imitate foreign speech: unknown language (Hindi), second language (English) and their musical aptitude. Results revealed that both instrumentalists and vocalists have a higher ability to imitate unintelligible speech and foreign accents than non-musicians/non-singers. Within the musician group, vocalists outperformed instrumentalists significantly. First, adaptive plasticity for speech imitation is not reliant on audition alone but also on vocal-motor induced processes. Second, vocal flexibility of singers goes together with higher speech imitation aptitude. Third, vocal motor training, as of singers, may speed up foreign language acquisition processes.

  16. Human toddlers' attempts to match two simple behaviors provide no evidence for an inherited, dedicated imitation mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan S Jones

    Full Text Available Influential theories of imitation have proposed that humans inherit a neural mechanism - an "active intermodal matching " (AIM mechanism or a mirror neuron system - that functions from birth to automatically match sensory input from others' actions to motor programs for performing those same actions, and thus produces imitation. To test these proposals, 160 1- to 2½-year-old toddlers were asked to imitate two simple movements- bending the arm to make an elbow, and moving the bent elbow laterally. Both behaviors were almost certain to be in each child's repertoire, and the lateral movement was goal-directed (used to hit a plastic cup. Thus, one or both behaviors should have been imitable by toddlers with a functioning AIM or mirror neuron system. Each child saw the two behaviors repeated 18 times, and was encouraged to imitate. Children were also asked to locate their own elbows. Almost no children below age 2 imitated either behavior. Instead, younger children gave clear evidence of a developmental progression, from reproducing only the outcome of the models' movements (hitting the object, through trying (but failing to reproduce the model's arm posture and/or the arm-cup relations they had seen, to accurate imitation of arm bending by age 2 and of both movements by age 2½. Across age levels, almost all children who knew the word 'elbow' imitated both behaviors: very few who did not know the word imitated either behavior. The evidence is most consistent with a view of early imitation as the product of a complex system of language, cognitive, social, and motor competencies that develop in infancy. The findings do not rule out a role for an inherited neural mechanism, but they suggest that such a system would not by itself be sufficient to explain imitation at any age.

  17. Human Toddlers’ Attempts to Match Two Simple Behaviors Provide No Evidence for an Inherited, Dedicated Imitation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan S.

    2012-01-01

    Influential theories of imitation have proposed that humans inherit a neural mechanism – an “active intermodal matching “ (AIM) mechanism or a mirror neuron system - that functions from birth to automatically match sensory input from others’ actions to motor programs for performing those same actions, and thus produces imitation. To test these proposals, 160 1- to 2½-year-old toddlers were asked to imitate two simple movements– bending the arm to make an elbow, and moving the bent elbow laterally. Both behaviors were almost certain to be in each child’s repertoire, and the lateral movement was goal-directed (used to hit a plastic cup). Thus, one or both behaviors should have been imitable by toddlers with a functioning AIM or mirror neuron system. Each child saw the two behaviors repeated 18 times, and was encouraged to imitate. Children were also asked to locate their own elbows. Almost no children below age 2 imitated either behavior. Instead, younger children gave clear evidence of a developmental progression, from reproducing only the outcome of the models’ movements (hitting the object), through trying (but failing) to reproduce the model’s arm posture and/or the arm-cup relations they had seen, to accurate imitation of arm bending by age 2 and of both movements by age 2½. Across age levels, almost all children who knew the word ‘elbow’ imitated both behaviors: very few who did not know the word imitated either behavior. The evidence is most consistent with a view of early imitation as the product of a complex system of language, cognitive, social, and motor competencies that develop in infancy. The findings do not rule out a role for an inherited neural mechanism, but they suggest that such a system would not by itself be sufficient to explain imitation at any age. PMID:23251500

  18. Dossier Imitation - Introduction générale Special section on Imitation – General introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Petit

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Dans ce dossier spécial, nous nous sommes intéressés à l’aspect ontogénique et phylogénique de l’imitation. Nous avons invité des spécialistes du développement de l’enfant et des primatologues à discuter de ce que l’imitation représente pour l’espèce humaine, de sa présence chez des espèces de primates non humains et des éventuelles similarités observées au sein de l’ordre des primates. L’imitation possède une double dimension, cognitive et sociale. En effet, les processus d’imitation impliquent des compétences cognitives qui s’inscrivent dans des contextes sociaux et culturels. Ce mode d’apprentissage soulève de nombreuses questions : Peut-on considérer l’imitation comme une compétence innée ? L’étude de son développement permet-elle de comprendre les mécanismes du fonctionnement cognitif ? L’imitation est-elle uniquement humaine ?This special issue is interested in the ontogeny and the phylogeny of imitation. We have invited experts in developmental psychology and in primatology to discuss the definition of imitation in Human, its existence in non human primate species and to address the question of similarities between the different primate species. Imitation has both a cognitive and a social dimension. Imitation involves, indeed, cognitive processes that are part of social and cultural life. Learning occurs via imitation and several questions can be asked: Is imitation innate? Will studying its ontogeny help understanding its cognitive processes? Finally, is imitation human specific?

  19. Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) evaluation of hysteroscopy training: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alici, Ferizan; Buerkle, Bernd; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2014-07-01

    To describe the performance curve of hysteroscopy-naïve probands repeatedly working through a surgery algorithm on a hysteroscopy trainer. We prospectively recruited medical students to a 30min demonstration session teaching a standardized surgery algorithm. Subjects subsequently performed three training courses immediately after training (T1) and after 24h (T2) and 48h (T3). Skills were recorded with a 20-item Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) at T1, T2, and T3. The presence of a sustained OSATS score improvement from T1 to T3 was the primary outcome. Performance time (PT) and self assessment (SA) were secondary outcomes. Statistics were performed using paired T-test and multiple linear regression analysis. 92 subjects were included. OSATS scores significantly improved over time from T1 to T2 (15.21±1.95 vs. 16.02±2.06, respectively; ptraining courses on a hysteroscopy trainer. Serial hysteroscopy trainings may be helpful for teaching hysteroscopy skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of basic clinical skills training on objective structured clinical examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jünger, Jana; Schäfer, Sybille; Roth, Christiane; Schellberg, Dieter; Friedman Ben-David, Miriam; Nikendei, Christoph

    2005-10-01

    The aim of curriculum reform in medical education is to improve students' clinical and communication skills. However, there are contradicting results regarding the effectiveness of such reforms. A study of internal medicine students was carried out using a static group design. The experimental group consisted of 77 students participating in 7 sessions of communication training, 7 sessions of skills-laboratory training and 7 sessions of bedside-teaching, each lasting 1.5 hours. The control group of 66 students from the traditional curriculum participated in equally as many sessions but was offered only bedside teaching. Students' cognitive and practical skills performance was assessed using Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) testing and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), delivered by examiners blind to group membership. The experimental group performed significantly better on the OSCE than did the control group (P < 0.01), whereas the groups did not differ on the MCQ test (P < 0.15). This indicates that specific training in communication and basic clinical skills enabled students to perform better in an OSCE, whereas its effects on knowledge did not differ from those of the traditional curriculum. Curriculum reform promoting communication and basic clinical skills are effective and lead to an improved performance in history taking and physical examination skills.

  1. Elicited Imitation for Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonsdale, Deryle W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elicited imitation (EI is an approach to measuring oral proficiency that consists of having test takers hear a sentence and repeat the sentence exactly as they heard it. Though indirect in nature, EI has successfully shown to correlate with previously established oral proficiency examinations, such as the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI (Lonsdale and Christensen 2014, Matsushita and Lonsdale 2014, Millard 2011, Thompson 2013. This paper discusses the development, administration, and evaluation of an EI test for the Brazilian Portuguese language. We first discuss the relevant background of oral proficiency examination and EI. After presenting the pertinent research questions, we explain the methodology used to develop the EI test, recruit participants, and administer the test. We present the results and analysis and then summarize the findings, limitations, and possible future work

  2. Deep imitation learning for 3D navigation tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Ahmed; Elyan, Eyad; Gaber, Mohamed Medhat; Jayne, Chrisina

    2018-01-01

    Deep learning techniques have shown success in learning from raw high-dimensional data in various applications. While deep reinforcement learning is recently gaining popularity as a method to train intelligent agents, utilizing deep learning in imitation learning has been scarcely explored. Imitation learning can be an efficient method to teach intelligent agents by providing a set of demonstrations to learn from. However, generalizing to situations that are not represented in the demonstrations can be challenging, especially in 3D environments. In this paper, we propose a deep imitation learning method to learn navigation tasks from demonstrations in a 3D environment. The supervised policy is refined using active learning in order to generalize to unseen situations. This approach is compared to two popular deep reinforcement learning techniques: deep-Q-networks and Asynchronous actor-critic (A3C). The proposed method as well as the reinforcement learning methods employ deep convolutional neural networks and learn directly from raw visual input. Methods for combining learning from demonstrations and experience are also investigated. This combination aims to join the generalization ability of learning by experience with the efficiency of learning by imitation. The proposed methods are evaluated on 4 navigation tasks in a 3D simulated environment. Navigation tasks are a typical problem that is relevant to many real applications. They pose the challenge of requiring demonstrations of long trajectories to reach the target and only providing delayed rewards (usually terminal) to the agent. The experiments show that the proposed method can successfully learn navigation tasks from raw visual input while learning from experience methods fail to learn an effective policy. Moreover, it is shown that active learning can significantly improve the performance of the initially learned policy using a small number of active samples.

  3. The perils of the imitation age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonabeau, Eric

    2004-06-01

    Imitation exerts enormous influence over society, and business and finance in particular. And its influence has grown as the avenues by which people imitate--and are imitated--have multiplied and the process has gotten faster. Thousands of communications channels make it possible for virtually anyone in the developed world to know, almost instantaneously, what others do, think, believe, claim, or predict. More significantly, we can and do act upon such knowledge. The resulting fads and fashions, bubbles and crashes are ever more frequent, severe, and complex. The information age has cast up more than its share of paradoxes, including this one: When information is plentiful, we often use it not to make better decisions but to imitate others--and their mistakes. In consumer purchases, financial markets, and corporate strategy, what others do matters more to us than the facts. When there's too much information, imitation becomes a convenient heuristic. This is the basis for a self-referential society. Imitation has its virtues, but it also promotes instability and unpredictability. That's because, by definition a multiplier, it can swell a single opinion into a mass movement or catapult the smallest player to the forefront of a market. Mastering the dynamics of self-reference won't ensure mastery of its consequences. But businesses that understand how imitation works can at least attempt to gird themselves against its worst effects--by accounting for it in their forecasts and risk-management plans, by becoming more sensitive to unexpectedly changing circumstances, and by avoiding mindless imitation of other companies' moves. In some instances, they may even be able to build strategies around self-reference and use the tools of imitation to capture new business. That won't make the world any less confusing. But it may make it more profitable.

  4. Musical experience and Mandarin tone discrimination and imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Terry L.; Staby, Ann M.; Ziemer, Christine J.

    2004-05-01

    Previous work [T. L. Gottfried and D. Riester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2604 (2000)] showed that native speakers of American English with musical training performed better than nonmusicians when identifying the four distinctive tones of Mandarin Chinese (high-level, mid-rising, low-dipping, high-falling). Accuracy for both groups was relatively low since listeners were not trained on the phonemic contrasts. Current research compares musicians and nonmusicians on discrimination and imitation of unfamiliar tones. Listeners were presented with two different Mandarin words that had either the same or different tones; listeners indicated whether the tones were same or different. Thus, they were required to determine a categorical match (same or different tone), rather than an auditory match. All listeners had significantly more difficulty discriminating between mid-rising and low-dipping tones than with other contrasts. Listeners with more musical training showed significantly greater accuracy in their discrimination. Likewise, musicians' spoken imitations of Mandarin tones (model tokens presented by a native speaker) were rated as significantly more native-like than those of nonmusicians. These findings suggest that musicians may have abilities or training that facilitate their perception and production of Mandarin tones. However, further research is needed to determine whether this advantage transfers to language learning situations.

  5. Selective and faithful imitation at 12 and 15 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbrink, Elma E; Sakkalou, Elena; Ellis-Davies, Kate; Fowler, Nia C; Gattis, Merideth

    2013-11-01

    Research on imitation in infancy has primarily focused on what and when infants imitate. More recently, however, the question why infants imitate has received renewed attention, partly motivated by the finding that infants sometimes selectively imitate the actions of others and sometimes faithfully imitate, or overimitate, the actions of others. The present study evaluates the hypothesis that this varying imitative behavior is related to infants' social traits. To do so, we assessed faithful and selective imitation longitudinally at 12 and 15 months, and extraversion at 15 months. At both ages, selective imitation was dependent on the causal structure of the act. From 12 to 15 months, selective imitation decreased while faithful imitation increased. Furthermore, infants high in extraversion were more faithful imitators than infants low in extraversion. These results demonstrate that the onset of faithful imitation is earlier than previously thought, but later than the onset of selective imitation. The observed relation between extraversion and faithful imitation supports the hypothesis that faithful imitation is driven by the social motivations of the infant. We call this relation the King Louie Effect: like the orangutan King Louie in The Jungle Book, infants imitate faithfully due to a growing interest in the interpersonal nature of interactions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Computer technologies of future teachers of fine art training as an object of scientific educational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Cherniavskyi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with computer technology training, highlights the current state ofcomputerization of educational process in teacher training colleges, reveals the specifictechniques of professional training of teachers of fine arts to use computer technology inteaching careers.Key words: Methods of professional training, professional activities, computertechnology training future teachers of Fine Arts, the subject of research.

  7. Imitation by combination: preschool age children evidence summative imitation in a novel problem-solving task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiaul, Francys; Krajkowski, Edward; Price, Elizabeth E; Etz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Children are exceptional, even 'super,' imitators but comparatively poor independent problem-solvers or innovators. Yet, imitation and innovation are both necessary components of cumulative cultural evolution. Here, we explored the relationship between imitation and innovation by assessing children's ability to generate a solution to a novel problem by imitating two different action sequences demonstrated by two different models, an example of imitation by combination, which we refer to as "summative imitation." Children (N = 181) from 3 to 5 years of age and across three experiments were tested in a baseline condition or in one of six demonstration conditions, varying in the number of models and opening techniques demonstrated. Across experiments, more than 75% of children evidenced summative imitation, opening both compartments of the problem box and retrieving the reward hidden in each. Generally, learning different actions from two different models was as good (and in some cases, better) than learning from 1 model, but the underlying representations appear to be the same in both demonstration conditions. These results show that summative imitation not only facilitates imitation learning but can also result in new solutions to problems, an essential feature of innovation and cumulative culture.

  8. The imitation game: Effects of social cues on 'imitation' are domain-general in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Lauren E; Bird, Geoffrey; Catmur, Caroline

    2016-10-01

    Imitation has been hailed as 'social glue', facilitating rapport with others. Previous studies suggest that social cues modulate imitation but the mechanism of such modulation remains underspecified. Here we examine the locus, specificity, and neural basis of the social control of imitation. Social cues (group membership and eye gaze) were manipulated during an imitation task in which imitative and spatial compatibility could be measured independently. Participants were faster to perform compatible compared to incompatible movements in both spatial and imitative domains. However, only spatial compatibility was modulated by social cues: an interaction between group membership and eye gaze revealed more spatial compatibility for ingroup members with direct gaze and outgroup members with averted gaze. The fMRI data were consistent with this finding. Regions associated with the control of imitative responding (temporoparietal junction, inferior frontal gyrus) were more active during imitatively incompatible compared to imitatively compatible trials. However, this activity was not modulated by social cues. On the contrary, an interaction between group, gaze and spatial compatibility was found in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in a pattern consistent with reaction times. This region may be exerting control over the motor system to modulate response inhibition. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rational over-imitation: Preschoolers consider material costs and copy causally irrelevant actions selectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keupp, Stefanie; Bancken, Christin; Schillmöller, Jelka; Rakoczy, Hannes; Behne, Tanya

    2016-02-01

    Children's strong tendency to over-imitate - i.e., to reproduce causally irrelevant actions - presents a well-documented, yet puzzling, phenomenon. On first sight this instrumentally inefficient behavior seems maladaptive and different accounts have been put forward to explain it. Causal accounts claim that children are misled by an adult's demonstration, mistake the superfluous actions as causally necessary, and therefore imitate them. Other accounts emphasize cognitive-motivational aspects underlying over-imitation, e.g. social motivations to affiliate with the model, or to adhere to normative conventions. Since all accounts predict the occurrence of over-imitation under typical conditions, different parameters and circumstances have to be considered to distinguish between them. Thus, we investigated children's over-imitation and their spontaneous verbal reactions to a puppet's behavior, in contexts in which a causally irrelevant action either led to the destruction of a valuable object belonging to the experimenter, or not. In addition, children saw the full action sequence being demonstrated either with an instrumental or a conventional focus. Causal accounts predict no flexibility across these contexts, because over-imitation is said to occur automatically. Normative accounts claim that different normative considerations affect children's behavior and action parsing, and therefore predict different response patterns across conditions. We found that over-imitation was less frequent in costly and instrumental conditions. Children criticized the puppet for omitting irrelevant actions more often in the non-costly condition, but criticized her more often for performing irrelevant actions in the costly condition, often expressing their moral concern. The results support the rational normative action interpretation account of over-imitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantization and training of object detection networks with low-precision weights and activations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Liu, Jian; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yun; Chen, Jie

    2018-01-01

    As convolutional neural networks have demonstrated state-of-the-art performance in object recognition and detection, there is a growing need for deploying these systems on resource-constrained mobile platforms. However, the computational burden and energy consumption of inference for these networks are significantly higher than what most low-power devices can afford. To address these limitations, this paper proposes a method to train object detection networks with low-precision weights and activations. The probability density functions of weights and activations of each layer are first directly estimated using piecewise Gaussian models. Then, the optimal quantization intervals and step sizes for each convolution layer are adaptively determined according to the distribution of weights and activations. As the most computationally expensive convolutions can be replaced by effective fixed point operations, the proposed method can drastically reduce computation complexity and memory footprint. Performing on the tiny you only look once (YOLO) and YOLO architectures, the proposed method achieves comparable accuracy to their 32-bit counterparts. As an illustration, the proposed 4-bit and 8-bit quantized versions of the YOLO model achieve a mean average precision of 62.6% and 63.9%, respectively, on the Pascal visual object classes 2012 test dataset. The mAP of the 32-bit full-precision baseline model is 64.0%.

  11. Infant Imitation After a 1-Week Delay: Long-Term Memory for Novel Acts and Multiple Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzoff, Andrew N

    1988-07-01

    Deferred imitation after a 1-week delay was examined in 14-month-old infants. Six actions, each using a different object, were demonstrated to each infant. One of the six actions was a novel behavior that had a zero probability of occurrence in spontaneous play. In the imitation condition, infants observed the demonstration but were not allowed to touch the objects, thus preventing any immediate imitation. After the 1-week delay, infants returned to the laboratory and their imitation of the adult's previous actions was scored. Infants in the imitation condition produced significantly more of the target actions than infants in control groups who were not exposed to the modeling; there was also strong evidence for the imitation of the novel act. From a cognitive perspective deferred imitation provides a means of assessing recall memory and representation in children. From a social-developmental viewpoint the findings illustrate that the behavioral repertoire of infants and their knowledge about objects can expand as a result of seeing the actions of others.

  12. On imitation among young and blind children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Campello Rodrigues

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the imitation among young and blind children. The survey was conducted as a mosaic in the time since the field considerations were taken from two areas: a professional experience with early stimulation of blind babies and a workshop with blind and low vision young between 13-18 years. By statingthe situated trace of knowledge, theresearch indicates that imitation among blind young people can be one of the ways of creating a common world among young blind and sighted people. Imitation among blind young is a multi-sensory process that requires a body experience, including both blind and people who see. The paper concludes with an indication of the unique character of imitation and at the same time, with the affirmation of its relevance to the development and inclusion process of both the child and the young blind.

  13. 1. The Acting Student’s Choreographic Training. Several Cognitive Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Șușu Petre

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dance is an artistic genre that is more and more frequently used in theatre productions. The syncretism of theatre and dance can take many shapes, from inserting dance sequences in dramatic performances, to new artistic genres, such as dance theatre. Due to the fact that they offer manifold innovating possibilities for artistic expression in a greatly audience-oriented universal language, theatrical forms that include dance, and especially the artistic genre of dance theatre are increasingly often put on stage by directors who work in Romania. Thus, training actors in the area of dance at a high level of performance that allows them to approach these types of syncretic artistic genres becomes a priority for the Romanian theatre school. The director, one of the stakeholders in higher education theatre schools, is the one who decides both the form of a performance and an actor’s involvement (or lack thereof in that certain performance. Limited or stimulated by the actor’s training level, the director is also a beneficiary of the education the acting student receives in drama school. This study aims at identifying the opinions of ten Romanian directors on the matter of the choreographic categories and skills the acting student acquires during his years of training at a higher education institution. We have used qualitative methodology research, based on semi-structured interviews, applied to a cross-section of ten directors from Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Constanţa, Craiova, Iaşi, and Tg. Mureş. This article tackles the issue of cognitive didactic objectives and students’ cognitive competencies that have been emphasized during the conversations with the aforementioned directors.

  14. Preschool children's proto-episodic memory assessed by deferred imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Patrick; Russell, Charlotte; Russell, James

    2015-01-01

    In two experiments, both employing deferred imitation, we studied the developmental origins of episodic memory in two- to three-year-old children by adopting a "minimalist" view of episodic memory based on its What-When-Where ("WWW": spatiotemporal plus semantic) content. We argued that the temporal element within spatiotemporal should be the order/simultaneity of the event elements, but that it is not clear whether the spatial content should be egocentric or allocentric. We also argued that episodic recollection should be configural (tending towards all-or-nothing recall of the WWW elements). Our first deferred imitation experiment, using a two-dimensional (2D) display, produced superior-to-chance performance after 2.5 years but no evidence of configural memory. Moreover, performance did not differ from that on a What-What-What control task. Our second deferred imitation study required the children to reproduce actions on an object in a room, thereby affording layout-based spatial cues. In this case, not only was there superior-to-chance performance after 2.5 years but memory was also configural at both ages. We discuss the importance of allocentric spatial cues in episodic recall in early proto-episodic memory and reflect on the possible role of hippocampal development in this process.

  15. Imitation inhibition in children with Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Valerie Cathérine; Moczydlowski, Agnes; Jonas, Melanie; Boelmans, Kai; Bäumer, Tobias; Brass, Marcel; Münchau, Alexander

    2017-08-12

    Echopraxia, that is, the open and automatic imitation of other peoples' actions, is common in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, and also those with frontal lobe lesions. While systematic reaction time tasks have confirmed increased automatic imitation in the latter two groups, adult patients with Tourette syndrome appear to compensate for automatic imitation tendencies by an overall slowing in response times. However, whether children with Tourette syndrome are already able to inhibit automatic imitation tendencies has not been investigated. Fifteen children with Tourette syndrome and 15 healthy children (aged 7-12 years) performed an imitation inhibition paradigm. Participants were asked to respond to an auditory cue by lifting their index finger or their little finger. Participants were simultaneously presented with either compatible or incompatible visual stimuli. Overall responses in children with Tourette syndrome were slower than in healthy children. Although responses were faster in compatible than in incompatible trials in both groups, this 'interference effect' was smaller in children with Tourette syndrome. Children with Tourette syndrome have a smaller interference effect than healthy children, indicating an enhanced ability to behaviourally control automatic imitation tendencies at the cost of reacting slower. The results suggest that children with Tourette syndrome already employ different or additional inhibition strategies compared to healthy children. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Bimanual Gesture Imitation in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, G Nter; Benke, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Unimanual gesture production or imitation has often been studied in Alzheimer's disease (AD) during apraxia testing. In the present study, it was hypothesized that bimanual motor tasks may be a sensitive method to detect impairments of motor cognition in AD due to increased demands on the cognitive system. We investigated bimanual, meaningless gesture imitation in 45 AD outpatients, 38 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 50 normal controls (NC) attending a memory clinic. Participants performed neuropsychological background testing and three tasks: the Interlocking Finger Test (ILF), Imitation of Alternating Hand Movements (AHM), and Bimanual Rhythm Tapping (BRT). The tasks were short and easy to administer. Inter-rater reliability was high across all three tests. AD patients performed significantly poorer than NC and MCI participants; a deficit to imitate bimanual gestures was rarely found in MCI and NC participants. Sensitivity to detect AD ranged from 0.5 and 0.7, specificity beyond 0.9. ROC analyses revealed good diagnostic accuracy (0.77 to 0.92). Impairment to imitate bimanual gestures was mainly predicted by diagnosis and disease severity. Our findings suggest that an impairment to imitate bimanual, meaningless gestures is a valid disease marker of mild to moderate AD and can easily be assessed in memory clinic settings. Based on our preliminary findings, it appears to be a separate impairment which can be distinguished from other cognitive deficits.

  17. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Smith, David; Reed-Tsochas, Felix

    2010-10-27

    Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating) does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  18. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Saavedra

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  19. How were Imitations of Samian Formed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tino Leleković

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the variety of the locally made ceramic group known as Pannonian slipped ware (Pannonische Glanztonware - PGW. For the Roman provincial archaeology of Pannonia this group has particular meaning because it is perceived as a regional amalgam of Roman imperial taste and local Celtic traditions. This phenomenon is even more intriguing given that almost all the imitations were burnished grey and black, differing significantly from terra sigillata originals. The quality of the imitations clearly indicates that such colouring was not a consequence of a technological deficiency, but a clear expression of local taste and demand. Imitations that were made subsequently, later in the second century, show that the preference for black/grey slipped imitations of terra sigillata persisted in this region, obviously representing a distinctive alternative to the ever-present red gloss terra sigillata that was later imported from Gaul and Germania. A re-examination of other sites in the region and contextualisation of published material shows that this was not an isolated phenomenon, but that these imitations were part of a regional ceramic group known as Pannonian slipped ware (PSW. Several aspects of these imitations could be explored, but the task of this article is to investigate why these vessels were made as they were by comparing the PSW finds with original terra sigillata found in the region to determine patterns of differences and similarities.

  20. Jomon pottery: cord-imitating decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Zhushchikhovskaya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the decoration of pottery of the Neolithic Jomon culture (Japanese Archipelago, 13600–900 BC. The comb-impressed pattern produced by various kinds of cord or rope stamps is considered as the ‘calling card’ of Jomon pottery from the earliest cultural periods to the latest. Another kind of decoration recognized recently uses the cord not as a patterning tool, but as an essential motif of decorative composition. High relief elements imitate cordage forms and structures – knots, loops, hanging cord, net, etc. This kind of decoration corresponds to the pottery of Mid-dle Jomon period (3500–2500 BC sites located in northern and north-eastern Honshu and southern Hokkaido. It is supposed that the introduction of images of real material object into the field of decorative art was reasoned by the meaning of cord and cordage as cultural signs during the Middle Jomon period. Interesting parallels to some cordage structures reconstructed on Middle Jomon pottery decoration are well known in traditional Japanese culture of VI–XX cc. Analytical interpretation of this resemblance may became the subject of special research.

  1. How Selective Are 3-Year-Olds in Imitating Novel Linguistic Material?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannard, Colin; Klinger, Jörn; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In 3 studies we explored when 3-year-olds would imitate novel words in utterances produced by adult speakers. Child and experimenter took turns in requesting objects from a game master. The experimenter always went first and always preceded the object's familiar name with a novel adjective (e.g., "the dilsige duck"). In the first 2…

  2. The Action Imitation network and motor imitation in children and adolescents with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Heather M; Maximo, Jose O; Lemelman, Amy R; Clayton, Kacy; Sivaraman, Soumya; Deshpande, Hrishikesh D; Ver Hoef, Lawrence; Kana, Rajesh K

    2017-02-20

    While deficits in imitation had been reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), its exact nature remains unclear. A dysfunction in mirroring mechanisms (through action imitation) has been proposed by some studies to explain this, although some recent evidence points against this hypothesis. The current study used behavior and functional MRI to examine the integrated functioning of the regions that are considered part of the Action Imitation network (AIN) in children and adolescents with ASD during a motor imitation task. Fourteen ASD and 15 age-and-IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children were asked to imitate a series of hand gestures in the MRI scanner. Intact performance on imitation (accurate imitation of hand gestures outside the scanner) in both ASD and TD groups was accompanied by significantly lower activity in ASD participants, relative to TD, in right angular gyrus, precentral gyrus, and left middle cingulate. In addition, autism traits were found to be significantly correlated with activation in the right angular gyrus. Overall, the findings of this study support the role of AIN in imitation and a potential difference in the recruitment of this network in ASD children. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Shaping of Managers' Security Objectives through Information Security Awareness Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Information security research states that corporate security policy and information security training should be socio-technical in nature and that corporations should consider training as a primary method of protecting their information systems. However, information security policies and training are predominately technical in nature. In addition,…

  4. Objective and subjective methods for quantifying training load in wheelchair basketball small-sided games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturricastillo, Aitor; Granados, Cristina; Los Arcos, Asier; Yanci, Javier

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the training load in wheelchair basketball small-sided games and determine the relationship between heart rate (HR)-based training load and perceived exertion (RPE)-based training load methods among small-sided games bouts. HR-based measurements of training load included Edwards' training load and Stagno's training impulses (TRIMP MOD ) while RPE-based training load measurements included cardiopulmonary (session RPEres) and muscular (session RPEmus) values. Data were collected from 12 wheelchair basketball players during five consecutive weeks. The total load for the small-sided games sessions was 67.5 ± 6.7 and 55.3 ± 12.5 AU in HR-based training load (Edwards' training load and TRIMP MOD ), while the RPE-based training loads were 99.3 ± 26.9 (session RPEres) and 100.8 ± 31.2 AU (session RPEmus). Bout-to-bout analysis identified greater session RPEmus in the third [P training loads. It is suggested that HR-based and RPE-based training loads provide different information, but these two methods could be complementary because one method could help us to understand the limitations of the other.

  5. Variant at serotonin transporter gene predicts increased imitation in toddlers: relevance to the human capacity for cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Kari Britt; Asherson, Philip; Blake, Peter R; Fenstermacher, Susan K; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2016-04-01

    Cumulative culture ostensibly arises from a set of sociocognitive processes which includes high-fidelity production imitation, prosociality and group identification. The latter processes are facilitated by unconscious imitation or social mimicry. The proximate mechanisms of individual variation in imitation may thus shed light on the evolutionary history of the human capacity for cumulative culture. In humans, a genetic component to variation in the propensity for imitation is likely. A functional length polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene, the short allele at 5HTTLPR, is associated with heightened responsiveness to the social environment as well as anatomical and activational differences in the brain's imitation circuity. Here, we evaluate whether this polymorphism contributes to variation in production imitation and social mimicry. Toddlers with the short allele at 5HTTLPR exhibit increased social mimicry and increased fidelity of demonstrated novel object manipulations. Thus, the short allele is associated with two forms of imitation that may underlie the human capacity for cumulative culture. The short allele spread relatively recently, possibly due to selection, and its frequency varies dramatically on a global scale. Diverse observations can be unified via conceptualization of 5HTTLPR as influencing the propensity to experience others' emotions, actions and sensations, potentially through the mirror mechanism. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Ambiguous Imitations: DIY Hijacking the ‘Danish Mother Seeking’ Stealth Marketing Campaign on YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Stage

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of imitation as a key dimension of online DIY and participatory cultures on YouTube. The empirical point of departure is the viral stealth marketing YouTube video entitled 'Danish Mother Seeking', produced by the official national tourist organisation (Visit Denmark, and selected extracts of the online responses to this video. Framed by the notion of participatory culture (Jenkins 2006; Burgess & Green 2009 and the concept of imitation (Tarde 1895/1903, we analyse how marketing initiatives buy into and borrow energy from engaged networked produsers, but also how these produsers can criticise marketing initiatives by 're-imitating' them. Following this, we argue that the case represents an interesting and fascinating example of consumer re-sistance and bottom-up voices insisting on being heard, rather than a simple ex-ample of the breakdown of a brand strategy. Looking at the response videos they furthermore reveal that imitation can be a rather ambiguous social strategy as it is used both to transfer energy from the imitated object and to deconstruct it. As part of this argument we replace the classical concept of 'mimicry' (Bhabha 1994 with the notion of 'ambiguous imitation' to be able to describe online imitation as both an act of critical voicing and energy transmission.

  7. Effects of stimulus response compatibility on covert imitation of vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adank, Patti; Nuttall, Helen; Bekkering, Harold; Maegherman, Gwijde

    2018-03-13

    When we observe someone else speaking, we tend to automatically activate the corresponding speech motor patterns. When listening, we therefore covertly imitate the observed speech. Simulation theories of speech perception propose that covert imitation of speech motor patterns supports speech perception. Covert imitation of speech has been studied with interference paradigms, including the stimulus-response compatibility paradigm (SRC). The SRC paradigm measures covert imitation by comparing articulation of a prompt following exposure to a distracter. Responses tend to be faster for congruent than for incongruent distracters; thus, showing evidence of covert imitation. Simulation accounts propose a key role for covert imitation in speech perception. However, covert imitation has thus far only been demonstrated for a select class of speech sounds, namely consonants, and it is unclear whether covert imitation extends to vowels. We aimed to demonstrate that covert imitation effects as measured with the SRC paradigm extend to vowels, in two experiments. We examined whether covert imitation occurs for vowels in a consonant-vowel-consonant context in visual, audio, and audiovisual modalities. We presented the prompt at four time points to examine how covert imitation varied over the distracter's duration. The results of both experiments clearly demonstrated covert imitation effects for vowels, thus supporting simulation theories of speech perception. Covert imitation was not affected by stimulus modality and was maximal for later time points.

  8. The Imitation Game: Alan Turings enigmatiske imitationsspil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2015-01-01

    Alan Turing revolutionerede computervidenskaben og modtog først verdens anerkendelse længe efter sin død. Nu sætter filmen 'The Imitation Game', der har premiere i Danmark 29. januar 2015, fokus på det oversete geni.......Alan Turing revolutionerede computervidenskaben og modtog først verdens anerkendelse længe efter sin død. Nu sætter filmen 'The Imitation Game', der har premiere i Danmark 29. januar 2015, fokus på det oversete geni....

  9. Thermal imitators with single directional invisibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruizhe; Xu, Liujun; Huang, Jiping

    2017-12-01

    Thermal metamaterials have been intensively studied during the past years to achieve the long-standing dream of invisibility, illusion, and other inconceivable thermal phenomena. However, many thermal metamaterials can only exhibit omnidirectional thermal response, which take on the distinct feature of geometrical isotropy. In this work, we theoretically design and experimentally fabricate a pair of thermal imitators by applying geometrical anisotropy provided by elliptical/ellipsoidal particles and layered structures. This pair of thermal imitators possesses thermal invisibility in one direction, while having thermal opacity in other directions. This work may open a gate in designing direction-dependent thermal metamaterials.

  10. Developing an effective IM/IT strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Sarah; Walker, Joanne; Falk, Will

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare organizations and systems around the world lag far behind banking, manufacturing, travel and other industries in their use of information management/information technology (IM/IT) to deliver high-quality products and services. Across Canada, healthcare organizations, as well as governments, understand that information and information technology are needed to deliver quality care and to sustain our publicly funded health system. However, insufficient funding, few experienced resources, lack of strong leadership and absence of clear business/clinical rationale have restricted innovation and advancement in the use of IM/IT to improve healthcare delivery and patient outcomes.

  11. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Emily E.; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behaviour...

  12. Improvement in cognitive and affective theory of mind with observation and imitation treatment in subjects with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Pino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the main objective of this study is to consider Theory of Mind (ToM, i.e. the ability to perceive other people in terms of thinking, believing and emotions, as a target for effective rehabilitative intervention, using Emotion and ToM Imitation Training (ETIT, aimed at improving social cognition and social functioning in schizophrenia. ToM impairment is a key feature of schizophrenia. According to recent literature, ToM is a multidimensional process requiring at least two components: cognitive and affective. Cognitive ToM seems to be a prerequisite for affective ToM, which requires intact empathic ability. Method: seven patients with schizophrenia completed ETIT treatment and were compared to 7 patients who participated in Problem Solving Training (PST. The participants were assessed at pre and post treatment regarding measures of cognitive (Advanced Theory of Mind Task and Social Situation Test and affective (Emotion Attribution Task and Eyes Task ToM and also empathy (Empathy Quotient. Results: our results showed that when compared to the control group, ETIT participants improved in three social cognition components evaluated (cognitive and affective ToM and empathy. Improvement in cognitive and affective ToM was found within the ETIT group pre and post treatment. Conclusions: Action observation and imitation could be important goals for future “low cost” rehabilitation treatment in several disorders in which the deficit of social cognition is considered as “core” to the disease. This represents a new perspective in the rehabilitation field.

  13. Consumer evaluation of copycat brands : The effect of imitation type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Horen, F.; Pieters, R.

    2012-01-01

    Copycat brands imitate the trade dress of a leader brand to free ride on the latter's equity. Copycats can imitate the distinctive perceptual features of the leader brand, such as the lilac color of the Milka chocolate brand, or they can imitate the underlying meaning or theme of the leader brand,

  14. Shadow-Reading: Affordances for Imitation in the Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guerrero, María C. M.; Commander, Millie

    2013-01-01

    Imitation has a fundamental role in learning and development within Vygotskyan sociocultural theory. In this study, we adopt a sociocultural theory view of imitation as an intentional, meaningful, and transformative process leading learners to higher developmental levels. The study centers on instances of imitation that occurred as adult learners…

  15. Imitation of Para-Phonological Detail Following Left Hemisphere Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappes, Juliane; Baumgaertner, Annette; Peschke, Claudia; Goldenberg, Georg; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    Imitation in speech refers to the unintentional transfer of phonologically irrelevant acoustic-phonetic information of auditory input into speech motor output. Evidence for such imitation effects has been explained within the framework of episodic theories. However, it is largely unclear, which neural structures mediate speech imitation and how…

  16. Imitation in Fragile X Syndrome: Implications for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedoni-Luksic, Marta; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Rogers, Sally J.; Gosar, David; Lemons-Chitwood, Kerrie; Hagerman, Randi

    2009-01-01

    To address the specific impairment of imitation in autism, the imitation abilities of 22 children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) with and without autism were compared. Based on previous research, we predicted that children with FXS and autism would have significantly more difficulty with non-meaningful imitation tasks. After controlling for…

  17. Nurturance and Imitation: The Mediating Role of Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, David A.; Siebold, James R.

    1975-01-01

    Describes two experiments which examine the relationship between nurturance, attraction, and imitation. The results showed a significant relationship between nurturance and attraction and no relationship between nurturance and imitation. This suggests that positive relationships between nurturance and imitation are mediated by the child's…

  18. Imitation and Creativity: Beneficial Effects of Propulsion Strategies and Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecca, Jensen T.; Mumford, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies examining imitation of exemplar solutions have produced a mixed pattern of findings with some studies indicating that exemplar imitation contributes to creative problem-solving and other studies indicating that it may inhibit creative problem-solving. In the present effort, it is argued that the effects of exemplar imitation on…

  19. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Children's Imitative Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Jennifer M.; Legare, Cristine H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research with Western populations has demonstrated that children use imitation flexibly to engage in both instrumental and conventional learning. Evidence for children's imitative flexibility in non-Western populations is limited, however, and has only assessed imitation of instrumental tasks. This study (N = 142, 6- to 8-year-olds)…

  20. Consumer evaluation of copycat brands: The effect of imitation type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Horen, F.; Pieters, R.

