WorldWideScience

Sample records for obese young people

  1. Modelling Gender Differences in the Economic and Social Influences of Obesity in Australian Young People

    OpenAIRE

    Gulay Avsar; Roger Ham; W. Kathy Tannous

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, as in many other developed economies, the prevalence of obesity has risen significantly in all age groups and especially in young males and females over the past decade. Using data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, this paper investigates the influence of economic, personality and social factor demographics on the incidence of obesity in Australian youths. The study uses two random parameters logit models, including one that allows for g...

  2. Modelling Gender Differences in the Economic and Social Influences of Obesity in Australian Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Avsar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, as in many other developed economies, the prevalence of obesity has risen significantly in all age groups and especially in young males and females over the past decade. Using data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA Survey, this paper investigates the influence of economic, personality and social factor demographics on the incidence of obesity in Australian youths. The study uses two random parameters logit models, including one that allows for gender-specific differences in the conditioning variables. The models reveal notable differences between the most important variables affecting the incidence of obesity amongst females compared to males. These differences are notable to consider for policy and intervention programs aimed at reducing the problem of obesity.

  3. Modelling Gender Differences in the Economic and Social Influences of Obesity in Australian Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsar, Gulay; Ham, Roger; Tannous, W Kathy

    2017-03-03

    In Australia, as in many other developed economies, the prevalence of obesity has risen significantly in all age groups and especially in young males and females over the past decade. Using data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, this paper investigates the influence of economic, personality and social factor demographics on the incidence of obesity in Australian youths. The study uses two random parameters logit models, including one that allows for gender-specific differences in the conditioning variables. The models reveal notable differences between the most important variables affecting the incidence of obesity amongst females compared to males. These differences are notable to consider for policy and intervention programs aimed at reducing the problem of obesity.

  4. [Prevalence and determinants of obesity in children and young people in Catalonia, Spain, 2006-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posso, Margarita; Brugulat-Guiteras, Pilar; Puig, Teresa; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Alcañiz, Manuela; Guillén, Montserrat; Tresserras-Gaju, Ricard

    2014-12-09

    To estimate the prevalence of obesity and overweight in children aged 2 to 14 years in Catalonia, its trends between 2006 and 2010-2012, and to evaluate social determinants and lifestyle associated with obesity. A cross-sectional study, using the data from 4,389 surveys from Catalonia Health Surveys of the years 2006 and 2010-2012, was conducted. Obesity and overweight were determined by World Health Organization criteria. Socioeconomic position, parent's education, usual diet and activity, and hours of sleep were assessed. The prevalence of obesity and overweight were: 15.4 and 20.2% in 2010-2012. The prevalence of obesity was higher in boys (15.5%) compared to girls (12.8%) (Pchildren ranging from 2 to 9 years old (17.5%) than children aged 10 to 14 years (7.7%) (Pobesity and overweight were similar to the prevalence in 2010-2012. Obesity was more frequent in children with parents with a low socioeconomic position and/or a primary or elementary parent's education. During the last 5 years (2006-2012), child obesity and overweight have remained stable in Catalonia, yet they are relatively high in Europe. Public health programmes against obesity must consider conducting an intersectional action taking social determinants and family life styles into account. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Drugs and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug abuse is a serious public health problem. It affects almost every community and family in some way. Drug abuse in children and teenagers may pose a ... of young people may be more susceptible to drug abuse and addiction than adult brains. Abused drugs ...

  6. Priorities for children and young people - opportunities and challenges for children and young people's nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fiona

    2016-05-09

    Across Europe children's nurses today face many challenges, including rising childhood obesity, the soaring incidence of issues with the mental health of children and young people, the effects of social media, child maltreatment and the impact of poverty, war and conflict on children and families. There are opportunities for children's nurses to undertake new roles and to influence both policy and practice to improve the health outcomes of children and young people, and thereby the future health of the population.

  7. Effective Communication with Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Patrick; Elliott, David

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Government established the Office for Youth (the Office) in September 2008 in an effort to engage with the young people of Australia. The Office will work with other government agencies to help young people reach their full potential; make effective transitions to adulthood as they continue to learn, start work, make decisions that…

  8. Young people and sexual orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Kuyper

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Young people and sexual orientation The Netherlands Institute for Social Research ¦ SCP carries out regular research on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals. In this report, the focus is on young people in the Netherlands. The report addresses two issues:

  9. Obesity and dissociable forms of impulsivity in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Derbyshire, Katherine L; Leppink, Eric; Grant, Jon E

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality, and young people are increasingly affected. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between obesity and dissociable forms of impulsivity in young adults. A group of young adults (511) was recruited from city areas in the United States using media advertisements. These young adults were administered careful and extensive clinical and neurocognitive assessment in order to quantify different aspects of impulsivity (behavioral/phenomenological-, cognitive-, and personality-related measures). Associations between obesity and impulsivity were explored using multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant function analysis. 10.8% of the sample was obese, and 21.5% was overweight. Compared to controls, subjects with obesity showed significantly elevated rates of maladaptive gambling behaviors, monetary amounts lost to gambling, nicotine consumption, impulsive action (prolonged stop-signal reaction times in the Stop-Signal Test), and impulsive decision-making (reduced modulation of behavior as a function of risk in the Cambridge Gamble Test). Even accounting for potential confounding variables, obesity was significantly predicted by female gender, older age, more maladaptive gambling behaviors, and worse inhibitory control (stop-signal reaction times). Obesity is associated with several dissociable forms of impulsivity in young people, especially gambling and impulse dyscontrol. Family doctors should screen for gambling problems in obese young adults. Successful treatment of nicotine dependence in young obese people is likely to require intensive weight management support. Neuropsychological deficits relating to impulsivity occur in obese people in early adulthood, and may represent vulnerability markers rather than being due to chronic untoward metabolic effects on brain function.

  10. Young people in adult education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Mrgole

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of young people participating in adult education programmes has, in the recent years, raised the question of transfer from regular education system to labour market where a large proportion of young people remain socially marginalized and isolated. Young people in adult education are a special target group; in order to plan educational programmes properly, we need to be familiar with their specific characteristics. The article, on the level of a statistical data outline and its paradoxes, introduces the category of young people in adult education as an impact of system factors, and defines related problems in the register, which - for more thorough understanding - dictates sociologically and anthropologically directed analytical approach. The first effect of this, not solely pedagogical view, is presented in the second part of the article, where Mrgole proposes an analysis of educational needs definition and its dangerous consequences in original planning of educational programmes. The concluding part takes a wider perspective and treats the factors of early school-leaving of young people, taking into consideration direct experience in experimental educational programmes for the young. The article ends with an outline of basic elements which the planners of andragogical educational programmes intended for young people should consider in their planning to achieve effective curricula.

  11. Young People with a Twist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bo Wagner; Madsen, Diana Højlund

    The report is based on group interviews with 33 young people with ethnic minority backgrounds. They have been asked about their educational and vocational wishes and also touch on a number of issues such as family, gender equality, discrimination and integration.......The report is based on group interviews with 33 young people with ethnic minority backgrounds. They have been asked about their educational and vocational wishes and also touch on a number of issues such as family, gender equality, discrimination and integration....

  12. Young People Volunteering in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Riiser, Nina Milling

    2011-01-01

    Socio economic conditions in Uganda causes the youth to be caught between childhood and adulthood. They are young people moving towards adulthood, with no option of becoming independent. How does volunteering affect the youth and why does the youth volunteer? Does the youth get closer to adulthood by volunteering and what di they gain? Socio economic conditions in Uganda causes the youth to be caught between childhood and adulthood. They are young people moving towards adulthood, with no o...

  13. Obesity Among Young Adults in Developing Countries: A Systematic Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poobalan, Amudha; Aucott, Lorna

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the overweight/obesity situation among young adults in developing countries. For this target population, obesity prevalence ranges from 2.3 to 12 %, and overweight is 28.8 %, mostly affecting females. Weight is now increasing during this life stage of transition at a higher rate, 1 kg/year, than in developed countries. Maternal factors and early childhood socioeconomic status are associated with BMI in young adults along with changing environmental and behavioural factors in some low and middle income countries, brought about by demographic and socioeconomic transitions. Young adults with 'normal weight' obesity need identification using other convenient low cost measures (skin folds or waist circumference) along with BMI. Obesity prevention or management interventions were not identified, but clearly needed to help stem the obesity pandemic. Young people generally give little priority to their future health, so such interventions need to be conducted at some optimal age, be innovative, country specific and culturally acceptable.

  14. Smoking habits and obesity in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimlichman, Eyal; Kochba, Ilan; Mimouni, Francis B; Shochat, Tzippora; Grotto, Itamar; Kreiss, Yitshak; Mandel, Dror

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the association between obesity and smoking habits in young adults. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that obesity does not prevent young adults from smoking and conversely smoking does not protect against obesity. Trained nurses interviewed participants concerning demographic data and health behaviors such as smoking. At the time of the interview, weight and height were measured. Data were analyzed retrospectively. A representative sample of Israel Defense Force (IDF) personnel upon discharge from compulsory service, usually at the age of 20-21 years. Overall, 29 745 participants were included during the 13-year study (16,363 males and 13,382 females). Smoking rates were higher among obese participants than among overweight and non-obese participants (34.9%, 37.1%, 43.6% for non-obese, overweight and obese, respectively; P < 0.001). Mean number of cigarettes smoked per day were also higher among smokers that were obese and overweight compared to the non-obese (15.2 +/- 9.2, 15.6 +/- 10.7, 18.0 +/- 9.8, respectively; P < 0.001). Overweight and obesity were associated with the father's lower academic educational level. In logistic regression analysis, obesity, year of study and parental academic education were correlated independently with smoking (P < 0.001). The positive association between obesity and smoking suggests that obesity is not a deterrent to smoking and also that smoking does not help to prevent obesity.

  15. Working with young black people.

    OpenAIRE

    Sallah, Momodou; Howson, Carlton

    2007-01-01

    This is an important collection, integrating research with messages for practitioners in an area where there has as yet been insufficient material published. This book also formed the focal point for a major international conference in the Summer of 2006. As well as jointly editing the publication, the author contributed a chapter to it. Bringing together this work's different dimensions and perspectives, this book seeks to challenge both the accepted status quo of Black young people s neg...

  16. Helping Young People Engage with Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Maggie; Sykes, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    There can be multiple benefits of scientists engaging with young people, including motivation and inspiration for all involved. But there are risks, particularly if scientists do not consider the interests and needs of young people or listen to what they have to say. We argue that "dialogue" between scientists, young people and teachers…

  17. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain…

  18. Motivating young people for education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The article explores the issue of motivation in policy and practice. The argument is that the folk high schools and the tradition of liberal education offer a learning environment where a number of psychological needs are satisfied among the young people leading to a motivation for learning whereas...... policy is based primarily on controlling forms of regulation counterproductive to the political objective of making 95% of a youth cohort complete upper secondary education. Liberal education may in other words be a case of good practice worth emulating in youth education policy....

  19. Empowering young people/ young adults to action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Birgitte Gade

    Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?......Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?...

  20. The Musical Taste of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozgot, V. G.

    2014-01-01

    Data from a longitudinal survey of the musical tastes of young people distinguish five basic vectors of its development: an orientation toward the Western paradigm; young people's unlimited amount of time spent in the consumption of music; the indiscriminate nature of their music interests; the influence that a person's membership in a particular…

  1. Commentary Examination of young people's attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young people's attitude towards entrepreneurship contributes tremendously to the rapid increase in innovation. Income and social economic status of people also have strong effect on innovation because in developing countries, stronger payment ability and higher income level enables more people to spend more on a ...

  2. Controlling young people through treatment and punishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt

    2015-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates how both treatment and punishment is part of controlling young people involved in crime in the Danish welfare state. Lately there has been an increase in the use of confinement in young offenders institutions and thus a turn towards stricter punishments for crime. However......, treatment aiming at rehabilitation is still an integrated part of the system and the organization of the young offenders institutions. For the young people subjected to control both treatment and punishment are regarded as effective means of risk-control but there are also limitations and unintended results...

  3. Obesity May Not Induce Dynamic Stability Disadvantage during Overground Walking among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-Qi; Yang, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Obesity has been related to postural instability during static standing. It remains unknown how obesity influences stability during dynamic movements like gait. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity on dynamic gait stability control in young adults during gait. Forty-four young adults (21 normal-weight and 23 obese) participated in this study. Participants walked five times at their self-selected gait speeds on a linear walkway. Their full-body kinematics were gathered by a motion capture system. Compared with normal-weight group, individuals with obesity walked more slowly with a shorter but wider step. People with obesity also spent an elongated double stance phase than those with normal weight. A reduced gait speed decreases the body center of mass's velocity relative to the base of support, leading to a reduction in dynamic stability. On the other hand, a shortened step in accompanying with a less backward-leaning trunk has the potential to bring the center of mass closer to the base of support, resulting in an increase in dynamic stability. As the result of these adaptive changes to the gait pattern, dynamic gait stability among people with obesity did not significantly differ from the one among people with normal weight. Obesity seems to not be inducing dynamic stability disadvantage in young adults during level overground walking. These findings could provide insight into the mechanisms of stability control among people affected by obesity during dynamic locomotion.

  4. Disgust, contempt, and anger and the stereotypes of obese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Thomas, Margaret A; Vanman, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    Emotions form an important part of stereotyping and prejudice, but little is known about how intergroup emotions are associated with anti-fat prejudice. This study examined the relation between negative intergroup emotions (disgust, contempt, and anger) and the stereotypes of obese people. A community sample (n = 380) and an undergraduate sample (n = 96) rated obese people on common obesity stereotypes (e.g., lazy, sloppy), and also indicated the extent to which they felt disgust, contempt, and anger toward obese people. In both samples, participants reported feeling more disgust and contempt than anger toward obese people. Furthermore, regression analyses indicated that disgust was a significant positive predictor of obesity stereotypes, but contempt and anger were not. Overall, these findings provide further evidence that disgust plays an important role in prejudice toward obese people.

  5. Jobless. Unemployment and young people's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, S L; Taylor, R J; Kerr, C B

    1998-03-02

    Morrell, Taylor and Kerr, from the University of Sydney's Department of Public Health, review the evidence of an association between unemployment and psychological and physical ill-health in young people aged 15-24 years. Aggregate data show youth unemployment and youth suicide to be strongly associated. Youth unemployment is also associated with psychological symptoms, such as depression and loss of confidence. Effects on physical health have been less extensively studies; however, there is some evidence for an association with raised blood pressure. Finally, the prevalence of lifestyle risk factors (cannabis use and, less consistently, tobacco and alcohol consumption) is higher in unemployed compared with employed young people.

  6. Heart diseases and strokes in young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Pizova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the relevance of the problem associated with the diagnosis and treatment of stroke in young patients aged 15-45 years. It considers the major causes of acute cerebrovascular accidents in young people, including pregnant women. Diseases, such patent foramen ovale, mitral valve prolapse, infective endocarditis, and postpartum cardiomyopathy, are described in detail. The basic principles of the diagnosis and therapy of ischemic stroke at a young age are given. The mainstay of therapy for acute ischemic stroke is stated to include two procedures: reperfusion and neuronal protection.

  7. Internet Usage among Children and Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karayagiz Muslu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Computers have occupied increasingly central roles in children’s world with the advance of technology. They have proved to be an ideal companion for children in developing and developed countries who spend most of their time at school or home with computers. As a measure of development and modernization, technology has made people’s lives easier and contributed positively to social well-being so far while it has also brought about some problems and threats stemming from irresponsible use of Internet. Unmonitored use of Internet may cause damages in children’s and young people’s physical, psychological, social and cognitive development. It seems imperative to assure that children and young people can benefit from computers and Internet resources effectively and productively while measures for appropriate and safe use of Internet are to be taken into serious consideration. Therefore, the government offices and institutions should lay stress upon the issue; education professionals and parents should be well-informed and regularly updated; and finally children and young people should be educated and monitored to achieve a better and efficient use of Internet. In this paper, has been mentioned to negative effect of internet usage on physical, psychosocial and cognitive health of children and young people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 445-450

  8. Sudden Death in Young People--Heart Problems Often Blamed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death in young people: Heart problems often blamed Sudden death in young people is rare, but those at ... causes and treatments. By Mayo Clinic Staff Sudden death in people younger than 35, often due to ...

  9. Credibility in Mindfulness Training for Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Harriet

    2018-01-01

    Providing the evidence-base to establish whether mindfulness for young people is beneficial is undoubtedly more challenging than it has been for adults. First of all there are the practical difficulties in training teachers to deliver mindfulness well. Yet this is what needs to be done; teachers with the class management and pedagogical expertise…

  10. Young People in Britain. CRE Factsheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet provides information about young people from ethnic minorities in Britain. In spring 1997, 48% of the ethnic minority population of Britain was under 24 years of age, in comparison with 31% of the White population. Twenty-two percent of the ethnic minority population was of compulsory school age, compared with 14% of the White…

  11. Sexting and Young People: Experts' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Shelley; Sanci, Lena; Temple-Smith, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Young people's "sexting"--defined by the "Macquarie Dictionary Online" (2010) as the sending and receiving of sexually explicit images via mobile phones--has become a focus of much media reporting; however, research regarding the phenomenon is in its infancy. This paper reports on the first phase of a study to understand this activity more…

  12. Young people's participation in physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Frydendal; Ottesen, Laila; Thing, Lone Friis

    regarding physical activity. 469 students participated in the survey. It is carried out through the online program SurveyXact. The data is processed in SPSS, and subsequently discussed. The primary results reveal that spare time jobs have a large impact on young people’s participation in physical activity......; Shame has an immense influence on the girls’ participation in physical activity; The offers regarding physical activity, provided by the school, appeal more to the boys and the students who are already physically active. Consequently, the students express a wish to have more influence on physical...... of young people today. This means that participation in physical activity cannot be discussed independently, but must always be viewed within the context of the lives of young people today....

  13. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight. Keywords: Obesity; overweight; prevalence; Uganda; young adults. African Health Sciences ...

  14. Protecting Young People From Junk Food Advertising: Implications of Psychological Research for First Amendment Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Graff, Samantha K.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, one third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, yet food and beverage companies continue to target them with advertising for products that contribute to this obesity crisis. When government restrictions on such advertising are proposed, the constitutional commercial speech doctrine is often invoked as a barrier to action. We explore incongruities between the legal justifications for the commercial speech doctrine and the psychological research on how food advertising affects young people. A proper interpretation of the First Amendment should leave room for regulations to protect young people from advertising featuring calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. PMID:22390435

  15. Protecting young people from junk food advertising: implications of psychological research for First Amendment law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Graff, Samantha K

    2012-02-01

    In the United States, one third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, yet food and beverage companies continue to target them with advertising for products that contribute to this obesity crisis. When government restrictions on such advertising are proposed, the constitutional commercial speech doctrine is often invoked as a barrier to action. We explore incongruities between the legal justifications for the commercial speech doctrine and the psychological research on how food advertising affects young people. A proper interpretation of the First Amendment should leave room for regulations to protect young people from advertising featuring calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages.

  16. Attending to others: how digital technologies direct young people's nightlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Truong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It is a growing phenomenon that young people use mobile information and communication technologies during their nightlife. This article offers an empirical examination of how young people's nightlife is shaped by engagement with the mobile phone application WhatsApp. Drawing on Sara Ahmed's phenomenological concept of orientation, I examine how WhatsApp extends young people's nightlife and how young people become orientated therein. On the one hand, I show that nightlife acquires new boundaries and fixities that encourage young people to direct their attention towards missing social relations and absent nightlife places. On the other hand, I find that young people create new perceptions of how to inhabit and spend leisure time and space. I argue that digital technologies reorientate young people, which I suggest offers novel means of addressing young people's contemporary nightlife practices, places, spaces, and social relations.

  17. Weight Matters: Health Educators' Knowledge of Obesity and Attitudes toward People Who Are Obese

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBarr, Kathy; Pettit, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Weight bias has been documented throughout society among clinicians as well as obese persons. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess Health Educators' professional philosophies, knowledge of obesity, and beliefs in a just world (meaning that people get what they deserve) in relation to their attitudes toward people who are…

  18. Parental Attitudes and Young People's Online Sexual Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbring, Emma; Hallberg, Jonas; Bohlin, Margareta; Skoog, Therése

    2015-01-01

    Parental attitudes towards young people's sexuality in traditional (i.e. non-online media) settings have been associated with young people's sexual activities. In this study, we explored the association between key parent and youth characteristics and parental attitudes towards young people's online sexual activities. We also examined the…

  19. Supportive Housing in Foster Care: The Views of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Kyttälä, Minna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Finnish young people's experiences of supportive housing. Supportive housing is an after-care programme that should support the transition from foster care to independent adulthood. It is directed mainly at young people who have been taken into foster care by social workers. The sample consisted of 39 young people (23…

  20. Prevalence and awareness of obesity among people of different age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and awareness of obesity among people of different age groups in educational institutions in Morogoro, Tanzania. ... The four institutions included a primary and a secondary school, a teacher's training college and a university. ... Employed subjects had higher rate of obesity (22.2%) than pupils or students.

  1. Effect of Obesity on Arch Index in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Sameer Ganu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive increases in weight bearing forces caused by obesity may negatively affect the lower limbs and feet but minimal research has examined the long-term loading effects of obesity on the musculoskeletal system, particularly in reference to the feet. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of obesity on medial longitudinal arch of foot in young adults. Method: 60 subjects, 30 obese & 30 non obese were assessed for height & weight using standard technique. Radiographic images under static condition were used for calculating the arch index. Result: The arch index of obese subjects was significantly lower than the non obese subjects & there is a negative correlation between the BMI & the arch index. Conclusion: These results suggests that obesity lowers the medial longitudinal arch of foot.

  2. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

  3. Young Idea People Mix with Old Idea People to Make the World Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M.

    2017-12-01

    Groups of young idea people come to eat, drink, and talk about new ideas that old idea people are working on to change the world for the better. The ideas may fix our body and mind, make our lives easier or harder, and more. The young idea people lead, learn, listen and act, so they can become old idea people. The young idea people scare the old idea people because their ideas are different. And, sometimes, the young idea people have new ideas that the old idea people have not thought about. When this happens it makes the old idea people happy and better at their work. The old idea people get to go places and share their ideas around the world. They make good money and have fun lives. They write about their work and can be well known, or not. The young idea people learn from the old idea people how they can be like them. Together the young and old idea people build things and talk about crazy ideas that may come to be. Sometimes the old idea people talk too much and don't listen. They use big words that can be hard to understand. But, the young idea people help them learn to use known words so everyone learns. We know the young idea people learn and grow from this act and they grow happier about their life. We also know that the old idea people get happy that the young idea people are so bright.

  4. Health of children and young people in secure settings

    OpenAIRE

    Mooney, Ann; Statham, J.; Storey, P.

    2007-01-01

    This small-scale descriptive study was commissioned by the Children and Young People's Public Health team within the Department of Health, in partnership with Offender Health, in order to inform preparation and implementation of an Offender Health Strategy document for children and young people. The overall aim was to review what is currently known about healthcare for children and young people in the secure estate, covering all three types of settings (Young Offender Institution, Secure Trai...

  5. Corporeality in the communication of young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornélia Jakubíková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study describes communication of young people with the emphasis on its content dedicated to corporeality and determines a content-based classification of topics from a normative perspective: what topics are regular, intimate, or tabooed; participants; and gender differences. The study is divided into parts, which thematically describe: starting points, research, sample; communication content and topics; participants in communication; gender differences; factors of communication and the language of communication. The study is elaborated on the basis of information coming from professional literature and field research conducted by semi-structured interviews with university students and university educated people – 15 women and 15 men in age 22–28 (year of birth 1987–1993 coming from an urban environment in Slovakia.

  6. Obesity, sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity and reduced mobility in Brazilian older people aged 80 years and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vanessa Ribeiro Dos; Gomes, Igor Conterato; Bueno, Denise Rodrigues; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Freitas, Ismael Forte; Gobbo, Luis Alberto

    2017-01-01

    To analyze which abnormalities in body composition (obesity, sarcopenia or sarcopenic obesity) are related to reduced mobility in older people aged 80 years and older. The sample included 116 subjects aged 80 years and older. The body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and mobility was assessed by motor tests. The χ2 test was used to analyze the proportion of older people with sarcopenia, obesity and sarcopenic obesity based on sex as well as to indicate an association between obesity, sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity and mobility. Binary logistic regression, adjusted for the variables (sex and osteoarticular diseases), was used to express the magnitude of these associations. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the mobility of four groups (Normal, Obesity, Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity). The Sarcopenia Group had lower performance in the lower limbs strength test and in sum of two tests compared with Obesity and Normal Groups. Older people with sarcopenia had higher chance of reduced mobility (OR: 3.44; 95%CI: 1.12-10.52). Older people aged 80 years and older with sarcopenia have more chance for reduction in mobility.

  7. Young People's Voices: Disciplining Young People's Participation in Decision-Making in Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Jane

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, education and family policy in the UK has sought to incorporate the views of children and young people through an active participation agenda, in the fulfilment of children's rights under the obligations of the UN Convention for the Rights of the Child. Drawing on empirical evidence, this paper suggests that this aspiration is…

  8. Impact of social pressure on stereotypes about obese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jessica; Carels, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to test the effects of different types of influence on the expression of stereotypes towards people who are obese. It was hypothesized that public social pressure would more significantly impact the expression of stereotypes towards obese people than other types of influence. One-hundred fifty-eight undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions or a control condition. Participants completed measures of stereotypes towards obese people prior to and after receiving manipulated feedback depicting purported stereotypes possessed by others (anonymously or publically) or scientific information about the base rates of these stereotypical traits in the obese population (i.e., trait prevalence). Participants also completed a measure of weight bias unrelated to the manipulated feedback. Explicit beliefs were influenced more when people perceived that others' views were inconsistent with their own in a public setting than an anonymous setting or when they received trait prevalence feedback. However, levels of weight bias on a separate measure were unchanged. Strong, public manipulations of social feedback have great potential to impact, at least, the short-term expression of stereotypes towards obese people.

  9. The Health Consequences of Obesity in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hoi Lun; Medlow, Sharon; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2016-03-01

    Young adults are gaining weight faster than any age group. This weight gain and the appearance of obesity-related comorbidities often commence in adolescence. Psychosocial distress and mental health issues are common and debilitating, and treatment approaches are likely to be similar to those for adolescents. At the same time, young adults may have physical morbidities which will continue and worsen throughout adulthood, such as hypertension, diabetes and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Health consequences of obesity are challenging to manage in young adults as their symptoms may be minimal, they are less likely to engage with healthcare due to other life priorities and their neurocognitive developmental stage makes therapy adherence difficult. Clinicians who manage young adults with obesity need to be aware of these age-specific challenges, as well as the sexual and reproductive health concerns that are present in this age group.

  10. Accounting for violence in Eastern Congo: Young people's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In these accounts, the voices of young people have been largely absent. Although ... in eastern Congo from September to December 2009 as part of the author's doctoral ..... More rarely, young Congolese recognised the contribution made by ...

  11. E-Cigarettes and Young People: A Public Health Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails E-Cigarettes and Young People: A Public Health Concern Language: ... young adults you know about the dangers of e-cigarette use. E-cigarettes, devices that typically deliver nicotine, ...

  12. Young people's anticipation regarding education and job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Tilde Mette; Lundby, Astrid Arbjerg

    ’ decision making competences, but also to an guide the students towards certain educations that is seen to fit the society’s future need for work force, especially vocational education and science education. Despite these initiatives increasing number of students choose to go to gymnasium – and less......In Denmark there is significant political attention towards leading young people faster through the education system. Through new policies and benefit structures the government aims to reduce the number of gap years in the transition between general upper secondary education (‘gymnasium......’) and higher education. At the same time a political reform has made it more difficult to take on leave, switch education and do work experience during the studies. Simultaneously there is increasing attention on student guidance on all educational levels. The aim is on one hand to improve the students...

  13. Young people's time use and maternal employment in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Killian

    2009-12-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between young people's time use and maternal employment in the United Kingdom (UK). Two dimensions of young people's time use are important for understanding the impact of maternal employment. The first of these is family context. This concerns the time young people are near their parents or not. The second relates to young people's activity patterns. Combining information from both dimensions is necessary to provide a comprehensive overview of the impact of maternal employment on young people's time use. The paper demonstrates that young people's time use is associated with maternal employment both in terms of activity patterns and family context. Young people with employed mothers spend more time alone with a father, and more time with neither parent. More specifically, young people with mothers employed full time (FT) spend significantly more time watching TV than those whose mothers are not employed, especially when they are not near any parents. There is a negative association between FT maternal employment and the time young people spend in achievement-related activities, concentrated in time when alone with a mother. Unlike time in leisure activities or time watching TV, time in achievement-related activities when in the presence of a father does not increase to compensate for the loss in time spent in achievement-related activities when alone with a mother.

  14. Sexual and reproductive health services for young people in Kenya and Zambia : Providers attitudes and young peoples needs and experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Warenius, Linnéa

    2008-01-01

    Background: Unintended pregnancy, abortion and STI, including HIV are common sexual and reproductive health problems among young people in Kenya and Zambia. Yet, the reproductive health services are underutilised. Nurses and midwives are key providers in the promotion young people s sexual and reproductive health in Kenya and Zambia. Aim: The overall aim was to describe and explore young people s sexual and reproductive health needs and experiences and to describe health ...

  15. Obesity stigmatization as the status quo: structural considerations and prevalence among young adults in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambwani, Suman; Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Moss, Sara A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2014-08-01

    Although obesity stigmatization contributes to significant health, economic, and quality-of-life challenges for U.S. adults, the prevalence and nature of stigmatizing attitudes requires an update and clarification. The present study sought to examine the prevalence and major dimensions of negative attitudes toward obesity through assessment of young U.S. adults' responses to the Attitudes Toward Obese Persons Scale. Participants were women (n=578) and men (n=233) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing obesity stigmatization and eating disorder features. Results indicate that at least one stigmatizing attitude was endorsed by 92.5% of respondents, with an average endorsement rate of 32.8% across items. Eating disorder features, body size, and gender were not related to one's likelihood of endorsing negative attitudes toward obesity. Distinct clusters of negative attitudes were identified involving beliefs that "obese people suffer" and "obese people are inferior." Data suggest that large proportions of young U.S. adults harbor negative attitudes toward obese persons and these attitudes are pervasive across individuals with different characteristics. Although such negative attitudes have traditionally been conceptualized as relatively unidimensional, results suggest that future research would benefit from deconstructing negative attitudes into those related to pitying the obese and those related to perceiving the obese with harsh judgment. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. E-inclusion: Digital equality - young people with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingsson, H; Bolic-Baric, V; Lidström, H

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations' position is that digital access is a matter involving equality between groups of people, the securing of democratic rights, and equal opportunities for all citizens. This study investigates digital equality in school and leisure between young people with and without disabilities. A cross-sectional design with group comparisons was applied. Participants were young people (10-18 years of age) with disabilities (n=389) and a reference group in about the same ages. Data were collected by a survey focusing on access to and engagement in ICT activities in school and during leisure time. The results demonstrated young people with disabilities had restricted participation in computer use in educational activities, in comparison to young people in general. During leisure time young people with disabilities had a leading position compared to the reference group with respect to internet use in a variety of activities. Beneficial environmental conditions at home (and the reverse in schools) are discussed as parts of the explanation for the differing engagement levels at home and in school, and among young people with disabilities and young people in general. Schools need to prioritise use of ICT by young people with disabilities.

  17. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalwa, J; Byarugaba, B B; Kabagambe, E K; Kabagambe, K E; Otim, A M

    2010-12-01

    Obesity in young adults is rising and predicts diabetes and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Data on prevalence and determinants of obesity in developing countries are needed for primary prevention. To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in urban (Kampala city) and rural areas (Kamuli District) of Uganda. Cross-sectional survey of 683 randomly selected young adults aged 18-30 years. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) and overweight as BMI > 25 kg/m(2). Distribution of BMI by socio-demographic characteristics was determined. Of the 683 participants, 50.5% were female and 53.2% were from Kampala. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 2.3% and 10.4%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 4.4% in Kampala and 0% in Kamuli while the prevalence of overweight was 10.2% and 10.6% in Kampala and Kamuli, respectively. Compared to males, females were more likely to be obese (2.9% vs. 1.8%) or overweight (17.4% vs. 3.3%). Residing in the city, alcohol consumption, smoking, non-engagement in sports activities, commuting to school by taxi or private vehicle and being from a rich family were the main factors significantly associated (Pobesity. Being female (p = 0.0001) and not engaging in any sports activities (P = 0.002) were two factors significantly associated with being overweight. We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight.

  18. The Link Between Inadequate Sleep and Obesity in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Perla A

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past decade. Although an imbalance between caloric intake and physical activity is considered a key factor responsible for the increase, there is emerging evidence suggesting that other factors may be important contributors to weight gain, including inadequate sleep. Overall research evidence suggests that inadequate sleep is associated with obesity. Importantly, the strength and trajectory of the association seem to be influenced by multiple factors including age. Although limited, the emerging evidence suggests young adults might be at the center of a "perfect health storm," exposing them to the highest risk for obesity and inadequate sleep. Unfortunately, the methods necessary for elucidating the complex relationship between sleep and obesity are lacking. Uncovering the underlying factors and trajectories between inadequate sleep and weight gain in different populations may help to identify the windows of susceptibility and to design targeted interventions to prevent the negative impact of obesity and related diseases.

  19. Lifestyle habits and obesity progression in overweight and obese American young adults: Lessons for promoting cardiometabolic health

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, EunSeok; Akazawa, Margeaux K.; Kim, Kevin H.; Dawkins, Colleen R.; Lerner, Hannah M.; Umpierrez, Guillermo; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity among young adults is a growing problem in the United States and is related to unhealthy lifestyle habits such as high caloric intake and inadequate exercise. Accurate assessment of lifestyle habits across obesity stages is important for informing age-specific intervention strategies to prevent and reduce obesity progression. Using a modified version of the Edmonton Obesity Staging System (mEOSS), a new scale for defining obesity risk and predicting obesity morbidity and mortality, th...

  20. Young People's Perceptions of Advice about Sexual Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Christopher; Bonillas, Consuelo; Moreno, Jeniffer; Cardoza, Omara; Cheung, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Sexual and reproductive health indicators for young people in the USA have improved in recent decades, but teenage pregnancies remain high, and large differences between Whites and non-Whites persist in teenage births, abortions, and the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Prior research shows that young people are receptive to…

  1. Spaces of Trauma: Young People, Homelessness and Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Lucinda

    2012-01-01

    Little contemporary research has examined young people's experiences of violence and homelessness in detail within the Australian context. This article draws upon qualitative research with 33 homeless youth in Melbourne and seeks to enhance understanding of the impact of violence on young people. It argues that everyday experiences of violence…

  2. Picturing the city: young people's representations of urban environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beneker, T.; Sanders, R.; Tani, S.; Taylor, L.

    2010-01-01

    Urban environments form the setting of everyday life for most Western young people. This article explores visual representations of cities made by young people in a range of environments within four countries. The findings inform a larger study on urban geographies within geography education. We

  3. Aspirations of young people living in disadvantaged areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frørup, Anna Kathrine; Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2017-01-01

    how young people's (living in a socially disadvantaged area) possibilities, aspirations and demands are raised, strengthened, transformed or put aside and in what way they feel participating within different local programmes.......how young people's (living in a socially disadvantaged area) possibilities, aspirations and demands are raised, strengthened, transformed or put aside and in what way they feel participating within different local programmes....

  4. Young People, Pornography, and Sexuality: Sources and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmyr, Gudrun; Welin, Catharina

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of and attitudes among young people toward pornography and their sources of information about sexuality. Eight hundred and seventy-six young people ages 15-25 years (555 females and 321 males) who visited a youth center in Sweden for a period of 1 year answered a questionnaire about their use of…

  5. What Do Young People Today Really Think about Jesus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Karen

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the key findings of a recent study investigating young people's knowledge and understanding of Jesus and demonstrates how young people today appear to be experiencing the same difficulties when engaging with the figure of Jesus in the religious education classroom as they did almost 40 years ago. It concludes by suggesting…

  6. Young People, Drug Use and Family Conflict: Pathways into Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Keys, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Young people who experience homelessness, in Australia and in other western contexts (US, Canada, England), are widely perceived to use and abuse alcohol and drugs. The available research indicates that homeless young people use all drug types, whether injected or otherwise, more frequently than their home-based peers. Debate exists in the…

  7. Psychiatric Assessment and Follow-up of Young People after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    to talk about their psychological distress. ... impact of this group of young people who presented to Kings ... and social assessment of young people following a serious physical assault as ... pediatric liaison Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS). ... highlights various factors that may be at work leading to the.

  8. Agency in the Social Biographies of Young People in Belgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomanovic, Smiljka

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the formation of the social biographies of young people through the interplay of structure and agency. The aim is to provide a grounded typology of patterns of young people's agency within the process of shaping social biographies. The structural context addressed in the article consists of family resources and habitus. The…

  9. The Family in the Structure of Values of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rean, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    Despite the fact that the family is extremely significant in the system of values of young people (in Russia), the number of divorces is increasing in this population group. Our analysis of this contradiction establishes that young people need to be specially prepared for family life. The paper presents the results of a large empirical study…

  10. Exploring How and Why Young People Use Social Networking Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Upcoming statutory UK government guidance for keeping children safe in education reflects the use of social media, which is one of the most common activities undertaken by young people. This study explores how and why young people are using social networking sites (SNS) and whether there are age or gender differences. A key feature of the study…

  11. Sexual Assemblages: Mobile Phones/Young People/School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Louisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper asks, what more can we think in relation to debates around young people's use of mobile phones at school? Rather than attempting to answer the question of whether mobile phones are "good" or "bad" for young people, this paper recasts the debate's ontological underpinnings. To do this feminist appropriations of the…

  12. Keeping Young People in (Vocational) Education: What Works? Briefing Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Too many young people leave education (including vocational education) too soon. Yet early leavers are at greater risk of long-term unemployment, poverty and crime, and now cost the European economy 1.25% of GDP. This brief report looks at the reasons why young people leave and what could be done to end this trend. Considerations for policy-makers…

  13. Rwandan young people's perceptions on sexuality and relationships ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two stereotypical sexual interactions co-exist: experimental sex, taking place unprepared, ... of the same age, and transactional sex, occurring after negotiation between older ... Young people have little capacity to manage their vulnerability in these ... vulnerability, young people, sexuality and reproductive health, Rwanda.

  14. Rural Young People and Society: A Crisis of Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur'ianova, M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Research on rural youth in Russia shows that keeping qualified and ambitious young people in the rural economy will require creating conditions for young people to exercise initiative in the rural economy and diminishing the gap in quality of life between rural and urban environments. Only in this way can the pessimism of rural youth be overcome.

  15. Pathogen-avoidance mechanisms and the stigmatization of obese people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Justin H.; Schaller, Mark; Crandall, Christian S.

    2007-01-01

    Humans possess pathogen-avoidance mechanisms that respond to the visual perception of morphological anomalies in others. We investigated whether obesity may trigger these mechanisms. Study I revealed that people who are chronically concerned about pathogen transmission have more negative attitudes

  16. Overweight and Obesity in Older People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, C. F.; Bastiaanse, L. P.; Hilgenkamp, T. I. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major health problems associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, which is not sufficiently studied in people with intellectual disability yet. The present study was part of the Healthy Ageing in Intellectual Disability (HA-ID) study. The aim of this study was to establish (1) the prevalence of overweight,…

  17. Incidental rewarding cues influence economic decisions in people with obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmank, Jakob; Murawski, Carsten; Bode, Stefan; Horstmann, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that obesity is linked to prominent alterations in learning and decision-making. This general difference may also underlie the preference for immediately consumable, highly palatable but unhealthy and high-calorie foods. Such poor food-related inter-temporal decision-making can explain weight gain; however, it is not yet clear whether this deficit can be generalized to other domains of inter-temporal decision-making, for example financial decisions. Further, little is known about the stability of decision-making behavior in obesity, especially in the presence of rewarding cues. To answer these questions, obese and lean participants (n = 52) completed two sessions of a novel priming paradigm including a computerized monetary delay discounting task. In the first session, general differences between groups in financial delay discounting were measured. In the second session, we tested the general stability of discount rates. Additionally, participants were primed by affective visual cues of different contextual categories before making financial decisions. We found that the obese group showed stronger discounting of future monetary rewards than the lean group, but groups did not differ in their general stability between sessions nor in their sensitivity toward changes in reward magnitude. In the obese group, a fast decrease of subjective value over time was directly related to a higher tendency for opportunistic eating. Obese in contrast to lean people were primed by the affective cues, showing a sex-specific pattern of priming direction. Our findings demonstrate that environments rich of cues, aiming at inducing unhealthy consumer decisions, can be highly detrimental for obese people. It also underscores that obesity is not merely a medical condition but has a strong cognitive component, meaning that current dietary and medical treatment strategies may fall too short. PMID:26528158

  18. Public health for paediatricians: engaging young people from marginalised groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Emma; Starbuck, Lindsay

    2017-08-10

    Young people from marginalised groups can be excluded from health services because of reduced access, increased stigma and health inequalities. In addition, the stress associated with discrimination and stigma can have serious effects on individual health. This article explores how stigma affects young people's access to services and how health professionals can improve their practice and support for marginalised young people to achieve the best possible health outcomes. A better understanding of local populations of young people and their needs is key to improving services and support. Working in partnership with voluntary and community sector organisations is also important. In addition, improvements can be made by promoting better communication with young people and providing extra support to help them follow treatment plans. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Doing synchronous online focus groups with young people: methodological reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Fiona E; Morris, Marianne; Rumsey, Nichola

    2007-04-01

    Although online focus groups are emerging as a worthwhile methodological approach for qualitative researchers, reporting has been constrained in several ways. The majority of studies report asynchronous groups, whereas others employ synchronous exchanges, the efficacy of which with young people has seldom been explored. Considering the popularity of the Internet as a communication tool for young people, this missed opportunity is surprising. Based on a series of synchronous online focus groups with young people, the authors explore why this approach might be an effective way of engaging young people with appearance-related concerns in research. In this article, they discuss the process of hosting and moderating synchronous online focus groups, highlighting some of the ethical, pragmatic, and personal challenges that might face researchers using this method. Through a reflexive approach, they intend to inform and encourage qualitative researchers to consider alternative ways of engaging young people in research.

  20. Young people's leisure time: Gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Videnović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, topics relating to young peoples leisure time have become increasingly more present in academic literature. Among the numerous studies that delve into this subject, results point towards a relationship between the way teenagers spend their leisure time and their gender. In this study we wanted to answer the question if gender differences were evident in the way secondary school students in Serbia spent their leisure time. This problem was not looked into in more detail among secondary school students in Serbia. We conducted a survey on a sample of 922 secondary school teenagers from the 1st to 4th grade(ages 15–19 from nine Serbian towns. Research in this field commonly uses the rating scale. In this paper we have constructed an instrument that represents a methodological innovation in approaching a particular set of problems. It was a questionnaire. The task was to name all the activities they participated in, and the time frame in which the activities took place, over the course of one weekday and the Saturday of the previous week. The activities which best differentiate these two groups of surveyed teenagers are: sports, studying, computer use, spending time at friends’ homes and grooming. We did not discover differences in participating in creative activities while foreign studies show that such activities are more typical for girls.

  1. Dancing beyond exercise: young people's experiences in dance classes

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, SM; Komesaroff, P; Fensham, R

    2008-01-01

    Dance classes in urban settings may have a role in health-promotion programmes seeking to increase physical activity amongst young people. However, little is so far known about the motivations, experiences or health outcomes of those participating in dance classes. This qualitative study of young people attending recreational dance classes addressed motivations, the nature of the class experience, and implications for health and well-being. Data show that young dance participants' experiences...

  2. Coming of age, becoming obese: a cross-sectional analysis of obesity among adolescents and young adults in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Christopher; Allotey, Pascale; Evans, Natalie; Hardon, Anita; Imelda, Johanna D; Soyiri, Ireneous; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2016-10-13

    Malaysians have become increasingly obese over recent years. The transition from adolescence to early adulthood is recognized as critical for the development of eating and activity habits. However, little obesity-related research focuses on this life stage. Drawing on data from a health and demographic surveillance site in Malaysia, this article describes obesity and overweight amongst adolescents and young adults in a multi-ethnic population. Data were collected at the South East Asia Community Observatory (SEACO) in Segamat District, Johor. In this dynamic cohort of approximately 40,000 people, 5,475 were aged 16-35 in 2013-2014. The population consists of Malay, Chinese, Indian and Indigenous (Orang Asli) families in proportions that reflect the national ethnic diversity. Data were collected through health profiles (Body Mass Index [BMI] measurements in homes) and self-report questionnaires. Age and ethnicity were associated with overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9Kg/m 2 ) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30Kg/m 2 ). The prevalence of overweight was 12.8 % at ages 16-20 and 28.4 % at ages 31-35; obesity was 7.9 % and 20.9 % at the same age groups. The main ethnic groups also showed varied patterns of obesity and overweight at the different age groups with Chinese at lowest and Orang Asli at highest risk. Level of education, employment status, physical activity and frequency of eating out were poorly predictive of overweight and obesity. The pattern of overweight and obesity in the 16-35 age group further highlights this as a significant period for changes in health-related behaviours. Further longitudinal research is however needed to confirm the observed pattern and investigate causal factors.

  3. Coming of age, becoming obese: a cross-sectional analysis of obesity among adolescents and young adults in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Pell

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaysians have become increasingly obese over recent years. The transition from adolescence to early adulthood is recognized as critical for the development of eating and activity habits. However, little obesity-related research focuses on this life stage. Drawing on data from a health and demographic surveillance site in Malaysia, this article describes obesity and overweight amongst adolescents and young adults in a multi-ethnic population. Methods Data were collected at the South East Asia Community Observatory (SEACO in Segamat District, Johor. In this dynamic cohort of approximately 40,000 people, 5,475 were aged 16–35 in 2013–2014. The population consists of Malay, Chinese, Indian and Indigenous (Orang Asli families in proportions that reflect the national ethnic diversity. Data were collected through health profiles (Body Mass Index [BMI] measurements in homes and self-report questionnaires. Results Age and ethnicity were associated with overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9Kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ≥ 30Kg/m2. The prevalence of overweight was 12.8 % at ages 16–20 and 28.4 % at ages 31–35; obesity was 7.9 % and 20.9 % at the same age groups. The main ethnic groups also showed varied patterns of obesity and overweight at the different age groups with Chinese at lowest and Orang Asli at highest risk. Level of education, employment status, physical activity and frequency of eating out were poorly predictive of overweight and obesity. Conclusion The pattern of overweight and obesity in the 16–35 age group further highlights this as a significant period for changes in health-related behaviours. Further longitudinal research is however needed to confirm the observed pattern and investigate causal factors.

  4. Barriers to influenza vaccine uptake in obese people in Italy: Changes 2005-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbadoro, Pamela; Recanatini, Claudia; Ponzio, Elisa; Illuminati, Diego; D'Errico, Marcello M; Prospero, Emilia

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for developing flu-related complications. The aim of this study was to analyze influenza vaccine uptake (VU) in the Italian obese, before and after the introduction of obesity among the national recommendations, and to evaluate factors associated to VU. The comparison of two editions of the national survey carried out in 2004-2005, before the inclusion of obese people among the specific high risk categories for flu complications, and in 2013, reaching a sample of 21,857 persons who declared to have a BMI>30. Multilevel logistic regression was used to evaluate potential independent predictors of influenza immunization. Influenza vaccination coverage was 27.16% in 2013, versus 31.61% in 2005. A significant reduction of VU was registered after the introduction of obesity among the high risk conditions, for which flu VU was recommended. Regression modeling, both in adults and in older people, confirmed that barriers to VU in 2013 were younger age, medium level of education, absence of chronic disease, smoking habit, and reporting no contacts with GPs during the previous 12months. Among those aged 65 or more, the role of regional policies was associated to VU. Immunization rates among young obese population are low, especially if not affected by comorbidities. Moreover, a reduction was registered in 2013 with respect to 2005. Flu vaccine uptake among the older population seems to be influenced by regional vaccination strategies. The development of novel strategy is warranted, especially among the young adults. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary patterns and their associations with general obesity and abdominal obesity among young Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J G; Wang, Z H; Wang, H J; Du, W W; Su, C; Zhang, J; Jiang, H R; Zhai, F Y; Zhang, B

    2015-09-01

    Dietary patterns represent the combined effects of foods and efficaciously illustrate the impact of diet on health outcomes. This study identified the dietary patterns and determined their relationships with obesity among young Chinese women. In 2011, the China Health and Nutrition Survey included 2363 young women aged 18-44 years. Factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls identified the dietary patterns. Weight, height and waist circumstance (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. General obesity was defined as BMI ⩾28 kg/m(2) and abdominal obesity as WC ⩾85 cm. Four dietary patterns were identified: traditional south; traditional north; snack; and high protein. After adjusting for confounders and energy intake, women in the highest-score quintiles of the traditional south pattern were less likely to have general obesity (odds ratio (OR)=0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29-0.78) and abdominal obesity (OR=0.64; 95% CI 0.46-0.90). Subjects in the highest-score quintiles of the traditional north pattern had significantly greater risk of general obesity (OR=2.28; 95% CI 1.38-3.74) and of abdominal obesity (OR=2.32; 95% CI 1.66-3.24). The traditional south pattern of rice as the major staple food with pork and vegetable dishes is associated with lower risk of general and abdominal obesity. The traditional north pattern of high intake of wheat, other cereals and tubers is positively associated with general and abdominal obesity. This provides important information for interventions and policies addressing obesity prevention among young Chinese women.

  6. Comparison of thermogenic sympathetic response to food intake between obese and non-obese young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T; Miyawaki, C; Ue, H; Kanda, T; Yoshitake, Y; Moritani, T

    2001-02-01

    Sympathetic nervous system abnormality in humans is still a matter of debate. The present study was designed to examine diet-induced autonomic nervous system activity and metabolic change in obese and non-obese young women. Sixteen age- and height-matched obese and non-obese young women participated in this study. Sympathovagal activities were assessed by means of our newly developed spectral analysis procedure of heart-rate variability during the resting condition and after mixed-food ingestion (480 kcal). Energy expenditure was also measured under these two conditions. There was no significant difference in any of the parameters of the heart-rate variability between the obese group and control group during the resting condition. In the control group, both absolute values (221.5 +/- 54.5 vs. 363.8 +/- 43.7 ms2, p frequency component and global sympathetic nervous system index (1.46 +/- 0.19 vs. 3.26 +/- 0.61, p food ingestion compared with the values obtained after resting condition. However, no such sympathetic response was found in the obese group. Energy expenditure increased in the two groups after the meal, but the magnitude of the increase above the preprandial resting condition was significantly greater in the control group than in the obese group (11.2 +/- 2.3 vs. 6.7 +/- 0.8%, p food intake, which might be related to lowered capacity of thermogenesis and the state of obesity.

