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Sample records for obese subjects inplications

  1. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in sceletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Inplications for insulin sensitivity

    Haugaard, Steen B; Madsbad, Sten; Høy, C-E

    2006-01-01

    . Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). RESULTS The mean weight loss was 5.1 kg (range -15.3 to +1.3 kg). BMI decreased from 36.5 to 34.9 kg/m(2) (P=0.003). Saturated FA (SFA) decreased 11% (P=0.0001). Polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)n-6 increased 4% (P =0.003). Long......-chain PUFAn-3 increased 51% (P= 0.0001), mainly due to a 75% increase (PHOMA-IR correlated significantly with changes in long-chain PUFAn-3 (R=-0.57, P... that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.33, P

  2. Thromboxane production in morbidly obese subjects.

    Graziani, Francesca; Biasucci, Luigi M; Cialdella, Pio; Liuzzo, Giovanna; Giubilato, Simona; Della Bona, Roberta; Pulcinelli, Fabio M; Iaconelli, Amerigo; Mingrone, Geltrude; Crea, Filippo

    2011-06-01

    Postmortem studies have demonstrated that morbidly obese subjects, surprisingly, have less coronary atherosclerosis than obese subjects. However, the reasons for this apparent protection from atherosclerosis are not yet clear. Thromboxane A2, a marker of platelet activation, is greater in obese subjects than in lean subjects, and this might be a clue to their increased cardiovascular risk. However, data on thromboxane A2 in morbidly obese subjects are lacking; therefore, we hypothesized that lower levels of thromboxane A2 in morbidly obese subjects might play a role in their lower atherothrombotic burden. We measured the serum levels of thromboxane B2 (TxB2), a stable metabolite of thromboxane A2, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and leptin in 17 lean subjects (body mass index [BMI] 22.9 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)), 25 obese subjects (BMI 32.6 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)), and 23 morbidly obese subjects (BMI 48.6 ± 7.1 kg/m(2)), without insulin resistance, diabetes, or overt cardiovascular disease. The serum TxB2 levels were lower in the lean subjects than in the obese subjects (p = 0.046) and in the morbidly obese subjects than in the lean and obese subjects (p = 0.015 and p lean subjects (hs-CRP, p lean subjects (p lean subjects, suggesting that reduced platelet activation could play a role in the paradoxical protection of morbidly obese subjects from atherosclerosis, despite the greater levels of leptin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Similar incretin secretion in obese and non-obese Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes

    Kozawa, Junji; Okita, Kohei; Imagawa, Akihisa

    2010-01-01

    Incretin secretion and effect on insulin secretion are not fully understood in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated incretin and insulin secretion after meal intake in obese and non-obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes compared to non-diabetic subjects. Nine patients with type 2......, incretin secretion does not differ between Japanese obese and non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic subjects....... diabetes and 5 non-diabetic subjects were recruited for this study. Five diabetic patients were obese (BMI > or = 25) and 4 patients were non-obese (BMI

  4. Reduced adipose tissue lymphatic drainage of macromolecules in obese subjects

    Arngrim, Nanna Bjørkbom; Simonsen, L; Holst, J J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate subcutaneous adipose tissue lymphatic drainage (ATLD) of macromolecules in lean and obese subjects and, furthermore, to evaluate whether ATLD may change in parallel with adipose tissue blood flow. Lean and obese male subjects were studied before and after ...... online publication, 3 July 2012; doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.98....

  5. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in obese Malaysian subjects.

    Lim, S H; Fan, S H; Say, Y H

    2012-12-01

    There is a pressing need to better understand the complex biochemical pathways that lead to the pathogenesis of obesity. Increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant capacity have been identified to be associated with obesity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels of Malaysian subjects and to evaluate its potential association with obesity and related anthropometric measurements. Plasma TAC of 362 multi-ethnic Malaysian subjects from the Kampar Health Clinic (138 males, 224 females; 124 ethnic Malays, 152 Chinese, 86 Indians; 192 non-obese, 170 obese) was measured using Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) 96-well plate assay. Plasma TAC was significantly lower in obese subjects (M +/- SE = 292 +/- 10.4 micromol/L) compared to non-obese subjects (397 +/- 8.58 micromol/L), whereas it was significantly higher in males and those in the 21-30 age group. Those with salty food preference and practising a strict vegetarian diet also had significantly higher plasma TAC. However, no association was found for other dietary habits (coffee intake) and lifestyle factors (physical activity, smoking). Plasma TAC was also significantly negatively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, waist and hip circumferences, weight, body mass index, total body fat, % subcutaneous fat, visceral fat level, resting metabolism and % skeletal muscle. Plasma TAC was found to be associated with obesity, strict vegetarian practice, salty food preference and all obesity anthropometric indicators, except systolic blood pressure and pulse rate. Obese people have decreased plasma TAC indicating a compromised systemic antioxidant defence and increased oxidative stress.

  6. Bromocriptine and insulin sensitivity in lean and obese subjects

    L Bahler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bromocriptine is a glucose-lowering drug, which was shown to be effective in obese subjects with insulin resistance. It is usually administered in the morning. The exact working mechanism of bromocriptine still has to be elucidated. Therefore, in this open-label randomized prospective cross-over mechanistic study, we assessed whether the timing of bromocriptine administration (morning vs evening results in different effects and whether these effects differ between lean and obese subjects. We studied the effect of bromocriptine on insulin sensitivity in 8 lean and 8 overweight subjects using an oral glucose tolerance test. The subjects used bromocriptine in randomized cross-over order for 2 weeks in the morning and 2 weeks in the evening. We found that in lean subjects, bromocriptine administration in the evening resulted in a significantly higher post-prandial insulin sensitivity as compared with the pre-exposure visit (glucose area under the curve (AUC 742 mmol/L * 120 min (695–818 vs 641 (504–750, P = 0.036, AUC for insulin did not change, P = 0.575. In obese subjects, both morning and evening administration of bromocriptine resulted in a significantly higher insulin sensitivity: morning administration in obese: insulin AUC (55,900 mmol/L * 120 min (43,236–96,831 vs 36,448 (25,213–57,711, P = 0.012 and glucose AUC P = 0.069; evening administration in obese: glucose AUC (735 mmol/L * 120 min (614–988 vs 644 (568–829, P = 0.017 and insulin AUC, P = 0.208. In conclusion, bromocriptine increases insulin sensitivity in both lean and obese subjects. In lean subjects, this effect only occurred when bromocriptine was administrated in the evening, whereas in the obese, insulin sensitivity increased independent of the timing of bromocriptine administration.