    2012-01-01

    Copycat brands imitate the trade dress of a leader brand to free ride on the latter's equity. Copycats can imitate the distinctive perceptual features of the leader brand, such as the lilac color of the Milka chocolate brand, or they can imitate the underlying meaning or theme of the leader brand,

  1. INFLUENCE OF DANCE TRAINING ON SACCULOCOLLIC PATHWAY: VESTIBULAR EVOKED MYOGENIC POTENTIALS (VEMP) AS AN OBJECTIVE TOOL

    OpenAIRE

    Swathi; Sathish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT : Auditory system is shaped by experience and training. Training (s ensory experience) induces neurophysiologic changes & plasticity in normal hearing individuals, hearing loss patients, hearing aid users and cochlear implanted subjects. Not only speech stimulus, but music also brings about functional and structural organi zation of the brain in musician compared to non - musicians. The Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) are a biphasic in...

  2. Motion Controllers for Learners to Manipulate and Interact with 3D Objects for Mental Rotation Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shih-Ching; Wang, Jin-Liang; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Lin, Po-Han; Chen, Gwo-Dong; Rizzo, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Mental rotation is an important spatial processing ability and an important element in intelligence tests. However, the majority of past attempts at training mental rotation have used paper-and-pencil tests or digital images. This study proposes an innovative mental rotation training approach using magnetic motion controllers to allow learners to…

  3. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome, Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Exercise Training Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Mendelson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review of English and French articles using Pubmed/Medline and Embase included studies assessing objective physical activity levels of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients and exploring the effects of exercise training on OSA severity, body mass index (BMI, sleepiness, and cardiorespiratory fitness [peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak]. Two independent reviewers analyzed the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the quality of evidence. For objective physical activity levels, eight studies were included. The mean number of steps per day across studies was 5,388 (95% CI: 3,831–6,945; p < 0.001, which was by far lower than the recommended threshold of 10,000 steps per day. For exercise training, six randomized trials were included. There was a significant decrease in apnea–hypopnea-index following exercise training (mean decrease of 8.9 events/h; 95% CI: −13.4 to −4.3; p < 0.01, which was accompanied by a reduction in subjective sleepiness, an increase in VO2peak and no change in BMI. OSA patients present low levels of physical activity and exercise training is associated with improved outcomes. Future interventions (including exercise training focusing on increasing physical activity levels may have important clinical impacts on both OSA severity and the burden of associated co-morbidities. Objective measurement of physical activity in routine OSA management and well-designed clinical trials are recommended.Registration # CRD42017057319 (Prospero.

  4. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome, Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Exercise Training Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Monique; Bailly, Sébastien; Marillier, Mathieu; Flore, Patrice; Borel, Jean Christian; Vivodtzev, Isabelle; Doutreleau, Stéphane; Verges, Samuel; Tamisier, Renaud; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2018-01-01

    A systematic review of English and French articles using Pubmed/Medline and Embase included studies assessing objective physical activity levels of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients and exploring the effects of exercise training on OSA severity, body mass index (BMI), sleepiness, and cardiorespiratory fitness [peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak)]. Two independent reviewers analyzed the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the quality of evidence. For objective physical activity levels, eight studies were included. The mean number of steps per day across studies was 5,388 (95% CI: 3,831-6,945; p  < 0.001), which was by far lower than the recommended threshold of 10,000 steps per day. For exercise training, six randomized trials were included. There was a significant decrease in apnea-hypopnea-index following exercise training (mean decrease of 8.9 events/h; 95% CI: -13.4 to -4.3; p  < 0.01), which was accompanied by a reduction in subjective sleepiness, an increase in VO2peak and no change in BMI. OSA patients present low levels of physical activity and exercise training is associated with improved outcomes. Future interventions (including exercise training) focusing on increasing physical activity levels may have important clinical impacts on both OSA severity and the burden of associated co-morbidities. Objective measurement of physical activity in routine OSA management and well-designed clinical trials are recommended. Registration # CRD42017057319 (Prospero).

  5. Training-Load Distribution in Endurance Runners: Objective Versus Subjective Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Vincenzo; Bovenzi, Antonio; Castagna, Carlo; Sinibaldi Salimei, Paola; Volterrani, Maurizio; Iellamo, Ferdinando

    2015-11-01

    To assess the distribution of exercise intensity in long-distance recreational athletes (LDRs) preparing for a marathon and to test the hypothesis that individual perception of effort could provide training responses similar to those provided by standardized training methodologies. Seven LDRs (age 36.5 ± 3.8 y) were followed during a 5-mo training period culminating with a city marathon. Heart rate at 2.0 and 4.0 mmol/L and maximal heart rate were used to establish 3 intensity training zones. Internal training load (TL) was assessed by training zones and TRIMPi methods. These were compared with the session-rating-of-perceived-exertion (RPE) method. Total time spent in zone 1 was higher than in zones 2 and 3 (76.3% ± 6.4%, 17.3% ± 5.8%, and 6.3% ± 0.9%, respectively; P = .000 for both, ES = 0.98, ES = 0.99). TL quantified by session-RPE provided the same result. The comparison between session-RPE and training-zones-based methods showed no significant difference at the lowest intensity (P = .07, ES = 0.25). A significant correlation was observed between TL RPE and TL TRIMPi at both individual and group levels (r = .79, P marathon (r = -.83, P recreational LDRs most of the training time is spent at low intensity and that this is associated with improved performances. Session-RPE is an easy-to-use training method that provides responses similar to those obtained with standardized training methodologies.

  6. Professional Training of Future Teachers in Foreign Countries in Terms of Intercultural Interaction of Educational Space Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desyatov, Tymofiy

    2015-01-01

    The problem of professional training of teachers in foreign countries in terms of intercultural interaction of educational space objects has been studied in the paper. It has been stated that the current stage of human civilization development which is defined as the transition to a knowledge society, is characterized by qualitatively new…

  7. Subjects and educational objectives of specialized training courses for shift supervisors in nuclear power plants. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Presentation of subjects taught, curricula, educational objectives of training courses for shift supervisors in nuclear power plants. The curricula for nuclear engineering fundamentals include subjects such as nuclear physics, reactor physics, reactor safety, radiation protection, legal provisions, job safety, reactor technology, applied thermohydraulics and thermodynamics, materials. (HAG) [de

  8. Neural activation differences in amputees during imitation of intact versus amputee movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F Cusack

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The mirror neuron system has been attributed with increased activation in motor-related cortical areas upon viewing of another’s actions. Recent work suggests that limb movements that are similar and dissimilar in appearance to that of the viewer equivalently activate the mirror neuron system. It is unclear if this result can be observed in the action encoding areas in amputees who use prosthetic devices. Intact subjects and upper extremity amputee prosthesis users were recruited to view video demonstrations of tools being used by an intact actor and a prosthetic device user. All subjects were asked to pantomime the movements seen in the video while recording electroencephalography. Intact subjects showed equivalent left parietofrontal activity during imitation after watching the intact or prosthetic arm. Likewise, when prosthesis users imitated prosthesis demonstrations, typical left parietofrontal activation was observed during planning. When prosthesis users imitated intact actors, a new pattern was revealed which showed greater bilateral parietal and occipital activity during movement planning (p<0.001. This change may be required for prosthesis users to imitate movements in which the limb states between the observed and the observer do not match. The finding that prosthesis users imitating other prosthesis users showed typical left parietofrontal activation suggests that these subjects engage normal planning related activity when they are able to imitate a limb matching their own. This result has significant implications on rehabilitation, as standard therapy involves training with an intact occupational therapist, which could necessitate atypical planning mechanisms in amputees when learning to use their prosthesis.

  9. Comparative Cognition: Action Imitation Using Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-12-05

    Humans encounter a myriad of actions or events and later recall some of these events using episodic memory. New research suggests that dogs can imitate recently encountered actions using episodic memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pathological Imitative Behavior and Response Preparation in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankinas, Denisas; Melynyte, Sigita; Siurkute, Aldona; Dapsys, Kastytis

    2017-08-01

    Pathological imitative behavior (ehopraxia) is occasionally observed in schizophrenia patients. However, only a severe form of echopraxia can be detected with the help of a direct observation. Therefore, our goal was to study a latent form of pathological imitative behavior in this disorder, which is indicated by an increase of imitative tendencies. In our study, 14 schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy subjects were employed in two tasks: (a) in an imitative task they had to copy a hand action seen on a screen; (b) in a counter-imitative task they had to make a different movement (which involves an inhibition of prepotent imitative tendency that is impaired in case of pathological imitative behavior). Imitative tendencies were assessed by an interference score - a difference between counter-imitative and imitative response parameters. We also studied a response preparation in both groups by employing precueing probabilistic information. Our results revealed that schizophrenia patients were able to employ probabilistic information to prepare properly not only the imitative, but also the counter-imitative responses, the same as the healthy subjects did. Nevertheless, we detected increased prepotent imitative tendencies in schizophrenia patients, what indicates the latent pathological imitative behavior in case of this disorder. The obtained results suggest that in the case of schizophrenia problems with pathological imitative behavior more likely occurred in executive rather than in the preparatory stage of response. Our findings can help to detect a latent echopraxia in schizophrenia patients that cannot be revealed by direct observation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effect of meaning on apraxic finger imitation deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, E I S; Fink, G R; Fischer, M H; Dovern, A; Held, A; Timpert, D C; Schroeter, C; Schuetz, K; Kloetzsch, C; Weiss, P H

    2016-02-01

    Apraxia typically results from left-hemispheric (LH), but also from right-hemispheric (RH) stroke, and often impairs gesture imitation. Especially in LH stroke, it is important to differentiate apraxia-induced gesture imitation deficits from those due to co-morbid aphasia and associated semantic deficits, possibly influencing the imitation of meaningful (MF) gestures. To explore this issue, we first investigated if the 10 supposedly meaningless (ML) gestures of a widely used finger imitation test really carry no meaning, or if the test also contains MF gestures, by asking healthy subjects (n=45) to classify these gestures as MF or ML. Most healthy subjects (98%) classified three of the 10 gestures as clearly MF. Only two gestures were considered predominantly ML. We next assessed how imitation in stroke patients (255 LH, 113 RH stroke) is influenced by gesture meaning and how aphasia influences imitation of LH stroke patients (n=208). All patients and especially patients with imitation deficits (17% of LH, 27% of RH stroke patients) imitated MF gestures significantly better than ML gestures. Importantly, meaningfulness-scores of all 10 gestures significantly predicted imitation scores of patients with imitation deficits. Furthermore, especially in LH stroke patients with imitation deficits, the severity of aphasia significantly influenced the imitation of MF, but not ML gestures. Our findings in a large patient cohort support current cognitive models of imitation and strongly suggest that ML gestures are particularly sensitive to detect imitation deficits while minimising confounding effects of aphasia which affect the imitation of MF gestures in LH stroke patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Troubling objectivity: the promises and pitfalls of training Haitian clinicians in qualitative research methods.H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minn, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Building research capacity is a central component of many contemporary global health programs and partnerships. While medical anthropologists have been conducting qualitative research in resource-poor settings for decades, they are increasingly called on to train "local" clinicians, researchers, and students in qualitative research methods. In this article, I describe the process of teaching introductory courses in qualitative research methods to Haitian clinicians, hospital staff, and medical students, who rarely encounter qualitative research in their training or practice. These trainings allow participants to identify and begin to address challenges related to health services delivery, quality of care, and provider-patient relations. However, they also run the risk of perpetuating colonial legacies of objectification and reinforcing hierarchies of knowledge and knowledge production. As these trainings increase in number and scope, they offer the opportunity to reflect critically on new forms of transnational interventions that aim to reduce health disparities.

  13. Multi-objective optimization of an industrial penicillin V bioreactor train using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fook Choon; Rangaiah, Gade Pandu; Ray, Ajay Kumar

    2007-10-15

    Bulk of the penicillin produced is used as raw material for semi-synthetic penicillin (such as amoxicillin and ampicillin) and semi-synthetic cephalosporins (such as cephalexin and cefadroxil). In the present paper, an industrial penicillin V bioreactor train is optimized for multiple objectives simultaneously. An industrial train, comprising a bank of identical bioreactors, is run semi-continuously in a synchronous fashion. The fermentation taking place in a bioreactor is modeled using a morphologically structured mechanism. For multi-objective optimization for two and three objectives, the elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is chosen. Instead of a single optimum as in the traditional optimization, a wide range of optimal design and operating conditions depicting trade-offs of key performance indicators such as batch cycle time, yield, profit and penicillin concentration, is successfully obtained. The effects of design and operating variables on the optimal solutions are discussed in detail. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Perception-action coupling and imitation in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadel, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    This paper focuses on the key function of imitation in motor and social development of typically developing infants and low-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We suggest that it might also be a developmental cornerstone for other neurodevelopmental disorders. Why this suggestion? First, imitation just requires relating one's motor patterns to perceived motor patterns. This is always possible if the actions seen are not beyond the individual's motor scope; for instance, newborn infants can already imitate tongue protrusion, eye blinking, or mouth opening, because these movements are part of their foetal repertoire. Second, imitation is a 'use it or lose it' capacity: the more it is used, the more the repertoire grows (plasticity). Finally, imitation is an efficient tool for two main adaptive functions: learning and communication. Imitation-based communication is available through the use of the two facets of imitation: imitating and being imitated. The two facets afford two roles that the partners can exchange as a turn-taking while they synchronize matched activities. Neuroimaging studies of interactive imitation have shown that such communicative systems involve a coordination of bottom-up and top-down processes. In this line, imitation is a booster of development that can also be of benefit for children with neurodevelopmental disorders. © 2015 The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  15. Phonetic imitation by young children and its developmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kuniko

    2014-12-01

    In the current study, the author investigated the developmental course of phonetic imitation in childhood, and further evaluated existing accounts of phonetic imitation. Sixteen preschoolers, 15 third graders, and 18 college students participated in the current study. An experiment with a modified imitation paradigm with a picture-naming task was conducted, in which participants' voice-onset time (VOT) was compared before and after they were exposed to target speech with artificially increased VOT. Extended VOT in the target speech was imitated by preschoolers and 3rd graders as well as adults, confirming previous findings in phonetic imitation. Furthermore, an age effect of phonetic imitation was observed; namely, children showed greater imitation than adults, whereas the degree of imitation was comparable between preschoolers and 3rd graders. No significant effect of gender or word specificity was observed. Young children imitated fine phonetic details of the target speech, and greater degree of phonetic imitation was observed in children compared to adults. These findings suggest that the degree of phonetic imitation negatively correlates with phonological development.

  16. Exploring links among imitation, mental development, and temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermacher, Susan K; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2016-01-01

    Links among imitation, performance on a standardized test of intellectual development, and laboratory-assessed temperament were explored in 311 24-month old twin pairs. Moderate phenotypic associations were found between imitation, mental development, and temperament dimensions of Affect/Extraversion and Task Orientation. Covariance between imitation and mental development reflected genetic and shared environmental influences, whereas associations between imitation and temperament reflected genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental influences. Genetic factors linking imitation and temperament were the same as those linking temperament and mental development. Nonetheless, approximately 62% of total genetic variance on imitation was independent of genetic influences on mental development and temperament, suggesting that young children's imitation is not simply an index of general cognitive ability or dispositional style but has many underlying genetic influences that are unique.

  17. Lip muscle training improves obstructive sleep apnea and objective sleep: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the potential of lip muscle training for improving sleep. A patient with heavy snoring, daytime sleepiness and dry mouth underwent lip muscle training. Lip closure force LCFmax increased by 67.3% and LCFmin by 152% post-training. AHI decreased from 12.2 to 3.9 events/h by reducing hypopneic episodes. TST, sleep stage N3 and REM sleep increased, and WASO, sleep stage N1, and AI decreased. The patient switched from mouth to nose breathing during sleep and stopped snoring. Improved LCF, by moving the tongue into the anterior-superior oral cavity, may increase upper airway space and reduce the hypopnea index.

  18. Experience of a Neural Network Imitator Applied to Diagnosis of Pre-pathological Conditions in Humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyashov, D.N.; Emelyanova, I.V.; Tichshenko, A.V.; Makarenko, N.G.; Sultanova, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    The Governmental Resolution of the RK 'Program of Medical Rehabilitation for People Influenced by Nuclear Tests at STS in 1949-1990' was published in March 1997. Implementation of the program requires first of all to create the effective methods of operative diagnostics of arid zones' population. To our mind, for this aims systems analysis with elements of neural network classification is more effective. We demonstrate such an approach using the example of the modem diagnostics system creating to detect the pre-pathological states among population by express analysis and personal particulars. The following considerations were used in the base of the training set: 1) any formalism must be based oneself upon wealth of phenomenology (experience, intuition, the presence of symptoms); 2) typical attributes of disease can be divided on 2 groups - subjective and objective. The common state of patient is characterised by the first group and it can have no intercommunication with disease. The second one is obtained by laboratory inspection and it is not connected with patient sensations. Each of the objective at-tributes can be the attribute of several illnesses at once. In this case both the subjective and objective features must be used together; 3) acceptability of any scheme can be substantiated only statistically. The question about justifiability and sufficiency of training set always demands separate discussion. Personal particulars are more available for creating training set. The set must be professionally oriented in order to reduce of selection effects. For our experiment the fully-connected neural network ( computer software, imitating the work of neural computer) 'Multi Neuron' was chosen. Feature space using for the net work was created from the 206 personal particulars. The research aimed to determine pre-pathological states of the urinary system organs among industrial, office and professional workers in the mining industry connected with phosphorus

  19. No effects of successful bidirectional SMR feedback training on objective and subjective sleep in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsch, O.; Wilschut, E.S.; Arns, M.; Bottenheft, C.; Valk, P.J.L.; Vermetten, H.G.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the application of psychophysiological signals in more applied settings. Unidirectional sensory motor rhythm-training (SMR) has demonstrated consistent effects on sleep. In this study the main aim was to analyze to what extent participants could gain voluntary control

  20. Rotor Design of IPMSM Traction Motor Based on Multi- Objective Optimization using BFGS Method and Train Motion Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ahmadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a multiobjective optimal design method of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor ( IPMSM for traction applications so as to maximize average torque and to minimize torque ripple has been presented. Based on train motion equations and physical properties of train, desired specifications such as steady state speed, rated output power, acceleration time and rated speed of traction motor are related to each other. By considering the same output power, steady state speed, rated voltage, rated current and different acceleration time for a specified train, multiobjective optimal design has been performed by Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno (BFGS method and finite element method (FEM has been chosen as an analysis tool. BFGS method is one of Quasi Newton methods and is counted in classic approaches. Classic optimization methods are appropriate when FEM is applied as an analysis tool and objective function isn’t expressed in closed form in terms of optimization variables.

  1. Vocal Tract Images Reveal Neural Representations of Sensorimotor Transformation During Speech Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel; Miquel, Marc E.; Evans, Bronwen G.; Adank, Patti; McGettigan, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Imitating speech necessitates the transformation from sensory targets to vocal tract motor output, yet little is known about the representational basis of this process in the human brain. Here, we address this question by using real-time MR imaging (rtMRI) of the vocal tract and functional MRI (fMRI) of the brain in a speech imitation paradigm. Participants trained on imitating a native vowel and a similar nonnative vowel that required lip rounding. Later, participants imitated these vowels and an untrained vowel pair during separate fMRI and rtMRI runs. Univariate fMRI analyses revealed that regions including left inferior frontal gyrus were more active during sensorimotor transformation (ST) and production of nonnative vowels, compared with native vowels; further, ST for nonnative vowels activated somatomotor cortex bilaterally, compared with ST of native vowels. Using test representational similarity analysis (RSA) models constructed from participants’ vocal tract images and from stimulus formant distances, we found that RSA searchlight analyses of fMRI data showed either type of model could be represented in somatomotor, temporal, cerebellar, and hippocampal neural activation patterns during ST. We thus provide the first evidence of widespread and robust cortical and subcortical neural representation of vocal tract and/or formant parameters, during prearticulatory ST. PMID:28334401

  2. Imitating the Brain with Neurocomputer A "New" Way Towards Artificial General Intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tie-Jun Huang

    2017-01-01

    To achieve the artificial general intelligence (AGI),imitate the intelligence? or imitate the brain? This is the question! Most artificial intelligence (AI) approaches set the understanding of the intelligence principle as their premise.This may be correct to implement specific intelligence such as computing,symbolic logic,or what the AlphaGo could do.However,this is not correct for AGI,because to understand the principle of the brain intelligence is one of the most difficult challenges for our human beings.It is not wise to set such a question as the premise of the AGI mission.To achieve AGI,a practical approach is to build the so-called neurocomputer,which could be trained to produce autonomous intelligence and AGI.A neurocomputer imitates the biological neural network with neuromorphic devices which emulate the bio-neurons,synapses and other essential neural components.The neurocomputer could perceive the environment via sensors and interact with other entities via a physical body.The philosophy under the "new" approach,so-called as imitationalism in this paper,is the engineering methodology which has been practiced for thousands of years,and for many cases,such as the invention of the first airplane,succeeded.This paper compares the neurocomputer with the conventional computer.The major progress about neurocomputer is also reviewed.

  3. Post-Training Reversible Inactivation of the Hippocampus Enhances Novel Object Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Hawk, Joshua D.; Abel, Ted; Havekes, Robbert

    2010-01-01

    Research on the role of the hippocampus in object recognition memory has produced conflicting results. Previous studies have used permanent hippocampal lesions to assess the requirement for the hippocampus in the object recognition task. However, permanent hippocampal lesions may impact performance through effects on processes besides memory…

  4. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E Butler

    Full Text Available Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behavioural profiles remain unclear. Using a larger sample than prior studies (N=243, the current study tested whether performance on a computer-based automatic imitation task could be predicted by personality traits associated with social behaviour (extraversion and agreeableness and with disorders of social cognition (autistic-like and schizotypal traits. Further personality traits (narcissism and empathy were assessed in a subsample of participants (N=57. Multiple regression analyses showed that personality measures did not predict automatic imitation. In addition, using a similar analytical approach to prior studies, no differences in imitation performance emerged when only the highest and lowest 20 participants on each trait variable were compared. These data weaken support for the view that stable personality traits are antecedents to automatic imitation and that neural mechanisms thought to support automatic imitation, such as the mirror neuron system, are dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorders or schizophrenia. In sum, the impact that personality variables have on automatic imitation is less universal than initial reports suggest.

  5. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Emily E; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behavioural profiles remain unclear. Using a larger sample than prior studies (N=243), the current study tested whether performance on a computer-based automatic imitation task could be predicted by personality traits associated with social behaviour (extraversion and agreeableness) and with disorders of social cognition (autistic-like and schizotypal traits). Further personality traits (narcissism and empathy) were assessed in a subsample of participants (N=57). Multiple regression analyses showed that personality measures did not predict automatic imitation. In addition, using a similar analytical approach to prior studies, no differences in imitation performance emerged when only the highest and lowest 20 participants on each trait variable were compared. These data weaken support for the view that stable personality traits are antecedents to automatic imitation and that neural mechanisms thought to support automatic imitation, such as the mirror neuron system, are dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorders or schizophrenia. In sum, the impact that personality variables have on automatic imitation is less universal than initial reports suggest.

  6. Repeated imitation makes human vocalizations more word-like.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Pierce; Perlman, Marcus; Lupyan, Gary

    2018-03-14

    People have long pondered the evolution of language and the origin of words. Here, we investigate how conventional spoken words might emerge from imitations of environmental sounds. Does the repeated imitation of an environmental sound gradually give rise to more word-like forms? In what ways do these forms resemble the original sounds that motivated them (i.e. exhibit iconicity)? Participants played a version of the children's game 'Telephone'. The first generation of participants imitated recognizable environmental sounds (e.g. glass breaking, water splashing). Subsequent generations imitated the previous generation of imitations for a maximum of eight generations. The results showed that the imitations became more stable and word-like, and later imitations were easier to learn as category labels. At the same time, even after eight generations, both spoken imitations and their written transcriptions could be matched above chance to the category of environmental sound that motivated them. These results show how repeated imitation can create progressively more word-like forms while continuing to retain a resemblance to the original sound that motivated them, and speak to the possible role of human vocal imitation in explaining the origins of at least some spoken words. © 2018 The Author(s).

  7. Doing Justice to the Imitation Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassègue, Jean

    My claim in this article is that the 1950 paper in which Turing describes the world-famous set-up of the Imitation Game is much richer and intriguing than the formalist ersatz coined in the early 1970s under the name "Turing Test". Therefore, doing justice to the Imitation Game implies showing first, that the formalist interpretation misses some crucial points in Turing's line of thought and second, that the 1950 paper should not be understood as the Magna Chartaof strong Artificial Intelligence (AI) but as a work in progressfocused on the notion of Form. This has unexpected consequences about the status of Mind, and from a more general point of view, about the way we interpret the notions of Science and Language.

  8. Object-Oriented Control System Design Using On-Line Training of Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubaai, Ahmed

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with the object-oriented model development of a neuro-controller design for permanent magnet (PM) dc motor drives. The system under study is described as a collection of interacting objects. Each object module describes the object behaviors, called methods. The characteristics of the object are included in its variables. The knowledge of the object exists within its variables, and the performance is determined by its methods. This structure maps well to the real world objects that comprise the system being modeled. A dynamic learning architecture that possesses the capabilities of simultaneous on-line identification and control is incorporated to enforce constraints on connections and control the dynamics of the motor. The control action is implemented "on-line", in "real time" in such a way that the predicted trajectory follows a specified reference model. A design example of controlling a PM dc motor drive on-line shows the effectiveness of the design tool. This will therefore be very useful in aerospace applications. It is expected to provide an innovative and noval software model for the rocket engine numerical simulator executive.

  9. Understanding the Mechanisms behind Deficits in Imitation: Do Individuals with Autism Know "What" to Imitate and Do They Know "How" to Imitate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvuchelen, Marleen; Van Schuerbeeck, Lise; Roeyers, Herbert; De Weerdt, Willy

    2013-01-01

    Although imitation problems have been associated with autism for many years, the underlying mechanisms of these problems remain subject to debate. In this article, the question whether imitation problems are caused by selection or correspondence problems is explored and discussed. This review revealed that hypotheses on the nature of imitation…

  10. Contextual imitation of intransitive body actions in a Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas): A “do as other does” study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Lloreda, Mª Victoria; Esteban, José-Antonio; Colmenares, Fernando; Aboitiz, Francisco; Call, Josep

    2017-01-01

    Cetaceans are remarkable for exhibiting group-specific behavioral traditions or cultures in several behavioral domains (e.g., calls, behavioral tactics), and the question of whether they can be acquired socially, for example through imitative processes, remains open. Here we used a “Do as other does” paradigm to experimentally study the ability of a beluga to imitate familiar intransitive (body-oriented) actions demonstrated by a conspecific. The participant was first trained to copy three familiar behaviors on command (training phase) and then was tested for her ability to generalize the learned “Do as the other does” command to a different set of three familiar behaviors (testing phase). We found that the beluga (1) was capable of learning the copy command signal “Do what-the-other-does”; (2) exhibited high matching accuracy for trained behaviors (mean = 84% of correct performance) after making the first successful copy on command; (3) copied successfully the new set of three familiar generalization behaviors that were untrained to the copy command (range of first copy = 12 to 35 trials); and (4) deployed a high level of matching accuracy (mean = 83%) after making the first copy of an untrained behavior on command. This is the first evidence of contextual imitation of intransitive (body-oriented) movements in the beluga and adds to the reported findings on production imitation of sounds in this species and production imitation of sounds and motor actions in several cetaceans, especially dolphins and killer whales. Collectively these findings highlight the notion that cetaceans have a natural propensity at skillfully and proficiently matching the sounds and body movements demonstrated by conspecifics, a fitness-enhancing propensity in the context of cooperative hunting and anti-predatory defense tactics, and of alliance formation strategies that have been documented in these species’ natural habitats. Future work should determine if the beluga can

  11. Engaging autistic children in imitation and turn-taking games with multiagent system of interactive lighting blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brok, J.C.J.; Barakova, E.I.; Yang, H.S.; et al., xx

    2010-01-01

    In this paper game scenarios that aim to establish elements of cooperative play such as imitation and turn taking between children with autism and a caregiver are investigated. Multiagent system of interactive blocks is used to facilitate the games. The training elements include verbal description

  12. Selective and Faithful Imitation at 12 and 15 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbrink, Elma E.; Sakkalou, Elena; Ellis-Davies, Kate; Fowler, Nia C.; Gattis, Merideth

    2013-01-01

    Research on imitation in infancy has primarily focused on "what" and "when" infants imitate. More recently, however, the question why infants imitate has received renewed attention, partly motivated by the finding that infants sometimes selectively imitate the actions of others and sometimes faithfully imitate, or overimitate,…

  13. A cross-cultural comparison of children's imitative flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Jennifer M; Legare, Cristine H

    2016-09-01

    Recent research with Western populations has demonstrated that children use imitation flexibly to engage in both instrumental and conventional learning. Evidence for children's imitative flexibility in non-Western populations is limited, however, and has only assessed imitation of instrumental tasks. This study (N = 142, 6- to 8-year-olds) demonstrates both cultural continuity and cultural variation in imitative flexibility. Children engage in higher imitative fidelity for conventional tasks than for instrumental tasks in both an industrialized, Western culture (United States), and a subsistence-based, non-Western culture (Vanuatu). Children in Vanuatu engage in higher imitative fidelity of instrumental tasks than in the United States, a potential consequence of cultural variation in child socialization for conformity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Imitation as faithful copying of a novel technique in marmoset monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Voelkl

    Full Text Available Imitative learning has received great attention due to its supposed role in the development of culture and the cognitive demands it poses on the individual. Evidence for imitation in non-human primate species, therefore, could shed light on the early origins of proto-cultural traits in the primate order. Imitation has been defined as the learning of an act by seeing it done or, more specifically, as the copying of a novel or otherwise improbable act. But despite a century of research and the detection of mirror neurons the empirical basis for this most advanced form of observational learning is weak. Few, if any, studies have shown that the observer has learned the response topography, i.e., the specific action by which the response is made. In an experimental set-up we confronted marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus with a conspecific model that was previously trained to open a plastic box in a peculiar way. Employing detailed motion analyses we show that the observers precisely copied the movement patterns of the novel action demonstrated by the model. A discriminant analysis classified 13 out of 14 observer movements (92.86% as model movements and only one as non-observer movement. This evidence of imitation in non-human primates questions the dominant opinion that imitation is a human-specific ability. Furthermore, the high matching degree suggests that marmosets possess the neuronal mechanism to code the actions of others and to map them onto their own motor repertoire, rather than priming existing motor-templates.

  15. The use of the "Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills" as an Assessment Tool Among Danish Vascular Surgeons in Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lladó Grove, Gabriela; Langager Høgh, Annette; Nielsen, Judith

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The concept of the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) is to quantify surgical skills in an objective way and, thereby, produce an additional procedure-specific assessment tool. Since 2005, a 2-day practical course for upcoming specialist registrars in vascular...... surgery has been obligatory. The aim of this study is to describe the results from a tailored OSATS test as a tool for the evaluation of practical skills during an intensive training session in a simple simulator box for vascular anastomoses. METHOD: Between 2005 and 2013, we registered the OSATS scores......, or the experience with vascular anastomoses and outcomes. CONCLUSION: OSATS is a valuable tool for evaluating the advancement of technical skills during an intensive practical course in performing vascular anastomoses. (C) 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights...

  16. A Comparison of English and Mandarin-Speaking Preschool Children’s Imitation of Motion Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhidan Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Typically in English, a “satellite-framed” language, manner is expressed in the verb and path is expressed in supporting words. Past studies using looking time techniques suggest that English-speaking 3-year-olds show language-specific action processing, but 2.5-year-olds preferentially attend to path regardless of native language. In Study 1, we test whether language-specific action component preferences will be reflected in children’s imitation, as a more explicit measure. Children who spoke English saw an adult move an object along a series of platforms using one of two paths and manners. Then, the children were given the opportunity to move the object on a different test platform, which was designed to force them to choose to reproduce either the demonstrated path or the manner. The results showed that 3-year-olds, but not 2.5-year-olds, were more likely to imitate the manner versus the path. In Study 2, we extend the investigation to a less commonly studied language within this domain, Mandarin. Typically in Mandarin, an “equipollently framed” language, both manner and path are expressed within equally significant verbs. The results indicated that 3-year-olds did not show a consistent preference to imitate either the path or the manner. In contrast, 2.5-year-olds were more likely to imitate the path than the manner. This research highlights the potential for the imitation choice paradigm, as an explicit measure, to understand how language affects cognition, and suggests a new language-specific pattern in action interpretation.

  17. Significance of Objective Structured Clinical Examinations to Plastic Surgery Residency Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Brian J; Zoghbi, Yasmina; Askari, Morad; Birnbach, David J; Shekhter, Ilya; Thaller, Seth R

    2017-09-01

    Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) have proven to be a powerful tool. They possess more than a 30-year track record in assessing the competency of medical students, residents, and fellows. Objective structured clinical examinations have been used successfully in a variety of medical specialties, including surgery. They have recently found their way into the subspecialty of plastic surgery. This article uses a systematic review of the available literature on OSCEs and their recent use in plastic surgery. It incorporates survey results assessing program directors' views on the use of OSCEs. Approximately 40% of programs surveyed use OSCEs to assess the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. We found that 40% use OSCEs to evaluate specific plastic surgery milestones. Objective structured clinical examinations are usually performed annually. They cost anywhere between $100 and more than $1000 per resident. Four milestones giving residents the most difficulties on OSCEs were congenital anomalies, noncancer breast surgery, breast reconstruction, and practice-based learning and improvement. It was determined that challenges with milestones were due to lack of adequate general knowledge and surgical ward patient care, as well as deficits in professionalism and system-based problems. Programs were able to remediate weakness found by OSCEs using a variety of methods. Objective structured clinical examinations offer a unique tool to objectively assess the proficiency of residents in key areas of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. In addition, they can be used to assess the specific milestones that plastic surgery residents must meet. This allows programs to identify and improve identified areas of weakness.

  18. The Relationship between Motor, Imitation, and Early Social Communication Skills in Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadgar, Hooshang; Alaghband Rad, Javad; Soleymani, Zahra; Khorammi, Anahita; McCleery, Joe; Maroufizadeh, Saman

    2017-10-01

    Objective: Development of early social skills in children is a complex process. To understand this process, it is important to assess how strengths or weaknesses in other developmental domains may be affected by these skills. The present study aimed at investigating the association of motor skills and imitation ability with early social communication skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: In this study, 20 children with ASD aged 3 to 5 years (M = 4.05, SD = 0.55) participated. All children were diagnosed as ASD based on the DSM-V criteria by an independent child psychiatrist. Additionally, Autism Diagnostic interview-Revised was used for subsequent diagnostic confirmation. Children were tested with Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2), the Motor Imitation Scale (MIS), and the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS). All examinations were videotaped for subsequent scoring. The relationship between these skills was estimated by Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: A significant and strong correlation was obtained between TGMD total score and imitation total score (r =.776; p 0.05). A significant correlation was found between MIS and TGMD total scores with Initiating Joint Attention and Responding to Joint Attention (p≤0/025) as ESCS subscales. But MIS and TGMD total scores were not correlated with social interaction and responding to behavioral requests subscales. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that indicated both imitation ability and motor function have an association with each other and with early social communication skills.

  19. Motion Imitation and Recognition using Parametric Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Dennis; Ude, Ales; Krüger, Volker

    2008-01-01

    ) are important. Only together they convey the whole meaning of an action. Similarly, to imitate a movement, the robot needs to select the proper action and parameterize it, e.g., by the relative position of the object that needs to be grasped. We propose to utilize parametric hidden Markov models (PHMMs), which...... extend the classical HMMs by introducing a joint parameterization of the observation densities, to simultaneously solve the problems of action recognition, parameterization of the observed actions, and action synthesis. The proposed approach was fully implemented on a humanoid robot HOAP-3. To evaluate...... the approach, we focused on reaching and pointing actions. Even though the movements are very similar in appearance, our approach is able to distinguish the two movement types and discover the parameterization, and is thus enabling both, action recognition and action synthesis. Through parameterization we...

  20. Own-gender imitation activates the brain's reward circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoboni, Macro; Martin, Alia; Dapretto, Mirella

    2012-01-01

    Imitation is an important component of human social learning throughout life. Theoretical models and empirical data from anthropology and psychology suggest that people tend to imitate self-similar individuals, and that such imitation biases increase the adaptive value (e.g., self-relevance) of learned information. It is unclear, however, what neural mechanisms underlie people's tendency to imitate those similar to themselves. We focused on the own-gender imitation bias, a pervasive bias thought to be important for gender identity development. While undergoing fMRI, participants imitated own- and other-gender actors performing novel, meaningless hand signs; as control conditions, they also simply observed such actions and viewed still portraits of the same actors. Only the ventral and dorsal striatum, orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala were more active when imitating own- compared to other-gender individuals. A Bayesian analysis of the BrainMap neuroimaging database demonstrated that the striatal region preferentially activated by own-gender imitation is selectively activated by classical reward tasks in the literature. Taken together, these findings reveal a neurobiological mechanism associated with the own-gender imitation bias and demonstrate a novel role of reward-processing neural structures in social behavior. PMID:22383803

  1. Performance of motor imitation in children with and without dyspraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttanathantong, Korrawan; Siritaratiwat, Wantana; Sriphetcharawut, Sarinya; Emasithi, Alongkot; Saengsuwan, Jiamjit; Saengsuwan, Jittima

    2013-07-01

    Motor imitation is truly essential for young children to learn new motor skills, social behavior and skilled acts or praxis. The present study aimed to investigate motor imitation ability between typically-developing children and dyspraxic children and to examine the development trends in both children groups. The comparison ofmotor imitation was studied in 55 typically-developing children and 59 dyspraxic children aged 5 to 8 years. The Motor Imitation subtest consisted of two sections, imitation of postures and imitation of verbal instructions. Typically-developing children and dyspraxic children were examined for developmental trends. The independent samples t-test was used to analyze the differences between both groups. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze inter-age differences for each age group. The results revealed significant differences between dyspraxic and typically-developing children. Both typically-developing and dyspraxic children demonstrated age trends. The older children scored higher than younger children. Imitation is a primary learning strategy of young children. It is essential that children with dyspraxia receive early detection and need effective intervention. Typically-developing children and dyspraxic children showed higher mean score on the Imitation of Posture section than the Verbal Instructions section. Motor imitation competency, therefore, changes and improves with age.

  2. The shared neural basis of empathy and facial imitation accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braadbaart, L; de Grauw, H; Perrett, D I; Waiter, G D; Williams, J H G

    2014-01-01

    Empathy involves experiencing emotion vicariously, and understanding the reasons for those emotions. It may be served partly by a motor simulation function, and therefore share a neural basis with imitation (as opposed to mimicry), as both involve sensorimotor representations of intentions based on perceptions of others' actions. We recently showed a correlation between imitation accuracy and Empathy Quotient (EQ) using a facial imitation task and hypothesised that this relationship would be mediated by the human mirror neuron system. During functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), 20 adults observed novel 'blends' of facial emotional expressions. According to instruction, they either imitated (i.e. matched) the expressions or executed alternative, pre-prescribed mismatched actions as control. Outside the scanner we replicated the association between imitation accuracy and EQ. During fMRI, activity was greater during mismatch compared to imitation, particularly in the bilateral insula. Activity during imitation correlated with EQ in somatosensory cortex, intraparietal sulcus and premotor cortex. Imitation accuracy correlated with activity in insula and areas serving motor control. Overlapping voxels for the accuracy and EQ correlations occurred in premotor cortex. We suggest that both empathy and facial imitation rely on formation of action plans (or a simulation of others' intentions) in the premotor cortex, in connection with representations of emotional expressions based in the somatosensory cortex. In addition, the insula may play a key role in the social regulation of facial expression. © 2013.