  7. Psychopathology in Young People With Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Piccinin, Andrea M.; Mackinnon, Andrew; Hofer, Scott M.; Taffe, John; Gray, Kylie M.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Hoffman, Lesa R.; Parmenter, Trevor; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2008-01-01

    Context Comorbid severe mental health problems complicating intellectual disability are a common and costly public health problem. Although these problems are known to begin in early childhood, little is known of how they evolve over time or whether they continue into adulthood. Objective To study the course of psychopathology in a representative population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. Design, Setting, and Participants The participants of the Australian Child to Adult Development Study, an epidemiological cohort of 578 children and adolescents recruited in 1991 from health, education, and family agencies that provided services to children with intellectual disability aged 5 to 19.5 years in 6 rural and urban census regions in Australia, were followed up for 14 years with 4 time waves of data collection. Data were obtained from 507 participants, with 84% of wave 1 (1991-1992) participants being followed up at wave 4 (2002-2003). Main Outcome Measures The Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC), a validated measure of psychopathology in young people with intellectual disability, completed by parents or other caregivers. Changes over time in the Total Behaviour Problem Score and 5 subscale scores of the DBC scores were modeled using growth curve analysis. Results High initial levels of behavioral and emotional disturbance decreased only slowly over time, remaining high into young adulthood, declining by 1.05 per year on the DBC Total Behaviour Problem Score. Overall severity of psychopathology was similar across mild to severe ranges of intellectual disability (with mean Total Behaviour Problem Scores of approximately 44). Psychopathology decreased more in boys than girls over time (boys starting with scores 2.61 points higher at baseline and ending with scores 2.57 points lower at wave 4), and more so in participants with mild intellectual disability compared with those with severe or profound intellectual disability who diverged from

  8. Obesity increases risk of ischemic stroke in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew B; Cole, John W; McArdle, Patrick F; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Ryan, Kathleen A; Sparks, Mary J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J

    2015-06-01

    Body mass index has been associated with ischemic stroke in older populations, but its association with stroke in younger populations is not known. In light of the current obesity epidemic in the United States, the potential impact of obesity on stroke risk in young adults deserves attention. A population-based case-control study design with 1201 cases and 1154 controls was used to investigate the relationship of obesity and young onset ischemic stroke. Stroke cases were between the ages of 15 and 49 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between body mass index and ischemic stroke with and without adjustment for comorbid conditions associated with stroke. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity, obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m(2)) was associated with an increased stroke risk (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-1.94) although this increased risk was highly attenuated and not statistically significant after adjustment for smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. These results indicate that obesity is a risk factor for young onset ischemic stroke and suggest that this association may be partially mediated through hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or other variables associated with these conditions. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Obesity and associated factors in young adults attending tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obesity and associated factors in young adults attending tertiary institutions ... and associated factors in a group of university undergraduates in south-east Nigeria. ... being a female (X2 = 47.91), first year student (X2 = 41.82), and having high ...

  10. Developing Support for Siblings of Young People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Sally; Meyer, Donald

    2008-01-01

    In the USA and UK, at least one in ten children and young people have special health, developmental and mental health concerns. Most of these people have typically developing brothers and sisters. As the people who, over the course of their lifetimes together, will be most involved with their siblings with special needs, it is important that…

  11. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Endotoxemia in Young Obese Mexican Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radilla-Vázquez, Romina Belén; Parra-Rojas, Isela; Martínez-Hernández, Norma Edith; Márquez-Sandoval, Yolanda Fabiola; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Castro-Alarcón, Natividad

    2016-01-01

    Background The gut microbiota plays an important role in human metabolism; previous studies suggest that the imbalance can cause a metabolic endotoxemia that may be linked to weight gain and insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the gut microbiota composition, the lipopolysaccharide levels and the metabolic profile in obese and normal-weight young subjects. Methods We studied 32 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and 32 normal-weight subjects (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m2), aged 18-25 years. Quantification of intestinal bacteria was performed by real-time PCR. Endotoxin units were determined with the test QCL-1000, and biochemical profile was performed under a standard protocol of Spinreact. Results Obese individuals had a BMI of 34.5 (32.9-36.45) kg/m2, increased triglycerides (123 vs. 70 mg/dl), total cholesterol (168 vs. 142 mg/dl), and LDL-cholesterol (114 vs. 96.5 mg/dl). In obese subjects body temperature was higher than in normal-weight subjects. We found a greater number of Clostridum leptum and Lactobacillus (p < 0.001) and lower numbers of Prevotella and Escherichia coli (p < 0.001) in the obese group. A decrease of E. coli was associated with an increased risk of lipopolysaccharide levels ranging from 1 to 1.3 EU/ml. A positive correlation was found between serum lipopolysaccharides and BMI (r = 0.46, p = 0.008), triglyceride levels (r = 0.44, p = 0.011) as well as waist circumference (r = 0.34, p = 0.040), being more evident in young obese females. Conclusion Subclinical metabolic endotoxemia determined by serum concentration of lipopolysaccharides was related to the smallest amount of E. coli, high triglyceride levels, and central adiposity in obese young persons. PMID:26745497

  12. The performance of obesity screening tools among young Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpawattana, Panita; Kengkijkosol, Thepkhachi; Assantachai, Prasert; Krairit, Orapitchaya; Pimporm, Jiraporn

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is a worldwide medical condition that leads to physical and psychological impairment. Specific ethnicity, gender and age group are related to different performances of anthropometric indices to predict obesity. The objectives of this study were to estimate the performance of the anthropometric indices for detecting obesity based on percentage of body fat (PBF), to study the correlation among those indices, and to determine the optimal cut-off point of the indices among young Thai adults. This is a cross-sectional study of healthy urban subjects in Khon Kaen, Thailand who were aged 20-39 years. Baseline characteristics and anthropometric measures were collected. PBF was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Demographic data and anthropometric variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the performance of anthropometric measures as predictors of obesity. One-hundred men and 100 women were recruited for this study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-stature ratio (WSR) were significantly correlated to PBF. BMI demonstrated the best performance according to the area under the ROC curves in both sexes at cut-off points of 22.5 in women or 25 kg/m(2) in men. WC and WSR showed better performance than WHR to detect obesity. In conclusion, anthropometric indices in young Thai adults were correlated well with PBF to predict obesity as shown in prior reports. Different cut-off points of these indices to define obesity in young Thai adults are recommended. The global cut-off points of WSR in women regardless of ethnicity are supported.

  13. Dietary diversity score is related to obesity and abdominal obesity among Tehranian young boy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rahmani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Overweight and obesity is a worrying issue in the present age and the cause of many chronic non-communicable diseases. Nutritional and non-nutritional factors involved in the development of this health crisis. One of the most important nutritional factors is dietary diversity. Objective: The present study was conducted to report the relationship among dietary diversity score (DDS, obesity and abdominal adiposity among Tehranian young students. Methods: This study was cross-sectional in which, 246 young men, according to the inclusion criteria, were selected. The study was conducted in April 2016. Demographic data were collected by questionnaire and anthropometric measurements were conducted according to international standards. For each participant recorded 24-hour recall food and calculated the DDS. Finally, nine food groups were measured for each person. The analysis was adjusted for confounding factors. Findings: The means of BMI and waist circumference were 23.9±3.8 and 88.7±10.6. The probability of obesity decreased with quartiles of DDS (1.00, 0.53, 0.08 and 0.19; P=0.01. Conclusion: The inverse relationship between the DDS and odds ratio of obesity and abdominal obesity was observed in young men. So that by increasing dietary diversity score, the odds ratio of obesity was lower. Further prospective investigations are needed to confirm this finding.

  14. Young people and environment, technology, nuclear energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt-Crochet, L.

    1995-01-01

    Young people have a particular attitude on the questions about environment and energy, and also about technology. Several inquiries show that young people are more aware of environmental questions than their elders. Their anxiety is bigger against pollution than the average of French people and it seems that they are more attentive to dangers for the planet: it is the sign of a broader opening on the world. Young people are ready to adhere to a group or association for environment and have sympathy for ecologists; they have hostility against nuclear energy. Age and education level have to be specified to complicate the question. This contribution gives some elements about the opinion of young people between 15-25 years old on environment, technology and nuclear energy in France. (N.C.)

  15. Accommodating interruptions: A grounded theory of young people with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mary; Savage, Eileen; Andrews, Tom

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an explanatory theory on the lives of young people with asthma, issues affecting them and the impact of asthma on their day-to-day lives. Accommodating Interruptions is a theory that explains young people's concerns about living with asthma. Although national and international asthma management guidelines exist, it is accepted that the symptom control of asthma among the young people population is poor. This study was undertaken using Classic Grounded Theory. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and clinic consultations with young people aged 11-16 years who had asthma for over 1 year. Data were also collected from participant diaries. Constant comparative analysis, theoretical coding and memo writing were used to develop the substantive theory. The theory explains how young people resolve their main concern of being restricted by Accommodating Interruptions in their lives. They do this by assimilating behaviours in balance finding, moderating influence, fitting in and assuming control minimising the effects of asthma on their everyday lives. The theory of Accommodating Interruptions explains young people's asthma management behaviours in a new way. It allows us to understand how and why young people behave the way they do because they want to participate and be included in everyday activities, events and relationships. The theory adds to the body of knowledge on how young people with asthma live their day-to-day lives and it challenges some existing viewpoints in the literature regarding their behaviours. The findings have implications for developing services to support young people in a more meaningful way as they accommodate the interruptions associated with asthma in their lives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Health and wellbeing during transition to adulthood for young people with intellectual disabilities: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Southward, Genevieve; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Philo, Christopher

    2017-11-01

    Transition to adulthood may have negative consequences for health and wellbeing in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), but this aspect of transition has received little investigation. This qualitative study aimed to explore the transition experiences of individuals with ID from their own perspectives, and from that of their parents, in order to identify health or wellbeing implications of transition. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 young people with mild, moderate and severe ID aged 16-27 years and with 23 parents of young people with mild, moderate, severe and profound ID aged 16-26 years. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis, deploying both emic and etic coding categories. This study provides direct insights into the issues on health and wellbeing that young people with ID and their parents find important during transition. The primary health implication of transition centred on mental health and wellbeing; young people experienced heightened anxiety during transition, and themes identified as contributing to anxiety included: a lack of meaningful activity following school exit; inadequate support during transition; and difficulties associated with 'growing up'. Problem behaviours and obesity were also implicated. The transition from school needs to be better supported in order to ease anxiety for young people during this difficult period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Multiple Anthropometric Indices of General Obesity and Abdominal Obesity among Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Chen; Wipawan C. Pensuksan; Vitool Lohsoonthorn; Somrat Lertmaharit; Bizu Gelaye; Michelle A.Williams

    2014-01-01

    Objective;To examine the associations between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity among young adults. Design and Methods;A total of 2911 college students in Thailand participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were taken by trained research staff. Results; Overall, 6.3% of college students had OSA determined by the Berlin Questionnaire, 9.6% were overweight (BMI: 25-29 kg/m2), 4.5% were obese (BMI¡Ý30 kg/m2); 12.4% had abdominal obesity (men: waist circumfe...

  18. Occupational Therapy and overweight and obese people: Knowledge and sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Tereza Barbosa Lopes da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide phenomenon that affects both the rich and poor populations. It results from the action of environmental factors, dietary habits, physical activity and psychological conditions on individuals genetically predisposed to present excess adipose tissue. The impact of obesity can be measured by its influence on the quality of life. Occupational therapy has developed a significant role within the interdisciplinary treatment of obesity. The objective of this paper is to describe the experience of the work of occupational therapists in an interdisciplinary group for adult and elderly people presenting overweight and obesity in an extension project of a private university in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte state. The Occupational Therapy team performed weekly interdisciplinary care, assessment, planning, organization of the therapeutic setting and occupational therapy intervention. The team was composed by an occupational therapy teacher, a scholar and five volunteer undergraduate students. The service group was open to new components, caregivers, and family and community members. Playful, cognitive, bodily, physical and productive occupational therapy activities were used in the sessions. These activities favored positive outcomes in mental, emotional and social dimensions. Thus, the project enabled the visibility of Occupational Therapy at the university, as well as the growth and expansion of academic and occupational knowledge on therapeutic intervention in obesity.

  19. Obesity, metabolic profile, and inhibition failure: Young women under scrutiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catoira, N P; Tapajóz, F; Allegri, R F; Lajfer, J; Rodríguez Cámara, M J; Iturry, M L; Castaño, G O

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity, as well as evidence about this pathology as a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly, is increasing worldwide. Executive functions have been found to be compromised in most studies, although the specific results are dissimilar. Obese young women constitute an interesting study and intervention group, having been found to be unaffected by age and hormonal negative effects on cognition and considering that their health problems affect not only themselves but their families and offspring. The objective of the present study was to compare the executive performance of obese young women with that of a healthy control group. A cross-sectional study was done among premenopausal women from a public hospital in Buenos Aires. The sample comprised 113 participants (32 healthy controls and 81 obese women), who were evaluated for depressive and anxiety symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and executive functioning (Trail-Making Test B, Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and verbal fluency test). Statistical analysis was done by using the SPSS version 20.0 software. Among executive functions, a significant difference was found between groups in inhibition (pcognitive test and 2h post-load glucose level. Inhibition was decreased in our obese young women group, and glucose/lipid metabolism may be involved in this association. The cognitive impairment is comparable with that described in addictive conditions. Our conclusions support the concept of multidisciplinary management of obese patients from the time of diagnosis. Detecting and understanding cognitive dysfunction in this population is essential to providing appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hypokalemic paralysis in a young obese female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wen-Fang; Hsu, Yu-Juei; Chang, Chin-Chun; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2012-08-16

    Profound hypokalemia with paralysis usually poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report on a 28-y-old obese Chinese female presenting with sudden onset of flaccid quadriparesis upon awaking in the morning. There is no family history of hyperthyroidism. She experienced body weight loss of 7 kg in 2 months. The most conspicuous blood biochemistry is marked hypokalemia (1.8 mmol/l) and hypophosphatemia (0.5 mmol/l) associated with low urine K(+) and phosphate excretion. Surreptitious laxatives and/or diuretics abuse-related hypokalemic paralysis were tentatively made. However, her relatively normal blood acid-base status and the absence of low urine Na(+) and/or Cl(-) excretion made these diagnoses unlikely. Furthermore, she developed rebound hyperkalemia (5.7 mmol/l) after only 80 mmol K(+) supplementation. Thyroid function test confirmed hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. Control of the hyperthyroidism completely abolished her periodic paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) should be kept in mind as a cause of paralysis in female, even with obesity, despite its predominance in adult males. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Reproductive Behavior of Young People in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalachikova, O. N.

    2013-01-01

    Research on reproductive preferences of young people in Russia shows that their attitudes regarding the number of children they may have differs by gender and by urban-rural origins. (Contains 4 tables, 1 figure, and 1 note.)

  2. Fear appeals in HIV-prevention messages: young people's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 10 focus groups were conducted to investigate the role of fear appeals ... Young people were shown a series of images (mostly posters) with ... locally conceived rather than ones developed by large-scale donor-funded campaigns.

  3. Aspirations of young people living in disadvantaged areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frørup, Anna Kathrine; Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2017-01-01

    how young people's (living in a socially disadvantaged area) possibilities, aspirations and demands are raised, strengthened, transformed or put aside and in what way they feel participating within different local programmes....

  4. Stigmatisation of a Formerly Obese Young Female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Sonia A.; Boyland, Emma J.; Halford, Jason C.G.; Harrold, Joanne A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Weight loss does not necessarily decrease the negative appraisal of a formerly overweight individual. Since past weight history tends to be disclosed in several contexts, this study aims to investigate whether negative appraisals are gender-specific and if they are modulated by the evaluators’ own BMI. Methods 202 young adults (106 male and 96 female) viewed a picture of a young attractive female (target) accompanied by one of two statements about her past weight (overweight (OW) or always kept a normal weight (NW)), and then rated her using the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS). Results Female evaluators rated the target with the OW statement more negatively than the target with the NW statement. In contrast, males exposed to the OW statement rated the target as having fewer emotional/psychological problems and being less stupid/uncreative. BMI only influenced ratings in males, where those with higher BMI ascribed more negative attributes to the target with the NW statement than the OW statement. Conclusion Information on weight history impacts upon the appraisal of peers. These effects are dependent on gender and BMI. Knowing that a young female was overweight triggered negative evaluations from females but did not appear to impact the judgment of males. PMID:24107842

  5. Stigmatisation of a Formerly Obese Young Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia A. Tucci

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weight loss does not necessarily decrease the negative appraisal of a formerly overweight individual. Since past weight history tends to be disclosed in several contexts, this study aims to investigate whether negative appraisals are gender-specific and if they are modulated by the evaluators' own BMI. Methods: 202 young adults (106 male and 96 female viewed a picture of a young attractive female (target accompanied by one of two statements about her past weight (overweight (OW or always kept a normal weight (NW, and then rated her using the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS. Results: Female evaluators rated the target with the OW statement more negatively than the target with the NW statement. In contrast, males exposed to the OW statement rated the target as having fewer emotional/psychological problems and being less stupid/uncreative. BMI only influenced ratings in males, where those with higher BMI ascribed more negative attributes to the target with the NW statement than the OW statement. Conclusion: Information on weight history impacts upon the appraisal of peers. These effects are dependent on gender and BMI. Knowing that a young female was overweight triggered negative evaluations from females but did not appear to impact the judgment of males.

  6. DIAGNOSIS OF RISK FACTORS FOR BEER DEPENDENCE IN YOUNG PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Novikova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article the approach to identification of factors influencing beer consumption by young people. Describes the author’s methodology, identifying biological, social, psychological, pedagogical and economic risk factors of development of beer dependence in young people. The data obtained using the proposed methodology can be used to identify risk groups according to the dependent behavior and planning of preventive measures.

  7. WORKING WITH YOUNG PEOPLE: A MODEL OF SOCIAL INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovilė Lisauskienė

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Social workers, working with young people ought to be aware of the values, needs and problems of contemporary young people. Therefore, it is necessary to develop study programmes of Social Work that would reflect the current situation of modern youth and be oriented towards effective techniques for working with young people. The most common methods described in the literature are counseling, supervision, case management, self-reflection. The article highlights the method of social intervention, which objectively and fully assesses the problem situation and establishes the connections and relationships between the young man and his relatives, friends or authorities. This method helps to enable young people to solve their own problems. The aim of the research is to analyze the application features of the social intervention model when working with young people. The objectives are to discuss the activities of youth organizations in the field of social 99SOCIALINIO TINKLO INTERVENCIJOS MODELIO TAIKYMAS DIRBANT SU JAUNIMU work; to highlight the methods of social workers‘ practice; to investigate the application of social intervention model, enabling young people to solve their own problems. The methods applied include comparative analysis of scientific literature, monitoring, social intervention model. The survey revealed that when social workers enable young people to solve their own problems, a model of social intervention allows to evaluate not only the relationships of close people or family members, but also highlights the roles of youth organizations or social workers and their positive effect on the customer‘s actions. Thus, when applying the method of social intervention, social workers play an important role, as well as their professional knowledge and skills to establish the connection with the client are extremely important in order to promote the client‘s reflection.

  8. Long-term outcomes of young people who attempted suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Grisham, Jessica R; Williams, Alishia D

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Suicidal behavior has increased since the onset of the global recession, a trend that may have long-term health and social implications. OBJECTIVE To test whether suicide attempts among young people signal increased risk for later poor health and social functioning above and beyond a preexisting psychiatric disorder. DESIGN We followed up a cohort of young people and assessed multiple aspects of their health and social functioning as they approached midlife. Outcomes among individu...

  9. Young People Smokers’ Reactions on Peer Influence Not to Smoke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harakeh, Z.; van Nijnatten, C.H.C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peers exert influence not to smoke but little is yet known on how this affects young people's behavior and cognitions. Objectives: This experimental study investigates the impact of two types of peer influence not to smoke on the verbalized attitudes and responses of daily-smoking young

  10. Friendship, sexual intimacy and young people's negotiations of sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Paul

    2017-04-01

    This paper examines how young people's friendships influence safer sexual practices. Through a thematic discourse analysis, interviews with Sydney-based young people (aged 18-25 years) and Australian-based sexual health websites for young people are considered. Interview data illustrate how friendships can support young people's sexual experiences, concerns and safeties beyond the practice of 'safe sex' (condom use). This is evident in friends' practices of sex and relationship advice, open dialogue, trust and sharing experiential knowledge, as well as friend-based sex. Meanwhile, friendship discourse from selected Australian sexual health websites fails to engage with the support offered by friendship, or its value to a sexual health agenda. Foucault's account of friendship as a space of self-invention is considered in light of these data, along with his argument that friendship poses a threat to formal systems of knowing and regulating sex. Whether sexual or not, many close friendships are sexually intimate given the knowledge, support and influence these offer to one's sexual practices and relations. This paper argues that greater attention to friendship among sexual health promoters and researchers would improve professional engagements with young people's contemporary sexual cultures, and better inform their attempts to engage young people through social media.

  11. Governing Food Choices: A Critical Analysis of School Food Pedagogies and Young People's Responses in Contemporary Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Deana; Wright, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Recently a proliferation and intensification of school programmes that are directed towards teaching children and young people about food has been witnessed. Whilst there is much to learn about food, anxieties concerning the obesity epidemic have dramatically shaped how schools address the topic. This article draws on governmentality to consider…

  12. The quest for young eyes. Attention to news among young people in the Low Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Van Cauwenberge, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation started off with the observation that attention for news among young people decreases. More precisely, previous survey studies outlined a triple shift in the current young generation’s use of news: from more to less news, from offline to online news, and from professional to non-professional news sources. Underlying these three trends, was the finding that news does not constitute a substantial part of the daily routines of young people. This finding is disturbing given news...

  13. Metabolic syndrome and Framingham risk score in obese young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix F. Widjaja

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase number of the metabolic syndrome (MetS among young adults was mostly caused by obesity. MetS increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD which can be estimated by Framingham risk score (FRS. The study was aimed to know the prevalence of MetS and FRS in obese young adults and to associate them with the components of MetS. Methods: A total of 70 male and female students aged 18 to 25 years with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia were selected consecutively. The blood samples used to test fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride were examined in Department of Clinical Pathology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital after fasting for 14 to 16 hours. International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition was used to diagnose MetS. Univariate and bivariate analysis were done. Results: The prevalence of MetS based on IDF definition was 18.6% among obese young adults. The most associated MetS components was hypertriglyceridemia (OR 12.13; 95% CI 2.92-50.46; p = 0.001, followed with high blood pressure (OR 9.33; 95% CI 2.26-38.56; p = 0.001, low-HDL (OR 8.33; 95% CI 2.17-32.05; p = 0.003, and impaired fasting glucose (p = 0.03. Four subjects had FRS ≥ 1% and 66 subjects had risk < 1%. Increased FRS was not associated with MetS (p = 0.154. There was no component of MetS associated with increased FRS. Conclusion: Prevalence of MetS in obese young adults was similar with obese children and adolescents. Although no association of MetS and FRS was found, they are significant predictors for CHD which should not be used separately. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:100-6Keywords: Abdominal obesity, Framingham risk score, metabolic syndrome, young adults

  14. Diabetes risk among overweight and obese metabolically healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twig, Gilad; Afek, Arnon; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Cukierman-Yaffe, Tali; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Tirosh, Amir

    2014-11-01

    To determine diabetes incidence over time among obese young adults without metabolic risk factors. Incident diabetes during a median follow-up of 6.1 years was assessed among 33,939 young men (mean age 30.9 ± 5.2 years) of the Metabolic, Lifestyle and Nutrition Assessment in Young Adults cohort who were stratified for BMI and the number of metabolic abnormalities (based on the Adult Treatment Panel-III). Metabolically healthy (MH) obesity was defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m2 in the presence of normoglycemia, normal blood pressure, and normal levels of fasting triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels (n = 631). A total of 734 new cases of diabetes were diagnosed during 210,282 person-years of follow-up. The incidence rate of diabetes among participants with no metabolic risk factors was 1.15, 2.10, and 4.34 cases per 1,000 person-years among lean, overweight, and obese participants, respectively. In a multivariable model adjusted for age, region of origin, family history of diabetes, physical activity, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride level, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and white blood cell count, a higher diabetes risk was observed among MH-overweight (hazard ratio [HR] 1.89 [95% CI 1.25-2.86]; P young adults from incident diabetes associated with overweight and obesity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  15. Young People's Writing: Attitudes, Behaviour and the Role of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christina; Dugdale, George

    2009-01-01

    Writing is an important issue in the UK today. While children's and young people's writing standards steadily improved until 2006, levels have not increased in recent years. Writing is much more than just an educational issue--it is an essential skill that allows people to participate fully in today's society and to contribute to the economy.…

  16. Key health outcomes for children and young people with neurodisability: qualitative research with young people and parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Amanda; Fellowes, Andrew; Shilling, Valerie; Janssens, Astrid; Beresford, Bryony; Morris, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify key health outcomes, beyond morbidity and mortality, regarded as important in children and young people with neurodisability, and their parents. Design Qualitative research incorporating a thematic analysis of the data supported by the Framework Approach; the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provided a theoretical foundation. Setting The study was conducted in community settings. Participants Participants were 54 children and young people with neurodisability: 50 participated in focus groups, and 4 in interviews; 53 parents participated: 47 in focus groups and 6 in interviews. Children/young people and parents were recruited through different networks, and were not related. Results Children/young people and parents viewed health outcomes as inter-related. Achievement in some outcomes appeared valued to the extent that it enabled or supported more valued domains of health. Health outcomes prioritised by both young people and parents were: communication, mobility, pain, self-care, temperament, interpersonal relationships and interactions, community and social life, emotional well-being and gaining independence/future aspirations. Parents also highlighted their child's sleep, behaviour and/or safety. Conclusions Those responsible for health services for children/young people with neurodisability should take account of the aspects of health identified by families. The aspects of health identified in this study provide a basis for selecting appropriate health indicators and outcome measures. PMID:24747792

  17. Young people's perspectives on health-related risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Elisabeth Spencer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon current socio-cultural understandings of risk, this study highlights the disjunction between the expert risk discourses that permeate official public health policy and practice, and young people’s own perspectives on health and risk. Data were collected from young people aged 14-16 years through the use of group and individual interviews in a school and community youth centre setting. Findings from this study question the saliency of expert-defined health-related risks to young people’s everyday lives. Young people in this study saw health as closely linked to ‘being happy’. Friendships and a sense of personal achievement were particularly important to participants’ health and well-being. When accounting for their participation in health-related practices identified as ‘risky’ in government policy – such as smoking, alcohol and substance use – young people emphasised the levels of pressure they experienced. Sources of pressure included arguments and bullying, school work, and negative stereotypes of young people in general. These areas indicated young people’s concerns that reach beyond the official prescriptions permeating current health policy.

  18. Forging ties between young People from CERN and ESA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Student Club (CSC) is the official club for the community of young people at CERN. In addition to organizing regular activities for its members, the club serves as a platform for young people to come together and meet people from other backgrounds. On 11 and 12 April, the network for young people from the European Space Agency (YoungESA) organized an excursion to CERN, in which more than 30 young researchers participated. The CERN Student Club was happy to host several activities for the members of the two communities.   Some of the participants in the first meeting of the ESA-CERN student clubs. “One of the most amazing things about being a young researcher is the boundless opportunities for meeting people from all around the world, whether for the exchange of research ideas or for social purposes”, says Yi Ling Hwong, a member of the CMS experiment and Vice-president of the CERN Student Club. “In a place like CERN such occasions are abundant but t...

  19. Physical Health Risk Behaviours in Young People with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim; Marabong, Nikka; Miu, David; Fethney, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Comorbid physical health conditions, commonly associated with mental illness, contribute to increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The trajectory to poorer health begins with the onset of mental illness. For young people with mental illness, health risk behaviours and poor physical health can progress to adulthood with long-term detrimental impacts. Using a cross-sectional survey design, self-reported health risk behaviours were gathered from 56 young (16-25 years) Australians who had been hospitalised for mental illness and taking psychotropic medication. Smoking, alcohol use, minimal physical activity, and lack of primary health care were evident. While these behaviours are typical of many young people, those with mental illness have substantially increased vulnerability to poor health and reduced life expectancy. Priority needs to be given to targeted health promotion strategies for young people with mental illness to modify their risky long-term health behaviours and improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. Nurses in mental health settings play a vital role in promoting young peoples' well-being and preventing poorer physical health outcomes. Implementation of a cardiometabolic health nurse role in inpatient settings for young people with mental illness could facilitate prevention and early intervention for health risk behaviours.

  20. One Health Solutions to Obesity in People and Their Pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartges, J; Kushner, R F; Michel, K E; Sallis, R; Day, M J

    2017-05-01

    Despite the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in the human and companion animal populations, and the global trends for increasing numbers of affected people and pets, there are few successful interventions that are proven to combat this complex multifactorial problem. One key strategy involves effective communication between human and veterinary healthcare professionals with patients and clients about obesity. In human healthcare, the focus of communication should be on physical activity as part of overall health and wellbeing, rather than assessment of the body mass index; clinical examination of patients should record levels of physical activity as a key 'vital sign' as part of their assessment. Successful weight loss programmes for companion animals also involves strategic communication with the entire healthcare team leading clients through the 'stages of change'. There is great potential in employing a 'One Health' framework to provide novel solutions for the prevention and treatment of this condition in people and their pets. Comparative clinical research into the biology of obesity and its comorbidities in dogs and cats is likely to lead to knowledge relevant to the equivalent human conditions. The advantages of companion animal clinical research over traditional rodent models include the outbred genetic background and relatively long lifespan of pets and the fact that they share the human domestic environment. The human-companion animal bond can be leveraged to create successful programmes that promote physical activity in people and their pets with obesity. Dog walking is a proven motivator for human physical activity, with health benefits to both the owner and the dog. Realizing the potential of a One Health approach will require the efforts and leadership of a committed group of like-minded individuals representing a range of scientific and medical disciplines. Interested parties will need the means and opportunities to communicate and to

  1. Obesity and people with disabilities: the implications for health care expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Wayne L; Wiener, Joshua M; Khatutsky, Galina; Armour, Brian S

    2013-12-01

    This study estimates additional average health care expenditures for overweight and obesity for adults with disabilities vs. without. Descriptive and multivariate methods were used to estimate additional health expenditures by service type, age group, and payer using 2004-2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data. In 2007, 37% of community-dwelling Americans with disabilities were obese vs. 27% of the total population. People with disabilities had almost three times ($2,459) the additional average obesity cost of people without disabilities ($889). Prescription drug expenditures for obese people with disabilities were three times as high and outpatient expenditures were 74% higher. People with disabilities in the 45- to 64-year age group had the highest obesity expenditures. Medicare had the highest additional average obesity expenditures among payers. Among people with prescription drug expenditures, obese people with disabilities had nine times the prevalence of diabetes as normal weight people with disabilities. Overweight people with and without disabilities had lower expenditures than normal-weight people with and without disabilities. Obesity results in substantial additional health care expenditures for people with disabilities. These additional expenditures pose a serious current and future problem, given the potential for higher obesity prevalence in the coming decade. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  2. Enhancing early engagement with mental health services by young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jane Burns, Emma Birrell Young and Well Cooperative Research Centre, Abbotsford, VIC, Australia Abstract: International studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness, and the fundamental contribution it make to the overall disease burden, is greatest in children and young people. Despite this high burden, adolescents and young adults are the least likely population group to seek help or to access professional care for mental health problems. This issue is particularly problematic given that untreated, or poorly treated, mental disorders are associated with both short- and long-term functional impairment, including poorer education and employment opportunities, potential comorbidity, including drug and alcohol problems, and a greater risk for antisocial behavior, including violence and aggression. This cycle of poor mental health creates a significant burden for the young person, their family and friends, and society as a whole. Australia is enviably positioned to substantially enhance the well-being of young people, to improve their engagement with mental health services, and – ultimately – to improve mental health. High prevalence but potentially debilitating disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are targeted by the specialized youth mental health service, headspace: the National Youth Mental Health Foundation and a series of Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centres, will provide early intervention specialist services for low prevalence, complex illnesses. Online services, such as ReachOut.com by Inspire Foundation, Youthbeyondblue, Kids Helpline, and Lifeline Australia, and evidence-based online interventions, such as MoodGYM, are also freely available, yet a major challenge still exists in ensuring that young people receive effective evidence-based care at the right time. This article describes Australian innovation in shaping a comprehensive youth mental health system, which is informed by an evidence

  3. A Year's Turning: Young People Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, I. V., Ed.

    This book is an anthology of unedited verse and prose written by 14- and 15-year-old students. The book is intended for teachers in training, for their tutors, and for all teachers of English. The verses are classified as undirected and directed poems about nature, places, war, the Egyptian Tomb, up and back again, and people. The prose is…

  4. Young people's food practices and social relationships. A thematic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Eva; Walton, Mat; Stephens, Christine

    2014-11-01

    Food practices are embedded in everyday life and social relationships. In youth nutrition promotion little attention is awarded to this centrality of food practices, yet it may play a pivotal role for young people's overall health and wellbeing beyond the calories food provides. Limited research is available explicitly investigating how food practices affect social relationships. The aim of this synthesis was therefore to find out how young people use everyday food practices to build, strengthen, and negotiate their social relationships. Using a thematic synthesis approach, we analysed 26 qualitative studies exploring young people's food practices. Eight themes provided insight into the ways food practices affected social relationships: caring, talking, sharing, integrating, trusting, reciprocating, negotiating, and belonging. The results showed that young people use food actively to foster connections, show their agency, and manage relationships. This synthesis provides insight into the settings of significance for young people where more research could explore the use of food in everyday life as important for their social relationships. A focus on social relationships could broaden the scope of nutrition interventions to promote health in physical and psychosocial dimensions. Areas for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Perceptions of sex education for young people in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mturi, Akim J; Hennink, Monique M

    2005-03-01

    This study aimed to identify the views of young people, parents and teachers concerning sex education in Lesotho. It was conducted at a time when the national government was considering the introduction of Population and Family Life Education, which includes sex education, into the national school curriculum. Forty-six focus group discussions were held with young people (10), parents (30) and teachers (6) to identify current sources of sex education and views of the proposed introduction of school-based sex education in Lesotho. Findings show the limited and problematic sources of sex education for adolescents in Lesotho. They also highlight broad support for the introduction of sex education in the national school curriculum among young people, parents and teachers. Of key importance for the development of a sex education curriculum is the balance between providing young people with information and developing their skills in sexual empowerment and negotiating sexual pressure. The use of pupil-centred interactive pedagogies was seen as essential. Teachers, however, highlighted the need for training in the delivery of sex education, which includes instruction on course materials, teaching methodologies and developing sensitivity to teaching sexual issues to young people.

  6. Procrastination and Aggression for Mental Disorders in Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvereva M. V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents analyze the phenomenon of procrastination and indirect manifestations of aggression in young people in normal health and mental disorders. Procrastination - a frequent phenomenon among young people, for this category the term “academic procrastination”; the high level of the various manifestations of aggression can also accompany adolescents in health and disease. The purpose of research is analysis of the relationship of procrastination and manifestations of aggression in health and mental disorders in adolescence. A complex of methods of psychological diagnosis, which included: questionnaire “Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students” (PASS, Solomon & Rothblum, 1984 Rosenzweig Frustration Test, Wagners Hand Test. We studied two samples of subjects 18-25 years: a control group of healthy young people (boys and girls - 61 people, the experimental group - young people of both sexes who had mental disorders (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, affective disorders bipolar disorder, personality disorder – 57. The results indicate the presence of the specific nature of components procrastination and indirect aggression manifestations of different levels at a young age for mental pathology

  7. Young people, new media and sport

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Donna Shy Yun

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates how sport is employed in the new media age as mediated sport goes through the liminal phase of new media. Set against the contextual background of recurrent ‘moral panics’ that accompanied each new wave of media innovation, this study aimed to chart young people’s involvement in sport via the use of new media technology. The thesis concentrated on three research issues: access to, uses of, and the displacement effect of new media. Four major forms of ne...

  8. A young people's perspective on computer game addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brus, Anne Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I examine computer game addiction as a social phenomenon, analyzing the consequences of using the term in order to express a concern about high frequency consumption or even a problematic usage of computer games. I argue that while it is obviously very important to take seriously...... these concerns about young people ‘at risk’, there is a gap between the phenomenon as a suggested psychiatric diagnosis and young people’s reflections on the matter. Following the work of Goffman and Becker, computer game addiction is not necessarily something negative in the eyes of the player and other young...... people. It is shown that the classification can be a positive element in young people’s identity work. On the other hand, a high consumption of computer games is also considered as ‘culturally unacceptable’. From this perspective, computer game addiction becomes a question of how to construct...

  9. Rethinking passive transport: bus fare exemptions and young people's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alasdair; Steinbach, Rebecca; Roberts, Helen; Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith

    2012-05-01

    Much recent public health research has emphasised the health impacts for young people of 'active travel' modes, typically defined as walking and cycling. Less research has focused on public transport modes. Drawing on qualitative data, we examine the links between bus travel and wellbeing in London, where young people currently have free bus travel. Our findings indicate that bus travel can be both a physically and socially active experience for young people. We suggest a more nuanced understanding of 'active travel' is now needed, alongside greater attention to urban public transport networks as key sites that impact on important determinants of wellbeing such as independent mobility and social inclusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-Blame and Commodification of Unemployed Young People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pultz, Sabina

    Young people face the risk of unemployment in a labor market characterized by a drift towards precarious employment (Kalleberg, 2013). Building on poststructuralist theory this study documents how young unemployed people’s understanding of unemployment is affected by neoliberal discourses, also...... reflected in the technologies applied by the institutions in the employment area. As a result, responsibility for unemployment is increasingly placed on the individual and self-blame is promoted as the predominant explanation. This qualitative study consists of a combination of field observations made...... people experience their situation and position themselves in regards to this normative encouragement to blame themselves. Personal branding and networking are identified as strategies enforced by the employment system and can be viewed as technologies of the self encouraging young people to commodify...

  11. Discrimination and mental health problems among homeless minority young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Norweeta G; Batterham, Philip; Ayala, George; Rice, Eric; Solorio, Rosa; Desmond, Kate; Lord, Lynwood; Iribarren, Javier; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    We examined the associations among perceived discrimination, racial/ethnic identification, and emotional distress in newly homeless adolescents. We assessed a sample of newly homeless adolescents (n=254) in Los Angeles, California, with measures of perceived discrimination and racial/ethnic identification. We assessed emotional distress using the Brief Symptom Inventory and used multivariate linear regression modeling to gauge the impact of discrimination and racial identity on emotional distress. Controlling for race and immigration status, gender, and age, young people with a greater sense of ethnic identification experienced less emotional distress. Young people with a history of racial/ethnic discrimination experienced more emotional distress. Intervention programs that contextualize discrimination and enhance racial/ethnic identification and pride among homeless young people are needed.

  12. Exploring Young People's Experiences on Social Networking Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Rehim, Shrehan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract\\ud Online Social Networking Sites (SNS) are a ubiquitous platform for communication and have been considered as one of the most significant changes to how young people interact today. Whilst SNS bring many opportunities, they have also been used as a tool for harassment and abuse online. The term ‘cyberbullying’, is most widely used to describe this phenomenon. A growing body of research demonstrates that cyberbullying has the potential to detrimentally impact young people’s wellbein...

  13. Involving young people in decision making about sequential cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Rebecca; Cropper, Jenny; Walters, Hazel

    2013-11-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines recommended young people who currently have one cochlear implant be offered assessment for a second, sequential implant, due to the reported improvements in sound localization and speech perception in noise. The possibility and benefits of group information and counselling assessments were considered. Previous research has shown advantages of group sessions involving young people and their families and such groups which also allow young people opportunity to discuss their concerns separately to their parents/guardians are found to be 'hugely important'. Such research highlights the importance of involving children in decision-making processes. Families considering a sequential cochlear implant were invited to a group information/counselling session, which included time for parents and children to meet separately. Fourteen groups were held with approximately four to five families in each session, totalling 62 patients. The sessions were facilitated by the multi-disciplinary team, with a particular psychological focus in the young people's session. Feedback from families has demonstrated positive support for this format. Questionnaire feedback, to which nine families responded, indicated that seven preferred the group session to an individual session and all approved of separate groups for the child and parents/guardians. Overall the group format and psychological focus were well received in this typically surgical setting and emphasized the importance of involving the young person in the decision-making process. This positive feedback also opens up the opportunity to use a group format in other assessment processes.

  14. Information technologies in physical education of student young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivchatova T.V.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The uses of modern information technologies given about features are systematized in practice of physical education of students. Perspective directions of the use of computer technologies are considered in physical education of student young people. In a student environment the insufficient level of knowledges is felt on the indicated theme. There is a requirement in the receipt of the proper information on forming valued orientations which determine the healthy way of life of young people. The computer informative systems are the attractive source of popularization and propaganda of healthy way of life.

  15. Perceptions of health risk and smoking decisions of young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerking, Shelby; Khaddaria, Raman

    2012-07-01

    Using the Annenberg Perception of Tobacco Risk Survey 2, this paper finds that perceived risk deters smoking among persons aged 14-22 years who think that it is relatively difficult to quit smoking and that onset of deleterious health effects occurs relatively quickly. Perceived health risk, however, does not affect the smoking status of young people who hold the opposite beliefs. These results are consistent with predictions of rational addiction models and suggest that young people, who view smoking as more addictive and health effects as more immediate, may have greater incentive to consider long-term health effects in their decision to smoke. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Driving Cultures: Cars, Young People and Cultural Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Redshaw

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the Driving Cultures research, the cultural importance of the car and the psychological approaches central to research in the field of road safety and investigations of the over–representation of young people in crashes. The aim of the article is to outline driving as a cultural practice drawing on the experiences of young people as described in focus groups in order to show how cultural research can contribute to a social concern such as traffic injury and death.

  17. Managing young people with self-harming or suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Gemma

    2016-02-01

    This literature review aimed to determine the risk factors being used to identify children and young people who are at increased risk of engaging in self-harm and suicidal behaviour, so that optimal care can be provided for this patient group in children's medical ward settings. The two main themes that emerged were mental and neurodevelopmental disorders, and external factors. Management strategies to aid healthcare professionals in caring for this patient group were also identified. The review concludes by highlighting the need to provide healthcare professionals with continuing education about the mental health problems of children and young people, including risk factors and management strategies.

  18. Needs of Adolescents and Young Adults with Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Comparisons of Young People and Parent Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Hanna; Findon, James; Cadman, Tim; Hayward, Hannah; Murphy, Declan; Asherson, Philip; Glaser, Karen; Xenitidis, Kiriakos

    2018-01-01

    This study used the Camberwell Assessment of Need for adults with Developmental and Intellectual Disabilities (CANDID) to examine the social, physical health and mental health needs of 168 young people (aged 14-24 years) with neurodevelopmental disorders and compared young person and parent ratings of need. Agreement was poor in 21 out of 25…

  19. Young people, drinking and social class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    Analytical concepts such as 'bounded consumption' or 'controlled loss of control' have been applied to characterise contemporary youth intoxication. This article argues that this kind of cultural diagnosis benefits from being related to a focus on differences in social class. It is shown that in ......Analytical concepts such as 'bounded consumption' or 'controlled loss of control' have been applied to characterise contemporary youth intoxication. This article argues that this kind of cultural diagnosis benefits from being related to a focus on differences in social class. It is shown...... people to construct social class-related identities: mainstream youngsters continually confirm their taken-for-granted normality, and mainstream breakers resist the mainstream hegemonic (school) culture which usually defies them. In conclusion, bounded consumption, corresponding with contemporary ideals...

  20. Lifestyle habits and obesity progression in overweight and obese American young adults: Lessons for promoting cardiometabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, EunSeok; Akazawa, Margeaux K; Kim, Kevin H; Dawkins, Colleen R; Lerner, Hannah M; Umpierrez, Guillermo; Dunbar, Sandra B

    2015-12-01

    Obesity among young adults is a growing problem in the United States and is related to unhealthy lifestyle habits, such as high caloric intake and inadequate exercise. Accurate assessment of lifestyle habits across obesity stages is important for informing age-specific intervention strategies to prevent and reduce obesity progression. Using a modified version of the Edmonton Obesity Staging System (mEOSS), a new scale for defining obesity risk and predicting obesity morbidity and mortality, this cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of overweight/obese conditions in 105 young adults and compared their lifestyle habits across the mEOSS stages. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and one-way analyses of variance were performed. Eighty percent of participants (n = 83) fell into the mEOSS-2 group and had obesity-related chronic disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension, and/or dyslipidemia. There were significant differences in dietary quality and patterns across the mEOSS stages. Findings highlighted the significance of prevention and early treatment for overweight and obese young adults to prevent and cease obesity progression. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Stereotypes in media and media literacy among young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Young people, the most common consumers of media content, bear out the view that media shapes people’s lives. Therefore we must not underestimate the effect media exerts on young people’s values and behavioral patterns. Television is the medium which draws children and young people for the greatest part of their free time. Regardless whether television programs are described as positive or negative, whether they abound with stereotypes or not, it is important that young people develop a critical attitude towards them so that they may resist different forms of media manipulation. The paper discusses how stereotypes are generated and used by media and the manners in which stereotypical concepts affect young people’s attitudes. It highlights the importance of the development of media literacy which implies a critical attitude towards media images and discourses, the development of criteria for the selection and evaluation of information broadcast by media, the development of skills in interpreting and understanding stereotypical concepts and familiarity with alternative forms of media culture. The paper draws special attention to the issue of media education. The conclusion is that schools should offer media literacy as part of their curriculum and in it possible solutions to the problems discussed. .

  2. The health needs of young people in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Charlotte

    2014-12-01

    There has been an unprecedented reduction in the number of young people in prison; however, questions remain about the appropriateness and effectiveness of custody, given the high prevalence of health needs, self-inflected deaths while in custody and high reoffending rates. Articles relating to the health needs of young people, aged 10-17 years in prison in England and Wales were sourced through PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge, plus additional key reports were included if deemed relevant. Young people in prison have much higher rates of multiple and complex health problems compared with young people in the general population. However, many of their health-care needs are unrecognized and unmet. There is an urgent need for up-to-date and robust prevalence data of all health needs across the age ranges in England and Wales. Research has neglected physical health and neurodevelopmental disorders and the quality of research for females and Black and Minority Ethnic group's requires improvement. There is a dearth of high-quality evaluations of health interventions with robust and sensitive short- and long-term outcome measures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Involving young people with mental health problems in improving healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Milnes, Linda; Kendal, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Latif et al’s (2017) paper is a valuable addition to knowledge in this field. It highlights the need to improve the education of registered children’s nurses in the care of children and young people (CYP) with physical health problems related to self-harm.

  4. World Class: USBBY's Outstanding International Books for Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Some of the world's best children's book artists got together to help Amnesty International celebrate the Universal Declaration of Human Rights' 60th anniversary in "We Are All Born Free," one of the 42 titles recommended by the fourth annual United States Board on Books for Young People's (USBBY) Outstanding International Books…

  5. Mediating Gendered Performances: Young People Negotiating Embodiment in Research Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Ann; Pattman, Rob; Croghan, Rosaleen; Griffin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Gender inequalities in schools have implications for life chances, emotional well-being and educational policies and practices, but are apparently resistant to change. This paper employs Judith Butler's conceptualisation of performativity in a study of young people and consumption to provide insights into gendered inequities. It argues that how…

  6. Young People and Prostitution: An End to the Beginning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayre, Patrick; Barrett, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines some reasons for the failure to protect young people in England and Wales from sexual abuse inherent in prostitution. Identifies characteristics of the child protection system which fit poorly for work with these youth. Argues that lasting improvement of these children's well-being depends on the creation of "joined-up,"…

  7. Why Young People Fail To Get and Hold Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Dept. of Labor, Albany.

    This booklet provides advice to young people seeking their first jobs on how to avoid the pitfalls that have caused others to lose jobs or fail to be hired. Topics discussed in short, one-page sections include appearance, attitude and behavior, ignorance of labor market facts, misrepresentation, sensitivity about a physical defect, unrealistic…

  8. Plague and Paideia: Sabotage in Devising Theatre with Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This ethnography, completed by the classroom teacher in a publicly funded secondary school in Mississauga, Canada, explores issues of conflict and sabotage that affected a devising project with suburban young people. The processes of devising generated ethnographic data that included a play script and videotaped rehearsals and performances. As…

  9. Alternative Education Engaging Indigenous Young People: Flexi Schooling in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Marnee; Heck, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article will discuss some of the findings from a qualitative research project that explored the connections between alternative education and Indigenous learners. This study investigated how flexi school leaders reported they were supporting Indigenous young people to remain engaged in education. The results of the survey provide demographic…

  10. The Educational and Professional Trajectories of Working Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherednichenko, G. A.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamism of social processes, the development of technologies, and the modernization of industrial production require raising the education and qualifications of blue-collar workers, particularly working young people. This accounts for the focus on problems of that group's formation, their integration into society, their acquisition and…

  11. Social Capital and the Educational Expectations of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behtoui, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the determinants of the educational expectations of young people in disadvantaged urban areas in three large cities in Sweden. In addition to the conventional predictors such as parental resources (economic and cultural capital) and demographic characteristics (such as age, gender, immigration background), this…

  12. Under the Greenwood Tree: Shakespeare for Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdridge, Barbara, Ed.

    This illustrated collection of poetic excerpts from the plays and sonnets of William Shakespeare is designed to be read and appreciated by young people. The 39 excerpts in the collection follow the "7 ages of man" pattern from childhood to old age. The collection's introduction by the famous Shakespearean scholar, A.L. Rowse, recounts…

  13. Considering Young People's Motives for Interactive Media Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Beemt, Antoine; Akkerman, Sanne; Simons, Robert-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Young people's increasing use of interactive media has led to assertions about possible consequences for education. Rather than following assertions, we argue for theory-driven empirical research as a basis for education renewal. First, we review the existing empirical research, concluding that there is almost no theory-driven research available.…

  14. Museums And Young People: The Heritage Of Pride | Onyebinama ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the origin of museum, its brief history in Nigeria , its meaning, types, need for museums and the relationship between museums and libraries. It specifically addresses the issue of young people and museum which is the heritage of their pride. The paper also discusses factors/problems which may ...