  7. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Endotoxemia in Young Obese Mexican Subjects

    Radilla-Vázquez, Romina Belén; Parra-Rojas, Isela; Martínez-Hernández, Norma Edith; Márquez-Sandoval, Yolanda Fabiola; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Castro-Alarcón, Natividad

    2016-01-01

    Background The gut microbiota plays an important role in human metabolism; previous studies suggest that the imbalance can cause a metabolic endotoxemia that may be linked to weight gain and insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the gut microbiota composition, the lipopolysaccharide levels and the metabolic profile in obese and normal-weight young subjects. Methods We studied 32 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and 32 normal-weight subjects (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m2), aged 18-25 years. Quantification of intestinal bacteria was performed by real-time PCR. Endotoxin units were determined with the test QCL-1000, and biochemical profile was performed under a standard protocol of Spinreact. Results Obese individuals had a BMI of 34.5 (32.9-36.45) kg/m2, increased triglycerides (123 vs. 70 mg/dl), total cholesterol (168 vs. 142 mg/dl), and LDL-cholesterol (114 vs. 96.5 mg/dl). In obese subjects body temperature was higher than in normal-weight subjects. We found a greater number of Clostridum leptum and Lactobacillus (p < 0.001) and lower numbers of Prevotella and Escherichia coli (p < 0.001) in the obese group. A decrease of E. coli was associated with an increased risk of lipopolysaccharide levels ranging from 1 to 1.3 EU/ml. A positive correlation was found between serum lipopolysaccharides and BMI (r = 0.46, p = 0.008), triglyceride levels (r = 0.44, p = 0.011) as well as waist circumference (r = 0.34, p = 0.040), being more evident in young obese females. Conclusion Subclinical metabolic endotoxemia determined by serum concentration of lipopolysaccharides was related to the smallest amount of E. coli, high triglyceride levels, and central adiposity in obese young persons. PMID:26745497

  8. Hepatic effects of dietary weight loss in morbidly obese subjects

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C; Franzmann, Magnus

    1991-01-01

    = 0.026). Liver biochemistry, which was of no individual diagnostic value, improved. It is concluded that morbidly obese subjects with a high degree of hepatic fatty change are at risk of developing portal inflammation and fibrosis when undergoing very fast dietary weight reductions.......This prospective study was carried out in order to evaluate the influence on liver morphology and function of a very-low-calorie formula diet. Fourty-one morbidly obese, non-alcoholic subjects had liver biopsy performed before and after a median weight loss of 34 kg. Fatty change improved (p less...

  9. [Body image and participation in physical activities by obese subjects].

    Marcellini, Anne; Perera, Éric; Rodhain, Angélique; Férez, Sylvain

    2016-06-08

    From a sociological perspective, physical activity and diet are perceived as social and cultural practices, constructed and transmitted within human societies. The body is then thought of as a social construct, a sign and foundation of individual and collective identities. In this context, this article was designed to highlight some social processes underlying the obesity epidemic. Clarifying issues about a medical definition of obesity in an obesogenic society, and theoretical approaches to the meanings of the obesity epidemic are proposed. Individual stories of a gradual shift towards obesity are presented to illustrate the variety of trajectories that can lead to obesity in adulthood but also the variety of subjective experiences about the situation of obesity. In particular, the relationship to the body and experiences in terms of physical activity are investigated in order to understand how obesity is associated with non-commitment, low commitment or abandonment of physical activity. The issue of configurations in which commitment or re-commitments in regular exercise for sedentary populations can be possible are discussed. The discussion shows that although commitment to regular and sustainable physical activity requires a profound transformation of lifestyle for the persons concerned, the collective dimension of this change is rarely taken into account..

  10. Measurement of cortisol and testosterone in hair of obese and non-obese human subjects.

    Chan, J; Sauvé, B; Tokmakejian, S; Koren, G; Van Uum, S

    2014-06-01

    Hair analysis has been demonstrated to accurately reflect exposure to drug abuse, environmental toxins and exogenous hormones. We tested the feasibility of measuring cortisol and testosterone in hair of healthy and obese subjects. A modified immunoassay (ELISA) originally developed for saliva was used. Hair, urine and blood samples were collected from young non-obese and obese patients. Perceived stress (PSS) was measured using a validated questionnaire. There was no difference in PSS between non-obese and obese subjects. Hair cortisol levels were significantly correlated with weight (r = 0.27, p cortisol levels did not correlate with age or urinary cortisol. There was a negative correlation between hair testosterone and age (r = -0.47, p cortisol over hair testosterone (C/T) was higher in the obese group than in the young non-obese group. The C/T ratio correlated positively with age (r = 0.56, p cortisol levels increase, while hair testosterone levels decrease with obesity. The hair C/T ratio was significantly correlated with age, BMI and waist circumference better than hair cortisol or testosterone alone. As hair collection is non-invasive and is not influenced by moment-to-moment variations, the measurement of hormones in hair is a useful tool in research and possibly clinical practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Leptin receptor in peripheral adipose tissues of obese subjects

    Du Tongxin; Sun Junjiang; Wang Zizheng; Wang Shukui; Fu Lei; Han Liu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between leptin receptor and obesity by studying the leptin receptor density B max and dissociation constant K d in peripheral adipose tissue in subjects with different body weight mass (BMI). Methods: Leptin receptor density B max and K d were assayed via radioligand method in 71 cases, including 32 classified as obese, 19 over-weight and 20 normal control. Results: With the escalating of BMI, the leptin receptor density significantly decreased in obese and over-weight group compared with that in normal control (both P d values were of no differences among all three groups suggesting no correlation between the binding ability of leptin to its receptor and BMI. A negative correlation between BMI and B max (r=-0.76, P<0.01) displayed after all. Conclusion: Leptin receptor density correlates with the BMI in obese cases and it suggests that the down-regulation of leptin receptor may contribute to the occurrence of leptin resistance and obesity after-wards

  12. Approach to testing growth hormone (GH) secretion in obese subjects.

    Popovic, Vera

    2013-05-01

    Identification of adults with GH deficiency (GHD) is challenging because clinical features of adult GHD are not distinctive and because clinical suspicion must be confirmed by biochemical tests. Adults are selected for testing for adult GHD if they have a high pretest probability of GHD, ie, if they have hypothalamic-pituitary disease, if they have received cranial irradiation or central nervous system tumor treatment, or if they survived traumatic brain injury or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Testing should only be carried out if a decision has already been made that if deficiency is found it will be treated. There are many pharmacological GH stimulation tests for the diagnosis of GHD; however, none fulfill the requirements for an ideal test having high discriminatory power; being reproducible, safe, convenient, and economical; and not being dependent on confounding factors such as age, gender, nutritional status, and in particular obesity. In obesity, GH secretion is reduced, GH clearance is enhanced, and stimulated GH secretion is reduced, causing a false-positive result. This functional hyposomatotropism in obesity is fully reversed by weight loss. In conclusion, GH stimulation tests should be avoided in obese subjects with very low pretest probability.