  3. The influence of group membership on cross-contextual imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genschow, Oliver; Schindler, Simon

    2016-08-01

    Research on mimicry has demonstrated that individuals imitate in-group members more strongly than out-group members. In the present study, we tested whether such top-down modulation also applies for more extreme forms of direct mapping, such as for cross-contextual imitation settings, in which individuals imitate others' movements without sharing a common goal or context. Models on self-other control suggest that top-down modulations are based merely on a direct link between social sensory processing and imitation. That is, perceived similarities between oneself and another person is sufficient to amplify a shared representation between own and others' actions, which then trigger imitation. However, motivational accounts explain such findings with the assumption that individuals are motivated to affiliate with others. Because imitation is linked to positive social consequences, individuals should imitate in-group members more strongly than out-group members. We tested these two theoretical accounts against each other by applying a cross-contextual imitation paradigm. The results demonstrate that in-group members are more strongly cross-contextually imitated than out-group members the higher individuals' motivation to affiliate with the in-group is. This supports motivational models but not self-other control accounts. Further theoretical implications are discussed.

  4. [Implementation of bedside training and advanced objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) trial to learn and confirm about pharmacy clinical skills].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Jin; Takamura, Norito; Ogata, Kenji; Setoguchi, Nao; Sato, Keizo

    2013-01-01

    Bedside training for fourth-year students, as well as seminars in hospital pharmacy (vital sign seminars) for fifth-year students at the Department of Pharmacy of Kyushu University of Health and Welfare have been implemented using patient training models and various patient simulators. The introduction of simulation-based pharmaceutical education, where no patients are present, promotes visually, aurally, and tactilely simulated learning regarding the evaluation of vital signs and implementation of physical assessment when disease symptoms are present or adverse effects occur. A patient simulator also promotes the creation of training programs for emergency and critical care, with which basic as well as advanced life support can be practiced. In addition, an advanced objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) trial has been implemented to evaluate skills regarding vital signs and physical assessments. Pharmacists are required to examine vital signs and conduct physical assessment from a pharmaceutical point of view. The introduction of these pharmacy clinical skills will improve the efficacy of drugs, work for the prevention or early detection of adverse effects, and promote the appropriate use of drugs. It is considered that simulation-based pharmaceutical education is essential to understand physical assessment, and such education will ideally be applied and developed according to on-site practices.

  5. Preference reversal for copycat brands: Uncertainty makes imitation feel good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Horen, F.; Pieters, R.

    2013-01-01

    Copycat brands try to entice consumers by imitating the trade-dress of leading brands. Recent research suggests that preferences for copycat brands relative to more differentiated brands are generally lower. That is, consumers tend to dislike such "imitation" brands, because of psychological

  6. Ritual, Imitation and Education in R. S. Peters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.

    2009-01-01

    This article reconstructs R. S. Peters' underlying theory of ritual in education, highlighting his proposed link between ritual and the imitation of teachers. Rituals set the stage for the imitation of teachers and they invite students to experience practices whose value is not easily discernable from the outside. For Peters, rituals facilitate…

  7. Infants Show Stability of Goal-Directed Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkalou, Elena; Ellis-Davies, Kate; Fowler, Nia C.; Hilbrink, Elma E.; Gattis, Merideth

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that infants selectively reproduce observed actions and have argued that this selectivity reflects understanding of intentions and goals, or goal-directed imitation. We reasoned that if selective imitation of goal-directed actions reflects understanding of intentions, infants should demonstrate stability across…

  8. Atypical Social Modulation of Imitation in Autism Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jennifer L.; Bird, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate modulation of imitation according to social context is important for successful social interaction. In the present study we subliminally primed high-functioning adults with ASC and age- and IQ-matched controls with either a pro- or non- social attitude. Following priming, an automatic imitation paradigm was used to acquire an index of…

  9. Reinforcement of Infant Vocalizations through Contingent Vocal Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the…

  10. The diverging force of imitation: integrating cognitive science and hermeneutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keestra, M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research on infant and animal imitation and on mirror neuron systems has brought imitation back in focus in psychology and cognitive science. This topic has always been important for philosophical hermeneutics as well, focusing on theory and method of understanding. Unfortunately, relations

  11. The Neural Basis of Vocal Pitch Imitation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyk, Michel; Pfordresher, Peter Q; Liotti, Mario; Brown, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Vocal imitation is a phenotype that is unique to humans among all primate species, and so an understanding of its neural basis is critical in explaining the emergence of both speech and song in human evolution. Two principal neural models of vocal imitation have emerged from a consideration of nonhuman animals. One hypothesis suggests that putative mirror neurons in the inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis of Broca's area may be important for imitation. An alternative hypothesis derived from the study of songbirds suggests that the corticostriate motor pathway performs sensorimotor processes that are specific to vocal imitation. Using fMRI with a sparse event-related sampling design, we investigated the neural basis of vocal imitation in humans by comparing imitative vocal production of pitch sequences with both nonimitative vocal production and pitch discrimination. The strongest difference between these tasks was found in the putamen bilaterally, providing a striking parallel to the role of the analogous region in songbirds. Other areas preferentially activated during imitation included the orofacial motor cortex, Rolandic operculum, and SMA, which together outline the corticostriate motor loop. No differences were seen in the inferior frontal gyrus. The corticostriate system thus appears to be the central pathway for vocal imitation in humans, as predicted from an analogy with songbirds.

  12. Imitation and Education: A Philosophical Inquiry into Learning by Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.

    2008-01-01

    "Imitation and Education" provides an in-depth reassessment of learning by example that places imitation in a larger social context. It is the first book to bring together ancient educational thought and startling breakthroughs in the fields of cognitive science, psychology, and philosophy to reconsider how we learn from the lives of…

  13. Imitation in Infancy: The Wealth of the Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Elizabeth; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Imitation requires the imitator to solve the correspondence problem--to translate visual information from modelled action into matching motor output. It has been widely accepted for some 30 years that the correspondence problem is solved by a specialized, innate cognitive mechanism. This is the conclusion of a poverty of the stimulus argument,…

  14. Methodological Issues in Measures of Imitative Reaction Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicken, Michael D.; Wilson, Andrew D.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Ideomotor (IM) theory suggests that observing someone else perform an action activates an internal motor representation of that behaviour within the observer. Evidence supporting the case for an ideomotor theory of imitation has come from studies that show imitative responses to be faster than the same behavioural measures performed in response to…

  15. Impact of imitation processes on the effectiveness of ring vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Chad R; Tchuenche, Jean M; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Galvani, Alison P; Bauch, Chris T

    2011-11-01

    Ring vaccination can be a highly effective control strategy for an emerging disease or in the final phase of disease eradication, as witnessed in the eradication of smallpox. However, the impact of behavioural dynamics on the effectiveness of ring vaccination has not been explored in mathematical models. Here, we analyze a series of stochastic models of voluntary ring vaccination. Contacts of an index case base vaccinating decisions on their own individual payoffs to vaccinate or not vaccinate, and they can also imitate the behaviour of other contacts of the index case. We find that including imitation changes the probability of containment through ring vaccination considerably. Imitation can cause a strong majority of contacts to choose vaccination in some cases, or to choose non-vaccination in other cases-even when the equivalent solution under perfectly rational (non-imitative) behaviour yields mixed choices. Moreover, imitation processes can result in very different outcomes in different stochastic realizations sampled from the same parameter distributions, by magnifying moderate tendencies toward one behaviour or the other: in some realizations, imitation causes a strong majority of contacts not to vaccinate, while in others, imitation promotes vaccination and reduces the number of secondary infections. Hence, the effectiveness of ring vaccination can depend significantly and unpredictably on imitation processes. Therefore, our results suggest that risk communication efforts should be initiated early in an outbreak when ring vaccination is to be applied, especially among subpopulations that are heavily influenced by peer opinions.

  16. Neonatal imitation and an epigenetic account of mirror neuron development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Fox, Nathan A; Tramacere, Antonella; Ferrari, Pier F

    2014-04-01

    Neonatal imitation should not exclusively be considered at the population-level; instead, we propose that inconsistent findings regarding its occurrence result from important individual differences in imitative responses. We also highlight what we consider to be a false dichotomy of genetic versus learning accounts of the development of mirror neurons, and instead suggest a more parsimonious epigenetic perspective.

  17. How to Build an Intentional Android: Infants' Imitation of a Robot's Goal-Directed Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Shoji; Ishida, Hiraku; Kanda, Takayuki; Shimada, Yohko; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether young children are able to imitate a robot's goal-directed actions. Children (24-35 months old) viewed videos showing a robot attempting to manipulate an object (e.g., putting beads inside a cup) but failing to achieve its goal (e.g., beads fell outside the cup). In 1 video, the robot made eye contact with a human…

  18. Imitation and Innovation: The Dual Engines of Cultural Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H; Nielsen, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Imitation and innovation work in tandem to support cultural learning in children and facilitate our capacity for cumulative culture. Here we propose an integrated theoretical account of how the unique demands of acquiring instrumental skills and cultural conventions provide insight into when children imitate, when they innovate, and to what degree. For instrumental learning, with an increase in experience, high fidelity imitation decreases and innovation increases. By contrast, for conventional learning, imitative fidelity stays high, regardless of experience, and innovation stays low. We synthesize cutting edge research on the development of imitative flexibility and innovation to provide insight into the social learning mechanisms underpinning the uniquely human mind. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Concurrent Validity Between a Shared Curriculum, the Internal Medicine In-Training Examination, and the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Stephen D; Bertram, Amanda; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh

    2015-03-01

    A core objective of residency education is to facilitate learning, and programs need more curricula and assessment tools with demonstrated validity evidence. We sought to demonstrate concurrent validity between performance on a widely shared, ambulatory curriculum (the Johns Hopkins Internal Medicine Curriculum), the Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE), and the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination (ABIM-CE). A cohort study of 443 postgraduate year (PGY)-3 residents at 22 academic and community hospital internal medicine residency programs using the curriculum through the Johns Hopkins Internet Learning Center (ILC). Total and percentile rank scores on ILC didactic modules were compared with total and percentile rank scores on the IM-ITE and total scores on the ABIM-CE. The average score on didactic modules was 80.1%; the percentile rank was 53.8. The average IM-ITE score was 64.1% with a percentile rank of 54.8. The average score on the ABIM-CE was 464. Scores on the didactic modules, IM-ITE, and ABIM-CE correlated with each other (P ITE total and percentile rank scores (P ITE percentile rank. Performance on a widely shared ambulatory curriculum is associated with performance on the IM-ITE and the ABIM-CE.

  20. Correlation of Objective Assessment Data With General Surgery Resident In-Training Evaluation Reports and Operative Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsattar, Jad M; AlJamal, Yazan N; Ruparel, Raaj K; Rowse, Phillip G; Heller, Stephanie F; Farley, David R

    2018-05-14

    Faculty evaluations, ABSITE scores, and operative case volumes often tell little about true resident performance. We developed an objective structured clinical examination called the Surgical X-Games (5 rooms, 15 minutes each, 12-15 tests total, different for each postgraduate [PGY] level). We hypothesized that performance in X-Games will prove more useful in identifying areas of strength or weakness among general surgery (GS) residents than faculty evaluations, ABSITE scores, or operative cases volumes. PGY 2 to 5 GS residents (n = 35) were tested in a semiannual X-Games assessment using multiple simulation tasks: laparoscopic skills, bowel anastomosis, CT/CXR analysis, chest tube placement, etc. over 1 academic year. Resident scores were compared to their ABSITE, in-training evaluation reports, and operating room case numbers. Academic medical center. PGY-2, 3, 4, and 5 GS residents at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. Results varied greatly within each class except for staff evaluations: in-training evaluation reports medians for PGY-2s were 5.3 (range: 5.0-6.0), PGY-3s 5.9 (5.5-6.3), PGY-4s 5.6 (5.0-6.0), and PGY-5s were 6.1 (5.6-6.9). Although ABSITE and operating room case volumes fluctated greatly with each PGY class, only X-Games scores (median: PGY-2 = 82, PGY-3 = 61, PGY-4 = 76, and PGY-5 = 60) correlated positively (p < 0.05) with operative case volume and negatively (p < 0.05) with staff evaluations. X-Games assessment generated wide differentiation of resident performance quickly, inexpensively, and objectively. Although "Minnesota-nice" surgical staff may feel all GS trainees are "above average," objective assessment tells us otherwise. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Induction Based Training leads to Highly Significant Improvements of Objective and Subjective Suturing Ability in Junior Doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Garry

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Simulation based training has shown to be of benefit in the education of medical students. However, the impact of induction based clinical simulation on surgical ability of qualified doctors remains unclear.The aim of this study was to establish if a 60 minute teaching session integrated into an Emergency Medicine speciality induction program produces statistically significant improvements in objective and subjective suturing abilities of junior doctors commencing an Emergency Medicine rotation.Methods: The objective suturing abilities of 16 Foundation Year Two doctors were analysed using a validated OSATs scale prior to a novel teaching intervention. The doctors then undertook an intensive hour long workshop receiving one to one feedback before undergoing repeat OSATs assessment.Subjective ability was measured using a 5 point likert scale and self-assessed competency reporting interrupted suturing before and after the intervention. Photographs of wound closure before and after the intervention were recorded for further blinded assessment of impact of intervention. A survey regarding continued ability was repeated at four months following the intervention. The study took place on 7/12/16 during the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust Emergency Medicine induction in the Royal Victoria Hospital Belfast. The hospital is a regional level 1 trauma centre that has annual departmental attendances in excess of 200,000.All new junior doctors commencing the Emergency Medicine rotation were invited to partake in the study. All 16 agreed. The group consisted of a mixture of undergraduate and postgraduate medicaldoctors who all had 16 months experience working in a variety of medical or surgical jobs previously.Results: Following the teaching intervention objective and subjective abilities in interrupted suturing showed statistically significant improvement (P>0.005. Self-reporting of competency of independently suturingwounds improved from 50

  2. Collective Training and Fielding Opportunities for the Objective Force Maneuver Systems at the Unit of Action Level in a Unit Manning/Unit Replacement Personnel System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Courts, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of Objective Force formations, beginning with the first Unit of Action, will fundamentally change existing organizational structures, training requirements and operational constructs for the U.S. Army...

  3. Different Skills and Their Different Effects on Personal Development: An Investigation of European Social Fund Objective 4 Financed Training in SMEs in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devins, David; Johnson, Steve; Sutherland, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines a data set that has its origins in European Social Fund Objective 4 financed training programmes in small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Britain to examine the extent to which three different personal development outcomes are attributable to different types of skills acquired during the training process. The three…

  4. Imitation learning of car driving skills with decision trees and random forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cichosz Paweł

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning is an appealing and useful approach to creating vehicle control algorithms, both for simulated and real vehicles. One common learning scenario that is often possible to apply is learning by imitation, in which the behavior of an exemplary driver provides training instances for a supervised learning algorithm. This article follows this approach in the domain of simulated car racing, using the TORCS simulator. In contrast to most prior work on imitation learning, a symbolic decision tree knowledge representation is adopted, which combines potentially high accuracy with human readability, an advantage that can be important in many applications. Decision trees are demonstrated to be capable of representing high quality control models, reaching the performance level of sophisticated pre-designed algorithms. This is achieved by enhancing the basic imitation learning scenario to include active retraining, automatically triggered on control failures. It is also demonstrated how better stability and generalization can be achieved by sacrificing human-readability and using decision tree model ensembles. The methodology for learning control models contributed by this article can be hopefully applied to solve real-world control tasks, as well as to develop video game bots

  5. Spontaneous emergence, imitation and spread of alternative foraging techniques among groups of vervet monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica van de Waal

    Full Text Available Animal social learning has become a subject of broad interest, but demonstrations of bodily imitation in animals remain rare. Based on Voelkl and Huber's study of imitation by marmosets, we tested four groups of semi-captive vervet monkeys presented with food in modified film canisters ("aethipops'. One individual was trained to take the tops off canisters in each group and demonstrated five openings to them. In three groups these models used their mouth to remove the lid, but in one of the groups the model also spontaneously pulled ropes on a canister to open it. In the last group the model preferred to remove the lid with her hands. Following these spontaneous differentiations of foraging techniques in the models, we observed the techniques used by the other group members to open the canisters. We found that mouth opening was the most common technique overall, but the rope and hands methods were used significantly more in groups they were demonstrated in than in groups where they were not. Our results show bodily matching that is conventionally described as imitation. We discuss the relevance of these findings to discoveries about mirror neurons, and implications of the identity of the model for social transmission.

  6. The Impact of Shift Work on Brazilian Train Drivers with Different Chronotypes: A Comparative Analysis through Objective and Subjective Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Fernandes Jr., Silvio; Stetner Antonietti, Leandro; Saba, Amanda; Paulino de Faria, Alexandre; Maculano Esteves, Andrea; Tufik, Sergio; Túlio de Mello, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare sleep pattern, tiredness sensation and quality of life between different chronotypes in train drivers from a Brazilian transportation company. Subjects and Methods Ninety-one train drivers, working a rotary work schedule including night shift, were divided into three groups according to their chronotype (morning types, intermediate or evening types) and were assessed for their sleep and quality of life, as characterized by a subjective questionnaire and the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), applied before and immediately after the night shift. The pattern of activity and rest was measured for 10 days by actigraphy, and the chronotype was determined through the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Results Forty-one (45.1s%) individuals were classified as morning type, 44 (48.4s%) were classified as intermediate and 6 (6.6s%) as evening type. The evening types had a tendency to remain awake for a longer period of time before the night shift (p = 0.05) and scored worse overall for quality of life compared to morning types (p = 0.11). There was no significant difference between the groups regarding variability in the PVT performance, even when covaried by the period of waking time before the test. There was no significant difference either in feelings of fatigue before and after starting the shift. Conclusion Although the evening type number was small, evening type individuals scored worse relative to sleep and quality of life than morning type individuals. PMID:23328130

  7. Vibrodynamical tests of RP equipment with application of imitation area of WWER-1000 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajretdinov, V.U.; Tarkhanov, V.V.; Rodionova, I.N.

    2015-01-01

    Performance of preoperational tests and measurements with application of imitation area of the reactor is a distinctive characteristic of putting into operation of NPP Units with WWER-1000/1200. The imitation area consists of 163 full-scale FA models, where fuel matrixes made of nuclear-fissionable material, are replaced by leaden simulators. Vibrodynamic tests involve inspection of hydrodynamic disturbances in the primary circuit (dynamic impact on the inspected elements), characteristics of vibration response of the main equipment stress-deformed state of bearing structure, and also parameters of moving and geometry of the inspected objects (boundary conditions at process simulation). Preoperational tests and measurements on the simulated area of WWER-1000/1200 are obligatory and performed at every unit of NPP of this type [ru

  8. Imitation versus payoff: Duality of the decision-making process demonstrates criticality and consensus formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turalska, M.; West, B. J.

    2014-11-01

    We consider a dual model of decision making, in which an individual forms its opinion based on contrasting mechanisms of imitation and rational calculation. The decision-making model (DMM) implements imitating behavior by means of a network of coupled two-state master equations that undergoes a phase transition at a critical value of a control parameter. The evolutionary spatial game, being a generalization of the prisoner's dilemma game, is used to determine in objective fashion the cooperative or anticooperative strategy adopted by individuals. Interactions between two sources of dynamics increases the domain of initial states attracted to phase transition dynamics beyond that of the DMM network in isolation. Additionally, on average the influence of the DMM on the game increases the final observed fraction of cooperators in the system.

  9. Frequency-dependent oscillatory neural profiles during imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugata, Hisato; Hirata, Masayuki; Tamura, Yuichi; Onishi, Hisao; Goto, Tetsu; Araki, Toshihiko; Yorifuji, Shiro

    2017-04-10

    Imitation is a complex process that includes higher-order cognitive and motor function. This process requires an observation-execution matching system that transforms an observed action into an identical movement. Although the low-gamma band is thought to reflect higher cognitive processes, no studies have focused on it. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine the neural oscillatory changes including the low-gamma band during imitation. Twelve healthy, right-handed participants performed a finger task consisting of four conditions (imitation, execution, observation, and rest). During the imitation and execution conditions, significant event-related desynchronizations (ERDs) were observed at the left frontal, central, and parietal MEG sensors in the alpha, beta, and low-gamma bands. Functional connectivity analysis at the sensor level revealed an imitation-related connectivity between a group of frontal sensors and a group of parietal sensors in the low-gamma band. Furthermore, source reconstruction with synthetic aperture magnetometry showed significant ERDs in the low-gamma band in the left sensorimotor area and the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) during the imitation condition when compared with the other three conditions. Our results suggest that the oscillatory neural activities of the low-gamma band at the sensorimotor area and MFG play an important role in the observation-execution matching system related to imitation.

  10. Frequency-dependent oscillatory neural profiles during imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugata, Hisato; Hirata, Masayuki; Tamura, Yuichi; Onishi, Hisao; Goto, Tetsu; Araki, Toshihiko; Yorifuji, Shiro

    2017-01-01

    Imitation is a complex process that includes higher-order cognitive and motor function. This process requires an observation-execution matching system that transforms an observed action into an identical movement. Although the low-gamma band is thought to reflect higher cognitive processes, no studies have focused on it. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine the neural oscillatory changes including the low-gamma band during imitation. Twelve healthy, right-handed participants performed a finger task consisting of four conditions (imitation, execution, observation, and rest). During the imitation and execution conditions, significant event-related desynchronizations (ERDs) were observed at the left frontal, central, and parietal MEG sensors in the alpha, beta, and low-gamma bands. Functional connectivity analysis at the sensor level revealed an imitation-related connectivity between a group of frontal sensors and a group of parietal sensors in the low-gamma band. Furthermore, source reconstruction with synthetic aperture magnetometry showed significant ERDs in the low-gamma band in the left sensorimotor area and the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) during the imitation condition when compared with the other three conditions. Our results suggest that the oscillatory neural activities of the low-gamma band at the sensorimotor area and MFG play an important role in the observation-execution matching system related to imitation. PMID:28393878

  11. Imitation dynamics in a game of traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paissan, Gabriel; Abramson, Guillermo

    2013-04-01

    We study a model of traffic where drivers adopt different behavioral strategies. These can be cooperative or defective according to a driver abiding or not by a traffic rule. Drivers can change their strategy by imitating the majority, with a rule that depends on the strategies with which they have interacted. These interactions occur at intersections, where vehicles pay a temporal cost according to their strategy. We analyze the conditions under which different strategy compositions represent an advantage in the system velocity. We found that the cooperators' mean speed is higher than the defectors' even when the vehicle density is large. However, defectors can obtain benefits in their mean speed when they are a minority in an essentially cooperative population. The presence of a core of educated drivers, who persist firmly in a cooperative behavior, optimizes the speed in the system, especially for intermediate values of vehicular density and higher temporal costs.

  12. Neural correlates of phonetic convergence and speech imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Maëva; Lamalle, Laurent; Sato, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Speakers unconsciously tend to mimic their interlocutor's speech during communicative interaction. This study aims at examining the neural correlates of phonetic convergence and deliberate imitation, in order to explore whether imitation of phonetic features, deliberate, or unconscious, might reflect a sensory-motor recalibration process. Sixteen participants listened to vowels with pitch varying around the average pitch of their own voice, and then produced the identified vowels, while their speech was recorded and their brain activity was imaged using fMRI. Three degrees and types of imitation were compared (unconscious, deliberate, and inhibited) using a go-nogo paradigm, which enabled the comparison of brain activations during the whole imitation process, its active perception step, and its production. Speakers followed the pitch of voices they were exposed to, even unconsciously, without being instructed to do so. After being informed about this phenomenon, 14 participants were able to inhibit it, at least partially. The results of whole brain and ROI analyses support the fact that both deliberate and unconscious imitations are based on similar neural mechanisms and networks, involving regions of the dorsal stream, during both perception and production steps of the imitation process. While no significant difference in brain activation was found between unconscious and deliberate imitations, the degree of imitation, however, appears to be determined by processes occurring during the perception step. Four regions of the dorsal stream: bilateral auditory cortex, bilateral supramarginal gyrus (SMG), and left Wernicke's area, indeed showed an activity that correlated significantly with the degree of imitation during the perception step.

  13. Neural bases of imitation and pantomime in acute stroke patients: distinct streams for praxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeren, Markus; Kümmerer, Dorothee; Bormann, Tobias; Beume, Lena; Ludwig, Vera M; Vry, Magnus-Sebastian; Mader, Irina; Rijntjes, Michel; Kaller, Christoph P; Weiller, Cornelius

    2014-10-01

    Apraxia is a cognitive disorder of skilled movements that characteristically affects the ability to imitate meaningless gestures, or to pantomime the use of tools. Despite substantial research, the neural underpinnings of imitation and pantomime have remained debated. An influential model states that higher motor functions are supported by different processing streams. A dorso-dorsal stream may mediate movements based on physical object properties, like reaching or grasping, whereas skilled tool use or pantomime rely on action representations stored within a ventro-dorsal stream. However, given variable results of past studies, the role of the two streams for imitation of meaningless gestures has remained uncertain, and the importance of the ventro-dorsal stream for pantomime of tool use has been questioned. To clarify the involvement of ventral and dorsal streams in imitation and pantomime, we performed voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping in a sample of 96 consecutive left-hemisphere stroke patients (mean age ± SD, 63.4 ± 14.8 years, 56 male). Patients were examined in the acute phase after ischaemic stroke (after a mean of 5.3, maximum 10 days) to avoid interference of brain reorganization with a reliable lesion-symptom mapping as best as possible. Patients were asked to imitate 20 meaningless hand and finger postures, and to pantomime the use of 14 common tools depicted as line drawings. Following the distinction between movement engrams and action semantics, pantomime errors were characterized as either movement or content errors, respectively. Whereas movement errors referred to incorrect spatio-temporal features of overall recognizable movements, content errors reflected an inability to associate tools with their prototypical actions. Both imitation and pantomime deficits were associated with lesions within the lateral occipitotemporal cortex, posterior inferior parietal lobule, posterior intraparietal sulcus and superior parietal lobule. However, the areas

  14. 16 CFR 304.5 - Marking requirements for imitation political items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking requirements for imitation political... imitation political items. (a) An imitation political item which is manufactured in the United States, or...) An imitation political item of incusable material shall be incused with the calendar year in sans...

  15. Teaching Imitation to Young Children with Disabilities: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Jennifer R.; Wolery, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Imitation is a primary means through which children learn new skills. Most children learn to imitate without being taught but some children with disabilities fail to develop or use imitation in the absence of direct instruction. The importance of teaching imitation to children with disabilities has been acknowledged, with studies appearing as…

  16. 16 CFR 304.6 - Marking requirements for imitation numismatic items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking requirements for imitation... for imitation numismatic items. (a) An imitation numismatic item which is manufactured in the United... the item. (3) An imitation numismatic item of incusable material shall be incused with the word “COPY...

  17. Imitation of contrastive lexical stress in children with speech delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Jennell C.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2005-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between acoustic correlates of stress in trochaic (strong-weak), spondaic (strong-strong), and iambic (weak-strong) nonword bisyllables produced by children (30-50) with normal speech acquisition and children with speech delay. Ratios comparing the acoustic measures (vowel duration, rms, and f0) of the first syllable to the second syllable were calculated to evaluate the extent to which each phonetic parameter was used to mark stress. In addition, a calculation of the variability of jaw movement in each bisyllable was made. Finally, perceptual judgments of accuracy of stress production were made. Analysis of perceptual judgments indicated a robust difference between groups: While both groups of children produced errors in imitating the contrastive lexical stress models (~40%), the children with normal speech acquisition tended to produce trochaic forms in substitution for other stress types, whereas children with speech delay showed no preference for trochees. The relationship between segmental acoustic parameters, kinematic variability, and the ratings of stress by trained listeners will be presented.

  18. Untrained chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii fail to imitate novel actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Tennie

    Full Text Available Social learning research in apes has focused on social learning in the technical (problem solving domain - an approach that confounds action and physical information. Successful subjects in such studies may have been able to perform target actions not as a result of imitation learning but because they had learnt some technical aspect, for example, copying the movements of an apparatus (i.e., different forms of emulation learning.Here we present data on action copying by non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees when physical information is removed from demonstrations. To date, only one such study (on gesture copying in a begging context has been conducted--with negative results. Here we have improved this methodology and have also added non-begging test situations (a possible confound of the earlier study. Both familiar and novel actions were used as targets. Prior to testing, a trained conspecific demonstrator was rewarded for performing target actions in view of observers. All but one of the tested chimpanzees already failed to copy familiar actions. When retested with a novel target action, also the previously successful subject failed to copy--and he did so across several contexts.Chimpanzees do not seem to copy novel actions, and only some ever copy familiar ones. Due to our having tested only non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees, the performance of our test subjects speak more than most other studies of the general (dis-ability of chimpanzees to copy actions, and especially novel actions.

  19. Untrained Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) Fail to Imitate Novel Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Social learning research in apes has focused on social learning in the technical (problem solving) domain - an approach that confounds action and physical information. Successful subjects in such studies may have been able to perform target actions not as a result of imitation learning but because they had learnt some technical aspect, for example, copying the movements of an apparatus (i.e., different forms of emulation learning). Methods Here we present data on action copying by non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees when physical information is removed from demonstrations. To date, only one such study (on gesture copying in a begging context) has been conducted – with negative results. Here we have improved this methodology and have also added non-begging test situations (a possible confound of the earlier study). Both familiar and novel actions were used as targets. Prior to testing, a trained conspecific demonstrator was rewarded for performing target actions in view of observers. All but one of the tested chimpanzees already failed to copy familiar actions. When retested with a novel target action, also the previously successful subject failed to copy – and he did so across several contexts. Conclusion Chimpanzees do not seem to copy novel actions, and only some ever copy familiar ones. Due to our having tested only non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees, the performance of our test subjects speak more than most other studies of the general (dis-)ability of chimpanzees to copy actions, and especially novel actions. PMID:22905102

  20. The use of the "Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills" as an Assessment Tool Among Danish Vascular Surgeons in Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lladó Grove, Gabriela; Langager Høgh, Annette; Nielsen, Judith; Sandermann, Jes

    2015-01-01

    The concept of the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) is to quantify surgical skills in an objective way and, thereby, produce an additional procedure-specific assessment tool. Since 2005, a 2-day practical course for upcoming specialist registrars in vascular surgery has been obligatory. The aim of this study is to describe the results from a tailored OSATS test as a tool for the evaluation of practical skills during an intensive training session in a simple simulator box for vascular anastomoses. Between 2005 and 2013, we registered the OSATS scores of all course participants. The following data were collected from the questionnaires: years as a candidate, months in vascular surgery or in another type of surgery, and the number of vascular anastomoses performed before the course. The assessment of surgical skills was conducted with an OSATS score template specifically made for this purpose. It consists of a 12-item table with a 5-point grading scale. OSATS score (points) and time for the procedure (OSATS time in min) were registered at baseline (OSATS I) and at the end of the course (OSATS II). OSATS scores were given in both OSATS I and OSATS II for the 83 trainees, and the mean difference was 8.1 points (95% CI: 6.7; 9.5, p technical skills during an intensive practical course in performing vascular anastomoses. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. SIMULATORS FOR TRAINING OF ROV OPERATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Shakhtarin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article issues of the organization of imitating modeling complexes for training operators of Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicle are considered. It is reported about practical development of sea exercise simulation in Bauman MSTU.

  2. [Hemodynamic activities in children with autism while imitating emotional facial expressions: a near-infrared spectroscopy study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kenji; Mori, Tatsuo; Goji, Aya; Ito, Hiromichi; Toda, Yoshihiro; Fujii, Emiko; Miyazaki, Masahito; Harada, Masafumi; Kagami, Shoji

    2014-07-01

    To examine the hemodynamic activities in the frontal lobe, children with autistic disorder and matched controls underwent near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while imitating emotional facial expressions. The subjects consisted of 10 boys with autistic disorder without mental retardation (9 - 14 years) and 10 normally developing boys (9 - 14 years). The concentrations of oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) were measured with frontal probes using a 34-channel NIRS machine while the subjects imitated emotional facial expressions. The increments in the concentration of oxy-Hb in the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus in autistic subjects were significantly lower than those in the controls. However, the concentrations of oxy-Hb in this area were significantly elevated in autistic subjects after they were trained to imitate emotional facial expressions. The increments in the concentration of oxy-Hb in this area in autistic subjects were positively correlated with the scores on a test of labeling emotional facial expressions. The pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus is an important component of the mirror neuron system. The present results suggest that mirror neurons could be activated by repeated imitation in children with autistic disorder.

  3. Methodological issues in measures of imitative reaction times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicken, Michael D; Wilson, Andrew D; Williams, Justin H G; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2007-04-01

    Ideomotor (IM) theory suggests that observing someone else perform an action activates an internal motor representation of that behaviour within the observer. Evidence supporting the case for an ideomotor theory of imitation has come from studies that show imitative responses to be faster than the same behavioural measures performed in response to spatial cues. In an attempt to replicate these findings, we manipulated the salience of the visual cue and found that we could reverse the advantage of the imitative cue over the spatial cue. We suggest that participants utilised a simple visuomotor mechanism to perform all aspects of this task, with performance being driven by the relative visual salience of the stimuli. Imitation is a more complex motor skill that would constitute an inefficient strategy for rapid performance.

  4. The role of communication and imitation in limit order markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, G.; Iori, G.; Gallegati, M.

    2009-10-01

    In this paper we develop an order driver market model with heterogeneous traders that imitate each other on different network structures. We assess how imitations among otherway noise traders, can give rise to well known stylized facts such as fat tails and volatility clustering. We examine the impact of communication and imitation on the statistical properties of prices and order flows when changing the networks' structure, and show that the imitation of a given, fixed agent, called “guru", can generate clustering of volatility in the model. We also find a positive correlation between volatility and bid-ask spread, and between fat-tailed fluctuations in asset prices and gap sizes in the order book. in here

  5. Application of imitation for energy calibration of silicon semiconductor detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aivazyan, G M; Mikaelyan, M A

    2003-01-01

    An effective method is described for energy calibration of semiconductor detectors (SCD) with different thickness. The method is based on imitating the charge on the input of the preamplifier deposited in SCD by known energy ionizing particles, the imitation being performed by a pulser with a partial with use of alpha-active sources. The results of laboratory studies of the described method are given with detectors of either large, 50-1000 mu m, or small, 18-20 mu m, thickness

  6. Understanding and imitating unfamiliar actions: distinct underlying mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana C Carmo

    Full Text Available The human "mirror neuron system" has been proposed to be the neural substrate that underlies understanding and, possibly, imitating actions. However, since the brain activity with mirror properties seems insufficient to provide a good description for imitation of actions outside one's own repertoire, the existence of supplementary processes has been proposed. Moreover, it is unclear whether action observation requires the same neural mechanisms as the explicit access to their meaning. The aim of this study was two-fold as we investigated whether action observation requires different processes depending on 1 whether the ultimate goal is to imitate or understand the presented actions and 2 whether the to-be-imitated actions are familiar or unfamiliar to the subject. Participants were presented with both meaningful familiar actions and meaningless unfamiliar actions that they had to either imitate or discriminate later. Event-related Potentials were used as differences in brain activity could have been masked by the use of other techniques with lower temporal resolution. In the imitation task, a sustained left frontal negativity was more pronounced for meaningless actions than for meaningful ones, starting from an early time-window. Conversely, observing unfamiliar versus familiar actions with the intention of discriminating them led to marked differences over right centro-posterior scalp regions, in both middle and latest time-windows. These findings suggest that action imitation and action understanding may be sustained by dissociable mechanisms: while imitation of unfamiliar actions activates left frontal processes, that are likely to be related to learning mechanisms, action understanding involves dedicated operations which probably require right posterior regions, consistent with their involvement in social interactions.

  7. On the Evolution of Behaviors through Embodied Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbas, Mehmet D; Bull, Larry; Winfield, Alan F T

    2015-01-01

    This article describes research in which embodied imitation and behavioral adaptation are investigated in collective robotics. We model social learning in artificial agents with real robots. The robots are able to observe and learn each others' movement patterns using their on-board sensors only, so that imitation is embodied. We show that the variations that arise from embodiment allow certain behaviors that are better adapted to the process of imitation to emerge and evolve during multiple cycles of imitation. As these behaviors are more robust to uncertainties in the real robots' sensors and actuators, they can be learned by other members of the collective with higher fidelity. Three different types of learned-behavior memory have been experimentally tested to investigate the effect of memory capacity on the evolution of movement patterns, and results show that as the movement patterns evolve through multiple cycles of imitation, selection, and variation, the robots are able to, in a sense, agree on the structure of the behaviors that are imitated.

  8. Enhancing voluntary imitation through attention and motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bek, Judith; Poliakoff, Ellen; Marshall, Hannah; Trueman, Sophie; Gowen, Emma

    2016-07-01

    Action observation activates brain areas involved in performing the same action and has been shown to increase motor learning, with potential implications for neurorehabilitation. Recent work indicates that the effects of action observation on movement can be increased by motor imagery or by directing attention to observed actions. In voluntary imitation, activation of the motor system during action observation is already increased. We therefore explored whether imitation could be further enhanced by imagery or attention. Healthy participants observed and then immediately imitated videos of human hand movement sequences, while movement kinematics were recorded. Two blocks of trials were completed, and after the first block participants were instructed to imagine performing the observed movement (Imagery group, N = 18) or attend closely to the characteristics of the movement (Attention group, N = 15), or received no further instructions (Control group, N = 17). Kinematics of the imitated movements were modulated by instructions, with both Imagery and Attention groups being closer in duration, peak velocity and amplitude to the observed model compared with controls. These findings show that both attention and motor imagery can increase the accuracy of imitation and have implications for motor learning and rehabilitation. Future work is required to understand the mechanisms by which these two strategies influence imitation accuracy.

  9. A Network Model of Observation and Imitation of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashal, Nira; Solodkin, Ana; Dick, Anthony Steven; Chen, E. Elinor; Small, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Much evidence has now accumulated demonstrating and quantifying the extent of shared regional brain activation for observation and execution of speech. However, the nature of the actual networks that implement these functions, i.e., both the brain regions and the connections among them, and the similarities and differences across these networks has not been elucidated. The current study aims to characterize formally a network for observation and imitation of syllables in the healthy adult brain and to compare their structure and effective connectivity. Eleven healthy participants observed or imitated audiovisual syllables spoken by a human actor. We constructed four structural equation models to characterize the networks for observation and imitation in each of the two hemispheres. Our results show that the network models for observation and imitation comprise the same essential structure but differ in important ways from each other (in both hemispheres) based on connectivity. In particular, our results show that the connections from posterior superior temporal gyrus and sulcus to ventral premotor, ventral premotor to dorsal premotor, and dorsal premotor to primary motor cortex in the left hemisphere are stronger during imitation than during observation. The first two connections are implicated in a putative dorsal stream of speech perception, thought to involve translating auditory speech signals into motor representations. Thus, the current results suggest that flow of information during imitation, starting at the posterior superior temporal cortex and ending in the motor cortex, enhances input to the motor cortex in the service of speech execution. PMID:22470360

  10. Spontaneous cross-species imitation in interactions between chimpanzees and zoo visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Tomas; Sauciuc, Gabriela-Alina; Madsen, Elainie Alenkær

    2018-01-01

    Imitation is a cornerstone of human development, serving both a cognitive function (e.g. in the acquisition and transmission of skills and knowledge) and a social-communicative function, whereby the imitation of familiar actions serves to maintain social interaction and promote prosociality. In nonhuman primates, this latter function is poorly understood, or even claimed to be absent. In this observational study, we documented interactions between chimpanzees and zoo visitors and found that the two species imitated each other at a similar rate, corresponding to almost 10% of all produced actions. Imitation appeared to accomplish a social-communicative function, as cross-species interactions that contained imitative actions lasted significantly longer than interactions without imitation. In both species, physical proximity promoted cross-species imitation. Overall, imitative precision was higher among visitors than among chimpanzees, but this difference vanished in proximity contexts, i.e. in the indoor environment. Four of five chimpanzees produced imitations; three of them exhibited comparable imitation rates, despite large individual differences in level of cross-species interactivity. We also found that chimpanzees evidenced imitation recognition, yet only when visitors imitated their actions (as opposed to postures). Imitation recognition was expressed by returned imitation in 36% of the cases, and all four imitating chimpanzees engaged in so-called imitative games. Previously regarded as unique to early human socialization, such games serve to maintain social engagement. The results presented here indicate that nonhuman apes exhibit spontaneous imitation that can accomplish a communicative function. The study raises a number of novel questions for imitation research and highlights the imitation of familiar behaviours as a relevant-yet thus far understudied-research topic.