  15. Young People's Assessment of Their Sources of Information About ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper concludes that, though there are a number of sources through which young people may be receiving sexual health information, the majority of them are not satisfied with the quality of information they get from many of such sources. Key words: Parents, health workers, teachers, students, sexuality education, rural ...

  16. Young People with Health Conditions and the Inclusive Education Problematic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    This article revisits debates about inclusive education from the perspective of the "Keeping Connected" project, a qualitative longitudinal research project focusing on young people with health-related disrupted experiences of schooling. Drawing on findings from this project, three main arguments are advanced and illustrated in relation…

  17. Homophobia, Transphobia, Young People and the Question of Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Sanjakdar, Fida; Allen, Louisa; Quinlivan, Kathleen; Bromdal, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Young people may face conflicting and confusing messages about what it means to respond well in relation to homophobia and transphobia. Consequently, we ask--What might it mean to respond well to homophobia and transphobia? This strategy, inspired by Anika Thiem and Judith Butler, is recognition of the ambivalent conditions which structure…

  18. The Rights of Children and Young People in State Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This article highlights the lack of human rights recognition for arguably one of the most vulnerable groups in our society, children and young people in the care of the state. Currently under New Zealand legislation and policy frameworks these children do not have their rights upheld, as per New Zealand's obligations under the United Nations…

  19. Preferences of young people on the milk market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Adamczyk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present results of research related to preferences of young people (students on the milk market. The paper focuses on aspects connected with milk consumption, as well as the process of choice – preferred type, package, brand and place of purchase.

  20. Dynamics of Conceptions of Health and Illness Among Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I B Bovina

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the theory of social studies of the conceptions of health and illness among young people these conceptions undergo a research analysis. The comparison of the actual results with the results of the similar study conducted in 2002 allows us to talk about the dynamics of these conceptions.

  1. Cyberbullying: Through the Eyes of Children and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackers, Melanie Jane

    2012-01-01

    The topic of cyberbullying is raising international debate and concern. Through the development and dissemination of a questionnaire 12 student researchers were supported in surveying 325 UK students across Years 7, 8 and 9 to gain further knowledge of this area, in relation to children and young people. Results were analysed and comparisons made…

  2. Transitioning behaviourally infected HIV- positive young people into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-03

    Mar 3, 2013 ... There is limited literature on the transition of young people living with ... (iv) transfer to other health centres, (v) perceived sense of stigma, ... survival among vertically HIV-infected children is increasing. ... was held to assess the participants' attitudes ... doctors in the adult clinic now view me like an old man.

  3. Long-term outcomes of young people who attempted suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grisham, Jessica R; Williams, Alishia D

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Suicidal behavior has increased since the onset of the global recession, a trend that may have long-term health and social implications. OBJECTIVE To test whether suicide attempts among young people signal increased risk for later poor health and social functioning above and beyond a

  4. Young people and the new semantics of the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Leccardi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Young people in the new century find themselves having to define their existential choices within a social landscape that is strongly characterized by the acceleration of change. Contemporary time seems to erase temporal continuity and the notion of the life-plan as developed in first modernity. The article analyses how this process impacts the biographical constructs of young people and how the changing experience of time affects the transition to adulthood and the spread of new values. The hypothesis is that the positive relation among life-plan, biographical time, and identity encounters difficulties when the future is shortened. Planning capacity is compromised and life-projects depend more on subjective factors than on completion of the canonical life-stages marked by institutional times-frames. As a result, young people “navigate by sight”, dealing with uncertainty, rather than following pre-established routes. But the redefinition of the relationship between identity and social time does not only consist in a growing focus on the present; it also implies a reconstruction of the relationship with the future. In a nutshell, a significant part of the “new youth” seems to possess sufficient capacities to be able to govern the dynamics of the high-speed society in which young people find themselves living.

  5. Life Strategies of Young People: Sociological Research Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov’ Borisovna Osipova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern reality is the world of formation of various life prospects of a young person. The relevance of the topic depends, firstly, on insufficient sociological research into the mechanism of formation and realization of life strategies of modern youth; and, secondly, on the need to substantiate the sociological concept of youth life strategies in terms of professional self-determination with regard to its social and group characteristics. In this context, young people as the most active social group are of great interest to the authors who consider them a research target. Due to the transitivity of a social status and the incomplete processes of social maturity formation young people need a targeted design of their future. The sociological analysis of the issue involves a clarification of the concept of “life strategy” at the conceptual level (A.A. Volokitin, S.N. Ikonnikova, E.I. Golovakha, Yu.A. Zubok, V.T. Lisovsky, M.N. Rutkevich, G.V. Leonidova, K.A. Ustinova, etc.. The article presents the author’s definition of “life strategies”, which is a dynamic system of perspective individual orientation aimed at designing one’s life in the future. At the same time the results of the author’s sociological research are presented, including a standardized interview, questionnaires, which provide an opportunity to form an idea about the living choices of young people living in Yugra. The declining influence of social institutions and the emerging opportunities for developing their life prospects on their own challenges young people to select their life targets and ways of their implementation independently. The article justifies the necessity of intensified activation of new forms of young students’ management when planning their life trajectory. Life strategies disclose its content in specific life situations associated with choice. The key choice is the career choice of young people which directly depends on the socio

  6. Psychopathology in Young People Experiencing Homelessness: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Katherine H.; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.; Los, Férenc J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding mental health issues faced by young homeless persons is instrumental to the development of successful targeted interventions. No systematic review of recent published literature on psychopathology in this group has been completed. We conducted a systematic review of published research examining the prevalence of psychiatric problems among young homeless people. We examined the temporal relationship between homelessness and psychopathology. We collated 46 articles according to the PRISMA Statement. All studies that used a full psychiatric assessment consistently reported a prevalence of any psychiatric disorder from 48% to 98%. Although there was a lack of longitudinal studies of the temporal relationship between psychiatric disorders and homelessness, findings suggested a reciprocal link. Supporting young people at risk for homelessness could reduce homelessness incidence and improve mental health. PMID:23597340

  7. Obesity and Associated Comorbidities in People and Companion Animals: A One Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, M; Cunningham, S; Lund, E M; Khanna, C; Naramore, R; Patel, A; Day, M J

    2017-05-01

    This article reviews the biology, prevalence and risks for obesity in people and companion dogs and cats, and explores the links between obesity and diabetes mellitus and cancer across these species. Obesity is a major healthcare problem in both human and veterinary medicine and there is an increasing prevalence of obesity in people and pets. In people and animals, obesity is a complex disorder involving diet, level of physical activity, behavioural factors, socioeconomic factors, environment exposures, genetics, metabolism and the microbiome. Pets and people share a number of obesity-related comorbidities. Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus in people and in cats, but this association is not recognized in dogs. Obesity is a recognized risk factor for a number of human cancers, but there are fewer data available describing this association with canine neoplastic disease. One approach to addressing the problem of obesity is by taking a 'One Health' perspective. Comparative clinical research examining shared lifestyle and environmental risk factors and the reasons underlying species differences should provide new perspectives on the fundamental biology of obesity. One Health programmes involving human healthcare professionals and veterinarians could help address obesity with simple interventions at the community level. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Preventing HIV with young people: a case study from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gill; Mwale, Vincent

    2006-11-01

    The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is funding thousands of community-based organisations, international NGOs and government services in high HIV prevalence countries to persuade young people to abstain from sex until marriage (Abstinence, Behaviour Change, Youth--ABY). This paper describes how this strategy is being implemented in Zambia, and community responses to it. It is derived from published information and observations and discussions in the Eastern Province in 2005-2006. A few NGOs have challenged the strategy, but many took the funds and are paying large numbers of peer educators to promote abstinence only. Messages are rife that condoms have holes or don't work sufficiently well to make them worth using. Condom promotion materials have been replaced. Service providers refuse to give condoms to young people. Young people who had attended sexuality and life skills programmes that gave them accurate information are rejecting inaccurate messages and demanding condoms. Without this education, however, inaccurate messages will spread quickly. It is not possible to promote condoms only for high risk people without stigmatising both the people and condoms, and it also jeopardises promoting condom use for contraception. Everything possible must be done to reduce negative messages about condoms. Everyone involved in HIV/AIDS needs to reflect on their own work in relation to this new climate and ensure that all prevention options are widely available, correct information is given and condoms are available for everyone who needs them.

  9. Evaluating the effectiveness of a schools-based programme to promote exercise self-efficacy in children and young people with risk factors for obesity: Steps to active kids (STAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Min

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of physical activity in children have been linked to an increased risk of obesity, but many children lack confidence in relation to exercise (exercise self-efficacy. Factors which can impact on confidence include a chronic health condition such as asthma, poor motor skills and being overweight. Increasing levels of physical activity have obvious benefits for children with asthma and children who are overweight, but few activity interventions with children specifically target children with low exercise self-efficacy (ESE. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of a schools-based activity programme suitable for children with risk factors for adult obesity, including asthma, overweight and low exercise self-efficacy. Methods/Design A clustered (at the level of school RCT will be used to compare a targeted, 10 week, stepped activity programme (activity diary, dance DVD, circuit-training and motivational interviewing designed to promote ESE. We will recruit 20 primary schools to participate in the intervention and 9-11 year old children will be screened for low levels of ESE, asthma and overweight. In order to provide sufficient power to detect a difference in primary outcomes (Body Mass Index-BMI & ESE at 12 month follow-up between children in the intervention schools and control schools, the target sample size is 396. Assessments of BMI, ESE, waist circumference, peak flow, activity levels and emotional and behavioural difficulties will be made at baseline, 4 months and 12 month follow-up. Discussion We aim to increase ESE and levels of physical activity in children with risk factors for adult obesity. The outcomes of this study will inform policy makers about the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of delivering targeted health interventions within a school setting. Trial Registration ISRCTN Register no. ISRCTN12650001

  10. Anxiety and depression symptoms in young people with perinatally acquired HIV and HIV affected young people in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Prevost, Marthe; Arenas-Pinto, Alejandro; Melvin, Diane; Parrott, Francesca; Foster, Caroline; Ford, Deborah; Evangeli, Michael; Winston, Alan; Sturgeon, Kate; Rowson, Katie; Gibb, Diana M; Judd, Ali

    2018-03-04

    Adolescents with perinatal HIV (PHIV) may be at higher risk of anxiety and depression than HIV negative young people. We investigated prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms in 283 PHIV and 96 HIV-affected (HIV-negative) young people in England recruited into the Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV (AALPHI) cohort. We used Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores and linear regression investigated predictors of higher (worse) scores.115 (41%) and 29 (30%) PHIV and HIV-affected young people were male, median age was 16 [interquartile range 15,18] and 16 [14,18] years and 241 (85%) and 71 (74%) were black African, respectively. There were no differences in anxiety and depression scores between PHIV and HIV-affected participants. Predictors of higher anxiety scores were a higher number of carers in childhood, speaking a language other than English at home, lower self-esteem, ever thinking life was not worth living and lower social functioning. Predictors of higher depression scores were male sex, death of one/both parents, school exclusion, lower self-esteem and lower social functioning. In conclusion, HIV status was not associated with anxiety or depression scores, but findings highlight the need to identify and support young people at higher risk of anxiety and depression..

  11. Ten-Year Trends (2000-2010) of Overweight and Obesity Prevalence among the Young and Middle-Aged Adult Population of the Balearic Islands, a Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Josep L; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    This article aimed at assessing the 10-year trends (2000-2010) in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the Balearic Islands' adult population. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) for young (18-35 year-olds) and middle-aged (36-55 year-olds) adults living in the Balearics was calculated. Data represented 1,089 people during 1999-2000 and 1,081 people during 2009-2010. The BMI categories were as follows: normal weight (18.5 obese (≥30). Weighted frequency estimates and logistic regression analysis were used to calculate overweight and obesity trends. While the prevalence of overweight and obesity mostly remained stable over the 2000-2010 period, the prevalence of obesity increased from 5.1 to 8.3% in young adults (aged 18-35), a 1.66-fold increase in prevalence (95% CI 1.02-2.70) over the study period. Total overweight and obesity prevalence remained stable in the Balearic adult population; however, a rising prevalence of obesity has been observed in young adults, which suggests a need to develop and change current strategies in order to reverse the current trends in obesity among this age group. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Young children and obesity : development and evaluation of familiy-oriented treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van E.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis: Young Children and Obesity – Development and Evaluation of Family-oriented Treatment, Esther van Hoek

    Introduction

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased rapidly during the last decades. Childhood obesity is a multisystem disease with serious consequences such as

  13. BMI and obesity incidence in relation to food patterns of Polish older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadolowska, L.; Danowska-Oziewicz, M.; Niedzwiedzka, E.

    2006-01-01

    BMI differentiation and obesity incidence in relation to food patterns of Polish older people were analysed. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years. 21 food patterns were separated by the factor analysis. On the basis of the self-reported body mass and height, the BMI and percentages...... of overweight or obese people were calculated. The increase of the BMI and overweight and obesity incidence for both sexes was unequivocally connected with eating rye. The increase of the BMI and overweight and obesity incidence depended among women on consuming pork meat and alcoholic beverages. For men...

  14. [Community trajectories of mentally ill and intellectually disabled young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy

    2013-01-01

    In the context of reforms in the field of disability, this study documents the trajectories and mechanisms of support for young people with mental illness or intellectual disability or pervasive developmental disorders, during the teen-adult life transition period; andfactorsfostering or impeding this transition for their maintenance in an everyday environment, particularly in SESSAD (special education and home care service) and the SAMSAH/ SPAC (medico-social support for adults with disabilities/support services in social life). This study was conducted in the French department of Seine-et-Marne. It was supported by a mixed call for tenders, in which 77 respondents (professionals, families and users), and 26 organizations were consulted. The study shows that few young adults in SAMSAH/SPAC programmes are derived from SESSAD, and they encounter major difficulties living in an everyday environment, particularly during the transition period. Clinical or socio-economic factors related to the profiles of users or healthcare service organization facilitate or hinder the inclusion of young people in an everyday environment. Support for users was also often limited to followup over a suboptimal period, and was hampered by insufficient networking within the regional healthcare system. On the other hand, empowerment of users and their optimal inclusion in an everyday environment, as founding principles of the reform, constitute major action priorities for healthcare structures. Strengthening services for young people (16-25 years), including integration strategies, is recommended in order to establish an integrated network of services in the field of disability.

  15. Beliefs, attitudes and phobias among Mexican medical and psychology students towards people with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Lucero Soto; Ana Lilia Armendariz-Anguiano; Montserrat Bacardí-Gascón; A. Jiménez Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of stigmatizing attitude among healthcare personnel towards obese people has been reported. Objective: To evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and phobias that Mexican medical and psychology students have towards obese people. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 528 students enrolled at the Autonomous University of Baja California in psychology and medical schools. Weight, height and waist circumference were evaluated. Beliefs about obesity were assess...

  16. Money attitude of Ukrainian young people: socio-demographic aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANNA SIMKIV

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on social and demographic factors of Ukr health literacy, health culture, young adults, concepts of health and healthy lifestyle, motivations, forms of communication, learning methods ainian youth money attitudes. The aim of the research is to identify dependency between money attitudes of the young people and such social and demographic characteristics as sex, age, education, place of residence, place of employment, employment position and level of income. The research required application of survey and questionnaire methods as well as statistical methods of results processing.

  17. Promoting and protecting the health of children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licence, K

    2004-11-01

    The health-related behaviours adopted by children and young people can have both immediate and long-term health effects. Health promotion interventions that target children and young people can lay the foundations of a healthy lifestyle that may be sustained into adulthood. This paper is based on a selective review of evidence relating to health promotion in childhood, carried out to support the external working group on the 'Healthy Child' module of the Children's National Service Framework. This is a selective review of mainly secondary research. It focuses on injury prevention, support for parenting and the promotion of good mental health, and promoting a healthy diet and physical activity amongst children and young people. In many areas, the quality of primary research into health promotion interventions aimed at children and young people is poor. Interventions are heterogeneous and not described in sufficient detail. Sample sizes tend to be small, and there are commonly problems of bias. Despite these difficulties, there is good evidence for a range of interventions, including (1) area road safety schemes; (2) combining a variety of approaches to the promotion of the use of safety equipment, including legislation and enforcement, loan/assisted purchase/giveaway schemes, education, fitting and maintenance of safety equipment; (3) school-based mental health promotion; (4) parenting support; (5) interventions that promote and facilitate 'lifestyle' activity for children, such as walking and cycling to school, and those that aim to reduce sedentary behaviours such as parent education to reduce the time children spend watching TV and using computers; and (6) controlling advertising of unhealthy food that is aimed at children. There are effective interventions to promote and protect the health of children and young people that require action across the five areas described in the Ottawa Charter. Health, social care and education services have a direct role in the

  18. Obesidad y factores de riesgo del síndrome metabólico en jóvenes con diabetes tipo 1 Obesity and risk factors for metabolic syndrome in young people with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Prieto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios en la forma de presentación de la diabetes mellitus tipo 1(DM T1 en la infancia y adolescencia asociados a la obesidad, determinaron una superposición entre los dos tipos de diabetes, con mayor heterogeneidad en su presentación clínica. Con el objetivo de caracterizar el tipo de diabetes mellitus (DM, comienzo de la diabetes, independientemente de las clasificaciones disponibles y evaluar el impacto de la obesidad en la forma de presentación, se estudiaron cincuenta niños diabéticos agrupados según su condición nutricional. Se evaluó la reserva de insulina pancreática por medición de péptido C basal, índice glucemia/péptido C y en respuesta a comida mixta (MMTT, se determinó el genotipo HLA-DQB1 y los anticuerpos GADA, ICA 512, IAA y se evaluó la presencia de factores de riesgo para enfermedad metabólica como obesidad, hipertensión, diabetes y dislipidemia en el grupo familiar. El 38% de la población presentó sobrepeso/obesidad (SP/OB. Un 82% tuvo anticuerpos positivos GADA, ICA 512, IAA sin diferencia significativa entre ambos grupos, el 100% fue positivo para genotipo HLA-DQB1 de riesgo. El 84% de los familiares presentó factores de riesgo positivo para síndrome metabólico. Se dividió a la población en dos grupos (sobrepeso/obesidad vs. normopeso. No hubo diferencias en los valores de péptido C en ayunas o en el índice glucemia/péptido C entre los dos grupos El péptido C en el MMTT mostró mayor área bajo la curva (1.77 ng/ml vs. 5.5 ng/ml, p = 0.0007 y valores más altos a los 60 y 120 minutos (p: 0.02 y 0.03 en el grupo con SP/OB. En conclusión, los pacientes con diabetes tipo 1A con SP/OB tienen mayor capacidad de respuesta pancreática medida por péptido C, sugiriendo que el estado nutricional podría actuar como acelerador del comienzo clínico de la enfermedad.Changes in the clinical presentation of diabetes mellitus in childhood and adolescence associated with obesity have resulted in an

  19. Dietitians' views of overweight and obese people and reported management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, E L; Summerbell, C D; Kirk, S F L; Hill, A J

    2002-10-01

    To examine dietitians' views of overweight and obese people, to explore the role of level of severity on these perceptions (overweight vs. obesity), and to explore the relationship between dietitians' views and their reported weight management practices. An independent measures survey, questioning dietitians about either overweight or obese people. One-hundred and eighty-seven members of the British Dietetic Association. A questionnaire exploring beliefs about the causes, attitudes, perceptions of responsibility and reported weight management practices. Physical inactivity was identified as an important causative factor for both overweight and obesity. Mood, eating too much of the wrong foods, repeated dieting and interpersonal factors were also seen as relatively important for both groups. Attitudes were mixed, but were generally neutral to positive. The most negative attitudes were described in terms of perceived reduced self-esteem, sexual attractiveness and health. Dietitians rated obese people more negatively than overweight people. They viewed both overweight and obese people as being responsible for their excess weight. They also reported very similar management practices for overweight and obese people. Beliefs about the causes of overweight explained more of the variance in practice than dietitians' attitudes towards or perceived responsibility of overweight and obese people. However, these associations were not consistent and strong, and other factors not investigated here are likely to have a greater influence on weight management practices.

  20. Severe Obesity in Adolescents and Young Adults Is Associated With Subclinical Cardiac and Vascular Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amy S; Dolan, Lawrence M; Khoury, Philip R; Gao, Zhiqan; Kimball, Thomas R; Urbina, Elaine M

    2015-07-01

    Severe obesity is the fastest growing subgroup of obesity in youth. We sought to explore the association between severe obesity and subclinical measures of cardiac and vascular structure and function in adolescents and young adults. This was a cross-sectional comparison of 265 adolescents and young adults with severe obesity (defined as body mass index [BMI] ≥120% of the 95th percentile) to 182 adolescents and young adults with obesity (defined as BMI ≥100-119th of the 95th percentile) at tertiary medical center. Noninvasive measures of cardiac and vascular structure and function were assessed. Participants were a mean age of 17.9 years, 62% were non-Caucasian, and 68% were female. Systolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, C-reactive protein, IL-6, and frequency of type 2 diabetes were higher in participants with severe obesity (all P obesity as measured by higher left ventricular mass index, worse diastolic function, higher carotid intima media thickness, and pulse wave velocity and lower brachial distensibility (all P obesity (compared with obesity) was independently associated with each of the above outcomes after adjustment for age, race, sex, blood pressure, lipids, and inflammatory markers (P young adults with severe obesity have a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile and worse cardiac and vascular structure and function. More importantly, severe obesity is independently associated with these subclinical cardiac and vascular changes.

  1. Nutritional Status and Obesity Prevalence in People with Gender Dysphoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victorina Aguilar Vilas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gender dysphoria is a condition that involves a failure to adapt and a body dissatisfaction that makes these individuals especially susceptible to eating disorders. The aim of this paper was to ascertain the nutritional status, dietary behaviour and lifestyle and their effect on overweight/obesity prevalence of the people with gender dysphoria.Methods: A longitudinal study on 157 individuals from the Gender Disorder Unit at the Ramón y Cajal Hospital (Madrid who are undergoing hormonal treatment has been carried out. Usual dietary intake, physical activity habits and socioeconomic parameters were evaluated. The anthropometric parameters determined were weight, height, body-mass index (BMI, waist and hip circumference and body fat content. Results: The mean of the population eats a large number of servings of food, which leads to high levels of energy intake: 3,614.32 ± 1,314 kcal/day. These intakes are related to the physical activity performed. The average diet among this population is unbalanced, with a high consumption of fats, especially saturated fats and cholesterol. The breakfast is skipped by 16% of the population. Together with cross-hormone treatment, this dietary habitsand lifestylelead to an increase in body fat, especially in the female to male group whose overweight andobesity prevalence increase (22.72% vs 34.85%. Conclusion: This population suffers a change of their nutritional status due to a variation in their eating behaviour and lifestyle. This increase in the obesity prevalencemake it susceptible to chronic diseases and cardiovascular disorders. It is therefore necessary to include nutrition education courses in the comprehensive treatment programme (anatomical, psychological, etc. for these individuals.

  2. Nutritional Status and Obesity Prevalence in People with Gender Dysphoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, María Victorina Aguilar; Rubalcava, Gabriela; Becerra, Antonio; Para, María Carmen Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Gender dysphoria is a condition that involves a failure to adapt and a body dissatisfaction that makes these individuals especially susceptible to eating disorders. The aim of this paper was to ascertain the nutritional status, dietary behaviour and lifestyle and their effect on overweight/obesity prevalence of the people with gender dysphoria. Methods A longitudinal study on 157 individuals from the Gender Disorder Unit at the Ramón y Cajal Hospital (Madrid) who are undergoing hormonal treatment has been carried out. Usual dietary intake, physical activity habits and socioeconomic parameters were evaluated. The anthropometric parameters determined were weight, height, body-mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference and body fat content. Results The mean of the population eats a large number of servings of food, which leads to high levels of energy intake: 3,614.32 ± 1,314 kcal/day. These intakes are related to the physical activity performed. The average diet among this population is unbalanced, with a high consumption of fats, especially saturated fats and cholesterol. The breakfast is skipped by 16% of the population. Together with cross-hormone treatment, this dietary habitsand lifestylelead to an increase in body fat, especially in the female to male group whose overweight andobesity prevalence increase (22.72% vs 34.85%). Conclusion This population suffers a change of their nutritional status due to a variation in their eating behaviour and lifestyle. This increase in the obesity prevalencemake it susceptible to chronic diseases and cardiovascular disorders. It is therefore necessary to include nutrition education courses in the comprehensive treatment programme (anatomical, psychological, etc.) for these individuals. PMID:29546082

  3. What Do Older People Learn from Young People? Intergenerational Learning in "Day Centre" Community Settings in Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Damian

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses what motivates older people to attend "day centres" in Malta and what they believe that they derive from young people who carry out their placements at these day "centres" These young people, who are aged 16-17, attend a vocational college in Malta and are studying health and social care. The study is based…

  4. Cardiometabolic Risks and Severity of Obesity in Children and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Asheley C; Perrin, Eliana M; Moss, Leslie A; Skelton, Joseph A

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of severe obesity among children and young adults has increased over the past decade. Although the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors is relatively low among children and young adults who are overweight or obese, those with more severe forms of obesity may be at greater risk. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from overweight or obese children and young adults 3 to 19 years of age who were included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 through 2012 to assess the prevalence of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors according to the severity of obesity. Weight status was classified on the basis of measured height and weight. We used standard definitions of abnormal values for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, and fasting glucose and report the prevalence of abnormal values in children and young adults according to weight status. Among 8579 children and young adults with a body-mass index at the 85th percentile or higher (according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts), 46.9% were overweight, 36.4% had class I obesity, 11.9% had class II obesity, and 4.8% had class III obesity. Mean values for some, but not all, cardiometabolic variables were higher with greater severity of obesity in both male and female participants, and the values were higher in male participants than in female participants; for HDL cholesterol, the mean values were lower with greater severity of obesity. Multivariable models that controlled for age, race or ethnic group, and sex showed that the greater the severity of obesity, the higher the risks of a low HDL cholesterol level, high systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and high triglyceride and glycated hemoglobin levels. Severe obesity in children and young adults was associated with an increased prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors

  5. SSRIs and risk of suicide attempts in young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Agerbo, Esben; Bilenberg, Niels

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: SSRIs are widely used in the treatment of mental illness for both children and adults. Studies have found a slightly increased risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts in young people using SSRIs but SSRIs' impact on risk for suicides in youth is not well-established. AIM......: Is there indication that SSRIs might raise risk for suicide attempts in young people? METHODS: We used an observational register-based historical cohort design, a large cohort of all Danish individuals born in 1983-1989 (n = 392,458) and a propensity score approach to analyse the impact from SSRIs on risk for suicide...... attempts. Every suicide attempt and redeemed prescription of SSRIs was analysed by Cox regression. RESULTS: We found a significant overlap between redeeming a prescription on SSRIs and subsequent suicide attempt. The risk for suicide attempt was highest in the first 3 months after redeeming the first...

  6. Study of Subjective Life Quality in Young People with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtanova Yu.E.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of subjective life quality in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers. The study sample comprised 62 women aged 14 to 18 years. The experimental study group consisted of 30 students of grades VIII-XI of Secondary School of home-based learning № 1673 "Support". The control group included 32 student of grades VIII-XI of School № 1222 with in-depth study of the German language. The methods used were: Medical Outcomes Study 36 Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36, M. Kuhn test "Who am I" (M. Kuhn, T. McPartland; modification by T.V. Rumjantseva, Method and diagnosis of health, activity and mood, projective technique "Picture of the actual self" and "Picture of the desired self" with questions. We formulated conclusions about the features of the subjective assessment of the quality of life in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers.

  7. A typology of alcohol consumption among young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoren, M.P.; Cronin, M; Perry, I.J.

    2016-01-01

    information from studies that produced types of alcohol consumption among young people. Method Quantitative and qualitative literature investigating the different types of drinkers among young people [aged 12–24 years], published in peer reviewed journals, were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review...... In total, 13 studies were eligible for inclusion: 11 quantitative, one qualitative and one mixed methods. Six classes of drinkers were formed within this typology. Abstainers reported no alcohol consumption. Light drinkers reported drinking small amounts of alcohol infrequently. In comparison, social......Background Currently, alcohol consumption levels are significantly higher among younger age groups. However, previous research has noted the diversity of motivations and patterns. These patterns of drinking have yet to be synthesised into a typology. The aim of the current study was to synthesise...

  8. Attempted suicide and completed suicide among young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    The study explore risk factors associated with the onset of suicidal behavior in young people aged 15 to 24. The study survey possible risk factors and protective factors in order to evaluate if altering the conditions of children’s upbringing, structural factors, geographical segregation......, or individual resource deficits could reduce their suicidal behavior (first time suicide attempts and completed suicides). These issues are being examined using data gathered during a 10-year longitudinal study of two births cohorts of more than 145,000 young people born in 1966 or 1980. In the Nordic welfare...... model it is an ambition to level-out inequalities and give children the same opportunities despite parental income or educational resources. The paper focuses on suicidal behavior as an extreme indicator of individual disadvantage and social disintegration in order to disentangle groups of risk factors...

  9. ONLINE OPPORTUNITIES AND USER TYPES AMONG ROMANIAN YOUNG PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TŐKÉS GYÖNGYVÉR

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to analyze patterns of online usage of Romanian teenagers aged 9–16 years old, and to define the main online user types among them. We outlined user types taking into consideration differences of individual online media repertoires. The premise of the study is that Romanian young people are not omogeneus regarding their online media repertoires, but we can identify several user types among them. We looked for individual and social factors which influence patterns of online use of Romanian young people. We base our study on the analysis conducted on the empirical data of the EU Kids Online II (2010 project regarding Romanian youth

  10. Invest in adolescents and young people: it pays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Greifinger, Rena; Nwosu, Adaeze; Hainsworth, Gwyn; Sundaram, Lakshmi; Hadi, Sheena; McConville, Fran; Benevides, Regina; Simon, Callie; Patkar, Archana; Schoening, Eva; Sethi, Disha; Boldosser-Boesch, Amy; Awasthi, Prateek; Mathur, Arvind; Braeken, Doortje

    2013-09-16

    This year's Women Deliver conference made a strong call for investing in the health and development of adolescents and young people. It highlighted the unique problems faced by adolescent girls and young women-some of the most vulnerable and neglected individuals in the world-and stressed the importance of addressing their needs and rights, not only for their individual benefit, but also to achieve global goals such as reducing maternal mortality and HIV infection.In response to an invitation from the editors of Reproductive Health, we-the sixteen coauthors of this commentary-put together key themes that reverberated throughout the conference, on the health and development needs of adolescents and young people, and promising solutions to meet them.1. Investing in adolescents and young people is crucial for ensuring health, creating prosperity and fulfilling human rights.2. Gender inequality contributes to many health and social problems. Adolescent girls and boys, and their families and communities, should be challenged and supported to change inequitable gender norms.- Child marriage utterly disempowers girls. It is one of the most devastating manifestations of gender discrimination.- Negative social and cultural attitudes towards menstruation constrain the lives of millions of girls. This may well establish the foundation for lifelong discomfort felt by girls about their bodies and reticence in seeking help when problems arise.3. Adolescents need comprehensive, accurate and developmentally appropriate sexuality education. This will provide the bedrock for attitude formation and decision making.4. Adolescent-centered health services can prevent sexual and reproductive health problems and detect and treat them if and when they occur.5. National governments have the authority and the responsibility to address social and cultural barriers to the provision of sexual and reproductive health education and services for adolescents and young people.6. Adolescents should

  11. 'It's everywhere!' young Swedish people's thoughts and reflections about pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet; Sandberg, Jonas; Hanson, Ulf; Tydén, Tanja

    2006-12-01

    Pornography is one of the most sought-after topics on the Internet, and is easily available for anyone, including children and adolescents. At youth centres, nurse-midwives have noticed that young people have different kinds of questions about sexual practices compared with a few years ago. The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of thoughts and reflections about pornography consumption, and its possible influence on sexual practices, among young women and men. The staff at a youth centre in a city in central Sweden asked the visitors if they had seen pornography and if they wanted to be interviewed about their experiences. Ten young women and eight men, aged 16-23 years, participated. In-depth interviews were performed and open-ended questions about pornography and sexuality were posed. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed according to grounded theory. The core category 'Living with the current sexual norm' depicted how pornography created sexual expectations and demands, for instance, to perform certain sexual acts. The informants expressed contradictory feelings towards pornography and felt that sexuality was separated from intimacy. A moral attitude was described and examples of stereotypic gender roles were given. To deal with the current sexual norm, informants had different individual handling strategies and attitudes to pornography, namely liberal, normalization, distance, feminist or conservative. Limitations of this study were the small sample size and that results from a qualitative research study cannot be generalized. The results contribute to an understanding of how pornographic material can influence young peoples' thoughts, reflections and sexual behaviour. This indicates the importance, for personnel at youth centres and schools, to discuss sexual behaviour and how sexuality is portrayed in pornographic material with young people.

  12. Conducting Research with young people and developing the MTW Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk; Mikkelsen, Sidse Hølvig; Gravesen, David Thore

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this article we present our qualitative mixed-methods methodology that we name the Map-Talk-Walk Approach (MTW Approach). We developed the approach to better grasp young people’s understandings of youth, normality and belonging, which make up the thematic framework of our current youth...... research. The MTW Approach is based on three phases, 1) Researcher-initiated workshops, 2) Focus group interviews, and 3) Walk-and-talks in the young people’s local environments. In the article, we discuss the ethical complications related to doing research with young people and positioning them as experts...... in their life worlds. Our ambition is to create a democratized research process that allows the participants ownership, and we find this to be a challenging task. In the closing section, after a thorough presentation of the three phases, we discuss some of the pitfalls we experienced during the process...

  13. Understanding of Democracy among Young People in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vujčić

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper was to explore how young people understand the values of democracy, how much they believe in democracy as a political system, how much they are satisfi ed with the way democracy works (“constitution at work”, and how much they trust government institutions. It is important to analyse the understanding of democracy, for democracy is dependent on the citizens’ opinions and the level of their political culture rather than on its normative constitution and formal value system. Thus, this analysis joins in the debate between foundationalists and antifoundationalists on democracy and its functioning. The present model of research has provided insights into the relationship between so-called diff use and specifi c support of democracy (D. Easton and an explanation of that which R. Dahl defi nes as the “democratic paradox” in contemporary democracies. This scrutiny shows that young people in Croatia understand democracy within the framework of liberal values, but also that they largely tend towards so-called consensual democracy and a socialist syndrome involving a prevalent aspiration to social equality and an economically interventionist state. Moreover, the analysis shows that young people in Croatia have a low level of democratic legitimation and an even lower level of trust in government institutions. This is not a good basis for the development of stable and well-functioning democracy in Croatian society. It all warns against serious shortcomings in the political education of young people in Croatia and in the development of democratic political culture and democratic citizenship.

  14. Developing schemas for assessing social competences among unskilled young people

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    2017-01-01

    Social competences are crucial parts of vocational education and training (VET) competences. As part of a development project preparing unskilled young people for VET, an action research project was conducted with the aim of developing a schema for assessing and grading social competences. The development included defining the social competences as well as three levels for assessing these competences. The schema was developed in cooperation with the assessors, i.e., representatives from workp...

  15. The psychological effects of videogames on young people: A review

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Lavinia; Griffiths, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Research has indicated that most young people spend more time watching screen media than in any other activity apart from sleeping (Strasberg, 2004). In Ireland, a large longitudinal study of children has indicated that over half of nine-year old children are playing video games daily, while the international adolescence literature indicates that the rate of game play is growing year on year (Gentile, 2008). There is a concern that the effects of video game playing are larger than the effects...

  16. Young People Smokers' Reactions on Peer Influence Not to Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; van Nijnatten, Carolus H C J

    2016-11-09

    Peers exert influence not to smoke but little is yet known on how this affects young people's behavior and cognitions. This experimental study investigates the impact of two types of peer influence not to smoke on the verbalized attitudes and responses of daily-smoking young people. Two conditions were conducted: 1) a peer confederate stating three times that s/he had quit smoking and was glad to have done so (covert peer influence); 2) a peer confederate making similar statements, but urging to quit smoking (overt peer influence). The participant performed a music task with the peer in order to disguise the true nature of the experiment. Thirty-one daily-smoking young people (16-24 years) participated; 44 responses in the overt and 34 responses in the covert condition were analyzed in a discourse analysis. The participants in the covert condition were more elaborative about smoking, i.e., taking an active role in a dialogue about the experiences of the peer or the participant in quitting smoking while in the overt condition participants showed more passive resistance, i.e., not showing an intention to follow the advice but avoid causing the peer embarrassment or discomfort. Open resistance, i.e., demonstration of being well-informed and indicating the redundancy of the advice, does not significantly differ in these two conditions but occurs, for both, primarily at the third discouragement. Overt and frequent discouragement seems to be less effective in stimulating young people to take an active role in the dialogue with their peers about smoking.

  17. Decision making in young people at familial risk of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannie, Z N; Williams, C; Browning, M; Cowen, P J

    2015-01-01

    Major depression is associated with abnormalities in reward processing at neural and behavioural levels. Neural abnormalities in reward have been described in young people at familial risk of depression but behavioural changes in reward-based decision making have been less studied in this group. We studied 63 young people (mean age 18.9 years) with a parent with a diagnosis of major depression but who had never been depressed themselves, that is with a positive family history of depression (the FH+ group). Participants performed the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT), which provides several measures of decision making including deliberation time, quality of decision making, risk taking, risk adjustment and delay aversion. A control group of 49 age- and gender-matched young people with no history of mood disorder in a first-degree relative undertook the same task. Both FH+ participants and controls had low and equivalent scores on anxiety and depression self-rating scales. Compared to controls, the FH+ participants showed overall lower risk taking, although like controls they made more risky choices as the odds of a favourable outcome increased. No other measures of decision making differed between the two groups. Young people at increased familial risk of depression have altered risk taking that is not accounted for by current affective symptomatology. Lowered risk taking might represent an impairment in reward seeking, which is one of several changes in reward-based behaviours seen in acutely depressed patients; however, our findings suggest that decreased reward seeking could be part of a risk endophenotype for depression.

  18. Smartphone use and smartphone addiction among young people in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Severin; Castro, Raquel Paz; Kwon, Min; Filler, Andreas; Kowatsch, Tobias; Schaub, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smartphone addiction, its association with smartphone use, and its predictors have not yet been studied in a European sample. This study investigated indicators of smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behaviour-related variables in young people. Methods A convenience sample of 1,519 students from 127 Swiss vocational school classes participated in a survey assessing demographic and health-related characteristics as well a...

  19. Digital Skills and Motivation in Young People in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers , Colin

    2014-01-01

    Part 2: Key Competencies, Learning and Life Transitions; International audience; This paper explores the underlying assumptions that are often made concerning the beneficial impact of the use of Digital Technologies in relation to the motivation for academic work, and related forms of engagement. In particular, these claims are assessed in the context of an overarching concern with the motivational characteristics that are most likely to abet the effective transition of young people from one ...

  20. Censoring, Censuring or Empowering? Young people and digital agency

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Leila

    2012-01-01

    The protection of young people from troubling and disturbing onlinecontent is rightly a high policy priority in Western nations. However, ‘the child’ is increasingly being defined as anyone below the age of majority: 18 in most nations. The significant age and maturity differences between primary school children and teenagers are recognised in most cinema classification schemes but less nuanced in terms of regulated online content. While there is considerable evidence that younger children be...

  1. Being a Deaf Role Model: Deaf People's Experiences of Working with Families and Deaf Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys M.

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of being a deaf role model have been little explored in the literature. This paper explores the role of the deaf role model as perceived by d/Deaf adults who carried out this role, when working with deaf young people, parents of deaf children, and professionals who work with them. The data were collected from part of the evaluation…

  2. Young people, parents and radical right voting. The case of the Swiss People's Party

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Voorpostel, M.B.J.

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly found that young people tend to adopt the political party choice of their parents. However, far less is known about the applicability of this theory when investigating radical right support. Using the Swiss Household panel data (1999e2007), this study empirically identifies the

  3. Nursing young people with cancer: What is "different" about it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sue; Soanes, Louise

    2016-12-01

    Nursing Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA) with cancer is a relatively new specialty, with much work having been undertaken across Europe. As this evolving specialty develops, nurses are required to develop networks, learn from each other and help to shape services across countries. Describing the cancer journey, this paper looks at the literature and, merging it with over 20years of experience, describes 'what is different' about looking after this group of young people. Looking at the specific issues about caring for AYA, including those issues that are pertinent in this age range: i.e. education/employment, fertility, body image, peers, family relationships, it discusses the development of specific services for this cohort of patients; one that is centred around the young person and their friends and families. Taking into account the need to develop multidisciplinary teams, it also highlights the needs of nurses who work in these teams, the education, skills and attributes needed to develop gold standard services for these challenging young people. The further development of nursing networks internationally is urged in order to share practice and expertise, nurture teams and bring the AYA with cancer into sharp focus. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. All rights reserved.

  4. Management of children and young people with headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, William P; Agrawal, Shakti

    2017-04-01

    Headache is very common in children and young people. The correct advice and treatment requires consideration of a wide differential diagnosis between primary and secondary headaches, and also of the different types of primary headache. The International Classification of Headache Disorders gives useful descriptions and diagnostic criteria that are especially useful for primary headaches. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Clinical Guideline 150 provides evidence-based recommendations on treatments for adults and young people from age 12 years. However, the same principles can be applied to younger children when a specific diagnosis can be made. Key recommendations from the NICE Quality Standards include, establishing a precise diagnosis if possible, avoiding, diagnosing and treating medication overuse headache, and combining a triptan with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug or paracetamol as the first-line acute/rescue treatment for migraine with or without aura. Although rare in children and young people, it is important to diagnose new daily persistent headache, as it responds poorly or not at all to medication; and paroxysmal hemicrania as it responds very well to indomethacin but not to other commonly used analgesics. When faced with difficulties in reaching a precise diagnosis or in finding effective therapies, further advice should be sought from a children's headache clinic or specialist. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Psychological Neuromodulatory Treatments for Young People with Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Miró

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of young people with chronic pain is a complex endeavor. Many of these youth do not obtain adequate relief from available interventions. Psychological neuromodulatory treatments have been shown to have potential benefit for adults with chronic pain. Here, we review and summarize the available information about the efficacy of three promising psychological neuromodulatory treatments—neurofeedback, meditation and hypnosis—when provided to young people with chronic pain. A total of 16 articles were identified and reviewed. The findings from these studies show that hypnotic treatments are effective in reducing pain intensity for a variety of pediatric chronic pain problems, although research suggests variability in outcomes as a function of the specific pain problem treated. There are too few studies evaluating the efficacy of neurofeedback or meditation training in young people with chronic pain to draw firm conclusions regarding their efficacy. However, preliminary data indicate that these treatments could potentially have positive effects on a variety of outcomes (e.g., pain intensity, frequency of pain episodes, physical and psychological function, at least in the short term. Clinical trials are needed to evaluate the effects of neurofeedback and meditation training, and research is needed to identify the moderators of treatment benefits as well as better understand the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of all three of these treatments. The findings from such research could enhance overall treatment efficacy by: (1 providing an empirical basis for better patient-treatment matching; and (2 identifying specific mechanisms that could be targeted with treatment.

  6. Young people, smoking and gender--a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Amanda; Bostock, Yvonne

    2007-12-01

    Smoking among young people has become increasingly gendered. In several countries, smoking among adolescent girls is now higher than among adolescent boys. However, we have only a limited understanding of the reasons behind these gender patterns. This paper reports the findings from a qualitative study which used single-sex focus groups to explore the gendered nature of the meaning and function of smoking among Scottish 15- to 16-year old smokers. The study found that young people were ambivalent about their smoking but that this was somewhat different for boys and girls. These differences related to their social worlds, pattern of social relationships, interests, activities and concerns, the meanings they attached to smoking and the role smoking played in dealing with the everyday experience of being a boy or girl in their mid-teens. For example, boys were concerned about the impact of smoking on their fitness and sport, whereas girls were more concerned about the negative aesthetic effects such as their clothes and bodies smelling of smoke. Of particular importance was how smoking related in different ways to the gendered 'identity work' that adolescents had to undertake to achieve a socially and culturally acceptable image. The implications for programmes aimed at reducing smoking among young people, particularly the need for more gender-sensitive approaches, are discussed.

  7. Borderline Personality Disorder in Young People: Are We There Yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanen, Andrew M

    2015-08-01

    Although borderline personality disorder (BPD) usually has its onset in young people, its diagnosis and treatment is often delayed. The past 2 decades have seen a rapid increase in evidence establishing that BPD can be diagnosed before 18 years of age and that BPD in young people is both continuous with BPD in adults and more notable for its similarities than for any differences. This knowledge has led to the first wave of controlled treatment trials, which have established that early intervention through appropriate BPD diagnosis and treatment leads to clinically meaningful improvements for patients. However, there is still much work to do in terms of treatment development and innovation and overcoming challenges to successful translation of evidence into practice. To advance early intervention for BPD, access to evidence-based treatments needs to improve, the variety of available treatments (including novel pharmacotherapies) needs to increase, treatments need to be matched to individual development and to the phase and stage of disorder, and workforce development strategies need to update knowledge, culture, and practice in relation to BPD in young people. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Relationship among obesity, depression, and emotional eating in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarevich, Irina; Irigoyen Camacho, María Esther; Velázquez-Alva, María Del Consuelo; Zepeda Zepeda, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Depressive symptoms are often associated with obesity, and emotional eating may play a considerable role in weight gain. This study aimed to examine the association among depression symptoms, emotional eating, and body mass index (BMI) in Mexican college students; and to assess emotional eating as mediator between depressive symptoms and BMI. A total of 1453 students at a public university in Mexico City completed the scale Self-Efficacy in Emotion- and Stress- Related Eating of the Eating and Appraisal Due to Emotions and Stress Questionnaire (EADES) to assess emotional eating, and the scale created by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies (CES-D) to identify depressive symptoms. Weight and height were measured to calculate BMI. Structural equation models (SEM) were used to assess emotional eating as mediator between depressive symptoms and BMI by sex. Depressive symptoms were associated with emotional eating in both men (Beta = -0.33, p obesity prevention and treatment strategies applied to young adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A new way home: Refugee young people and homelessness in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Jen Couch

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This article gives voice to refugee young people experiencing homelessness. It is based on a project that conducted interviews with refugee young people and consultations with service providers. The research reveals that the profoundly under-recognised phenomenon of homelessness experienced by young people of refugee background is often hidden and does not match commonly held beliefs about homeless young people. The article examines the nexus between migration and homelessness in...

  10. Obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hyperuraecemia in young and old hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.; Waqas, H.; Anwar, W.

    2009-01-01

    There is strong correlation among hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia and hyperuricemia which are important risk factor for the cardiovascular disease. Objective of this study was to assess and compare the prevalence of obesity, hyperlipidemia and hyperuricemia among young and old hypertensive patients in the local setting. This cross-sectional study was conducted at medical Out-patient Department at Shahina Jamil Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, from September 2007 to February 2008. Eighty-six patients seen in the medical outpatient department were enrolled in the study. Patients with age 15 years or above and diagnosed as case of systemic hypertension were included. Patients with endocrine disease, pregnancy, coarctation of aorta, and renal disease leading to hypertension were excluded from the study. Total eighty-six patients with mean age of 53.7+- 12.9 years were included in the study. Patients were divided into younger age group (age <46 years) and older age group (age greater or equal to 46 years). Mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 29.7 +- 5.2 in the younger age group and 26.9 +- 4.7 in the older age group, mean serum cholesterol level was 192.2 +- 14.2 mg/dL in younger age group and 190.9 +- 18.3 mg/dL in the older age group, mean serum triglyceride level was 170.5 +- 13.7 mg/dL in younger age group and 166.6 +-21.4 mg/dL in the older age group and mean serum uric acid levels were 5.6 +- 0.7 mg/dL in younger age group and 5.7 +- 1.2 mg/dL in the older age group. Overweight and obese patients were 70.9% with its higher prevalence in younger (86.2%) as compared to older patients (63.2%). Hypercholesterolemia was found in 27.9% of the patients, with a frequency of 24.1% in younger patients and 29.8% in the older patients. Hypertriglyceridemia was seen in 66.3% of the patients, with a frequency of 69.0% in younger patients and 64.9% in the older patients. Hyperuricemia was present in 37.2% of the hypertensive patients with a frequency of 34.5% in the younger

  11. Ethnicity and obesity: why are some people more vulnerable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is a global problem that affects all ethnic groups and managing it is a major challenge. In developing countries obesity coexists with underweight.BMI is the most widely used measure of obesity. World Health Organization cut-off values of BMI =25 or =30 kg/m2 for over weight and obesity......-Saharan Africa has the lowest prevalence of obesity. The greatest increase in obesity is occurring in countries with a diverse ethnic  population, such as Mauritius and Brazil. An increased percentage of body fat is normally coupled to an increase in body weight. However, there is evidence to show...... relative to BMI across ethnic groups is reflected in ethnic differences in the health risks associated with obesity. For example, populations from the Asia-Pacific region have been found to  have substantial risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) below a BMI of 25 kg/m2. In all populations, cardiovascular...

  12. How Children and Young People Win Friends and Influence People:Children and Young People’s Association, their opportunities, strategies and obstacles

    OpenAIRE

    Cleaver, Frances; Cockburn, T

    2009-01-01

    This research was commissioned by the Carnegie UK Trust to inform the Inquiry into the Future of Civil Society in the UK and Ireland, which was established to strenghen civil society…This report connects with the work that the Inquiry has conducted to explore the relationships between children, young people and civil society. The report is based on extensive literature review and on primary research amongst three groups of young people in the UK. The report explores how young people associate...