  13. Relationship between peripheral leptin receptor and leptin in obese subjects

    Sun Junjiang; Du Tongxin; Wang Zizheng; Wang Shukui; Huang Min

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between leptin resistance and leptin receptor in obese subjects. Methods: Forty-four individuals undergoing surgery, exclusive of diabetic mellitus, chronic inflammatory and malignant diseases, were divided into 3 groups according to the body mass index (BMI), normal controls (n=15), weight excess (n=14), and obesity group (n=15). Fasting serum leptin were detected via ELISA kits, leptin receptor (Bmax) in peripheral adipose tissues was detected by radioligand assay. Results: Serum leptin levels were higher significantly in weight excess and obesity cases groups (10.3±4.45 and 13.2±3.26 vs 5.51±3.23 μg/L, both P<0.05, respectively) compared with normal control group, suggesting the existence of leptin resistance, while the leptin receptor of the weight excess and obese groups decreased significantly than that of normal control group (36.9 ± 5.89 and 24.3 ± 3.95 vs 76.5 ± 35.3 fmol/mg protein, both P<0.01, respectively), there was no statistical differences for Kd value among three groups. Also, there was a negative correlation between BMI and leptin receptor (r=-0.613, P<0.05), and no significant correlation was found between serum leptin and peripheral leptin receptor. Conclusion: The result suggested that there was expression of leptin receptor in peripheral adipose tissues and low level of leptin receptor expression may contribute to the development of leptin resistance and obesity

  14. Serum fetuin-A levels in obese and non-obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Zhou, Zhong-Wei; Ju, Hui-Xiang; Sun, Ming-Zhong; Chen, Hong-Mei; Fu, Qing-Ping; Jiang, Dong-Mei

    2018-01-01

    Higher fetuin-A expression is linked to both obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), However, studies in non-obese patients with T2DM are scarce. 345 newly diagnosed T2DM patients and 300 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) were divided into obese and non-obese subgroups, respectively. Serum fetuin-A and adiponectin levels and related parameters were measured. T2DM patients with obesity had higher fetuin-A levels compared with non-obese patients and obese NGT subjects (p<0.001). Significant correlations were observed between fetuin-A and most metabolic parameters in obese NGT and T2DM subjects, but which was not in non-obese patients with T2DM. The independent associations were found between fetuin-A and free fatty acids, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein and adiponectin only in obese NGT and T2DM subjects (all p<0.05). The adjusted odds ratios for obesity were increased with increasing quartile of fetuin-A in both T2DM and NGT subjects in logistic regression models (p for trend<0.001), but which was more significant in T2DM patients. Higher serum fetuin-A levels in obese T2DM patients compared with non-obese patients and obese NGT subjects supports the hypothesis that fetuin-A may be as a bridge connecting obesity and obesity-related T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypoadiponectinemia in obese subjects with type II diabetes: A close association with central obesity indices

    Ghorban Mohammadzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiponectin is an adipocyte secreted protein with important biological functions Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type II diabetes This study aimed to evaluate serum adiponectin level in obese subjects with type II diabetes and its correlation with metabolic parameters Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 40 obese subjects with type II diabetes and 40 non-diabetic obese control subjects Fasting lipid profile was measured by the enzymatic methods The NycoCard HbA1c protocol was used to measure HbAlc The Serum adiponectin, insulin and glucose levels were measured using an enzyme immunoassay and glucose oxidase methods respectively Results: Type II diabetes was associated with hypoadiponectinemia, in both men and women Serum adiponectin level in non-diabetic subjects (6.44 ± 2.47 μg/ml was significantly higher than diabetics (4.55 ± 1.88 μg/ml Furthermore, serum adiponectin concentration in females was significantly higher than males in non-diabetics (7.18 ± 2.68 vs 5.61 ± 0.57 and diabetic groups (5.18 ± 2.08 vs 3.99 ± 1.5 There was a negative and significant correlation between serum adiponectin level with waist (r = -0.451, p = 0.003, waist to hip ratio (r = -0.404, p = 0.01 and BMI (r = - 0.322, p = 0.042 and a positive correlation with HDL (r = 0.337, p = 0.034 in non-diabetic group In diabetic group, there was only found a negative correlation between adiponectin and waist size (r = -0.317, p = 0.046 Conclusions: Obesity and type II diabetes are associated with low serum adiponectin concentration

  16. Association of FTO Polymorphisms with Early Age of Obesity in Obese Italian Subjects

    Federica Sentinelli

    2012-01-01

    Aims of our study are to investigate: (1 the association of FTO gene SNPs rs9939609 and rs9930506 with body mass index (BMI and obesity-related parameters in a large cohort (n=752 of Italian obese subjects; (2 the association between the two FTO SNPs and age of onset of obesity. Our results demonstrate a strong association between FTO SNPs rs9939609 (P<0.043 and rs9930506 (P<0.029 with BMI in the Italian population. FTO rs9930506 was significantly associated with higher BMI in a G allele dose-dependent manner (BMI+1.4 kg/m2 per G allele. We also observed that the association with BMI of the two FTO variants varied with age, with the carriers of the risk alleles developing an increase in body weight earlier in life. In conclusion, our study further demonstrates a role of the genetic variability in FTO on BMI in a large Italian population.

  17. Does fitness improve the cardiovascular risk profile in obese subjects?

    Halland, H; Lønnebakken, M T; Saeed, S; Midtbø, H; Cramariuc, D; Gerdts, E

    2017-06-01

    Good cardiorespiratory fitness has been suggested to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in obesity. We explored the association of fitness with the prevalences of major cardiovascular risk factor like hypertension (HT), diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in overweight and obese subjects. Clinical data from 491 participants in the FAT associated CardiOvasculaR dysfunction (FATCOR) study were analyzed. Physical fitness was assessed by ergospirometry, and subjects with at least good level of performance for age and sex were classified as fit. HT subtypes were identified from clinic and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in combination. Diabetes was diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test. MetS was defined by the American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute criteria. The participants were on average 48 years old (60% women), and mean body mass index (BMI) was 32 kg/m 2 . 28% of study participants were classified as fit. Fitness was not associated with lower prevalences of HT or HT subtypes, diabetes, MetS or individual MetS components (all p > 0.05). In multivariable regression analysis, being fit was characterized by lower waist circumference, BMI risk factors like HT, diabetes or MetS. Given the strong association of cardiovascular risk factor burden with risk of clinical cardiovascular disease, these findings challenge the notion that fitness alone is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease in obesity. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cortisol, obesity and the metabolic syndrome: A cross-sectional study of obese subjects and review of the literature

    Abraham, SB; Rubino, D; Sinaii, N; Ramsey, S; Nieman, LK

    2013-01-01

    Circulating cortisol and psychosocial stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic syndrome. To evaluate these relationships, we performed a cross-sectional study of 369 overweight and obese subjects and 60 healthy volunteers and reviewed the previous literature. Overweight and obese subjects had at least two other features of Cushing?s syndrome. They underwent measurements representing cortisol dynamics (24h urine cortisol excretion (UFC), bedtime salivary cortisol, 1 m...