  11. Exploring the impact of high intensity interval training on adolescents' objectively measured physical activity: Findings from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, Sarah A; Ridgers, Nicola D; Eather, Narelle; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Harris, Nigel; Lubans, David R

    2018-05-01

    High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) may be effective for accumulating VPA. However, the contribution of HIIT to overall physical activity is unknown. Our primary aim was to explore the impact of school-based HIIT on physical activity. The secondary aim was to explore within-individual changes in physical activity after participating in HIIT. Participants [n = 65; 15.8(0.6)years] were randomized to a HIIT or control group. Intervention groups participated in three HIIT sessions/week. GENEActiv accelerometers assessed objective physical activity at baseline and week-one, to detect changes in MPA and VPA. Intervention effects were examined using linear mixed models and evidence of a change in physical activity (i.e., compensation) were examined using multilevel linear regression models. The group-by-time interaction effects for MPA and VPA were small and moderate, respectively. Adjusted difference between groups for VPA was 1.70 min/day, 95%CI -1.96 to 5.36; p = 0.354; d = 0.55). Embedding HIIT within the school-day had a moderate effect on VPA compared to controls. Compensation analyses (i.e., individual level) suggested that adolescents were more active on days when they participated in HIIT. Further studies are needed to test the effects of HIIT on adolescents' physical activity over extended time periods.

  12. Use of training workshops as an object of study for the transformation of the cooperative community environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ojeda Suárez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the potential of didactics for capacity building is a must to ensure organizational sustainability. We used a set of tools, such as, object of study, didactics, action-participatory research, generating exploratory, descriptive, correlational and explanatory studies within the cooperative organization. The workshops allowed the design of innovative teaching-learning processes to meet the demands of organizational knowledge systems, identify the main administrative management problems and actions to contribute to the organizational sustainability of the cooperative with the active, creative, participatory and compromising contribution of the social actors involved in the programs or projects. The measurement of the impacts of the projects of connection with the society, can be more easily determinable from identifying the base line that is part and the shortcomings of the organization for which the workshops of proactive socialization of information are an essential tool. On the other hand, it is required that the continuous training of teachers that lead to modify their educational conceptions and, as a consequence, their methodologies and practices at the time of tackling work with the community. The proposed actions were accepted in their entirety by the cooperative's directive, transforming itself into a Cooperative Participatory Development Program.

  13. The Influence of Matching and Motor-Imitation Abilities on Rapid Acquisition of Manual Signs and Exchange-Based Communicative Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Meagan K.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Richman, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Establishing a relation between existing skills and acquisition of communicative responses may be useful in guiding selection of alternative communication systems. Matching and motor-imitation skills were assessed for 6 children with developmental disabilities, followed by training to request the same set of preferred items using exchange-based…

  14. Objective structured assessment of technical skills evaluation of theoretical compared with hands-on training of shoulder dystocia management: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerkle, Bernd; Pueth, Julia; Hefler, Lukas A; Tempfer-Bentz, Eva-Katrin; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2012-10-01

    To compare the skills of performing a shoulder dystocia management algorithm after hands-on training compared with demonstration. We randomized medical students to a 30-minute hands-on (group 1) and a 30-minute demonstration (group 2) training session teaching a standardized shoulder dystocia management scheme on a pelvic training model. Participants were tested with a 22-item Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills scoring system after training and 72 hours thereafter. Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills scores were the primary outcome. Performance time, self-assessment, confidence, and global rating scale were the secondary outcomes. Statistics were performed using Mann-Whitney U test, χ test, and multiple linear regression analysis. Two hundred three participants were randomized. Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills scores were significantly higher in group 1 (n=103) compared with group 2 (n=100) (17.95±3.14 compared with 15.67±3.18, respectively; PTechnical Skills scores were still significantly higher in group 1 (n=67) compared with group 2 (n=60) (18.17±2.76 compared with 14.98±3.03, respectively; PTechnical Skills scores. Hands-on training helps to achieve a significant improvement of shoulder dystocia management on a pelvic training model. www.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01618565. I.

  15. Communication skills training in surgical residency: a needs assessment and metacognition analysis of a difficult conversation objective structured clinical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, John L; Claxton, René N; Marshall, Gary T

    2014-01-01

    The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) can be used to evaluate the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Core Competencies of Professionalism and Interpersonal and Communication Skills. The aim of this study was to describe general surgery resident performance on a "difficult conversation" OSCE. In this prospective study, junior and senior residents participated in a 2-station OSCE. Junior stations involved discussing operative risks and benefits and breaking bad news. Senior stations involved discussing goals of care and discussing transition to comfort measures only status. Residents completed post-OSCE checklist and Likert-based self-evaluations of experience, comfort, and confidence. Trained standardized patients (SPs) evaluated residents using communication skill-based checklists and Likert-based assessments. Pearson correlation coefficients were determined between self-assessment and SP assessment. Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted between junior and senior resident variables, using α = 0.05. There were 27 junior residents (age 28.1 ± 1.9 years [29.6% female]) and 27 senior residents (age 32.1 ± 2.5 years [26.9% female]). The correlation of self-assessment and SP assessment of overall communication skills by junior residents was -0.32 on the risks and benefits case and 0.07 on the breaking bad news case. The correlation of self-assessment and SP assessment of overall communication skills by senior residents was 0.30 on the goals of care case and 0.26 on the comfort measures only case. SP assessments showed that junior residents had higher overall communication skills than senior residents (p = 0.03). Senior residents perceived that having difficult conversations was more level appropriate (p skills are correlated, and that skills-based training is needed across all residency levels. This well-received method may be used to observe, document, and provide resident feedback for these important skills. © 2014 Published by

  16. Enactivism and neonatal imitation: conceptual and empirical considerations and clarifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodder, Paul; Rotteveel, Mark; van Elk, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Recently within social cognition it has been argued that understanding others is primarily characterized by dynamic and second person interactive processes, rather than by taking a third person observational stance. Within this enactivist view of intersubjective understanding, researchers differ in their claims regarding the innateness of such processes. Here we proposed to distinguish nativist enactivists-who argue that studies on neonatal imitation support the view that infants already have a non-mentalistic embodied form of intersubjective understanding present at birth-from empiricist enactivists, who claim that those intersubjective processes are learned through social interaction. In this article, we critically examine the empirical studies on neonate imitation and conclude that the available evidence is at least mixed for most types of specific gesture imitations. In the end, only the tongue protrusion imitation appears to be consistent across different studies. If neonates imitate only one single gesture, then a more parsimonious explanation for the tongue protrusion effect could be put forward. Consequently, the nativist enactivist claim that understanding others depends on second person interactive processes already present at birth seems no longer plausible. Although other strands of evidence provide converging evidence for the importance of intersubjective processes in adult social cognition, the available evidence on neonatal imitation calls for a more careful view on the innateness of such processes and suggests that this way of interacting needs to be learned over time. Therefore the available empirical evidence on neonate imitation is in our view compatible with the empiricist enactivist position, but not with the nativist enactivist position.

  17. A kinematic study on (unintentional imitation in bottlenose dolphins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of observing other’s movements on subsequent performance in bottlenose dolphins. The imitative ability of non-human animals has intrigued a number of researchers. So far, however, studies in dolphins have been confined to intentional imitation concerned with the explicit request to imitate other agents. In the absence of instruction to imitate, do dolphins (unintentionally replicate other’s movement features? To test this, dolphins were filmed while reaching and touching a stimulus before and after observing another dolphin (i.e., model performing the same action. All videos were reviewed and segmented in order to extract the relevant movements. A marker was inserted post-hoc via software on the videos upon the anatomical landmark of interest (i.e. rostrum and was tracked throughout the time course of the movement sequence. The movement was analyzed using an in-house software developed to perform two-dimensional (2D post-hoc kinematic analysis. The results indicate that dolphins’ kinematics is sensitive to other’s movement features. Movements performed for the ‘visuomotor priming’ condition were characterized by a kinematic pattern similar to that performed by the observed dolphin (i.e., model. Addressing the issue of spontaneous imitation in bottlenose dolphins might allow ascertaining whether the potential or impulse to produce an imitative action is generated, not just when they intend to imitate, but whenever they watch another conspecific’s behavior. In closing, this will clarify whether motor representational capacity is a by-product of factors specific to humans or whether more general characteristics such as processes of associative learning prompted by high level of encephalization could help to explain the evolution of this ability.

  18. Training-Induced Recovery of Low-Level Vision Followed by Mid-Level Perceptual Improvements in Developmental Object and Face Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Maria; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Gotthilf-Nezri, Dana; Yehezkel, Oren; Brooks, Joseph L.; Perry, Anat; Bentin, Shlomo; Bonneh, Yoram; Polat, Uri

    2015-01-01

    Long-term deprivation of normal visual inputs can cause perceptual impairments at various levels of visual function, from basic visual acuity deficits, through mid-level deficits such as contour integration and motion coherence, to high-level face and object agnosia. Yet it is unclear whether training during adulthood, at a post-developmental…

  19. Training-induced recovery of low-level vision followed by mid-level perceptual improvements in developmental object and face agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Maria; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Gotthilf-Nezri, Dana; Yehezkel, Oren; Brooks, Joseph L; Perry, Anat; Bentin, Shlomo; Bonneh, Yoram; Polat, Uri

    2015-01-01

    Long-term deprivation of normal visual inputs can cause perceptual impairments at various levels of visual function, from basic visual acuity deficits, through mid-level deficits such as contour integration and motion coherence, to high-level face and object agnosia. Yet it is unclear whether training during adulthood, at a post-developmental stage of the adult visual system, can overcome such developmental impairments. Here, we visually trained LG, a developmental object and face agnosic individual. Prior to training, at the age of 20, LG's basic and mid-level visual functions such as visual acuity, crowding effects, and contour integration were underdeveloped relative to normal adult vision, corresponding to or poorer than those of 5-6 year olds (Gilaie-Dotan, Perry, Bonneh, Malach & Bentin, 2009). Intensive visual training, based on lateral interactions, was applied for a period of 9 months. LG's directly trained but also untrained visual functions such as visual acuity, crowding, binocular stereopsis and also mid-level contour integration improved significantly and reached near-age-level performance, with long-term (over 4 years) persistence. Moreover, mid-level functions that were tested post-training were found to be normal in LG. Some possible subtle improvement was observed in LG's higher-order visual functions such as object recognition and part integration, while LG's face perception skills have not improved thus far. These results suggest that corrective training at a post-developmental stage, even in the adult visual system, can prove effective, and its enduring effects are the basis for a revival of a developmental cascade that can lead to reduced perceptual impairments. © 2014 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. How and why do infants imitate? An ideomotor approach to social and imitative learning in infancy (and beyond).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus

    2014-10-01

    It has been proposed that already in infancy, imitative learning plays a pivotal role in the acquisition of knowledge and abilities. Yet the cognitive mechanisms underlying the acquisition of novel action knowledge through social learning have remained unclear. The present contribution presents an ideomotor approach to imitative learning (IMAIL) in infancy (and beyond) that draws on the ideomotor theory of action control and on recent findings of perception-action matching. According to IMAIL, the central mechanism of imitative and social learning is the acquisition of cascading bidirectional action-effect associations through observation of own and others' actions. First, the observation of the visual effect of own actions leads to the acquisition of first-order action-effect associations, linking motor codes to the action's typical visual effects. Second, observing another person's action leads to motor activation (i.e., motor resonance) due to the first-order associations. This activated motor code then becomes linked to the other salient effects produced by the observed action, leading to the acquisition of (second-order) action-effect associations. These novel action-effect associations enable later imitation of the observed actions. The article reviews recent behavioral and neurophysiological studies with infants and adults that provide empirical support for the model. Furthermore, it is discussed how the model relates to other approaches on social-cognitive development and how developmental changes in imitative abilities can be conceptualized.

  1. Stationary plasma source of heavy ions for imitating research at the separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuferov, V.B.; Sharyj, S.V.; Seroshtanov, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    The imitation gas mix choice for experimenting on the demonstration imitation separator have been grounded. The construction of plasma source is changed. The research of operating conditions and contrastive analysis of received characteristics have been carry out

  2. Application of imitation for energy calibration of silicon semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aivazyan, G.M.; Badalyan, H.V.; Mikaelyan, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    An effective method is described for energy calibration of semiconductor detectors (SCD) with different thickness. The method is based on imitating the charge on the input of the preamplifier deposited in SCD by known energy ionizing particles, the imitation being performed by a pulser with a partial with use of α-active sources. The results of laboratory studies of the described method are given with detectors of either large, 50-1000μm, or small, 18-20 μm, thickness

  3. Spatial affects and imitations in OWS and Distortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    the notions of affect (Thrift 2008, Ash & Amin 2002, Anderson & Holden 2008) and imitation (Tarde 1903), the paper will discuss recent urban crowd movements. OWS has spread a global social activist movement using affective bodily means of communication, whereas Distortion is a cultural street festival taking...... manner. For instance, both crowds do not merely gather and organize in terms of verbal communication, rather they organize virally, visually and through bodily affects and imitation. In that sense they appropriate urban space and its architectural design ”like viruses that hop between people, thereby...

  4. Chameleons: Electrocardiogram Imitators of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nable, Jose V; Lawner, Benjamin J

    2015-08-01

    The imperative for timely reperfusion therapy for patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) underscores the need for clinicians to have an understanding of how to distinguish patterns of STEMI from its imitators. These imitating diagnoses may confound an evaluation, potentially delaying necessary therapy. Although numerous diagnoses may mimic STEMI, several morphologic clues may allow the physician to determine if the pattern is concerning for either STEMI or a mimicking diagnosis. Furthermore, obtaining a satisfactory history, comparing previous electrocardiograms, and assessing serial tests may provide valuable clues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Goal-Directed and Goal-Less Imitation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Kelly S.; Poliakoff, Ellen; Jerrison, Andrew; Gowen, Emma

    2012-01-01

    To investigate how people with Autism are affected by the presence of goals during imitation, we conducted a study to measure movement kinematics and eye movements during the imitation of goal-directed and goal-less hand movements. Our results showed that a control group imitated changes in movement kinematics and increased the level that they…

  6. A Qualitative Analysis of Imitation Performances of Preschoolers with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvuchelen, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies suggest that imitation is a characteristic strength in children with Down Syndrome (DS). The present study aims to discover whether imitation performances are qualitatively phenotypical in DS. Eight preschoolers with DS were matched on chronological, mental, language and imitation age with 8 preschoolers with intellectual…

  7. The Role of Modality and Register in Imitation by Adults and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Nancy Ann

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that both adults and children will imitate acoustic properties of the speech around them. In fact, studies on adults have shown that this convergence occurs even when the subject simply sees, but does not hear, the interlocutor. Not only does visual speech elicit imitation on its own, but also imitation is greater for…

  8. 25 CFR 304.1 - Penalties for imitation or unauthorized use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalties for imitation or unauthorized use. 304.1... SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.1 Penalties for imitation or unauthorized use. The use of Government trade-marks in an unauthorized manner, or the colorable imitation of such marks, is subject to the...

  9. Deferred Imitation in 9-Month-Olds: How Do Model and Task Characteristics Matter across Cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teiser, Johanna; Lamm, Bettina; Böning, Mirjam; Graf, Frauke; Gudi, Helene; Goertz, Claudia; Fassbender, Ina; Freitag, Claudia; Spangler, Sibylle; Teubert, Manuel; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Knopf, Monika; Keller, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating imitation are usually conducted with adult models in Western contexts; therefore, the influence of cultural context and the model's age on infants' imitation is largely unknown. This study assessed deferred imitation in 9-month-old infants from the German middle-class ("N" = 44) and the ethnic group of Nso in rural…

  10. Brief Report: Effect of a Focused Imitation Intervention on Social Functioning in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Brooke

    2012-01-01

    Imitation is an early skill thought to play a role in social development, leading some to suggest that teaching imitation to children with autism should lead to improvements in social functioning. This study used a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a focused imitation intervention on initiation of joint attention and…

  11. Effects of Reinforcement on Peer Imitation in a Small Group Play Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Erin E.; Ledford, Jennifer R.

    2018-01-01

    Children with disabilities often have deficits in imitation skills, particularly in imitating peers. Imitation is considered a behavioral cusp--which, once learned, allows a child to access additional and previously unavailable learning opportunities. In the current study, researchers examined the efficacy of contingent reinforcement delivered…

  12. Deferred Imitation and Social Communication in Speaking and Nonspeaking Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strid, Karin; Heimann, Mikael; Gillberg, Christopher; Smith, Lars; Tjus, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Deferred imitation and early social communication skills were compared among speaking and nonspeaking children with autism and children developing typically. Overall, the children with autism showed a lower frequency on measures of deferred imitation and social communication compared with typically developing children. Deferred imitation was…

  13. The Effect of Narrative Cues on Infants' Imitation from Television and Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, Gabrielle; Garrity, Kara; Barr, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Infants can imitate a novel action sequence from television and picture books, yet there has been no direct comparison of infants' imitation from the 2 types of media. Varying the narrative cues available during the demonstration and test, the current experiments measured 18- and 24-month-olds' imitation from television and picture books. Infants…

  14. Imitation and "Theory of Mind" Competencies in Discrimination of Autism from Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perra, Oliver; Williams, Justin H. G.; Whiten, Andrew; Fraser, Lesley; Benzie, Helen; Perrett, David I.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have reported imitative deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is still debated if imitative deficits are specific to ASD or shared with clinical groups with similar mental impairment and motor difficulties. We investigated whether imitative tasks can be used to discriminate ASD children from typically developing…

  15. The Development of Imitation in Children 1-3 Years Old. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Robert B.; And Others

    Five studies investigated the development of imitation in children 1-3 years old. Results indicated that children as young as 12 months possess the cognitive capability of translating a perception of an action into their own behavior, but imitation varies as actions requiring direct social commerce with the examiner are imitated less frequently…

  16. Does Immediate Imitation Influence Long-Term Memory for Observed Actions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abravanel, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    Describes research on young children's long-term memory under 2 conditions of acquisition: direct imitation followed by a 10-minute delay, or deferred imitation. Children were able to encode and retain as much from visual pickup of modeled acts as from feedback obtained through imitation. (Author/GH)

  17. No Effects of Non-invasive Brain Stimulation on Multiple Sessions of Object-Location-Memory Training in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külzow, Nadine; Cavalcanti de Sousa, Angelica Vieira; Cesarz, Magda; Hanke, Julie-Marie; Günsberg, Alida; Harder, Solvejg; Koblitz, Swantje; Grittner, Ulrike; Flöel, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    Object-location memory (OLM) is known to decline with normal aging, a process accelerated in pathological conditions like mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In order to maintain cognitive health and to delay the transition from healthy to pathological conditions, novel strategies are being explored. Tentative evidence suggests that combining cognitive training and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS), both reported to induce small and often inconsistent behavioral improvements, could generate larger or more consistent improvements or both, compared to each intervention alone. Here, we explored the combined efficacy of these techniques on OLM. In a subject-blind sham-controlled cross-over design 32 healthy older adults underwent a 3-day visuospatial training paired with either anodal (20 min) or sham (30 s) atDCS (1 mA, temporoparietal). Subjects were asked to learn the correct object-location pairings on a street map, shown over five learning blocks on each training day. Acquisition performance was assessed by accuracy on a given learning block in terms of percentage of correct responses. Training success (performance on last training day) and delayed memory after 1-month were analyzed by mixed model analysis and were controlled for gender, age, education, sequence of stimulation and baseline performance. Exploratory analysis of atDCS effects on within-session (online) and between-session (offline) memory performance were conducted. Moreover, transfer effects on similar trained (visuospatial) and less similar (visuo-constructive, verbal) untrained memory tasks were explored, both immediately after training, and on follow-up. We found that atDCS paired with OLM-training did not enhance success in training or performance in 1-month delayed memory or transfer tasks. In sum, this study did not support the notion that the combined atDCS-training approach improves immediate or delayed OLM in older adults. However, specifics of the experimental design, and

  18. No Effects of Non-invasive Brain Stimulation on Multiple Sessions of Object-Location-Memory Training in Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Külzow

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Object-location memory (OLM is known to decline with normal aging, a process accelerated in pathological conditions like mild cognitive impairment (MCI. In order to maintain cognitive health and to delay the transition from healthy to pathological conditions, novel strategies are being explored. Tentative evidence suggests that combining cognitive training and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS, both reported to induce small and often inconsistent behavioral improvements, could generate larger or more consistent improvements or both, compared to each intervention alone. Here, we explored the combined efficacy of these techniques on OLM. In a subject-blind sham-controlled cross-over design 32 healthy older adults underwent a 3-day visuospatial training paired with either anodal (20 min or sham (30 s atDCS (1 mA, temporoparietal. Subjects were asked to learn the correct object-location pairings on a street map, shown over five learning blocks on each training day. Acquisition performance was assessed by accuracy on a given learning block in terms of percentage of correct responses. Training success (performance on last training day and delayed memory after 1-month were analyzed by mixed model analysis and were controlled for gender, age, education, sequence of stimulation and baseline performance. Exploratory analysis of atDCS effects on within-session (online and between-session (offline memory performance were conducted. Moreover, transfer effects on similar trained (visuospatial and less similar (visuo-constructive, verbal untrained memory tasks were explored, both immediately after training, and on follow-up. We found that atDCS paired with OLM-training did not enhance success in training or performance in 1-month delayed memory or transfer tasks. In sum, this study did not support the notion that the combined atDCS-training approach improves immediate or delayed OLM in older adults. However, specifics of the experimental

  19. Does real-time objective feedback and competition improve performance and quality in manikin CPR training--a prospective observational study from several European EMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, J R; Kranz, K; Carmona, F; Lindner, T W; Newton, A

    2015-10-15

    Previous studies have reported that the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is important for patient survival. Real time objective feedback during manikin training has been shown to improve CPR performance. Objective measurement could facilitate competition and help motivate participants to improve their CPR performance. The aims of this study were to investigate whether real time objective feedback on manikins helps improve CPR performance and whether competition between separate European Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and between participants at each EMS helps motivation to train. Ten European EMS took part in the study and was carried out in two stages. At Stage 1, each EMS provided 20 pre-hospital professionals. A questionnaire was completed and standardised assessment scenarios were performed for adult and infant out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). CPR performance was objectively measured and recorded but no feedback given. Between Stage 1 and 2, each EMS was given access to manikins for 6 months and instructed on how to use with objective real-time CPR feedback available. Stage 2 was undertaken and was a repeat of Stage 1 with a questionnaire with additional questions relating to usefulness of feedback and the competition nature of the study (using a 10 point Likert score). The EMS that improved the most from Stage 1 to Stage 2 was declared the winner. An independent samples Student t-test was used to analyse the objective CPR metrics with the significance level taken as p Competition between EMS organisations recorded a mean score of 5.8 and competition between participants recorded a mean score of 6.0. The results suggest that the use of real time objective feedback can significantly help improve CPR performance. Competition, especially between participants, appeared to encourage staff to practice and this study suggests that competition might have a useful role to help motivate staff to perform CPR training.

  20. Entre prouesse et dérision Between prowess and derisionNoise imitation in American folklore at the beginning of the xxth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A. Stoichita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur un type de virtuosité qui consiste à imiter des sons non musicaux dans le cadre de performances musicales. Il s'attache à décrire les modalités de ces moments d'acrobatie dans le bluegrass et la country music en Amérique du Nord. Pour mettre en lumière l'évolution historique de ce régime de virtuosité, l'analyse suit les transformations d'une mélodie particulière, connue sous le nom de Orange Blossom Special, qui reste à ce jour l'une des plus fameuses imitations de trains dans la musique nord-américaine.This article focuses on a type of virtuosity which involves the imitation of non-musical sounds in the context of musical performances. It attempts to describe the modalities of these moments of acrobatics in bluegrass and country music in North America. To highlight the historical evolution of this virtuosity system, the analysis follows the transformation of a particular melody, known as the Orange Blossom Special, which remains to this day one of the most famous imitations of trains in North American music.

  1. Planning-related motor processes underlie mental practice and imitation learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Patric; Allami, Bassem Khalaf; Tucker, Mike; Ellis, Rob

    2014-06-01

    It is still controversial whether mental practice-the internal rehearsal of movements to improve later performance-relies on processes engaged during physical motor performance and, if so, which processes these are. We report data from 5 experiments, in which participants mentally practiced complex rhythms with either feet or hands while using the same or different body parts to respond to unrelated sounds. We found that responses were impaired for those body parts that were concurrently used in mental practice, suggesting a binding of body-part-specific motor processes to action plans. This result was found when participants mentally trained to memorize the rhythms, to merely improve their performance, when mental practice and execution directly followed one another and when separated by a different task. Finally, it was found irrespective of whether participants practiced on the basis of a symbolic rhythm description and when they practiced by watching somebody perform the rhythms (imitation learning). The effect was eliminated only when the requirement for mental practice was eliminated from the task while keeping visual stimulation identical. These data link mental practice not to execution but planning related motor processes and reveal that these planning processes underlie both mental practice and imitation learning. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. The Social Modulation of Imitation Fidelity in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Lauren E.; Ropar, Danielle; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.

    2014-01-01

    Children copy the actions of others with high fidelity, even when they are not causally relevant. This copying of visibly unnecessary actions is termed overimitation. Many competing theories propose mechanisms for overimitation behaviour. The present study examines these theories by studying the social factors that lead children to overimitate actions. Ninety-four children aged 5- to 8-years each completed five trials of an overimitation task. Each trial provided the opportunity to overimitate an action on familiar objects with minimal causal reasoning demands. Social cues (live or video demonstration) and eye contact from the demonstrator were manipulated. After the imitation, children's ratings of action rationality were collected. Substantial overimitation was seen which increased with age. In older children, overimitation was higher when watching a live demonstrator and when eye contact was absent. Actions rated as irrational were more likely to be imitated than those rated as rational. Children overimitated actions on familiar objects even when they rated those actions as irrational, suggesting that failure of causal reasoning cannot be driving overimitation. Our data support social explanations of overimitation and show that the influence of social factors increases with age over the 5- to 8-year-old age range. PMID:24465913

  3. The social modulation of imitation fidelity in school-age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E Marsh

    Full Text Available Children copy the actions of others with high fidelity, even when they are not causally relevant. This copying of visibly unnecessary actions is termed overimitation. Many competing theories propose mechanisms for overimitation behaviour. The present study examines these theories by studying the social factors that lead children to overimitate actions. Ninety-four children aged 5- to 8-years each completed five trials of an overimitation task. Each trial provided the opportunity to overimitate an action on familiar objects with minimal causal reasoning demands. Social cues (live or video demonstration and eye contact from the demonstrator were manipulated. After the imitation, children's ratings of action rationality were collected. Substantial overimitation was seen which increased with age. In older children, overimitation was higher when watching a live demonstrator and when eye contact was absent. Actions rated as irrational were more likely to be imitated than those rated as rational. Children overimitated actions on familiar objects even when they rated those actions as irrational, suggesting that failure of causal reasoning cannot be driving overimitation. Our data support social explanations of overimitation and show that the influence of social factors increases with age over the 5- to 8-year-old age range.

  4. Preference reversal for copycat brands : Uncertainty makes imitation feel good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Horen, F.; Pieters, R.

    2013-01-01

    Copycat brands try to entice consumers by imitating the trade-dress of leading brands. Recent research suggests that preferences for copycat brands relative to more differentiated brands are generally lower. That is, consumers tend to dislike such “imitation” brands, because of psychological

  5. Amblyomma imitator Ticks as Vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Karla A.; Pinter, Adriano; Medina-Sanchez, Aaron; Boppana, Venkata D.; Wikel, Stephen K.; Saito, Tais B.; Shelite, Thomas; Blanton, Lucas; Popov, Vsevolod; Teel, Pete D.; Walker, David H.; Galvao, Marcio A.M.; Mafra, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Real-time PCR of Amblyomma imitator tick egg masses obtained in Nuevo Leon State, Mexico, identified a Rickettsia species. Sequence analyses of 17-kD common antigen and outer membrane protein A and B gene fragments showed to it to be R. rickettsii, which suggested a potential new vector for this bacterium. PMID:20678325

  6. The physical imitation experiments of nuclear belt weight scaler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Qicun; Wang Mingqian; Sun Jinhua; Li Zhonghao

    1993-01-01

    The physical imitation experiments of the nuclear belt weight scaler (NBWS) were performed with a coal-loaded belt. The linearity, repetition and long-time stability; of the NBWS were measured. And the influence of pile shape, load bias and the composition of coal on weight calculation were studied

  7. Voluntary Imitation in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisio, Ambra; Casteran, Matthieu; Ballay, Yves; Manckoundia, Patrick; Mourey, France; Pozzo, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Although Alzheimer’s disease (AD) primarily manifests as cognitive deficits, the implicit sensorimotor processes that underlie social interactions, such as automatic imitation, seem to be preserved in mild and moderate stages of the disease, as is the ability to communicate with other persons. Nevertheless, when AD patients face more challenging tasks, which do not rely on automatic processes but on explicit voluntary mechanisms and require the patient to pay attention to external events, the cognitive deficits resulting from the disease might negatively affect patients’ behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary motor imitation, i.e., a volitional mechanism that involves observing another person’s action and translating this perception into one’s own action, was affected in patients with AD. Further, we tested whether this ability was modulated by the nature of the observed stimulus by comparing the ability to reproduce the kinematic features of a human demonstrator with that of a computerized-stimulus. AD patients showed an intact ability to reproduce the velocity of the observed movements, particularly when the stimulus was a human agent. This result suggests that high-level cognitive processes involved in voluntary imitation might be preserved in mild and moderate stages of AD and that voluntary imitation abilities might benefit from the implicit interpersonal communication established between the patient and the human demonstrator. PMID:27014056

  8. Imitative learning as a connector of collective brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Fontanari

    Full Text Available The notion that cooperation can aid a group of agents to solve problems more efficiently than if those agents worked in isolation is prevalent in computer science and business circles. Here we consider a primordial form of cooperation - imitative learning - that allows an effective exchange of information between agents, which are viewed as the processing units of a social intelligence system or collective brain. In particular, we use agent-based simulations to study the performance of a group of agents in solving a cryptarithmetic problem. An agent can either perform local random moves to explore the solution space of the problem or imitate a model agent - the best performing agent in its influence network. There is a trade-off between the number of agents N and the imitation probability p, and for the optimal balance between these parameters we observe a thirtyfold diminution in the computational cost to find the solution of the cryptarithmetic problem as compared with the independent search. If those parameters are chosen far from the optimal setting, however, then imitative learning can impair greatly the performance of the group.

  9. Conditional imitation might promote cooperation under high temptations to defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qionglin; Li, Haihong; Cheng, Hongyan; Qian, Xiaolan; Zhang, Mei; Yang, Junzhong

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we introduce a conditional imitation rule into an evolutionary game, in which the imitation probabilities of individuals are determined by a function of payoff difference and two crucial parameters μ and σ. The parameter μ characterizes the most adequate goal for individuals and the parameter σ characterizes the tolerance of individuals. By using the pair approximation method and numerical simulations, we find an anomalous cooperation enhancement in which the cooperation level shows a nonmonotonic variation with the increase of temptation. The parameter μ affects the regime of the payoff parameter which supports the anomalous cooperation enhancement, whereas the parameter σ plays a decisive role on the appearance of the nonmonotonic variation of the cooperation level. Furthermore, to give explicit implications for the parameters μ and σ we present an alterative form of the conditional imitation rule based on the benefit and the cost incurred to individuals during strategy updates. In this way, we also provide a phenomenological interpretation for the nonmonotonic behavior of cooperation with the increase of temptation. The results give a clue that a higher cooperation level could be obtained under adverse environments for cooperation by applying the conditional imitation rule, which is possible to be manipulated in real life. More generally, the results in this work might point out an efficient way to maintain cooperation in the risky environments to cooperators.

  10. Imitating Cooperation and the Formation of long-term Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Heiner

    2013-01-01

    We study the infinitely repeated prisoner’s dilemma with the option to maintain or to quit relationships. We show that if agents imitate successful strategies infrequently, defection is not dynamically stable and cooperation emerges regardless of the initial distribution of strategies....

  11. Mirror Me: Imitative Responses in Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunke, Odette; Schöttle, Daniel; Vettorazzi, Eik; Brandt, Valerie; Kahl, Ursula; Bäumer, Tobias; Ganos, Christos; David, Nicole; Peiker, Ina; Engel, Andreas K; Brass, Marcel; Münchau, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunctions of the human mirror neuron system have been postulated to underlie some deficits in autism spectrum disorders including poor imitative performance and impaired social skills. Using three reaction time experiments addressing mirror neuron system functions under simple and complex conditions, we examined 20 adult autism spectrum…

  12. MIMETISME ET IMITATION : UNE REVUE DE LA LITTERATURE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    l‟imitation «des idées pures», mais aussi l‟existence d‟un type de protection de .... gion qui diffuse les caractéristiques de la mode d‟une organisation à une autre. ... d‟amélioration des performances mais par besoin de légitimité. La.

  13. Voluntary imitation in Alzheimer’s disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra eBisio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Alzheimer's disease (AD primarily manifests as cognitive deficits, the implicit sensorimotor processes that underlie social interactions, such as automatic imitation, seem to be preserved in mild and moderate stages of the disease, as is the ability to communicate with other persons. Nevertheless, when AD patients face more challenging tasks, which do not rely on automatic processes but on explicit voluntary mechanisms and require the patient to pay attention to external events, the cognitive deficits resulting from the disease might negatively affect patients’ behaviour. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary motor imitation, i.e. a volitional mechanism that involves observing another person’s action and translating this perception into one’s own action, was affected in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Further, we tested whether this ability was modulated by the nature of the observed stimulus by comparing the ability to reproduce the kinematic features of a human demonstrator with that of a computerized-stimulus. AD patients showed an intact ability to reproduce the velocity of the observed movements, particularly when the stimulus was a human agent. This result suggests that high-level cognitive processes involved in voluntary imitation might be preserved in mild and moderate stages of AD and that voluntary imitation abilities might benefit from the implicit interpersonal communication established between the patient and the human demonstrator.

  14. Using Imitation with Congenitally Deafblind Adults: Establishing Meaningful Communication Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Paul

    2006-01-01

    All congenitally deafblind people are potential communication partners. The key question for practitioners is how to help them achieve that potential. Imitation offers a particularly powerful means of doing so because it allows both partners to occupy a joint dyadic space, where the process of repairing the damaged communication partnerships that…

  15. Face, content, and construct validity of the EndoViS training system for objective assessment of psychomotor skills of laparoscopic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamirosa, Fernando Pérez; Flores, Ricardo Manuel Ordorica; García, Ignacio Oropesa; Vidal, Cristian Rubén Zalles; Martínez, Arturo Minor

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to present face, content, and constructs validity of the endoscopic orthogonal video system (EndoViS) training system and determines its efficiency as a training and objective assessment tool of the surgeons' psychomotor skills. Thirty-five surgeons and medical students participated in this study: 11 medical students, 19 residents, and 5 experts. All participants performed four basic skill tasks using conventional laparoscopic instruments and EndoViS training system. Subsequently, participants filled out a questionnaire regarding the design, realism, overall functionality, and its capabilities to train hand-eye coordination and depth perception, rated on a 5-point Likert scale. Motion data of the instruments were obtained by means of two webcams built into a laparoscopic physical trainer. To identify the surgical instruments in the images, colored markers were placed in each instrument. Thirteen motion-related metrics were used to assess laparoscopic performance of the participants. Statistical analysis of performance was made between novice, intermediate, and expert groups. Internal consistency of all metrics was analyzed with Cronbach's α test. Overall scores about features of the EndoViS system were positives. Participants agreed with the usefulness of tasks and the training capacities of EndoViS system (score >4). Results presented significant differences in the execution of three skill tasks performed by participants. Seven metrics showed construct validity for assessment of performance with high consistency levels. EndoViS training system has been successfully validated. Results showed that EndoViS was able to differentiate between participants of varying laparoscopic experience. This simulator is a useful and effective tool to objectively assess laparoscopic psychomotor skills of the surgeons.

  16. WWER type reactor primary loop imitation on large test loop facility in MARIA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldysh, A.; Strupchevski, A.; Kmetek, Eh.; Spasskov, V.P.; Shumskij, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    At present in Poland in cooperation with USSR a nuclear water loop test facility (WL) in 'MARIA' reactor in Sverke is under construction. The program objective is to investigate processes occuring in WWER reactor under emergency conditions, first of all after the break of the mainprimary loop circulation pipe-line. WL with the power of about 600 kW consists of three major parts: 1) an active loop, imitating the undamaged loops of the WWER reactor; 2) a passive loop assignedfor modelling the broken loop of the WWER reactor; 3) the emergency core cooling system imitating the corresponding full-scale system. The fuel rod bundle consists of 18 1 m long rods. They were fabricated according to the standard WWER fuel technology. In the report some general principles of WWERbehaviour imitation under emergency conditions are given. They are based on the operation experience obtained from 'SEMISCALE' and 'LOFT' test facilities in the USA. A description of separate modelling factors and criteria effects on the development of 'LOCA'-type accident is presented (the break cross-section to the primary loop volume ratio, the pressure differential between inlet and outlet reactor chambers, the pressure drop rate in the loop, the coolant flow rate throuh the core etc.). As an example a comparison of calculated flow rate variations for the WWER-1000 reactor and the model during the loss-of-coolant accident with the main pipe-line break at the core inlet is given. Calculations have been carried out with the use of TECH'-M code [ru

  17. Lethality of patients with rheumatoid arthritis depending on adalimumab administration: imitation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D V Goryachev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lethality of pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA exceeds mortality values in general population. Possibility of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD influence on RA pts lethality has been widely discussed lately in scientific works. Objective. To determine possible lethality diminishment in Russian population of RA pts with one of biological drugs TNFα antagonist adalimumab. Material and methods. Model construction is based on the fact of lethality dependence on pt functional state assessed by HAQ. Model simulating progression of functional disability in pts with RA visiting medical institutions of Russia was made (RAISER study. 3 model variants for imitation of consecutive change of DMARDs including adalimumab were done. First consecution assessed DMARD change in the next chain: adalimumab-methotrexate-sulfasalazine-leflunomide-azathioprine-cyclosporine-palliative therapy. Second consecution: adalimumab administration after failure of first 3 DMARDs. Third consecution considered only change of synthetic DMARDs without adalimumab inclusion. Model imitated participation of 3000 pts in every consecution. Prognosis horizon was 12 years. Age of pts and initial HAQ distribution were get from results of epidemiological RAISER study. Calculation was done on the base of elevation of standardized lethality level (SLL in population of RA pts in average from 135% to 300%. SLL values from 80 to 320% were used depending on functional disability degree with converting to Russian values of age-specific lethality coefficient for 1999. Results. Lethality in treatment consecutions including adalimumab was significantly lower. To the end of 12th year in group not using adalimumab, using it at once and using it after 376 DMARDs respectively 65,1%, 71,6% and 71,1% of pts were still alive. Conclusion. Significant decrease of lethality with adalimumab inclusion in consecution of DMARD change during treatment of RA pts was demonstrated with imitation modeling

  18. Deep convolutional neural network training enrichment using multi-view object-based analysis of Unmanned Aerial systems imagery for wetlands classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Abd-Elrahman, Amr

    2018-05-01

    Deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) requires massive training datasets to trigger its image classification power, while collecting training samples for remote sensing application is usually an expensive process. When DCNN is simply implemented with traditional object-based image analysis (OBIA) for classification of Unmanned Aerial systems (UAS) orthoimage, its power may be undermined if the number training samples is relatively small. This research aims to develop a novel OBIA classification approach that can take advantage of DCNN by enriching the training dataset automatically using multi-view data. Specifically, this study introduces a Multi-View Object-based classification using Deep convolutional neural network (MODe) method to process UAS images for land cover classification. MODe conducts the classification on multi-view UAS images instead of directly on the orthoimage, and gets the final results via a voting procedure. 10-fold cross validation results show the mean overall classification accuracy increasing substantially from 65.32%, when DCNN was applied on the orthoimage to 82.08% achieved when MODe was implemented. This study also compared the performances of the support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF) classifiers with DCNN under traditional OBIA and the proposed multi-view OBIA frameworks. The results indicate that the advantage of DCNN over traditional classifiers in terms of accuracy is more obvious when these classifiers were applied with the proposed multi-view OBIA framework than when these classifiers were applied within the traditional OBIA framework.