  13. Realising Potential: Helping Homeless and Disenchanted Young People Back into Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxted, Peter

    This guide shows how "Foyers" (safe residences for working/learning youth) and other organizations provide routes back into learning for young people. Chapter 1, "Young People and the Current Learning Agenda," provides a summary of encouraging developments from government, ushering in new learning opportunities for young people. Chapter 2,…

  14. Subjective Wellbeing and Its Meaning for Young People in a Rural Australian Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Lisa; Geldens, Paula M.

    2007-01-01

    In Australia, wellbeing has been used as an assessment of how young people are doing by health researchers, youth researchers and psychologists. The concept "wellbeing" is increasingly applied to young people in their late teens and early twenties with little discussion of young people's perspectives. Using quantitative measures of…

  15. Young People's Expressed Needs for Comprehensive Sexuality Education in Ecuadorian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Nuñez, Jessica; Derluyn, Ilse; Valcke, Martin

    2018-01-01

    This study analyses the expressed sexuality education needs of young people from Azuay, a region of Ecuador characterised by a large proportion of young people whose parents have migrated abroad, a group often considered at risk to developing of sexual health problems. Multi-stage stratified cluster sampling was used to recruit young people aged…

  16. Emotion awareness and cognitive behavioural therapy in young people with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Collins, Cara; Mahoney-Davies, Gerwyn; Russell, Ailsa; Booth, Anne; Loades, Maria

    2017-07-01

    Young people with autism spectrum disorder experience high levels of emotional problems, including anxiety and depression. Adapted cognitive behavioural therapy is recommended for such difficulties. However, no evidence suggests whether emotion awareness is important in treatment outcome for young people on the autism spectrum. This study aimed to investigate the potential differences in emotion awareness between (1) young people on the autism spectrum and typically developing youth and (2) young people on the autism spectrum with and without experience of cognitive behavioural therapy. Three groups (aged 11-20 years) participated: (1) typically developing young people ( n = 56); (2) young people on the autism spectrum with no experience of cognitive behavioural therapy ( n = 23); and (3) young people on the autism spectrum who had attended cognitive behavioural therapy ( n = 33). All participants completed the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire-30 item version. Young people on the autism spectrum differed significantly from typically developing young people on the emotional awareness measure. Young people on the autism spectrum who had attended cognitive behavioural therapy scored significantly lower on the Differentiating Emotions subscale, and significantly higher on the Attending to Others' Emotions subscale, compared to young people on the autism spectrum who had not attended cognitive behavioural therapy. This study highlights the importance of psycho-educational components of cognitive behavioural therapy when adapting for young people on the autism spectrum.

  17. Moving On: Transitions out of Care for Young People with Learning Disabilities in England and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Helen; Ingold, Anne; Liabo, Kristin; Manzotti, Grazia; Reeves, David; Bradby, Hannah

    2018-01-01

    Background: Young people with learning disabilities are frequently underrepresented in research accounts. This study describes the experiences of young people moving from the care system. Methods: We scoped the English and Swedish literature for first-hand accounts and interviewed four young people with learning disabilities leaving the English…

  18. Resting heart rate and its relationship with general and abdominal obesity in young male Saudi university students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yar, T.

    2010-01-01

    An elevated resting heart rate (Rhr) has been linked with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Obese people have altered autonomic balance that could lead to elevated Rhr and altered responses to postural changes. As no comparative data are available on Rhr in young normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) adults in Saudi Arabia, the present study was aimed at finding out the effect of adiposity on RHR and RHR response to change in posture. Methods: Second-year male students (n=231; age:19-20 years), were recruited from the Dammam University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, during the period September 2008 to October 2009. Anthropometric measures were obtained and indices of obesity (body mass index [EMI], waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-stature ratio [WSR]) were calculated. RHR in standing and supine positions were obtained from radial pulse. Pearson's correlation (r) between obesity indices and RHR as well as the differences between RHR in NW and OB groups were calculated. Results: General obesity (BMI greater or equal to 25.0 kg/m1 was found in 45.5% students. Central obesity (WC>85 cm or WSR>50.0) was found in 36.8% students. RHR was significantly correlated with BMI, WC and WSR (r=O.305, 0.300, 0.299 respectively, p< O.01) . Subjects above the obesity indices cut-off points had significantly higher values of RHR in both standing and supine positions compared to NW individuals (p<0.05). There was a greater reduction in RHR on changing the posture to supine state in OB group. Conclusion: A significantly higher RHR and a greater change in RHR on changing the posture point towards an altered autonomic balance in OB group of young adolescent males. This underscores the need to implement health education program to combat obesity at school and college levels. (author)

  19. High birth weight is associated with obesity and increased carotid wall thickness in young adults: the cardiovascular risk in young Finns study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilton, Michael R; Siitonen, Niina; Würtz, Peter; Viikari, Jorma S A; Juonala, Markus; Seppälä, Ilkka; Laitinen, Tomi; Lehtimäki, Terho; Taittonen, Leena; Kähönen, Mika; Celermajer, David S; Raitakari, Olli T

    2014-05-01

    There is some evidence that people born with high birth weight may be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Details of the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We sought to determine whether people born large for gestational age have poor arterial health, increased adiposity, and a poor cardiovascular risk factor profile. Carotid intima-media thickness, brachial flow-mediated dilatation, and cardiovascular risk factors were compared between young adults (24-45 years) born at term who were large for gestational age (birth weight >90th percentile; n=171), and a control group with normal birth weight (50-75th percentile; n=525), in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Those born large for gestational age had higher body mass index throughout childhood, adolescence, and as young adults (26.4 kg/m(2) [SD 4.9], versus normal birth weight 25.1 kg/m(2) [SD 4.6]; P=0.002), and 2-fold greater risk of obesity. Other cardiovascular risk factors and arterial function did not differ; however, carotid intima-media thickness was increased in people born large for gestational age (0.60 mm [SD 0.09], versus normal birth weight 0.57 mm [SD 0.09]; P=0.003), independent of cardiovascular risk factors (P=0.001 after adjustment). Both obesity and high birth weight were independently associated with carotid intima-media thickness in a graded and additive fashion. Young adults born large for gestational age are more likely to be obese, yet have an otherwise healthy cardiovascular risk profile. Nonetheless, they have increased carotid intima-media thickness, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, consistent with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  20. Growing into obesity: patterns of height growth in those who become normal weight, overweight, or obese as young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovitz, Steven D; Demerath, Ellen W; Hannan, Peter J; Lytle, Leslie A; Himes, John H

    2011-01-01

    To study whether patterns of height growth differ by adult obesity status, and determine the contribution of subcutaneous fatness as an explanatory variable for any differences. A multicenter, prospective longitudinal cohort assessed in 3rd grade (8.8 years), 5th grade (11.1 years), 8th grade (14.1 years), and 12th grade (18.3 years). Exposures were young adult obesity status classified by CDC adult BMI categories at 12th grade. Skinfolds were measured in third, fifth, and eighth grades. Outcome was mean height (cm) at the four measurements using repeated-measures ANCOVA for young adult obesity status, and height increments between grades by adult obesity status in sequential models including initial height and, secondarily, initial skinfolds. Adjusted for age, and race/ethnicity, young adult obesity status explained a small, but statistically significant amount of height growth among both females and males within each of the three intervals. Compared with normal weight young adults, overweight or obese young adults stood taller in childhood, but had relatively less growth in height throughout the teenage years. There was no association between adult height and weight status. Skinfolds explained only a small amount of the height patterns in the three weight groups. Childhood and adolescent height growth patterns differ between those who become young adults who are normal weight and those who become overweight or obese. Since differences in fatness explain only a small amount of these height growth patterns, research is needed to identify other determinants. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Smartphone use and smartphone addiction among young people in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Severin; Castro, Raquel Paz; Kwon, Min; Filler, Andreas; Kowatsch, Tobias; Schaub, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smartphone addiction, its association with smartphone use, and its predictors have not yet been studied in a European sample. This study investigated indicators of smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behaviour-related variables in young people. Methods A convenience sample of 1,519 students from 127 Swiss vocational school classes participated in a survey assessing demographic and health-related characteristics as well as indicators of smartphone use and addiction. Smartphone addiction was assessed using a short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SAS-SV). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate demographic and health-related predictors of smartphone addiction. Results Smartphone addiction occurred in 256 (16.9%) of the 1,519 students. Longer duration of smartphone use on a typical day, a shorter time period until first smartphone use in the morning, and reporting that social networking was the most personally relevant smartphone function were associated with smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction was more prevalent in younger adolescents (15–16 years) compared with young adults (19 years and older), students with both parents born outside Switzerland, persons reporting lower physical activity, and those reporting higher stress. Alcohol and tobacco consumption were unrelated to smartphone addiction. Discussion Different indicators of smartphone use are associated with smartphone addiction and subgroups of young people have a higher prevalence of smartphone addiction. Conclusions The study provides the first insights into smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and predictors of smartphone addiction in young people from a European country, which should be extended in further studies. PMID:26690625

  2. Smartphone use and smartphone addiction among young people in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Severin; Castro, Raquel Paz; Kwon, Min; Filler, Andreas; Kowatsch, Tobias; Schaub, Michael P

    2015-12-01

    Smartphone addiction, its association with smartphone use, and its predictors have not yet been studied in a European sample. This study investigated indicators of smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behaviour-related variables in young people. A convenience sample of 1,519 students from 127 Swiss vocational school classes participated in a survey assessing demographic and health-related characteristics as well as indicators of smartphone use and addiction. Smartphone addiction was assessed using a short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SAS-SV). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate demographic and health-related predictors of smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction occurred in 256 (16.9%) of the 1,519 students. Longer duration of smartphone use on a typical day, a shorter time period until first smartphone use in the morning, and reporting that social networking was the most personally relevant smartphone function were associated with smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction was more prevalent in younger adolescents (15-16 years) compared with young adults (19 years and older), students with both parents born outside Switzerland, persons reporting lower physical activity, and those reporting higher stress. Alcohol and tobacco consumption were unrelated to smartphone addiction. Different indicators of smartphone use are associated with smartphone addiction and subgroups of young people have a higher prevalence of smartphone addiction. The study provides the first insights into smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and predictors of smartphone addiction in young people from a European country, which should be extended in further studies.

  3. Young Entrepreneurs: Young People Dream of Becoming Entrepreneurs, despite America's Lingering Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    An August 2010 Harris Interactive[R] survey, commissioned by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, posed questions about entrepreneurship to 5,077 U.S. young people ages eight to twenty-four. The results show that business ownership continues to capture the imaginations of America's youth, particularly for those who know a successful entrepreneur…

  4. Beliefs, attitudes and phobias among Mexican medical and psychology students towards people with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Lucero; Armendariz-Anguiano, Ana Lilia; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez Cruz, A

    2014-07-01

    A high prevalence of stigmatizing attitude among healthcare personnel towards obese people has been reported. To evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and phobias that Mexican medical and psychology students have towards obese people. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 528 students enrolled at the Autonomous University of Baja California in psychology and medical schools. Weight, height and waist circumference were evaluated. Beliefs about obesity were assessed with the BAOP scale, attitudes towards obese people by the ATOP scale and obesity phobias by the F-scale. Participants achieved a mean F-scale score of 3.4. Only seven per cent showed neutral or positive attitudes towards obesity (≤2.5). Less fat phobia was associated with beliefs that obesity was not a result of the person's self-control (p = 0.0001) and had better attitudes towards obese people (p = 0.0001). Men had higher risk of fat phobia (OR = 1.5). High prevalence of phobias and negative attitudes towards obesity was observed. Men had higher stigma. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Methylphenidate as a cognitive enhancer in healthy young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Batistela

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The so-called cognitive enhancers have been widely and increasingly used by healthy individuals who seek improvements in cognitive performance despite having no pathologies. One drug used for this purpose is methylphenidate, a first-line drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Objective: The aim of the present study was to test the effect of acute administration of varying doses of methylphenidate (10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg and placebo on a wide range of cognitive functions in healthy young people. Methods: A total of 36 young university students and graduates participated in the study. The participants underwent tests of attention and of episodic, and working memory. Results: No differences in performance were observed on any of the tests. There was a dose-dependent (40 mg > placebo effect on self-reported wellbeing. Conclusions: According to the recent literature, psychostimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, improve performance when cognitive processes are below an optimal level, which was not the case for the subjects of the present study. We suggest the impression that methylphenidate enhances cognitive performance in healthy young people, justifying its use, may be due to improvements in subjective wellbeing promoted by the drug.

  6. Methylphenidate as a cognitive enhancer in healthy young people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistela, Silmara; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Vaz, Leonardo José; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The so-called cognitive enhancers have been widely and increasingly used by healthy individuals who seek improvements in cognitive performance despite having no pathologies. One drug used for this purpose is methylphenidate, a first-line drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective: The aim of the present study was to test the effect of acute administration of varying doses of methylphenidate (10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg and placebo) on a wide range of cognitive functions in healthy young people. Methods: A total of 36 young university students and graduates participated in the study. The participants underwent tests of attention and of episodic, and working memory. Results: No differences in performance were observed on any of the tests. There was a dose-dependent (40 mg > placebo) effect on self-reported wellbeing. Conclusions: According to the recent literature, psychostimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, improve performance when cognitive processes are below an optimal level, which was not the case for the subjects of the present study. We suggest the impression that methylphenidate enhances cognitive performance in healthy young people, justifying its use, may be due to improvements in subjective wellbeing promoted by the drug. PMID:29213444

  7. Food advertising towards children and young people in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugge, Annechen Bahr

    2016-03-01

    Despite the fact that no studies have been carried out to map the amount of unhealthy food advertising aimed at Norwegian children and adolescents, it is still widely held belief that this type of advertising is disproportionately common. As a consequence, one of the issues high on the agenda in Norway in the 2000s was the possibility of imposing restrictions on advertising for unhealthy foods to children. The purpose of this study is to contribute with a research-based foundation for implementing this health initiative by mapping food marketing in media channels widely used by children and adolescents. In sum, the study shows that the food industry spends a lot of resources to influence young consumers' eating and drinking habits. Compared with studies from USA, UK and Australia, however, there are, strong indications that there is significantly less unhealthy food advertising in Scandinavian countries. Similar to a previous Swedish study, this study shows that Norwegian children and young people were exposed to little advertising for unhealthy food products through media channels such as TV, the Internet, magazines, comics and cinemas. The study also supports critical remarks from some researchers that the extensive use of the international discourse as a political argument and recommendation for Norwegian conditions is not accurate. For the future it may be beneficial to look more closely at the relationship between advertising and health policy, and how this relationship can be further developed to improve children and young people's diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in serum aldosterone are associated with changes in obesity-related factors in normotensive overweight and obese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer N; Fried, Linda; Tepper, Ping; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Conroy, Molly B; Evans, Rhobert W; Mori Brooks, Maria; Woodard, Genevieve A; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2013-10-01

    Recent data suggest excess circulating aldosterone promotes cardiometabolic decline. Weight loss may lower aldosterone levels, but little longitudinal data is available in normotensive adults. We aimed to determine whether, independent of changes in sodium excretion, reductions in serum aldosterone are associated with favorable changes in obesity-related factors in normotensive overweight/obese young adults. We studied 285 overweight/obese young adult participants (body mass index ≥ 25 andobesity-related factors were measured at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. Weight loss was significant at 6 (7%), 12 (6%) and 24 months (4%; all Pobesity-related factors are associated with reductions in aldosterone in young adults with no risk factors besides excess weight, an important finding, given aldosterone's emergence as an important cardiometabolic risk factor.

  9. Food in the family. Bringing young people back in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Fazio, Adam; MacKenzie, Kathleen; Moloney, Molly

    2011-04-01

    This article analyzes eating and beliefs about family meals in the qualitative interview narratives of 30 "at-risk" gang-involved young women in the San Francisco Bay Area. We begin our examination of consumption practices with a study of households and identify three major types-extended, single-parent and blended. Within these households, food purchasing and consumption activities are varied, and in many cases, our respondents rely upon extended family members and non-kin relations for support. In examining eating within the family, we identify two sets of practices and meanings: eating alone, and eating with others. Eating alone is symbolic of independence from one's family of origin, or is the result of familial conflict at the dinner table; however, it does not necessarily change our respondents' eating patterns. Eating with others in the family remains important, and many of the young women value family meals, although there are significant obstacles to eating regularly with the entire nuclear family. Many of these young women play an important role in the purchasing and preparation of food for family members as well. This paper highlights the importance of understanding family eating practices from the perspective of young people in the family, whose contribution to family ingestive practices has tended to be underestimated in much of available research literature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diet behaviour among young people in transition to adulthood (18-25 year olds): a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poobalan, Amudha S; Aucott, Lorna S; Clarke, Amanda; Smith, William Cairns S

    2014-01-01

    Background : Young people (18-25 years) during the adolescence/adulthood transition are vulnerable to weight gain and notoriously hard to reach. Despite increased levels of overweight/obesity in this age group, diet behaviour, a major contributor to obesity, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore diet behaviour among 18-25 year olds with influential factors including attitudes, motivators and barriers. Methods : An explanatory mixed method study design, based on health Behaviour Change Theories was used. Those at University/college and in the community, including those Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET) were included. An initial quantitative questionnaire survey underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory was conducted and the results from this were incorporated into the qualitative phase. Seven focus groups were conducted among similar young people, varying in education and socioeconomic status. Exploratory univariate analysis was followed by multi-staged modelling to analyse the quantitative data. 'Framework Analysis' was used to analyse the focus groups. Results : 1313 questionnaires were analysed. Self-reported overweight/obesity prevalence was 22%, increasing with age, particularly in males. Based on the survey, 40% of young people reported eating an adequate amount of fruits and vegetables and 59% eating regular meals, but 32% reported unhealthy snacking. Based on the statistical modelling, positive attitudes towards diet and high intention (89%), did not translate into healthy diet behaviour. From the focus group discussions, the main motivators for diet behaviour were 'self-appearance' and having 'variety of food'. There were mixed opinions on 'cost' of food and 'taste'. Conclusion : Elements deemed really important to young people have been identified. This mixed method study is the largest in this vulnerable and neglected group covering a wide spectrum of the community. It provides

  11. Is obesity a risk factor for impaired cognition in young adults with low birth weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, M; Morgården, E; Gustafsson, J

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obesity are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. There is also an association between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive ability. Since low birth weight is associated with adult metabolic disease, particularly in obese subjects, the question emerges whether obesity has an additional negative effect on cognitive function in subjects with low birth weight. The aim was to analyse whether overweight or obesity influence intellectual performance in young adults with particular focus on those with a low birth weight. Data were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register on 620,834 males born between 1973 and 1988 and matched to results on intellectual performance and BMI at conscription. The risk for low intellectual performance was higher for those with high BMI compared to those with normal. The highest risk was found among subjects with low birth weight and overweight or obesity in young adulthood (odds ratios, 1.98 [1.73-2.22] and 2.59 [2.00-3.34], respectively). However, subjects with further high birth weight and a high BMI at conscription had no further increased risk. Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of subnormal intellectual performance in young adult males. Subjects with low birth weight and adolescent overweight/obesity are at particular risk of subnormal performance. A high birth weight increases the risk for obesity, but a high adult BMI does not further increase the risk for subnormal performance. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. Everyday representations of young people about peripheral areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Elda de; Soares, Cassia Baldini; Batista, Leandro Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    to understand everyday representations of young people about the peripheral areas, with the purpose of establishing topics to drug education media programs. Marxist approach, with emancipatory action research and the participation in workshops of 13 youngsters from a public school of the peripheral area of São Paulo. there are contradictory everyday representations about the State's role, which, on the one hand, does not guarantee social rights and exert social control over the peripheral areas and, on the other hand, is considered the privileged interlocutor for the improvement of life and work conditions. the action research discussed mainly topics related to social rights context, claim of the young participants. It is necessary to expand the discussion beyond the citizenship rights sphere, which is only part of the debate about social inequalities inherent in capitalist exploitation and the necessary transformations to build equality policies.

  13. Community interventions for preventing smoking in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowden, A; Arblaster, L; Stead, L

    2003-01-01

    Decisions to smoke are made within a broad social context. Community interventions use co-ordinated, widespread, multi-component programmes to try and influence behaviour. To determine the effectiveness of community interventions in preventing the uptake of smoking in young people. The Tobacco Addiction group specialised register, Medline and other health, psychology and public policy electronic databases were searched, the bibliographies of identified studies were checked and contact was made with content area specialists. Searches were updated in September 2002. Randomised and non randomised controlled trials that assessed the effectiveness of multi-component community interventions compared to no intervention or to single component or school-based programmes only. Reported outcomes had to include smoking behaviour in young people under the age of 25 years. Information relating to the characteristics and the content of community interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the study was extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second. Studies were combined using qualitative narrative synthesis. Seventeen studies were included in the review, 46 studies did not meet all of the inclusion criteria. All studies used a controlled trial design, with six using random allocation of schools or communities. Of thirteen studies which compared community interventions to no intervention controls, two, which were part of cardiovascular disease prevention programmes, reported lower smoking prevalence. Of three studies comparing community interventions to school-based programmes only, one found differences in reported smoking prevalence. One study reported a lower rate of increase in prevalence in a community receiving a multi-component intervention compared to a community exposed to a mass media campaign alone. One study reported a significant difference in smoking prevalence between a group receiving a media, school and homework intervention compared to a group

  14. Lifestyle intervention and quality of life in young obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Alexandra Mihaela

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is aiming to demonstrate the benefits of weight loss following an individualized interval exercise training programme and dietary recommendations on quality of life in young obese patients.Material and method: We conducted a 6 months prospective study on 28 young obese patients (mean age 21.3±2.1 years; mean weight 83,66±20,65. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months of intervention trough cardiopulmonary exercise testing (using Cortex Metalyzer 3B system, body composition, (InBody720, and quality of life assessment (SF36 questionnaire. Interval training consisted in 50 minutes sessions, 3 times per week, at intensive endurance training zone (in the range of anaerobic threshold, completed by 1 minute interval in the range between anaerobic threshold and respiratory compensation point, for every 5 minutes of training. IET was supervised and guided by physical therapist. For exercise intensity and caloric consumption monitoring we used Polar RS 800 heart rate monitors. Pedometers were also used in order to achieve 6000 steps/day , in those days in which they also participated in physical training, and 10000 in days without physical training.General dietary recommendations were given to the patients in order to improve their nutritional habits and reduce caloric consumption. Al subjects received a individula recommendations for increasing the daily physical activity level.Results: At the end of the study we observe significant decrease of weight from 83.66±20.65 kg at 81.58±19.85kg, and increase of VO2 max from 1.83 ±0.33 l/min to 1.93±0.33 l/min. Regarding life quality – Physical Component Summary increased from 47.88±6.92 to 51.32±6.22, (p=0.01 and Mental Component Summary increased from 47.97±7.28 to 53.42±6.28 (p=0.01.Conclusions: 6 months of weight loss programe based on general dietary recommendations and physical training can decres weight and significantly improve health related quality of life.

  15. Career exploration in young people: Study with specific groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Daniela Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents two studies of career exploration with specific groups of youth, using the Career Exploration Survey (CES. The first study compares the career exploration process of 136 foster-care youth and 186 youth living with their families, using the One-Way MANOVA. In the second study we analyzed the process of career exploration of 323 young people in vocational education, comparing it with the 208 regular education using the T-Test. Implications for career intervention with specific groups will be taken based on the results.

  16. Ethical issues in research involving children and young people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scally, Andy

    2014-01-01

    This article identifies the key ethical issues that need to be addressed in any research study involving children and young people, accessed through the NHS. It makes specific reference to the Declaration of Helsinki and to additional guidance developed for researchers from a variety of disciplines, both within healthcare and in other fields of study. The focus of the paper is on defining the key ethical issues, identifying the complexities in the legislative framework underpinning research involving this patient group and offering practical advice on when, and how, ethical approval needs to be sought

  17. ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION IN YOUNG PEOPLE: EFFICACY OF SYMPATHOLYTIC THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Nikitina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effect of imidasoline agonist, rilmenidine (Albarel, on 24-hour blood pressure (BP profile and autonomic regulation of cardiovascular system in young patients with arterial hypertension (HT and exogenous constitutional obesity (ECO.Material and methods. The study included 80 men aged 18-32 ( average age 20,5 years, including 34 patients with HT and normal body weight, 36 patients with HT and ECO, 10 healthy men as a control group. All hypertensive patients were treated with rilmenidine 1-2 mg daily during 12 weeks. BP 24-hour profile and heart rate variability (HRV were estimated before and after therapy.Results. Rilmenidine monotherapy resulted in significant reduction in average 24-hour, day-time and night-time BP as well as indices of BP loading in both groups. Indices of HRV proved the initial sympathetic overdrive among hypertensive patients especially among those with ECO. This sympathetic overdrive significantly reduced after 12 weeks of therapy.Conclusion. Rilmenidine effectively controls BP and reduces sympathetic system overdrive in young hypertensive patients with ECO.

  18. ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION IN YOUNG PEOPLE: EFFICACY OF SYMPATHOLYTIC THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Nikitina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effect of imidasoline agonist, rilmenidine (Albarel, on 24-hour blood pressure (BP profile and autonomic regulation of cardiovascular system in young patients with arterial hypertension (HT and exogenous constitutional obesity (ECO.Material and methods. The study included 80 men aged 18-32 ( average age 20,5 years, including 34 patients with HT and normal body weight, 36 patients with HT and ECO, 10 healthy men as a control group. All hypertensive patients were treated with rilmenidine 1-2 mg daily during 12 weeks. BP 24-hour profile and heart rate variability (HRV were estimated before and after therapy.Results. Rilmenidine monotherapy resulted in significant reduction in average 24-hour, day-time and night-time BP as well as indices of BP loading in both groups. Indices of HRV proved the initial sympathetic overdrive among hypertensive patients especially among those with ECO. This sympathetic overdrive significantly reduced after 12 weeks of therapy.Conclusion. Rilmenidine effectively controls BP and reduces sympathetic system overdrive in young hypertensive patients with ECO.

  19. Features of common representations of suiciders in young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Bovina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the first phase results of a research project dedicated to study of suicide representations in youth. In the framework of structural approach to social representations, we study features of structure and content of social representations of suiciders in two groups of young people (the criterion for group allocation was their acquaintance with people who has suicide attempts. Our sample (N = 106 consisted of representatives of several youth groups (students and working youths with specialized secondary, higher or incomplete higher education, aged 18 to 35 years (M = 23,48 years, SD = 4,36 years: 67 women and 39 men. The 1st group includes respondents personally acquainted with suicide attempters (44 respondents, the 2nd group – respondents without such experience. The subject of research were common representations of suiciders. We tested assumptions about the specificity of protective functions of social representations, as well as consistency of representations in the two groups of respondents.

  20. Expression of the central obesity and Type 2 Diabetes mellitus genes is associated with insulin resistance in young obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczen, S; Wojcik, M; Fijorek, K; Siedlar, M; Starzyk, J B

    2015-04-01

    The assessment of the health consequences associated with obesity in young children is challenging. The aims of this study were: (1) to compare insulin resistance indices derived from OGTT in obese patients and healthy control (2) to analyze central obesity and Type 2 Diabetes genes expression in obese children, with special attention to the youngest group (10 years old). The study included 49 children with obesity (median age 13.5 years old), and 25 healthy peers. Biochemical blood tests and expression of 11 central obesity and 33 Type 2 Diabetes genes was assessed. A significant difference in insulin resistance between obese and non-obese adolescents was observed in all studied indices (mean values of the insulin levels: 24.9 vs. 9.71 mIU/L in T0, 128 vs. 54.7 mIU/L in T60 and 98.7 vs. 41.1 mIU/L in T120 respectively; AUC: 217 vs. 77.2 ng/ml*h, mean values of B% (state beta cell function), S% (insulin sensitivity), and IR were 255 (±97) vs. 135 (±37.8), 46.6 (±37.3) vs. 84.2 (±29.6) and 3 (±1.55) vs. 1.36 (±0,56); HIS, WBIS and ISIBel median 3.89, 44.7, 0.73 vs. 8.57, 110, 2.25. All comparisons differed significantly p1). Moreover, insulin sensitivity was significantly better in the older obese group (>10 years old): median AUC 239 vs. 104 ng/ml*h, and HIS, WBIS and ISIBel 3.57, 38, 0.67 vs. 6.23, 75.6, 1.87 respectively in the obese older compared to the obese younger subgroup, pobesity genes and 70% of Type 2 Diabetes genes was higher in the obese compared to control groups. The differences were more pronounced in the younger obese group. Insulin resistance may develop in early stage of childhood obesity and in very young children may be associated with higher expression of the central obesity and Type 2 Diabetes genes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Online Pornography--Should Schools Be Teaching Young People about the Risks? An Exploration of the Views of Young People and Teaching Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karen Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has made sexually explicit media more accessible to young people. Online pornography is diverse, can be very graphic, and a large amount is available free of charge with restrictions varying by country. Many young people are accessing online pornography, intentionally or unintentionally, and there are fears that this could impact on…

  2. Polygenic risk predicts obesity in both white and black young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W Domingue

    Full Text Available To test transethnic replication of a genetic risk score for obesity in white and black young adults using a national sample with longitudinal data.A prospective longitudinal study using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Sibling Pairs (n = 1,303. Obesity phenotypes were measured from anthropometric assessments when study members were aged 18-26 and again when they were 24-32. Genetic risk scores were computed based on published genome-wide association study discoveries for obesity. Analyses tested genetic associations with body-mass index (BMI, waist-height ratio, obesity, and change in BMI over time.White and black young adults with higher genetic risk scores had higher BMI and waist-height ratio and were more likely to be obese compared to lower genetic risk age-peers. Sibling analyses revealed that the genetic risk score was predictive of BMI net of risk factors shared by siblings. In white young adults only, higher genetic risk predicted increased risk of becoming obese during the study period. In black young adults, genetic risk scores constructed using loci identified in European and African American samples had similar predictive power.Cumulative information across the human genome can be used to characterize individual level risk for obesity. Measured genetic risk accounts for only a small amount of total variation in BMI among white and black young adults. Future research is needed to identify modifiable environmental exposures that amplify or mitigate genetic risk for elevated BMI.

  3. Polygenic risk predicts obesity in both white and black young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Benjamin W; Belsky, Daniel W; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Smolen, Andrew; McQueen, Matthew B; Boardman, Jason D

    2014-01-01

    To test transethnic replication of a genetic risk score for obesity in white and black young adults using a national sample with longitudinal data. A prospective longitudinal study using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Sibling Pairs (n = 1,303). Obesity phenotypes were measured from anthropometric assessments when study members were aged 18-26 and again when they were 24-32. Genetic risk scores were computed based on published genome-wide association study discoveries for obesity. Analyses tested genetic associations with body-mass index (BMI), waist-height ratio, obesity, and change in BMI over time. White and black young adults with higher genetic risk scores had higher BMI and waist-height ratio and were more likely to be obese compared to lower genetic risk age-peers. Sibling analyses revealed that the genetic risk score was predictive of BMI net of risk factors shared by siblings. In white young adults only, higher genetic risk predicted increased risk of becoming obese during the study period. In black young adults, genetic risk scores constructed using loci identified in European and African American samples had similar predictive power. Cumulative information across the human genome can be used to characterize individual level risk for obesity. Measured genetic risk accounts for only a small amount of total variation in BMI among white and black young adults. Future research is needed to identify modifiable environmental exposures that amplify or mitigate genetic risk for elevated BMI.

  4. Multiple Levels of Social Disadvantage and Links to Obesity in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hedwig; Harris, Kathleen M.; Lee, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Background: The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This article examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. Methods: We analyzed…

  5. Correlates of Obesity in Young Black and White Women: The CARDIA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Gregory L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Contrasts body size and potential correlates of obesity in 1,481 African-American and 1,307 white 18- through 30-year-old women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). The increased prevalence of obesity in African-American women could not be explained by racial differences in age or education. (SLD)

  6. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in metabolically healthy obese young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) have been limited to postmenopausal white women. We sought to determine whether PA and SB differ between MHO and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO), in young black and white women....

  7. Problem Gambling among Young People in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssewanyana, Derrick; Bitanihirwe, Byron

    2018-01-01

    Gambling is a cross-cultural and global activity which typically involves the wagering of money or an item of monetary value on an outcome that is governed by chance. Although gambling is positioned as a legitimate recreational and leisure activity within sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), there is widespread recognition among healthcare professionals and policy-makers that gambling has the capacity to become dysfunctional in a minority. Emerging knowledge suggests that problem gambling is rapidly evolving in to a public health concern in SSA, especially among youth. This article focuses on problem gambling among young people in SSA with an emphasis on three key themes: (1) gambling behavior and patterns in SSA; (2) public health and socioeconomic implications of gambling in SSA; and (3) public health policies and interventions for addressing this issue. We believe that collaborative efforts between government, prevention specialists, legislators, researchers, treatment providers, and other stake holders can influence the uptake of research findings necessary to implement social policies and design effective public health intervention options to combat problem gambling and its associated implications among young people in SSA.

  8. Developing Schemas for Assessing Social Competences among Unskilled Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibe Aarkrog

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Social competences are crucial parts of vocational education and training (VET competences. As part of a development project preparing unskilled young people for VET, an action research project was conducted with the aim of developing a schema for assessing and grading social competences. The development included defining the social competences as well as three levels for assessing these competences. The schema was developed in cooperation with the assessors, i.e., representatives from workplaces, municipal youth guidance centres, and VET colleges. There were two main findings. First, the definitions of the competences and the levels for assessing the competences are related to the context in which the competences should be developed. Second, even though the definitions should be related to the specific contexts, to be manageable they should not be too elaborate. The aim of the project being to develop a schema that practitioners in general can use for assessing young peoples' social competences in relation to work-based training, the study concludes that further research is needed to clarify whether the schema can be used without instruction or training.

  9. Road Safety Related Behaviours of Romanian Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Maria LOTREAN

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to assess the behaviors with risk for road traffic injuries among Romanian young people. Material and Method: Self-administered questionnaires were completed by the study sample consisting of 1598 junior high school students, senior high school students and university students aged 11-24 years from both urban and rural areas of two counties (Cluj and Hunedora of Romania. Results: The results show that around 80% of the junior high school students and more than 90% of the senior high school students and university students who go by bike do not wear helmets or use them rarely when they are cycling. Seatbelts are used more frequently than the helmets, but still more than one third of the junior high school students and senior high school students and a quarter of the university students do not use seatbelts or use them rarely. In the month previous the survey around one quarter of the students travelled in a car whose driver used alcohol before driving. Moreover, 15% of the university students who drove recognized that, at least once during their life, they did this after they used alcohol. Conclusions: The results indicate that comprehensive actions must be developed in order to prevent road traffic injuries among Romanian young people. They must include educational programs for youngsters and parents as well as adoption and enforcement of legislative measures and technical actions, which promote road safety.

  10. Problem Gambling among Young People in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick Ssewanyana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gambling is a cross-cultural and global activity which typically involves the wagering of money or an item of monetary value on an outcome that is governed by chance. Although gambling is positioned as a legitimate recreational and leisure activity within sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, there is widespread recognition among healthcare professionals and policy-makers that gambling has the capacity to become dysfunctional in a minority. Emerging knowledge suggests that problem gambling is rapidly evolving in to a public health concern in SSA, especially among youth. This article focuses on problem gambling among young people in SSA with an emphasis on three key themes: (1 gambling behavior and patterns in SSA; (2 public health and socioeconomic implications of gambling in SSA; and (3 public health policies and interventions for addressing this issue. We believe that collaborative efforts between government, prevention specialists, legislators, researchers, treatment providers, and other stake holders can influence the uptake of research findings necessary to implement social policies and design effective public health intervention options to combat problem gambling and its associated implications among young people in SSA.

  11. It's not just the television: survey analysis of sedentary behaviour in New Zealand young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foley Louise S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behaviour has been linked with adverse health outcomes in young people; however, the nature and context of being sedentary is poorly understood. Accurate quantification and description of sedentary behaviour using population-level data is required. The aim of this research was to describe sedentary behaviour among New Zealand (NZ youth and examine whether sedentary behaviour differs by Body Mass Index (BMI status in this population. Methods A national representative cross-sectional survey of young people aged 5-24 years (n = 2,503 was conducted in 2008-2009. Data from this survey, which included subjectively (recall diary; n = 1,309 and objectively (accelerometry; n = 960 measured sedentary behaviour for participants aged 10-18 years were analysed using survey weighted methods. Results Participants self-reported spending on average 521 minutes per day (standard error [SE] 5.29 in total sedentary behaviour, 181 minutes per day (SE 3.91 in screen-based sedentary activities (e.g., television and video games, and 340 minutes per day (SE 5.22 in other non-screen sedentary behaviours (e.g., school, passive transport and self-care. Accelerometer-measured total sedentary behaviour was on average 420 minutes per day (SE 4.26, or 53% (SE 0.42% of monitored time. There were no statistically significant differences in time spent in sedentary behaviour among overweight, obese and healthy/underweight young people. Conclusions Both subjective and objective methods indicate that NZ youth spend much of their waking time being sedentary. No relationships were found between sedentary behaviour and BMI status. These findings extend previous research by describing engagement in specific sedentary activities, as well as quantifying the behaviour using an objective method. Differences in what aspects of sedentary behaviour the two methods are capturing are discussed. This research highlights the potential for future interventions to

  12. Anxiety disorders in young people: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaíse Campos Mondin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders and associated factors in young adults. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study of individuals between the ages of 18 and 24 years randomly selected from 89 census-based sectors to ensure an adequate sample size. Household selection within the sectors was performed according to a systematic sampling process. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. The final sample comprised 1,560 young adults. Results: Of the participants who were diagnosed with anxiety disorders, 12.3% had agoraphobia, 9.7% had generalised anxiety disorder, 4.0% had social phobia, 3.3% had obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2.5% had panic disorder, and 2.1% had post-traumatic stress disorder; only 23.8% had received any previous treatment. Anxiety disorders were associated with sex, socioeconomic status, psychiatric problems in parents, alcohol abuse, and tobacco use. Conclusions: The identification of factors associated with anxiety disorders in young people enables us to develop intervention strategies. Anxiety disorders are not only highly prevalent but are also associated with significant functional impairment, significant reductions in quality of life, lower productivity, and higher rates of comorbidities.

  13. (Poetic) Representation, (Professional) Texts and “Young People at Risk”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard

    The paper considers the different ways young people were involved in the research process in a Danish research project with young people with social and psychological problems. Young people were involved in life story interviews and subsequently in the interpretation of material produced through...... and employed as a vehicle for certain kinds of participation, representation, and dialogue, of situated participants. The paper comments on the potentials of ‘doing’ poetic representations as an example of writing in ways which brings young people’s voices to the foreground, includes aspects which academic...... writing tends to marginalize, and challenges what sometimes goes unasked in (participative) social work research with young people at risk....

  14. Scottish young people's perceptions of standardised packs - a qualitative study

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    Andy Macgregor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Standardised cigarette packs were introduced into the UK in May 2016. Retailers could sell old stock until May 2017 after which only the sale of cigarettes and tobacco in standardised packs was allowed. As in Australia, pack shape, colour, opening mechanism and font are regulated, together with the size and position of health warnings and number of cigarettes in a pack. This paper explores Scottish young people's awareness of and views about standardised packs in Spring 2017. Methods The DISPLAY study is a five year study established to evaluate the national tobacco point-of sale (POS promotions ban in four communities in Scotland. This paper is based on the qualitative component, annual focus groups carried out with Secondary 2 (13 year olds and Secondary 4 (15 year olds students in four secondary schools. 16 groups (82 students convened in February - March 2017 explored students' perceptions of standardised packaging. Results There was a high level of awareness of standardised packs prior to their full implementation. Smokers had bought them, and they and other participants had seen them in possession of friends and family members, and in litter. Participants' views of the new packaging were generally negative, described as unappealing and depressing, particularly the pictorial health warnings. Packs were compared unfavourably with previous non-standardised versions. However, there was no consensus on their likely impact. Some participants argued that their impact would be widespread, while others thought that any impact would be confined to young non/occasional smokers and that established smokers would be unaffected. Conclusions In early 2017 young people in Scotland had high awareness and knowledge of standardised tobacco packs before their full implementation. Despite differing views about their likely impact on youth smoking, participants irrespective of smoking status overwhelmingly regarded them as unattractive and less

  15. Healthy urban environments for children and young people: A systematic review of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey, Suzanne; Batista-Ferrer, Harriet

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review collates, and presents as a narrative synthesis, evidence from interventions which included changes to the urban environment and reported at least one health behaviour or outcome for children and young people. Following a comprehensive search of six databases, 33 primary studies relating to 27 urban environment interventions were included. The majority of interventions related to active travel. Others included park and playground renovations, road traffic safety, and multi-component community-based initiatives. Public health evidence for effectiveness of such interventions is often weak because study designs tend to be opportunistic, non-randomised, use subjective outcome measures, and do not incorporate follow-up of study participants. However, there is some evidence of potential health benefits to children and young people from urban environment interventions relating to road safety and active travel, with evidence of promise for a multi-component obesity prevention initiative. Future research requires more robust study designs incorporating objective outcome measures. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. The Impact of Enterprise Education on Attitudes to Enterprise in Young People: An Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present evidence on the impact of enterprise education on young people still at school in London, UK. The study was designed to measure the effect of participation in a Young Enterprise (YE) Company Program on young people's attitudes toward starting a business, and on their enterprise potential.…

  17. Disciplining the Conduct of Young People in Compulsory Education Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, David

    2018-01-01

    Disciplining and pastoral power are central to the strategies and practices of intervening in the lives of young people deemed at risk of disengaging from school, or not completing their compulsory education. As an expression of power concerned with young people's welfare and self-improvement, disciplining and pastoral practices push young people…

  18. Influence of Central Obesity Assessed by Conicity Index on Lung Age in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Usha; Jagadamba

    2017-04-01

    Central obesity is an emerging public health problem in young adults which compromises lung mechanics. Conicity Index (CI) is a simple anthropometric measure to assess central adiposity. The concept of lung age relates to a person's current lung function at which his/her lung function would be considered abnormal in relation to the present actual age. To determine the effect of central obesity by CI on lung age in young adults. A total of 319 young adults in the age group 18-25 years were recruited for this cross-sectional observational study. Written informed consent and Institutional Ethical Clearance (IEC) approval were obtained. Anthropometric parameters were measured and CI was calculated using the following formula: CI = Waist Circumference (WC) (m)/ [0.109 X√ {Bodyweight (kg)/ Height (m)}] where 0.109 is a constant. Spirometry was performed and all the lung volumes and capacities were obtained. There was a significant increase in mean values of CI in obese young adults compared to non obese (1.36±0.15 and 1.16±0.08, pobesity on lung age in young adults was compared using an independent t-test. Mean of lung age was significantly higher in centrally obese young adults compared to non obese 23.87±3.03 and 21.30±2.6, pobese young adults compared to non obese. Hence, lung age can be used as a potential psychological tool to show an individual with central obesity that there is premature aging of their lungs.

  19. Self-identified obese people request less money: a field experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Proestakis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence suggests that obese people are discriminated in different social environments such as the work place. Yet, the degree to which obese people are internalizing and adjusting their own behaviour as a result of this discriminatory behaviour has not been studied thoroughly. We develop a proxy for measuring experimentally the self-weight bias by giving to both self-identified obese (n=90 and non-obese (n=180 individuals the opportunity to request a positive amount of money after having performed an identical task. Consistent with the System Justification Theory, we find that self-identified obese individuals, due to a preexisting false consciousness, request significantly lower amounts of money than non-obese ones. A within subject comparison between self-reports and external interviewers' evaluations reveals that the excessive weight felt by the self but not reported by evaluators captures the self-weight bias not only for obese but also for non-obese individuals. Linking our experimental results to the supply side of the labour market, we argue that self-weight bias, as expressed by lower salary requests, enhances discriminatory behaviour against individuals who feel, but may not actually be, obese and consequently exacerbates the wage gab across weight.

  20. Self-identified Obese People Request Less Money: A Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proestakis, Antonios; Brañas-Garza, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that obese people are discriminated in different social environments, such as the work place. Yet, the degree to which obese people are internalizing and adjusting their own behavior as a result of this discriminatory behavior has not been thoroughly studied. We develop a proxy for measuring experimentally the "self-weight bias" by giving to both self-identified obese ( n = 90) and non-obese ( n = 180) individuals the opportunity to request a positive amount of money after having performed an identical task. Consistent with the System Justification Theory, we find that self-identified obese individuals, due to a preexisting false consciousness , request significantly lower amounts of money than non-obese ones. A within subject comparison between self-reports and external monitors' evaluations reveals that the excessive weight felt by the "self" but not reported by evaluators captures the self-weight bias not only for obese but also for non-obese individuals. Linking our experimental results to the supply side of the labor market, we argue that self-weight bias, as expressed by lower salary requests, enhances discriminatory behavior against individuals who feel, but may not actually be, obese and consequently exacerbates the wage gap across weight.

  1. Multiple levels of social disadvantage and links to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hedwig; Harris, Kathleen M; Lee, Joyce

    2013-03-01

    The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This article examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. We analyzed longitudinal data from Waves I (1994-1995), II (1996), and III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative population-based sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in 1995 who were followed into young adulthood. We assessed the relationship between obesity in adolescence and young adulthood, and disadvantage (measured by low parent education in adolescence) at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level using multilevel logistic regression. When all levels of disadvantage were modeled simultaneously, school-level disadvantage was significantly associated with obesity in adolescence for males and females and family-level disadvantage was significantly associated with obesity in young adulthood for females. Schools may serve as a primary setting for obesity prevention efforts. Because obesity in adolescence tracks into adulthood, it is important to consider prevention efforts at this stage in the life course, in addition to early childhood, particularly among disadvantaged populations. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  2. "Heroes" and "Villains" in the Lives of Children and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sally; Smith, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the responses of nearly 1,200 children and young people in Wales who were asked to identify which three famous people they most admired and which three they most disliked. Analysis of these young people's responses reveals a number of sociological and educational issues. Their selections confirm other research which has…

  3. The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related health conditions in a large, multiethnic cohort of young adults in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebnick, Corinna; Smith, Ning; Huang, Karl; Martinez, Mayra P; Clancy, Heather A; Kushi, Lawrence H

    2012-09-01

    To identify population groups that are most susceptible to obesity-related health conditions at young age. For this population-based cross-sectional study, measured weight and height, diagnosis, laboratory, and drug prescription information were extracted from electronic medical records of 1,819,205 patients aged 20 to 39 years enrolled in two integrated health plans in California in 2007 through 2009. Overall, 29.9% of young adults were obese. Extreme obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 40 kg/m(2)) was observed in 6.1% of women and 4.5% of men. The adjusted relative risk (RR) for diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome increased sharply for those individuals with a BMI of 40 or greater, with the sharpest increase in the adjusted RR for hypertension and the metabolic syndrome. The association between weight class and dyslipidemia, hypertension, and the metabolic syndrome but not diabetes was stronger among 20.0- to 29.9-year-olds compared with 30.0- to 39.9-year-olds (P for interaction young adults with a BMI of 40.0 to 49.9, 50.0 to 59.9, and 60 or greater kg/m(2) had a RR for hypertension of 11.73, 19.88, and 30.47 (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.39-35.17) at 20 to 29 years old, and 9.31, 12.41, and 15.43 (95% CI, 14.32-16.63) at 30 to 39 years old. Although older individuals were more likely to be extremely obese, the association between obesity-related health conditions was stronger in younger individuals. Hispanics and Blacks are also more likely to be obese, including extremely obese, putting them at an elevated risk for premature cardiovascular disease and some cancers relative to non-Hispanic Whites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of isolated obesity on right ventricular function in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokmen, Abdullah; Sokmen, Gulizar; Acar, Gurkan; Akcay, Ahmet; Koroglu, Sedat; Koleoglu, Murat; Yalcintas, Sila; Aydin, M Naci

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The effects of obesity on left ventricular structure and function have been reported, but relatively little is known regarding right ventricular (RV) function in obesity. To evaluate subclinical RV alterations in obese, but otherwise healthy, young adults by conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). In this study, we included 35 normal weight healthy subjects with a body mass index (BMI) 35 kg/m² (group III). All subjects underwent transthoracic echocardiography. In addition to standard echocardiographic measurements, tricuspid annular peak systolic (Sm), peak early (Em), and late diastolic (Am) velocities, isovolumetric contraction (ICTm), relaxation (IRTm) time, and ejection time (ETm) were obtained by TDI, and RV myocardial performance index (MPIm) was calculated. In group II, RV Em/Am was significantly decreased and IRTm and MPIm were significantly increased compared to group I (p obesity in young normotensive adults was associated with subclinical abnormalities in RV structure and function.