  19. Seaweed Fucoxanthin Supplementation Improves Obesity Parameters in Mild Obese Japanese Subjects

    Shoketsu Hitoe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fucoxanthin is a seaweed xanthophyll that has demonstrated an anti-obesity effect in rodents. However,clinical investigations of its influence on mildly obese subjects has not been performed. We conducted a clinical trial of fucoxanthin supplementation in Japanese obese subjects.Methods: We examined the effect of fucoxanthin (1 or 3 mg daily in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Capsules containing fucoxanthin or placebo capsules were administered for 4 weeks to male and female Japanese adults with a body mass index (BMI of more than 25 kg/m2. Before and after treatment, the body weight, body composition, abdominal fat area, and the circumferences of the neck, arm,and thigh were evaluated.Results: There was significant reduction of the relative (ratio versus before treatment body weight,BMI, and visceral fat area in the 3 mg/day fucoxanthin group compared to the placebo group. Relative values of total fat mass, subcutaneous fat area, waist circumference, and right thigh circumference were also significantly lower in the 1 mg/day fucoxanthin group than the placebo group. A significant decrease of the absoluteright thigh circumference was noted in the 1 mg/day fucoxanthin group compared to the placebo group. In the subjects ingesting fucoxanthin, there were no abnormalities of the blood pressure, pulse rate, blood parameters, and urinalysis parameters, which thereby suggests adverse effects.Conclusions: Fucoxanthin reduced body weight, BMI, and abdominal fat by acting on both visceraland subcutaneous fat. Consequently, Fucoxanthin may be able to improve a moderate overweight state in both men and women.

  20. Reduced lipid oxidation in myotubes established from obese and type 2 diabetic subjects

    Gaster, Michael

    2009-01-01

    To date, it is unknown whether reduced lipid oxidation of skeletal muscle of obese and obese type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects partly is based on reduced oxidation of endogenous lipids. Palmitate (PA) accumulation, total oxidation and lipolysis were not different between myotubes established from lean...... both for endogenous and exogenous lipids. Thus myotubes established from obese and obese T2D subjects express a reduced complete oxidation of endogenous lipids. Two cardinal principles govern the reduced lipid oxidation in obese and diabetic myotubes; firstly, an impaired coupling between endogenous...... lipid and mitochondria in obese and obese diabetic myotubes and secondly, a mismatch between beta-oxidation and citric acid cycle in obese diabetic myotubes....

  1. Effects of Dietary l-Arginine on Nitric Oxide Bioavailability in Obese Normotensive and Obese Hypertensive Subjects

    Beverly Giam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity related hypertension is a major risk factor for resistant hypertension. We do not completely understand the mechanism(s underlying the development of obesity related hypertension which hinders the development of novel treatment strategies for this condition. Data from experimental studies and small clinical trials indicate that transport of l-arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide (NO, and subsequent NO production are reduced in obesity induced hypertension. Reduced NO bioavailability can induce hypertension via multiple mechanisms. Mirmiran et al. recently analyzed data from a large population study and found that the association between dietary l-arginine and serum nitrate and nitrite was weakened in obese hypertensive subjects compared to obese normotensives. These data suggest that l-arginine dependent NO production is impaired in the former group compared to the latter which may represent a novel mechanism contributing to hypertension in the setting of obesity.

  2. Changes in gallbladder bile composition and crystal detection time in morbidly obese subjects after bariatric surgery

    Gustafsson, Ulf; Benthin, Lisbet; Granström, Lars; Groen, Albert K.; Sahlin, Staffan; Einarsson, Curt

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms of development of cholesterol crystals and gallstones during weight reduction in obese subjects. Twenty-five morbidly obese, gallstone-free subjects underwent vertical-banded gastroplasty. Gallbladder bile was collected at the time of the

  3. Hepatic iron content is independently associated with serum hepcidin levels in subjects with obesity.

    Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Moreno, María; Puig, Josep; Blasco, Gerard; Ortega, Francisco; Xifra, Gemma; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2017-10-01

    Serum hepcidin concentration is known to increase in parallel to circulating markers of iron stores. We aimed to investigate whether this is reflected at the tissue level in subjects with obesity. Serum hepcidin and ferritin levels (ELISA) and hepatic iron content (using magnetic resonance imaging) were analyzed longitudinally in 44 participants (19 without obesity and 25 with obesity). In a subgroup of 16 participants with obesity, a weight loss intervention was performed. Serum hepcidin, ferritin and hepatic iron content (HIC) were significantly increased in participants with obesity. Age- and gender-adjusted serum hepcidin was positively correlated with BMI, hsCRP, ferritin and HIC. In addition, age- and gender-adjusted serum hepcidin was positively correlated with ferritin and HIC in both non-obese and obese participants. In multivariate regression analysis, hepatic iron content (p obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Urinary cortisol and psychopathology in obese binge eating subjects.

    Lavagnino, Luca; Amianto, Federico; Parasiliti Caprino, Mirko; Maccario, Mauro; Arvat, Emanuela; Ghigo, Ezio; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2014-12-01

    Investigations on the relationship between obesity, binge eating and the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have led to inconsistent results. General psychopathology affects HPA axis function. The present study aims to examine correlations between binge eating, general psychopathology and HPA axis function in obese binge eaters. Twenty-four hour urinary free cortisol (UFC/24 h) was measured in 71 obese binge eating women. The patients were administered psychometric tests investigating binge eating, psychopathology and clinical variables. The relationship between binge eating, psychopathology and urinary cortisol was investigated, controlling for age and BMI. We found an inverse correlation between UFC/24 h and binge eating, depression, obsessive-compusive symptoms, somatization and sensitivity. In a regression model a significant inverse correlation between urinary cortisol and psychopathology was confirmed. Urinary cortisol levels in obese patients with binge eating disorder show an inverse correlation with several dimensions of psychopathology which are considered to be typical of a cluster of psychiatric disorders characterized by low HPA axis function, and are very common in obese binge eating patients. If these results are confirmed, UFC/24 h might be considered a biomarker of psychopathology in obese binge eaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Serum prolidase enzyme activity in obese subjects and its relationship with oxidative stress markers.

    Aslan, Mehmet; Duzenli, Ufuk; Esen, Ramazan; Soyoral, Yasemin Usul

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between increased serum enzyme activity of prolidase and increased rate of collagen turnover in the arterial wall has been asserted in previous studies. Collagen reflects much of the strength to the connective tissue involved in the arterial wall. Atherosclerosis is very common vessel disease and oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the etiopathogenesis. Our objective was to examine the serum enzyme activity of prolidase and its possible relationships with oxidative stress parameters in obese subjects. Our present study was conducted 27 obese subjects and 26 age-matched healthy control subjects. The serum enzyme activity of prolidase in all study population was evaluated spectrophotometrically. Oxidative stress levels in obese subjects were analyzed with total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) as well as oxidative stress index (OSI). Obese subjects have higher serum TOS and OSI indicators as well as prolidase activity than those in control subjects (for all; pstress levels in obese subjects. The significantly correlation between increased oxidative stress and increased prolidase activity may play a pivotal role in etiopathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in obese subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gastric emptying, CCK release, and satiety in weight-stable obese subjects

    Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.; van Ierland-van Leeuwen, M. L.; Roolker, W.