  19. Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) evaluation of theoretical versus hands-on training of vaginal breech delivery management: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerkle, Bernd; Rueter, Katharina; Hefler, Lukas A; Tempfer-Bentz, Eva-Katrin; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2013-12-01

    To compare the skills of performing a vaginal breech (VB) delivery after hands-on training versus demonstration. We randomized medical students to a 30-min demonstration (group 1) or a 30-min hands-on (group 2) training session using a standardized VB management algorithm on a pelvic training model. Subjects were tested with a 25 item Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scoring system immediately after training and 72 h thereafter. OSATS scores were the primary outcome. Performance time (PT), self assessment (SA), confidence (CON), and global rating scale (GRS) were the secondary outcomes. Statistics were performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test, chi-square test, and multiple linear regression analysis. 172 subjects were randomized. OSATS scores (primary outcome) were significantly higher in group 2 (n=88) compared to group 1 (n=84) (21.18±2.29 vs. 20.19±2.37, respectively; p=0.006). The secondary outcomes GRS (10.31±2.28 vs. 9.17±2.21; p=0.001), PT (214.60±57.97 s vs. 246.98±59.34 s; ptraining leads to a significant improvement of VB management in a pelvic training model, but this effect was only seen in the short term. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A randomized comparison of video demonstration versus hands-on training of medical students for vacuum delivery using Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Ziad; Kumpernatz, Anne K; Rezniczek, Günther A; Cetin, Cem; Tempfer-Bentz, Eva-Katrin; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2017-03-01

    To compare medical students' skills for vaginal operative delivery by vacuum extraction (VE) after hands-on training versus video demonstration. We randomized medical students to an expert demonstration (group 1) or a hands-on (group 2) training using a standardized VE algorithm on a pelvic training model. Students were tested with a 40-item Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scoring system after training and 4 days later. OSATS scores were the primary outcome. Performance time, self-assessment, confidence, and global rating scale were secondary outcomes. We assessed the constructive validity of OSATS in this VE model comparing metric scores of experts and students. In all, 137 students were randomized. OSATS scores were higher in group 2 (n = 63) compared with group 1 (n = 74) (32.89 ± 6.39 vs 27.51 ± 10.27, respectively; P training is superior to video demonstration for teaching VE on a pelvic model.

  1. Visual object-oriented technology and case-tools of developing the Internet / Intranet-oriented training courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaimeh S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New information technologies, modern computers, LAN, WAN networks enable us to modernize the whole education system. One of the most perspective ways of the modern educational system’s development is online education. The questions of developing the visual instrumental system PIECE designed to automate processes of creation the cross- platform hypermedia training and controlling course (HTCC are viewed in this paper.

  2. [Stability of long-term professional objectives of young physicians during postgraduate training. Results of a multicenter cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birck, S; Gedrose, B; Robra, B-P; Schmidt, A; Schultz, J-H; Stosch, C; Wagner, R; Janßen, N; Scherer, M; van den Bussche, H

    2014-10-01

    We investigated persistences and changes of career preferences of medical residents in Germany after two years of postgraduate training with regard to future working place and position. The results are compared with those forwarded at graduation from medical school in a gender comparative perspective. The study is based on a standardized postal survey among the participants in the "KarMed" study, originally based on 1012 graduates of the medical faculties of Erlangen, Giessen, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Cologne, Leipzig and Magdeburg in 2009. 2107 persons were contacted. The return rate at baseline was 48 %, and the two surveys after the baseline reached return rates of 87 % and 89 % respectively. In all samples 2/3 were women as in actual medical undergraduate education. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were performed. After 2 years of residency, residents after 2 years of postgraduate training still preferred the hospital over private practice as their final workplace after postgraduate training. The attractiveness of leading positions in the hospital declined among men, whereas it was already low for women at graduation. A large proportion of those physicians preferring the ambulatory sector, especially women, wishes to work as employee instead of private practice. At the personal level, almost 60 % forwarded the same preferences as those at graduation. Gender, parenthood and region of study (East vs. West Germany) did not influence stability or change of preferences. The results demonstrate the persistence of professional preferences regarding future sector and position of medical work during postgraduate training. These preferences do neither match with principles of gender equality nor with future workforce needs (e. g. in primary care). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia B. Monakhova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA, imitation products can be easily detected. In both cheese and ice cream, a differentiation according to the type of raw material (milk fat and vegetable fat was possible. The loadings plot shows that imitation products were distinguishable by differences in their fatty acid ratios. Furthermore, a differentiation of several types of cheese (Edamer, Gouda, Emmentaler, and Feta was possible. Quantitative data regarding the composition of the investigated products can also be predicted from the same spectra using partial least squares (PLS regression. The models obtained for 13 compounds in cheese (R2 0.75–0.95 and 17 compounds in ice cream (R2 0.83–0.99 (e.g., fatty acids and esters were suitable for a screening analysis. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the routine analysis of dairy products based on milk or on vegetable fat substitutes.

  4. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B.; Godelmann, Rolf; Andlauer, Claudia; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA), imitation products can be easily detected. In both cheese and ice cream, a differentiation according to the type of raw material (milk fat and vegetable fat) was possible. The loadings plot shows that imitation products were distinguishable by differences in their fatty acid ratios. Furthermore, a differentiation of several types of cheese (Edamer, Gouda, Emmentaler, and Feta) was possible. Quantitative data regarding the composition of the investigated products can also be predicted from the same spectra using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The models obtained for 13 compounds in cheese (R 2 0.75–0.95) and 17 compounds in ice cream (R 2 0.83–0.99) (e.g., fatty acids and esters) were suitable for a screening analysis. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the routine analysis of dairy products based on milk or on vegetable fat substitutes. PMID:26904597

  5. Human infants' understanding of social imitation: Inferences of affiliation from third party observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lindsey J; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2018-01-01

    Imitation is ubiquitous in positive social interactions. For adult and child observers, it also supports inferences about the participants in such interactions and their social relationships, but the origins of these inferences are obscure. Do infants attach social significance to this form of interaction? Here we test 4- to 5.5-month-old infants' interpretation of imitation, asking if the imitative interactions they observe support inferences of social affiliation, across 10 experimental conditions that varied the modality of the imitation (movement vs. sound), the roles of specific characters (imitators vs. targets), the number of characters in the displays (3 vs. 5), and the number of parties initiating affiliative test events (1 vs. 2). These experiments, together with one experiment conducted with 12-month-old infants, yielded three main findings. First, infants expect that characters who engaged in imitation will approach and affiliate with the characters whom they imitated. Second, infants show no evidence of expecting that characters who were targets of imitation will approach and affiliate with their imitators. Third, analyzing imitative interactions is difficult for young infants, whose expectations vary in strength depending on the number of characters to be tracked and the number of affiliative actors to be compared. These findings have implications for our understanding of social imitation, and they provide methods for advancing understanding of other aspects of early social cognitive development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Intact Automatic Imitation and Typical Spatial Compatibility in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Challenging the Broken Mirror Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowden, Sophie; Koehne, Svenja; Catmur, Caroline; Dziobek, Isabel; Bird, Geoffrey

    2016-02-01

    A lack of imitative behavior is frequently described as a core feature of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and is consistent with claims of mirror neuron system dysfunction in these individuals. Previous research has questioned this characterization of ASD however, arguing that when tests of automatic imitation are used--which do not require higher-level cognitive processing--imitative behavior is intact or even enhanced in individuals with ASD. In Experiment 1, 60 adult individuals with ASD and a matched Control group completed an automatic imitation task in which they were required to perform an index or a middle finger lift while observing a hand making either the same, or the alternate, finger movement. Both groups demonstrated a significant imitation effect whereby actions were executed faster when preceded by observation of the same action, than when preceded by the alternate action. The magnitude of this "imitation effect" was statistically indistinguishable in the ASD and Control groups. Experiment 2 utilized an improved automatic imitation paradigm to demonstrate that, when automatic imitation effects are isolated from those due to spatial compatibility, increasing autism symptom severity is associated with an increased tendency to imitate. Notably, there was no association between autism symptom severity and spatial compatibility, demonstrating the specificity of the link between ASD symptoms and increased imitation. These results provide evidence against claims of a lack of imitative behavior in ASD, and challenge the "Broken Mirror Theory of Autism." © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The temporal relationship between reduction of early imitative responses and the development of attention mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benga Oana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether early imitative responses fade out following the maturation of attentional mechanisms, the relationship between primitive imitation behaviors and the development of attention was examined in 4-month-old infants. They were divided into high and low imitators, based on an index of imitation. The status of attention was assessed by studying inhibition of return (IOR. Nine-month-old infants were also tested to confirm the hypothesis. Results The IOR latency data replicate previous results that infants get faster to produce a covert shift of attention with increasing age. However, those 4-month-olds who showed less imitation had more rapid saccades to the cue before target presentation. Conclusion The cortical control of saccade planning appears to be related to an apparent drop in early imitation. We interpret the results as suggesting a relationship between the status of imitation and the neural development of attention-related eye movement.

  8. Imitation Assessment and Its Utility to the Diagnosis of Autism: Evidence from Consecutive Clinical Preschool Referrals for Suspected Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvuchelen, Marleen; Roeyers, Herbert; De Weerdt, Willy

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to examine imitation difficulties as a risk factor for autism. Imitation aptitude was examined in 86 preschoolers suspected of autism (1.9-4.5 years) using the Preschool Imitation and Praxis Scale (PIPS). Differences between imitation, language, motor age-equivalents and nonverbal mental age were used to predict the…

  9. Fostering Social Cognition through an Imitation- and Synchronization-Based Dance/Movement Intervention in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Controlled Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Svenja; Behrends, Andrea; Fairhurst, Merle T; Dziobek, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Since social cognition is impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study aimed at establishing the efficacy of a newly developed imitation- and synchronization-based dance/movement intervention (SI-DMI) in fostering emotion inference and empathic feelings (emotional reaction to feelings of others) in adults with high-functioning ASD. Fifty-five adults with ASD (IQ ≥85) who were blinded to the aim of the study were assigned to receive either 10 weeks of a dance/movement intervention focusing on interpersonal movement imitation and synchronization (SI-DMI, n = 27) or a control movement intervention (CMI, n = 24) focusing on individual motor coordination (2 participants from each group declined before baseline testing). The primary outcome measure was the objective Multifaceted Empathy Test targeting emotion inference and empathic feelings. Secondary outcomes were scores on the self-rated Interpersonal Reactivity Index. The well-established automatic imitation task and synchronization finger-tapping task were used to quantify effects on imitation and synchronization functions, complemented by the more naturalistic Assessment of Spontaneous Interaction in Movement. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed that from baseline to 3 months, patients treated with SI-DMI showed a significantly larger improvement in emotion inference (d = 0.58), but not empathic feelings, than those treated with CMI (d = -0.04). On the close generalization level, SI-DMI increased synchronization skills and imitation tendencies, as well as whole-body imitation/synchronization and movement reciprocity/dialogue, compared to CMI. SI-DMI can be successful in promoting emotion inference in adults with ASD and warrants further investigation. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Imitation and Innovation in Fashion: Mapping the Creative Process in "Modinha" Segment on a Regional Fair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Silva Calíope

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fashion is recognized by transience, resulting in its short life cycle, since the constant changes make what was previously considered "fashionable" obsolete (Emidio & Sabione, 2010. In this market, innovate and act before competitors, accelerate the launch of products, reduce design time and the placement of new items on the market is a survival condition (Lipovetsky, 2007. A central factor in the fashion spread is imitation, as this promotes both innovation and obsolescence, forcing producers to set up periodically (Caulkins et al., 2007, Pesendorfer, 1995. The research object is the "modinha", women's clothing that follows media trends, is the copying, with or without changes, to the mass market (Avelar, 2009; Victor, 2007, in this study, "José Avelino Street Fair". This fair meets weekly hundreds of manufacturers in a metropolis of northeastern Brazil that has been established as a fashion hub. Thus, it was proposed to identify the process of innovation in companies that make “modinha” in this Fair. The research was conducted through a survey and data were obtained from a questionnaire administered with 78 stallholders. One descriptive and exploratory data analysis was performed. It was found that, contrary to expectation, a considerable formality, with 49 of the 78 respondents with CNPJ; its customers are small retailers; and their competitors are the stallholders. Regarding the creation of clothes models, the stallholders research in various sources and said imitating models from these sources, but they try to make changes.

  11. The perception of musical spontaneity in improvised and imitated jazz performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annerose eEngel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to evaluate spontaneity in human behavior is called upon in the aesthetic appreciation of dramatic arts and music. The current study addresses the behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate the perception of spontaneity in music performance. In a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging experiment, 22 jazz musicians listened to piano melodies and judged whether they were improvised or imitated. Judgment accuracy (mean 55%; range 44-65%, which was low but above chance, was positively correlated with musical experience and empathy. Analysis of listeners’ hemodynamic responses revealed that amygdala activation was stronger for improvisations than imitations. This activation correlated with the variability of performance timing and intensity (loudness in the melodies, suggesting that the amygdala is involved in the detection of behavioral uncertainty. An analysis based on the subjective classification of melodies according to listeners’ judgments revealed that a network including the pre-supplementary motor area, frontal operculum, and anterior insula was most strongly activated for melodies judged to be improvised. This may reflect the increased engagement of an action simulation network when melodic predictions are rendered challenging due to perceived instability in the performer’s actions. Taken together, our results suggest that, while certain brain regions in skilled individuals may be generally sensitive to objective cues to spontaneity in human behavior, the ability to evaluate spontaneity accurately depends upon whether an individual’s action-related experience and perspective taking skills enable faithful internal simulation of the given behavior.

  12. The perception of musical spontaneity in improvised and imitated jazz performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Annerose; Keller, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    The ability to evaluate spontaneity in human behavior is called upon in the esthetic appreciation of dramatic arts and music. The current study addresses the behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate the perception of spontaneity in music performance. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, 22 jazz musicians listened to piano melodies and judged whether they were improvised or imitated. Judgment accuracy (mean 55%; range 44-65%), which was low but above chance, was positively correlated with musical experience and empathy. Analysis of listeners' hemodynamic responses revealed that amygdala activation was stronger for improvisations than imitations. This activation correlated with the variability of performance timing and intensity (loudness) in the melodies, suggesting that the amygdala is involved in the detection of behavioral uncertainty. An analysis based on the subjective classification of melodies according to listeners' judgments revealed that a network including the pre-supplementary motor area, frontal operculum, and anterior insula was most strongly activated for melodies judged to be improvised. This may reflect the increased engagement of an action simulation network when melodic predictions are rendered challenging due to perceived instability in the performer's actions. Taken together, our results suggest that, while certain brain regions in skilled individuals may be generally sensitive to objective cues to spontaneity in human behavior, the ability to evaluate spontaneity accurately depends upon whether an individual's action-related experience and perspective taking skills enable faithful internal simulation of the given behavior.

  13. Medical mechatronics which imitates living organisms. Seitai ni manabu iyo mechatronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikuta, K. (Kyushu Inst. of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan))

    1991-11-01

    Medical equipments which aim at replacement of biological functions require some different mechatronic elements from industrial ones and such medical equipments are being developed with the object of imitating the functions of living organisms. Research and development of actuators and transmission devices with new principles modelling the functions of living organisms are presented. Servoactuators of small size and large output for their weights are constructedby the use of shape memory alloy. Prototypes of active endoscope and active catheter have been manufactured. A prototype of a cybernetic actuator have been manufactured by imitating flexible motion characteristics of biological muscle systems by the use of piezoelectric devices. A rotor-type cybernetic actuator consists of a pair of layered piezoelectric devices and a rotor with a small gap inbetween. A linear tvpe cybernetic actuator consists of piezoelectric devices for restricting the actuator and impact driving. A transmission mechanism of a new principle whose features are safety, no noise and nodusts is designed by the use of non-contact magnetic gears. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  14. An Analysis of British Tourists’ Purchasing Behavior of Imitation Products: A Case of Fethiye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydan Bekar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The trade of imitation products is increasing rapidly in global scale due to some reasons such as globalization and branding, advancing production technology, high-profit, low risk and low legal sanctions. Manufacturers of imitation products use the advantages of the brand name they produce without a budget of development and promotion activities. Tourists are among consumer group of imitation products. In Fethiye where this study was conducted, it was observed that the number of stores and markets in which imitation products were sold increased with the beginning of holiday season and this number decreased with the end of the season. This observation led to the thought that the target group of dealers of imitation products was foreign tThis study was carried out with 109 British tourists taking their holiday in Fethiye, to examine their purchase behavior towards imitation products. The research data was collected by a questionnaire. According to the study results, it was determined that price was an important factor in tourists’ purchasing imitation products; more than half of the tourists thought imitation products would contribute to the economy of Turkey; that they approved trade of imitation products and they were satisfied with the quality of imitation products

  15. The problematic estimation of "imitation effects" in multilevel models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available It seems plausible that a person's demographic behaviour may be influenced by that among other people in the community, for example because of an inclination to imitate. When estimating multilevel models from clustered individual data, some investigators might perhaps feel tempted to try to capture this effect by simply including on the right-hand side the average of the dependent variable, constructed by aggregation within the clusters. However, such modelling must be avoided. According to simulation experiments based on real fertility data from India, the estimated effect of this obviously endogenous variable can be very different from the true effect. Also the other community effect estimates can be strongly biased. An "imitation effect" can only be estimated under very special assumptions that in practice will be hard to defend.

  16. Imitation explains the propagation, not the stability of animal culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claidière, Nicolas; Sperber, Dan

    2010-02-22

    For acquired behaviour to count as cultural, two conditions must be met: it must propagate in a social group, and it must remain stable across generations in the process of propagation. It is commonly assumed that imitation is the mechanism that explains both the spread of animal culture and its stability. We review the literature on transmission chain studies in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and other animals, and we use a formal model to argue that imitation, which may well play a major role in the propagation of animal culture, cannot be considered faithful enough to explain its stability. We consider the contribution that other psychological and ecological factors might make to the stability of animal culture observed in the wild.

  17. A meta-analysis of imitation abilities in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Laura A

    2014-06-01

    Although imitation impairments are often reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), previous work has not yet determined whether these impairments are significant, specific to ASD, and present across the entire spectrum. This report of 53 studies on imitation in ASD seeks to determine whether individuals with ASD show significant imitation deficits, the magnitude of these deficits, and whether they are specific to ASD. Using standard meta-analytic techniques in a random-effects model, the data reviewed suggest that individuals with ASD show deficits in imitation, performing on average 0.81 SDs below individuals without ASD on imitation tasks. This deficit was specific to the condition of having ASD. Moderator analyses revealed that the average Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scores of groups of ASD participants were significantly and strongly negatively associated with the imitation abilities of these subjects, but average participant IQ was not associated with imitation abilities. Study setting, novelty of actions, format of imitation tasks (live vs. not), number of actions to imitate, or verbal prompts were not found to significantly affect the sizes of the imitation differences between individuals with and without ASD. The manner in which imitation was operationalized, however, had significant effects on whether imitation deficits were found between individuals with and without ASD. In tests that measured imitation of both form and end points, participants with ASD showed significant deficits compared with those without ASD; on tests of end point emulation only, individuals with ASD showed no deficits. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Influence of Facial Signals on the Automatic Imitation of Hand Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Emily E; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Imitation and facial signals are fundamental social cues that guide interactions with others, but little is known regarding the relationship between these behaviors. It is clear that during expression detection, we imitate observed expressions by engaging similar facial muscles. It is proposed that a cognitive system, which matches observed and performed actions, controls imitation and contributes to emotion understanding. However, there is little known regarding the consequences of recognizing affective states for other forms of imitation, which are not inherently tied to the observed emotion. The current study investigated the hypothesis that facial cue valence would modulate automatic imitation of hand actions. To test this hypothesis, we paired different types of facial cue with an automatic imitation task. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that a smile prompted greater automatic imitation than angry and neutral expressions. Additionally, a meta-analysis of this and previous studies suggests that both happy and angry expressions increase imitation compared to neutral expressions. By contrast, Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrated that invariant facial cues, which signal trait-levels of agreeableness, had no impact on imitation. Despite readily identifying trait-based facial signals, levels of agreeableness did not differentially modulate automatic imitation. Further, a Bayesian analysis showed that the null effect was between 2 and 5 times more likely than the experimental effect. Therefore, we show that imitation systems are more sensitive to prosocial facial signals that indicate "in the moment" states than enduring traits. These data support the view that a smile primes multiple forms of imitation including the copying actions that are not inherently affective. The influence of expression detection on wider forms of imitation may contribute to facilitating interactions between individuals, such as building rapport and affiliation.

  19. Objective structured assessment of nontechnical skills: Reliability of a global rating scale for the in-training assessment in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedy, Nicolas J; Szasz, Peter; Louridas, Marisa; Bonrath, Esther M; Husslein, Heinrich; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2015-06-01

    Nontechnical skills are critical for patient safety in the operating room (OR). As a result, regulatory bodies for accreditation and certification have mandated the integration of these competencies into postgraduate education. A generally accepted approach to the in-training assessment of nontechnical skills, however, is lacking. The goal of the present study was to develop an evidence-based and reliable tool for the in-training assessment of residents' nontechnical performance in the OR. The Objective Structured Assessment of Nontechnical Skills tool was designed as a 5-point global rating scale with descriptive anchors for each item, based on existing evidence-based frameworks of nontechnical skills, as well as resident training requirements. The tool was piloted on scripted videos and refined in an iterative process. The final version was used to rate residents' performance in recorded OR crisis simulations and during live observations in the OR. A total of 37 simulations and 10 live procedures were rated. Interrater agreement was good for total mean scores, both in simulation and in the real OR, with intraclass correlation coefficients >0.90 in all settings for average and single measures. Internal consistency of the scale was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.80). The Objective Structured Assessment of Nontechnical Skills global rating scale was developed as an evidence-based tool for the in-training assessment of residents' nontechnical performance in the OR. Unique descriptive anchors allow for a criterion-referenced assessment of performance. Good reliability was demonstrated in different settings, supporting applications in research and education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Interorganizational imitation and acquisitions of high-tech ventures

    OpenAIRE

    Ozmel, Umit; Reuer, J. J.; Wu, Cheng-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Research summary: This article shows that there is a positive association between the changes in the number of prior acquisitions or the changes in the prominence of prior acquirers within the focal venture's subfield and the venture's likelihood to be acquired. Results are in line with the existence of frequency- and trait-based imitation in acquisitions targeting tech ventures. More importantly, these positive associations are more pronounced when (a) exogenous technological uncertainty wit...

  1. Mirror Neurons, Embodied Cognitive Agents and Imitation Learning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2003), s. 545-559 ISSN 1335-9150 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/02/1456 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : complete agents * mirror neurons * embodied cognition * imitation learning * sensorimotor control Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.254, year: 2003 http://www.cai.sk/ojs/index.php/cai/article/view/468

  2. Mirror Neurons, Embodied Cognitive Agents and Imitation Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    2003-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a relatively recent discovery; it has been conjectured that these neurons play an important role in imitation learning and other cognitive phenomena. We will study a possible place and role of mirror neurons in the neural architecture of embodied cognitive agents. We will formulate and investigate the hypothesis that mirror neurons serve as a mechanism which coordinates the multimodal (i.e., motor, perceptional and proprioceptive) information and completes it so that the ag...

  3. Imitative and best response behaviors in a nonlinear Cournotian setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerboni Baiardi, Lorenzo; Naimzada, Ahmad K.

    2018-05-01

    We consider the competition among quantity setting players in a deterministic nonlinear oligopoly framework characterized by an isoelastic demand curve. Players are characterized by having heterogeneous decisional mechanisms to set their outputs: some players are imitators, while the remaining others adopt a rational-like rule according to which their past decisions are adjusted towards their static expectation best response. The Cournot-Nash production level is a stationary state of our model together with a further production level that can be interpreted as the competitive outcome in case only imitators are present. We found that both the number of players and the relative fraction of imitators influence stability of the Cournot-Nash equilibrium with an ambiguous role, and double instability thresholds may be observed. Global analysis shows that a wide variety of complex dynamic scenarios emerge. Chaotic trajectories as well as multi-stabilities, where different attractors coexist, are robust phenomena that can be observed for a wide spectrum of parameter sets.

  4. A comprehensive account of sound sequence imitation in the songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Westkott

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The amazing imitation capabilities of songbirds show that they can memorize sensory sequences and transform them into motor activities which in turn generate the original sound sequences. This suggests that the bird's brain can learn 1. to reliably reproduce spatio-temporal sensory representations and 2. to transform them into corresponding spatio-temporal motor activations by using an inverse mapping. Neither the synaptic mechanisms nor the network architecture enabling these two fundamental aspects of imitation learning are known. We propose an architecture of coupled neuronal modules that mimick areas in the song bird and show that a unique synaptic plasticity mechanism can serve to learn both, sensory sequences in a recurrent neuronal network, as well as an inverse model that transforms the sensory memories into the corresponding motor activations. The proposed membrane potential dependent learning rule together with the architecture that includes basic features of the bird's brain represents the first comprehensive account of bird imitation learning based on spiking neurons.

  5. Cultural differences in the imitation and transmission of inefficient actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corriveau, Kathleen H; DiYanni, Cara J; Clegg, Jennifer M; Min, Grace; Chin, Jason; Nasrini, Jad

    2017-09-01

    Across two studies, we explored cultural differences in children's imitation and transmission of inefficient actions. Chinese American and Caucasian American preschoolers (N=115) viewed either one or three models using two inefficient tools to perform two different tasks. In the video, when the model(s) performed the task, only the inefficient tool was available; thus, their choice to use that tool could be considered rational. Next, children were invited to complete the task with either the inefficient tool or an efficient alternative. Whereas the two cultural groups imitated a single model at similar rates, Chinese American children imitated significantly more than Caucasian American children after viewing a consensus. Similar results were found when exploring differences in information transmission. The Chinese American children were significantly more likely than their Caucasian American peers to instruct using an inefficient tool when they had initially viewed a consensus demonstrate it. We discuss these findings with respect to differences in children's use of social versus task-specific cues for learning and teaching. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of narrative cues on infants' imitation from television and picture books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, Gabrielle; Garrity, Kara; Barr, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Infants can imitate a novel action sequence from television and picture books, yet there has been no direct comparison of infants' imitation from the 2 types of media. Varying the narrative cues available during the demonstration and test, the current experiments measured 18- and 24-month-olds' imitation from television and picture books. Infants imitated from both media types when full narrative cues (Experiment 1; N = 76) or empty, meaningless narration (Experiment 2; N = 135) accompanied the demonstrations, but they imitated more from television than books. In Experiment 3 (N = 27), infants imitated from a book based on narration alone, without the presence of pictures. These results are discussed in relation to age-related changes in cognitive flexibility and infants' emerging symbolic understanding. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. The effect of narrative cues on infants’ imitation from television and picture books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, Gabrielle; Garrity, Kara; Barr, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Infants can imitate a novel action sequence from television and picture books; yet there has been no direct comparison of infants’ imitation from the two types of media. Varying the narrative cues available during the demonstration and test, we measured 18- and 24-month-olds’ imitation from television and picture books. Infants imitated from both media types when full narrative cues (Experiment 1; N = 76) or empty, meaningless narration (Experiment 2; N = 135) accompanied the demonstrations, but they imitated more from television than books. In Experiment 3 (N = 27), infants imitated from a book based on narration alone, without the presence of pictures. These results are discussed in relation to age-related changes in cognitive flexibility and infants’ emerging symbolic understanding. PMID:21883157

  8. Imitation of the characteristics of the wind turbine based on DC motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qihui; HE Yikang; ZHAO Rende

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzed the operating principles and power and torque characteristics of the wind turbine and the direct current motor(DC motor),and investigated the operating characteristics of the wind turbine compared to that of the DC motor.The torque imitation scheme,which has good performance and high feasibility,together with the whole wind turbine imitation system,was provided.The wind turbine imitation system includes not only a hardware platform composed of PC,data-collection board and thyristor-based velocity-regulator,but also monitor software of wind turbine imitation.The experimental results of different occasions verify the correctness and feasibility of the wind turbine imitation scheme proposed in this paper,which provided a valid idea for wind turbine imitation and investigation of wind power generation techniques in the laboratory.

  9. Arm-eye coordination test to objectively quantify motor performance and muscles activation in persons after stroke undergoing robot-aided rehabilitation training: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-Yu; Hu, Xiaoling; Li, Le; Sun, Rui

    2013-09-01

    This study designed an arm-eye coordination test to investigate the effectiveness of the robot-aided rehabilitation for persons after stroke. Six chronic poststroke subjects were recruited to attend a 20-session robot-aided rehabilitation training of elbow joint. Before and after the training program, subjects were asked to perform voluntary movements of elbow flection and extension by following sinusoidal trajectories at different velocities with visual feedback on their joint positions. The elbow angle and the electromyographic signal of biceps and triceps as well as clinical scores were evaluated together with the parameters. Performance was objectively quantified by root mean square error (RMSE), root mean square jerk (RMSJ), range of motion (ROM), and co-contraction index (CI). After 20 sessions, RMSE and ROM improved significantly in both the affected and the unaffected side based on two-way ANOVA (P quantitative parameters and clinical scales could enable the exploration of effects of different types of treatment and design progress-based training method to accelerate the processes of recovery.

  10. Experience of developing the imitators of the fuel element for the WWER reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashov, S.M.; Boltenko, Eh.A.; Vinogradov, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    Peculiarities of designs of fuel elements imitators for the WWER-type reactors of nominal capacity and with single-ended current feed positioning are considered. The data on the filler heat conductivity and the results of tests and application of the fuel elements imitators at various testing facilities are presented. The possibility of equipping one of the non operating WWER reactors with the fuel element imitators for conduct of large-scale experiment is indicated

  11. The history of imitation in learning theory: the language acquisition process.

    OpenAIRE

    Kymissis, E; Poulson, C L

    1990-01-01

    The concept of imitation has undergone different analyses in the hands of different learning theorists throughout the history of psychology. From Thorndike's connectionism to Pavlov's classical conditioning, Hull's monistic theory, Mowrer's two-factor theory, and Skinner's operant theory, there have been several divergent accounts of the conditions that produce imitation and the conditions under which imitation itself may facilitate language acquisition. In tracing the roots of the concept of...

  12. IMITATION STRATEGIES FOR SME’S LEARNING PROCESS TOWARDS INNOVATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Sulistiyani

    2013-01-01

    The research results are as follow: the learning experience to use imitation strategy which covers stages of imitation, research, development and  creation. This learning process is the result of interaction between personal and behavior factors, as well as the enabler and barriers. The owners of leather small industries which leave the imitation strategy and switch to innovation strategy are craftsmen who have an entrepreneurial spirit. they are able to balance entrepreneurial and business aspects.

  13. Next Day Subjective and Objective Recovery Indices Following Acute Low and High Training Loads in Academy Rugby Union Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Noon

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of selected subjective and objective monitoring assessments in detecting changes in group and individual responses to low and high load bouts of high intensity intermittent exercise. In a counterbalanced crossover design, Thirteen Academy Rugby Union players (mean ± SD: age: 18 ± 1 years performed a low load (15 min and a high load (90 min bout of high intensity intermittent exercise (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test one week apart. Monitoring assessments were performed immediately prior to and 20 h following each trial. Subjective self-report Well-being Questionnaire (WQ items showed small to large deteriorations following the high load compared to low load (d = 0.4–1.5, p = 0.03–0.57. A very large increase in resting HR (HRrest (d = 2.1, p = 0.02, moderate decrease in heart rate variability (HRV indices (d = 0.7, p = 0.04 and d = 0.7, p = 0.01 for the natural logarithm of the standard deviation of R-R intervals (ln SDNN and the root square of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals (rMSSD, respectively and no change in countermovement jump (d = 0.0, p = 0.97 were evident following the high load compared to low load. Individual WQ responses revealed 7/9, 7/9, 6/9, 6/9, 5/9, 3/9 and 1/9 participants reported deteriorations in recovery, sleep quality, motivation, muscle soreness, fatigue, stress and appetite, respectively, following the high load compared to low load. Individual analysis indicated a negative response following the high load compared to low load in HRrest, ln SDNN and ln rMSSD for 4/6, 2/6 and 1/6 participants, respectively. Selected WQ items detected group and individual responses to high load and low load highlighting their potential utility. However, objective assessments lacked the sensitivity to detect small individual changes.

  14. Positive effects of neurofeedback on autism symptoms correlate with brain activation during imitation and observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datko, Michael; Pineda, Jaime A; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2018-03-01

    Autism has been characterized by atypical task-related brain activation and functional connections, coinciding with deficits in sociocommunicative abilities. However, evidence of the brain's experience-dependent plasticity suggests that abnormal activity patterns may be reversed with treatment. In particular, neurofeedback training (NFT), an intervention based on operant conditioning resulting in self-regulation of brain electrical oscillations, has shown increasing promise in addressing abnormalities in brain function and behavior. We examined the effects of ≥ 20 h of sensorimotor mu-rhythm-based NFT in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a matched control group of typically developing children (ages 8-17). During a functional magnetic resonance imaging imitation and observation task, the ASD group showed increased activation in regions of the human mirror neuron system following the NFT, as part of a significant interaction between group (ASD vs. controls) and training (pre- vs. post-training). These changes were positively correlated with behavioral improvements in the ASD participants, indicating that mu-rhythm NFT may be beneficial to individuals with ASD. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Objective assessment of surgical performance and its impact on a national selection programme of candidates for higher surgical training in plastic surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Sean M

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a transparent, fair and objective assessment programme for the selection of surgical trainees into higher surgical training (HST) in plastic surgery in the Republic of Ireland. METHODS: Thirty-four individuals applied for HST in plastic surgery at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) in the academic years 2005-2006 and 2006-2007. Eighteen were short-listed for interview and further assessment. All applicants were required to report on their undergraduate educational performance and their postgraduate professional development. Short-listed applicants completed validated objective assessment simulations of surgical skills, an interview and assessment of their suitability for a career in surgery. RESULTS: When applicants\\' short-listing scores were combined with their interview scores and assessment of their suitability for a career in surgery, individuals who were selected for HST in plastic surgery performed significantly better than those who were not (P<0.002). However, when the assessment of technical skills scores were added the significance level of this difference increased further (P<0.0001) as did the statistical power of the difference to 99.9%, thus increasing the robustness of the selection package. CONCLUSION: The results from this study suggest that the assessment protocol we used to select individuals for HST in plastic surgery reliably and statistically significantly discriminated between the performances of candidates.

  16. Imitative Tactics in Pedro de Padilla’s Églogas pastoriles: the Ovidian Mark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Pérez-Abadín Barro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pedro de Padilla’s Églogas pastoriles, bucolic book of virgilian extraction, diversify its configuration through the exercise of an eclectic imitatio, that canalizes the adoption of models foreign to pastoral tradition, amongst them Ovid, Boccaccio, Petrach, Sannazaro, Garcilaso and Fray Luis de León, incorporated with various imitative tactics. This paper shows the presence of two Ovid’s works, Remedia amoris and Fable of Narcissus (Metamorphoses, III, ls. 339-510, examples of heuristic imitatio, that allows to adapt the source to pastoral background, without disfiguring it. The Remedia amoris are object of a selective treatment, to be added as a marginal element to Silvano’ story. The Fable of Narcissus develops the ovidian myth, intermediated by the Alamanni’s Italian version, that also heads the Hernando de Acuña and Gregorio Silvestre’s recreations.

  17. Artistic transmission in the Low Countries. De Grebber's creative imitation of Rubens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marloes W. Hemmer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article will focus on the transmission of artistic ideas and the importance of personal networks as an active force in shaping artistic phenomena. In this contribution I will concentrate on the transmission of Rubens’s artistic ideas and knowledge from the Southern to the Northern Netherlands, concentrating on the work of Pieter de Grebber. My contribution will emphasize how this young artist from Haarlem had access to Rubens’s artistic ideas and knowledge in a period that his work was not yet widely spread in the Northern Netherlands. It will give new insights into how networks and objects led to creative imitation with innovative results that constituted a vital contribution to history painting in the Northern Netherlands.

  18. Neural processing of race during imitation: self-similarity versus social status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A.; Cross, Katy A.; Iacoboni, Marco; Dapretto, Mirella

    2017-01-01

    People preferentially imitate others who are similar to them or have high social status. Such imitative biases are thought to have evolved because they increase the efficiency of cultural acquisition. Here we focused on distinguishing between self-similarity and social status as two candidate mechanisms underlying neural responses to a person’s race during imitation. We used fMRI to measure neural responses when 20 African American (AA) and 20 European American (EA) young adults imitated AA, EA and Chinese American (CA) models and also passively observed their gestures and faces. We found that both AA and EA participants exhibited more activity in lateral fronto-parietal and visual regions when imitating AAs compared to EAs or CAs. These results suggest that racial self-similarity is not likely to modulate neural responses to race during imitation, in contrast with findings from previous neuroimaging studies of face perception and action observation. Furthermore, AA and EA participants associated AAs with lower social status than EAs or CAs, suggesting that the social status associated with different racial groups may instead modulate neural activity during imitation of individuals from those groups. Taken together, these findings suggest that neural responses to race during imitation are driven by socially-learned associations rather than self-similarity. This may reflect the adaptive role of imitation in social learning, where learning from higher-status models can be more beneficial. This study provides neural evidence consistent with evolutionary theories of cultural acquisition. PMID:23813738

  19. Neonatal Imitation: Theory, Experimental Design, and Significance for the Field of Social Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincini, Stefano; Jhang, Yuna; Buder, Eugene H; Gallagher, Shaun

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal imitation has rich implications for neuroscience, developmental psychology, and social cognition, but there is little consensus about this phenomenon. The primary empirical question, whether or not neonatal imitation exists, is not settled. Is it possible to give a balanced evaluation of the theories and methodologies at stake so as to facilitate real progress with respect to the primary empirical question? In this paper, we address this question. We present the operational definition of differential imitation and discuss why it is important to keep it in mind. The operational definition indicates that neonatal imitation may not look like prototypical imitation and sets non-obvious requirements on what can count as evidence for imitation. We also examine the principal explanations for the extant findings and argue that two theories, the arousal hypothesis and the Association by Similarity Theory, which interprets neonatal imitation as differential induction of spontaneous behavior through similarity, offer better explanations than the others. With respect to methodology, we investigate what experimental design can best provide evidence for imitation, focusing on how differential induction may be maximized and detected. Finally, we discuss the significance of neonatal imitation for the field of social cognition. Specifically, we propose links with theories of social interaction and direct social perception. Overall, our goals are to help clarify the complex theoretical issues at stake and suggest fruitful guidelines for empirical research.