  5. Implementation of digital interventions for sexual health for young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Mann

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a scoping review of evidence on digital interventions for sexual health promotion for young people aged 13 to 24 years in the UK, defining sexual health in holistic terms, to include physical, emotional, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality. Interactive digital interventions (IDI are defined as digital media programmes that provide sexual health information and tailored decision support, behaviour-change support, and/or emotional support for sexual health issues. We conducted a thorough review of literature to locate and synthesise available evidence on digital interventions for sexual health spanning the last ten years, integrating the findings with the views of key informants (young people, parents, and experts in digital media/sexual health. Results and conclusions There were few studies that assess the factors related to successful implementation of sexual health promotion IDIs. Potential barriers and facilitators to implementation of IDI should be addressed at the very beginning of an intervention development process. Engaging with sexual health promotion interventions online allows private and convenient access as well as potentially reaching populations who engage less frequently with mainstream services. However, it is difficult to ensure that users will find the intervention, or engage for long enough for them to be effective. The reach of online IDI could be enhanced by linking sexual health promotion interventions with existing digital systems such as STI self-test websites, or with trusted branded websites or popular social networking sites. Offering interventions in static settings such as the clinic or classroom encourages engagement and enables interventions to be delivered with fidelity but potentially at the expense of the privacy and convenience offered by online interventions. Using the knowledge of local staff is vital for both successful intervention development and successful implementation. An effective

  6. Screening for Binge Eating Disorder in people with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, Mirjam C M; Dingemans, Alexandra E; Geerets, Tiny; Danner, Unna N

    2018-03-09

    The Risk factors for Binge Eating Disorder in Overweight (REO) questionnaire is a screening tool for nutritionists to discriminate between individuals with obesity with and without Binge Eating Disorder (BED). The first study tested the discriminative ability of the REO and identified an optimal cut-off value. In the second study this cut-off value was used to identify individuals with and without BED from a sample of individuals with obesity visiting a nutritionist and compared clinical and personality characteristics with a group of individuals officially diagnosed with BED. Results showed that the REO has a sensitivity of 95.1%, specificity of 81.5%, a good internal consistency of α=.96, and an exploratory factor analysis showed four underlying factors of the REO that explained a total variance of 63.7%. Characteristics of individuals with BED symptoms identified by the REO and those officially diagnosed with BED were comparable and differed from individuals with obesity without BED symptoms. By screening individuals with obesity with the REO those presenting with BED symptoms are more easily identified, and can be referred to psychological treatment facilities for further assessment and appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2018 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Proposed new industry code on unhealthy food marketing to children and young people: will it make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinburn, Boyd; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Woodward, Alistair; Hornblow, Andrew; Richardson, Ann; Burlingame, Barbara; Borman, Barry; Taylor, Barry; Breier, Bernhard; Arroll, Bruce; Drummond, Bernadette; Grant, Cameron; Bullen, Chris; Wall, Clare; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Cameron-Smith, David; Menkes, David; Murdoch, David; Mangin, Dee; Lennon, Diana; Sarfati, Diana; Sellman, Doug; Rush, Elaine; Sopoaga, Faafetai; Thomson, George; Devlin, Gerry; Abel, Gillian; White, Harvey; Coad, Jane; Hoek, Janet; Connor, Jennie; Krebs, Jeremy; Douwes, Jeroen; Mann, Jim; McCall, John; Broughton, John; Potter, John D; Toop, Les; McCowan, Lesley; Signal, Louise; Beckert, Lutz; Elwood, Mark; Kruger, Marlena; Farella, Mauro; Baker, Michael; Keall, Michael; Skeaff, Murray; Thomson, Murray; Wilson, Nick; Chandler, Nicholas; Reid, Papaarangi; Priest, Patricia; Brunton, Paul; Crampton, Peter; Davis, Peter; Gendall, Philip; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Taylor, Rachael; Edwards, Richard; Beaglehole, Robert; Doughty, Robert; Scragg, Robert; Gauld, Robin; McGee, Robert; Jackson, Rod; Hughes, Roger; Mulder, Roger; Bonita, Ruth; Kruger, Rozanne; Casswell, Sally; Derrett, Sarah; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Denny, Simon; Hales, Simon; Pullon, Sue; Wells, Susan; Cundy, Tim; Blakely, Tony

    2017-02-17

    Reducing the exposure of children and young people to the marketing of unhealthy foods is a core strategy for reducing the high overweight and obesity prevalence in this population. The Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) has recently reviewed its self-regulatory codes and proposed a revised single code on advertising to children. This article evaluates the proposed code against eight criteria for an effective code, which were included in a submission to the ASA review process from over 70 New Zealand health professors. The evaluation found that the proposed code largely represents no change or uncertain change from the existing codes, and cannot be expected to provide substantial protection for children and young people from the marketing of unhealthy foods. Government regulations will be needed to achieve this important outcome.

  8. Nutritional adequacy of energy restricted diets for young obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Helen; Munas, Zahra; Griffin, Hayley; Rooney, Kieron; Cheng, Hoi Lun; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    Energy restricted meal plans may compromise nutrient intake. This study used diet modelling to assess the nutritional adequacy of energy restricted meal plans designed for weight management in young obese women. Diet modelling of 6000 kJ/d animal protein based meal plans was performed using Australian nutrient databases with adequacy compared to the Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs) for women (19-30 years). One diet plan was based on the higher carbohydrate (HC) version of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating for women 19-60 years. An alternative higher protein (HP) plan was adapted from the CSIRO Total Wellbeing Diet. Vegan and lacto-ovo versions of these plans were also modelled and compared to the appropriate vegetarian NRVs. Both animal protein diets met the estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI) for all nutrients analysed. The recommended dietary intake (RDI) was also satisfied, except for iron. HC met 75±30% and HP 81±31% of the iron RDI when red meat and iron fortified cereal were both included three days a week, and remained below the RDI even when red meat was increased to seven days. Iron for the modified vegan (57±5% HC; 66±4% HP) and lacto-ovo (48±6% HC; 59±7% HP) plans was below the RDI and zinc below the EAR for the vegan (76±8% HC; 84±9% HP) plans. The 6000 kJ/d animal protein meal plans met the RDI for all nutrients except iron. Iron and zinc failed to meet the vegetarian RDI and EAR respectively for the vegan plans.

  9. Abdominal Obesity, Race and Chronic Kidney Disease in Young Adults: Results from NHANES 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarathy, Harini; Henriquez, Gabriela; Abramowitz, Matthew K; Kramer, Holly; Rosas, Sylvia E; Johns, Tanya; Kumar, Juhi; Skversky, Amy; Kaskel, Frederick; Melamed, Michal L

    2016-01-01

    Kidney dysfunction in obesity may be independent of and may precede the development of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. We aimed to examine if abdominal obesity is associated with early markers of CKD in a young healthy population and whether these associations differ by race and/or ethnicity. We analyzed data from the NHANES 1999-2010 for 6918 young adults ages 20-40 years. Abdominal obesity was defined by gender criteria of waist circumference. CKD markers included estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria ≥30 mg/g. Race stratified analyses were done overall and in subgroups with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin sensitivity. Awareness of CKD was assessed in participants with albuminuria. Abdominal obesity was present in over one-third of all young adults and was more prevalent among non-Hispanic blacks (45.4%) versus Mexican-Americans (40.6%) or non-Hispanic whites (37.4%) (P-value = 0.004). Mexican-American young adults with abdominal obesity had a higher odds of albuminuria even among those with normal blood pressure, normal glucose, and normal insulin sensitivity [adjusted odds ratio 4.5; 95% confidence interval (1.6-12.2), p = 0.004]. Less than 5% of young adults with albuminuria of all races and ethnicities had been told they had kidney disease. Abdominal obesity in young adults, especially in Mexican-Americans, is independently associated with albuminuria even with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin levels. Greater awareness of CKD is needed to protect this young population from long-standing exposure to abdominal obesity and early progressive renal disease.

  10. Abdominal Obesity, Race and Chronic Kidney Disease in Young Adults: Results from NHANES 1999-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini Sarathy

    Full Text Available Kidney dysfunction in obesity may be independent of and may precede the development of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. We aimed to examine if abdominal obesity is associated with early markers of CKD in a young healthy population and whether these associations differ by race and/or ethnicity.We analyzed data from the NHANES 1999-2010 for 6918 young adults ages 20-40 years. Abdominal obesity was defined by gender criteria of waist circumference. CKD markers included estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria ≥30 mg/g. Race stratified analyses were done overall and in subgroups with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin sensitivity. Awareness of CKD was assessed in participants with albuminuria.Abdominal obesity was present in over one-third of all young adults and was more prevalent among non-Hispanic blacks (45.4% versus Mexican-Americans (40.6% or non-Hispanic whites (37.4% (P-value = 0.004. Mexican-American young adults with abdominal obesity had a higher odds of albuminuria even among those with normal blood pressure, normal glucose, and normal insulin sensitivity [adjusted odds ratio 4.5; 95% confidence interval (1.6-12.2, p = 0.004]. Less than 5% of young adults with albuminuria of all races and ethnicities had been told they had kidney disease.Abdominal obesity in young adults, especially in Mexican-Americans, is independently associated with albuminuria even with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin levels. Greater awareness of CKD is needed to protect this young population from long-standing exposure to abdominal obesity and early progressive renal disease.

  11. To the Spanish Young People: Don Quixote Dreyfussard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Ramírez Martín

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1898, Spanish press take up part of its pages with a relevant international issue: the Dreyfus affair. The case was widely covered by Spanish newspapers, in special by Don Quijote, a Madrilenian satiric press, whose Director promoted a campaign in favour of Zola collecting signatures in order to the French litterateur was aware that Spain was close to him. This initiative is completed with a call to Spanish young people who is illustrated with a quixotic caricature. Cervantine character personifies the idea of justice getting to transmit during the Spanish crisis at the end of the nineteenth century the image of the nobleman forged by Spanish stereotypical, like a crusader fighting for a noble cause, thus turning Don Quixote into another dreyfussard.

  12. FESTIVE FOOD BRANDS AWARENESS AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE ON ROMANIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented some of the results obtained through an exploratory research carried out in the month of April 2016 on a sample of 100 students from the Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, referring to awareness of festive food brands on the Romanian market. Festive products have special sensory properties designed to especially satisfy gastronomic indulgence and not nutritional needs of individuals. Thus, we studied a number of categories covering mainly food products for the pleasure of eating, namely: confectionery, coffee, tea, chips and snacks, soft drinks and alcoholic beverages. Thus there are shown brands that enjoy the highest spontaneous awareness in the investigated sample, young people undergoing investigation being asked to indicate the top 3 brands that come to mind for various product categories investigated. The study shows both the brands which enjoy the highest top of mind awareness and those brands which were nominated by most respondents among the top three of which they remember.

  13. Developing schemas for assessing social competences among unskilled young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    2017-01-01

    competences. The schema was developed in cooperation with practitioners, i.e. representatives from workplaces, from municipal youth guidance centres, and from VET colleges. Based on the experiences accrued in developing the schema, the article discusses how personal and social competences can be assessed......Personal and social competences are crucial parts of VET competences. As part of a development project preparing unskilled young people for vocational education and training, a research project was conducted with the aim of developing a schema for assessing and grading personal and social...... and graded. The central finding is that personal and social competences are assessed in relation to specific work tasks or situations, meaning that personal and social competences are context-specific....

  14. Extremism among young people and its prevention in educational organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Kirsanov,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe the results of a survey of 50 experts – representatives of educational institutions of Moscow, district education authorities and the staff of the juvenile justice system. We note that the researchers often miss the opinion of the subjects of preventive work. Expert survey allowed to specify the conditions and behavioral manifestations of contemporary youth extremism, rank his psychological reasons, summarize the available methods and forms of prevention. We show the basic extremist ideas that are common among young people, and extremists speech features. The study revealed the understanding by the subjects of the preventive work of the “extremism” concept content, of goals and mechanisms of prevention, shows the typical difficulties in this work. The results can be used to search for new and more effective forms of prevention and improving the organization of preventive work in general.

  15. Sport activity and eating habits of people who were attending special obesity treatment programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videmsek, Mateja; Stihec, Joze; Karpljuk, Damir; Starman, Anja

    2008-09-01

    The aims of the study were to analyse the sport activity and eating habits of obese people in their childhood and adulthood. The research was underpinned by a survey questionnaire containing 37 variables which was completed by 71 people attending the obesity programme. The frequencies and contingency tables were calculated, whereas statistical significance was established at a 5% significance level. The analysis of the results showed that more than one-half of the survey respondents joined the obesity programme primarily for reasons of health and well-being. Most obese people did not engage in any organised sport activity in their childhood, nor did most of their parents. The respondents practiced sport in their childhood to a greater extent if their parents were also physically active and if they guided and encouraged their children. No less than one-third of the respondents were overweight in their childhood, of whom two-thirds did not participate in any organised sport activity. The majority of the respondents (85.9%) are currently engaged in an organised sport activity in their adulthood, mainly due to their participation in the weight reduction programme; most of them practice sport twice a week. Their eating habits are encouraging; the share of skipped meals is considerably lower and practically negligible compared to that in childhood. It has to be emphasized that most of them are of opinion that obese people have difficulties finding expert information on obesity, nutrition and sport activities as well as weight management centers and institutions.

  16. Mental health: early intervention and prevention in children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membride, Heather

    It is estimated that 10% of children and young people have mental health problems so significant that they impact not only on their day-to-day life but, if left untreated, they will continue into adulthood. In this article, the author discusses mental health issues affecting children and young people and examines evidence-based early intervention and prevention programmes that have been shown to support better outcomes for children, young people and their families.

  17. Young people's views regarding participation in mental health and wellbeing research through social media

    OpenAIRE

    Monks, Helen; Cardoso, Patricia; Papageorgiou, Alana; Carolan, Catherine; Costello, Leesa; Thomas, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Social media is a central component in the lives of many young people, and provides innovative potential to conduct research among this population. Ethical issues around online research have been subject to much debate, yet young people have seldom been consulted to provide a youth perspective and voice. Eight (8) focus groups involving 48 Grade 9 Western Australian secondary school students aged 13-14 years were held in 2012, to investigate how young people perceive the feasibility and accep...

  18. Predicting respiratory hospital admissions in young people with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Amanda Marie; Bear, Natasha; Blair, Eve; Langdon, Katherine; Moshovis, Lisa; Steer, Kellie; Wilson, Andrew C

    2018-03-19

    To determine the early predictors of respiratory hospital admissions in young people with cerebral palsy (CP). A 3-year prospective cohort study using linked data. Children and young people with CP, aged 1 to 26 years. Self-reported and carer-reported respiratory symptoms were linked to respiratory hospital admissions (as defined by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision codes) during the following 3 years. 482 participants (including 289 males) were recruited. They were aged 1 to 26 years (mean 10 years, 10 months; SD 5 years, 11 months) at the commencement of the study, and represented all Gross Motor Function Classification Scale (GMFCS) levels. During the 3-year period, 55 (11.4%) participants had a total of 186 respiratory hospital admissions, and spent a total of 1475 days in hospital. Statistically significant risk factors for subsequent respiratory hospital admissions over 3 years in univariate analyses were GMFCS level V, at least one respiratory hospital admission in the year preceding the survey, oropharyngeal dysphagia, seizures, frequent respiratory symptoms, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, at least two courses of antibiotics in the year preceding the survey, mealtime respiratory symptoms and nightly snoring. Most risk factors for respiratory hospital admissions are potentially modifiable. Early identification of oropharyngeal dysphagia and the management of seizures may help prevent serious respiratory illness. One respiratory hospital admission should trigger further evaluation and management to prevent subsequent respiratory illness. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Enabling all young Australians to grow up safe, happy, healthy and resilient: a Collaboration for Young People, Technology and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes a framework for a multi-disciplinary collaboration to investigate the role of technology for improving young Australians' mental health and wellbeing. The poor mental health of young Australians poses a significant challenge to Australia's future. Half of all Australians will experience a mental health difficulty in their lifetime and 75% of mental illness has its onset before age 25. Cross-sectoral collaboration is critical for meeting this challenge. In order to establish a world-first multi-partner collaboration, leading researchers and institutes, commercial, non-profit and end-user organization and young people were identified and invited to participate. Together we have developed an international research framework that explores the role of technologies in young people's lives, their potential and how this can be harnessed to address challenges facing young people. This research framework will: (i) conduct empirical research that tests the utility of technology across mental health promotion, prevention, early intervention and treatment and, (ii) translate existing and new knowledge into products and services that help create a generation of safe, happy, healthy and resilient young people. Research undertaken by the Collaboration will be the most comprehensive investigation of technologies' potential to improve the wellbeing of young people ever conducted, leading to significant benefits for Australian young people and their mental health.

  20. Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity for People with Significant Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumstrup, Brianna; Demchak, MaryAnn

    2017-01-01

    This review of literature focuses on health issues for individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (ID), Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD), and Multiple Impairments (MI). This population has two to three times higher overweight and obesity prevalence than typically developing individuals. Furthermore, they have higher risk for…

  1. Virtual worlds as a tool to facilitate weight management for young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael; Taylor, Dave; Kulendran, Myutan; Gately, Paul; Darzi, Ara

    Childhood obesity is a serious problem in the UK, with around 20% of children aged 10-11 being overweight or obese. Lifestyle interventions can be effective, but there is limited evidence of their effectiveness in delivering sustained weight loss. The present research explored potential of web-based, 3-dimensional virtual worlds (VWs) for facilitation of weight-management, well-being and patient and public involvement (PPI) for young people. Attendees of a weight management camp took part in induction sessions for use of the VW of Second Life. All participants successfully learned how to interact with one another and navigate the virtual environment. Participant appraisals of Second Life were varied. Some found it complicated and difficult to use, and some found it fun and the majority stated that they would choose to use VWs again. There is considerable potential for use of VWs to promote weight management, and Second Life or a similar VW could be used to deliver this. Potential barriers include members of the target sample having limited access to computers with necessary system requirements for running VWs, and that some may find VW-based educational experiences unappealing or challenging to navigate. For some however, VWs may provide a useful mode for provision of education, PPI and support relating to weight management.

  2. Environmental correlates of physical activity and dietary behaviours among young people: a systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vet, E; de Ridder, D T D; de Wit, J B F

    2011-05-01

    An extensive body of research exists on environmental influences on weight-related behaviours in young people. Existing reviews aimed to synthesize this body of work, but generally focused on specific samples, behaviours or environmental influences and integration of findings is lacking. Hereto, we reviewed 18 reviews representing 671 unique studies, aiming to identify what environmental factors do and do not affect physical activity and dietary behaviours in children and adolescents. Eleven reviews focused exclusively on physical activity, six on diet, and one review focused on both physical activity and dietary behaviours with only small overlap in included studies. Physical activity was more consistently related to school and neighbourhood characteristics than to interpersonal and societal environments. In contrast, interpersonal factors played a pronounced role in dietary behaviours; no school, neighbourhood or societal factors were consistently related to dietary behaviours. This review of reviews adds to the literature by providing a comprehensive synthesis of factors related to physical activity and dietary behaviours that could be targeted in interventions. Moreover, by identifying factors that are unrelated to physical activity and dietary behaviours, this review may help to narrow the scope of future studies and environmental interventions. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  3. Attitudes to Exercise and Diabetes in Young People with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryninks, Kirsty; Sutton, Eileen; Thomas, Elizabeth; Jago, Russell; Shield, Julian P H; Burren, Christine P

    2015-01-01

    To investigate young people's attitudes to, and understanding of, physical activity on glycaemic control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Four focus groups with 11-14 and 15-16 year olds were conducted with twelve young people with Type 1 Diabetes, from within a larger study investigating physical activity and fitness. Qualitative analysis of the focus group data was performed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Four superordinate themes were identified: Benefits of Exercise, Knowledge and Understanding, Information and Training and "You can do anything". Young people felt that exercising helped them to manage their diabetes and had a beneficial psychological and physical impact on their bodies. They reported a lack of knowledge and understanding about diabetes among school staff and other young people. The overwhelming sense from young people was that although diabetes impacts upon their lives, with preparation, physical activity can take place as normal. Whilst young people had an awareness of the physical and psychological benefits of exercise in managing their diabetes, they experienced difficulties at school. Professional support and discussions with young people, giving tailored strategies for managing Type 1 Diabetes during exercise are needed. Healthcare teams should ensure that the support and educational needs of school staff are met. Providing more opportunities to empower young people to take on the responsibility for their Type 1 Diabetes care is merited. Young people felt diabetes did not stop them from participating in activities; it is simply a part of them that needs managing throughout life.

  4. The relationship between maternal attitudes and young people's attitudes toward children's rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, David M; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Ruck, Martin D

    2006-04-01

    Relations between maternal socio-political attitudes and parenting style and young people's and mothers' attitudes toward young people's nurturance and self-determination rights were examined. Both young people (n = 121) and mothers (n = 67) were more supportive of nurturance than self-determination rights, although young people were more supportive than their mothers of self-determination rights and mothers were more supportive than young people of nurturance rights. Maternal conservatism was unrelated to young people's support for rights and negatively related to mothers' support for both types of rights. Last, young people who perceived their mother to be either authoritarian or uninvolved showed stronger endorsement of self-determination rights than young people who perceived their mother to be authoritative. The implications of these findings for the development of young people's attitudes toward rights within the context of various family factors are discussed. In particular, it is suggested that a balance needs to be achieved between assertion of rights and a respect for the rights of others.

  5. Attitudes to Exercise and Diabetes in Young People with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty Ryninks

    Full Text Available To investigate young people's attitudes to, and understanding of, physical activity on glycaemic control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.Four focus groups with 11-14 and 15-16 year olds were conducted with twelve young people with Type 1 Diabetes, from within a larger study investigating physical activity and fitness. Qualitative analysis of the focus group data was performed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.Four superordinate themes were identified: Benefits of Exercise, Knowledge and Understanding, Information and Training and "You can do anything". Young people felt that exercising helped them to manage their diabetes and had a beneficial psychological and physical impact on their bodies. They reported a lack of knowledge and understanding about diabetes among school staff and other young people. The overwhelming sense from young people was that although diabetes impacts upon their lives, with preparation, physical activity can take place as normal.Whilst young people had an awareness of the physical and psychological benefits of exercise in managing their diabetes, they experienced difficulties at school. Professional support and discussions with young people, giving tailored strategies for managing Type 1 Diabetes during exercise are needed. Healthcare teams should ensure that the support and educational needs of school staff are met. Providing more opportunities to empower young people to take on the responsibility for their Type 1 Diabetes care is merited. Young people felt diabetes did not stop them from participating in activities; it is simply a part of them that needs managing throughout life.

  6. A motivation-based explanatory model of street drinking among young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción; Fernández-Monroy, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    This social marketing study focuses on street drinking behavior among young people. The objective is to divide the market of young people who engage in this activity into segments according to their motivations. For the three segments identified, a behavior model is created using the beliefs, attitudes, behavior, and social belonging of young people who engage in street drinking. The methodology used individual questionnaires filled in by a representative sample of young people. The results show that the behavior model follows the sequence of attitudes-beliefs-behavior and that social belonging influences these three variables. Similarly, differences are observed in the behavior model depending on the segment individuals belong to.

  7. Blogging as a viable research methodology for young people with arthritis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Julie; Gray, Nicola J; Smith, Felicity J; McDonagh, Janet E

    2015-03-05

    The development of services that are responsive to the needs of users is a health policy priority. Finding ways of engaging young people in research to gain insights into their particular experiences, perspectives, and needs is vital but challenging. These data are critical to improving services in ways that meet the needs of young people. Our aim was to evaluate Web-based blogging as a viable method for understanding the daily experiences and condition management strategies of young people with juvenile arthritis. To meet the objectives of the study, a qualitative approach was required to gather information on the experiences and perspectives of young people regarding the management of their condition and its daily impact. In collaboration with a group of young people with arthritis, a custom website was developed. This website provided the opportunity for young people (aged 11-19) with arthritis from a United Kingdom pediatric hospital to contribute blogs. It was designed so that young people were free to write about whatever was important to them, but the site also included some structure and prompts to facilitate the writing of blogs. Qualitative analytical procedures were employed, supported by NVivo software. Engagement in the study by young people was variable in terms of their participation rates, frequency of website visits, and the length of their blogs. Young people used the site in different ways, some responding to the website categories and prompts that the team created, while others used it as a diary to record their experiences and thoughts. In line with principles of qualitative inquiry, the data collection was participant-led. Young people were in control of what, how much, and how often they wrote. However, some young people expressed difficulty regarding knowing what they should blog about. For a number of reasons, discussed here, the blogs may also not be fully reflective of experiences and perspectives of the participants. However, the data

  8. Anger and globalization among young people in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchday, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges faced by youth in developing countries. Using India as an example of a fast-globalizing country, this article highlights the experience and challenges faced by adolescents and emerging adults as they search for their interpersonal and professional identities. The difficulties of defining identity in the context of rapid globalization where people are exposed to diverse cultural forces that may conflict with each other are particularly salient when dealing with anger. Anger frequently results from thwarted wants and needs. In globalizing developing economies, young people often face inequitable access and opportunities that may be cause for distress-anger and depression. However, the skills to deal with anger are frequently culturally determined and may not be effective in situations where multiple cultural rules are operational. For example, India being a collectivist culture traditionally encourages the suppression of anger. However, situations and rules of conduct in a global economic order require the assertive expression of anger and the confrontation of conflict. Research that is methodologically and culturally appropriate is needed in exploring these issues and ameliorating distress associated with inequity, conflicts, and challenges. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Nutrition Transition and Obesity Among Teenagers and Young Adults in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Ranil; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Wijayabandara, Maheshi; Hills, Andrew P; Misra, Anoop

    2017-01-01

    Obesity among teenagers/adolescents and young adults is associated with significant adverse short and longer-term effects on health. To date, no narrative reviews have evaluated nutrition transition and its contribution to the obesity epidemic among adolescents and young adults in the South Asian (SA) region. Data were retrieved by a four-stage systematic search process. A search of the online Pub- Med/Medline, SciVerse Scopus and Web of Science databases was performed. The age groups were defined as follows; teenage:13-19 years, adolescence:10-18 years and young adult:19-24 years. Among teenagers/adolescents, the prevalence of overweight ranged from 11.0% (Sri Lanka) to 19.0% (India), while obesity ranged from 2.4% (Sri Lanka) to 11.0% (Pakistan). In young adults, prevalence of overweight ranged between 7.9% (Nepal) to 15.0% (Pakistan), while obesity showed a much wider variation (0.005%[Nepal] - 22.8%[India]). Nutritional risk factors associated with overweight/ obesity among SAs of this age group included reduced fruit and vegetable consumption, a total vegetarian diet, consumption of fast food and soft drinks, and skipping breakfast. Other contributing factors identified were: adding extra salt to meals, eating meals outside of the home, frequently visiting restaurants and eating while watching television. Daily milk/yoghurt consumption and a family supper have shown a protective effect against overweight/obesity. Overweight and obesity are common amongst teenagers/adolescents and young adults of the SA region. Several food types and habits were identified as being associated with overweight/ obesity in this population. Identifying common protective and contributory factors is very important for the development of a shared regional preventive strategy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Prevalence of obesity among young Asian-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anjali; Mitchell, Stephanie; Chirumamilla, Radha; Zhang, Jin; Horn, Ivor B; Lewin, Amy; Huang, Z Jennifer

    2012-12-01

    Asian-American children are considered to be at low risk of obesity, but previous estimates have not distinguished between children from different Asian countries. We estimate the prevalence of obesity among Asian-American children by mother's country of origin, generational status, and family socioeconomic factors using a secondary analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) wave III (children ∼4 years old) dataset. The ECLS-B is a nationally representative study of children born in 2001 that oversampled births to Asian mothers. Asian ethnic categories included Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Asian Indian, Korean, Vietnamese, and Other Asian/Pacific Islander. The primary outcome variable was weight status; overweight = BMI ≥85(th) and obese = BMI ≥95(th) percentile for age and gender. Twenty-six percent [95% confidence interval (CI) 23.6-29.1] of Asian-American 4 year olds were overweight or obese, and 13% (95% CI 10.2-15.2) were obese. Chinese-American children were at lower risk of overweight or obesity (23.5%, 95% CI 18.4-29.5 ) compared to whites (36%, 95% CI 34.3-37.7); Asian-Indian 4 year olds had the lowest rates of overweight or obesity (15.6%, 95% CI 8.0-28.2) and were most likely to be underweight (10%, 95% CI 4.9-19.4). Among Asians,Vietnamese-American children had the highest rate of overweight or obesity (34.7%, 95% CI 0.6-52.3). Vietnamese-American children are at elevated risk of obesity and overweight, whereas Chinese and Asian-Indian children are at low risk. After controlling for Asian ethnicity, maternal education, and household poverty status, Asian-American children whose mothers were born outside the United States were less likely to be obese [odds ratio = 0.55 (0.32-0.95), p = 0.03].

  11. Frequency of occurrence of knock-kneed and bow-legged knees for children and young people in school age

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Siminska; Weronika Bukowska; Dorota Ratuszek–Sadowska; Krystyna Nowacka; Wojciech Hagner

    2017-01-01

    Lower limb faults are one of the most common defects in school-age children and are now a problem in our society. Currently there is a trend towards low physical activity among children. Most young people prefer to spend time sitting down without taking physical activity or limiting it to the minimum. This results in lowering muscle tone, weight gain - manifesting as being overweight or obese. School children often complain of spinal pain as well as lower back pain. We have many disadvantages...

  12. Biocultural aspects of obesity in young Mexican schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewis, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Obesity related to over-nutrition is investigated in a sample of 219 Mexican children from affluent families, ages 6-12 years. Defined as weight-for-age at or above the 95(th) percentile, obesity rates in middle childhood are very high in this population, being 24.2% of children (29.4% of boys and 19.1% of girls). Binary logistic regression shows that children are more likely to be obese if they are boys, from small households with few or no other children, and have more permissive, less authoritarian parents. Diet at school and activity patterns, including television viewing, are not different for boys and girls and so do not explain this gender variation. The value placed on children, especially sons, in smaller middle-class families, can result in indulgent feeding because food treats are a cultural index of parental caring. Parents also value child fatness as a sign of health. These obese Mexican children have no greater social problems (peer rejection or stigma) or psychological problems (anxiety, depression, or low self esteem) than their non-obese peers. More study specifically focused on feeding practices in the home environment is required to explain very high rates of child obesity. The differences in obesity risk related to specific aspects of children's developmental microniche emphasize the importance of including a focus on gender as a socio-ecological construct in human biological studies of child growth, development, and nutrition. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. What do young people think about their school-based sex and relationship education? A qualitative synthesis of young people's views and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Pandora; Langford, Rebecca; Campbell, Rona

    2016-09-13

    Although sex and relationship education (SRE) represents a key strand in policies to safeguard young people and improve their sexual health, it currently lacks statutory status, government guidance is outdated and a third of UK schools has poor-quality SRE. We aimed to investigate whether current provision meets young people's needs. Synthesis of qualitative studies of young people's views of their school-based SRE. Eligible studies originated from the UK, Ireland, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Japan, Iran, Brazil and Sweden. Studies of students aged 4-19 in full-time education, young adults ≤19 (not necessarily in full-time education) or adults ≤25 if recalling their experiences of school-based SRE. -69 publications were identified, with 55 remaining after quality appraisal (representing 48 studies). The synthesis found that although sex is a potent and potentially embarrassing topic, schools appear reluctant to acknowledge this and attempt to teach SRE in the same way as other subjects. Young people report feeling vulnerable in SRE, with young men anxious to conceal sexual ignorance and young women risking sexual harassment if they participate. Schools appear to have difficulty accepting that some young people are sexually active, leading to SRE that is out of touch with many young people's lives. Young people report that SRE can be negative, gendered and heterosexist. They expressed dislike of their own teachers delivering SRE due to blurred boundaries, lack of anonymity, embarrassment and poor training. SRE should be 'sex-positive' and delivered by experts who maintain clear boundaries with students. Schools should acknowledge that sex is a special subject with unique challenges, as well as the fact and range of young people's sexual activity, otherwise young people will continue to disengage from SRE and opportunities for safeguarding and improving their sexual health will be reduced. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission

  14. Assistive technology for children and young people with low vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rachel; Barker, Lucy; Rubin, Gary; Dahlmann-Noor, Annegret

    2015-06-18

    Recent technological developments, such as the near universal spread of mobile phones and portable computers and improvements in the accessibility features of these devices, give children and young people with low vision greater independent access to information. Some electronic technologies, such as closed circuit TV, are well established low vision aids and newer versions, such as electronic readers or off-the shelf tablet computers, may offer similar functionalities with easier portability and at lower cost. To assess the effect of electronic assistive technologies on reading, educational outcomes and quality of life in children and young people with low vision. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2014), the Health Technology Assessment Programme (HTA) (www.hta.ac.uk/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 30 October 2014. We intended to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs in this review. We planned to include trials involving children between the ages of 5 and 16 years with low vision as defined by, or equivalent to, the WHO 1992 definition of low vision. We planned to include studies that explore the use of assistive technologies (ATs). These could include all types of closed circuit television/electronic vision enhancement systems (CCTV/EVES), computer technology including tablet computers and adaptive technologies such as screen readers, screen magnification and

  15. Young Adults' Attitudes and Perceptions of Obesity and Weight Management: Implications for Treatment Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoye, Autumn; Gorin, Amy A; LaRose, Jessica Gokee

    2016-03-01

    Young adults are underrepresented in standard behavioral weight loss trials, and evidence suggests that they differ from older adults on many weight-related constructs. The aim of this review is to explore young adults' attitudes toward obesity and weight management, with particular attention to those factors that may play a role in the development of future treatment efforts. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal considerations unique to young adulthood are assessed; in addition, we examine young adults' perceptions of specific weight-related behaviors such as dieting, physical activity, and self-weighing. Conclusions are consistent with other findings suggesting that weight management interventions should be adapted and designed specifically for this age group.

  16. Young Adults’ Attitudes and Perceptions of Obesity and Weight Management: Implications for Treatment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoye, Autumn; Gorin, Amy A.; LaRose, Jessica Gokee

    2017-01-01

    Young adults are underrepresented in standard behavioral weight loss trials, and evidence suggests that they differ from older adults on many weight related constructs. The aim of this review is to explore young adults’ attitudes toward obesity and weight management, with particular attention to those factors that may play a role in development of future treatment efforts. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal considerations unique to young adulthood are assessed; in addition, we examine young adults’ perceptions of specific weight-related behaviors such as dieting, physical activity, and self-weighing. Conclusions are consistent with other findings suggesting that weight management interventions should be adapted and designed specifically for this age group. PMID:26923688

  17. The Leisure of Young People in Contemporary Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts, Ken

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the leisure of young people in Western Europe has changed since the 1950s. It considers the effects of the extension of the youth life stage, the shift into a post-industrial era, and the steep increases in leisure spending that have occurred. The paper considers the ways in which youth cultures have now become milieu where social relationships and divisions are changed rather than reproduced, argues that this is most plausible in relation to gender, for some but not all ethnic divisions, and wholly implausible in relation to social class. It is argued that class differences in childhood leisure socialisation which result in the acquisition of different amounts and types of cultural capital, plus the social relationships formed among social equals, enable class differences to be maintained throughout the youth life stage even though young people on most social class trajectories share much leisure in common.

    Este artículo examina cómo ha cambiado el ocio de los jóvenes en Europa occidental desde los años 50. Considera los efectos de la extensión de la etapa vital de la juventud, el ingreso en una era post-industrial y el notable aumento del gasto en ocio. El artículo explora las maneras en que las culturas juveniles se han convertido ahora en medios donde las relaciones y divisiones sociales son transformadas antes que reproducidas, y argumenta que esto es más plausible en relación al género, para algunas –aunque no todas– las divisiones étnicas, y totalmente implausible en relación a la clase social. Se aduce que las diferencias de clase en la socialización del ocio durante la infancia, que resultan en la adquisición de diferentes cantidades y tipos de capital cultural, junto a las relaciones sociales formadas entre pares sociales, permiten que las diferencias de clase se mantengan a lo largo de la etapa vital de la juventud, incluso aunque los jóvenes en la mayoría de trayectorias de clase

  18. Price, public policy, and smoking in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewit, E M; Hyland, A; Kerrebrock, N; Cummings, K M

    1997-01-01

    To examine the effect of cigarette taxes, limits on public smoking, laws regulating access to tobacco by young people, and exposure to pro-tobacco and anti-tobacco messages on smoking participation and the intention to smoke among ninth-grade students (aged 13-16). Two cross-sectional, school-based surveys (total of 15432 responses) of ninth-grade students conducted in 21 North American communities in 1990 and 1992 in conjunction with the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation. A ninth-grader was classified as a smoker if he or she reported smoking a whole cigarette on at least one of the 30 days preceding the survey. Among non-smokers, a positive intention to smoke was attributed to those who claimed they probably or definitely would be smoking within a year. Both smoking participation and the intent to smoke were related to differences in cigarette prices, with estimated price elasticities of -0.87 and -0.95, respectively. Boys were far more sensitive to price than girls with respect to smoking participation (elasticities of -1.51 and -0.32, respectively); however, the effect of price on the intent to smoke was similar for boys and girls. Policies limiting minors' access to tobacco (a minimum purchase age of 18 years, a ban on cigarette vending machines, and a ban on giving away free samples of tobacco products) were associated with reductions in participation and intention to smoke. Exposure to tobacco education in school was associated with decreased participation and intention to smoke. Policies that prohibited smoking in public places and in schools were not significantly related to the smoking patterns of ninth-graders. Frequency of exposure to pro-tobacco advertisements was marginally associated with increased participation and intention to smoke; paradoxically, frequency of exposure to anti-tobacco advertisements was correlated with an increased likelihood of smoking. Policies limiting access to tobacco by young people, increasing education

  19. Obesity and associated factors in young adults attending tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aDepartment of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. bDepartment of ... and 20–30% in Malaysia.12,13 ... presumed healthy and are therefore rarely the subjects of obesity.

  20. Effects of vibration training in reducing risk of slip-related falls among young adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng; Munoz, Jose; Han, Long-Zhu; Yang, Fei

    2017-05-24

    This study examined the effects of controlled whole-body vibration training on reducing risk of slip-related falls in people with obesity. Twenty-three young adults with obesity were randomly assigned into either the vibration or placebo group. The vibration and placebo groups respectively received 6-week vibration and placebo training on a side-alternating vibration platform. Before and after the training, the isometric knee extensors strength capacity was measured for the two groups. Both groups were also exposed to a standardized slip induced by a treadmill during gait prior to and following the training. Dynamic stability and fall incidences responding to the slip were also assessed. The results indicated that vibration training significantly increased the muscle strength and improved dynamic stability control at recovery touchdown after the slip occurrence. The improved dynamic stability could be resulted from the enhanced trunk segment movement control, which may be attributable to the strength increment caused by the vibration training. The decline of the fall rates from the pre-training slip to the post-training one was greater among the vibration group than the placebo group (45% vs. 25%). Vibration-based training could be a promising alternative or additional modality to active exercise-based fall prevention programs for people with obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preserved microvascular endothelial function in young, obese adults with functional loss of nitric oxide signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eHarrell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Data indicate endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD may be preserved in the skeletal muscle microcirculation of young, obese adults. Preserved EDD might be mediated by compensatory mechanisms, impeding insight into preclinical vascular dysfunction. We aimed to determine the functional roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS and cyclooxygenase (COX toward EDD in younger obese adults. We first hypothesized EDD would be preserved in young, obese adults. Further, we hypothesized a reduced contribution of NOS in young, obese adults would be replaced by increased COX signaling. Microvascular EDD was assessed with Doppler ultrasound and brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (ACh in younger (27±1 yr obese (n=29 and lean (n=46 humans. Individual and combined contributions of NOS and COX were examined with intra-arterial infusions of L-NMMA and ketorolac, respectively. Vasodilation was quantified as an increase in forearm vascular conductance (ΔFVC. Arterial endothelial cell biopsies were analyzed for protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. ΔFVC to ACh was similar between groups. After L-NMMA, ΔFVC to ACh was greater in obese adults (p<0.05. There were no group differences in ΔFVC to ACh with ketorolac. With combined NOS-COX inhibition, ΔFVC was greater in obese adults at the intermediate dose of ACh. Surprisingly, arterial endothelial cell eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS were similar between groups. Younger obese adults exhibit preserved EDD and eNOS expression despite functional dissociation of NOS-mediated vasodilation and similar COX signaling. Compensatory NOS- and COX-independent vasodilatory mechanisms conceal reduced NOS contributions in otherwise healthy obese adults early in life, which may contribute to vascular dysfunction.

  2. Barriers to Wellness: Voices and Views from Young People in Five Cities. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Linda Sprague

    2016-01-01

    Young people of color and young people growing up in low-income communities are at high risk for experiencing poor health. In part, this is because they have inequitable access to the supports, opportunities, and experiences that science affirms are essential for children's well-being. Wellness initiatives--holistic approaches to overall physical…

  3. School-Family Relationships, School Satisfaction and the Academic Achievement of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampden-Thompson, Gillian; Galindo, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Families' perceptions of, and interactions with, schools and teachers can play an essential role in young people's educational outcomes. According to Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory, young people grow within multiple nested systems of influence interacting with each other. Thus, their development is affected by persons, processes, and…

  4. Young People's Views Regarding Participation in Mental Health and Wellbeing Research through Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, Helen; Cardoso, Patricia; Papageorgiou, Alana; Carolan, Catherine; Costello, Leesa; Thomas, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Social media is a central component in the lives of many young people, and provides innovative potential to conduct research among this population. Ethical issues around online research have been subject to much debate, yet young people have seldom been consulted to provide a youth perspective and voice. Eight (8) focus groups involving 48 Grade 9…

  5. Young People's Transitions in London and Temporal Orientations of Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Kaori; Encinas, Mabel

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from the Changing Youth Labour Markets and Schools to Work Transitions in Modern Britain projects undertaken between 2009 and 2010. The projects examined young people's experiences and perceptions about study, work, and the future while going through transitions. The target group was young people on vocational…

  6. Transitions to Long-Term Unemployment Risk among Young People: Evidence from Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Elish; McGuinness, Seamus; O'Connell, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    Many young people have short spells of unemployment during their transition from school to work; however, some often get trapped in unemployment and risk becoming long-term unemployed. Much research has been undertaken on the factors that influence unemployment risk for young people during their school-to-work transition. However, very little is…

  7. Framing Young People's Educational Transitions: The Role of Local and Contemporary Economic Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ceryn

    2017-01-01

    Despite rates of participation in post-compulsory full-time education reaching approximately 84% in Wales, social class inequalities continue to shape young people's transitions from compulsory to post-compulsory education. This article draws upon data from a project which explored how young people's educational decisions and transitions in Wales,…

  8. Acculturation and Religion in Schools: The Views of Young People from Minority Belief Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niens, Ulrike; Mawhinney, Alison; Richardson, Norman; Chiba, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the relationship between religious identity, acculturation strategies and perceptions of acculturation orientation in the school context amongst young people from minority belief backgrounds. Based on a qualitative study including interviews with 26 young people from religious minority belief backgrounds in Northern…

  9. Young People in Croatia in Times of Crisis and Some Remarks about Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrnjaus, Kornelija; Vrcelj, Sofija; Zlokovic, Jasminka

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors address the youth as a research phenomenon and present the current position of young people in the Croatian society. The authors exhibit interesting results of a recent study of youth in Croatia and present the results of their research conducted among Croatian students aiming to explore the attitudes of young people and…

  10. Pain in young people aged 13 to 17 years with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkinson, Kathryn N; Dickinson, Heather O; Arnaud, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and associations of self- and parent-reported pain in young people with cerebral palsy (CP).......To determine the prevalence and associations of self- and parent-reported pain in young people with cerebral palsy (CP)....

  11. The Youth Worker's Role in Young People's Sexual Health: A Practice Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Marty; Davis, Jackie

    2009-01-01

    Sexual health promotion is of primary importance for young people in Australia, especially for vulnerable and at-risk young people. The authors first identify the important role of youth workers in engaging clients proactively around a broad range of sexual health issues, and then discuss real and perceived barriers that youth workers face in…

  12. Service Approaches to Young People with Complex Needs Leaving Out-of-Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvaso, Catia; Delfabbro, Paul; Hackett, Louisa; Mills, Hayley

    2016-01-01

    Although leaving statutory out-of-home care can be a challenging time for many young people, it is recognised that young people who have multiple or complex needs find this transition particularly difficult. This study aims to gain a deeper understanding of the challenges faced by care leavers who have complex needs, as well as to identify some of…

  13. We Can Dream! Ways of Planning for the Future for Young People with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jill; Burke, Christine; Mattingly, Molly

    2009-01-01

    This booklet is for young people and their families, friends and supporters to read and talk about together. It is based on the stories of four young people. Big changes happened for some of them; others are still waiting for things to change. The goal of the booklet is to give students ideas about how they may want to plan or change things when…

  14. Australian Qualifications Framework Lower-Level Qualifications: Pathways to Where for Young People?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanwick, John

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates where certificate I and II qualifications lead young people aged 15-24 years in terms of employment and further study. A prime motivation for young people undertaking these qualifications is to facilitate transition into the labour market. These qualifications are aimed at developing basic vocational skills or preparatory…

  15. Young People's Voluntary and Campaigning Activities as Sources of Political Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roker, Debi; Player, Katie; Coleman, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses political apathy and alienation among youth, challenging this negative image. Describes empirical research that demonstrates a high level of engagement by young people in social activism and community activities, focuses on factors influencing young people's participation, and demonstrates that volunteering and campaigning affect young…

  16. What Works for Disconnected Young People: A Scan of the Evidence. MDRC Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treskon, Louisa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to conduct a scan of the current state of the evidence regarding what works in helping disconnected young people, defined as the population of young people ages 16 to 24 who are not connected to work or school. The following four main research questions were investigated: (1) What local, state, and federal policies…

  17. 'The Trouble with Normal': (Re)Imagining Sexuality Education with Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Leanne; O'Sullivan, Mary; Enright, Eimear

    2018-01-01

    What do young people believe sexuality education ought to be about? It is within the absence of a sustained and critical consideration of the possibilities and politics of engaging in research with rather than for young people in the reimagining of sexuality education that this paper is positioned. Data were generated as part of an 18-month Youth…

  18. Children and Young People's Views on Web 2.0 Technologies. LGA Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Peter; Walker, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Web 2.0 technologies are online tools that allow users to share, collaborate and interact with one another. This small-scale project focused on young people's personal use of social media, and on the potential to use these tools to collect the views of young people and involve them in democracy in communities and local authorities. The main…

  19. Using Technologies to Support the Social and Academic Engagement of Young People with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Owen M.

    2017-01-01

    Situated in the larger questions of how to support the educational engagement and positive psychosocial development of young people with cancer, the purpose of this exploratory study was to address gaps in the literature and build understanding of how young people use digital and Internet-connected technologies in ways that support their social…

  20. Make or Break: How Homeless Young People Struggle To Fulfil Their Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer Foundation, London (England).

    Homelessness in the United Kingdom has very wide ramifications. Young homeless people face a difficult transition into adult life as poverty, low self-esteem, lack of family support, and lack of qualifications reinforce each others' effects. Homeless young people start behind their peers in educational achievement. Government policies put up…

  1. The Real Cost of Linking Homeless Young People to Employment, Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the implementation of the Victorian Youth Employment, Education and Training Initiative (YEETI). This statewide initiative delivered brokerage funds to homeless young people through their housing advocates. One of the findings of the project was that the main barrier to young people achieving a stable continuum in their lives…

  2. Sex and Relationships Education in Schools: The Views and Experiences of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, Neil; Powell, Eryl

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to investigate how young people are using school-based sources of sex and relationships education (SRE) to obtain information and advice. Design/methodology/approach: The paper shows how anonymous self-completion questionnaires were administered to young people aged between 12 and 19 years in three secondary…

  3. The Dynamics of the Aspirations and Demands of Different Generations of Russia's Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotkina, Z. A.

    2013-01-01

    Survey data comparing the life aspirations of three generations of Russians show an increase from the level of the Soviet generation of young people to the perestroika generation, followed by a decline in the generation of young people who were born and grew up in today's "market" Russia. One chief cause of the downward dynamic of their…

  4. Studying Young People's New Media Use: Methodological Shifts and Educational Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    A lack of good information about what youth are doing with new media stimulates fears and hopes about the relationship between young people and digital technologies. This article focuses on new modes of inquiry into youth new media use, highlighting the challenges, complexities, and opportunities inherent in studying young people's digital…

  5. Improving the Educational Experience of Children and Young People in Public Care: A Scottish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Graham; Chakrabarti, Mono

    2008-01-01

    The context for this paper relates to the policy and practice implications of efforts to achieve social justice for Scotland's 12,000 children and young people in the care of local government authorities. The paper is located within a growing evidence base of the educational experience of young people in care and leaving care. The data on…

  6. From Individual Heroism to Political Resistance: Young People Challenging Everyday Racism on the Labour Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathzel, Nora

    2006-01-01

    The labour market in Sweden today does not offer a rosy picture for young people. Among them are youth with a migrant background that have the lowest chance of becoming employed. The table below shows the unemployment rates of young people with a migrant background. (Contains 1 table, 1 figure and 11 notes.)

  7. Young People's Conversations about Environmental and Sustainability Issues in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik; Öhman, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Young people's conversations about environmental and sustainability issues in social media and their educational implications are under-researched. Understanding young people's meaning-making in social media and the experiences they acquire could help teachers to stage pluralistic and participatory approaches to classroom discussions about the…

  8. Visibility, Immobility and Stigma: Young People's Use of Sexual Health Services in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Gary; Stanley, Nicky

    2006-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy has become a major policy issue, for which young people are often publicly held solely responsible. However, a combination of factors substantially increases the risks of conception faced by young people engaging in early sexual activity. This article reports the main findings of a study of teenage pregnancy in linked seaside and…

  9. Mental Health Problems in Young People with Intellectual Disabilities: The Impact on Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Hannah; Scior, Katrina

    2008-01-01

    Background: Young people with intellectual disabilities seem to be at increased risk of developing mental health problems. The present study set out to examine the impact such difficulties can have on parents. Method: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were carried out with 13 parents and one adult sibling of 11 young people with intellectual…

  10. Memory complaints are frequent but qualitatively different in young and elderly healthy people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginó, Sandra; Mendes, Tiago; Maroco, João; Ribeiro, Filipa; Schmand, Ben A.; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Guerreiro, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subjective memory complaints are frequently reported by the elderly. There is less information about the characterization of subjective memory complaints in young people. OBJECTIVE: To determine different memory complaints between young and elderly people with the use of the Subjective

  11. Memory complaints are frequent but qualitatively different in young and elderly healthy people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginó, S.; Mendes, T.; Maroco, J.; Ribeiro, F.; Schmand, B.A.; de Mendonca, A.; Guerreiro, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Subjective memory complaints are frequently reported by the elderly. There is less information about the characterization of subjective memory complaints in young people. Objective: To determine different memory complaints between young and elderly people with the use of the Subjective

  12. Navigating the field of housing: housing pathways of young people in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochstenbach, C.; Boterman, W.R.