    2005-01-01

    Scintigraphic gastric emptying studies are far from conclusive in obesity. The aim was to investigate gastric emptying and CCK release in weight-stable obese subjects on their usual diet and to study the impact of factors known to determine gastric emptying. Patients entering a weight reduction

  7. Delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in young, healthy obese subjects.

    Larsen, M A; Goll, R; Lekahl, S; Moen, O S; Florholmen, J

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome. The aims were, first, to study the postprandial triglyceride clearance in young, healthy obese subjects and, second, to investigate if fasting triglycerides can predict delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance. Eighteen apparently healthy, obese subjects with no clinical signs of metabolic disturbances participated. Controls were age- and sex-matched, healthy, normal weight subjects. Subclinical markers of metabolic disturbances were assessed by measuring postprandial triglycerides in serum and in chylomicrons by oral fat tolerance test. Postprandial triglyceride clearance for 8 h was assessed indirectly as removal of the lipid from serum during the oral fat tolerance test. Insulin resistance was measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Twelve (66%) of the apparently healthy obese individuals had insulin resistance measured by HOMA-IR. There was a delayed clearance of serum triglycerides and chylomicron triglycerides at 6 h when compared with the control group, while, at 8 h, the differences were only detected for the chylomicron triglyceride clearance. Triglyceride response was significantly greater in the obese subjects. Fasting triglycerides in upper normal level predicted a delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. In young, apparently healthy obese subjects early metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance can be detected. Fasting serum triglyceride in upper normal level predicted delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. © 2015 World Obesity.

  8. Cortisol, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study of obese subjects and review of the literature.

    Abraham, S B; Rubino, D; Sinaii, N; Ramsey, S; Nieman, L K

    2013-01-01

    Circulating cortisol and psychosocial stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). To evaluate these relationships, a cross-sectional study of 369 overweight and obese subjects and 60 healthy volunteers was performed and reviewed the previous literature. Overweight and obese subjects had at least two other features of Cushing's syndrome. They underwent measurements representing cortisol dynamics (24 h urine cortisol excretion (UFC), bedtime salivary cortisol, 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test) and metabolic parameters (BMI, blood pressure (BP); fasting serum triglycerides, HDL, insulin, and glucose). Subjects also completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). UFC, salivary cortisol, and weight from 60 healthy volunteers were analyzed. No subject had Cushing's syndrome. UFC and dexamethasone responses were not associated with BMI or weight. However, salivary cortisol showed a trend to increase as BMI increased (P cortisol levels were weak to moderately correlated with fasting insulin (rs = -0.31, P = 0.01) and HOMA-IR (rs = -0.31, P = 0.01) in men and systolic (rs = 0.18, P = 0.02) and diastolic BP (rs = 0.20, P = 0.009) in women. PSS results were higher in obese subjects than controls, but were not associated with cortisol or metabolic parameters. As expected, WC correlated with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and systolic BP (adjusted for BMI and gender; P cortisol and metabolic parameters. Taken together, these data do not support a strong relationship between systemic cortisol or stress and obesity or MS. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  9. Vascular effects of intravenous intralipid and dextrose infusions in obese subjects

    Gosmanov, Aidar R.; Smiley, Dawn D.; Peng, Limin; Siquiera, Joselita; Robalino, Gonzalo; Newton, Christopher; Umpierrez, Guillermo E.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperglycemia and elevated free fatty acids (FFA) are implicated in the development of endothelial dysfunction. Infusion of soy-bean oil-based lipid emulsion (Intralipid®) increases FFA levels and results in elevation of blood pressure (BP) and endothelial dysfunction in obese healthy subjects. The effects of combined hyperglycemia and high FFA on BP, endothelial function and carbohydrate metabolism are not known. Twelve obese healthy subjects received four random, 8-h IV infusions of saline,...

  10. Comparison of soft tissue artifact and its effects on knee kinematics between non-obese and obese subjects performing a squatting activity recorded using an exoskeleton.

    Clément, Julien; de Guise, Jaques A; Fuentes, Alexandre; Hagemeister, Nicola

    2018-03-01

    Rigid attachment systems are one of the methods used to compensate for soft tissue artifact (STA) inherent in joint motion analyses. The goal of this study was to quantify STA of an exoskeleton design to reduce STA at the knee, and to assess the accuracy of 3D knee kinematics recorded with the exoskeleton in non-obese and obese subjects during quasi-static weight-bearing squatting activity using biplane radiography. Nine non-obese and eight obese subjects were recruited. The exoskeleton was calibrated on each subject before they performed a quasistatic squatting activity in the EOS ® imaging system. 3D models of exoskeleton markers and knee bones were reconstructed from EOS ® radiographs; they served to quantify STA and to evaluate differences between the markers and bones knee kinematics during the squatting activity. The results showed that STA observed at the femur was larger in non-obese subjects than in obese subjects in frontal rotation (p = 0.004), axial rotation (p = 0.000), medio-lateral displacement (p = 0.000) and antero-posterior displacement (p = 0.019), while STA observed at the tibia was lower in non-obese subjects than in obese subjects for the three rotations (p exoskeleton were greater among non-obese subjects than obese subjects, which is encouraging for future biomechanical studies on pathologies such as osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for sarcopenic obesity (SO) diagnosis in young female subjects

    González-Correa, C H; Caicedo-Eraso, J C; Villada-Gomez J S

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as a loss of muscle mass depending of ageing and affecting physical function (definition A). A new definition considers excluding mass reduction criterion (definition B). Obesity is pandemic and occurs at all ages. Sarcopenic obesity (SO) implies both processes. The purpose of this study was to compare the results obtained after applying these 2 definitions in 66 aged 22 ± 2.8 years overweight or obese young college women. Percentage body fat (%BF) and skeletal mass index (SMI) were estimated by BIA, muscle function by handgrip strength test (HGS) and physical performance by Harvard step test (HST). There were 9.1% and 90.9% overweight or obese subjects. Twenty nine subjects (43.9%) had decreased HGS and 22 (33.3%) had impaired physical performance. One obese subject (1.5%) met the criteria for sarcopenic obesity by definition A and 9 (13.6%) by definition B. Although a linear regression (α 2 = 0.094, 0.037 and 0.275 respectively) it was observed a tendency for HGS, HST and SMI deterioration when %BF increases. However, other confounding factors must be investigated. Probably as the population gets more obese, the problematic of SO will be found earlier in life.

  12. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  13. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  14. Antihypertensive effect of alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockade in obese and lean hypertensive subjects.

    Wofford, M R; Anderson, D C; Brown, C A; Jones, D W; Miller, M E; Hall, J E

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of the adrenergic system in mediating hypertension in obese and lean patients. Thirteen obese, hypertensive patients with a body mass index (BMI) > or =28 kg/m2 (obese) and nine lean patients with a BMI lean) were recruited. After a 1-week washout period, participants underwent daytime ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Participants were then treated with the alpha-adrenergic antagonist doxazosin, titrating to 4 mg QHS in 1 week. In the next week, the beta-adrenergic antagonist atenolol was added at an initial dose of 25 mg/day and titrated to 50 mg/day within 1 week. One month after the addition of atenolol, all patients underwent a second ABPM session. There were no differences between the obese and lean subjects in baseline systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), or mean arterial pressures (MAP) measured by office recording or ABPM. However, obese subjects had higher heart rates than lean subjects (87.5+/-2.4 v 76.8+/-4.9 beats/min). After 1 month of treatment with the adrenergic blockers, obese patients had a significantly lower SBP (130.0+/-2.5 v 138.9+/-2.1 mm Hg, P = .02) and MAP (99.6+/-2.3 v 107.0+/-1.5 mm Hg, P = .02) than lean patients. Obese patients also tended to have a lower DBP than lean patients (84.3+/-2.5 v 90.9+/-1.6 mm Hg, P = .057), but there was no significant difference in heart rate after 1 month of adrenergic blockade. These results indicate that blood pressure is more sensitive to adrenergic blockade in obese than in lean hypertensive patients and suggest that increased sympathetic activity may be an important factor in the maintenance of hypertension in obesity.