  20. Neonatal Imitation: Theory, Experimental Design, and Significance for the Field of Social Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Vincini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal imitation has rich implications for neuroscience, developmental psychology, and social cognition, but there is little consensus about this phenomenon. The primary empirical question, whether or not neonatal imitation exists, is not settled. Is it possible to give a balanced evaluation of the theories and methodologies at stake so as to facilitate real progress with respect to the primary empirical question? In this paper, we address this question. We present the operational definition of differential imitation and discuss why it is important to keep it in mind. The operational definition indicates that neonatal imitation may not look like prototypical imitation and sets non-obvious requirements on what can count as evidence for imitation. We also examine the principal explanations for the extant findings and argue that two theories, the arousal hypothesis and the Association by Similarity Theory, which interprets neonatal imitation as differential induction of spontaneous behavior through similarity, offer better explanations than the others. With respect to methodology, we investigate what experimental design can best provide evidence for imitation, focusing on how differential induction may be maximized and detected. Finally, we discuss the significance of neonatal imitation for the field of social cognition. Specifically, we propose links with theories of social interaction and direct social perception. Overall, our goals are to help clarify the complex theoretical issues at stake and suggest fruitful guidelines for empirical research.

  1. Is selective attention the basis for selective imitation in infants? An eye-tracking study of deferred imitation with 12-month-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Thorsten; Oturai, Gabriella; Knopf, Monika

    2014-08-01

    Infants and children do not blindly copy every action they observe during imitation tasks. Research demonstrated that infants are efficient selective imitators. The impact of selective perceptual processes (selective attention) for selective deferred imitation, however, is still poorly described. The current study, therefore, analyzed 12-month-old infants' looking behavior during demonstration of two types of target actions: arbitrary versus functional actions. A fully automated remote eye tracker was used to assess infants' looking behavior during action demonstration. After a 30-min delay, infants' deferred imitation performance was assessed. Next to replicating a memory effect, results demonstrate that infants do imitate significantly more functional actions than arbitrary actions (functionality effect). Eye-tracking data show that whereas infants do not fixate significantly longer on functional actions than on arbitrary actions, amount of fixations and amount of saccades differ between functional and arbitrary actions, indicating different encoding mechanisms. In addition, item-level findings differ from overall findings, indicating that perceptual and conceptual item features influence looking behavior. Looking behavior on both the overall and item levels, however, does not relate to deferred imitation performance. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that, on the one hand, selective imitation is not explainable merely by selective attention processes. On the other hand, notwithstanding this reasoning, attention processes on the item level are important for encoding processes during target action demonstration. Limitations and future studies are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effects of Rhythm and Robotic Interventions on the Imitation/Praxis, Interpersonal Synchrony, and Motor Performance of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sudha M.; Kaur, Maninderjit; Park, Isabel K.; Gifford, Timothy D.; Marsh, Kerry L.; Bhat, Anjana N.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the effects of three interventions, rhythm, robotic, and standard-of-care, on the imitation/praxis, interpersonal synchrony, and overall motor performance of 36 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) between 5 and 12 years of age. Children were matched on age, level of functioning, and services received, prior to random assignment to one of the three groups. Training was provided for 8 weeks with 4 sessions provided each week. We assessed generalized changes in motor skills from the pretest to the posttest using a standardized test of motor performance, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, 2nd edition (BOT-2). We also assessed training-specific changes in imitation/praxis and interpersonal synchrony during an early and a late session. Consistent with the training activities practiced, the rhythm and robot groups improved on the body coordination composite of the BOT-2, whereas the comparison group improved on the fine manual control composite of the BOT-2. All three groups demonstrated improvements in imitation/praxis. The rhythm and robot groups also showed improved interpersonal synchrony performance from the early to the late session. Overall, socially embedded movement-based contexts are valuable in promoting imitation/praxis, interpersonal synchrony, and motor performance and should be included within the standard-of-care treatment for children with ASD. PMID:26793394

  3. The Effects of Rhythm and Robotic Interventions on the Imitation/Praxis, Interpersonal Synchrony, and Motor Performance of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha M. Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the effects of three interventions, rhythm, robotic, and standard-of-care, on the imitation/praxis, interpersonal synchrony, and overall motor performance of 36 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD between 5 and 12 years of age. Children were matched on age, level of functioning, and services received, prior to random assignment to one of the three groups. Training was provided for 8 weeks with 4 sessions provided each week. We assessed generalized changes in motor skills from the pretest to the posttest using a standardized test of motor performance, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, 2nd edition (BOT-2. We also assessed training-specific changes in imitation/praxis and interpersonal synchrony during an early and a late session. Consistent with the training activities practiced, the rhythm and robot groups improved on the body coordination composite of the BOT-2, whereas the comparison group improved on the fine manual control composite of the BOT-2. All three groups demonstrated improvements in imitation/praxis. The rhythm and robot groups also showed improved interpersonal synchrony performance from the early to the late session. Overall, socially embedded movement-based contexts are valuable in promoting imitation/praxis, interpersonal synchrony, and motor performance and should be included within the standard-of-care treatment for children with ASD.

  4. Task-dependent and distinct roles of the temporoparietal junction and inferior frontal cortex in the control of imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeveen, Jeremy; Obhi, Sukhvinder S; Banissy, Michael J; Santiesteban, Idalmis; Press, Clare; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-07-01

    The control of neurological networks supporting social cognition is crucially important for social interaction. In particular, the control of imitation is directly linked to interaction quality, with impairments associated with disorders characterized by social difficulties. Previous work suggests inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) are involved in controlling imitation, but the functional roles of these areas remain unclear. Here, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was used to enhance cortical excitability at IFC and the TPJ prior to the completion of three tasks: (i) a naturalistic social interaction during which increased imitation is known to improve rapport, (ii) a choice reaction time task in which imitation needs to be inhibited for successful performance and (iii) a non-imitative control task. Relative to sham stimulation, stimulating IFC improved the context-dependent control of imitation-participants imitated more during the social interaction and less during the imitation inhibition task. In contrast, stimulating the TPJ reduced imitation in the inhibition task without affecting imitation during social interaction. Neither stimulation site affected the non-imitative control task. These data support a model in which IFC modulates imitation directly according to task demands, whereas TPJ controls task-appropriate shifts in attention toward representation of the self or the other, indirectly impacting upon imitation. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL) than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL) signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL) than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1) we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2). Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills were taken into

  6. Imitation, sign language skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil eHolmer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU model (Rönnberg et al., 2013 pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1 we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2. Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at the T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills

  7. Imitation of snack food intake among normal-weight and overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Hermans, Roel C J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether social modeling of palatable food intake might partially be explained by the direct imitation of a peer reaching for snack food and further, assessed the role of the children's own weight status on their likelihood of imitation during the social interaction. Real-time observations during a 10-min play situation in which 68 participants (27.9% overweight) interacted with normal-weight confederates (instructed peers) were conducted. Children's imitated and non-imitated responses to the confederate's food picking movements were compared using a paired sample t-test. In addition, the pattern of likelihood of imitation was tested using multilevel proportional hazard models in a survival analysis framework. Children were more likely to eat after observing a peer reaching for snack food than without such a cue [t (67) = 5.69, P imitation responses during a social interaction based on their weight status (HR = 2.6, P = 0.03, 95% CI = 1.09-6.20). Overweight children were almost twice as likely to imitate, whereas normal-weight children had a smaller chance to imitate at the end of the interaction. Further, the mean difference in the likelihood of imitation suggest that overweight children might be less likely to imitate in the beginning of the interaction than normal-weight children. The findings provide preliminary evidence that children's imitation food picking movements may partly contribute to social modeling effects on palatable food intake. That is, a peer reaching for food is likely to trigger children's snack intake. However, the influence of others on food intake is a complex process that might be explained by different theoretical perspectives.

  8. Anatomical and spatial matching in imitation: Evidence from left and right brain-damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengotti, Paola; Ripamonti, Enrico; Pesavento, Valentina; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida

    2015-12-01

    Imitation is a sensorimotor process whereby the visual information present in the model's movement has to be coupled with the activation of the motor system in the observer. This also implies that greater the similarity between the seen and the produced movement, the easier it will be to execute the movement, a process also known as ideomotor compatibility. Two components can influence the degree of similarity between two movements: the anatomical and the spatial component. The anatomical component is present when the model and imitator move the same body part (e.g., the right hand) while the spatial component is present when the movement of the model and that of the imitator occur at the same spatial position. Imitation can be achieved by relying on both components, but typically the model's and imitator's movements are matched either anatomically or spatially. The aim of this study was to ascertain the contribution of the left and right hemisphere to the imitation accomplished either with anatomical or spatial matching (or with both). Patients with unilateral left and right brain damage performed an ideomotor task and a gesture imitation task. Lesions in the left and right hemispheres gave rise to different performance deficits. Patients with lesions in the left hemisphere showed impaired imitation when anatomical matching was required, and patients with lesions in the right hemisphere showed impaired imitation when spatial matching was required. Lesion analysis further revealed a differential involvement of left and right hemispheric regions, such as the parietal opercula, in supporting imitation in the ideomotor task. Similarly, gesture imitation seemed to rely on different regions in the left and right hemisphere, such as parietal regions in the left hemisphere and premotor, somatosensory and subcortical regions in the right hemisphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Quality of Imitation Crab Meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charoen, Saovapong; Sajjabut, Surasak

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Irradiation at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy of some commercial imitation crab meats with non-vacuum packaging reduced the total viable count by 1-2 log cycles, while coliform and Staphylococcus aureus were eliminated by 1.5 kGy gamma radiation. Although TBA number of 1 and 1.5 kGy irradiated samples increased significantly, but the sensory evaluation did not show any significant differences compared with the controls. Radiation dosage of 1.5 kGy appeared to be sufficient for improving bacterial quality and eliminating coliform and Staphylococcus aureus

  10. The random signal generator of imitated nuclear radiation pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongcang; Yang Lei; Yuan Shulin; Yang Yinghui; Zang Fujia

    2007-01-01

    Based in pseudo-random uniformity number, it produces random numbers of Gaussian distribution and exponential distribution by arithmetic. The hardware is the single-chip microcomputer of 89C51. Program language makes use of Keil C. The output pulse amplitude is Gaussian distribution, exponential distribution or uniformity distribution. Likewise, it has two mode or upwards two. The time alternation of output pulse is both periodic and exponential distribution. The generator has achieved output control of multi-mode distribution, imitated random characteristic of nuclear pulse in amplitude and in time. (authors)

  11. Intonation processing in congenital amusia: discrimination, identification and imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Patel, Aniruddh D; Fourcin, Adrian; Stewart, Lauren

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated whether congenital amusia, a neuro-developmental disorder of musical perception, also has implications for speech intonation processing. In total, 16 British amusics and 16 matched controls completed five intonation perception tasks and two pitch threshold tasks. Compared with controls, amusics showed impaired performance on discrimination, identification and imitation of statements and questions that were characterized primarily by pitch direction differences in the final word. This intonation-processing deficit in amusia was largely associated with a psychophysical pitch direction discrimination deficit. These findings suggest that amusia impacts upon one's language abilities in subtle ways, and support previous evidence that pitch processing in language and music involves shared mechanisms.

  12. The trouble with memes : Inference versus imitation in cultural creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atran, S

    2001-12-01

    Memes are hypothetical cultural units passed on by imitation; although nonbiological, they undergo Darwinian selection like genes. Cognitive study of multimodular human minds undermines memetics: unlike in genetic replication, high-fidelity transmission of cultural information is the exception, not the rule. Constant, rapid "mutation" of information during communication generates endlessly varied creations that nevertheless adhere to modular input conditions. The sort of cultural information most susceptible to modular processing is that most readily acquired by children, most easily transmitted across individuals, most apt to survive within a culture, most likely to recur in different cultures, and most disposed to cultural variation and elaboration.

  13. Development and implementation of an objective structured clinical examination to provide formative feedback on communication and interpersonal skills in geriatric training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Patricia; Chao, Serena; Russell, Matthew; Levine, Sharon; Fabiny, Anne

    2008-09-01

    Teaching and assessment of communication and interpersonal skills, one of the American Council for Graduate Medical Education-designated core competencies, is an important but difficult task in the training of physicians. Assessment of trainees offers an opportunity to provide explicit feedback on their skills and encourages learning. This article describes a pilot study in which clinician-educators affiliated with the geriatrics training programs at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Boston University Medical Center designed and piloted a novel Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to assess the communication and interpersonal skills of medical, dental, and geriatric psychiatry fellows. The OSCE consisted of three stations where geriatricians and standardized patients evaluated candidates using specifically designed checklists and an abbreviated version of the Master Interview Rating Scale. Communication skills were assessed through performance of specific "real life" clinical tasks, such as obtaining a medical history, explaining a diagnosis and prognosis, giving therapeutic instructions, and counseling. Interpersonal skills were assessed through the effect of the communication between doctor and standardized patient on fostering trust, relieving anxiety, and establishing a therapeutic relationship. This pilot study demonstrated that the OSCE format of assessment provides a valid means of evaluating the communication and interpersonal skills of interdisciplinary geriatric trainees and provides a valuable forum for formative assessment and feedback. Given that geriatricians and non geriatricians involved in elder care both need communication and interpersonal skills, this novel OSCE can be used for assessment of these skills in trainees in diverse healthcare subspecialties.

  14. The Relation between Contingency Preference and Imitation in 6-8-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Radukic, Sarah; Zmyj, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Detecting self-generated actions and imitating other-generated actions are important abilities in order to interact with others. The relationship between these domains was investigated in 6-8-month-old infants. In a contingency-preference task, infants observed their own legs on a real-time and a delayed video display. In an imitation task, the…

  15. Do Imitation Problems Reflect a Core Characteristic in Autism? Evidence from a Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvuchelen, Marleen; Roeyers, Herbert; De Weerdt, Willy

    2011-01-01

    Although imitation problems have been associated with autism for many years, the issue if these problems are a core deficit in autism remains subject of debate. In this review article, the question if autism imitation problems fulfil the criteria of uniqueness, specificity, universality, persistency, precedence and broadness is explored and…

  16. Exploring the Relationship between Gestural Recognition and Imitation: Evidence of Dyspraxia in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Heidi Stieglitz; Bartolo, Angela; Corley, Martin; Rajendran, Gnanathusharan; Szabo, Aniko; Swanson, Sara

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between gesture recognition and imitation was explored. Nineteen individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) were compared to a control group of 23 typically developing children on their ability to imitate and recognize three gesture types (transitive, intransitive, and pantomimes). The ASD group performed more…

  17. Authenticity and Imitation in Translating Exposition: A Corpus-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmgrab, Ramadan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Many Western scholars such as Dryden show little interest in imitations, and express their preference for translations, i.e. paraphrases that are faithful to the sense of the source text. However, they consider imitations as a viable category of translation. It is the degree of freedom, or departure from the original, that differentiates a…

  18. 25 CFR 141.27 - Trade in imitation Indian crafts prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade in imitation Indian crafts prohibited. 141.27 Section 141.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.27 Trade in imitation...

  19. Autism Severity and Motor Abilities Correlates of Imitation Situations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachor, Ditza A.; Ilanit, Tzaig; Itzchak, Esther Ben

    2010-01-01

    Impaired performance in a range of imitation tasks has been described in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and several underlying mechanism have been suggested. This study examined whether imitation abilities are related to autism severity and to motor skills. Furthermore, the performance of children with ASD in four imitation…

  20. Imitation from 12 to 24 Months in Autism and Typical Development: A Longitudinal Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gregory S.; Rogers, Sally J.; Hutman, Ted; Rozga, Agata; Sigman, Marian; Ozonoff, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The development of imitation during the second year of life plays an important role in domains of sociocognitive development such as language and social learning. Deficits in imitation ability in persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from toddlerhood into adulthood have also been repeatedly documented, raising the possibility that early…

  1. Neural activation during imitation with or without performance feedback: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaihua; Wang, Hui; Dong, Guangheng; Wang, Mengxing; Zhang, Jilei; Zhang, Hui; Meng, Weixia; Du, Xiaoxia

    2016-08-26

    In our daily lives, we often receive performance feedback (PF) during imitative learning, and we adjust our behaviors accordingly to improve performance. However, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying this learning process. We hypothesized that appropriate PF would enhance neural activation or recruit additional brain areas during subsequent action imitation. Pictures of 20 different finger gestures without any social meaning were shown to participants from the first-person perspective. Imitation with or without PF was investigated by functional magnetic resonance imaging in 30 healthy subjects. The PF was given by a real person or by a computer. PF from a real person induced hyperactivation of the parietal lobe (precuneus and cuneus), cingulate cortex (posterior and anterior), temporal lobe (superior and transverse temporal gyri), and cerebellum (posterior and anterior lobes) during subsequent imitation. The positive PF and negative PF from a real person, induced the activation of more brain areas during the following imitation. The hyperactivation of the cerebellum, posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, and cuneus suggests that the subjects exhibited enhanced motor control and visual attention during imitation after PF. Additionally, random PF from a computer had a small effect on the next imitation. We suggest that positive and accurate PF may be helpful for imitation learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reproductive isolation related to mimetic divergence in the poison frog Ranitomeya imitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twomey, Evan; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Summers, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    study the Peruvian poison frog Ranitomeya imitator, a species that has undergone a mimetic radiation into four distinct morphs. Using a combination of colour–pattern analysis, landscape genetics and mate-choice experiments, we show that a mimetic shift in R. imitator is associated with a narrow...

  3. Study on ancient Chinese imitated GE ware by INAA and WDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Guoxi; Feng Songlin; Feng Xiangqian; Wang Yanqing; Zhu Jihao; Yan Lingtong; Li Yongqiang; Han Hongye

    2007-01-01

    Imitated GE ware was one of the most famous products of Jingdezhen porcelain field in Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The exterior features of its body and glaze are very marvelous. Black foot, purple mouth and crazing glaze are the main features of imitated GE ware. Until now, the key conditions of resulting these features are not clearly identified. In order to find the critical elements for firing these features, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) were used to determine the element abundance patterns of imitated GE ware body and glaze. The experimental data was compared with that of imitated Longquan celadon and of Longquan celadon. The analytical results indicated that Fe, Ti and Na were the critical elements. The body of imitated GE ware which contains high Fe and Ti are the basic conditions of firing its black body, black foot and purple mouth. The glaze of imitated GE ware which contains high Na is the main condition of producing its crazing glaze. Na is the critical element which enlarges the difference in expansion coefficients between the glaze and body of imitated GE ware. Furthermore, Zijin soil was added into kaolin to make the body rich in Fe and Ti. And something which was rich in Na was used to produce crazing glaze in the manufacturing process of imitated GE ware

  4. The Left, The Better: White-Matter Brain Integrity Predicts Foreign Language Imitation Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Lucía; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Reiterer, Susanne M

    2017-08-01

    Speech imitation is crucial for language acquisition and second-language learning. Interestingly, large individual differences regarding the ability in imitating foreign-language sounds have been observed. The origin of this interindividual diversity remains unknown, although it might be partially explained by structural predispositions. Here we correlated white-matter structural properties of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) with the performance of 52 German-speakers in a Hindi sentence- and word-imitation task. First, a manual reconstruction was performed, permitting us to extract the mean values along the three branches of the AF. We found that a larger lateralization of the AF volume toward the left hemisphere predicted the performance of our participants in the imitation task. Second, an automatic reconstruction was carried out, allowing us to localize the specific region within the AF that exhibited the largest correlation with foreign language imitation. Results of this reconstruction also showed a left lateralization trend: greater fractional anisotropy values in the anterior half of the left AF correlated with the performance in the Hindi-imitation task. From the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that foreign language imitation aptitude is tested using a more ecological imitation task and correlated with DTI tractography, using both a manual and an automatic method. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Sentence Imitation as a Marker of SLI in Czech: Disproportionate Impairment of Verbs and Clitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolík, Filip; Vávru, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined sentence imitation as a potential clinical marker of specific language impairment (SLI) in Czech and its use to identify grammatical markers of SLI. Method: Children with SLI and the age-and language-matched control groups (total N = 57) were presented with a sentence imitation task, a receptive vocabulary task, and…

  6. The Effects of Reciprocal Imitation on Teacher-Student Relationships and Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiangyuan

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscientific and developmental psychological research in imitation has yielded important insights into building teacher-student relationships and enhancing students' learning. This study investigated the effects of reciprocal imitation on teacher-student relationships and students' learning outcomes in one-on-one teacher-student interactions.…

  7. Contingent Imitation Increases Verbal Interaction in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Yuka; Yamamoto, Jun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that contingent adult imitation increase nonverbal communication, such as attention and proximity to adults, in children with autism spectrum disorders. However, few studies have shown the effect of contingent imitation on verbal communication. This study examined whether children with autism were able to promote…

  8. Interindividual Differences in Neonatal Imitation and the Development of Action Chains in Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Paukner, Annika; Ruggiero, Angela; Darcey, Lisa; Unbehagen, Sarah; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    The capacity to imitate facial gestures is highly variable in rhesus macaques and this variability may be related to differences in specific neurobehavioral patterns of development. This study evaluated the differential neonatal imitative response of 41 macaques in relation to the development of sensory, motor, and cognitive skills throughout the…

  9. Screening suspected counterfeit Viagra and imitations of Viagra with near-infrared spectroscopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredenbregt, M J; Blok-Tip, L; Hoogerbrugge, Ronald; Barends, D M; Kaste, D de

    2006-01-01

    We describe a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method for fast-screening Viagra tablets, counterfeit Viagra tablets, and imitations of Viagra. The method can (1) check the homogeneity of a batch; (2) distinguish counterfeits and imitations from authentic Viagra; (3) screen for the presence of

  10. Children's Faithfulness in Imitating Language Use Varies Cross-culturally, Contingent on Prior Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Jörn; Mayor, Julien; Bannard, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Despite its recognized importance for cultural transmission, little is known about the role imitation plays in language learning. Three experiments examine how rates of imitation vary as a function of qualitative differences in the way language is used in a small indigenous community in Oaxaca, Mexico and three Western comparison groups. Data from…

  11. Out-of-category brand imitation : Product categorization determines copycat evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Horen, F.; Pieters, Rik

    2017-01-01

    Copycat brands imitate the trade dress of other brands, such as their brand name, logo, and packaging design. Copycats typically operate in the core product category of the imitated brand under the assumption that such “in-category imitation” is most effective. In contrast, four experiments

  12. Is It Rational to Assume that Infants Imitate Rationally? A Theoretical Analysis and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that preverbal infants evaluate the efficiency of others' actions (by applying a "principle of rational action") and that they imitate others' actions rationally. The present contribution presents a conceptual analysis of the claim that preverbal infants imitate rationally. It shows that this ability rests on at least three…

  13. What Infant Memory Tells Us about Infantile Amnesia: Long-Term Recall and Deferred Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    1995-01-01

    Long-term recall memory was assessed in 14- and 16 month-olds using a nonverbal method requiring subjects to reenact a past event from memory. The results demonstrated significant deferred imitation after delays of two and four months, and that the toddlers retained and imitated multiple acts. (MDM)

  14. Robots Learn to Recognize Individuals from Imitative Encounters with People and Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucenna, Sofiane; Cohen, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Gaussier, Philippe; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2016-02-01

    Prior to language, human infants are prolific imitators. Developmental science grounds infant imitation in the neural coding of actions, and highlights the use of imitation for learning from and about people. Here, we used computational modeling and a robot implementation to explore the functional value of action imitation. We report 3 experiments using a mutual imitation task between robots, adults, typically developing children, and children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. We show that a particular learning architecture - specifically one combining artificial neural nets for (i) extraction of visual features, (ii) the robot’s motor internal state, (iii) posture recognition, and (iv) novelty detection - is able to learn from an interactive experience involving mutual imitation. This mutual imitation experience allowed the robot to recognize the interactive agent in a subsequent encounter. These experiments using robots as tools for modeling human cognitive development, based on developmental theory, confirm the promise of developmental robotics. Additionally, findings illustrate how person recognition may emerge through imitative experience, intercorporeal mapping, and statistical learning.

  15. Effects of reputational sanctions on the competitive imitation of design innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemser, G.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines whether and under what conditions reputational sanctions are a strong deterrent to imitative firm behaviour. Results indicate that reputational sanctions can be an effective barrier to imitation, in particular when firms perceive a reputation for innovation to be a factor in

  16. Study on ancient Chinese imitated GE ware by INAA and WDXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoxi; Feng, Songlin; Feng, Xiangqian; Wang, Yanqing; Zhu, Jihao; Yan, Lingtong; Li, Yongqiang; Han, Hongye

    2007-11-01

    Imitated GE ware was one of the most famous products of Jingdezhen porcelain field in Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The exterior features of its body and glaze are very marvelous. Black foot, purple mouth and crazing glaze are the main features of imitated GE ware. Until now, the key conditions of resulting these features are not clearly identified. In order to find the critical elements for firing these features, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) were used to determine the element abundance patterns of imitated GE ware body and glaze. The experimental data was compared with that of imitated Longquan celadon and of Longquan celadon. The analytical results indicated that Fe, Ti and Na were the critical elements. The body of imitated GE ware which contains high Fe and Ti are the basic conditions of firing its black body, black foot and purple mouth. The glaze of imitated GE ware which contains high Na is the main condition of producing its crazing glaze. Na is the critical element which enlarges the difference in expansion coefficients between the glaze and body of imitated GE ware. Furthermore, Zijin soil was added into kaolin to make the body rich in Fe and Ti. And something which was rich in Na was used to produce crazing glaze in the manufacturing process of imitated GE ware.

  17. Study on ancient Chinese imitated GE ware by INAA and WDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guoxi [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduated University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng Songlin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: fengsl@ihep.ac.cn; Feng Xiangqian; Wang Yanqing; Zhu Jihao; Yan Lingtong [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Yongqiang; Han Hongye [Beijing Institute of Cultural Relics, Beijing 100009 (China)

    2007-11-15

    Imitated GE ware was one of the most famous products of Jingdezhen porcelain field in Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The exterior features of its body and glaze are very marvelous. Black foot, purple mouth and crazing glaze are the main features of imitated GE ware. Until now, the key conditions of resulting these features are not clearly identified. In order to find the critical elements for firing these features, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) were used to determine the element abundance patterns of imitated GE ware body and glaze. The experimental data was compared with that of imitated Longquan celadon and of Longquan celadon. The analytical results indicated that Fe, Ti and Na were the critical elements. The body of imitated GE ware which contains high Fe and Ti are the basic conditions of firing its black body, black foot and purple mouth. The glaze of imitated GE ware which contains high Na is the main condition of producing its crazing glaze. Na is the critical element which enlarges the difference in expansion coefficients between the glaze and body of imitated GE ware. Furthermore, Zijin soil was added into kaolin to make the body rich in Fe and Ti. And something which was rich in Na was used to produce crazing glaze in the manufacturing process of imitated GE ware.

  18. Effects of Context and Facial Expression on Imitation Tasks in Preschool Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markodimitraki, Maria; Kypriotaki, Maria; Ampartzaki, Maria; Manolitsis, George

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored the effect of the context in which an imitation act occurs (elicited/spontaneous) and the experimenter's facial expression (neutral or smiling) during the imitation task with young children with autism and typically developing children. The participants were 10 typically developing children and 10 children with autism…

  19. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Postgraduate General Medicine Training by Objective Structured Clinical Examination—Pilot Study and Reflection on the Experiences of Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jer-Chia Tsai

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective structured clinical examination (OSCE is an effective assessment method to evaluate medical students' clinical competencies performance. Postgraduate year 1 (PGY1 residents have been initiated in a general medicine training program in Taiwan since 2003. However, little is known about the learning effectiveness of trainees from this program. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the clinical core competencies of PGY1 residents using OSCE, and to reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of this pilot assessment project. OSCE was conducted for five PGY1 examinees (4 men, 1 woman with five stations covering core themes, including history taking, physical examination, clinical procedure of airway intubation, clinical reasoning, and communication skills for informing bad news. Itemized checklists and five-point Likert scale global ratings were used for evaluating performance. The results showed that the performance of our PGY1 residents on history taking was significantly better after about 2 months of postgraduate training on general internal medicine. Self-evaluation on performance by examinees revealed significantly lower global ratings on post-course OSCE (4.14 ± 0.80 vs. 3.68 ± 0.66; p < 0.02. Surveys from tutors and standardized patients (SPs completed at pre- and post-course OSCEs showed consistently favorable responses on the purposes, content, process, and environment of this assessment (4.0 ± 0.17 vs. 4.0 ± 0.12, nonsignificant. However, a survey of the examinees completed at preand post-course OSCEs showed relatively unfavorable responses to the same aspects, and to tutors and SPs (4.1 ± 0.09 vs. 3.7 ± 0.18; p < 0.05. Qualitative information revealed that tutors and SPs remarked that PGY1 residents' medical knowledge performance was satisfactory but their clinical reasoning performance, communication skills (giving bad news and self-confidence were unsatisfactory. In conclusion, this pilot study has demonstrated that OSCE is a

  20. Mirror neurons and imitation: a computationally guided review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztop, Erhan; Kawato, Mitsuo; Arbib, Michael

    2006-04-01

    Neurophysiology reveals the properties of individual mirror neurons in the macaque while brain imaging reveals the presence of 'mirror systems' (not individual neurons) in the human. Current conceptual models attribute high level functions such as action understanding, imitation, and language to mirror neurons. However, only the first of these three functions is well-developed in monkeys. We thus distinguish current opinions (conceptual models) on mirror neuron function from more detailed computational models. We assess the strengths and weaknesses of current computational models in addressing the data and speculations on mirror neurons (macaque) and mirror systems (human). In particular, our mirror neuron system (MNS), mental state inference (MSI) and modular selection and identification for control (MOSAIC) models are analyzed in more detail. Conceptual models often overlook the computational requirements for posited functions, while too many computational models adopt the erroneous hypothesis that mirror neurons are interchangeable with imitation ability. Our meta-analysis underlines the gap between conceptual and computational models and points out the research effort required from both sides to reduce this gap.

  1. Relations between 18-month-olds' gaze pattern and target action performance: a deferred imitation study with eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Óturai, Gabriella; Kolling, Thorsten; Knopf, Monika

    2013-12-01

    Deferred imitation studies are used to assess infants' declarative memory performance. These studies have found that deferred imitation performance improves with age, which is usually attributed to advancing memory capabilities. Imitation studies, however, are also used to assess infants' action understanding. In this second research program it has been observed that infants around the age of one year imitate selectively, i.e., they imitate certain kinds of target actions and omit others. In contrast to this, two-year-olds usually imitate the model's exact actions. 18-month-olds imitate more exactly than one-year-olds, but more selectively than two-year-olds, a fact which makes this age group especially interesting, since the processes underlying selective vs. exact imitation are largely debated. The question, for example, if selective attention to certain kinds of target actions accounts for preferential imitation of these actions in young infants is still open. Additionally, relations between memory capabilities and selective imitation processes, as well as their role in shaping 18-month-olds' neither completely selective, nor completely exact imitation have not been thoroughly investigated yet. The present study, therefore, assessed 18-month-olds' gaze toward two types of actions (functional vs. arbitrary target actions) and the model's face during target action demonstration, as well as infants' deferred imitation performance. Although infants' fixation times to functional target actions were not longer than to arbitrary target actions, they imitated the functional target actions more frequently than the arbitrary ones. This suggests that selective imitation does not rely on selective gaze toward functional target actions during the demonstration phase. In addition, a post hoc analysis of interindividual differences suggested that infants' attention to the model's social-communicative cues might play an important role in exact imitation, meaning the imitation

  2. Imitation of the sequential structure of actions by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, A

    1998-09-01

    Imitation was studied experimentally by allowing chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to observe alternative patterns of actions for opening a specially designed "artificial fruit." Like problematic foods primates deal with naturally, with the test fruit several defenses had to be removed to gain access to an edible core, but the sequential order and method of defense removal could be systematically varied. Each subject repeatedly observed 1 of 2 alternative techniques for removing each defense and 1 of 2 alternative sequential patterns of defense removal. Imitation of sequential organization emerged after repeated cycles of demonstration and attempts at opening the fruit. Imitation in chimpanzees may thus have some power to produce cultural convergence, counter to the supposition that individual learning processes corrupt copied actions. Imitation of sequential organization was accompanied by imitation of some aspects of the techniques that made up the sequence.

  3. Vocal Imitation in Parrots Allows Addressing of Specific Individuals in a Dynamic Communication Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balsby, T.J.S.; Momberg, J.V.; Dabelsteen, T.

    2012-01-01

    €“fronted conures live in fission-fusion flocks where they encounter many different individuals every day, and it is possible that their vocal imitation ability is a flexible means to address a specific individual within a flock. We tested this via playback to short-term captive wild conures. Test birds were placed...... together in pairs in outdoor aviaries to form simple flocks. To simulate imitation of a specific individual these pairs received playback of contact calls that primarily imitate one of the two birds. Overall, individuals that received simulated vocal imitations of its calls responded more frequently...... and faster than the other individual. This suggests that orange-fronted conures can use imitations of contact calls to address specific individuals of a flock. In the discussion we argue that the fission-fusion flock dynamics of many parrot species has been an important factor in evolving conures´ and other...

  4. Do as I … Did! Long-term memory of imitative actions in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazza, Claudia; Pogány, Ákos; Miklósi, Ádám

    2016-03-01

    This study demonstrates long-term declarative memory of imitative actions in a non-human animal species. We tested 12 pet dogs for their ability to imitate human actions after retention intervals ranging from 1 to 24 h. For comparison, another 12 dogs were tested for the same actions without delay between demonstration and recall. Our test consisted of a modified version of the Do as I Do paradigm, combined with the two-action procedure to control for non-imitative processes. Imitative performance of dogs remained consistently high independent of increasing retention intervals, supporting the idea that dogs are able to retain mental representations of human actions for an extended period of time. The ability to imitate after such delays supports the use of long-term declarative memory.

  5. See What I See, Do as I Do: Promoting Joint Attention and Imitation in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warreyn, Petra; Roeyers, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Since imitation and joint attention are both important abilities for young children and since children with autism spectrum disorder show a range of problems in these domains, imitation and joint attention are important targets for intervention. In this study, we examined the possibility of promoting imitation and joint attention by means of a…

  6. Young Children's Imitative and Innovative Behaviour on the Floating Object Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Past research has shown that children will copy the actions of adults with high fidelity, even actions that are obviously causally irrelevant to the modelled outcome. However, this phenomenon has always been documented in cases where a clear functional outcome has been brought about (e.g. getting a box open to retrieve a toy). Here, we demonstrate…

  7. Exploring Spontaneous Imitation in Infancy: A Three Generation Inter-Familial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theano Kokkinaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to advance our understanding regarding the role of the extended family interactional context for early mother-infant communication, we compared spontaneous early imitative exchanges in dyadic interactions between mothers and infants (Group 1, N = 26 who had no frequent contact with maternal grandmothers, to imitations in two familial subgroups (Group 2, N = 48: (a dyadic interactions of infants with their mothers, and (b with their grandmothers–persons who had frequent contact with the infant. Spontaneous dyadic interactions of infants with their mothers and grandmothers were video-recorded at home from the 2nd to the 10th month of their life. Both comparisons provided evidence of similar frequency of imitative exchanges and developmental trajectories of infant imitations, but also differences in the structure of imitation, the kinds of imitated behaviors and the temporal patterns of imitative components. In the frame of the theory of Innate Intersubjectivity, we assume that differential early family interaction may be related to variations in three fundamental dimensions of infant-significant other communication: “kinematics” (temporal patterns, “physiognomics” (spatial patterns or forms and “energetics” (force or effort. These variations may affect the child’s ability for regulation and negotiation of interpersonal challenges within and outside the family context.

  8. The association between imitation recognition and socio-communicative competencies in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Sarah M; Russell, Jamie L; Hopkins, William D

    2015-01-01

    Imitation recognition provides a viable platform from which advanced social cognitive skills may develop. Despite evidence that non-human primates are capable of imitation recognition, how this ability is related to social cognitive skills is unknown. In this study, we compared imitation recognition performance, as indicated by the production of testing behaviors, with performance on a series of tasks that assess social and physical cognition in 49 chimpanzees. In the initial analyses, we found that males were more responsive than females to being imitated and engaged in significantly greater behavior repetitions and testing sequences. We also found that subjects who consistently recognized being imitated performed better on social but not physical cognitive tasks, as measured by the Primate Cognitive Test Battery. These findings suggest that the neural constructs underlying imitation recognition are likely associated with or among those underlying more general socio-communicative abilities in chimpanzees. Implications regarding how imitation recognition may facilitate other social cognitive processes, such as mirror self-recognition, are discussed.

  9. The relationship between attention and deferred imitation in 12-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmyj, Norbert; Schölmerich, Axel; Daum, Moritz M

    2017-08-01

    Imitation is a frequent behavior in the first years of life, and serves both a social function (e.g., to interact with others) and a cognitive function (e.g., to learn a new skill). Infants differ in their temperament, and temperament might be related to the dominance of one function of imitation. In this study, we investigated whether temperament and deferred imitation are related in 12-month-old infants. Temperament was measured via the Infant Behavior Questionnaire Revised (IBQ-R) and parts of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB). Deferred imitation was measured via the Frankfurt Imitation Test for 12-month-olds (FIT-12). Regression analyses revealed that the duration of orienting (IBQ-R) and the latency of the first look away in the Task Orientation task (Lab-TAB) predicted the infants' imitation score. These results suggest that attention-related processes may play a major role when infants start to imitate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Imitation and matching of meaningless gestures: distinct involvement from motor and visual imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesourd, Mathieu; Navarro, Jordan; Baumard, Josselin; Jarry, Christophe; Le Gall, Didier; Osiurak, François

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand the underlying cognitive processes of imitation and matching of meaningless gestures. Neuropsychological evidence obtained in brain damaged patients, has shown that distinct cognitive processes supported imitation and matching of meaningless gestures. Left-brain damaged (LBD) patients failed to imitate while right-brain damaged (RBD) patients failed to match meaningless gestures. Moreover, other studies with brain damaged patients showed that LBD patients were impaired in motor imagery while RBD patients were impaired in visual imagery. Thus, we hypothesize that imitation of meaningless gestures might rely on motor imagery, whereas matching of meaningless gestures might be based on visual imagery. In a first experiment, using a correlational design, we demonstrated that posture imitation relies on motor imagery but not on visual imagery (Experiment 1a) and that posture matching relies on visual imagery but not on motor imagery (Experiment 1b). In a second experiment, by manipulating directly the body posture of the participants, we demonstrated that such manipulation evokes a difference only in imitation task but not in matching task. In conclusion, the present study provides direct evidence that the way we imitate or we have to compare postures depends on motor imagery or visual imagery, respectively. Our results are discussed in the light of recent findings about underlying mechanisms of meaningful and meaningless gestures.