    2015-01-01

    In many western cities, housing opportunities of young people are increasingly constrained due to housing market reforms and decreasing affordability as a result of processes of gentrification. Little is known about how young people deal with these constraints and how this differs across class and

  13. Emergency contraceptive use in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Challenging common assumptions about young people's contraceptive practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Rosalijn

    2015-05-01

    Drawing on an ethnographic case study of young people's (aged 18-29) use of emergency contraceptives (ECs) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, this article highlights areas of disconnect between how reproductive health experts envision EC use and local meanings ascribed to ECs by young people. ECs - designed by reproductive health experts to be used only in case of emergency - were preferred by study participants over other contraceptive methods because of their ease of use, discreetness, perceived minimal side effects on beauty and future fertility, and usefulness in navigating reproductive intentions. The findings point to features that young people find desirable when it comes to contraceptive methods and suggest that common assumptions of reproductive health experts about young people's contraceptive practices need to be reconsidered, namely: 1) that young people can plan for prevention of unwanted pregnancy by buying a contraceptive method in advance; 2) that existing contraceptive technologies are appropriate for young people; 3) that young people prefer to use modern contraceptive methods; and 4) that young people in premarital relationships aim to prevent unplanned pregnancy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Examining the Conflict and Interconnectedness of Young People's Ideas about Environmental Issues, Responsibility and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Leigh; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Young people's environmental views are typically conflicted, with little recognition of the links between environmental issues or between environmental responsibility and action. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether young people's understanding of the environment is in conflict or whether they are forming interconnections…

  15. Heterophobia: Subverting Heterosexual Hegemony through Intermedial Applied Performance for Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    This article responds to intermediality through a case study of an intermedial applied performance for young people. "Heterophobia," a hybrid fusion of live performance, digital technology, social media and urban street art, aimed to challenge homophobia in schools and online. Intermediality was used as a tool to enhance young people's…

  16. School Nurses' Experiences of Managing Young People with Mental Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenna, Jean; Cleaver, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of mental health disorder is increasing among young people. It is recognized that early intervention is essential in supporting young people, and care provided within schools to support emotional well-being is recommended as part of this process. A scoping review was undertaken examining school nurses' experiences of supporting the…

  17. Addressing Digital Inequalities amongst Young People: Conflicting Discourses and Complex Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, Sarah; Davies, Huw; Eynon, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Despite the ongoing discourse about the constantly connected and digitally savvy youth in the UK, a growing evidence base demonstrates that there are still significant inequalities in young people's ability to access and use the internet. There is a small, but significant, proportion of young people who do not have internet access at home, nor…

  18. Young People's Engagement with Digital Literacies in Marginal Contexts in a Globalised World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snydera, Ilana; Prinsloo, Mastin

    2007-01-01

    Claims about the complex ways in which young people's lives are entangled with digital technologies abound, yet insufficient theoretically informed empirical research has been conducted to examine how they use them and with what impact. This special issue of Language and Education presents theoretical and empirical understandings of young people's…

  19. Perspectives on HIV/AIDS Stigma and Discrimination: Voices of Some Young People in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduro, Georgina Yaa; Otsin, Mercy

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines Ghanaian young people's perceptions of the determinants of HIV- and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination, and how these perceptions may influence the de-stigmatisation process. Drawing on findings from an in-depth, multi-method qualitative study involving 104 school and street young people aged between 14 and 19 years, the…

  20. The Social Construction of Young People within Education Policy: Evidence from the UK's Coalition Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Since assuming power in May 2010, the UK's Coalition government has devoted considerable energy to formulating its policies with respect to young people. Evidence of this can be found in "Positive for youth: a new approach to cross-government policy for young people aged 13-19", a policy text that outlines a wide range of measures to be…

  1. Individualisation and Social Exclusion: The Case of Young People Not in Education, Employment or Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics, experiences and long-term prospects of young people outside the labour market and education have attracted widespread international attention in recent decades, and the specific category of young people not in education, employment or training (NEET) has been a policy concern for the UK Government since 1997. This paper…

  2. Young people's perception of sexual and reproductive health services in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godia, Pamela M; Olenja, Joyce M; Hofman, Jan J; van den Broek, Nynke

    2014-04-15

    Addressing the Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) needs of young people remains a big challenge. This study explored experiences and perceptions of young people in Kenya aged 10-24 with regard to their SRH needs and whether these are met by the available healthcare services. 18 focus group discussions and 39 in-depth interviews were conducted at health care facilities and youth centres across selected urban and rural settings in Kenya. All interviews were tape recorded and transcribed. Data was analysed using the thematic framework approach. Young people's perceptions are not uniform and show variation between boys and girls as well as for type of service delivery. Girls seeking antenatal care and family planning services at health facilities characterise the available services as good and staff as helpful. However, boys perceive services at health facilities as designed for women and children, and therefore feel uncomfortable seeking services. At youth centres, young people value the non-health benefits including availability of recreational facilities, prevention of idleness, building of confidence, improving interpersonal communication skills, vocational training and facilitation of career progression. Providing young people with SRH information and services through the existing healthcare system, presents an opportunity that should be further optimised. Providing recreational activities via youth centres is reported by young people themselves to not lead to increased uptake of SRH healthcare services. There is need for more research to evaluate how perceived non-health benefits young people do gain from youth centres could lead to improved SRH of young people.

  3. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics: Young People in Education and Training, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Australian education and training system offers a range of options for young people. This publication provides a summary of the statistics relating to young people aged 15 to 19 years who participated in an education and training activity during 2011. Information on participation is presented for VET in Schools students, school students,…

  4. Suicidal Ideation and Behaviour among Young People Leaving Care: Case-File Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, David J.; Taylor, Brian J.; Killick, Campbell; Bickerstaff, David

    2015-01-01

    Self-harming and suicide amongst adolescents are reported to be increasing in Europe and internationally. For young people in state care, this aspect of mental well-being is of particular concern. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence of suicidal ideation and behaviour amongst young people (age 16-21 years) leaving state care in one…

  5. Patterns of Substance Use among Young People Attending Colleges of Further Education in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrystal, Patrick; Percy, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Substance use and misuse amongst young people attending colleges of further education (FE) has received little attention in the drug use literature in the UK. This article aims to explore the patterns of drug use amongst young people attending colleges of further education in Northern Ireland. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey…

  6. Apolipoproteins A-I, B, and C-III and Obesity in Young Adult Cherokee

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    Wenyu Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since young adult Cherokee are at increased risk for both diabetes and cardiovascular disease, we assessed association of apolipoproteins (A-I, B, and C-III in non-HDL and HDL with obesity and related risk factors. Obese participants (BMI ≥ 30 aged 20–40 years (n=476 were studied. Metabolically healthy obese (MHO individuals were defined as not having any of four components of the ATP-III metabolic syndrome after exclusion of waist circumference, and obese participants not being MHO were defined as metabolically abnormal obese (MAO. Associations were evaluated by correlation and regression modeling. Obesity measures, blood pressure, insulin resistance, lipids, and apolipoproteins were significantly different between groups except for total cholesterol, LDL-C, and HDL-apoC-III. Apolipoproteins were not correlated with obesity measures with the exception of apoA-I with waist and the waist : height ratio. In a logistic regression model apoA-I and the apoB : apoA-I ratio were significantly selected for identifying those being MHO, and the result (C-statistic = 0.902 indicated that apoA-I and the apoB : apoA-I ratio can be used to identify a subgroup of obese individuals with a significantly less atherogenic lipid and apolipoprotein profile, particularly in obese Cherokee men in whom MHO is more likely.

  7. Electronic games of movement: it is sport or simulation in the perception of young people?

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    Ana Paula Salles da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic games have been one of the main ways of access of young to technology in Brazil, leading to new experiences in social practices.The objective of this study is to identify the perception of young people on the experience of electronic games of movement with sports theme. Methodology: 24 young elementary school students were investigated, divided into 3 groups. Each group participated in 10 sessions with electronic games of movement of 3 hours each. During the sessions the speeches of the young people were recorded in a field diary. Results: departing from the speeches of young people the experiment with electronic games of movement emerges as a mediated and unique experience. It is mediated because it interposes itself between subject and object and it is unique because the way is the experience itself.Conclusions: the perception of the young people indicates a conceptual enlargement in which the comprehension of sports is expanded by the experiences with technology.

  8. Subjective Well-Being among Young People in Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcinski, Eileen; Holst, Elke

    2008-01-01

    This study used a nationally representative sample of young people in Germany from the German Socio-Economic Panel to examine how demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the young persons and their parents, personality traits of the young persons, quality and quantity of relationships, the parent's level of life satisfaction, and other…

  9. Young people on the margins of the educational system: following the same path differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørlich, Anne; Katznelson, Noemi

    2018-01-01

    Background: Across Europe and the Nordic countries, unemployment among 18–30 year-olds is a major challenge, which in some countries is being tackled by focusing on education. In Denmark, young unemployed people or people on the margins of the education system are assessed regarding what is known...... disorganised educational market, a changing labour market, a rapidly increasing tendency to diagnose, as well as increased demands related to performance, position the young people on the margins of the educational system. The analyses suggest that the young people’s ways of interacting with structural...... of apprenticeships. There is a need to devise solutions that involve the labour market more closely, address issues of the noteworthy increase in ‘diagnoses’ and how this affects young people, and find ways of reducing the pressure on young people in educational systems in general....

  10. Characteristics and trends of self-harming behaviour in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaver, Karen

    Deliberate self-harm is recognized as a serious public health issue in young people. There is evidence that young people who self-harm are more likely to repeat self-harm, and this in turn increases their risk of completed suicide. Prevalence studies have identified that the rate of self-harm among young people is on the increase, information largely based on data arising from review and analysis of hospital attendances. However, community-based studies indicate that the prevalence is much higher, with those seen in emergency departments representing the 'tip of the iceberg' (Hawton and Rodham, 2006). Young people's motives for self-harm are discussed, as are research findings which indicate that nurses can have negative attitudes towards patients who self-harm. The article considers the implications of this for young people and identifies areas for future research.

  11. FACTORS AFFECTING CITY DESTINATION CHOICE AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE IN SERBIA

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    Nemanja Tomić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to explore factors which influence city destination choice among young people in Serbia. In order to achieve this we conducted a survey consisting of 20 different items influencing the choice of city destination. Afterwards the principal component exploratory factor analysis (EFA was carried out in order to extract factors. T-test and ANOVA test were also used to determine if there is a difference between different gender and age groups in terms of which factors influence their choice of a city destination. The results indicate four motivating factors extracted by factor analysis, from which Good hospitality and restaurant service seems to be the major motivating factor. The results also show that respondents belonging to the age group of under 25 give more importance to Information and promotion as well as to Good hospitality and restaurant service than those belonging to older age groups. The same two factors are also more important to females than males.

  12. Effects of norm referent salience on young people's dietary orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Mark; Khan, Sammyh S; Qin, Qi

    2015-02-01

    We examined the effects of making salient different norm referents on young people's dietary orientation. Participants were exposed to a referent who was either of similar age to themselves or older before reporting their normative beliefs, attitudes and intentions concerning dietary behavior. As predicted, exposure to the older referent was associated with stronger perceptions that eating five portions of fruit and vegetables each day was normative. Compared to those exposed to the same-age referent, participants exposed to the older referent reported more positive attitudes towards eating "five-a-day" and stronger intentions to do so over the coming week. Referent salience was also associated with a behavioral outcome, with those participants exposed to the older referent more likely to take a piece of fruit upon completion of the study (OR: 4.97, 95% CI: 1.39-17.82). The implications of these findings for norms-based interventions for changing dietary behavior are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bertolotti's syndrome. A cause of back pain in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, J F; Duke, D; Eustace, S

    2006-09-01

    Bertolotti's syndrome is characterised by anomalous enlargement of the transverse process(es) of the most caudal lumbar vertebra which may articulate or fuse with the sacrum or ilium and cause isolated L4/5 disc disease. We analysed the elective MR scans of the lumbosacral spine of 769 consecutive patients with low back pain taken between July 2003 and November 2004. Of these 568 showed disc degeneration. Bertolotti's syndrome was present in 35 patients with a mean age of 32.7 years (15 to 60). This was a younger age than that of patients with multiple disc degeneration, single-level disease and isolated disc degeneration at the L4/5 level (p Bertolotti's syndrome in our study was 4.6% (35 of 769). It was present in 11.4% (20 patients) of the under-30 age group. Our findings suggest that Bertolotti's syndrome must form part of a list of differential diagnoses in the investigation of low back pain in young people.

  14. Active lifestyle in childhood and adolescence prevents obesity development in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soyang; Janz, Kathleen F; Letuchy, Elena M; Burns, Trudy L; Levy, Steven M

    2015-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that individuals who are active but who decrease physical activity (PA) over time have a higher risk of becoming obese in young adulthood, when compared to individuals who are consistently active throughout childhood and adolescence. Iowa Bone Development Study cohort members (242 males and 251 females) participated in accelerometry assessments, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and dietary questionnaire surveys at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 years. Group-based trajectory analyses identified distinct trajectory patterns of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), percentage of body fat, and energy intake. A multivariable logistic regression model was fit to estimate the odds of "becoming obese" based on the MVPA trajectories, adjusted for mother's education, somatic maturation, and energy intake. Among males, 74.7% had a "normal" body fat pattern, 14.6% had a "becoming obese" pattern, and 10.7% had a "consistently obese" pattern, while among females, the percentages were 58.6%, 28.6%, and 12.8%, respectively. Participants who were active (≥45 min MVPA) as children but decreased MVPA with age were more likely to become obese, compared to consistently active participants (adjusted OR = 2.77; 95% CI = 1.16, 6.58). An active lifestyle throughout childhood and adolescence could prevent obesity development in young adulthood. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  15. Delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in young, healthy obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M A; Goll, R; Lekahl, S; Moen, O S; Florholmen, J

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome. The aims were, first, to study the postprandial triglyceride clearance in young, healthy obese subjects and, second, to investigate if fasting triglycerides can predict delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance. Eighteen apparently healthy, obese subjects with no clinical signs of metabolic disturbances participated. Controls were age- and sex-matched, healthy, normal weight subjects. Subclinical markers of metabolic disturbances were assessed by measuring postprandial triglycerides in serum and in chylomicrons by oral fat tolerance test. Postprandial triglyceride clearance for 8 h was assessed indirectly as removal of the lipid from serum during the oral fat tolerance test. Insulin resistance was measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Twelve (66%) of the apparently healthy obese individuals had insulin resistance measured by HOMA-IR. There was a delayed clearance of serum triglycerides and chylomicron triglycerides at 6 h when compared with the control group, while, at 8 h, the differences were only detected for the chylomicron triglyceride clearance. Triglyceride response was significantly greater in the obese subjects. Fasting triglycerides in upper normal level predicted a delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. In young, apparently healthy obese subjects early metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance can be detected. Fasting serum triglyceride in upper normal level predicted delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. © 2015 World Obesity.

  16. Effect of food prices on the prevalence of obesity among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, E; Powell, L M

    2011-03-01

    To examine the extent to which various food prices were associated with the obesity status of young adults. Retrospective cohort study of 6537 men and 5324 women in the USA using panel data from the Monitoring the Future Surveys (1992-2003), which were merged with two food-at-home and one food-away-from-home price measures from the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association. Longitudinal individual random effect and fixed effect models were estimated. This study found that food prices did not have a significant effect on the prevalence of obesity among young female adults. For young adult men, an individual random effect estimator suggested that a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with a 13.2% decrease in the probability of obesity, but this effect lost its economic and statistical significance once individual fixed effects were controlled for in the estimation. Overall, the results imply that observed time-varying individual characteristics, such as working status, marital status and school enrolment status, may over-ride the effect of changes in food prices for young adults. More research employing longitudinal data is necessary to determine if food subsidies or taxes, particularly soft drink and fast food taxes or subsidies for fruit and vegetables, could be effective policy measures to curtail the increasing prevalence of obesity among young adults. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT AND THE LEVEL OF BDNF IN YOUNG PEOPLE

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    Надежда Павловна Белоусова

    2017-10-01

    As a result of the study, the average BDNF level was exceeded by more than 20 % in young people compared with representatives of the middle-aged group. In young people, the decline in cognitive functions correlates with an increase in the level of BDNF, which, on the one hand, can be explained both by higher regenerative abilities of the young organism and as a prerequisite for explaining the pathogenetic aspects of the initial manifestations of cognitive deficits.

  18. Traumatic brain injury, mental health, substance use, and offending among incarcerated young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Elizabeth; Indig, Devon; Haysom, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    Despite being at high risk, little is known about traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) among incarcerated young people. This study aims to describe the prevalence of TBI among incarcerated young people and assess the association with mental health, substance use, and offending behaviors. The 2009 NSW Young People in Custody Health Survey was conducted in 9 juvenile detention centers. A total of 361 young people agreed to participate, representing 80% of all incarcerated young people. Young people were asked if they ever had a head injury where they became unconscious or "blacked-out." The survey used the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders for Children to assess for psychiatric disorders, the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and the Severity of Dependence Scale to measure problematic substance use. The sample comprised 88% man, 48% Aboriginal, with an average age of 17 years. One-third (32%) of young people reported ever experiencing a TBI, and 13% reported multiple TBIs. The majority (92%) of "most serious" TBIs were defined as mild, and the most common cause was an assault (62% woman, 34% man). Young people who reported a history of TBI (compared with those reporting no TBI) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with a mental health disorder, psychological distress, a history of bullying, problematic substance use, participation in fights, and offending behaviors. Reporting multiple (>2) TBIs conferred a higher risk of psychological disorders and problematic substance use. Incarcerated young people have high rates of TBI. Enhanced detection of TBI among incarcerated young people will assist clinicians in addressing the associated psychosocial sequelae.

  19. “Disabled People Are Sexual Citizens Too”: Supporting Sexual Identity, Well-being, and Safety for Disabled Young People

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    Sonali Shah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Disabled young people are sexual beings, and deserve equal rights and opportunities to have control over, choices about, and access to their sexuality, sexual expression, and fulfilling relationships throughout their lives. This is critical to their overall physical, emotional, and social health and well-being. However, societal misconceptions of disabled bodies being non-normative, other, or deviant has somewhat shaped how the sexuality of disabled people has been constructed as problematic under the public gaze. The pervasive belief that disabled people are asexual creates barriers to sexual citizenship for disabled young people, thereby causing them to have lower levels of sexual knowledge and inadequate sex education compared to their non-disabled peers. As a consequence, they are more vulnerable to “bad sex”—relationships, which are considered to be exploitative and disempowering in different ways. Access to good sex and relationships education for disabled young people is, therefore, not only important for them to learn about sexual rights, sexual identity, and sexual expression but also about how to ensure their sexual safety. In so doing, it will contribute to the empowerment and societal recognition of disabled people as sexual beings, and also help them resist and report sexual violence. Therefore, it is critical that parents, educationalists, and health and social care professionals are aware and appropriately equipped with knowledge and resources to formally educate disabled young people about sexuality and well-being on par to their non-disabled peers.

  20. Trends in the prevalence of underweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and their related lifestyle factors in Korean young adults, 1998-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jisun; Park, Hye Soon

    2017-05-05

    This study aimed to assess trends of underweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity and related lifestyle factors in young Korean adults. The analysis focused on adults aged 19-39 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) I-V (1998-2012). Underweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) obesity as BMI≥30kg/m 2 ; and abdominal obesity as waist circumference ≥90cm in men and ≥85cm in women. We evaluated trends by analyzing the prevalence and odds ratios (ORs) of underweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, and the proportions and ORs of lifestyles. As compared with KNHANES I, the ORs for obesity were higher in III, IV, and V and the ORs for abdominal obesity were higher in IV and V in men, which showed an increasing trend (P for trendobesity showed a significant increasing tendency (P for trendobesity in young men and women, and abdominal obesity in young men is needed. Meanwhile, management of underweight in young women is simultaneously required. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Pulmonary function tests in obese people candidate to bariatric surgery

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    C. Guimarães

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is considered one of the most serious public health problems of the modern world. Because it alters the relationship between the lungs, chest wall and diaphragm, it is to be expected that it impacts on the respiratory function. In Portugal, there is not much data about the relationship between obesity and pulmonary function.The aim of this study was to characterize respiratory function in morbidly obese patients and to evaluate whether weight loss in patients submitted to bariatric surgery affects pulmonary function tests (PFT.We conducted a retrospective study with 36 morbidly obese patients submitted to bariatric surgery, with a mean age of 40.6 years, 64% female and with a mean body mass index (BMI of 49.7 kg/m2. All patients were clinical and functionally evaluated before surgery and after their weight had stabilized following surgery. They underwent a complete pulmonary function testing with spirometry, lung volumes, carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO, maximum respiratory pressures and arterial blood gases analysis. Prior to surgery almost all the patients had functional respiratory changes, 34 had a decrease in functional residual capacity (FRC 6 of whom a restrictive syndrome. Only 2 patients did not show any functional or arterial blood gas change. After bariatric surgery, BMI decreased to 34 kg/m2 and there was a significant improvement in almost all functional parameters with resolution of restrictive disorders. Nevertheless, in 13 patients the FRC remained decreased.After weight loss, the only correlation found was between reduction of BMI and increased FRC (r = −0.371; p = 0.028. This study suggests a relationship between obesity and pulmonary restriction and a positive impact of bariatric surgery in PFT. Resumo: A obesidade é considerada um problema de saúde pública da atualidade. Devido ao facto de alterar a relação entre pulmões, parede torácica e diafragma, a obesidade tem

  2. A graduated food addiction classification approach significantly differentiates obesity among people with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Karren-Lee; Kannis-Dymand, Lee; Lovell, Geoff P

    2016-10-01

    This study examined a graduated severity level approach to food addiction classification against associations with World Health Organization obesity classifications (body mass index, kg/m 2 ) among 408 people with type 2 diabetes. A survey including the Yale Food Addiction Scale and several demographic questions demonstrated four distinct Yale Food Addiction Scale symptom severity groups (in line with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) severity indicators): non-food addiction, mild food addiction, moderate food addiction and severe food addiction. Analysis of variance with post hoc tests demonstrated each severity classification group was significantly different in body mass index, with each grouping being associated with increased World Health Organization obesity classifications. These findings have implications for diagnosing food addiction and implementing treatment and prevention methodologies of obesity among people with type 2 diabetes.

  3. What young people want from health-related online resources: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergie, Gillian; Hunt, Kate; Hilton, Shona

    2013-08-01

    The growth of the Internet as an information source about health, particularly amongst young people, is well established. The aim of this study was to explore young people's perceptions and experiences of engaging with health-related online content, particularly through social media websites. Between February and July 2011 nine focus groups were facilitated across Scotland with young people aged between 14 and 18 years. Health-related user-generated content seems to be appreciated by young people as a useful, if not always trustworthy, source of accounts of other people's experiences. The reliability and quality of both user-generated content and official factual content about health appear to be concerns for young people, and they employ specialised strategies for negotiating both areas of the online environment. Young people's engagement with health online is a dynamic area for research. Their perceptions and experiences of health-related content seem based on their wider familiarity with the online environment and, as the online environment develops, so too do young people's strategies and conventions for accessing it.

  4. Study of sympathetic nerve activity in young Indian obese individuals

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    B Kalpana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is the culmination of a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. This energy balance can be potentially affected by the activity of autonomic nervous system (ANS. Altered sympathetic nerve function may be of importance in obesity. Objective: The present study is an attempt to pinpoint the defect (if any in the activity of sympathetic limb of the ANS in obesity, by subjecting to isometric exercise stress. Materials and Methods: A total of 81 females belonging to the age group of 18-22 years were recruited for the study. The participants were divided into two groups as normal weight and obese based on WHO guidelines for Asia Pacific region. After recording the resting blood pressure, they were subjected to isometric exercise by Handgrip dynamometer. Blood pressure was recorded again, and the difference was noted down. All recorded parameters were compared between two groups using unpaired t test. The relationship between body mass index (BMI and rise in diastolic pressure was quantified by Pearson′s correlation test. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In obese, the diastolic pressure was significantly higher at rest, but showed reduced rise during handgrip test in comparison with normal weight individuals. Also, the rise in diastolic pressure exhibited a negative relation with BMI. Conclusion: The result is suggestive of impaired autonomic function at rest and reduced sympathetic activity in the group of obese when subjected to stress. This could make them more prone for future development of hypertension or other cardiovascular disorders.

  5. Exploring the built environment, physical activity and related behaviours of young people attending school, college and those not in employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, A A; Townshend, T G

    2013-03-01

    Evidence suggests that environments impact behaviour, including physical activity (PA). The aim was to understand where young people are physically active and the environmental contexts to their activity. To explore how they perceived both barriers to, and enablers for, PA in their environment. Focus groups were conducted with five groups aged 16-20 years (n = 42; 29 male, 13 female) in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England between November 2006 and June 2007. Analysis was an iterative process of looking for broad themes and subthemes across the transcripts. Themes explored included their main environment; perceptions of their environment; PA and where they are active; activity in the past and safety concerns. Emergent themes included working and PA, transport and activity, limitations of the environment to PA and gender differences. Our results suggest PA was distributed across a range of environments, rather than focused in one locale, or setting. Obesity in young people is a major concern and prevention of obesity a high priority. Little is known about the PA behaviours of this age group and the context of these behaviours during this period of transition. Understanding lifestyle behaviours such as PA and context of activity is an important first step in development interventions to encourage greater activity in this transitory age group.

  6. Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Kristin V; Ameer, Faisal; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Hnin, Khin; van Agteren, Joseph Em; Sayehmiri, Fatemeh; Brinn, Malcolm P; Esterman, Adrian J; Chang, Anne B; Smith, Brian J

    2017-06-02

    Mass media interventions can be used as a way of delivering preventive health messages. They have the potential to reach and modify the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a large proportion of the community. To assess the effects of mass media interventions on preventing smoking in young people, and whether it can reduce smoking uptake among youth (under 25 years), improve smoking attitudes, intentions and knowledge, improve self-efficacy/self-esteem, and improve perceptions about smoking, including the choice to follow positive role models. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE and Embase in June 2016. This is an update of a review first published in 1998. Randomized trials, controlled trials without randomization and interrupted time-series studies that assessed the effect of mass media campaigns (defined as channels of communication such as television, radio, newspapers, social media, billboards, posters, leaflets or booklets intended to reach large numbers of people and which are not dependent on person-to-person contact) in influencing the smoking behaviour (either objective or self-reported) of young people under the age of 25 years. We define smoking behaviour as the presence or absence of tobacco smoking or other tobacco use, or both, and the frequency of tobacco use. Eligible comparators included education or no intervention. Two review authors independently extracted information relating to the characteristics and the content of media interventions, participants, outcomes, methods of the study and risks of bias. We combined studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. We assessed the risks of bias for each study using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, alongside additional domains to account for the nature of the intervention. We assessed the quality of evidence contributing to outcomes using GRADE. We identified eight eligible studies reporting information about mass media smoking

  7. A scoping review of weight bias by community pharmacists towards people with obesity and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Andrea L; Gardner, David M

    2016-07-01

    Community pharmacists are accessible health care professionals who are increasingly offering weight management programs. People living with serious mental illness have markedly higher rates of obesity and associated illness outcomes than the general population, providing pharmacists who are interested in offering weight management services with an identifiable patient subgroup with increased health needs. Issues with stigma within obesity and mental illness care are prevalent and can lead to inequities and reduced quality of care. We conducted a scoping review to map and characterize the available information from published and grey literature sources regarding community pharmacists and weight bias towards obese people with lived experience of mental illness. A staged approach to the scoping review was used. Six articles and 6 websites were abstracted after we removed duplicates and applied our inclusion and exclusion criteria. The published studies that we found indicated that pharmacists and pharmacy students do demonstrate implicit and explicit weight bias. Very limited research is available regarding weight bias in pharmacists and stigma towards people with obesity, and we found no information on these phenomena relating to people with lived experience of mental illness. Investigations are needed to characterize the extent and nature of anti-fat bias and attitudes by pharmacists and the consequences of these attitudes for patient care.

  8. Serum liver fatty acid binding protein levels correlate positively with obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese young adults.

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    Juan Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liver fatty acid-binding protein (FABP1 plays an inconclusive role in adiposity. We investigated the association of serum FABP1 levels with obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese young people under 30 years old. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross-sectional analysis including 200 obese and 172 normal-weight subjects matched for age and sex, anthropometric measurements were performed and serum FABP1 and biochemical characteristics were measured. Insulin resistance was determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and by the insulin sensitivity index (S(i derived from Bergman's minimal model. FABP1 levels in obese subjects were significantly higher than those in normal-weight subjects (p<0.001 and the significance remained after adjustment for age, gender, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (p<0.001. Serum FABP1 levels were significantly correlated with many metabolic-related parameters, with BMI and triglycerides as the independent determinants. FABP1 levels remained an independent risk factor of insulin resistance assessed by binary S(i (OR = 1.868 per SD unit, 95% CI [1.035-3.373], p = 0.038 after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol,. FABP1 levels were also elevated with an increasing number of components of the metabolic syndrome (p for trend <0.001. Multiple regression modeling for the MetS and its components demonstrated that hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol were significantly correlated to serum FABP1 levels. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Serum FABP1 correlates positively with obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese young adults. Our data supports the fact that FABP1 might be an important mediator participating in fatty acid metabolism and energy balance.

  9. Decreasing Prevalence of Obesity Among Young Children in Massachusetts From 2004 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Matthew W.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Sherry, Bettylou; Kleinman, Ken; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the obesity prevalence is increasing, level, or decreasing among young US children (aged children) at a multisite pediatric practice in eastern Massachusetts during 1999–2008. By using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 gender-specific growth charts, we defined obesity as weight-for-length ≥95th percentile for children aged children aged 24 to obesity trends in 2 separate periods, 1999–2003 and 2004–2008, adjusting for age group, race/ethnicity, health insurance, and practice site. RESULTS: From 1999 to 2003, the obesity prevalence was fairly stable among both boys and girls. From 2004 to 2008, the obesity prevalence substantially decreased among both boys and girls. The decline in obesity prevalence during 2004–2008 was more pronounced among children insured by non-Medicaid health plans than among those insured by Medicaid. CONCLUSIONS: Among children aged obesity prevalence decreased during 2004–2008, which is in line with national data showing no increase in prevalence during this time period. The smaller decrease among Medicaid-insured children may portend widening of socioeconomic disparities in childhood obesity. PMID:22529276

  10. The association between adiponectin and ADIPOQ gene polymorphisms with obesity among young Jordanian women

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    Alomari Mahmoud A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a risk for multiple diseases and an independent cause of morbidity and mortality with staggering global rates. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived peptide associated with reduced obesity. In this study, the effect of ADIPOQ gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on obesity and adiponectin relationship was examined. The study was conducted on 389 adult females. Obesity was measured using body weight, BMI, percent body fat, and waist and hip ratio. ADIPOQ G276T and I164T SNPs were genotyped using RFLP procedure. Adiponectin plasma levels were quantified using ELISA technique. Adiponectin correlated with all obesity measures (p0.05 with GG and TT of the G276T SNP. With respect to` I164T SNP, the correlations between adiponectin and obesity measures remained in all genotypes except with W/H ratio and %Bf remained in the participants with CC genotype and with W/H ratio in CT/TT genotypes. Further analyses reveled that adiponectin was lower (p<0.05 in the participants with GT versus the GG and TT genotypes of G276T SNP. The data confirms the effect of adiponectin for obesity. It also shows the importance of ADIPOQ SNPs in the relationship between adiponectin and obesity in young adult females.

  11. Association of peripheral total and differential leukocyte counts with obesity-related complications in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Aya; Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Orito, Chieko; Kawahara, Yukako; Takasaki, Hiroyo; Takeda, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Hashino, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been demonstrated to be associated with elevated leukocytes in adults and children. This study assessed the associations between peripheral total and differential leukocyte counts and obesity-related complications in young adults. 12 obese (median age 21.5 (range 19-28) years, median BMI 35.7 (range 32.0-44.9) kg/m(2)) and 11 normal (median age 23 (range 18-27) years, median BMI 19.5 (range 18.1-21.7) kg/m(2)) adults were enrolled. Complete blood count and serum levels of liver enzymes, fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipids were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was calculated. Fat mass was calculated using a bioimpedance analysis device, and ultrasonography was performed to measure fat thickness and to detect fatty change of the liver. Total leukocyte and monocyte counts were significantly increased in obese young adults. Total leukocyte count was associated with liver enzyme levels, insulin resistance as well as visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness. Neutrophil count was associated with insulin resistance. Lymphocyte count was associated with serum liver enzymes, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Monocyte count was associated with serum liver enzyme, insulin resistance, visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, body fat mass, and percentage body fat. The results of this study suggest that chronic low-grade systemic inflammation is associated with obesity-related complications such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia in young adults. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  12. MARKETING AND INNOVATION: YOUNG PEOPLE'S ATTITUDE TOWARDS NEW PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onisor Lucian-Florin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the perceptions of young students, who are training in the field of economics, to the very new products and outlines the role that marketing plays in bringing to market products based on innovative technologies. The study is conducted in Romania and tries to highlight Romanian specific features about the relationship between marketing and innovation. The goal is to outline in a clear and actual image of young people thoughts about new technologies insertion on the market. The pursued objectives are: motivation investigation of option for new products; determining predisposition to the radical or incremental innovations, assessing perceptions of the link between marketing and innovation. Research have been made in this field on various areas of activity. At the level of the European Community there are several organizations which activate in the field of innovation research. Eurobarometer through its subdivision Innobarometer brings in the attention of the public on a regular basis, through a series of publications, the results of researches undertaken from the business perspective, and are concerning all areas of action. Research aims to identify the impact that new technologies have on the consumers most open to innovation. This exploratory research is based on a direct gathering of information, using an online questionnaire. Data are processed using SPSS software package, and the results show the type and nature of links between variables to be examined by applying bivariate and multivariate correlation tests. Analysis report provides descriptive, easy to follow, for all the situations covered and investigated in the questionnaire. The results show a clear output of the relationship between compromises that those open to using new technologies are making to obtain superior advantages from the newest products on the market. Research carried out by the author being the first one in this area, only manages to outline the

  13. Study of prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension in overweight and obese people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Mandal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In recent years, there has been a marked change in life-style of South Asian countries caused by economic growth, affluence, urbanization and dietary westernization. Few studies on the prevalence of obesity, hypertension and diabetes in the Indian population have been reported. However, there has been scarce literature on the study of prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM and Hypertension in overweight and obese people in India with criteria suggested by World Health Organization (WHO for Asians. Information on such public health issues would provide evidence based data to develop guidelines and policies on this subject. Aim: The aim of this article is to determine the prevalence of hypertension and type 2 DM in overweight and obese people. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional study consisted of people selected from the out-patient department and indoors of a large defense hospital in a semi urban area of Assam. Materials and Methods: Patients with overweight and obesity, reporting for consultation and medical examination were taken into the study. The data collected was analyzed using the criteria for overweight, obesity, diabetes and hypertension defined by WHO, Joint National Committee VII and International Diabetes Federation, American Diabetes Association. A descriptive statistical analysis has been carried out in the study. Results: A total of 300 people were the subject population of this study. Among the subject population, there were 97 overweight and 203 obese. The 56 subjects were found to be diabetic. The prevalence of type 2 DM in overweight subjects was 15.5% and in obese was 20.2% and overall was 18.7%. Prevalence of hypertension in the overweight population was 8.2% and in obese was 22.2% and overall found to be 17.7%. Conclusions: The prevalence of type 2 DM, hypertension in the obese group of the study population were found to be 20.2%, 22.2% and in the overweight population were 15.5% and 8.2%, respectively

  14. Links to young people - Multimedia and the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufkova, Marie

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The popularity of computer multimedia, CD ROM and, in particular, the Internet among young people is unparalleled. Therefore, we make use of such tools for communication with this important target group. Following up EEZ's educational programme which achieved results we are proud of, we issued a multimedia sequence informing about nuclear power. Over twelve hundred CD-ROM discs carrying this programme were sold in two years, and in addition, several thousand visitors at exhibitions and in information centres of Czech nuclear power plants had the opportunity to watch the programme. Since the last year, EEZ has been displaying Internet pages presenting basic information about our nuclear power plants at Dukovany and Temelin; topical information is updated weekly (e.g. progress in construction of the Temelin plant, summary information concerning the construction of this plant as submitted to governmental authorities, response and answers to antinuclear activists' criticisms, ... ). The EEZ home page is linked with the home pages of the nuclear power plants themselves. Two new multimedia programmes are to be released by the end of 1998: presentation of the EEZ utility company, and Multimedia Power Encyclopaedia. Both titles will be linked to the Internet, as well as to the company intranet which is accessible to EEZ personnel. The multimedia encyclopaedia is an extension of the textual Power Encyclopaedia, which has been issued within our youth education programme. We are malting efforts for a of our multimedia products to be interlinked and to complement each other suitably. Surveys and statistical data indicate that the EEZ home page on the Internet is the most frequently visited page among the pages of Czech industrial companies. (author)

  15. Trends in asthma mortality in young people in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatkin, J M; Barreto, S M; Fonseca, N A; Gutiérrez, C A; Sears, M R

    1999-03-01

    Mortality from asthma increased and is now declining in some countries, but little is known about these trends in South America. We aimed to assess trends in mortality from asthma in southern Brazil in children and young adults. Death certificates of 425 people in the state of Rio Grande do Sul aged between 5 and 39 years in whom asthma was reported to be the underlying cause of death during the period 1970 to 1992 were reviewed. Population data were available in 10-year age groups. Testing for trends in mortality rates was conducted using linear and log-linear regression procedures. Asthma mortality rates in the age groups 5 to 19 and 20 to 39 years ranged between 0.04 and 0.39/100,000 and 0.28 to 0.75/100,000, respectively, and were nonuniformly distributed over the study period. The mean annual increase in rate in 5- to 19-year olds was +0.01 (95% CI 0.003 to 0.016), an average annual percentage increase of +6.8% (95% CI 3% to 11%), with a total increase of 352% between 1970 and 1992. This increase was not due to a shift in labeling from bronchitis to asthma. In the 20 to 39-year age group, asthma and bronchitis mortality rates showed no trend to increase or decrease. Asthma mortality in southern Brazil is low, but rose significantly between 1970 and 1992 in the 5 to 19-year age group. This trend differs from that found in other states of Brazil and several other Latin American countries. Reasons for this difference remain unclear.

  16. 'It's always just there in your face': young people's views on porn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Shelley; Temple-Smith, Meredith; Higgs, Peter; Sanci, Lena

    2015-06-01

    Background Young people's exposure to pornography has increased, as has the violent and sexist nature of mainstream porn. Contemporary content means young people are exposed to violent porn whether they like it or not, and it is no longer a question of whether they will be exposed, but rather when. Using purposive sampling, 33 in-depth interviews were conducted with young people aged 15-20 years in 2010-11, to explore the phenomenon of sexting. During initial interviews, participants raised the topic of pornography exposure as a secondary, unexpected finding. Discussions highlighted an important link between sexting and pornography. The inductive nature of the research meant this new and important area of inquiry was able to be explored. Data was thematically coded and analysed using a grounded theory approach. Findings highlight that many young people are exposed to porn both intentionally and unintentionally. Furthermore, they are concerned about gendered norms that reinforce men's power and subordination over women. A link between porn exposure, young men's sexual expectations and young women's pressure to conform to what is being viewed, has been exposed. Results are significant given this is one of few recent qualitative Australian studies to explore the issue of pornography exposure from the perspective of young people. Important implications for educators, parents and health providers have been revealed, including the need to create opportunities for young people to challenge the messages expressed in porn, and for their views to be heard in academic and public debate.

  17. Effecting Healthy Lifestyle Changes in Overweight and Obese Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Marjorie; Clark, Lauren; Eldredge, Alison; Cardell, Beth; Jordan, Kristine; Chambless, Cathy; Burley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a 12-week recreation center-based healthy lifestyle intervention for 30 obese home-dwelling young adults (YA) with intellectual disabilities. Three cohorts participated: YA only, YA and parents, and parents only. The YA cohorts received a nutrition/exercise intervention; parents focused on modeling healthy lifestyle behaviors.…

  18. Effective Interventions in Overweight or Obese Young Children: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van E.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Bouwman, L.I.; Janse, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Treatment programs for overweight and obese young children are of variable effectiveness, and the characteristics of effective programs are unknown. In this systematic review with meta-analysis, the effectiveness of treatment programs for these children is summarized. Methods:

  19. Adolescent Obesity and Young Adult Psychosocial Outcomes: Gender and Racial Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Michael J.; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Williams, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample of 7,881 African American (915 males and 1,073 females) and White (2,864 males and 3,029 females) adolescents from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the psychosocial consequences that obese adolescents encounter as they reach young adulthood. Results indicate that obesity…

  20. "Our Journey through Time": An Oral History Project Carried out by Young People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Sarah; Nicholls, Rickie; Price, Maxine; Wilkinson, Aaron; Purcell, Matthew; Woodhall, Martin; Walmsley, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We are five young people with learning disabilities who found out about the history of hospitals for people with learning disabilities in our area, and made a film about the project. The project taught us what life had been like for some people with learning disabilities only 30 years ago. It was very different to our lives; we have more choice,…

  1. Delayed clearance of triglyceride‐rich lipoproteins in young, healthy obese subjects†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, R.; Lekahl, S.; Moen, O. S.; Florholmen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome. The aims were, first, to study the postprandial triglyceride clearance in young, healthy obese subjects and, second, to investigate if fasting triglycerides can predict delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance. Eighteen apparently healthy, obese subjects with no clinical signs of metabolic disturbances participated. Controls were age‐ and sex‐matched, healthy, normal weight subjects. Subclinical markers of metabolic disturbances were assessed by measuring postprandial triglycerides in serum and in chylomicrons by oral fat tolerance test. Postprandial triglyceride clearance for 8 h was assessed indirectly as removal of the lipid from serum during the oral fat tolerance test. Insulin resistance was measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA‐IR). Twelve (66%) of the apparently healthy obese individuals had insulin resistance measured by HOMA‐IR. There was a delayed clearance of serum triglycerides and chylomicron triglycerides at 6 h when compared with the control group, while, at 8 h, the differences were only detected for the chylomicron triglyceride clearance. Triglyceride response was significantly greater in the obese subjects. Fasting triglycerides in upper normal level predicted a delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. In young, apparently healthy obese subjects early metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance can be detected. Fasting serum triglyceride in upper normal level predicted delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. PMID:26469529

  2. School difficulties in childhood and risk of overweight and obesity in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, I; Sørensen, T I

    1993-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies of adult males have shown that intelligence test score and educational level are inversely correlated to obesity. This study prospectively assessed whether school difficulties in the third school grade are related to the risk of overweight and obesity in young adulthood....... In 1974, body weight, height and social background were ascertained in 987 randomly-selected Copenhagen third graders. For each child, information about learning difficulties, scholastic proficiency, special education received, scholarly difficulties, reduced hearing, speech handicap, and speech...... or hearing education received was obtained. When the subjects were 20-21 years old, they reported their height and weight. The risk of being obese (above the 95th percentile of body mass index distribution) in young adulthood was assessed by logistic regression analysis taking social background, body mass...

  3. A qualitative study of young people's perspectives on receiving psychiatric services via televideo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Katherine M; Volpe, Tiziana; Pignatiello, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    It is critical to consult young people about their experiences. This study addresses the paucity of research on the perspective of young people in general, and in paediatric telepsychiatry specifically. The goal is to understand the experience of young people receiving telepsychiatry. Interpretive interactionism (Denzin, 1989) was used to interview 30 young people; immediately following the consultation and four to six weeks later. Analysis occurred via a series of steps in keeping with the interpretive interactionist framework. Four themes arose repeatedly: the encounter with the psychiatrist and experience of having others in the room; the helpfulness of the session; a sense of personal choice during the consultation; and, the technology. Participants highlighted the importance of their relationship with the psychiatrist. Participant's narratives were replete with examples of ways that they actively took responsibility and exerted control within the session itself. Young people have a significant role to play in their own care. It is critical that telepsychiatry recommendations be explained and opportunities for young people to express their concerns and discuss alternatives are provided. Further efforts to include young people may include ensuring offering alternate treatments and/or negotiated when recommended treatments are unacceptable and/or resisted.

  4. A profile of technology-assisted children and young people in north west England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Susan

    2008-11-01

    To obtain a profile of children and young people in north west England who needed the ongoing support of medical technology. As part of a larger study, 28 community children's nursing teams in the north west of England were asked to profile the children and young people on their caseloads who needed the ongoing support of medical technology. Twenty-five teams returned data, from which a total of 591 children and young people were identified. The most prevalent technology used was gastrostomy/jejunostomy, which was used by more than two-thirds of the sample. Over a quarter of the children/young people were supported by more than one technology. The majority of the children/young people were seven years old or younger Although most had used the technology for five years or less (71 per cent), there were 164 children/ young people who had been technology-assisted for six or more years. Although there are limitations in this study, the data is nevertheless useful for planning future services and support, including identifying the numbers of young people who will be transferring to adult services. A more efficient means of collecting these data would be to systematically record long-term conditions and technology assistance in electronic health records.

  5. Young people who are being bullied - do they want general practice support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Emma; Dale, Jeremy; Russell, Rachel; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-08-22

    Childhood bullying is a major risk factor for health, education and social relationships, with effects persisting into adulthood. It affects half of all children at some point, with 10-14 % experiencing bullying that lasts for years. With the advent of cyberbullying, it can happen at all times and places. There have been calls for GPs to take a more active role in identifying and supporting young people who are being bullied. This paper explores young people's and parents' opinions about whether general practice should be involved in identifying and supporting young people who are being bullied. Two hundred six young people (85.9 % female, mean ± sd age 16.2 ± 3.2 years) and 44 parents were recruited through established bullying charity websites and their social media channels to complete an online questionnaire comprising multiple-choice questions and unlimited narrative responses. Questionnaire responses were analysed by age and gender using descriptive statistics. A descriptive analysis of the narrative responses was undertaken and key themes identified. Young people (90.8 %) and parents (88.7 %) thought it was important for GPs to be better able to recognise and help young people who are being bullied. Most recognised the link between bullying and health. The doctor's independence was seen as advantageous. Young people preferred completing a screening questionnaire to disclose experience of being bullied than being asked directly. They expressed concerns about how questions would be asked and whether information would be shared with parents/guardians. Parents were supportive of the use of a screening questionnaire, and most expected their child's disclosure to be shared with them. Young people and parents recruited through anti-bullying websites and social media would welcome greater GP involvement in identifying and supporting young people who are being bullied and their families, provided it is offered in a caring, compassionate and

  6. EVALUATION OF THE HIGH-SENSITIVITY C-REACTIVE PROTEIN IN YOUNG OBESE WOMEN WITH PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Palo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common reproductive disorder in young women affecting 5-10% of population. PCOS women are at increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. PCOS is now recognised as not only a reproductive disorder, but also a metabolic one with long-term effects on women’s health. With this background, the present study was undertaken to assess the levels of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP in young obese women with PCOS as compared with healthy obese women without PCOS. MATERIALS AND METHODS This cross-sectional observational study was carried out in MKCG Medical College, Berhampur, in the Department of Cardiology and Gynaecology between January 2016 to December 2016. A total of 56 young obese PCOS patients aged less than 30 years and 25 healthy patients matched for age and BMI were studied. RESULTS Baseline cardiovascular risk factors, hormone variables and lipid profiles and hs-CRP levels are measured in both PCOS patients and control subjects. It has been observed that the median hs-CRP levels are significantly higher in young obese PCOS patients than the control subjects. Obese patients with PCOS had higher levels of hs-CRP compared to healthy obese controls. The mean values of hs-CRP was 5.46 mg/L in PCOS group and 2.8 mg/L in the control group, which is statistically significant. CONCLUSION PCOS patients clearly present a higher risk of CVD due to its peculiar hormonal pattern characterised by insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and inflammatory state. The metabolic disorders in PCOS could possibly be improved by diet and drugs in early periods of their life, so as to decrease the risk of CVD in future. Estimation hs-CRP maybe considered as a reliable predictive marker for future Cardiovascular Disease (CVD in PCOS patients.

  7. 'Do I care?' Young adults' recalled experiences of early adolescent overweight and obesity: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E; Sweeting, H; Wright, C

    2013-02-01

    Individual behaviour change to reduce obesity requires awareness of, and concern about, weight. This paper therefore describes how young adults, known to have been overweight or obese during early adolescence, recalled early adolescent weight-related awareness and concerns. Associations between recalled concerns and weight-, health- and peer-related survey responses collected during adolescence are also examined. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with young adults; data compared with responses to self-report questionnaires obtained in adolescence. A total of 35 participants, purposively sub-sampled at age 24 from a longitudinal study of a school year cohort, previously surveyed at ages 11, 13 and 15. Physical measures during previous surveys allowed identification of participants with a body mass index (BMI) indicative of overweight or obesity (based on British 1990 growth reference) during early adolescence. Overall, 26 had been obese, of whom 11 had BMI99.6th centile, whereas 9 had been overweight (BMI=95th-97.9th centile). Qualitative interview responses describing teenage life, with prompts for school-, social- and health-related concerns. Early adolescent self-report questionnaire data on weight-worries, self-esteem, friends and victimisation (closed questions). Most, but not all recalled having been aware of their overweight. None referred to themselves as having been obese. None recalled weight-related health worries. Recollection of early adolescent obesity varied from major concerns impacting on much of an individual's life to almost no concern, with little relation to actual severity of overweight. Recalled concerns were not clearly patterned by gender, but young adult males recalling concerns had previously reported more worries about weight, lower self-esteem, fewer friends and more victimisation in early adolescence; no such pattern was seen among females. The popular image of the unhappy overweight teenager was not borne out. Many obese

  8. Rimonabant for the treatment of overweight and obese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, J; McKenna, C; Palmer, S; Norman, G; Glanville, J; Sculpher, M; Woolacott, N

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents a summary of the evidence review group (ERG) report into the clinical and cost-effectiveness of rimonabant for the treatment of obese or overweight patients based upon a review of the manufacturer's submission to the National Centre for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) as part of the single technology appraisal (STA) process. The submission's main evidence came from four randomised controlled trials. Rimonabant resulted in a significantly greater benefit than placebo for all primary weight loss outcomes. At 1 year, rimonabant had a statistically significant beneficial effect on systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose in diabetics and non-diabetics, and glycosylated haemoglobin in diabetics. Improvements were maintained over 2 years with rimonabant; withdrawal of rimonabant at 1 year resulted in a reduction in weight loss until there was no difference from placebo at 2 years. Psychiatric adverse events were experienced by 26% and 14% of rimonabant and placebo patients respectively; figures for symptoms of depression were 9% and 5% respectively. Pairwise comparisons of orlistat, sibutramine and rimonabant showed beneficial effects of rimonabant over orlistat and sibutramine for weight loss outcomes; however, response hurdles imposed on orlistat or sibutramine in clinical practice may not have been applied in the orlistat and sibutramine trials. The manufacturer's Markov cohort model evaluated rimonabant versus orlistat, sibutramine and diet and exercise alone for three base-case populations. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of rimonabant varied from 10,534 pounds to 13,236 pounds per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) versus diet and exercise, to 8977 pounds to 12,138 pounds per QALY versus orlistat, to 1463 pounds to 3908 pounds per QALY versus sibutramine. In subgroup analysis there was a wider variation in the ICER estimates although none exceeded 20,000 pounds

  9. Examining the roles young people fulfil in five types of cyber bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Betts, LR; Gkimitzoudis, T; Spenser, KA; Baguley, T

    2017-01-01

    The roles that young people fulfil in face-to-face bullying have been well documented and there is some evidence that young people take on similar roles in cyber bullying. A person centred analytical approach was adopted to identify the roles that young people fulfil across five different types of cyber bullying assessed for up to nine media. Four hundred and forty (281 female and 154 male) 16- to 19-year-olds completed measures to assess their involvement in various types of cyber bullying a...