  15. Impaired Fat-induced Thermogenesis in Obese Subjects: The NUGENOB Study

    Blaak, E.E.; Hul, G.; Verdich, C.; Stich, V.; Martinez, J.A.; Petersen, M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Patel, K.; Oppert, J.M.; Barbe, P.; Tourbro, S.; Polak, J.; Anderson, I.; Astrup, A.; Macdonald, I.; Langin, D.; Sorensen, T.; Saris, W.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To study energy expenditure before and 3 hours after a high-fat load in a large cohort of obese subjects (n=701) and a lean reference group (n = 113). Research Methods and Procedures: Subjects from seven European countries underwent a 1-day clinical study with a liquid test meal

  16. Subjective Well-Being in Obese Individuals: The Multiple Roles of Exercise

    Berger, Bonnie G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the tangled web of obesity and exercise as it relates to subjective well-being. Many overweight individuals have low levels of subjective well-being as a reflection of "anti-fat" biases and sociocultural considerations. Since exercise helps balance the energy intake-output equation and is associated with mood benefits,…

  17. Fasting Ghrelin Levels Are Decreased in Obese Subjects and Are Significantly Related With Insulin Resistance and Body Mass Index

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Obese subjects have low fasting ghrelin levels that they are significantly related to insulin resistance and body mass index. More prospective studies are needed to establish the role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of human obesity.

  18. Study of hormones correlated with gastric motility and effect of electroacupuncture in uncomplicated obese subjects

    Li-ming GAO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effects of gastric motility (GM related hormones on the GM of uncomplicated obese binge eater, and to explore the effect of electroacupuncture on weight loss. Methods Thirty-two obese subjects with habit of immoderate eating and 20 healthy subjects with normal weight were enrolled. Venous blood samples were collected at 8:00p.m. after an overnight fast and collected again 30min after meal, then stored at -70℃. Serum ghrelin and GLP-1 were determined with ELISA method and motilin and leptin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. 30min stimulation of electroacupuncture was performed daily on the obese persons for a week. On the eighth day, blood samples of the obese were collected again. Results Whether before or after meal, serum motilin and leptin levels were higher in obese group than in the control group (P0.05, and serum GLP-1 increased significantly in comparison with those before stimulation (P<0.01 in the obese group. Conclusion Electroacupuncture stimulation gives a certain therapeutic effect on loss of body weight in uncomplicated obese population with immoderate eating by affecting the endocrines related to GM. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.09.10

  19. Role of the DGAT gene C79T single-nucleotide polymorphism in French obese subjects.

    Coudreau, Sylvie Kipfer; Tounian, Patrick; Bonhomme, Geneviève; Froguel, Philippe; Girardet, Jean-Philippe; Guy-Grand, Bernard; Basdevant, Arnaud; Clément, Karine

    2003-10-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A, diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), is a key enzyme involved in adipose-cell triglyceride storage. A 79-bp T-to-C single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the 3' region of the DGAT transcriptional site has been reported to increase promoter activity and is associated with higher BMI in Turkish women. To validate the possible role of this genetic variant in obesity, as well as the variant's possible cellular-functional significance, we performed an association study between the T79C change and several obesity-related phenotypes in 1357 obese French adults and children. The prevalence of the T79C SNP was similar between obese adults and children when each group was compared with the controls. (CC genotype carrier frequencies were 0.25 to 0.29 in the obese groups and 0.21 in controls; p > 0.05.) In each of the obese adult and child groups studied, the T79C variant was not found to be associated with any of the obesity-related phenotypes tested. Although the T79C SNP of the DGAT gene was studied in several groups of white subjects, the association between this SNP and obesity-related phenotypes, previously described, was not confirmed in our population.

  20. A comparative study on the clinical and polysomnographic pattern of obstructive sleep apnea among obese and non-obese subjects

    Rajiv Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to compare the pattern of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA among obese and nonobese subjects regarding clinical and polysomnographic data obtained for a polysomnographic study. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective descriptive study was conducted by analyzing polysomnographic data in 112 consecutive patients underwent a sleep study at our sleep laboratory from January 2009 to July 2010. Out of them, 81 were diagnosed to have OSA (apnea-hypopnoea Index ≥5. These patients were classified in two groups with body mass index (BMI 0.001. The minimal oxygen saturation was lower in the obese than the nonobese group (68.5 ± 13.00 vs. 80.3 ± 7.40, P0.001 and was well below 90% in both groups. Overall, the OSA in nonobese patients was mild-to-moderate as compared to that of the obese and no significant differences were observed between them as regard to age, gender, mean neck circumference, excessive daytime sleepiness, adenoid or tonsillar enlargement, smoking, and remaining polysomnographic parameters. Conclusion: Obstructive sleep apnea can occur in nonobese persons though with less severity as compared to obese leading to a concept that OSA is not restricted to obese persons only and there is a high demand of its awareness regarding evaluation, diagnosis, and management in such individuals.

  1. Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene Sundahl; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non......-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30...... concentration in the chylomicron rich fraction (P = .0293). Thus, we have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial metabolism of four dietary proteins supplemented to a fat rich mixed meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Supplementation with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia compared...

  2. Gut microbiota, microinflammation, metabolic profile, and zonulin concentration in obese and normal weight subjects.

    Zak-Gołąb, Agnieszka; Kocełak, Piotr; Aptekorz, Małgorzata; Zientara, Maria; Juszczyk, Lukasz; Martirosian, Gayane; Chudek, Jerzy; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The association between gut microbiota and circulating zonulin level, a marker of intestinal permeability, has not been studied yet. The aim of the study is the assessment of plasma zonulin, haptoglobin and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF- α and IL-6) levels in relation to composition of gut microbiota in obese and normal weight subjects. Circulating inflammation markers, such as TNF- α , sTNFR1, sTNFR2, IL-6, zonulin, and haptoglobin levels were measured and semiquantitative analysis of gut microbiota composition was carried out in 50 obese and 30 normal weight subjects without concomitant diseases. Higher circulating zonulin, TNF- α , sTNFR1, sTNFR2, and IL-6 levels were found in the obese subjects. Plasma zonulin level correlated positively with age (r = 0.43, P zonulin (r = 0.26, P zonulin level was proportional to daily energy intake (r = 0.27, P zonulin level, a potential marker of interstitial permeability.