  11. Comprehensive Longitudinal Study Challenges the Existence of Neonatal Imitation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostenbroek, Janine; Suddendorf, Thomas; Nielsen, Mark; Redshaw, Jonathan; Kennedy-Costantini, Siobhan; Davis, Jacqueline; Clark, Sally; Slaughter, Virginia

    2016-05-23

    Human children copy others' actions with high fidelity, supporting early cultural learning and assisting in the development and maintenance of behavioral traditions [1]. Imitation has long been assumed to occur from birth [2-4], with influential theories (e.g., [5-7]) placing an innate imitation module at the foundation of social cognition (potentially underpinned by a mirror neuron system [8, 9]). Yet, the very phenomenon of neonatal imitation has remained controversial. Empirical support is mixed and interpretations are varied [10-16], potentially because previous investigations have relied heavily on cross-sectional designs with relatively small samples and with limited controls [17, 18]. Here, we report surprising results from the most comprehensive longitudinal study of neonatal imitation to date. We presented infants (n = 106) with nine social and two non-social models and scored their responses at 1, 3, 6, and 9 weeks of age. Longitudinal analyses indicated that the infants did not imitate any of the models, as they were just as likely to produce the gestures in response to control models as they were to matching models. Previous positive findings were replicated in limited cross-sections of the data, but the overall analyses confirmed these findings to be mere artifacts of restricted comparison conditions. Our results undermine the idea of an innate imitation module and suggest that earlier studies reporting neonatal imitation were methodologically limited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional Specificity and Sex Differences in the Neural Circuits Supporting the Inhibition of Automatic Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darda, Kohinoor M; Butler, Emily E; Ramsey, Richard

    2018-06-01

    Humans show an involuntary tendency to copy other people's actions. Although automatic imitation builds rapport and affiliation between individuals, we do not copy actions indiscriminately. Instead, copying behaviors are guided by a selection mechanism, which inhibits some actions and prioritizes others. To date, the neural underpinnings of the inhibition of automatic imitation and differences between the sexes in imitation control are not well understood. Previous studies involved small sample sizes and low statistical power, which produced mixed findings regarding the involvement of domain-general and domain-specific neural architectures. Here, we used data from Experiment 1 ( N = 28) to perform a power analysis to determine the sample size required for Experiment 2 ( N = 50; 80% power). Using independent functional localizers and an analysis pipeline that bolsters sensitivity, during imitation control we show clear engagement of the multiple-demand network (domain-general), but no sensitivity in the theory-of-mind network (domain-specific). Weaker effects were observed with regard to sex differences, suggesting that there are more similarities than differences between the sexes in terms of the neural systems engaged during imitation control. In summary, neurocognitive models of imitation require revision to reflect that the inhibition of imitation relies to a greater extent on a domain-general selection system rather than a domain-specific system that supports social cognition.

  13. Phonetic imitation from an individual-difference perspective: subjective attitude, personality and "autistic" traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Alan C L; Abrego-Collier, Carissa; Sonderegger, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker's likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual) and the outcome (positive vs. negative) of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant's subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant's personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching.

  14. Phonetic imitation from an individual-difference perspective: subjective attitude, personality and "autistic" traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan C L Yu

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker's likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual and the outcome (positive vs. negative of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant's subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant's personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching.

  15. Phonetic Imitation from an Individual-Difference Perspective: Subjective Attitude, Personality and “Autistic” Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Alan C. L.; Abrego-Collier, Carissa; Sonderegger, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker’s likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual) and the outcome (positive vs. negative) of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant’s subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant’s personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching. PMID:24098665

  16. A Bayesian Developmental Approach to Robotic Goal-Based Imitation Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Jae-Yoon Chung

    Full Text Available A fundamental challenge in robotics today is building robots that can learn new skills by observing humans and imitating human actions. We propose a new Bayesian approach to robotic learning by imitation inspired by the developmental hypothesis that children use self-experience to bootstrap the process of intention recognition and goal-based imitation. Our approach allows an autonomous agent to: (i learn probabilistic models of actions through self-discovery and experience, (ii utilize these learned models for inferring the goals of human actions, and (iii perform goal-based imitation for robotic learning and human-robot collaboration. Such an approach allows a robot to leverage its increasing repertoire of learned behaviors to interpret increasingly complex human actions and use the inferred goals for imitation, even when the robot has very different actuators from humans. We demonstrate our approach using two different scenarios: (i a simulated robot that learns human-like gaze following behavior, and (ii a robot that learns to imitate human actions in a tabletop organization task. In both cases, the agent learns a probabilistic model of its own actions, and uses this model for goal inference and goal-based imitation. We also show that the robotic agent can use its probabilistic model to seek human assistance when it recognizes that its inferred actions are too uncertain, risky, or impossible to perform, thereby opening the door to human-robot collaboration.

  17. EEG Mu Rhythm and Imitation Impairments in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, R.; Dawson, G.; Webb, S.; Murias, M.

    2009-01-01

    Imitation ability has consistently been shown to be impaired in individuals with autism. A dysfunctional execution/observation matching system has been proposed to account for this impairment. The EEG mu rhythm is believed to reflect an underlying execution/observation matching system. This study investigated evidence of differential mu rhythm attenuation during the observation, execution, and imitation of movements and examined its relation to behaviorally assessed imitation abilities. Fourteen high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 15 IQ- and age-matched typical adults participated. On the behavioral imitation task, adults with ASD demonstrated significantly poorer performance compared to typical adults in all domains of imitation ability. On the EEG task, both groups demonstrated significant attenuation of the mu rhythm when executing an action. However, when observing movement, the individuals with ASD showed significantly reduced attenuation of the mu wave. Behaviorally assessed imitation skills were correlated with degree of mu wave attenuation during observation of movement. These findings suggest that there is execution/observation matching system dysfunction in individuals with autism and that this matching system is related to degree of impairment in imitation abilities. PMID:17451856

  18. Challenges in adapting imitation and reinforcement learning to compliant robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calinon Sylvain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an exponential increase of the range of tasks that robots are forecasted to accomplish. (Reprogramming these robots becomes a critical issue for their commercialization and for their applications to real-world scenarios in which users without expertise in robotics wish to adapt the robot to their needs. This paper addresses the problem of designing userfriendly human-robot interfaces to transfer skills in a fast and efficient manner. This paper presents recent work conducted at the Learning and Interaction group at ADVR-IIT, ranging from skill acquisition through kinesthetic teaching to self-refinement strategies initiated from demonstrations. Our group started to explore the use of imitation and exploration strategies that can take advantage of the compliant capabilities of recent robot hardware and control architectures.

  19. Imitation modelling in metallography; Imitatsionnye metody issledovania v radiatsionnom metallovedenii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechenyakov, I; Georgiev, J [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. po Metaloznanie i Tekhnologiya na Metalite

    1996-12-31

    A brief review of investigations made in the Institute of Metallography at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences applying modern imitation methods is presented. Radiation damage in metals and alloys after ion implantation, H{sub 2} or He glow discharge exposure and electrolytic hydrogenation has been used to study crystal lattice changes and their effect on physical properties. Surface modification of steel samples of various composition have been studied. An apparatus for quantitative H{sub 2} determination has been constructed and methods for measurement of H{sub 2} permeability and H{sub 2} diffusion coefficients in metal alloys have been proposed. The correlation between H{sub 2} concentration, mechanical characteristics and physical properties of construction steel samples has been studied.

  20. Media influenced imitative hanging: a report from West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A N; Brahma, A; Banerjee, S; Biswas, M K

    2007-01-01

    Media influences behaviour, especially of the young children and adolescents in various ways. The present study examined the media coverage of a judicial hanging and its immediate social effect. In a qualitative study the media coverage of a case of a judicial hanging was thoroughly discussed and the media influence, for over a period of ten weeks of the incident, in terms of suicide and copying of hanging among children, was collected and analysed. Eighteen cases were reported as an aftermath of this hanging: 1 suicide and 17 imitative hanging in children with 5 deaths. This report calls for attention that media should be cautious and responsible in presenting the news items that have potential social impact.

  1. Beyond rational imitation: learning arbitrary means actions from communicative demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Ildikó; Csibra, Gergely; Gergely, György

    2013-10-01

    The principle of rationality has been invoked to explain that infants expect agents to perform the most efficient means action to attain a goal. It has also been demonstrated that infants take into account the efficiency of observed actions to achieve a goal outcome when deciding whether to reenact a specific behavior or not. It is puzzling, however, that they also tend to imitate an apparently suboptimal unfamiliar action even when they can bring about the same outcome more efficiently by applying a more rational action alternative available to them. We propose that this apparently paradoxical behavior is explained by infants' interpretation of action demonstrations as communicative manifestations of novel and culturally relevant means actions to be acquired, and we present empirical evidence supporting this proposal. In Experiment 1, we found that 14-month-olds reenacted novel arbitrary means actions only following a communicative demonstration. Experiment 2 showed that infants' inclination to reproduce communicatively manifested novel actions is restricted to behaviors they can construe as goal-directed instrumental acts. The study also provides evidence that infants' reenactment of the demonstrated novel actions reflects epistemic motives rather than purely social motives. We argue that ostensive communication enables infants to represent the teleological structure of novel actions even when the causal relations between means and end are cognitively opaque and apparently violate the efficiency expectation derived from the principle of rationality. This new account of imitative learning of novel means shows how the teleological stance and natural pedagogy--two separate cognitive adaptations to interpret instrumental versus communicative actions--are integrated as a system for learning socially constituted instrumental knowledge in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rethinking conformity and imitation: divergence, convergence, and social understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert eHodges

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Social and developmental psychologists have stressed the pervasiveness and strength of humans’ tendencies to conform and to imitate, and social anthropologists have argued that these tendencies are crucial to the formation of cultures. Research from four domains is reviewed and elaborated to show that divergence is also pervasive and potent, and is interwoven with convergence in a complex set of dynamics that is often unnoticed or minimized. First, classic research in social conformity is reinterpreted in terms of truth, trust, and social solidarity, revealing that dissent is its most salient feature. Second, recent studies of children’s use of testimony to guide action reveal a surprisingly sophisticated balance of trust and prudence, and a concern for truth and charity. Third, new experiments indicate that people diverge from others even under conditions where conformity seems assured. Fourth, current studies of imitation provide strong evidence that children are both selective and faithful in who, what, and why they follow others. All of the evidence reviewed points toward children and adults as being engaged, embodied partners with others, motivated to learn and understand the world, others, and themselves in ways that go beyond goals and rules, prediction and control. Even young children act as if they are in a dialogical relationship with others and the world, rather than acting as if they are solo explorers or blind followers. Overall, the evidence supports the hypothesis that social understanding cannot be reduced to convergence or divergence, but includes ongoing activities that seek greater comprehensiveness and complexity in the ability to act and interact effectively, appropriately, and with integrity.

  3. Rethinking conformity and imitation: divergence, convergence, and social understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Bert H

    2014-01-01

    Social and developmental psychologists have stressed the pervasiveness and strength of humans' tendencies to conform and to imitate, and social anthropologists have argued that these tendencies are crucial to the formation of cultures. Research from four domains is reviewed and elaborated to show that divergence is also pervasive and potent, and it is interwoven with convergence in a complex set of dynamics that is often unnoticed or minimized. First, classic research in social conformity is reinterpreted in terms of truth, trust, and social solidarity, revealing that dissent is its most salient feature. Second, recent studies of children's use of testimony to guide action reveal a surprisingly sophisticated balance of trust and prudence, and a concern for truth and charity. Third, new experiments indicate that people diverge from others even under conditions where conformity seems assured. Fourth, current studies of imitation provide strong evidence that children are both selective and faithful in who, what, and why they follow others. All of the evidence reviewed points toward children and adults as being engaged, embodied partners with others, motivated to learn and understand the world, others, and themselves in ways that go beyond goals and rules, prediction and control. Even young children act as if they are in a dialogical relationship with others and the world, rather than acting as if they are solo explorers or blind followers. Overall, the evidence supports the hypothesis that social understanding cannot be reduced to convergence or divergence, but includes ongoing activities that seek greater comprehensiveness and complexity in the ability to act and interact effectively, appropriately, and with integrity.

  4. Influence of Action-Effect Associations Acquired by Ideomotor Learning on Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunlon, Frédérique; Marshall, Peter J.; Quandt, Lorna C.; Bouquet, Cedric A.

    2015-01-01

    According to the ideomotor theory, actions are represented in terms of their perceptual effects, offering a solution for the correspondence problem of imitation (how to translate the observed action into a corresponding motor output). This effect-based coding of action is assumed to be acquired through action-effect learning. Accordingly, performing an action leads to the integration of the perceptual codes of the action effects with the motor commands that brought them about. While ideomotor theory is invoked to account for imitation, the influence of action-effect learning on imitative behavior remains unexplored. In two experiments, imitative performance was measured in a reaction time task following a phase of action-effect acquisition. During action-effect acquisition, participants freely executed a finger movement (index or little finger lifting), and then observed a similar (compatible learning) or a different (incompatible learning) movement. In Experiment 1, finger movements of left and right hands were presented as action-effects during acquisition. In Experiment 2, only right-hand finger movements were presented during action-effect acquisition and in the imitation task the observed hands were oriented orthogonally to participants’ hands in order to avoid spatial congruency effects. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that imitative performance was improved after compatible learning, compared to incompatible learning. In Experiment 2, although action-effect learning involved perception of finger movements of right hand only, imitative capabilities of right- and left-hand finger movements were equally affected. These results indicate that an observed movement stimulus processed as the effect of an action can later prime execution of that action, confirming the ideomotor approach to imitation. We further discuss these findings in relation to previous studies of action-effect learning and in the framework of current ideomotor approaches to imitation. PMID:25793755

  5. Direct and octave-shifted pitch matching during nonword imitations in men, women, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate; Foster, Bronsyn; Haas, Heather; Middleton, Kyle; McKibben, Kiersten

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate whether children, women, and men match the speaker's fundamental frequency (F0) during nonword imitation directly when the target F0 is within the responders' vocal ranges and at octave-shifted levels when the target is outside their vocal ranges, and to evaluate the role of a history of speech sound disorder (SSD) in the adult participants. Observational. Nonword sets spoken by a man and a woman were imitated by 14 men, 21 women, and 19 children. Approximately half of the adults and two-thirds of the children had a history of SSD. F0 in the imitations was compared with that in the targets and in the participants' nonimitated control word productions. When the target F0 was within the responders' vocal ranges, the imitations approximated the target F0. Men imitating a woman's voice approximated F0 levels one octave below the target F0. Children imitating a man's voice approximated F0 levels one octave above the target F0. Women imitating a man's voice approximated the target F0 at a ratio of 1.5 known as the perfect fifth in music. A history of SSD did not influence the results. This study replicates previous findings showing that target F0 was a salient aspect of the stimuli that was imitated along with the targets' segmental and prosodic components without explicit prompting. It is the first to show F0 convergence not only directly but also at relevant target/imitation intervals including the octave interval. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Education and training support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Rhuji; Iyadomi, Motomi.

    1996-01-01

    In order to train the specialist such as operator or maintenance stuff of large scale plant such as nuclear power plant or thermal power plant, a high grade teaching and training support system is required as well as in training pilot of aeroplane. The specialist in such large scale plant is also a researcher in the field of machinery, electricity and physics at first, and is grown up a expert operator or maintenance stuff through learning of CAI system or OTJ used training material for teaching tool in addition of training used operating or maintenance training device imitating actual plant after acquiring determined knowledges by receiving fundamental education on nuclear and thermal power plants. In this paper, the teaching and training support systems of the nuclear and thermal power plants for a system supporting such teaching and training, respectively, were introduced. (G.K.)

  7. Ownership and Agency of an Independent Supernumerary Hand Induced by an Imitation Brain-Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashford, Luke; Mehring, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    To study body ownership and control, illusions that elicit these feelings in non-body objects are widely used. Classically introduced with the Rubber Hand Illusion, these illusions have been replicated more recently in virtual reality and by using brain-computer interfaces. Traditionally these illusions investigate the replacement of a body part by an artificial counterpart, however as brain-computer interface research develops it offers us the possibility to explore the case where non-body objects are controlled in addition to movements of our own limbs. Therefore we propose a new illusion designed to test the feeling of ownership and control of an independent supernumerary hand. Subjects are under the impression they control a virtual reality hand via a brain-computer interface, but in reality there is no causal connection between brain activity and virtual hand movement but correct movements are observed with 80% probability. These imitation brain-computer interface trials are interspersed with movements in both the subjects' real hands, which are in view throughout the experiment. We show that subjects develop strong feelings of ownership and control over the third hand, despite only receiving visual feedback with no causal link to the actual brain signals. Our illusion is crucially different from previously reported studies as we demonstrate independent ownership and control of the third hand without loss of ownership in the real hands.

  8. Recent developments in counterfeits and imitations of Viagra, Cialis and Levitra. A 2005-2006 update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhuis BJ; Barends DM; Zwaagstra ME; Kaste D de; Douane Laboratorium; KCF

    2007-01-01

    A strong trend is observed towards increasingly professional counterfeits and imitations of Viagra, Cialis and Levitra, with regard to the appearance of tablets, capsules and packaging. The professional presentation will deceive potential consumers into assuming these products are legal, efficacious

  9. Laboratory studies of imitation/field studies of tradition: towards a synthesis in animal social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galef, Bennett G

    2015-03-01

    Here I discuss: (1) historical precedents that have resulted in comparative psychologists accepting the two-action method as the "gold standard" in laboratory investigations of imitation learning, (2) evidence suggesting that the two-action procedure may not be adequate to answer questions concerning the role of imitation in the development of traditional behaviors of animals living in natural habitat, and (3) an alternative approach to the laboratory study of imitation that might increase the relevance of laboratory studies of imitation to the work of behavioral ecologists/primatologists interested in animal traditions and their relationship to human cumulative culture. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Imitation and reactor studies of irradiation effect on material mechanic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozhigov, L.S.

    1999-01-01

    Processes of low- and high-temperature radiation embrittlement, radiation creeping and their influence on reactor material properties are considered. Role of imitation experiments in these processes is analysed

  11. The Gesture Imitation in Alzheimer's Disease Dementia and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xudong; Jia, Shuhong; Zhou, Zhi; Hou, Chunlei; Zheng, Wenjing; Rong, Pei; Jiao, Jinsong

    2016-07-14

    Alzheimer's disease dementia (ADD) has become an important health problem in the world. Visuospatial deficits are considered to be an early symptom besides memory disorder. The gesture imitation test was devised to detect ADD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). A total of 117 patients with ADD, 118 with aMCI, and 95 normal controls were included in this study. All participants were administered our gesture imitation test, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), and the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR). Patients with ADD performed worse than normal controls on global scores and had a lower success rate on every item (p imitation test scores were positively correlated with the MMSE (r = 0.637, p imitation test is an easy, rapid tool for detecting ADD, and is suitable for the patients suspected of mild ADD and aMCI in outpatient clinics.

  12. Statistical imitation system using relational interest points and Gaussian mixture models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassens, J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes an imitation system that uses relational interest points (RIPs) and Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) to characterize a behaviour. The system's structure is inspired by the Robot Programming by Demonstration (RDP) paradigm...

  13. Imitative Modeling as a Theoretical Base for Instructing Language-Disordered Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, John A.; Courtright, Illene C.

    1976-01-01

    A modification of A. Bandura's social learning theory (imitative modeling) was employed as a theoretical base for language instruction with eight language disordered children (5 to 10 years old). (Author/SBH)

  14. How do children learn to follow gaze, share joint attention, imitate their teachers, and use tools during social interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen; Vladusich, Tony

    2010-01-01

    How does an infant learn through visual experience to imitate actions of adult teachers, despite the fact that the infant and adult view one another and the world from different perspectives? To accomplish this, an infant needs to learn how to share joint attention with adult teachers and to follow their gaze towards valued goal objects. The infant also needs to be capable of view-invariant object learning and recognition whereby it can carry out goal-directed behaviors, such as the use of tools, using different object views than the ones that its teachers use. Such capabilities are often attributed to "mirror neurons". This attribution does not, however, explain the brain processes whereby these competences arise. This article describes the CRIB (Circular Reactions for Imitative Behavior) neural model of how the brain achieves these goals through inter-personal circular reactions. Inter-personal circular reactions generalize the intra-personal circular reactions of Piaget, which clarify how infants learn from their own babbled arm movements and reactive eye movements how to carry out volitional reaches, with or without tools, towards valued goal objects. The article proposes how intra-personal circular reactions create a foundation for inter-personal circular reactions when infants and other learners interact with external teachers in space. Both types of circular reactions involve learned coordinate transformations between body-centered arm movement commands and retinotopic visual feedback, and coordination of processes within and between the What and Where cortical processing streams. Specific breakdowns of model processes generate formal symptoms similar to clinical symptoms of autism. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 3D/2D model-to-image registration by imitation learning for cardiac procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Daniel; Miao, Shun; Kurzendorfer, Tanja; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Liao, Rui; Mansi, Tommaso; Rhode, Kawal; Mountney, Peter

    2018-05-12

    In cardiac interventions, such as cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), image guidance can be enhanced by involving preoperative models. Multimodality 3D/2D registration for image guidance, however, remains a significant research challenge for fundamentally different image data, i.e., MR to X-ray. Registration methods must account for differences in intensity, contrast levels, resolution, dimensionality, field of view. Furthermore, same anatomical structures may not be visible in both modalities. Current approaches have focused on developing modality-specific solutions for individual clinical use cases, by introducing constraints, or identifying cross-modality information manually. Machine learning approaches have the potential to create more general registration platforms. However, training image to image methods would require large multimodal datasets and ground truth for each target application. This paper proposes a model-to-image registration approach instead, because it is common in image-guided interventions to create anatomical models for diagnosis, planning or guidance prior to procedures. An imitation learning-based method, trained on 702 datasets, is used to register preoperative models to intraoperative X-ray images. Accuracy is demonstrated on cardiac models and artificial X-rays generated from CTs. The registration error was [Formula: see text] on 1000 test cases, superior to that of manual ([Formula: see text]) and gradient-based ([Formula: see text]) registration. High robustness is shown in 19 clinical CRT cases. Besides the proposed methods feasibility in a clinical environment, evaluation has shown good accuracy and high robustness indicating that it could be applied in image-guided interventions.

  16. Modeling speech imitation and ecological learning of auditory-motor maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eCanevari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical models of speech consider an antero-posterior distinction between perceptive and productive functions. However, the selective alteration of neural activity in speech motor centers, via transcranial magnetic stimulation, was shown to affect speech discrimination. On the automatic speech recognition (ASR side, the recognition systems have classically relied solely on acoustic data, achieving rather good performance in optimal listening conditions. The main limitations of current ASR are mainly evident in the realistic use of such systems. These limitations can be partly reduced by using normalization strategies that minimize inter-speaker variability by either explicitly removing speakers’ peculiarities or adapting different speakers to a reference model. In this paper we aim at modeling a motor-based imitation learning mechanism in ASR. We tested the utility of a speaker normalization strategy that uses motor representations of speech and compare it with strategies that ignore the motor domain. Specifically, we first trained a regressor through state-of-the-art machine learning techniques to build an auditory-motor mapping, in a sense mimicking a human learner that tries to reproduce utterances produced by other speakers. This auditory-motor mapping maps the speech acoustics of a speaker into the motor plans of a reference speaker. Since, during recognition, only speech acoustics are available, the mapping is necessary to recover motor information. Subsequently, in a phone classification task, we tested the system on either one of the speakers that was used during training or a new one. Results show that in both cases the motor-based speaker normalization strategy almost always outperforms all other strategies where only acoustics is taken into account.

  17. Phonetic and phonological imitation of intonation in two varieties of Italian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariapaola eD'Imperio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test whether both phonetic and phonological representations of intonation can be rapidly modified when imitating utterances belonging to a different regional variety of the same language. Our main hypothesis was that tonal alignment, just as other phonetic features of speech, would be rapidly modified by Italian speakers when imitating pitch accents of a different (Southern variety of Italian. In particular, we tested whether Bari Italian speakers would produce later peaks for their native rising L+H* (question pitch accent in the process of imitating Neapolitan Italian rising L*+H accents. Also, we tested whether BI speakers are able to modify other phonetic properties (pitch level as well as phonological characteristics (changes in tonal composition of the same contour. In a follow-up study, we tested if the reverse was also true, i.e. whether NI speakers would produce earlier peaks within the L*+H accent in the process of imitating the L+H* of BI questions, despite the presence of a contrast between two rising accents in this variety. Our results show that phonetic detail of tonal alignment can be successfully modified by both BI and NI speakers when imitating a model speaker of the other variety. The hypothesis of a selective imitation process preventing alignment modifications in NI was hence not supported. Moreover the effect was significantly stronger for low frequency words. Participants were also able to imitate other phonetic cues, in that they modified global utterance pitch level. Concerning phonological convergence, speakers modified the tonal specification of the edge tones in order to resemble that of the other variety by either suppressing or increasing the presence of a final H%. Hence, our data show that intonation imitation leads to fast modification of both phonetic and phonological intonation representations including detail of tonal alignment and pitch scaling.

  18. Self-reported empathy and neural activity during action imitation and observation in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Horan, William P.; Iacoboni, Marco; Cross, Katy A.; Korb, Alex; Lee, Junghee; Nori, Poorang; Quintana, Javier; Wynn, Jonathan K.; Green, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Although social cognitive impairments are key determinants of functional outcome in schizophrenia their neural bases are poorly understood. This study investigated neural activity during imitation and observation of finger movements and facial expressions in schizophrenia, and their correlates with self-reported empathy. Methods: 23 schizophrenia outpatients and 23 healthy controls were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they imitated, executed, o...

  19. Principles for designing mathematical tasks that enhance imitative and creative reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Lithner, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The design research programme Learning by Imitative and Creative Reasoning (LICR) studies whether, how and why tasks and teaching that enhance creative reasoning lead to a more productive struggle and more efficient learning than the common but inefficient task designs based on imitating given solution procedures. The purpose of this paper is to synthesise the research outcomes determined to date by providing the following: a conceptual framework for key concepts and relationships among teach...

  20. A Comparison of the Identifying Features of Imitated Handwriting and Elderly Handwriting

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Wang

    2017-01-01

    Imitated handwriting and elderly handwriting are two manifestation patterns of altered handwriting. Several similarities in features can be found in both, such as gentle movement and curved jitter. In practice, it is very easy to confuse the two patterns, leading to wrong decisions and difficulties in document examination. The key to solving these problems is to recognize the similarities and differences between imitated handwriting and elderly handwriting. This paper comprises four parts. Th...

  1. Object and Objective Lost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  2. Reafferent copies of imitated actions in the right superior temporal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoboni, Marco; Koski, Lisa M.; Brass, Marcel; Bekkering, Harold; Woods, Roger P.; Dubeau, Marie-Charlotte; Mazziotta, John C.; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2001-01-01

    Imitation is a complex phenomenon, the neural mechanisms of which are still largely unknown. When individuals imitate an action that already is present in their motor repertoire, a mechanism matching the observed action onto an internal motor representation of that action should suffice for the purpose. When one has to copy a new action, however, or to adjust an action present in one's motor repertoire to a different observed action, an additional mechanism is needed that allows the observer to compare the action made by another individual with the sensory consequences of the same action made by himself. Previous experiments have shown that a mechanism that directly matches observed actions on their motor counterparts exists in the premotor cortex of monkeys and humans. Here we report the results of functional magnetic resonance experiments, suggesting that in the superior temporal sulcus, a higher order visual region, there is a sector that becomes active both during hand action observation and during imitation even in the absence of direct vision of the imitator's hand. The motor-related activity is greater during imitation than during control motor tasks. This newly identified region has all the requisites for being the region at which the observed actions, and the reafferent motor-related copies of actions made by the imitator, interact. PMID:11717457

  3. From self-observation to imitation: visuomotor association on a robotic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, Thierry; Oztop, Erhan; Cheng, Gordon; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2008-04-15

    Being at the crux of human cognition and behaviour, imitation has become the target of investigations ranging from experimental psychology and neurophysiology to computational sciences and robotics. It is often assumed that the imitation is innate, but it has more recently been argued, both theoretically and experimentally, that basic forms of imitation could emerge as a result of self-observation. Here, we tested this proposal on a realistic experimental platform, comprising an associative network linking a 16 degrees of freedom robotic hand and a simple visual system. We report that this minimal visuomotor association is sufficient to bootstrap basic imitation. Our results indicate that crucial features of human imitation, such as generalization to new actions, may emerge from a connectionist associative network. Therefore, we suggest that a behaviour as complex as imitation could be, at the neuronal level, founded on basic mechanisms of associative learning, a notion supported by a recent proposal on the developmental origin of mirror neurons. Our approach can be applied to the development of realistic cognitive architectures for humanoid robots as well as to shed new light on the cognitive processes at play in early human cognitive development.

  4. Automatic imitation of pro- and antisocial gestures: Is implicit social behavior censored?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cracco, Emiel; Genschow, Oliver; Radkova, Ina; Brass, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    According to social reward theories, automatic imitation can be understood as a means to obtain positive social consequences. In line with this view, it has been shown that automatic imitation is modulated by contextual variables that constrain the positive outcomes of imitation. However, this work has largely neglected that many gestures have an inherent pro- or antisocial meaning. As a result of their meaning, antisocial gestures are considered taboo and should not be used in public. In three experiments, we show that automatic imitation of symbolic gestures is modulated by the social intent of these gestures. Experiment 1 (N=37) revealed reduced automatic imitation of antisocial compared with prosocial gestures. Experiment 2 (N=118) and Experiment 3 (N=118) used a social priming procedure to show that this effect was stronger in a prosocial context than in an antisocial context. These findings were supported in a within-study meta-analysis using both frequentist and Bayesian statistics. Together, our results indicate that automatic imitation is regulated by internalized social norms that act as a stop signal when inappropriate actions are triggered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fourteen-Month-Olds Adapt Their Imitative Behavior in Light of a Model’s Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kata Gellén

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rather than reenacting every action they observe, preverbal infants adapt their imitative behavior. Although previous studies have revealed the capability of preverbal infants to imitate selectively, the question about the adaptability of this behavior on an individual level did not attract considerable scientific attention until now. In the current study, we investigated whether 14-month-old infants flexibly alternate their imitative response in accordance with a model’s changing physical constraints in a body-part imitation paradigm. Participants were presented with two novel actions whereby a model illuminated a light-box and turned on a sound-box, either by using her forehead (head touch or by sitting on the apparatus (sit-touch. Each participant observed these tasks in two conditions: once where the model’s hands were occupied and once where her hands were free while executing the head or sit-touch. Participants were more likely to reenact the observed novel behavior when the model had freely chosen to perform it than when she had to do so due to physical constraints. Not only did we replicate a number of previous findings, we show here that preverbal infants adapt their imitative behavior across conditions based on the physical constraints of the model. These results point towards the adaptable nature of imitative behavior also on an individual level. This ability might be one of the building blocks for children for learning their social group’s specific action repertoire.

  6. Are you a good mimic? Neuro-acoustic signatures for speech imitation ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Maria Reiterer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated individual differences in speech imitation ability in late bilinguals using a neuro-acoustic approach. 138 German-English bilinguals matched on various behavioral measures were tested for speech imitation ability in a foreign language, Hindi, and categorised into high and low ability groups. Brain activations and speech recordings were obtained from 26 participants from the two extreme groups as they performed a functional neuroimaging experiment which required them to imitate sentences in three conditions: (A German, (B English and (C German with fake English accent. We used recently developed novel acoustic analysis, namely the ‘articulation space’ as a metric to compare speech imitation abilities of the two groups. Across all three conditions, direct comparisons between the two groups, revealed brain activations (FWE corrected, p< 0.05 that were more widespread with significantly higher peak activity in the left supramarginal gyrus and postcentral areas for the low ability group. The high ability group, on the other hand showed significantly larger articulation space in all three conditions. In addition, articulation space also correlated positively with imitation ability (Pearson’s r=0.7, p<0.01. Our results suggest that an expanded articulation space for high ability individuals allows access to a larger repertoire of sounds, thereby providing skilled imitators greater flexibility in pronunciation and language learning.

  7. A systems level analysis of the mirror neuron hypothesis and imitation impairments in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Rajesh K; Wadsworth, Heather M; Travers, Brittany G

    2011-01-01

    Although several studies suggest an imitation deficit as a key feature of autism, questions have been raised about the consistency of this finding and about the component skills involved in imitation. The primary aim of this review is to examine the uneven profile of imitation deficits found in autism in the context of the mirror neuron system (MNS) dysfunction hypothesis. We use the cortical underconnectivity framework (Just et al., 2004) to examine the coordination of brain areas that orchestrate the communication between the component skills underlying imitation. A comprehensive account of imitation deficit in autism should take into account the regions that are at the core of the MNS (e.g., IFG and IPL) and related regions that feed into the MNS (e.g., STS, Cerebellum) in their functioning and in their coordination. Our findings suggest that the MNS may be associated with mediating familiarity, attention, self-other matching, and social relevance, which may be vital in characterizing the imitation deficits in autism. Such an analysis may have greater clinical and therapeutic value. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Research on moving object detection based on frog's eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hongwei; Li, Dongguang; Zhang, Xinyuan

    2008-12-01

    On the basis of object's information processing mechanism with frog's eyes, this paper discussed a bionic detection technology which suitable for object's information processing based on frog's vision. First, the bionics detection theory by imitating frog vision is established, it is an parallel processing mechanism which including pick-up and pretreatment of object's information, parallel separating of digital image, parallel processing, and information synthesis. The computer vision detection system is described to detect moving objects which has special color, special shape, the experiment indicates that it can scheme out the detecting result in the certain interfered background can be detected. A moving objects detection electro-model by imitating biologic vision based on frog's eyes is established, the video simulative signal is digital firstly in this system, then the digital signal is parallel separated by FPGA. IN the parallel processing, the video information can be caught, processed and displayed in the same time, the information fusion is taken by DSP HPI ports, in order to transmit the data which processed by DSP. This system can watch the bigger visual field and get higher image resolution than ordinary monitor systems. In summary, simulative experiments for edge detection of moving object with canny algorithm based on this system indicate that this system can detect the edge of moving objects in real time, the feasibility of bionic model was fully demonstrated in the engineering system, and it laid a solid foundation for the future study of detection technology by imitating biologic vision.

  9. Networks of echoes imitation, innovation and invisible leaders

    CERN Document Server

    West, Bruce J; Grigolini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Networks of Echoes: Imitation, Innovation and Invisible Leaders is a mathematically rigorous and data rich book on a fascinating area of the science and engineering of social webs.  There are hundreds of complex network phenomena whose statistical properties are described by inverse power laws.  The phenomena of interest are not arcane events that we encounter only fleetingly, but are events that dominate our lives. We examine how this intermittent statistical behavior intertwines itself with what appears to be the organized activity of social groups.  The book is structured as answers to a sequence of questions such as: How are decisions reached in elections and boardrooms?  How is the stability of a society undermined by zealots and committed minorities, and how is that stability re-established?  Can we learn to answer such questions about human behavior by studying the way flocks of birds retain their formation when eluding a predator?  These questions and others are answered using a generic model of...

  10. Photoluminescence and optical transmission of diamond and its imitators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatov, E.I.; Avdeev, S.M.; Tarasenko, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Photoluminescence and optical transmission spectra of several samples of natural and synthetic diamond and its imitators - fianite and corundum - are investigated. The band-A of luminescence at 440 nm, the vibronic N3 system of luminescence and absorption at 415.2 nm, the fundamental absorption edge at 225 nm, and the secondary absorption below 308 nm are the main identifying markers of natural diamonds. For synthetic diamonds, however, such identifying markers are the free-exciton luminescence at 235 nm, the band-A, and the fundamental absorption edge. Fianites can be identified by the structureless wideband at 500 nm and the wide transmission band in the entire visible range. Colored corundum samples with chrome impurities emit the narrow line at 693 nm and show the absorption band in the 500-600 nm spectral range. A new method for diamond express identification is developed on the basis of measurement of photoluminescence and optical transmission spectra of the samples. It is shown that a diamond tester can be designed combining a spectrometer and a KrCl-excilamp radiating at 222 nm.

  11. Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil Imitation Biological Treatment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chang; Chen, Jun; Wu, Ke; Zhou, Zhongkai; Cheng, Tingting

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the treatment methods of heavy metal pollution in soils were analyzed, the existence and transformation of heavy metals in soil were explored, and the mechanism of heavy metal absorption by plants was studied. It was concluded that the main form of plants absorb heavy metals in the soil is exchangeable. The main mechanism was that the plant cell wall can form complex with heavy metals, so that heavy metals fixed on the cell wall, and through the selective absorption of plasma membrane into the plant body. In addition, the adsorption mechanism of the adsorbed material was analyzed. According to the results of some researchers, it was found that the mechanism of adsorption of heavy metals was similar to that of plants. According to this, using adsorbent material as the main material, Imitate the principle of plant absorption of heavy metals in the soil to removing heavy metals in the soil at one-time and can be separated from the soil after adsorption to achieve permanent removal of heavy metals in the soil was feasibility.

  12. Video-based intervention for children with autism: towards improved assessment of pre-requisite imitation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    To explore the relationship between responses to imitation assessment and video-based intervention (VBI) in children with autism. Interview- and observation-based imitation assessments were conducted for five boys with autism prior to VBI across three studies. In two of the three studies, the boys' imitative responses to videos with an animated model and a human model were also compared. Participants who were assessed to have strong imitation skills were also those who responded more positively to VBI. No clear differences were reported in the boys' responses to the equivalent videos with the animated model and the human model. The level of imitation skills required for successful VBI is relative to the target behaviour. Revision of existing imitation assessment measures, as well as development and validation of more comprehensive measures is warranted for use in conjunction with VBI.

  13. Is the Good-Imitator-Poor-Talker Profile Syndrome-Specific in Down Syndrome?: Evidence from Standardised Imitation and Language Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvuchelen, M.; Feys, H.; De Weerdt, W.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of the Down syndrome (DS) behavioural phenotype during early development may be of great importance for early intervention. The main goal of this study was to investigate the good-imitator-poor-talker developmental profile in DS at preschool age. Twenty children with Down syndrome (DS; mean nonverbal mental age NMA 1 y10 m) and 15…

  14. Number of genes controlling a quantitative trait in a hybrid zone of the aposematic frog Ranitomeya imitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Twomey, Evan; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The number of genes controlling mimetic traits has been a topic of much research and discussion. In this paper, we examine a mimetic, dendrobatid frog Ranitomeya imitator, which harbours extensive phenotypic variation with multiple mimetic morphs, not unlike the celebrated Heliconius system...... and apply it to the R. imitator system. We show that probably one or two, or at most three genes, control the mimetic phenotype segregating in a R. imitator hybrid zone identified using image analyses....

  15. In vivo porcine training model for cranial neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regelsberger, Jan; Eicker, Sven; Siasios, Ioannis; Hänggi, Daniel; Kirsch, Matthias; Horn, Peter; Winkler, Peter; Signoretti, Stefano; Fountas, Kostas; Dufour, Henry; Barcia, Juan A; Sakowitz, Oliver; Westermaier, Thomas; Sabel, Michael; Heese, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Supplemental education is desirable for neurosurgical training, and the use of human cadaver specimen and virtual reality models is routine. An in vivo porcine training model for cranial neurosurgery was introduced in 2005, and our recent experience with this unique model is outlined here. For the first time, porcine anatomy is illustrated with particular respect to neurosurgical procedures. The pros and cons of this model are described. The aim of the course was to set up a laboratory scenery imitating an almost realistic operating room in which anatomy of the brain and neurosurgical techniques in a mentored environment free from time constraints could be trained. Learning objectives of the course were to learn about the microsurgical techniques in cranial neurosurgery and the management of complications. Participants were asked to evaluate the quality and utility of the programme via standardized questionnaires by a grading scale from A (best) to E (worst). In total, 154 residents have been trained on the porcine model to date. None of the participants regarded his own residency programme as structured. The bleeding and complication management (97%), the realistic laboratory set-up (89%) and the working environment (94%) were favoured by the vast majority of trainees and confirmed our previous findings. After finishing the course, the participants graded that their skills in bone drilling, dissecting the brain and preserving cerebral vessels under microscopic magnification had improved to level A and B. In vivo hands-on courses, fully equipped with microsurgical instruments, offer an outstanding training opportunity in which bleeding management on a pulsating, vital brain represents a unique training approach. Our results have shown that education programmes still lack practical training facilities in which in vivo models may act as a complementary approach in surgical training.