  10. THE ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN THE EFFECTIVENESS INCREASING OF SOCIAL WORK WITH YOUNG PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Lyapuncova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncovers the need to develop new approachesto social work with young people through theuse of modern information technologies.Find the actual material, confirming the relevance of the research topic. Recommendations concerning the expansion of the contentof social orientation in the Internet, use of social networking technologies and computergames in order to form a high moral and Patriotic foundations of Russian society, attracting young people to social work, to assist them inaddressing a wide range of problems.Also provides guidance on the youth socialtourism development as a highly effective and popular with young people method of socialwork.

  11. The Prevalence of Rough Sleeping and Sofa Surfing Amongst Young People in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Whilst data on statutory homelessness is well recorded in the UK, there is a lack of data on informal homelessness (such as ‘sofa surfing’) and rough sleeping, other than that which relies on partial information and street counts. This paper presents findings from a recent online survey of young people and helps to fill this gap. It found that rates of sofa surfing and rough sleeping among young people were much higher than previously thought. Twenty-six percent of young people (aged 16–25) h...

  12. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Obesity Causes & Consequences CDC Reports Improvement in Childhood Obesity among Young Children Participating in WIC Data & Statistics Adult Obesity Facts Childhood Obesity Facts Data, Trends and ...

  13. Is obesity associated with asthma in young children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Teresa; Vydykhan, Tatiana N; Dell, Sharon; Tassoudji, Marjan; Harris, Jennifer K

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between obesity and asthma in a population-based sample of Canadian children. Baseline data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth were used in this cross-sectional study. We included 11199 children age 4 to 11 years whose biological mother reported data on asthma, height, and weight. Body mass index was categorized, and obesity was defined as body mass index >or=85th percentile. Children with asthma had parents who reported the diagnosis, and they took prescribed inhalants, had wheezing or an attack in the previous year, or had their activities limited by asthma. Multiple logistic regression was used. The prevalence of asthma was 9.9%. Maternal history of asthma was a risk factor for asthma among all children. Single child status and maternal depression were risk factors for girls. The odds ratio for asthma, comparing highest and lowest body mass index categories, was 1.02 (99% confidence interval, 0.70-1.46) for boys and 1.06 (99% confidence interval, 0.67-1.69) for girls. This study suggests that there is no statistical association between obesity and asthma among Canadian children age 4 to 11 years.

  14. Incidence of Obesity Among Young US Children Living in Low-Income Families, 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liping; May, Ashleigh L.; Wethington, Holly; Dalenius, Karen; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the incidence and reverse of obesity among young low-income children and variations across population subgroups. METHODS We included 1.2 million participants in federally funded child health and nutrition programs who were 0 to 23 months old in 2008 and were followed up 24 to 35 months later in 2010–2011. Weight and height were measured. Obesity at baseline was defined as gender-specific weight-for-length ≥95th percentile on the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Obesity at follow-up was defined as gender-specific BMI-for-age ≥95th percentile. We used a multivariable log-binomial model to estimate relative risk of obesity adjusting for gender, baseline age, race/ethnicity, duration of follow-up, and baseline weight-for-length percentile. RESULTS The incidence of obesity was 11.0% after the follow-up period. The incidence was significantly higher among boys versus girls and higher among children aged 0 to 11 months at baseline versus those older. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, the risk of obesity was 35% higher among Hispanics and 49% higher among American Indians (AIs)/Alaska Natives (ANs), but 8% lower among non-Hispanic African Americans. Among children who were obese at baseline, 36.5% remained obese and 63.5% were nonobese at follow-up. The proportion of reversing of obesity was significantly lower among Hispanics and AIs/ANs than that among other racial/ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS The high incidence underscores the importance of early-life obesity prevention in multiple settings for low-income children and their families. The variations within population subgroups suggest that culturally appropriate intervention efforts should be focused on Hispanics and AIs/ANs. PMID:24276843

  15. Bone Characteristics and Their Determinants in Adolescents and Young Adults with Early-Onset Severe Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljakainen, H T; Valta, H; Lipsanen-Nyman, M; Saukkonen, T; Kajantie, E; Andersson, S; Mäkitie, O

    2015-10-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with compromised bone health. We studied bone characteristics and their determinants in obese young adults. The study included 68 subjects with early-onset severe obesity and 73 normal-weight controls. Data on physical activity (PA), diet and smoking were collected. Bone characteristics were measured using peripheral QCT. The obese and control subjects were similar in age (mean 19.6 ± 2.6 years) and height but BMIs differed (39.7 and 22.6 kg/m(2)). A clustering of unhealthy lifestyles was marked: Obese subjects reported less supervised PA in childhood, adolescence and currently (p obese women, all crude bone characteristics were higher than in controls; in men, the differences were smaller. Associations of lifestyle factors with bone characteristics were tested using partial correlations. Independently of BMI, supervised PA in adolescence and alcohol consumption were related positively to bone characteristics in both groups. HEI associated positively with bone characteristics only in controls, while smoking was a positive determinant of bone characteristics only in obese subjects. The multivariate model showed that the contribution of lifestyle factors to bone characteristics was minimal compared with BMI. Early-onset obesity is accompanied by poor dietary quality, sedentary lifestyle, and more frequent smoking, but the overall contribution of these lifestyle factors to bone strength is limited. Bone strength is more likely to be compromised in men and in unloaded bone sites in subjects with early-onset severe obesity. The impact of obesity-related endocrine changes on bone characteristics need to be evaluated in future studies.

  16. Young People with Cancer: A Handbook for Parents. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This book informs parents and families of children and young adults with cancer about the most common types of cancer in the young, treatments and their side effects, and common issues that arise with a cancer diagnosis. Aspects of the disease, including characteristics of leukemia and solid tumors, are described. Treatment issues discussed…

  17. Dispelling Stereotypes of Young People Who Leave School before Graduation. "Don't Call Them Dropouts" Research Series. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Promise, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The number of young people who leave school before graduation continues to be a problem in the United States, with approximately 485,000 young people leaving school each year. Not graduating translates to substantial individual and societal economic, civic, and social costs. Understanding the factors that lead young people to leave school can have…

  18. How They Got It and How They Wanted It: Marginalised Young People's Perspective on Their Experiences of Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Graham; Sorenson, Anne; Hildebrand, Janina

    2012-01-01

    Young people in Australia are at greatest risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections, and priority actions are necessary for this population group. This study of marginalised and at-risk young people in out-of-school environments was conducted in Western Australia with the aim of obtaining young people's perceptions about their experience…

  19. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for sarcopenic obesity (SO) diagnosis in young female subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Correa, C H; Caicedo-Eraso, J C; Villada-Gomez J S

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as a loss of muscle mass depending of ageing and affecting physical function (definition A). A new definition considers excluding mass reduction criterion (definition B). Obesity is pandemic and occurs at all ages. Sarcopenic obesity (SO) implies both processes. The purpose of this study was to compare the results obtained after applying these 2 definitions in 66 aged 22 ± 2.8 years overweight or obese young college women. Percentage body fat (%BF) and skeletal mass index (SMI) were estimated by BIA, muscle function by handgrip strength test (HGS) and physical performance by Harvard step test (HST). There were 9.1% and 90.9% overweight or obese subjects. Twenty nine subjects (43.9%) had decreased HGS and 22 (33.3%) had impaired physical performance. One obese subject (1.5%) met the criteria for sarcopenic obesity by definition A and 9 (13.6%) by definition B. Although a linear regression (α 2 = 0.094, 0.037 and 0.275 respectively) it was observed a tendency for HGS, HST and SMI deterioration when %BF increases. However, other confounding factors must be investigated. Probably as the population gets more obese, the problematic of SO will be found earlier in life.

  20. Restaurant foods, sugar-sweetened soft drinks, and obesity risk among young African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Deborah A; Rosenberg, Lynn; Coogan, Patricia F; Makambi, Kepher H; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Palmer, Julie R

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is disproportionately high in African American women, and consumption of fast foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks is also especially high among African Americans. We investigated the relation of intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and specific types of restaurant foods to obesity in the Black Women's Health Study. In this prospective cohort study, 19,479 non-obese women aged 21-39 years at baseline were followed for 14 years (1995-2009). Dietary intake was assessed by validated food frequency questionnaire in 1995 and 2001. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of intakes of restaurant foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks with incident obesity. Higher intakes of burgers from restaurants and sugar-sweetened soft drinks were associated with greater risk of becoming obese. The associations were present in models that included both factors and adjusted for overall dietary pattern. The HR of obesity in relation to restaurant burger consumption of > or = 2 times/week compared with or = 2 drinks/day compared with obesity among young African American women.

  1. Effect of Body Fat Distribution on Pulmonary Functions in Young Healthy Obese Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Timmanna Koraddi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is defined as “abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health”. WHO defines obesity as Body Mass Index (BMI ≥30 2 Kg/m . Obesity is becoming more prevalent in the world and has effects on different body systems. Main is the impact on respiratory function. Aim & Objectives: We have aimed to study the gender difference in obesity induced changes on pulmonary functions and determine adiposity marker which best predicts the pulmonary function in young adult obese individuals and age-matched non-obese young adult subjects. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional 2 study was conducted on obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m male (n=32 and female (n=18 students aged 18-25 years and compared with age matched non-obese (BMI 2 18.5–24.99 Kg/m male (n=23 and female subjects (n=27 as controls. Weight(kg, Height(cm, Body -2 Mass Index(BMI, kgm , Waist Circumference(WC, cm, Waist to Hip Ratio(WHR,Waist to Height Ratio (WHtR, Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, L, Forced Expiratory Volume in first second (FEV , L/min, 1 FEV , FEF (L/sec, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate 1% 25-75% (PEFR, L/min and Maximum Expiratory Pressure (MEP, mm Hg were recorded. Results: Systolic Blood Pressure, Diastolic Blood Pressure, Pulse Rate and Respiratory Rate were significantly higher in obese students when compared to their respective controls. We observed highly significant reduction in PEFR (p<0.001 and MEP (p<0.001 in both obese male and female groups compared to controls. FEV was 1% significantly lower in obese female students. Linear regression analysis revealed that BMI, WHR and WC were significant predictors of PEFR. BMI was only the significant predictor of MEP. WHtR and WHR were best predictors of FVC, FEF and FEV . 25-75% 1 Conclusion: Obesity and pattern of fat distribution have independent effect on pulmonary function.

  2. Perceived barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking in young people: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Kathleen M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents and young adults frequently experience mental disorders, yet tend not to seek help. This systematic review aims to summarise reported barriers and facilitators of help-seeking in young people using both qualitative research from surveys, focus groups, and interviews and quantitative data from published surveys. It extends previous reviews through its systematic research methodology and by the inclusion of published studies describing what young people themselves perceive are the barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for common mental health problems. Methods Twenty two published studies of perceived barriers or facilitators in adolescents or young adults were identified through searches of PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database. A thematic analysis was undertaken on the results reported in the qualitative literature and quantitative literature. Results Fifteen qualitative and seven quantitative studies were identified. Young people perceived stigma and embarrassment, problems recognising symptoms (poor mental health literacy, and a preference for self-reliance as the most important barriers to help-seeking. Facilitators were comparatively under-researched. However, there was evidence that young people perceived positive past experiences, and social support and encouragement from others as aids to the help-seeking process. Conclusions Strategies for improving help-seeking by adolescents and young adults should focus on improving mental health literacy, reducing stigma, and taking into account the desire of young people for self-reliance.

  3. Perceived barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking in young people: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, Amelia; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen

    2010-12-30

    Adolescents and young adults frequently experience mental disorders, yet tend not to seek help. This systematic review aims to summarise reported barriers and facilitators of help-seeking in young people using both qualitative research from surveys, focus groups, and interviews and quantitative data from published surveys. It extends previous reviews through its systematic research methodology and by the inclusion of published studies describing what young people themselves perceive are the barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for common mental health problems. Twenty two published studies of perceived barriers or facilitators in adolescents or young adults were identified through searches of PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database. A thematic analysis was undertaken on the results reported in the qualitative literature and quantitative literature. Fifteen qualitative and seven quantitative studies were identified. Young people perceived stigma and embarrassment, problems recognising symptoms (poor mental health literacy), and a preference for self-reliance as the most important barriers to help-seeking. Facilitators were comparatively under-researched. However, there was evidence that young people perceived positive past experiences, and social support and encouragement from others as aids to the help-seeking process. Strategies for improving help-seeking by adolescents and young adults should focus on improving mental health literacy, reducing stigma, and taking into account the desire of young people for self-reliance.

  4. Use of the male condom by heterosexual adolescents and young people: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Leah; Jackson, Debra; O'Brien, Louise; Peters, Kathleen

    2007-07-01

    This paper is a report of a literature review to explore issues influencing condom use in heterosexual adolescents and young people. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major international health issue and adolescents and young people are particularly vulnerable. Efforts to address the rapid spread of STIs have largely focused on promoting the use of condoms as a protective 'safer sex' measure. However, use of the male condom is still inconsistent and the incidence of STIs continues to increase. A search of the literature using EBSCO Host databases was undertaken in 2006, with a focus on women, young people, condoms and STIs. Papers published in English from 1992 to 2006 were sought. Only research papers are included in this review. Factors impeding decisions to use protection by young people include lack of knowledge about prevalence of STIs, ambiguity around contraception and safer sex practices, and the difficulty faced by young women in particular in negotiating safer sex. The notion of romantic love confounds the assessment of risk and can render young people, particularly young women, ineffective in negotiating safer sex practices. Adolescents and young adults are particularly vulnerable in relation to STIs. There is a need to ensure that accurate messages are delivered about safer sex and contraception to this very vulnerable group. Furthermore, it is important to recognize that romantic love comprises strong emotions that have a role in decision-making and options for reducing personal-health risk during sexual activity.

  5. Attitudes to Exercise and Diabetes in Young People with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryninks, Kirsty; Sutton, Eileen; Thomas, Elizabeth; Jago, Russell; Shield, Julian P. H.; Burren, Christine P.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate young people’s attitudes to, and understanding of, physical activity on glycaemic control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Methods Four focus groups with 11–14 and 15–16 year olds were conducted with twelve young people with Type 1 Diabetes, from within a larger study investigating physical activity and fitness. Qualitative analysis of the focus group data was performed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results Four superordinate themes were identified: Benefits of Exercise, Knowledge and Understanding, Information and Training and “You can do anything”. Young people felt that exercising helped them to manage their diabetes and had a beneficial psychological and physical impact on their bodies. They reported a lack of knowledge and understanding about diabetes among school staff and other young people. The overwhelming sense from young people was that although diabetes impacts upon their lives, with preparation, physical activity can take place as normal. Conclusions Whilst young people had an awareness of the physical and psychological benefits of exercise in managing their diabetes, they experienced difficulties at school. Professional support and discussions with young people, giving tailored strategies for managing Type 1 Diabetes during exercise are needed. Healthcare teams should ensure that the support and educational needs of school staff are met. Providing more opportunities to empower young people to take on the responsibility for their Type 1 Diabetes care is merited. Young people felt diabetes did not stop them from participating in activities; it is simply a part of them that needs managing throughout life. PMID:26465770

  6. Combine body mass index and body fat percentage measures to improve the accuracy of obesity screening in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shang-Ping; Chen, Ching-Yu; Guo, Fei-Ran; Chang, Ching-I; Jan, Chyi-Feng

    Obesity screening among young adult groups is meaningful. Body mass index (BMI) is limited to discriminate between fat and lean mass. Asian young adult group tends to have lower BMI and higher body fat percentage (BFP) than other ethnic groups. Accuracy of obesity screening by commonly used BMI criteria is unclear in young Taiwanese population. A total of 894 young adults (447 males and 447 females) aged 20-26 were recruited. BMI, regional fat percentage and BFP determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were measured. BMI cutoff points were based on the criteria adopted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan. Cutoff points of low or high BFP were defined as 24% in men and 31.4% in women. Prevalence of BFP defining obesity was 14.8% in young men and 27.3% in young women. 23.2% of young men and only 8.3% of young women were classified to overweight or obesity categories according to the BMI criteria. Disagreement was noticed mainly among overweight males and normal weight females. 68.7% of BMI defining overweight young men had low BFP; however, 29.7% of young women of BMI defining normal group had high BFP. Up to 69.7% of young women with high BFP would be missed by BMI category only. Disagreement between BMI and BFP was significant among young adults, especially young women. We suggest combining BMI and BIA for obesity and overweight screening in Asian young adults. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CHALLENGES OF EDUCATION OF YOUNG PEOPLE FOR RESPONSIBLE FOOD CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta POPESCU

    2014-06-01

    opinions differ. The research aimed also to test a measuring scale for aggregation of the indicators, which measure purchasing behavior. Taking into account the recommendations of specialists in the field (Equité, 2004, p. 12 we consider that all the actors that comprise the system of interactions in which one can shape a sustainable consumption (public powers and organizations/communities, businesses, media and associations have to cooperate actively and interactively to educate young people in the spirit of responsible consumption.

  8. SKILLS MISMATCH OF THE YOUNG PEOPLE AT THE EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatos Roxana

    2015-07-01

    are: What are the main types of skills mismatch? What are the main ways to measure skills mismatch? What are the indicators of skills mismatch? What is the level of over-education and under-education in European countries? How to calculate skills mismatch between demand and supply of labor at European level? What factors explain the different labor market chances of young people compared to adults? What are the predictors at the macro level and individual level of skills mismatch?

  9. Changing cultures: enhancing mental health and wellbeing of refugee young people through education and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Lyndal; Giddens, Anne; Cosentino, Anne; Cook, Margaret; Hoban, Paul; Haynes, Ann; Scaffidi, Louise; Dimovski, Mary; Cini, Eileen; Glover, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Many refugee people and others entering Australia under the Humanitarian Program, have experienced extremely stressful and disrupted lives prior to arrival. A major difficulty experienced by a significant number of refugee young people is their lack of formal education before arrival. It directly affects their ability to start connecting to their new society and constructing a new life. The level of ease with which young people can move into the education and training system and begin to establish a meaningful career pathway has a huge impact on their successful settlement and stable mental health. This paper describes the Changing Cultures Project, a three-year project, which explored models of appropriate and accessible education and training for refugee and newly arrived young people that would enhance their mental health. The Changing Cultures Project was a partnership between the education, health and settlement sectors. This paper describes the program and system response to the health, settlement, education and vocational issues facing refugee young people using a mental health promotion framework and reflective practice. We discuss how the refugee youth programs met a broad range of needs as well as providing language, literacy and basic education to newly arrived young people. While working in an environment of changing policy and public opinion regarding refugee issues, the Project delivered successful outcomes at the program and organisational levels for refugee young people by addressing issues of program development and delivery, organisational development and capacity building and community development and evaluation.

  10. Possible Contribution of PTSD to Altered Cortisol Activity in Young Adult Obese African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Teletia R; Van Kirk, Kendra; Tapscott, Denia; Bernard, Monet; Llano, Juliana; Mellman, Thomas A

    2015-06-01

    African-Americans have been found to experience increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obesity, and flatter diurnal cortisol slopes compared to other demographic groups. Further exploration, however, is needed to understand how PTSD impacts diurnal cortisol activity in obese African-American women. The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between salivary cortisol levels and PTSD in a sample of obese young adult African-American women and to examine how depression and insomnia influence the relationship. Thirty-four young adult African-American women (mean age = 24.0 years; mean BMI = 37.4 kg/m(2), 6/34 of the sample had a score of 40 or above on the PTSD Checklist (PCL) representing clinically significant PTSD) filled out questionnaires assessing PTSD, lifetime exposure to traumatic events, insomnia severity, and depression. A home-based assessment of salivary cortisol was provided upon awakening at 30 min and 1, 3, 6, and 12 h. There was a significant interaction between PTSD status and diurnal cortisol activity (p cortisol levels at awakening (p cortisol was attenuated by co-varying for depression and insomnia (p > 0.05). PTSD, influenced by depression and insomnia symptoms, has an impact on diurnal cortisol activity in obese young adult African-American women.

  11. Cytokine profiling of young overweight and obese female African American adults with prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rudolf; Parikh, Samip J.; Sridhar, Supriya; Guo, De-Huang; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Dong, Yutong; Caldwell, Ruth; Mellor, Andrew; Caldwell, William; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 5–10% of subjects with prediabetes become diabetic every year. Inflammation is involved in the development of obesity-related type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, to date, the relationship between inflammation and prediabetes, defined by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 5.7 and prediabetes. A total of 21 otherwise healthy, overweight/obese, young adult African American females with prediabetes, together with 20 matched overweight/obese controls, were selected for this study. Plasma cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling. Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6, IL-7, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were significantly higher in the prediabetic group, as compared to the control group (all p prediabetic group, but failed to reach statistical significances. Upon merging both groups, HbA1c was found to be positively correlated with IFN- γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-7, IL-8, TNF-α and GM-CSF. This study demonstrates elevated levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in overweight/obese young subjects with prediabetes, which place them at higher risk of developing T2D and cardiovascular diseases. Our data also call for further investigations in animal models and population cohorts to establish the roles of a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the early development of obesity-related T2D. PMID:23769592

  12. Elevated circulating microRNA-122 is associated with obesity and insulin resistance in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Hong, Jie; Cao, Yanan; Shi, Juan; Gu, Weiqiong; Ning, Guang; Zhang, Yifei; Wang, Weiqing

    2015-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of adiposity, but functional studies have yielded inconclusive results. Examining the associations of circulating miRNAs levels with obesity and insulin sensitivity in humans may lead to improved insights. Serum samples collected from 112 obese and control subjects (50.0% men) were randomly divided and combined into four pools (28 samples in each obese or control pool). The genome-wide circulating miRNA profiles were detected via microarray. Elevated miR-122 was selected and validated in individual serum samples from 123 obese (46.7% men) and 107 control (50.0% men) young adults. Associations between circulating miR-122 levels and parameters related to adiposity, insulin resistance, lipid profiles and hepatic enzymes were further assessed. Thirty-four miRNAs were found to be expressed differently in the sera of obese patients compared with control subjects (Pobese patients had 3.07-fold higher circulating miR-122 levels than controls (Pobesity and insulin resistance in young adults. These findings provide a better understanding regarding the role of miRNAs in adiposity and insulin sensitivity. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. Differences between children and young people: A multiple case study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Martin Blok

    2017-01-01

    examples of how children are typically referred to in positive terms such as innocent, imaginative, cheerful, spontaneous, creative and competent (a surplus discourse), while young people are typically referred to in negative terms such as irresponsible, rootless, violent, dysfunctional, hedonistic...

  14. Designing movement-based play with young people using powered wheelchairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerling, Kathrin M; Hicks, Kieran C; Kalyn, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    people who have special needs) and 2) three case studies (4 participants) exploring player perspectives on a set of three wheelchair-controlled casual games. Our results show that movement-based playful experiences are engaging for young people using powered wheelchairs. However, the participatory design...... in the development of accessible, empowering movement-based games, which is crucial to the wider participation of young people using powered wheelchairs in play.......Young people using powered wheelchairs have limited access to engaging leisure activities. We address this issue through a two-stage project; 1) the participatory development of a set of wheelchair-controlled, movement-based games (with 9 participants at a school that provides education for young...

  15. Instant messaging: The way to improve access for young people to their school nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Lynne; Thaker, Kelly

    2015-12-01

    Children and young people require ease of access to their school nurse. Alongside this, school nurses are charged with the need to work smarter, being cost-effective and timely in response. School nursing teams across the country provide access through text messaging, however, there is presently no access provided to young people to have a consultation as a web-based chat facility. Using digital media, Doncaster school nurses have worked closely with young people to redesign and launch a totally interactive web- based clinic facility. This allows for improved access, reduction in travel costs and consultations to take place outside of the traditional times for accessing school nurses. This paper discusses a pilot project around the establishment of an e-clinic connecting young people and school nurses. It outlines the journey towards providing this innovative service in an attempt to provide cost-effective, timely services while reducing the barriers for service users.

  16. Collaboration Technology for Education of the Young People with Special Needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavendels, Jurijs; Sitikovs, Vjaceslavs; Latisheva, Eleonora

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Lavendels, J., Sitikovs, V., & Latisheva, E. (2006). Collaboration Technology for Education of the Young People with Special Needs. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March

  17. The ineffable disease: exploring young people's discourses about HIV/AIDS in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Guendalina; Olson, Kärin

    2009-06-01

    The ongoing epidemic of HIV/AIDS in Western societies (in particular in North America), where most of the population knows about the disease and how it is transmitted, suggests that providing information is not enough to change unsafe conduct. More complex psychosocial processes, mainly still unexplored, seem to underlie the translation of health knowledge about the disease and the infection into safe practices. In this article we explore the discourse of young people in Alberta about HIV/AIDS and discuss ways in which this information might be used to shape preventive strategies. We conducted eight focus groups with young people 18 to 25 years of age living in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and analyzed the data using psychosocial discourse analysis. The results confirm the role of young people's interpersonal exchanges in determining HIV/AIDS preventive conduct and show the importance of social discourses about HIV/AIDS in mediating the impact of preventive campaigns on young people's attitudes and beliefs.

  18. Self-injury and suicide behavior among young people with perceived parental alcohol problems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Veronica S C; Hawton, Keith; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2018-01-01

    parental alcohol problems and self-injury, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt among young people differed depending on the gender of the child and the parent. Data came from the Danish National Youth Study 2014, a web-based national survey. A total of 75,853 high school and vocational school students......The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that young people who perceive their parents to have alcohol problems are more likely to self-injure, have suicide ideation, and to attempt suicide than young people without parental alcohol problems. We also tested whether the association between...... participated. Self-injury, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts were outcomes and the main exposure variables were perceived parental alcohol problems, gender of the parent with alcohol problems, cohabitation with a parent with alcohol problems, and severity of the parents' alcohol problems. Young people...

  19. The Role of Motivation to Reduce Obesity among Elderly People: Response to Priming Temptation in Obese Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara-Gołębiowska, Małgorzata; Brycz, Hanna; Lipowska, Małgorzata; Lipowski, Mariusz

    2018-02-01

    The risk of obesity-related disorders is increased among the elderly, so changing eating habits can be an important element of prevention. The main aim of this article is to consider whether looking at pictures that present either fattening food or healthy food may motivate elderly people to change their nutrition habits. Might priming different kinds of food influence the attractiveness of the food for people in late adulthood undergoing obesity therapy? Based on priming theories, we analysed the effects of the conscious processing of stimuli associated with dietary habits in individuals aged with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m². Our experiments confirmed the influence of a higher-priority goal of "slimming" on the perception and internalization of nutrition-related stimuli. In response to such stimuli, individuals who are actively involved in weight reduction and health-oriented programs use strategies for resisting temptation and to effectively "slim". We present our findings in the context of their theoretical background and practical application.

  20. The Role of Motivation to Reduce Obesity among Elderly People: Response to Priming Temptation in Obese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Obara-Gołębiowska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The risk of obesity-related disorders is increased among the elderly, so changing eating habits can be an important element of prevention. The main aim of this article is to consider whether looking at pictures that present either fattening food or healthy food may motivate elderly people to change their nutrition habits. Might priming different kinds of food influence the attractiveness of the food for people in late adulthood undergoing obesity therapy? Based on priming theories, we analysed the effects of the conscious processing of stimuli associated with dietary habits in individuals aged with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Our experiments confirmed the influence of a higher-priority goal of “slimming” on the perception and internalization of nutrition-related stimuli. In response to such stimuli, individuals who are actively involved in weight reduction and health-oriented programs use strategies for resisting temptation and to effectively “slim”. We present our findings in the context of their theoretical background and practical application.

  1. HOW DO YOUNG PEOPLE SELECT INFORMATION TO PLAN A TRIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana ŢUGULEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to reveal the young tourists preferences in the process of planning a trip. Sources of information used, the utility of Internet/travel agencies in planning travel trip activities, preferred means of transportation and types of accommodation are investigated. As research methods, there used both qualitative and quantitative methods: focus group and survey. Internet is more used by young tourists in planning trips than travel agencies are. Internet is considered more useful in the documentation stage and when buying airline tickets. Young tourists are more influenced by friends when planning a trip. Young tourists prefer cars and planes as means of transportation for a trip and hotels and guesthouses as accommodation when traveling.

  2. School nurses' perspectives on managing mental health problems in children and young people

    OpenAIRE

    Pryjmachuk, S.; Graham, T.; Haddad, M.; Tylee, A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims and objectives: To explore the views of school nurses regarding mental health problems in young people and their potential for engaging in mental health work with this client group.\\ud \\ud Background: Mental health problems in children and young people are an important public health issue. Universal children’s services play a key role in identifying and managing these problems and, while school nurses have an important function in this work, little is known about their views on this aspe...

  3. ACE Action Fellowship Bridges Climate Education into Action for Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. K.

    2016-12-01

    Alliance for Climate Education educates young people on the science of climate change and empowers them to take action. Since 2009, ACE has educated over two million students and trained more than 4,000 young leaders. The ACE Action Fellowship is a yearlong training program that gives young people the knowledge, skills and confidence to be strong climate leaders. Here, we present the results of the first year of evaluation of the Fellowship program in the 2014-15 school year. Sixty high school students completed matched surveys before and after completing the program. Students were evaluated on skills learned, actions taken, confidence gained, civic engagement, and plans to continue action on climate in the future. Results show that the Fellowship increases young people's confidence: 52% of Fellows report an increase in confidence in leading a group of peers on a climate-related campaign. Fellows also gained leadership skills. More than half of Fellows say they improved in the areas of recruitment, interpersonal communication skills, campaign planning, and public speaking. 50% of Fellows reported an increase in their likelihood of seeking elected office when of age. The Fellowship positively influences young people's intent to study a climate, energy or sustainability-related field. 63% of Fellows identify as people of color. Notably, despite entering the Fellowship with significantly lower self-ratings than white students in experience and skill sets, young people of color reported greater improvement in the areas of public speaking (25% improvement vs. 6% improvement) and petitioning (27% improvement vs. 1% improvement). These results show that the ACE Fellowship gives young people tangible skills and confidence that puts them on a path of climate leadership. Further evaluation will be done to expand the dataset, but early indications show that these young people are poised to make valuable contributions and bring a much needed diverse youth perspective to the

  4. What young people want from a sexual health website: design and development of Sexunzipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Ona; Carswell, Kenneth; Murray, Elizabeth; Free, Caroline; Stevenson, Fiona; Bailey, Julia V

    2012-10-12

    Sexual health education in the United Kingdom is of variable quality, typically focusing on the biological aspects of sex rather than on communication, relationships, and sexual pleasure. The Internet offers a unique opportunity to provide sexual health education to young people, since they can be difficult to engage but frequently use the Internet as a health information resource. To explore through qualitative research young people's views on what elements of a sexual health website would be appealing and engaging, and their views on the content, design, and interactive features of the Sexunzipped intervention website. We recruited 67 young people aged 16-22 years in London, UK. We held 21 focus groups and 6 one-to-one interviews to establish sexual health priorities, views on website look and feel, and what features of a sexual heath website would attract and engage them. Two researchers facilitated the focus groups, using a semistructured topic guide to lead the discussions and asking open questions to elicit a range of views. The discussions and interviews were audio recorded and detailed notes were made on key topics from the audio recording. Young people's views influenced design templates for the content and interactive features of Sexunzipped. Young people particularly wanted straightforward information on sexual pleasure, sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy, how to communicate with partners, how to develop skills in giving pleasure, and emotions involved in sex and relationships. Focus group participants wanted social interaction with other young people online and wanted to see themselves reflected in some way such as through images or videos. While it is challenging to meet all of young people's technological and design requirements, consultation with the target audience is valuable and necessary in developing an online sexual health intervention. Young people are willing to talk about sensitive issues, enjoy the discussions, and can offer key

  5. Functional Family Therapy (FFT) for Young People in Treatment for Non-opioid Drug Use:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Andersen, Ditte; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this review is to evaluate the current evidence on the effects of FFT on drug abuse reduction for young people in treatment for non-opioid drug use.......The main aim of this review is to evaluate the current evidence on the effects of FFT on drug abuse reduction for young people in treatment for non-opioid drug use....

  6. The Impact of Mass-Media on Consumer Behaviour Among Children and Young People

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Anca Cristea; Mihaela Simona Apostol; Tatiana Corina Dosescu

    2014-01-01

    We note that nowadays the mass-media discourse influences the consumer behaviour of children and young people, more specifically, it is obvious that it has brought about changes in many fields (i.e., culture, economy, society, etc.). Advertising messages which target consumers resulted in attitude and behaviour changes, due to new, specially designed marketing techniques and strategies aimed at reaching children and young people. The consumer behaviour of this type of audience has its own cha...

  7. Suicide attempt in young people a signal for long-term health care and social needs

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman-Mellor, SJ; Caspi, A; Harrington, HL; Hogan, S; Nada-Raja, S; Poulton, R; Moffitt, TE

    2014-01-01

    Importance Suicidal behavior has increased since the onset of the global recession, a trend that may have long-term health and social implications. OBJECTIVE To test whether suicide attempts among young people signal increased risk for later poor health and social functioning above and beyond a preexisting psychiatric disorder. DESIGN We followed up a cohort of young people and assessed multiple aspects of their health and social functioning as they approached midlife. Outcomes among individu...

  8. Obesity, appearance, and psychosocial adaptation in young African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Hyman, Deborah; Schlundt, David G; Herman-Wenderoth, Leanna; Bozylinski, Khristine

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the contributions of weight status, skin tone, peer teasing, and parental appraisals of child's size to self-esteem and psychosocial adjustment in overweight African American children. Overweight to very obese 5- to 10-year-old African American children (N = 117) completed measures of self-esteem, skin tone satisfaction, peer teasing, and body size perception. Caregivers completed the Child Behavior Checklist and rated their child's body size. Overweight was associated with low appearance self-esteem, and body size dissatisfaction with low global self-worth and low appearance self-esteem in children 8 and older. Appearance self-esteem but not global self-worth was lower in girls than boys. Parental perception of child's size as heavier than average was associated with low child appearance self-esteem. Heavier children also had more parental report of behavior and psychosocial problems, but their scores were in the nonclinical range. Child skin tone dissatisfaction was associated with low global self-worth. Weight-related peer teasing was associated with low self-esteem. The relationship between obesity and self-esteem in African American children depends upon age, gender, and children's experiences with teasing and parental evaluation of their size. Other factors, like skin tone satisfaction, contribute to a child's sense of self-worth.

  9. [Polycystic ovary syndrome: an example of obesity-related cardiovascular complication affecting young women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Francesco; Cascella, Teresa; Giallauria, Francesco; Palomba, Stefano; De Lorenzo, Anna; Lucci, Rosa; Ambrosino, Elena; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Vigorito, Carlo

    2006-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a good example of obesity-related cardiovascular complication affecting young women. PCOS is not only considered a reproductive problem but rather represents a complex endocrine, multifaceted syndrome with important health implications. Several evidences suggest an increased cardiovascular risk of cardiovascular disease associated with this syndrome, characterized by an impairment of heart structure and function, endothelial dysfunction and lipid abnormalities. All these features, probably linked to insulin-resistance, are often present in obese PCOS patients. Cardiovascular abnormalities represent important long-term sequelae of PCOS that need further investigations.

  10. The Religious Behavior and Beliefs of Orthodox Young People in the Mogilev Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudin, V. V.

    2007-01-01

    In the past twenty years a generation has grown up that, unlike previous generations, was not the object of atheistic upbringing. In this article, based on sociological surveys of young people in Mogilev and Mogilev Oblast conducted in 2002 and 2004, the author examines the religious behavior of young believers and analyze the level and degree of…

  11. Engaging Young People as a Community Development Strategy in the Wisconsin Northwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, William; Dallapiazza, Margaret; Calvert, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on two remote rural communities that engaged young people in meaningful community development efforts to build social capital. One community connected youth to the assets of the community and created opportunities for young adults to strengthen social networks. The other created partnerships and networks to build…

  12. What Happens to Young People Moving to Germany, Norway and the UK to Find Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Seeleib-Kaiser, Martin; Spreckelsen, Thees

    2017-01-01

    One of the most distinctive characteristics of youth employment in recent years has been the large proportion of young people who move abroad to find work (O’Reilly et al. 2015). But how well integrated are these young EU migrants? Are they offered new opportunities by these jobs or are they part...

  13. Having Confidence in Therapeutic Work with Young People: Constraints and Challenges to Confidentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Confidentiality presents particular challenges to practitioners working with young people, on account of the latter's vulnerability and emotional immaturity. Ethical codes place a key importance on confidentiality, from deontological and teleological perspectives. However, young clients may rely on a more pragmatic approach in deciding whether to…

  14. Exploring Marine Citizenship among Young People in Select Urban and Rural Villages in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabar, Melvin A.; Regadio, Crisanto Q., Jr.; Collado, Zaldy C.

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the understanding of marine citizenship among young people from two villages (urban and rural) in the Philippines. The purpose of the article is to examine the differences and similarities of their attitudes toward and engagement in marine environment conservation in rural and urban contexts. Young Focus Group Discussion…

  15. "When you're desperate you'll ask anybody": young people's social sources of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Louise; Dawson, Anna; McGee, Rob

    2013-04-01

    This study sought to examine young New Zealand smokers' access to social supplies of cigarettes. A qualitative investigation using 10 focus groups with 66 current young smokers, aged between 15 and 17 years, was conducted throughout New Zealand, between October and December 2011. Transcripts from the focus groups were analysed using NVivo to code the data, from which common themes and critical issues were identified. Family was one of the main sources of tobacco for the young smokers in this study and parents were the leading source, often purchasing tobacco for their children to smoke. Sharing tobacco within groups of friends was also very common. Additional methods were used when young smokers were desperate, including stealing, 'butt scabbing' and asking strangers. Both family and social networks continue to support smoking and supply tobacco to young people. While these networks operate, young people will continue to smoke, despite increased regulations on commercial sales to minors. Restrictions on commercial sales of tobacco to minors are increasing; however, many young people use multiple sources of tobacco, including social sources. It is likely that young people will increasingly use these social sources in the future. Interventions other than purchase restrictions are important for reducing minors' access to tobacco. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  16. Drug use among homeless young people in Los Angeles and Melbourne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Doreen; Mallett, Shelley; Milburn, Norweeta; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2008-09-01

    To examine the effect of time spent homeless on young people's substance use and use of drug and alcohol services in two countries with contrasting policy and service environments. A crossnational survey was conducted of recently homeless and experienced homeless young people in Melbourne (N = 674) and Los Angeles (N = 620). Questions were asked about alcohol and drug use in the past 3 months, frequency of use, injecting drug use, drug dependency, and perceived need for, and use of, drug and alcohol services. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Substantial numbers of young people reported use of alcohol and drugs. More Australians than Americans and more experienced than newly homeless reported drug use, although there were no differences in frequency of use in the past 3 months. Polydrug use was common, as were injecting drugs and responses that signified drug dependency. All were more common among Australians and experienced homeless young people. A substantial number of young people had "ever" taken part in a drug or alcohol program, but only a minority believed that they needed help from services. Of these, only a minority had sought help. This was particularly so among those who were classified as drug dependent. Reasons for failure to seek help varied. Substance use is alarmingly high compared to national samples of young people, especially among those who had been homeless for longer periods. Programs to reduce substance use must take account of the prevailing drug cultures, as well as different subgroups of the population.

  17. Obesity and Minority--Changing Meanings of Big Bodies among Young Pakistani Obesity Patients in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathne, Kjetil; Mburu, Christina Brux; Middelthon, Anne-Lise

    2015-01-01

    Globally, paediatric obesity causes widespread concern, and the role of ethnicity is an important focus. Investigating how culture can mediate health-related behaviour through ideas about bodies, food and physical activity, while addressing a notion that the Pakistani community in Norway is particularly conservative and slow to change, this…

  18. Feasibility of activity-promoting video games among obese adolescents and young adults in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radon, Katja; Fürbeck, Barbara; Thomas, Silke; Siegfried, Wolfgang; Nowak, Dennis; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    One component of the recent obesity epidemic is the sedentary behaviour of children and adolescents e.g., use of video games consoles. The new generation of video games requires body movements and might thus increase activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether such games could have an effect on physical activity in obese adolescents in a clinical setting. Between March and May 2007 activity-promoting video games ("apvg") were offered to all 84 inpatients (aged 13-28 years) registered in a long-term rehabilitation programme on a voluntary base. Reasons for (non-)attendance were assessed. Frequency and duration of use of the activity-promoting video game sessions were documented. Furthermore, heart rate and activity counts during use of "apvg", endurance training, and strength training were measured. Of 84 inpatients, 51 used the "apvg" at least once (69%) over the study period. The median weekly use of the intervention was 27 min during the first week (range 0-182 min), declining to zero (range 0-74 min) in week four. Mean heart rate during the sessions (mean 115 bpm; 95% confidence interval 108-122 bpm) was similar to the heart rate during strength training (106 bpm; 101-112 bpm). The results indicate that the video games could have an impact on the activity of obese adolescents and young adults. However, as the interest in the devices seems to be too low the suitability of them for weight reduction programmes in young people cannot be ensured. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Peer Communication in Online Mental Health Forums for Young People: Directional and Nondirectional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Terry; Ujhelyi, Katalin

    2017-01-01

    Background The Internet has the potential to help young people by reducing the stigma associated with mental health and enabling young people to access services and professionals which they may not otherwise access. Online support can empower young people, help them develop new online friendships, share personal experiences, communicate with others who understand, provide information and emotional support, and most importantly help them feel less alone and normalize their experiences in the world. Objective The aim of the research was to gain an understanding of how young people use an online forum for emotional and mental health issues. Specifically, the project examined what young people discuss and how they seek support on the forum (objective 1). Furthermore, it looked at how the young service users responded to posts to gain an understanding of how young people provided each other with peer-to-peer support (objective 2). Methods Kooth is an online counseling service for young people aged 11-25 years and experiencing emotional and mental health problems. It is based in the United Kingdom and provides support that is anonymous, confidential, and free at the point of delivery. Kooth provided the researchers with all the online forum posts between a 2-year period, which resulted in a dataset of 622 initial posts and 3657 initial posts with responses. Thematic analysis was employed to elicit key themes from the dataset. Results The findings support the literature that online forums provide young people with both informational and emotional support around a wide array of topics. The findings from this large dataset also reveal that this informational or emotional support can be viewed as directive or nondirective. The nondirective approach refers to when young people provide others with support by sharing their own experiences. These posts do not include explicit advice to act in a particular way, but the sharing process is hoped to be of use to the poster. The

  20. Peer Communication in Online Mental Health Forums for Young People: Directional and Nondirectional Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Julie; Hanley, Terry; Ujhelyi, Katalin

    2017-08-02

    The Internet has the potential to help young people by reducing the stigma associated with mental health and enabling young people to access services and professionals which they may not otherwise access. Online support can empower young people, help them develop new online friendships, share personal experiences, communicate with others who understand, provide information and emotional support, and most importantly help them feel less alone and normalize their experiences in the world. The aim of the research was to gain an understanding of how young people use an online forum for emotional and mental health issues. Specifically, the project examined what young people discuss and how they seek support on the forum (objective 1). Furthermore, it looked at how the young service users responded to posts to gain an understanding of how young people provided each other with peer-to-peer support (objective 2). Kooth is an online counseling service for young people aged 11-25 years and experiencing emotional and mental health problems. It is based in the United Kingdom and provides support that is anonymous, confidential, and free at the point of delivery. Kooth provided the researchers with all the online forum posts between a 2-year period, which resulted in a dataset of 622 initial posts and 3657 initial posts with responses. Thematic analysis was employed to elicit key themes from the dataset. The findings support the literature that online forums provide young people with both informational and emotional support around a wide array of topics. The findings from this large dataset also reveal that this informational or emotional support can be viewed as directive or nondirective. The nondirective approach refers to when young people provide others with support by sharing their own experiences. These posts do not include explicit advice to act in a particular way, but the sharing process is hoped to be of use to the poster. The directive approach, in contrast, involves

  1. Physical activity and the incidence of obesity in young African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Lynn; Kipping-Ruane, Kristen L; Boggs, Deborah A; Palmer, Julie R

    2013-09-01

    Obesity occurs more commonly among African-American women than among other racial/ethnic groups, and most weight gain occurs before middle age. The study prospectively investigated the relationship of vigorous exercise and brisk walking to the incidence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30) among African-American women aged American women who were aged obese at baseline. BMI, exercise, and walking were assessed at baseline and on biennial follow-up questionnaires. Data for BMI were collected through 2009. Data for exercise and walking were collected through 2007. Validation and reproducibility data indicated that reporting was more accurate for vigorous exercise than for brisk walking. Cox proportional hazards models estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs of incident obesity for hours/week of vigorous exercise and walking relative to "little or no exercise" (obesity decreased with increasing vigorous exercise; the IRR was 0.77 (95% CI=0.69, 0.85) for ≥ 7 hours/week relative to little or no exercise; the IRRs were reduced both among women with a healthy weight (BMI obesity among young African-American women. Results for brisk walking were inconclusive. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimizing a Retention Strategy with Young People for BRIGHTLIGHT, a Longitudinal Cohort Study Examining the Value of Specialist Cancer Care for Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel M; Aslam, Natasha; Lea, Sarah; Whelan, Jeremy S; Fern, Lorna A

    2017-09-01

    To maximize retention of participants in a longitudinal cohort study, we sought to understand young peoples' views about barriers and facilitators to continuing study participation. Ten young people with a previous cancer diagnosis aged 15-24 participated in a 1 day workshop. The workshop used participatory methodology consisting of three exercises as follows: role play/scene setting; force field analysis of research participation in small groups; and focus group discussion. A final prioritization exercise was administered individually after the workshop. Twenty-four barriers to maintaining participation were summarized in five themes as follows: life commitments; concerns specific to the study; emotional barriers; practical barriers; and other reasons. The top 3 specific barriers were as follows: not a priority/other things are more important; too time consuming; and forgetting/memory. The top 3 facilitators for participation were as follows: wishing to help other young people; giving back to the cancer community; and honoring an initial commitment to participation. The top 3 suggested solutions to encourage continued participation were as follows: reminder text message or email before each survey to check preferred method of delivery; breaking up the online survey into modules to make completion less overwhelming; and consolidation of study information in one location. Involving young people in designing a retention strategy for young people with cancer has informed the BRIGHTLIGHT retention strategy. Patient and public involvement is imperative for successful research but measuring impact is challenging. The success of implementing the changes to optimize retention was shown in the increase in retention in Wave 3 from 30% to final participation of 58%.

  3. Fear appeals in HIV-prevention messages: young people's perceptions in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Sheri

    2011-12-01

    The aims of the study were to elicit the perceptions of young people in Tanzania on the role of fear appeals in HIV-prevention messages and to identify important contextual factors that may influence young people's perceptions of HIV-prevention posters. A total of 10 focus groups were conducted to investigate the role of fear appeals using the extended parallel process model (EPPM) as a guide. Young people were shown a series of images (mostly posters) with alternating high and low-threat messages (fear appeals), and then asked questions about their overall beliefs about HIV and AIDS, as well as about their response in terms of perceived susceptibility to HIV infection, the severity of the message, and their perceptions of self-efficacy and response efficacy. The images and messages that specifically targeted young people were highest in inducing perceived susceptibility to HIV infection, while pictorial descriptions of the physical consequences of HIV infection and those messages related to the stigma and discrimination faced by HIV-infected or affected people induced greater perceptions of severity. The information-based posters rated high in inducing response efficacy, while none of the images seemed to convince young people that they had the self-efficacy to perform the recommended health behaviours. The young people expressed a preference for fear-based appeals and a belief that this could work well in HIV-prevention efforts, yet they also stated a desire for more information-based messages about how to protect themselves. Finally, the messages evoking the most emotional responses were those that had been locally conceived rather than ones developed by large-scale donor-funded campaigns. Finding the appropriate balance between fear and efficacy in HIV-prevention messages is imperative. Further research is needed to better understand how and when fear appeals work and do not work in African settings, especially among young people.

  4. ‘Interrupted Interviews’: listening to young people with autism in transition to college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqui Shepherd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the methodological approaches used in a research project that investigated the lived experiences of young people with autism as they made the transition from special schools to mainstream colleges of Further Education. A combination of visual methods using iPad applications and walking interviews were explored in an attempt to develop ways of engaging young people with autism in research and to privilege their voice in their own transition. The strengths and challenges of these methods are examined here and illustrated through the experience and responses of one young person in the study and his engagement with the research.