  3. Body Fat Distribution, Serum Leptin, And Insulin Resistance In Obese Subjects With Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    Hassan ZA*,Attia MF**, Ahmed AH**;Hassan HA***,

    2006-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OS A) is strongly associated with obesity and is characterized by endocrine and metabolic changes. The aim of the present study is to clarify whether there is interrelationship between body fat, serum leptin, glucose-insulin metabolism and OSA. Subjects and measurements: we studied 23 obese subjects with OSA (13 males,& 10 females; age mean 36 ± 4.4 years; BMI: 31.7 ± 3.6 kg/m2; WHR: 1.2 ± .25 in males and 0.81+.5 in females ;Apnoea Index "AI"( 9.2 ±6.1) event/hour o...

  4. Subjective evaluation of psychosocial well-being in children and youths with overweight or obesity

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Hamann, Sophie Amalie; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment programme on subjective evaluations of psychosocial well-being and quality of life. METHODS: This longitudinal observational study included 1291 children, adolescents and young adults, 6-22 years of age......, with overweight or obesity. At entry and after 2-82 months of obesity treatment, the patients evaluated the following domains of psychosocial well-being on a visual analogue scale: quality of life, mood, appetite, bullying, motivation for weight loss and body image satisfaction. The degree of overweight.......0001), independent of BMI SDS at entry. However, improvements in psychosocial well-being were also observed in those increasing their BMI SDS (n = 315). CONCLUSIONS: In a large group of children and youths, psychosocial well-being improved during a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment programme...

  5. Substrate Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity During Fasting in Obese Human Subjects: Impact of GH Blockade.

    Pedersen, Morten Høgild; Svart, Mads Vandsted; Lebeck, Janne; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Møller, Niels; Jessen, Niels; Jørgensen, Jens O L

    2017-04-01

    Insulin resistance and metabolic inflexibility are features of obesity and are amplified by fasting. Growth hormone (GH) secretion increases during fasting and GH causes insulin resistance. To study the metabolic effects of GH blockade during fasting in obese subjects. Nine obese males were studied thrice in a randomized design: (1) after an overnight fast (control), (2) after 72 hour fasting (fasting), and (3) after 72 hour fasting with GH blockade (pegvisomant) [fasting plus GH antagonist (GHA)]. Each study day consisted of a 4-hour basal period followed by a 2-hour hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp combined with indirect calorimetry, assessment of glucose and palmitate turnover, and muscle and fat biopsies. GH levels increased with fasting (P fasting-induced reduction of serum insulin-like growth factor I was enhanced by GHA (P Fasting increased lipolysis and lipid oxidation independent of GHA, but fasting plus GHA caused a more pronounced suppression of lipid intermediates in response to hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp. Fasting-induced insulin resistance was abrogated by GHA (P Fasting plus GHA also caused elevated glycerol levels and reduced levels of counterregulatory hormones. Fasting significantly reduced the expression of antilipolytic signals in adipose tissue independent of GHA. Suppression of GH activity during fasting in obese subjects reverses insulin resistance and amplifies insulin-stimulated suppression of lipid intermediates, indicating that GH is an important regulator of substrate metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic flexibility also in obese subjects. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  6. Differential representation of liver proteins in obese human subjects suggests novel biomarkers and promising targets for drug development in obesity.

    Caira, Simonetta; Iannelli, Antonio; Sciarrillo, Rosaria; Picariello, Gianluca; Renzone, Giovanni; Scaloni, Andrea; Addeo, Pietro

    2017-12-01

    The proteome of liver biopsies from human obese (O) subjects has been compared to those of nonobese (NO) subjects using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Differentially represented proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS)-based peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and nanoflow-liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS). Overall, 61 gene products common to all of the liver biopsies were identified within 65 spots, among which 25 ones were differently represented between O and NO subjects. In particular, over-representation of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, Δ(3,5)-Δ(2,4)dienoyl-CoA isomerase, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase, fructose-biphosphate aldolase B, peroxiredoxin I, protein DJ-1, catalase, α- and β-hemoglobin subunits, 3-mercaptopyruvate S-transferase, calreticulin, aminoacylase 1, phenazine biosynthesis-like domain-containing protein and a form of fatty acid-binding protein, together with downrepresentation of glutamate dehydrogenase, glutathione S-transferase A1, S-adenosylmethionine synthase 1A and a form of apolipoprotein A-I, was associated with the obesity condition. Some of these metabolic enzymes and antioxidant proteins have already been identified as putative diagnostic markers of liver dysfunction in animal models of steatosis or obesity, suggesting additional investigations on their role in these syndromes. Their differential representation in human liver was suggestive of their consideration as obesity human biomarkers and for the development of novel antiobesity drugs.

  7. Extracellular Vesicles from Hypoxic Adipocytes and Obese Subjects Reduce Insulin‐Stimulated Glucose Uptake

    Mleczko, Justyna; Ortega, Francisco J.; Falcon‐Perez, Juan Manuel; Wabitsch, Martin; Fernandez‐Real, Jose Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Scope We investigate the effects of extracellular vesicles (EVs) obtained from in vitro adipocyte cell models and from obese subjects on glucose transport and insulin responsiveness. Methods and results EVs are isolated from the culture supernatant of adipocytes cultured under normoxia, hypoxia (1% oxygen), or exposed to macrophage conditioned media (15% v/v). EVs are isolated from the plasma of lean individuals and subjects with obesity. Cultured adipocytes are incubated with EVs and activation of insulin signalling cascades and insulin‐stimulated glucose transport are measured. EVs released from hypoxic adipocytes impair insulin‐stimulated 2‐deoxyglucose uptake and reduce insulin mediated phosphorylation of AKT. Insulin‐mediated phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinases (ERK1/2) is not affected. EVs from individuals with obesity decrease insulin stimulated 2‐deoxyglucose uptake in adipocytes (p = 0.0159). Conclusion EVs released by stressed adipocytes impair insulin action in neighboring adipocytes. PMID:29292863

  8. Normal sweat secretion despite impaired growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in obese subjects

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Main, Katharina M

    2011-01-01

    Adults with GH deficiency are known to exhibit reduced sweating. Whether sweating capacity is impacted in obese subjects with impaired GH secretion have not previously been investigated. The main objective was to investigate sweat secretion rate and the GH-IGF-I axis in obese subjects before...... and after weight loss. Sixteen severely obese women (BMI, 40.6 ± 1.1 kg/m(2)) were investigated before and after a diet-induced weight loss. Sixteen age-matched nonobese women served as controls. The obese subjects presented the characteristic decreased GH release, hyperinsulinaemia, increased FFA levels......, and impaired insulin sensitivity, which all were normalised after diet-induced weight loss of 30 ± 5 kg. Sweat secretion rates were similar comparing obese and nonobese subjects (78 ± 10 versus 82 ± 9 mg/30 minutes) and sweat secretion did not change after a diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects. We...