  16. Automatic imitation effects are influenced by experience of synchronous action in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Eoin P; Bijvoet-van den Berg, Simone; Caldwell, Christine A

    2018-07-01

    By their fourth year of life, children are expert imitators, but it is unclear how this ability develops. One approach suggests that certain types of experience might forge associations between the sensory and motor representations of an action that may facilitate imitation at a later time. Sensorimotor experience of this sort may occur when an infant's action is imitated by a caregiver or when socially synchronous action occurs. This learning approach, therefore, predicts that the strength of sensory-motor associations should depend on the frequency and quality of previous experience. Here, we tested this prediction by examining automatic imitation, that is, the tendency of an action stimulus to facilitate the performance of that action and interfere with the performance of an incompatible action. We required children (aged between 3 years 8 months and 7 years 11 months) to respond to actions performed by an experimenter (e.g., two hands clapping) with both compatible actions (i.e., two hands clapping) and incompatible actions (i.e., two hands waving) at different stages in the experimental procedure. As predicted by a learning account, actions thought to be performed in synchrony (i.e., clapping/waving) produced stronger automatic imitation effects when compared with actions where previous sensorimotor experience is likely to be more limited (e.g., pointing/hand closing). Furthermore, these automatic imitation effects were not found to vary with age, with both compatible and incompatible responses quickening with age. These findings suggest a role for sensorimotor experience in the development of imitative ability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Song and speech: examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiner, Markus; Reiterer, Susanne M.

    2013-01-01

    In previous research on speech imitation, musicality, and an ability to sing were isolated as the strongest indicators of good pronunciation skills in foreign languages. We, therefore, wanted to take a closer look at the nature of the ability to sing, which shares a common ground with the ability to imitate speech. This study focuses on whether good singing performance predicts good speech imitation. Forty-one singers of different levels of proficiency were selected for the study and their ability to sing, to imitate speech, their musical talent and working memory were tested. Results indicated that singing performance is a better indicator of the ability to imitate speech than the playing of a musical instrument. A multiple regression revealed that 64% of the speech imitation score variance could be explained by working memory together with educational background and singing performance. A second multiple regression showed that 66% of the speech imitation variance of completely unintelligible and unfamiliar language stimuli (Hindi) could be explained by working memory together with a singer's sense of rhythm and quality of voice. This supports the idea that both vocal behaviors have a common grounding in terms of vocal and motor flexibility, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, neural orchestration and auditory memory with singing fitting better into the category of “speech” on the productive level and “music” on the acoustic level. As a result, good singers benefit from vocal and motor flexibility, productively and cognitively, in three ways. (1) Motor flexibility and the ability to sing improve language and musical function. (2) Good singers retain a certain plasticity and are open to new and unusual sound combinations during adulthood both perceptually and productively. (3) The ability to sing improves the memory span of the auditory working memory. PMID:24319438

  18. Song and speech: examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiner, Markus; Reiterer, Susanne M

    2013-01-01

    In previous research on speech imitation, musicality, and an ability to sing were isolated as the strongest indicators of good pronunciation skills in foreign languages. We, therefore, wanted to take a closer look at the nature of the ability to sing, which shares a common ground with the ability to imitate speech. This study focuses on whether good singing performance predicts good speech imitation. Forty-one singers of different levels of proficiency were selected for the study and their ability to sing, to imitate speech, their musical talent and working memory were tested. Results indicated that singing performance is a better indicator of the ability to imitate speech than the playing of a musical instrument. A multiple regression revealed that 64% of the speech imitation score variance could be explained by working memory together with educational background and singing performance. A second multiple regression showed that 66% of the speech imitation variance of completely unintelligible and unfamiliar language stimuli (Hindi) could be explained by working memory together with a singer's sense of rhythm and quality of voice. This supports the idea that both vocal behaviors have a common grounding in terms of vocal and motor flexibility, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, neural orchestration and auditory memory with singing fitting better into the category of "speech" on the productive level and "music" on the acoustic level. As a result, good singers benefit from vocal and motor flexibility, productively and cognitively, in three ways. (1) Motor flexibility and the ability to sing improve language and musical function. (2) Good singers retain a certain plasticity and are open to new and unusual sound combinations during adulthood both perceptually and productively. (3) The ability to sing improves the memory span of the auditory working memory.

  19. Song and speech: examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eChristiner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In previous research on speech imitation, musicality and an ability to sing were isolated as the strongest indicators of good pronunciation skills in foreign languages. We, therefore, wanted to take a closer look at the nature of the ability to sing, which shares a common ground with the ability to imitate speech. This study focuses on whether good singing performance predicts good speech imitation. Fourty-one singers of different levels of proficiency were selected for the study and their ability to sing, to imitate speech, their musical talent and working memory were tested. Results indicated that singing performance is a better indicator of the ability to imitate speech than the playing of a musical instrument. A multiple regression revealed that 64 % of the speech imitation score variance could be explained by working memory together with educational background and singing performance. A second multiple regression showed that 66 % of the speech imitation variance of completely unintelligible and unfamiliar language stimuli (Hindi could be explained by working memory together with a singer’s sense of rhythm and quality of voice. This supports the idea that both vocal behaviors have a common grounding in terms of vocal and motor flexibility, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, neural orchestration and sound memory with singing fitting better into the category of "speech" on the productive level and "music" on the acoustic level. As a result, good singers benefit from vocal and motor flexibility, productively and cognitively, in three ways. 1. Motor flexibility and the ability to sing improve language and musical function. 2. Good singers retain a certain plasticity and are open to new and unusual sound combinations during adulthood both perceptually and productively. 3. The ability to sing improves the memory span of the auditory short term memory.

  20. The mirror neuron system as revealed through neonatal imitation: presence from birth, predictive power and evidence of plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Murray, Lynne; Paukner, Annika; Ferrari, Pier F

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence that neonates imitate previously unseen behaviours. These behaviours are predominantly used in social interactions, demonstrating neonates' ability and motivation to engage with others. Research on neonatal imitation can provide a wealth of information about the early mirror neuron system (MNS), namely its functional characteristics, its plasticity from birth and its relation to skills later in development. Although numerous studies document the existence of neonatal imitation in the laboratory, little is known about its natural occurrence during parent-infant interactions and its plasticity as a consequence of experience. We review these critical aspects of imitation, which we argue are necessary for understanding the early action-perception system. We address common criticisms and misunderstandings about neonatal imitation and discuss methodological differences among studies. Recent work reveals that individual differences in neonatal imitation positively correlate with later social, cognitive and motor development. We propose that such variation in neonatal imitation could reflect important individual differences of the MNS. Although postnatal experience is not necessary for imitation, we present evidence that neonatal imitation is influenced by experience in the first week of life.

  1. Relapses in Multiple Sclerosis: Definition, Pathophysiology, Features, Imitators, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhan Sevim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Relapse in multiple sclerosis (MS is defined as a neurologic deficit associated with an acute inflammatory demyelinating event that lasts at least 24 hours in the absence of fever and infection. Myelinoclasis and axonal transection occur in relapses. Diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and many other features of the disease are directly related to the relapses. MS starts as the relapsing-remitting (RRMS form in 85% of patients. A large number of relapses in the first years, polysymptomatic relapses, and pyramidal system, brain stem, and spinal cord involvement are signs of a poor outcome. The average frequency of relapses is approximately one per year during the first years of RRMS. The frequency of relapses increases during systemic infections, psychological stress, and in the postpartum first 3 months. Seventy-five percent of relapses are monosymptomatic. Pseudo-relapses and paroxysmal symptoms are distinguished from relapses by their sudden onset, sudden termination, and shorter duration. Contrast enhancement is valuable in imaging, but undetectable in most relapses. The regression in the first few weeks of relapses is explained by reduction of the edema, and by remyelination in the following months. Relapses and their features are also among the main determinants of treatment. High-dose methylprednisolone and early treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone reduce post-relapse disability and shorten the duration of relapses. Plasmapheresis is a good option for patients who do not respond to steroid treatment. Identification of relapses by patients and physicians, distinguishing them from imitators, proper evaluation, treatment when necessary, and monitoring the results are of great importance for patients with MS. The educational levels of patients and physicians regarding these parameters should be increased. Well-designed studies that evaluate the long-term effect of relapse treatment on disability are needed.

  2. From imitation to meaning: circuit plasticity and the acquisition of a primitive semantics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo R Garcia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The capacity for language is arguably the most remarkable innovation of the human brain. A relatively recent interpretation prescribes that part of the language-related circuits were co-opted from circuitry involved in hand control –the mirror neuron system, involved both in the perception and in the execution of voluntary grasping actions. A less radical view is that in early humans, communication was opportunistic and multimodal, using signs, vocalizations or whatever means available to transmit social information. However, one point that is not yet clear under either perspective is how learned communication acquired a semantic property thereby allowing us to name objects and eventually describe our surrounding environment. Here we suggest a scenario involving both manual gestures and learned vocalizations that led to the development of a primitive form of conventionalized reference. This proposal is based on comparative evidence gathered from other species and on neurolinguistic evidence in humans, which points to a crucial role for vocal learning in the early development of language. Firstly, the capacity to direct the attention of others to a common object may have been crucial for developing a consensual referential system. Pointing, which is a ritualized grasping gesture, may have been crucial to this end. Vocalizations also served to generate joint attention among conversants, especially when combined with gaze direction. Another contributing element was the development of pantomimic actions resembling events or animals. In conjunction with this mimicry, the development of plastic neural circuits that support complex, learned vocalizations was probably a significant factor in the evolution of conventionalized semantics in our species. Thus, vocal imitations of sounds, as in onomatopoeias (words whose sound resembles their meaning, are possibly supported by mirror system circuits, and may have been relevant in the acquisition of early

  3. From imitation to meaning: circuit plasticity and the acquisition of a conventionalized semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ricardo R; Zamorano, Francisco; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The capacity for language is arguably the most remarkable innovation of the human brain. A relatively recent interpretation prescribes that part of the language-related circuits were co-opted from circuitry involved in hand control-the mirror neuron system (MNS), involved both in the perception and in the execution of voluntary grasping actions. A less radical view is that in early humans, communication was opportunistic and multimodal, using signs, vocalizations or whatever means available to transmit social information. However, one point that is not yet clear under either perspective is how learned communication acquired a semantic property thereby allowing us to name objects and eventually describe our surrounding environment. Here we suggest a scenario involving both manual gestures and learned vocalizations that led to the development of a primitive form of conventionalized reference. This proposal is based on comparative evidence gathered from other species and on neurolinguistic evidence in humans, which points to a crucial role for vocal learning in the early development of language. Firstly, the capacity to direct the attention of others to a common object may have been crucial for developing a consensual referential system. Pointing, which is a ritualized grasping gesture, may have been crucial to this end. Vocalizations also served to generate joint attention among conversants, especially when combined with gaze direction. Another contributing element was the development of pantomimic actions resembling events or animals. In conjunction with this mimicry, the development of plastic neural circuits that support complex, learned vocalizations was probably a significant factor in the evolution of conventionalized semantics in our species. Thus, vocal imitations of sounds, as in onomatopoeias (words whose sound resembles their meaning), are possibly supported by mirror system circuits, and may have been relevant in the acquisition of early meanings.

  4. Relationship between motor, imitation and, early social communication skills in children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hooshang Dadgar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was investigation the association of motor skills and imitation ability with early social communication skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD.Method: Twenty children with ASD aged 3-5 years (M=4.05, SD=0.55 were tested with Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2, the Motor Imitation Scale (MIS and, the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS.Results: There was significant and strong correlation between TGMD total score and imitation total score(r =.776; p <0.001.However, the relationship between MIS subscales and TGMD-2 locomotor subtest scores was not significant (P>0.05. A significant correlation was found between MIS and TGMD total scores with ESCS subscales except social interaction and responding to behavioral requests subscales.Conclusion: The results support previous studies that indicated both imitation ability and motor function have association with some early social communication skills. However, these results showed the needs for clinicians to target imitation and motor skills in early intervention programs in ASD.

  5. Deliberately generated and imitated facial expressions of emotions in people with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapelo, Marcela Marin; Bodas, Sergio; Morris, Robin; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-02-01

    People with eating disorders have difficulties in socio emotional functioning that could contribute to maintaining the functional consequences of the disorder. This study aimed to explore the ability to deliberately generate (i.e., pose) and imitate facial expressions of emotions in women with anorexia (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), compared to healthy controls (HC). One hundred and three participants (36 AN, 25 BN, and 42 HC) were asked to pose and imitate facial expressions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness. Their facial expressions were recorded and coded. Participants with eating disorders (both AN and BN) were less accurate than HC when posing facial expressions of emotions. Participants with AN were less accurate compared to HC imitating facial expressions, whilst BN participants had a middle range performance. All results remained significant after controlling for anxiety, depression and autistic features. The relatively small number of BN participants recruited for this study. The study findings suggest that people with eating disorders, particularly those with AN, have difficulties posing and imitating facial expressions of emotions. These difficulties could have an impact in social communication and social functioning. This is the first study to investigate the ability to pose and imitate facial expressions of emotions in people with eating disorders, and the findings suggest this area should be further explored in future studies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. A Virtual Reality Dance Training System Using Motion Capture Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J. C. P.; Leung, H.; Tang, J. K. T.; Komura, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new dance training system based on the motion capture and virtual reality (VR) technologies is proposed. Our system is inspired by the traditional way to learn new movements-imitating the teacher's movements and listening to the teacher's feedback. A prototype of our proposed system is implemented, in which a student can imitate…

  7. Mass Shootings: The Role of the Media in Promoting Generalized Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, James N; Ivy, Jonathan W

    2017-03-01

    Mass shootings are a particular problem in the United States, with one mass shooting occurring approximately every 12.5 days. Recently a "contagion" effect has been suggested wherein the occurrence of one mass shooting increases the likelihood of another mass shooting occurring in the near future. Although contagion is a convenient metaphor used to describe the temporal spread of a behavior, it does not explain how the behavior spreads. Generalized imitation is proposed as a better model to explain how one person's behavior can influence another person to engage in similar behavior. Here we provide an overview of generalized imitation and discuss how the way in which the media report a mass shooting can increase the likelihood of another shooting event. Also, we propose media reporting guidelines to minimize imitation and further decrease the likelihood of a mass shooting.

  8. IMITATOR II: A Tool for Solving the Good Parameters Problem in Timed Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Étienne André

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We present here Imitator II, a new version of Imitator, a tool implementing the "inverse method" for parametric timed automata: given a reference valuation of the parameters, it synthesizes a constraint such that, for any valuation satisfying this constraint, the system behaves the same as under the reference valuation in terms of traces, i.e., alternating sequences of locations and actions. Imitator II also implements the "behavioral cartography algorithm", allowing us to solve the following good parameters problem: find a set of valuations within a given bounded parametric domain for which the system behaves well. We present new features and optimizations of the tool, and give results of applications to various examples of asynchronous circuits and communication protocols.

  9. INNOVATION, IMITATION, AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP: THE INTRODUCTION AND DIFFUSION OF THE HOMEOWNERS POLICY, 1944-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Rossi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the introduction of the homeowners policy in the United States insurance market in the I950s to explore the process of innovation and the role that innovators (entrepreneurs and imitators play within it through an examination of Schumpeter’s theory of innovation and its discussion in the recent economic literature on innovation and imitation. Schumpeter’s model of entrepreneurial innovation is tested through a case study of the homeowners policy’s introduction in 1950 and its subsequent diffusion throughout the decade. The policy was an innovative product which helped transform the property-casualty sector of the insurance industry. Thus, this case study supports Schumpeter’s model of entrepreneurial innovation and illustrates the significant role that imitation plays within it.

  10. Corrosion studies of a chromium steel in imitated seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakatos-Varsanyi, M.; Meisel, W.

    2002-01-01

    A series of in-door experiments was performed to get some insight into the corrosion behavior of a commercial alloy Fe-12% Cr (3CR12) exposed to imitated seawater. Applying different analytical methods, the main corrosion process was found to be the formation of flakes on the surface which, peel off after they have reached a certain size. Some Cr is dissolved in the solution, its relative concentration with respect to Fe is higher than in the bulk material. The flakes consist mainly of mixed oxihydroxides of the type FeOOH containing some Cr and Mg. The oxidic layer on the interface is very thin, behaves essentially stationary with a slight growth of about 0.05 nm/day. It consists of Cr oxide with some inclusions of Fe and Mg and is not of a chromite type. Immediately below this oxidic layer, the metallic substrate exhibits a thin layer depleted in Cr and behaving like α-Fe (bcc). As compared with stainless steel, potentiostatic current vs. time records at anodic potentials below the pitting potential indicate a very different stability of the surface films for 3CR12. The kinetics of the passive layer formation on 3CR12 was found to follow a parabolic law initially and to change later (after 10...100 seconds in deaerated solution and even earlier in aerated solution) to a linear law. After some time, pitting corrosion and/or cracks due to internal stresses play the dominant role. Cr does not form a protective oxidic layer. The surface morphology of samples exposed at -200 mV for 20 and 80 minutes has been studied by scanning electron microscopy and scanning Auger microprobe. The results reflect the competing formation of oxidic layers and pitting, the participation of Cr in the dissolution process. It is also suggested that Mg, which is a component of the solution was incorporated into the rust and some Mg was also found on the metallic surface. (author)

  11. The implementation of industrial training in tertiary education in Malaysia: Objectives, realisations and outputs in the case of foreign language students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machart, Régis

    2017-02-01

    The large range of jobs that Malaysian undergraduates of foreign languages are often employed in after completion of their studies (education, tourism, banking, business, management, etc.) is not necessarily related to their major field of study. This situation often makes it difficult for lecturers to develop a comprehensive professional training for their benefit. In the early 2010s, unemployment rates of Malaysian undergraduates were increasing, although the job market was quite flexible. In order to improve students' employability, Malaysian universities decided to restructure their curricula. Industrial training, or Latihan Industri (LI), became a new mandatory requirement for all future undergraduates of the new programmes from 2011. LI aims to match students' academic training with the needs of the private sector. However, most companies were not prepared to accept the first influx of trainees from all types of programmes (sciences, social sciences or the humanities) in 2014. Consequently, many students could not find an appropriate LI position in the field they were studying, and were placed in positions for which they were poorly prepared. At the end of their LI, students had to submit a logbook of their activities as well as provide a final report in which they were asked to evaluate their experiences. A content analysis of these reports from four foreign language students who did their LI in different sectors (finance, education, industry and retail) provides interesting insights into the different skills required by Malaysian employers, irrespective of their sector of activity. The analysis of the reports raises the question of the adequacy of the academic training of foreign language students for the Malaysian job market, and the transferability of their acquired language skills to their new work environment.

  12. A Measure of Proficiency or Short-Term Memory? Validation of an Elicited Imitation Test for SLA Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youjin; Tracy-Ventura, Nicole; Jung, Yeonjoo

    2016-01-01

    Elicited imitation requires listeners to listen and repeat sentences as accurately as possible. In second language acquisition (SLA) research it has been used for a variety of purposes. Recently, versions of the same elicited imitation test (EIT) have been created in 6 languages with the purpose of measuring second language proficiency (Ortega…

  13. An Examination of the State of Imitation Research in Children with Autism: Issues of Definition and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevlever, Melina; Gillis, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that children with autism are impaired in their ability to imitate others. However, diverse methodologies, contradictory findings, and varying theoretical explanations continue to exist in the literature despite decades of research. A comprehensive account of imitation in children with autism is hampered by the lack…

  14. Deficits in motor abilities and developmental fractionation of imitation performance in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscaldi, Monica; Rauh, Reinhold; Irion, Lisa; Jung, Nikolai H; Mall, Volker; Fleischhaker, Christian; Klein, Christoph

    2014-07-01

    The co-occurrence of motor and imitation disabilities often characterises the spectrum of deficits seen in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Whether these seemingly separate deficits are inter-related and whether, in particular, motor deficits contribute to the expression of imitation deficits is the topic of the present study and was investigated by comparing these deficits' cross-sectional developmental trajectories. To that end, different components of motor performance assessed in the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment and imitation abilities for facial movements and non-meaningful gestures were tested in 70 subjects (aged 6-29 years), including 36 patients with high-functioning ASD and 34 age-matched typically developed (TD) participants. The results show robust deficits in probands with ASD in timed motor performance and in the quality of movement, which are all independent of age, with one exception. Only diadochokinesis improves moderately with increasing age in ASD probands. Imitation of facial movements and of non-meaningful hand, finger, hand finger gestures not related to social context or tool use is also impaired in ASD subjects, but in contrast to motor performance this deficit overall improves with age. A general imitation factor, extracted from the highly inter-correlated imitation tests, is differentially correlated with components of neuromotor performance in ASD and TD participants. By developmentally fractionating developmentally stable motor deficits from developmentally dynamic imitation deficits, we infer that imitation deficits are primarily cognitive in nature.

  15. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals a role for the left inferior parietal lobule in matching observed kinematics during imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Arran T; Royce, Ben P; Marsh, Jade E; Chivers, Katy-Jayne; Holmes, Nicholas P

    2018-04-01

    Apraxia (a disorder of complex movement) suggests that the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) plays a role in kinematic or spatial aspects of imitation, which may be particularly important for meaningless (i.e. unfamiliar intransitive) actions. Mirror neuron theories indicate that the IPL is part of a frontoparietal system that can support imitation by linking observed and stored actions through visuomotor matching, and have less to say about different subregions of the left IPL, or how different types of action (i.e. meaningful or meaningless) are processed for imitation. We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to bridge this gap and better understand the roles of the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and left angular gyrus (AG) in imitation. We also examined whether these areas are differentially involved in meaningful and meaningless action imitation. We applied rTMS over the left SMG, over the left AG or during a no-rTMS baseline condition, and then asked participants to imitate a confederate's actions whilst the arm and hand movements of both individuals were motion-tracked. rTMS over both the left SMG and the left AG reduced the velocity of participants' finger movements relative to the actor during imitation of finger gestures, regardless of action meaning. Our results support recent claims in apraxia and confirm a role for the left IPL in kinematic processing during gesture imitation, regardless of action meaning. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Intersubjective Imitation in Children with Autism: The Relationship between Intersubjectivity with Joint Attention, Joint Engagement and Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishijima, Eric Hideyuki

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the imitation abilities of children with autism that require intersubjective interaction with the person modeling the action. The relationships between these types of imitation with other developmental skills were also examined. Results showed that during the same time point, children that were better at intersubjective…

  17. Low Fidelity Imitation of Atypical Biological Kinematics in Autism Spectrum Disorders Is Modulated by Self-Generated Selective Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Spencer J.; Andrew, Matthew; Elliott, Digby; Gowen, Emma; Bennett, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether adults with autism had difficulty imitating atypical biological kinematics. To reduce the impact that higher-order processes have on imitation we used a non-human agent model to control social attention, and removed end-state target goals in half of the trials to minimise goal-directed attention. Findings showed that only…

  18. Forming a Stable Memory Representation in the First Year of Life: Why Imitation Is More than Child's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Angela F.; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Haight, Jennifer C.; DeBoer, Tracy; Nelson, Charles A.; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2005-01-01

    Although 9-month-old infants are capable of retaining temporally ordered information over long delays, this ability is relatively fragile. It may be possible to facilitate long-term retention by allowing infants to imitate event sequences immediately after their presentation. The effects of imitation on immediate and delayed recognition and on…

  19. Infant Imitation after a 1-Week Delay: Long-Term Memory for Novel Acts and Multiple Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated deferred imitation ability for six actions in 14-month-old infants. After a week's delay, infants were tested on their ability to imitate the actions.Those who had been exposed to modeling produced significantly higher instances of the target actions. (SKC)

  20. Bend-imitating theory and electron scattering in sharply-bent quantum nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakhnenko, O.O.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of bend-imitating description as applied to the one-electron quantum mechanics in sharply-bent ideal electron waveguides and its development into a self consistent theory are presented. In the framework of bend-imitating approach, the investigation of the electron scattering in a doubly-bent 2D quantum wire with S-like bend has been made, and the explicit dependences of the transmission and reflection coefficients on geometrical parameters of a structure, as well as on the electron energy, have been obtained. The total elimination of the mixing between the scattering channels of a S-like bent quantum wire is predicted.

  1. What Infant Memory Tells Us about Infantile Amnesia: Long-Term Recall and Deferred Imitation

    OpenAIRE

    Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    1995-01-01

    Long-term recall memory was assessed using a nonverbal method requiring subjects to reenact a past event from memory (deferred imitation). A large sample of infants (N = 192), evenly divided between 14- and 16-months old, was tested across two experiments. A delay of 2 months was used in Experiment 1 and a delay of 4 months in Experiment 2. In both experiments two treatment groups were used, In one treatment group, motor practice (immediate imitation) was allowed before the delay was imposed;...

  2. Long-term memory, forgetting, and deferred imitation in 12-month-old infants

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Pamela J.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    1999-01-01

    Long-term recall memory, as indexed by deferred imitation, was assessed in 12-month-old infants. Independent groups of infants were tested after retention intervals of 3 min, 1 week and 4 weeks. Deferred imitation was assessed using the ‘observation-only’ procedure in which infants were not allowed motor practice on the tasks before the delay was imposed. Thus, the memory could not have been based on re-accessing a motor habit, because none was formed in the first place. After the delay, memo...

  3. IMITATION MODEL OF A HIGH-SPEED INDUCTION MOTOR WITH FREQUENCY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Pliugin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop the imitation model of the frequency converter controlled high-speed induction motor with a squirrel-cage rotor in order to determine reasons causes electric motor vibrations and noises in starting modes. Methodology. We have applied the mathematical simulation of electromagnetic field in transient mode and imported obtained field model as an independent object in frequency converter circuit. We have correlated the simulated result with the experimental data obtained by means of the PID regulator factors. Results. We have made the simulation model of the high-speed induction motor with a squirrel-cage rotor speed control in AnsysRMxprt, Ansys Maxwell and Ansys Simplorer, approximated to their physical prototype. We have made models modifications allows to provide high-performance computing (HPC in dedicated server and computer cluster to reduce the simulation time. We have obtained motor characteristics in starting and rated modes. This allows to make recommendations on determination of high-speed electric motor optimal deign, having minimum indexes of vibrations and noises. Originality. For the first time, we have carried out the integrated research of induction motor using simultaneously simulation models both in Ansys Maxwell (2D field model and in Ansys Simplorer (transient circuit model with the control low realization for the motor soft start. For the first time the correlation between stator and rotor slots, allows to obtain minimal vibrations and noises, was defined. Practical value. We have tested manufactured high-speed motor based on the performed calculation. The experimental studies have confirmed the adequacy of the model, which allows designing such motors for new high-speed construction, and upgrade the existing ones.

  4. Children's Representation and Imitation of Events: How Goal Organization Influences 3-Year-Old Children's Memory for Action Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Jeff; Mutschler, Christina; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2017-01-01

    Children's imitation of adults plays a prominent role in human cognitive development. However, few studies have investigated how children represent the complex structure of observed actions which underlies their imitation. We integrate theories of action segmentation, memory, and imitation to investigate whether children's event representation is…

  5. [An investigation of the imitation skills in children with autism spectrum disorder and their association with receptive-expressive language development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Figen; Ökçün Akçamuş, Meral Çilem

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare imitation skills in children with autism spectrum disorder, and age-matched typically developing children and children with developmental delay, as well as to examine the association between imitation skills, and receptive and expressive language development in children with autism spectrum disorder. Imitation skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (n=18), and age-matched children with developmental delay (n=15) and typically developing children (n= 16) were assessed using the Motor Imitation Scale and Imitation Battery, and the differences in mean imitation scores between the groups were examined. Receptive language and expressive language development in the children with autism spectrum disorder were assessed using the Turkish Communicative Development Inventory (TCDI), and their association with imitation scores was explored. The children with autism spectrum disorder had significantly lower imitation scores than the children with developmental delay and typically developing children; however, there wasn't a significant difference in imitation scores between the children with developmental delay and typically developing children. A significant association between imitation scores, and receptive and expressive language development was observed in the children with autism spectrum disorder. The present findings indicate that deficient imitation skills are a distinctive feature of children with autism spectrum disorder and that imitation skills play a crucial role in children's language development.

  6. Objectives in Commercial Engineering: Report of the Second Conference on Business Training for Engineers and Engineering Training for Students of Business, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, May 1 and 2, 1922. Bulletin, 1924, No. 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiggett, Glen Levin

    1924-01-01

    The primary purpose of this conference held in Washington, May 1 and 2, 1922, was to promote through training better coordination of the major operations in industry and commerce. There was an attendance of 215 comprising largely business executives, engineers, and professors of business and engineering. The topics of discussion related to the…

  7. A summative, Objective, Structured, Clinical Examination in ENT used to assess postgraduate doctors after one year of ENT training, as part of the Diploma of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake-Lee, A B; Skinner, D; Hawthorne, M; Clarke, R

    2009-10-01

    'High stakes' postgraduate medical examinations should conform to current educational standards. In the UK and Ireland, national assessments in surgery are devised and managed through the examination structure of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons. Their efforts are not reported in the medical education literature. In the current paper, we aim to clarify this process. To replace the clinical section of the Diploma of Otorhinolaryngology with an Objective, Structured, Clinical Examination, and to set the level of the assessment at one year of postgraduate training in the specialty. After 'blueprinting' against the whole curriculum, an Objective, Structured, Clinical Examination comprising 25 stations was divided into six clinical stations and 19 other stations exploring written case histories, instruments, test results, written communication skills and interpretation skills. The pass mark was set using a modified borderline method and other methods, and statistical analysis of the results was performed. The results of nine examinations between May 2004 and May 2008 are presented. The pass mark varied between 68 and 82 per cent. Internal consistency was good, with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.99 for all examinations and split-half statistics varying from 0.96 to 0.99. Different standard settings gave similar pass marks. We have developed a summative, Objective, Structured, Clinical Examination for doctors training in otorhinolaryngology, reported herein. The objectives and standards of setting a high quality assessment were met.

  8. Effects of a Prototypical Training Program on the Implementation of Systematic Observational Data Collection on IEP Objectives for the Core Deficits of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkins, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    Legal mandates and best practice recommendations for the education of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) emphasize the importance of systematic, ongoing observational data collection in order to monitor progress and demonstrate accountability. The absence of such documentation in decision-making on instructional objectives indicates a…

  9. How do elite ski jumpers handle the dynamic conditions in imitation jumps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettema, Gertjan; Hooiveld, Jo; Braaten, Steinar; Bobbert, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effect of boundary conditions in imitation ski jumping on movement dynamics and coordination. We compared imitation ski jumps with--and without--the possibility to generate shear propulsion forces. Six elite ski jumpers performed imitation jumps by jumping from a fixed surface and from a rolling platform. The ground reaction force vector, kinematics of body segments, and EMG of eight lower limb muscles were recorded. Net joint dynamics were calculated using inverse dynamics. The two imitation jumps differed considerably from each other with regard to the dynamics (moments, forces), whereas the kinematics were very similar. Knee power was higher and hip power was lower on the rolling platform than on the fixed surface. Mean EMG levels were very similar for both conditions, but differences in the development of muscle activity were indicated for seven of eight muscles. These differences are reflected in a subtle difference of the alignment of ground reaction force with centre of mass: the ground reaction force runs continuously close to but behind the centre of mass on the rolling platform and fluctuates around it on the fixed surface. This likely reflects a different strategy for controlling angular momentum.

  10. Social robotics to help children with autism in their interactions through imitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennazio Valentina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reflect on the main variables that make social robotics efficient in an educational and rehabilitative intervention. Social robotics is based on imitation, and the study is designed for children affected by profound autism, aiming for the development of their social interactions. Existing research, at the national and international levels, shows how children with autism can interact more easily with a robotic companion rather than a human peer, considering its less complex and more predictable actions. This contribution also highlights how using robotic platforms helps in teaching children with autism basic social abilities, imitation, communication and interaction; this encourages them to transfer the learned abilities to human interactions with both adults and peers, through human–robot imitative modelling. The results of a pilot study conducted in a kindergarten school in the Liguria region are presented. The study included applying a robotic system, at first in a dyadic child–robot relation, then in a triadic one that also included another child, with the aim of eliciting social and imitative abilities in a child with profound autism.

  11. Imitation of Body Postures and Hand Movements in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Klara

    2009-01-01

    Within the domain-general theory of language impairment, this study examined body posture and hand movement imitation in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and in their age-matched peers. Participants included 40 children with SLI (5 years 3 months to 6 years 10 months of age) and 40 children with typical language development (5…

  12. Lexical Difficulty--Using Elicited Imitation to Study Child L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campfield, Dorota E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a post-hoc analysis of the influence of lexical difficulty of cue sentences on performance in an elicited imitation (EI) task to assess oral production skills for 645 child L2 English learners in instructional settings. This formed part of a large-scale investigation into effectiveness of foreign language teaching in Polish…

  13. Examining Recall Memory in Infancy and Early Childhood Using the Elicited Imitation Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Angela F; Milojevich, Helen M

    2016-04-28

    The ability to recall the past allows us to report on details of previous experiences, from the everyday to the significant. Because recall memory is commonly assessed using verbal report paradigms in adults, studying the development of this ability in preverbal infants and children proved challenging. Over the past 30 years, researchers have developed a non-verbal means of assessing recall memory known as the elicited or deferred imitation paradigm. In one variant of the procedure, participants are presented with novel three-dimensional stimuli for a brief baseline period before a researcher demonstrates a series of actions that culminate in an end- or goal-state. The participant is allowed to imitate the demonstrated actions immediately, after a delay, or both. Recall performance is then compared to baseline or to performance on novel control sequences presented at the same session; memory can be assessed for the individual target actions and the order in which they were completed. This procedure is an accepted analogue to the verbal report techniques used with adults, and it has served to establish a solid foundation of the nature of recall memory in infancy and early childhood. In addition, the elicited or deferred imitation procedure has been modified and adapted to answer questions relevant to other aspects of cognitive functioning. The broad utility and application of imitation paradigms is discussed, along with limitations of the approach and directions for future research.

  14. Prefrontal involvement in imitation learning of hand actions: effects of practice and expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Stefan; Buccino, Giovanni; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Canessa, Nicola; Shah, N Jon; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B; Freund, Hans-Joachim; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Fink, Gereon R

    2007-10-01

    In this event-related fMRI study, we demonstrate the effects of a single session of practising configural hand actions (guitar chords) on cortical activations during observation, motor preparation and imitative execution. During the observation of non-practised actions, the mirror neuron system (MNS), consisting of inferior parietal and ventral premotor areas, was more strongly activated than for the practised actions. This finding indicates a strong role of the MNS in the early stages of imitation learning. In addition, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was selectively involved during observation and motor preparation of the non-practised chords. This finding confirms Buccino et al.'s [Buccino, G., Vogt, S., Ritzl, A., Fink, G.R., Zilles, K., Freund, H.-J., Rizzolatti, G., 2004a. Neural circuits underlying imitation learning of hand actions: an event-related fMRI study. Neuron 42, 323-334] model of imitation learning: for actions that are not yet part of the observer's motor repertoire, DLPFC engages in operations of selection and combination of existing, elementary representations in the MNS. The pattern of prefrontal activations further supports Shallice's [Shallice, T., 2004. The fractionation of supervisory control. In: Gazzaniga, M.S. (Ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences, Third edition. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 943-956] proposal of a dominant role of the left DLPFC in modulating lower level systems and of a dominant role of the right DLPFC in monitoring operations.

  15. Heterogeneous update mechanisms in evolutionary games: Mixing innovative and imitative dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Marco Antonio; Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2018-04-01

    Innovation and evolution are two processes of paramount relevance for social and biological systems. In general, the former allows the introduction of elements of novelty, while the latter is responsible for the motion of a system in its phase space. Often, these processes are strongly related, since an innovation can trigger the evolution, and the latter can provide the optimal conditions for the emergence of innovations. Both processes can be studied by using the framework of evolutionary game theory, where evolution constitutes an intrinsic mechanism. At the same time, the concept of innovation requires an opportune mathematical representation. Notably, innovation can be modeled as a strategy, or it can constitute the underlying mechanism that allows agents to change strategy. Here, we analyze the second case, investigating the behavior of a heterogeneous population, composed of imitative and innovative agents. Imitative agents change strategy only by imitating that of their neighbors, whereas innovative ones change strategy without the need for a copying source. The proposed model is analyzed by means of analytical calculations and numerical simulations in different topologies. Remarkably, results indicate that the mixing of mechanisms can be detrimental to cooperation near phase transitions. In those regions, the spatial reciprocity from imitative mechanisms is destroyed by innovative agents, leading to the downfall of cooperation. Our investigation sheds some light on the complex dynamics emerging from the heterogeneity of strategy revision methods, highlighting the role of innovation in evolutionary games.

  16. Imitation and communication skills development in children with pervasive developmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea De Giacomo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrea De Giacomo1, Claudia Portoghese1, Domenico Martinelli2, Isabella Fanizza1, Luciano L’Abate3, Lucia Margari11Child Neurological and Psychiatric Unit, Department of Neurological and Psychiatric sciences, University of Bari, Italy; 2Department of Biomedical science and Oncology, University of Bari, Italy; 3Department of Psychology, Georgia State University Abstract: This study evaluates the correlation between failure to develop spontaneous imitation and language skills in pervasive developmental disorders. Sixty-four children between the age of 3 and 8 years were assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS, and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS, as well as direct observation of imitation. The sample was subdivided into a verbal and a nonverbal group. Analysis of mean scores on the CARS “imitation” items and of ADI-R “spontaneous imitation” and “pointing to express interest” revealed a statistically significant difference between verbal and nonverbal groups, with more severe impairment/higher scores in the nonverbal than the verbal group. These results suggest that nonverbal children have specifically impaired imitation and pointing skills.Keywords: autism, imitation, communication, language, pointing

  17. Imitation interacts with one's second-language phonology but it does not operate cross-linguistically

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podlipský, V.J.; Šimáčková, Š.; Chládková, K.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored effects of simultaneous use of late bilinguals’ languages on their second-language (L2) pronunciation. We tested (1) if bilinguals effectively inhibit the first language (L1) when simultaneously processing L1 and L2, (2) if bilinguals, like natives, imitate subphonemic variation,

  18. Development of Spontaneous Grandparent-Infant Imitation across the First Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinaki, Theano; Germanakis, Ioannis; Pratikaki, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore and compare systematically the developmental patterns of certain aspects of imitation, longitudinally from 2 to 10 months, in interactions of infants with grandfathers and grandmothers. Sixteen infants were video-recorded at home in the course of spontaneous dyadic interactions with maternal grandfathers…

  19. The direct perception hypothesis: perceiving the intention of another’s action hinders its precise imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Tom; Leavens, David A.

    2014-01-01

    We argue that imitation is a learning response to unintelligible actions, especially to social conventions. Various strands of evidence are converging on this conclusion, but further progress has been hampered by an outdated theory of perceptual experience. Comparative psychology continues to be premised on the doctrine that humans and non-human primates only perceive others’ physical “surface behavior,” while mental states are perceptually inaccessible. However, a growing consensus in social cognition research accepts the direct perception hypothesis: primarily we see what others aim to do; we do not infer it from their motions. Indeed, physical details are overlooked – unless the action is unintelligible. On this basis we hypothesize that apes’ propensity to copy the goal of an action, rather than its precise means, is largely dependent on its perceived intelligibility. Conversely, children copy means more often than adults and apes because, uniquely, much adult human behavior is completely unintelligible to unenculturated observers due to the pervasiveness of arbitrary social conventions, as exemplified by customs, rituals, and languages. We expect the propensity to imitate to be inversely correlated with the familiarity of cultural practices, as indexed by age and/or socio-cultural competence. The direct perception hypothesis thereby helps to parsimoniously explain the most important findings of imitation research, including children’s over-imitation and other species-typical and age-related variations. PMID:24600413

  20. Imitation of radiation-induced damages to DNA with a radionuclide incorporated into polynucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolev, V.G.

    1984-01-01

    Because of a great variety and different reparability of radiation-induced DNA lesions it is difficult to evaluate the radiobiologacal significance of certain individual alterations. It is suggested that the radionuclides incorporated anto DNA can be used to imitate different types of radiation damages to DNA. Both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the problem are discussed