  5. Splitting, impulsivity, and intimate partnerships in young obese women seeking bariatric treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zmolikova J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jana Zmolikova,1,2 Dita Pichlerova,3 Petr Bob,1,4 Denisa Schückova,5 Jitka Herlesova,3 Petr Weiss6 1Department of Psychiatry, First Faculty of Medicine, Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Charles University, 2Department of Clinical Psychology, Na Homolce Hospital, 3OB Clinic, Prague, 4Faculty of Medicine, Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Brno, 5Iscare Clinical Centre, 6Institute of Sexology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic Background: Splitting represents a defense mechanism that describes fragmentation of conscious experience that may occur in various psychopathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of splitting with disturbed cognitive and affective functions related to impulsivity and intimate partnerships in a group of obese patients indicated for bariatric treatment and compare the results with other obese patients and patients with bulimia nervosa. Methods: In this clinical study, we assessed 102 young women. The sample was divided into three subgroups: obese women (N=30, obese women indicated for bariatric treatment (N=48, and patients with bulimia nervosa (N=24. The patients were assessed using Splitting Index and Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and selected information about their intimate partnership was documented for all the participants.Results: The main results of this study indicate significant differences in the relationship of splitting and impulsivity with difficulties in intimate partnerships. These differences discriminate obese patients indicated for bariatric treatment from other obese patients and patients with bulimia nervosa.Conclusion: These findings may have significant implications for treatment of the obese patients indicated for bariatric treatment and their presurgery psychological evaluations. Keywords: splitting, impulsivity, obesity, bulimia nervosa, bariatric treatment

  6. Mental Health Problems in Children and Young People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    We all have mental health. Mental health relates to how we think, feel, behave and interact with other people. At its simplest, good mental health is the absence of a mental disorder or mental health problem. Adults, children and young people with good mental health are likely to have high levels of mental wellbeing. The World Health Organisation…

  7. "It Is Only Natural….": Attitudes of Young People with Intellectual Disabilities toward Sexuality in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karellou, Ioanna

    2017-01-01

    Although there is an increasing awareness of the rights of people with intellectual disabilities, limited progress has been made in supporting people with intellectual disabilities to create and sustain intimate personal relationships in Greece. This article looks at the attitudes of 66 adolescents and young adults with intellectual disabilities…

  8. Young People and Political Campaigning on the Internet. CIRCLE Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Peter; Lopez, Mark Hugo

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet discusses young people and political campaigning on the Internet. It explains how the Internet has become a powerful force in political campaigns. A survey released by the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press on January 11, 2004 found that the Internet is gaining importance as a source of political news, especially for…

  9. Young People on the Margins of the Educational System: Following the Same Path Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görlich, Anne; Katznelson, Noemi

    2018-01-01

    Background: Across Europe and the Nordic countries, unemployment among 18-30 year-olds is a major challenge, which in some countries is being tackled by focusing on education. In Denmark, young unemployed people or people on the margins of the education system are assessed regarding what is known as an "education requirement". Hence,…

  10. Affinity Spaces: How Young People Live and Learn on Line and out of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    2018-01-01

    In the digital age, young people's most powerful learning opportunities often occur online, in experiences and environments created by people working outside of the K-12 school system. In a sense, the internet has given new life to an older, less formal approach to education, in which individuals seek out and learn from others who share their…

  11. Everyday Experiences of Homeless Young People in Supported Accommodation Programmes in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danby, Susan; Farrell, Ann; Leiminer, Michele

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates young people's accounts of governance in their everyday lives within a Supported Accommodation Assistance Program (SAAP) in regional Australia. The SAAP is a joint Commonwealth and State/Territory programme for assisting people who are homeless or at risk of homelessness by providing transitional supported accommodation and…

  12. Stigmatisation and self-stigmatisation among young people with a mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjerg, Lene Mosegaard; Sørensen, Mette Marie Boje

    Self-stigmatisation is a serious hindrance of recovery among people with a mental disorder. In a mixed methods study among young people aged 15-30 years old with a mental disorder who volunteer as ambassadors with ONE OF US, the issue of stigmatisation and self-stigmatisation has been studied...

  13. The Treasure in Leisure Activities: Fostering Resilience in Young People Who Are Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Glenda M.; Cornell, Elaine; Bundy, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    Because leisure activities are often viewed as optional, their value to people with disabilities may not be recognized. This study explored the benefits of leisure activities for eight young people who are blind. These activities provided them with supportive relationships, a desirable identity, experiences of power and control, and experiences of…

  14. When obese people are more patient than non-obese people. A study of post-surgery individuals in a weight loss association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budría, Santiago

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article is to investigate the rates of delay discounting among obese people treated surgically and belonging to an association of those interested in controlling their weight. We also analyze whether socio-economic status and personality traits explain the existing differences. rates of delay discounting are elicited using real monetary incentives in an economic experiment where subjects are asked to make several choices between a smaller, more immediate reward and larger, more delayed rewards. personality traits are examined using the Five Factor model. interestingly, our results show that obese people display lower discount rates than the reference group. these differences can not be explained by personality traits. We argue that obese people do not have to show larger discount rates. in fact, awareness and commitment, rather than their current bmi, seem to play a more important role in determining this parameter.

    El objetivo principal de este artículo es investigar las tasas de descuento temporal entre los individuos obesos tratados quirúrgicamente y que pertenecen a una asociación de personas interesadas en controlar su peso. también se analiza si el nivel socio-económico y los rasgos de la personalidad explican las diferencias existentes. las tasas de descuento diferido se obtuvieron utilizando los incentivos monetarios reales en un experimento económico donde a los sujetos se les pide elegir entre una menor y más inmediata recompensa o una recompensa mayor diferida. los rasgos de personalidad son examinados usando el modelo de cinco factores. Curiosamente, nuestros resultados muestran que las personas obesas muestran tasa de descuento menores al grupo de referencia. estas diferencias no pueden explicarse por los rasgos de personalidad. Nosotros sostenemos que la gente obesa no debería mostrar mayores tasas de descuento. De hecho, la conciencia y el compromiso, en lugar de su actual índice de masa

  15. The Young Gottingen Minipig as a Model of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Berit; Golozoubova, Valeria; Pacini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Gender and sex hormones influence the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome in humans and Gottingen minipigs. The aim of this study was to investigate possible gender differences in the metabolic response to a high energy diet in young Gottingen minipigs as a model of childhood...... Gottingen minipig, and especially the female gender, seems to be a potential model for diet induced childhood/adolescent obesity and metabolic syndrome......./adolescent obesity. Design and Methods: Nine-week-old male and female Gottingen minipigs were fed restrictedly on either a low energy diet (LED) or a high energy diet (HED) for 4 months (n = 5-7). Parameters of interest were fat percentage, visceral fat mass, plasma lipids and glucose tolerance, insulin resistance...

  16. Relationship between family quality of life and day occupations of young people with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kitty-Rose; Girdler, Sonya; Downs, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Bourke, Jenny; Lennox, Nick; Einfeld, Stewart; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Parmenter, Trevor R; Leonard, Helen

    2014-09-01

    To explore relationships between family quality of life, day occupations and activities of daily living (ADL) of young persons with Down syndrome. Data were collected from 150 families with a young person with Down syndrome aged 16-30 years participating in the Down syndrome "Needs Opinions Wishes" database. Data described the young person's characteristics (including functional abilities, behaviour and day occupations) and family characteristics (including income, family and community supports and quality of life). Compared to families of young people attending open employment, families of young people participating in sheltered employment tended to report poorer family quality of life, after adjusting for personal characteristics, behaviour and income (coeff -6.78, 95 % CI -14.38, 0.81). Family supports reduced this relationship (coeff -6.00, 95 % CI -12.76, 0.76). Families of young people with greater functioning in ADL reported better family quality of life regardless of personal and environmental factors (coeff 0.45, 95 % CI 0.05, 0.85) and inclusion of family factors such as family supports reduced this association (coeff 0.29, 95 % CI -0.10, 0.67). Participation of young people with Down syndrome in open employment may positively influence family quality of life. Services that facilitate functioning in ADL and assist the families in accessing suitable family supports have the potential to positively influence family quality of life.

  17. Avoiding shame: young LGBT people, homophobia and self-destructive behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Elizabeth; Roen, Katrina; Scourfield, Jonathan

    2008-11-01

    This paper reports on findings from qualitative research conducted in the UK that sought to explore the connections between sexual identities and self-destructive behaviours in young people. International evidence demonstrates that there are elevated rates of suicide and alcohol abuse amongst lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth. Rarely included in this body of research are investigations into young LGBT people's views and experiences of self-destructive behaviours. Data from interviews and focus groups with young LGBT participants suggest a strong link between homophobia and self-destructive behaviours. Utilising a discourse analytic approach, we argue that homophobia works to punish at a deep individual level and requires young LGBT people to manage being positioned, because of their sexual desire or gendered ways of being, as abnormal, dirty and disgusting. At the centre of the complex and multiple ways in which young LGBT people negotiate homophobia are 'modalities of shame-avoidance' such as: the routinization and minimizing of homophobia; maintaining individual 'adult' responsibility; and constructing 'proud' identities. The paper argues that these strategies of shame-avoidance suggest young LGBT people manage homophobia individually, without expectation of support and, as such, may make them vulnerable to self-destructive behaviours.

  18. Pornography, Sexual Coercion and Abuse and Sexting in Young People's Intimate Relationships: A European Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Nicky; Barter, Christine; Wood, Marsha; Aghtaie, Nadia; Larkins, Cath; Lanau, Alba; Överlien, Carolina

    2016-03-06

    New technology has made pornography increasingly accessible to young people, and a growing evidence base has identified a relationship between viewing pornography and violent or abusive behavior in young men. This article reports findings from a large survey of 4,564 young people aged 14 to 17 in five European countries which illuminate the relationship between regular viewing of online pornography, sexual coercion and abuse and the sending and receiving of sexual images and messages, known as "sexting." In addition to the survey, which was completed in schools, 91 interviews were undertaken with young people who had direct experience of interpersonal violence and abuse in their own relationships. Rates for regularly viewing online pornography were very much higher among boys and most had chosen to watch pornography. Boys' perpetration of sexual coercion and abuse was significantly associated with regular viewing of online pornography. Viewing online pornography was also associated with a significantly increased probability of having sent sexual images/messages for boys in nearly all countries. In addition, boys who regularly watched online pornography were significantly more likely to hold negative gender attitudes. The qualitative interviews illustrated that, although sexting is normalized and perceived positively by most young people, it has the potential to reproduce sexist features of pornography such as control and humiliation. Sex and relationships education should aim to promote a critical understanding of pornography among young people that recognizes its abusive and gendered values. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. The moral panic about the socializing of young people in Minangkabau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Parker

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the discourse surrounding the perceived threat of free seks and pergaulan bebas (free socializing to the moral health of young Minangkabau people, and in particular, young women, in West Sumatra. It uses the sociological frame of “moral panic” to examine contemporary discussions about globalization and the influence of “the West” in West Sumatra. The paper examines the way in which “the authorities” in West Sumatra (media, such as teen magazines and newspapers, academics, government and law, teachers, and community leaders present the threat, and the way in which young people, who are the target of the moral panic onslaught, see themselves in relation to the threat. I argue that, unlike the original “folk devils” of the moral panics in Britain, young people in Minangkabau broadly give their consent to the authorities, displaying a striking commitment to social conservatism, local culture, and Islamic values.

  20. [Impact of internet on poisoning with psychoactive substances in young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoniewicz-Chagowska, Anna; Tchórz, Michał; Kujawa, Anna; Szponar, Jarosław; Drelich, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    These days young people use internet as a source of information. Internet offers knowledge that can be used not only for school education but also to obtain information about usage and effects of psychoactive substances. Recent research shows that young people more often use internet websites and chat rooms to exchange knowledge and experience with chemicals and everyday products used as intoxicants, for example: nutmeg, nonprescription medications, metal cleaning liquid or feminine hygiene products. This article shows the extend of knowledge young people can gain from popular internet websites. Information on the web is presented as appealing, attractive and encouraging. From a toxicologist point of view it is extremely important to be familiar with those new threats because more and more often we have to treat young patients with a serious poisoning from usage of experimental intoxicating substances.

  1. Investing in Our Young People. NBER Working Paper No. 16201

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Flavio; Heckman, James J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent literature on the production of skills of young persons. The literature features the multiplicity of skills that explain success in a variety of life outcomes. Noncognitive skills play a fundamental role in successful lives. The dynamics of skill formation reveal the interplay of cognitive and noncognitive skills, and…

  2. Practising Homelessness: A Typology Approach to Young People's Daily Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Myers, Paul; Milburn, Norweeta; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2004-01-01

    In a study exploring the relationship between typology and risk, we investigated the daily routines of a heterogeneous sample of young men and women from two sites who had been homeless for varying periods (N=1289). Cluster analysis yielded four groups--"Partnered", "Socially engaged", "Service connected-harm avoidant", and "Transgressive"--based…

  3. Young People with Cancer: A Handbook for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The book presents information for parents of children and young adults with cancer. The first section outlines aspects of the disease itself and considers characteristics of leukemia and solid tumors. Hospitalization and such treatments as chemotherapy and radiation are considered. Common health issues (including diet, dental care, bleeding, and…

  4. Deconstructing Digital Natives: Young People, Technology, and the New Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    There have been many attempts to define the generation of students who emerged with the Web and new digital technologies in the early 1990s. The term "digital native" refers to the generation born after 1980, which has grown up in a world where digital technologies and the internet are a normal part of everyday life. Young people…

  5. Mixing It up: Bringing Young People's Digital Creativity to Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Remix is the practice of recombining music, sound, images, and words from sources such as film, television, video, online games, advertising, and novels into new kinds of creative blends. It is a process of re-assembling, recontextualizing, and creating new meanings, and a practice at which young, media-savvy creators excel. Increasingly, youth…

  6. Obesity gene NEGR1 associated with white matter integrity in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Emily L; Jahanshad, Neda; Braskie, Meredith N; Warstadt, Nicholus M; Hibar, Derrek P; Kohannim, Omid; Nir, Talia M; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Toga, Arthur W; Wright, Margaret J; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-11-15

    Obesity is a crucial public health issue in developed countries, with implications for cardiovascular and brain health as we age. A number of commonly-carried genetic variants are associated with obesity. Here we aim to see whether variants in obesity-associated genes--NEGR1, FTO, MTCH2, MC4R, LRRN6C, MAP2K5, FAIM2, SEC16B, ETV5, BDNF-AS, ATXN2L, ATP2A1, KCTD15, and TNN13K--are associated with white matter microstructural properties, assessed by high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) in young healthy adults between 20 and 30 years of age from the Queensland Twin Imaging study (QTIM). We began with a multi-locus approach testing how a number of common genetic risk factors for obesity at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level may jointly influence white matter integrity throughout the brain and found a wide spread genetic effect. Risk allele rs2815752 in NEGR1 was most associated with lower white matter integrity across a substantial portion of the brain. Across the area of significance in the bilateral posterior corona radiata, each additional copy of the risk allele was associated with a 2.2% lower average FA. This is the first study to find an association between an obesity risk gene and differences in white matter integrity. As our subjects were young and healthy, our results suggest that NEGR1 has effects on brain structure independent of its effect on obesity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Adolescent obesity as a risk factor for high-level nicotine addiction in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Aliya Esmail; Nicholson, Lisa Marie; Shera, David; Stettler, Nicolas; Kinsman, Sara

    2011-11-01

    Obesity and cigarette smoking are two of the most frequent and preventable causes of disease and death in the United States; both are often established during youth. We hypothesized that obese, adolescent girls would be at higher risk for nicotine addiction in young adulthood, and that particular individual and social factors would mediate this association. Students surveyed in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative school-based and in-home survey conducted in three waves, comprised the sample. More than 4,000 respondents were used for the multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses used to determine the association between obesity and level of nicotine addiction. Potential mediation effects of the association were also examined. Obesity doubled the risk of the highest level of nicotine addiction after controlling for demographic factors, parent and friend smoking, and baseline smoking (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.22-3.68). Family smoking was the strongest predictor of nicotine addiction (OR, 4.72; 95% CI, 2.89-7.72). Grade point average was a partial mediator of this relationship (OR, .48; 95% CI, .32-.74). Obese, adolescent females are at increased risk for high-level nicotine addiction in young adulthood as compared with their nonobese peers. Grade point average partially mediates the association, and may represent a confluence of factors including increased absenteeism, social marginalization, biases, and lack of confidence in academic ability. Obese, adolescent females may require targeted interventions to address their risk of subsequent high-level nicotine addiction, especially if risk factors such as parental smoking and poor school performance are present. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Informing Intervention Strategies to Reduce Energy Drink Consumption in Young People: Findings From Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jacinta; Martin, Karen; Costa, Beth; Christian, Hayley; Kaur, Simmi; Harray, Amelia; Barblett, Ann; Oddy, Wendy Hazel; Ambrosini, Gina; Allen, Karina; Trapp, Gina

    2017-10-01

    To determine young people's knowledge of energy drinks (EDs), factors influencing ED consumption, and intervention strategies to decrease ED consumption in young people. Eight group interviews with young people (aged 12-25 years). Community groups and secondary schools in Perth, Western Australia. Forty-one young people, 41% of whom were male and 73% of whom consumed EDs. Factors influencing ED consumption and intervention strategies informed by young people to reduce ED consumption. Two researchers conducted a qualitative content analysis on the data using NVivo software. Facilitators of ED consumption included enhanced energy, pleasant taste, low cost, peer pressure, easy availability, and ED promotions. Barriers included negative health effects, unpleasant taste, high cost, and parents' disapproval. Strategies to reduce ED consumption included ED restrictions, changing ED packaging, increasing ED prices, reducing visibility in retail outlets, and research and education. Because many countries allow the sale of EDs to people aged consumption. In addition to more research and education, these strategies included policy changes targeting ED sales, packaging, price, and visibility. Future research might examine the feasibility of implementing such interventions. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Constraints and prospects for contraceptive service provision to young people in Uganda: providers' perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumwesigye Nazarius M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unintended pregnancies lead to unsafe abortions, which are a leading cause of preventable maternal mortality among young women in Uganda. There is a discrepancy between the desire to prevent pregnancy and actual contraceptive use. Health care providers' perspectives on factors influencing contraceptive use and service provision to young people aged 15-24 in two rural districts in Uganda were explored. Methods Semi-structured questionnaires were used for face- to-face interviews with 102 providers of contraceptive service at public, private not-for-profit, and private for-profit health facilities in two rural districts in Uganda. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the analysis of data. Results Providers identified service delivery, provider-focused, structural, and client-specific factors that influence contraceptive use among young people. Contraceptive use and provision to young people were constrained by sporadic contraceptive stocks, poor service organization, and the limited number of trained personnel, high costs, and unfriendly service. Most providers were not competent enough to provide long-acting methods. There were significant differences in providers' self-rated competence by facility type; private for-profit providers' competence was limited for most contraceptives. Providers had misconceptions about contraceptives, they had negative attitudes towards the provision of contraceptives to young people, and they imposed non-evidence-based age restrictions and consent requirements. Thus, most providers were not prepared or were hesitant to give young people contraceptives. Short-acting methods were, however, considered acceptable for young married women and those with children. Conclusion Provider, client, and health system factors restricted contraceptive provision and use for young people. Their contraceptive use prospects are dependent on provider behavior and health system improvements.

  10. 'Oh my god, we're not doing nothing': young people's experiences of spatial regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Debra; Manning, Rachel

    2014-12-01

    Social psychologists have become increasingly concerned with examining the ways in which social practices are interrelated with their location. Critical perspectives have highlighted the traditional lack of attention given to both the collective aspects of spatial identities, together with the discursive practices that construct the relationships between people and places. In this article, we draw together the developing discursive work on place with work on children's geographies, in order to examine young people's accounts of spatial regulation. Adopting a discursive approach to the analysis of focus group discussion, we illustrate a variety of concerns managed in relation to spatial practices by 41 young people living in a large city in the South of England. Our findings suggest that everyday use of public space by young people is constructed at a nexus of competing concerns around childhood/adulthood, freedom, and citizenship, and illustrate the dynamic nature of place, and its regulation, as a resource for constructing identities. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  11. 'I'm good, but not that good': digitally-skilled young people's identity in computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Billy

    2016-12-01

    Computers and information technology are fast becoming a part of young people's everyday life. However, there remains a difference between the majority who can use computers and the minority who are computer scientists or professionals. Drawing on 32 semi-structured interviews with digitally skilled young people (aged 13-19), we explore their views and aspirations in computing, with a focus on the identities and discourses that these youngsters articulate in relation to this field. Our findings suggest that, even among digitally skilled young people, traditional identities of computing as people who are clever but antisocial still prevail, which can be unattractive for youths, especially girls. Digitally skilled youths identify with computing in different ways and for different reasons. Most enjoy doing computing but few aspired to being a computer person. Implications of our findings for computing education are discussed especially the continued need to broaden identities in computing, even for the digitally skilled.

  12. Making choices about medical interventions: the experience of disabled young people with degenerative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Wendy A

    2014-04-01

    Current western policy, including the UK, advocates choice for service users and their families, taking greater control and being more involved in decision making. However, children's role in health decision making, especially from their own perspective, has received less research attention compared to doctors and parents' perspectives. To explore the perspective and experiences of disabled young people with degenerative conditions as they face significant medical interventions and engage in decision-making processes. Findings from a longitudinal qualitative study of 10 young people (13-22 years) with degenerative conditions are reported. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants over 3 years (2007-2010); the paper reports data from all three interview rounds. Interviews focused on medical intervention choices the young people identified as significant. Although the young people in this study felt involved in the medical intervention choices discussed, findings demonstrate a complex and diverse picture of decision making. Results highlighted different decisional roles adopted by the young people, the importance of information heuristics and working with other people whilst engaging in complex processes weighing up different decisional factors. Young people's experiences demonstrate the importance of moving beyond viewing health choices as technical or rational decisions. How each young person framed their decision was important. Recognizing this diversity and the importance of emerging themes, such as living a normal life, independence, fear of decisions viewed as 'irreversible' and the role of parents and peers in decision making highlights that, there are clear practice implications including, active practitioner listening, sensitivity and continued holistic family working. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Social recipes for appetite. Peer influence on young people's food choice and intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    In view of the growing obesity epidemic, it is important to investigate social factors that influence people’s eating behavior. People are believed to adjust their consumption behavior to social benchmarks in situations without pre- existing guidelines and/or when they have social motives to conform

  14. Frequency of occurrence of knock-kneed and bow-legged knees for children and young people in school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Siminska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower limb faults are one of the most common defects in school-age children and are now a problem in our society. Currently there is a trend towards low physical activity among children. Most young people prefer to spend time sitting down without taking physical activity or limiting it to the minimum. This results in lowering muscle tone, weight gain - manifesting as being overweight or obese. School children often complain of spinal pain as well as lower back pain. We have many disadvantages in the lower limb - but the most common are the knee and the knee. These defects require a comprehensive, individual physiotherapeutic procedure that will help correct the defect. Applied rehabilitation affects the strength of the muscle, contributes to correcting the defect of the lower limb as well as reduces the occurring pain.

  15. Sport injuries of the knee in young people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kainz, L; Brezina, K

    1981-12-01

    The largest number of injuries of the knee occurrs in athletes. The portion of girls has reached 30%. More than 50% of all injuries regard the ligaments and the menisci. Especially in these cases and in combined lesions, arthrography gives good results. All possibilities of investigations should be used for acutely injured sportsmen because of the specific risks and the dissimulation of young sportspeople and because of the danger of late established diagnosis and within those of late damages.

  16. ThinkQuest to help Internet people Think Young!

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Awards are given to young teams of web site designers. This year, the award ceremony was hosted by CERN on 19 March.   Young visitors to CERN are not unusual. But those you may have seen around the Laboratory last Monday were here for a special event - the ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Awards. This is an international program for students from 12 to 19 working in teams, across different schools and cultures, to design exciting, interactive, and educational web sites. At stake in the competition was over $1 million in scholarships and awards. Martine Brunschwig Graf (top left), Geneva State Councillor responsible for public education, at the ThinkQuest award ceremony at CERN where some 70 young finalists were assembled. For this year's Award Ceremony, the 70 finalists were CERN's guests on Monday after spending three days in Geneva. Ranging in age from 14 to 19 years and representing over 20 countries, the finalists were welcomed to the awards day by CERN Director G...

  17. Detecting overweight and obesity among young Syrian boys based on skinfold thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bachir Mahfouz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is no data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young Syrian boys. Therefore, the present study aimed to provide baseline and reference data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among young Syrian boys using skin-fold thickness measurements and deuterium dilution (DD as a reference method. The sample of 2470 healthy Syrian 18- to 19-year-old boys were enrolled in this study. SFTs were measured at the biceps (B, triceps (T, subscapular (SI and suprailiac locations (SS were done and validated using the DD technique as a reference method. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve was drawn to determine appropriate cut-off points of the Σ2 limb SFT (T+B, Σ2 trunk SFT (SI+SS, Σ4 SFT (T+B+SI+SS and Log Σ4 SFT for defining overweight and obesity. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in young Syrian boys, based on biceps SFT, triceps SFT, subscapular SFT, suprailiac SFT, Σ2 limb SFT, Σ2 trunk SFT, Σ4 SFT, logarithm Σ4 SFT, and DDT were 35.3%, 32%, 31.6%, 14.8%, 32.9%, 26.6%, 28.1%, 24.1%, 46.5%, respectively. Strongly positive correlation was found between SFT and total body fat in adolescents. For diagnosing overweight on the basis of Σ2 limb SFT, Σ2 trunk SFT, Σ4 SFT and logarithm Σ4 SFT, we propose the following cut-off points: 17.25 mm, 23.50 mm, 39.25 mm and 1.60, respectively. To predict obesity, Σ2 limb SFT, Σ2 trunk SFT, Σ4 SFT and logarithm Σ4 SFT threshold were increased to 23.25 mm, 32.50 mm, 55.25 and 1.75, respectively. Basing on SFT clearly leads to underestimates of the prevalence of weight problems among young boys. SFT measurement screen missed 11.2 to 31.7% of overall overweight and obesity cases.

  18. Knowledge and attitude of young people regarding HIV prevention and unwanted pregnancy in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Come Yélian Adohinzin, Clétus; Meda, Nicolas; Anicet Ouédraogo, Georges; Gaston Belem, Adrien Marie; Sombié, Issiaka; Berthé, Abdramane; Bakwin Kandala, Ngianga; Damienne Avimadjenon, Georgette; Fond-Harmant, Laurence

    2016-10-19

    Introduction: Despite health education efforts, young people are still faced with major health problems. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding HIV prevention and unwanted pregnancy among young people in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Methods: Based on two-level sampling, representing 94,947 households in the Bobo-Dioulasso municipality, 573 young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years were interviewed. This data collection was conducted from September 2014 to January 2015 in the three districts of the municipality. A questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitudes of young people. Results: The interviewees had a poor knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention and contraception Very few young people (9%) had complete knowledge about the modes of transmission and 5% had no knowledge. Persistent misperceptions about the effectiveness of condoms (25%) and contraception (32%) did not prevent some young people from using them (79% used condoms and 46% used contraceptives). Knowledge and attitudes of young people regarding HIV and contraception varied according to age, sex, education level and type of parental supervision. Conclusion: A significant proportion of young people still has incomplete knowledge about HIV/AIDS and contraception. Actions designed to reinforce the knowledge of young people are of paramount importance. The capacities of parents and healthcare providers also need to be reinforced to improve the quality of relationship with young people.

  19. Young people's attitudes towards illicit drugs: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Karina; Østergaard, Jeanette; Reese, Sidsel; Lasgaard, Mathias

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies indicate that young people who have positive attitudes towards illicit drugs are more inclined to experiment with them. The first aim of our study was to identify the sociodemographic and risk behaviour characteristics of young people (16-24 years) with positive attitudes towards illicit drug use. The second aim was to identify the characteristics of young people with positive attitudes towards illicit drugs among those who had never tried drugs, those who had tried cannabis but no other illicit drugs, and those who regularly used cannabis and/or had tried other illicit drugs. The analysis was based on a population-based survey from 2013 ( N = 3812). Multiple logistic regression was used to analyse the association between sociodemographic and risk behaviour characteristics and positive attitudes towards illicit drugs. Young men had twice the odds of having positive attitudes towards illicit drug use compared with young women (AOR = 2.1). Also, young age, being single, being employed, smoking tobacco, practising unprotected sex, and experimental cannabis use were associated with positive attitudes towards illicit drug use. Finally, use of cannabis at least 10 times during the previous year and/or use of other illicit drugs had the strongest association with positive attitudes to illicit drug use (AOR = 6.0). Young people who have positive attitudes towards illicit drug use are characterized by a broad range of risky behaviours. These findings may help to identify young people at risk of initiating illicit drug use and thereby support the development and implementation of prevention programmes.

  20. Time use and movement behaviour of young people in cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; van Nes, Akkelies; Jensen, Anders Sorgenfri

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how well the space syntax methodology is capable of predicting the actual movement of people in a city. The space syntax methodology has been surrounded by a debate in recent years about its applicability, see for example the debate between (Ratti 2004a;Ratti 2004b) and (Hilli...

  1. Interventions designed to reduce sedentary behaviours in young people: a review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Stuart J H; Petrolini, Irene; Pearson, Natalie

    2014-02-01

    Leisure time is increasingly spent in sedentary pursuits such as screen-viewing (eg, television/DVD viewing and computer use), motorised travel, school/work and sitting-based socialising (eg, social media and chatting). Sedentary screen time, particularly TV, appears to play an important role in the aetiology of obesity due to its co-occurrence with other unhealthy behaviours such as snacking on energy-dense foods, low levels of physical activity and inadequate sleep. More information is needed on how to reduce sedentary behaviours. Most interventions have focused on young people and a number of systematic reviews exist on this topic. To synthesise systematic reviews and meta-analyses of interventions aimed at decreasing sedentary behaviours among children and adolescents. Papers were located from computerised and manual searches. Included articles were English language systematic reviews or meta-analyses of interventions aiming at reducing sedentary behaviour in children (<11 years) and adolescents (12-18 years). Ten papers met the inclusion criteria and were analysed. All reviews concluded some level of effectiveness in reducing time spent in sedentary behaviour. When an effect size was reported, there was a small but significant reduction in sedentary time (highest effect size=-0.29; CI -0.35 to -0.22). Moderator analyses showed a trend favouring interventions with children younger than 6 years. Effective strategies include the involvement of family, behavioural interventions and electronic TV monitoring devices. Results from systematic reviews and meta-analyses show that interventions to reduce children's sedentary behaviour have a small but significant effect. Future research should expand these findings examining interventions targeting different types of sedentary behaviours and the effectiveness of specific behaviour change techniques across different contexts and settings.

  2. Opportunities and challenges of sexual health services among young people: a study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Krishna

    2009-02-01

    It has been well documented that young people are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual activity. Appropriate understanding of safe sex, sexual practices, and related behaviors must recognize the importance of socioeconomic and cultural factors in prevention efforts related to HIV and other sexual transmitted infections (STIs). To examine and summarize the opportunities and challenges of sexual health services among young people in Nepal. Review of literature--assessing knowledge, attitudes, and understanding of sex, sexual health, and related sexual risk behaviors, among young people (15-24), in line with the current sociocultural and health service practices. Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Science, Cochrane database, and Google were searched. Similarly, documents published at the WHO, United Nations Population Fund, United Nations Development Program, and at national/local level--Ministry of Health, National Center for AIDS, and STD Control were also assessed to access the relevant reports and articles. Published and gray articles were also reviewed. This study contends growing expansion of communication and transportation networks, urbanization, and urban in-migration is creating a different sociocultural environment, which is conducive to more social interactions between young girls and boys in Nepal. Rising age at marriage opens a window of opportunity for premarital and unsafe sexual activity among young people and this creates risks of unwanted pregnancy, STIs/HIV and AIDS. Socioeconomic, demographic, and cultural factors have been identified as encouraging factors for risk-taking behaviors among young people. Understanding safer sex and responsible sexual/reproductive behavior is important. Effective and appropriate interventions on sexual and reproductive health education directed at young people and the whole family, including fathers, could have significant effect on reducing risk and related risk

  3. Do online mental health services improve help-seeking for young people? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauer, Sylvia Deidre; Mangan, Cheryl; Sanci, Lena

    2014-03-04

    Young people regularly use online services to seek help and look for information about mental health problems. Yet little is known about the effects that online services have on mental health and whether these services facilitate help-seeking in young people. This systematic review investigates the effectiveness of online services in facilitating mental health help-seeking in young people. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, literature searches were conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane library. Out of 608 publications identified, 18 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria of investigating online mental health services and help-seeking in young people aged 14-25 years. Two qualitative, 12 cross-sectional, one quasi-experimental, and three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were reviewed. There was no change in help-seeking behavior found in the RCTs, while the quasi-experimental study found a slight but significant increase in help-seeking. The cross-sectional studies reported that online services facilitated seeking help from a professional source for an average of 35% of users. The majority of the studies included small sample sizes and a high proportion of young women. Help-seeking was often a secondary outcome, with only 22% (4/18) of studies using adequate measures of help-seeking. The majority of studies identified in this review were of low quality and likely to be biased. Across all studies, young people regularly used and were generally satisfied with online mental health resources. Facilitators and barriers to help-seeking were also identified. Few studies examine the effects of online services on mental health help-seeking. Further research is needed to determine whether online mental health services effectively facilitate help-seeking for young people.

  4. Online and Social Media Suicide Prevention Interventions for Young People: A Focus on Implementation and Moderation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Simon; Robinson, Jo; Bendall, Sarah; Hetrick, Sarah; Cox, Georgina; Bailey, Eleanor; Gleeson, John; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Suicide remains a major global public health issue for young people. The reach and accessibility of online and social media-based interventions herald a unique opportunity for suicide prevention. To date, the large body of research into suicide prevention has been undertaken atheoretically. This paper provides a rationale and theoretical framework (based on the interpersonal theory of suicide), and draws on our experiences of developing and testing online and social media-based interventions. The implementation of three distinct online and social media-based intervention studies, undertaken with young people at risk of suicide, are discussed. We highlight the ways that these interventions can serve to bolster social connectedness in young people, and outline key aspects of intervention implementation and moderation. Insights regarding the implementation of these studies include careful protocol development mindful of risk and ethical issues, establishment of suitably qualified teams to oversee development and delivery of the intervention, and utilisation of key aspects of human support (i.e., moderation) to encourage longer-term intervention engagement. Online and social media-based interventions provide an opportunity to enhance feelings of connectedness in young people, a key component of the interpersonal theory of suicide. Our experience has shown that such interventions can be feasibly and safely conducted with young people at risk of suicide. Further studies, with controlled designs, are required to demonstrate intervention efficacy.

  5. Depressed mood as a risk factor for unprotected sex in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adrienne; Yung, Alison; Cosgrave, Elizabeth; Killackey, Eóin; Buckby, Joe; Stanford, Carrie; Godfrey, Katherine; McGorry, Patrick

    2006-09-01

    Young people may place themselves and others at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and/or the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through engaging in unprotected sex. Mental health problems may play an important role in sex-related risk behaviour. The current research was an investigation of depressed mood and condom use in a help-seeking sample of young people in Melbourne, Australia. The sample comprised 76 sexually active young people aged 15-24 years who were referred to ORYGEN Youth Health, a public mental health service in Melbourne, Australia. Controlling for demographic characteristics and substance use, multivariate logistic regression examined depressed mood as a predictor of condom use at last sexual intercourse. Half of the sample reported condom use the last time they had sexual intercourse. Depressed mood, female gender and unemployment increased the likelihood that participants engaged in unprotected sex. A high proportion of young people, particularly those who are depressed, are failing to protect themselves from STI/HIV. Mental health services working with young people have the opportunity to implement initiatives aimed at reducing risk of STI/HIV infection.

  6. Creating intoxigenic environments: marketing alcohol to young people in Aotearoa New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreanor, Tim; Barnes, Helen Moewaka; Kaiwai, Hector; Borell, Suaree; Gregory, Amanda

    2008-09-01

    Alcohol consumption among young people in New Zealand is on the rise. Given the broad array of acute and chronic harms that arise from this trend, it is a major cause for alarm and it is imperative that we improve our knowledge of key drivers of youth drinking. Changes wrought by the neoliberal political climate of deregulation that characterised the last two decades in many countries including Aotearoa (Aotearoa is a Maori name for New Zealand) New Zealand have transformed the availability of alcohol to young people. Commercial development of youth alcohol markets has seen the emergence of new environments, cultures and practices around drinking and intoxication but the ways in which these changes are interpreted and taken up are not well understood. This paper reports findings from a qualitative research project investigating the meaning-making practices of young people in New Zealand in response to alcohol marketing. Research data included group interviews with a range of Maori and Pakeha young people at three time periods. Thematic analyses of the youth data on usages of marketing materials indicate naturalisation of tropes of alcohol intoxication. We show how marketing is used and enjoyed in youth discourses creating and maintaining what we refer to as intoxigenic social environments. The implications are considered in light of the growing exposure of young people to alcohol marketing in a discussion of strategies to manage and mitigate its impacts on behaviour and consumption.

  7. The Effects of Digital Marketing of Unhealthy Commodities on Young People: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Limin; Kelly, Bridget; Yeatman, Heather; Kariippanon, Kishan

    2018-01-29

    The marketing of unhealthy commodities through traditional media is known to impact consumers' product attitudes and behaviors. Less is known about the impacts of digital marketing (online promotional activities), especially among young people who have a strong online presence. This review systematically assesses the relationship between digital marketing and young people's attitudes and behaviors towards unhealthy commodities. Literature was identified in June 2017 by searches in six electronic databases. Primary studies (both qualitative and quantitative) that examined the effect of digital marketing of unhealthy food or beverages, alcohol and tobacco products on young people's (12 to 30 years) attitudes, intended and actual consumption were reviewed. 28 relevant studies were identified. Significant detrimental effects of digital marketing on the intended use and actual consumption of unhealthy commodities were revealed in the majority of the included studies. Findings from the qualitative studies were summarized and these findings provided insights on how digital marketing exerts effects on young people. One of the key findings was that marketers used peer-to-peer transmission of messages on social networking sites (e.g., friends' likes and comments on Facebook) to blur the boundary between marketing contents and online peer activities. Digital marketing of unhealthy commodities is associated with young people's use and beliefs of these products. The effects of digital marketing varied between product types and peer endorsed marketing (earned media) may exert greater negative impacts than owned or paid media marketing.

  8. Sickle cell, habitual dys-positions and fragile dispositions: young people with sickle cell at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Simon M; Atkin, Karl; Culley, Lorraine A; Dyson, Sue E; Evans, Hala

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of young people living with a sickle cell disorder in schools in England are reported through a thematic analysis of forty interviews, using Bourdieu’s notions of field, capital and habitus. Young people with sickle cell are found to be habitually dys-positioned between the demands of the clinic for health maintenance through self-care and the field of the school, with its emphases on routines, consistent attendance and contextual demands for active and passive pupil behaviour. The tactics or dispositions that young people living with sickle cell can then employ, during strategy and struggle at school, are therefore fragile: they work only contingently, transiently or have the unintended consequences of displacing other valued social relations. The dispositions of the young people with sickle cell are framed by other social struggles: innovations in school procedures merely address aspects of sickle cell in isolation and are not consolidated into comprehensive policies; mothers inform, liaise, negotiate and advocate in support of a child with sickle cell but with limited success. Reactions of teachers and peers to sickle cell have the enduring potential to drain the somatic, cultural and social capital of young people living with sickle cell. PMID:21375541

  9. Listening to young people with special needs: the influence of group activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Peter

    2005-12-01

    The article reports on the experiences of group activities within an area of Yorkshire that helped young people with special needs to express their views and opinions. Significant issues were raised by the ethics of undertaking work with young people and these are reviewed. The young people involved in the research reported that their participation in the groups developed their self-confidence and advocacy skills. This led them to be more confident in expressing their needs at school and in the community. To establish wider generalizability for the study findings, the Yorkshire group activities were compared with another similar group in London where further data were collected from the young people involved. In facilitating group activities, willing staff were an important addition to the group because their presence provided and encouraged positive reactions to the distinctive achievements of the young people themselves. In both groups, members were committed to participation in project-based activities that raised their self-esteem and helped establish a sense of their own identity and purpose.

  10. Global Equity and Justice Issues for Young People During the First Three Decades of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Anne; Koller, Silvia H; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso; Verma, Suman

    This chapter takes a global perspective on equity and justice during development from childhood into adulthood. Globally, the population of young people is booming with the most rapid growth among young people in the poorest countries. While already faced with significant issues related to development and thriving, this population boom also exacerbates equity and justice for these children. Given this urgent situation, this chapter builds from the large body of minority world research, as well as the emergent majority world research, to argue that in order to turn the youth bulge into a demographic dividend, researchers must utilize a positive development framing rather than the more dominant problem-focused framing in studying these issues. The structural challenges confronting young people growing up in contexts marked by poverty; weak systems and institutions, especially those serving education, health, and justice; weak political and governance systems; and continual conflict must also be addressed by global and national governmental bodies. This chapter will emphasize the strengths and opportunities of the majority world, highlighting some of the strong, emergent examples of programs that support and develop the strengths of young people. We conclude with a discussion of appropriate support required from the minority and majority worlds that would further strengthen young people globally and enable them to become leaders of a more just, equitable world. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Social media, help or hindrance: what role does social media play in young people's mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Alfie

    2014-11-01

    Social media is a huge force in the lives of young people with wide ranging effects on their development; given the importance of adolescence in the genesis of mental illness, social media is a factor in the mental health of young people. Despite the role that social media obviously plays in the development of mental illness, little research has been done into the impact that social media has on in the mental illness of young people. In general, what research there is points towards social media having a large impact on young people in both positive and negative ways. In particular, certain studies show a greater incidence and severity of bullying online compared to offline which may contribute to the development of depression. This contrasts with the positive impact that social media seems to have for young people in minority groups (ethnic minorities and those with chronic disease or disability) by allowing them to connect with others who live similar lives despite geographical separation. This acts as a positive influence in these people's lives though a direct link to mental illness was not shown. Overall, several important issues are raised: firstly, the lack of research that has been conducted in the area; secondly, the gulf that exists between the generation of younger, 'digital native' generations and the older generations who are not as engaged with social media; and finally, the huge potential that exists for the use of social media as a protective influence for adolescents. With proper engagement, policy makers and health professionals could use social media to connect with young people on issues like mental health.

  12. Sport injuries of the knee in young people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainz, L.; Brezina, K.

    1981-01-01

    The biggest number of injuries of the knee are in highly result interested sportsmen. The portion of girls has reached 30%. More than 50% of all injuries regard the ligaments and the menisci. Especially in these cases and in combined lesions gives the arthrography good results. All possibilities of investigations should be used for acute injured sportsmen, because of the specific readiness of risks and the dissimulation of young sportspeople and because of the danger of too late established diagnosis and within those of late damages. (orig.) [de

  13. Development of Measures to Assess Personal Recovery in Young People Treated in Specialist Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Mary; Jeffries, Fiona W; Acuna-Rivera, Marcela; Warren, Fiona; Simonds, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    Recovery has become a central concept in mental health service delivery, and several recovery-focused measures exist for adults. The concept's applicability to young people's mental health experience has been neglected, and no measures yet exist. Aim The aim of this work is to develop measures of recovery for use in specialist child and adolescent mental health services. On the basis of 21 semi-structured interviews, three recovery measures were devised, one for completion by the young person and two for completion by the parent/carer. Two parent/carer measures were devised in order to assess both their perspective on their child's recovery and their own recovery process. The questionnaires were administered to a UK sample of 47 young people (10-18 years old) with anxiety and depression and their parents, along with a measure used to routinely assess treatment progress and outcome and a measure of self-esteem. All three measures had high internal consistency (alpha ≥ 0.89). Young people's recovery scores were correlated negatively with scores on a measure used to routinely assess treatment progress and outcome (r = -0.75) and positively with self-esteem (r = 0.84). Parent and young persons' reports of the young person's recovery were positively correlated (r = 0.61). Parent report of the young person's recovery and of their own recovery process were positively correlated (r = 0.75). The three measures have the potential to be used in mental health services to assess recovery processes in young people with mental health difficulties and correspondence with symptomatic improvement. The measures provide a novel way of capturing the parental/caregiver perspective on recovery and caregivers' own wellbeing. No tools exist to evaluate recovery-relevant processes in young people treated in specialist mental health services. This study reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of three self-report recovery-relevant assessments for young

  14. Obesity detection rate among primary school students in the People's Republic of China: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Y

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yue-long Jin,* Ling-ling Ding,* Ying-shui Yao, Xiu-li Song, Hui Tang, Lian-ping He, Yan ChenFaculty of Epidemiology and Statistics, School of Public Health, Wannan Medical College, Anhui, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Obesity has become a major public health problem worldwide. The prevalence of obesity is rising alarmingly among children and adolescents in the People's Republic of China, with an estimated 120 million now in the obese range. It is estimated that 8% of children in the People's Republic of China are obese and 12% are overweight.Methods: Eligible papers on the prevalence of obesity among primary school students in the People's Republic of China and published between 2006 and 2011 were retrieved from PubMed and from online Chinese periodicals, ie, the full-text databases of VIP, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wan Fang. Meta-Analyst software was used to collate and analyze the detection rates cited in the papers retrieved.Results: After evaluation of the quality of the papers, 25 were finally included, giving a total sample population size for investigation of obesity of 219,763, in which 28,121 cases were detected. Meta-analysis showed that the combined obesity detection rate was 10.4% (95% confidence interval 8.6–12.6 among primary school students in the People's Republic of China, with a higher detection rate in boys (12.6% than in girls (7.2%. The prevalence of obesity was higher in the north (11.8% than in the south (9.5%, east (11.6%, and mid-west (8.0% regions. Obesity defined according to the World Health Organization weight-for-height standard (14.3% was higher than that using age-specific and gender-specific cutoff points for body mass index (9.0%.Conclusion: Our meta-analysis found an obesity prevalence rate of 10.4%, which does not seem as high as previous reports of childhood obesity rates in other countries. However, the prevalence of childhood

  15. The use of consumer depth cameras for 3D surface imaging of people with obesity: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, J S; Clarkson, S; Flint, S W; Simpson, C; Broom, D R

    2018-05-21

    Three dimensional (3D) surface imaging is a viable alternative to traditional body morphology measures, but the feasibility of using this technique with people with obesity has not been fully established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the validity, repeatability and acceptability of a consumer depth camera 3D surface imaging system in imaging people with obesity. The concurrent validity of the depth camera based system was investigated by comparing measures of mid-trunk volume to a gold-standard. The repeatability and acceptability of the depth camera system was assessed in people with obesity at a clinic. There was evidence of a fixed systematic difference between the depth camera system and the gold standard but excellent correlation between volume estimates (r 2 =0.997), with little evidence of proportional bias. The depth camera system was highly repeatable - low typical error (0.192L), high intraclass correlation coefficient (>0.999) and low technical error of measurement (0.64%). Depth camera based 3D surface imaging was also acceptable to people with obesity. It is feasible (valid, repeatable and acceptable) to use a low cost, flexible 3D surface imaging system to monitor the body size and shape of people with obesity in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2018 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The functional exercise capacity and its correlates in obese treatment-seeking people with binge eating disorder: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Herdt, Amber; Vanderlinden, Johan; Lannoo, Matthias; Adriaens, An; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andrew; Probst, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim was to compare the functional exercise capacity between obese treatment-seeking people with and without binge eating disorder (BED) and non-obese controls. The secondary aim was to identify clinical variables including eating and physical activity behaviour, physical complaints, psychopathology and physical self-perception variables in obese people with BED that could explain the variability in functional exercise capacity. Forty people with BED were compared with 20 age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched obese persons without BED and 40 age and gender matched non-obese volunteers. A 6-minute walk test (6MWT), the Baecke physical activity questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist-90, the Physical Self-Perception Profile and the Eating Disorder Inventory were administered. Physical complaints before and after the 6MWT were also documented. The distance achieved on the 6MWT was significantly lower in obese participants with BED (512.1 ± 75.8 m versus 682.7 ± 98.4, p binge eating disorder should incorporate a functional exercise capacity assessment. Clinicians involved in the rehabilitation of people with binge eating disorder should consider depression and lower self-esteem as potential barriers. Clinicians should take into account the frequently observed physical discomfort when developing rehabilitation programmes for people with binge eating disorder.

  17. Is the digital divide between young and elderly people increasing?

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Gerd; Stegbauer, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Elderly people still play a minor role in research on information needs and usage patterns of Internet users. Online research and advocacy groups look optimistically at the (economic and social) potential of the active and technology–skilled elderly; other approaches dealing with the social appropriation of technology see obstacles and stress the dangers of an increasing digital divide between generations. Our objective is to refer to taken for granted normative assumptions of the digital div...

  18. Training Effect on Improving Cadres’ Knowledge and Skills of Obesity and Hypertension in Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmah Fatmah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Poor skill of cadres on nutritional status assessment in older people with disability should be increased. BMI (body mass index Meter tool has been developed to predict the nutritional status of the elderly. Interpretation of the measurement results in the form of nutritional status i.e. underweight, normal, overweight, and obesity need to be followed up with preventive efforts. Most nutritional problems which faced by elderly are obesity and hypertension. Therefore, obesity and hypertension counseling training for cadres posbindu and community health center staff was needed. The aim of this study is to assess the training effect on knowledge and skills in counseling obese and hypertension of elderly related to results of nutritional status asseesment of elderly using BMI Meter. Quasi-experimental design used in the study towards 38 cadres from 21 posbindus and 7 community health centers’ staffs in Depok City. The study results showed that most respondents knew the function of BMI Meter was to measure the predicted height of elderly with physical limitations at post-test (90%. Majority respondents aged between 40-49 years (42.2% graduated from high school/vocational school (46.7%. At post-training, knowledge score increased almost 15 points and knowledge score at pre-training had significant difference with post-training (p = 0.000. Respondents whose previous nutrition and health training had significant difference with knowledge (p = 0.002. It also supported by increase their ability to conduct obesity and hypertension campaigns for elderly during twice observation field visit. Almost all respondents were able to counsel well in the delivery of media content sistematically and in interesting way. It was concluded that knowledge and skills can be improved through training and post training retention.

  19. Here's an idea: ask the users! Young people's views on navigation, design and content of a health information website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Linda S; Noble, Genevieve

    2007-12-01

    Use of the internet to provide health information to young people is a relatively recent development. Few studies have explored young people's views on how they use internet health websites. This study investigated the navigation, design and content preferences of young people using the Children First for Health (CFfH) website. Young people from five secondary schools completed an internet site navigation exercise, website evaluation questionnaire and participated in informal discussions. Of the participants, 45 percent visited the website section aimed at older adolescents within their first two clicks, regardless of their age. There were conflicting preferences for design and strong preference for gender-specific information on topics such as appearance, relationships, fitness and sexual health. The findings indicate the importance of gaining young people's views to ensure that health information websites meet the needs of their intended audience. Cooperation from schools can facilitate the process of gaining young people's views on internet website navigation, design and content.

  20. Use of technology: determination of time that young people between 12 and 18 use technological equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alexander Franco Crespo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Technology has penetrated in all human activities in a positive way, but there are many questions about the impact on society due to the significant time devoted to it, especially by young people. Activities such as reading, homework or self-education are relegated by others linked to virtual communication and entertainment. The research underlying this article, undertaken in Quito, Ecuador, has established that young people between 12 and 18 years old spend on average 7h50 per day using the television, computer, video game consoles, music players, mobile phones and landlines. The intensive use of these devices shows that the behavior of young people and the strategies to reach them have changed. It is necessary to understand this new reality.