  9. Acute regulation of plasma leptin by isoprenaline in lean and obese fasted subjects.

    Baynes, K C R; Nicholas, M D; Shojaee-Moradie, F; Umpleby, A M; Giannoulis, M G

    2006-07-01

    In human obesity, there is some evidence for impaired adrenergic sensitivity with respect to catecholamine-induced lipolysis. The beta-adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline has been shown to suppress plasma leptin levels in lean humans in vivo. We hypothesized that a reduced adrenergic sensitivity in obese humans would result in impaired suppression of leptin secretion. Eight obese [Ob, body mass index (BMI) = 33.3 kg/m2] and seven lean (Ln, BMI = 21.8 kg/m2) men were studied after an overnight fast. Intravenous isoprenaline infusion was initiated at a rate of 8 ng/kg/min, titrated up to 24 ng/kg/min over 30 min and continued at this rate for a further 120 min with continuous electrocardiogram monitoring. Baseline fasting plasma leptin was higher in obese compared with lean subjects (Ob 12.2 +/- 1.8, Ln 2.6 +/- 0.6 ng/ml, p fasting glycerol as a measure of lipolysis was similar in both groups (Ob 62.9 +/- 7.6, Ln 42.4 +/- 8.9 micromol/l) and increased from baseline to 150 min by equivalent amounts (Ob +66.9%, Ln +81.2%, p = NS). Plasma leptin decreased from baseline to 150 min with similar relative changes in both groups (Ob -29.2%, Ln -27.8%). Obese subjects show a similar lipolytic and leptin response to acute isoprenaline infusion compared with lean subjects. Impaired beta-adrenergic-induced inhibition of leptin secretion does not appear to contribute to hyperleptinaemia in obese human subjects.

  10. The relationship between vitamin D status, physical activity and insulin resistance in overweight and obese subjects

    Gülis Kavadar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM incidence has been increasing worldwide along with the rise of obesity and sedantery lifestyle. Decreased physical activity (PA and obesity have also been associated with the low vitamin D levels. We aimed to determine the association between PA, vitamin D status and insulin resistance in overweight and obese subjects. A total of 294 (186 female, 108 male overweight or obese subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD, insulin, fasting plasma glucose (FPG and HbA1c levels were measured in blood samples. Body mass index (BMI, HOMA-index and total score of International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long form (IPAQ were calculated. Insulin resistant subjects were compared with the non-resistant group. The mean age of the participants was 45±12.25 and 41.39±10.32; 25(OHD levels were 8.91 ± 4.30 and 17.62 ± 10.47 ng/dL; BMIs were 31.29 ± 4.48  and 28.2 ± 3.16 kg/m², IPAQ total scores were 548.71±382.81 and 998±486.21 in the insulin resistant and nonresistant subjects, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in terms of 25(OHD, FPG, insulin levels, IPAQ  total score and BMI between the two groups (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001.Significantly low 25(OHD levels, high BMI and low PA in insulin resistant subjects confirm the importance of active lifestyle and the maintenance of normal vitamin D levels in overweight and obese subjects in prevention of T2DM.

  11. Visceral fat accumulation in obese subjects : relation to energy expenditure and response to weight loss

    Leenen, R; van der Kooy, K; Deurenberg, P.; Seidell, J C; Weststrate, J A; Schouten, F J; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Seventy-eight healthy obese subjects, 40 premenopausal women and 38 men aged 27-51 yr received a 4.2 MJ/day energy-deficit diet for 13 wk. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) were measured by indirect calorimetry. Abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat areas were

  12. Frequency of the GPR7 Tyr135Phe allelic variant in lean and obese subjects.

    Pelosini, C; Maffei, M; Ceccarini, G; Marchi, M; Marsili, A; Galli, G; Scartabelli, G; Tamberi, A; Latrofa, F; Fierabracci, P; Vitti, P; Pinchera, A; Santini, F

    2013-10-01

    GPR7, the endogenous coupled receptor for neuropeptide B and neuropeptide W, is expressed in several regions of the central nervous system, which are involved in the regulation of feeding behavior. GPR7 affects the regulation of energy balance through a mechanism independent of leptin and melanocortin pathways. Aim of this study was to investigate whether GPR7 gene mutations can be detected in human subjects and, in that event, if they are differently distributed among lean and obese subjects. The coding region of GPR7 were sequenced in 150 obese patients and 100 normal-weight unrelated controls. Functional studies of the allelic variants were performed. One genetic GPR7 variant was found (Tyr135Phe - rs33977775) in obese subjects (13.3%) and lean control (25%). Functional studies did not reveal significant differences between the wild type and the Tyr135Phe allelic variants in their NPW-mediated capacity to inhibit forskolin-induced cAMP production. Screening of GPR7 gene mutations among lean and obese subjects revealed a Tyr135Phe allelic variant that was fairly common in the study population. As indicated by in vitro and in silico studies, this variant is unlikely to cause a functional derangement of the receptor.

  13. Substrate utilization and thermogenic responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation in obese subjects with NIDDM.

    Blaak, E.E.; Saris, W.H.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study intended to investigate disturbances in beta-adrenergically-mediated substrate utilization and thermogenesis in obese subjects with mild non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). DESIGN: Following a baseline period of 30 min, the beta-agonist isoproterenol (ISO) was

  14. Substrate utilization and thermogenic responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation in obese subjects with NIDDM

    Blaak, E E; Saris, W H; Wolffenbuttel, B H

    OBJECTIVE: This study intended to investigate disturbances in beta-adrenergically-mediated substrate utilization and thermogenesis in obese subjects with mild non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). DESIGN: Following a baseline period of 30 min, the beta-agonist isoproterenol (ISO) was

  15. Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W.H.M.; Senden, J.M.G.; Menheere, P.P.C.A.; Blaak, E.E.; van Baak, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects. Kempen KP, Saris WH, Senden JM, Menheere PP, Blaak EE, van Baak MA. Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. This study was intended to investigate the

  16. Effect of acute exercise on glycogen synthase in muscle from obese and diabetic subjects.

    Jensen, Jørgen; Tantiwong, Puntip; Stuenæs, Jorid T; Molina-Carrion, Marjorie; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Sakamoto, Kei; Musi, Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    Insulin stimulates glycogen synthase (GS) through dephosphorylation of serine residues, and this effect is impaired in skeletal muscle from insulin-resistant [obese and type 2 diabetic (T2DM)] subjects. Exercise also increases GS activity, yet it is not known whether the ability of exercise to affect GS is impaired in insulin-resistant subjects. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of acute exercise on GS phosphorylation and enzyme kinetic properties in muscle from insulin-resistant individuals. Lean normal glucose-tolerant (NGT), obese NGT, and obese T2DM subjects performed 40 min of moderate-intensity cycle exercise (70% of Vo(2max)). GS kinetic properties and phosphorylation were measured in vastus lateralis muscle before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 3.5 h postexercise. In lean subjects, GS fractional activity increased twofold after 40 min of exercise, and it remained elevated after the 3.5-h rest period. Importantly, exercise also decreased GS K(m) for UDP-glucose from ≈0.5 to ≈0.2 mM. In lean subjects, exercise caused significant dephosphorylation of GS by 50-70% (Ser(641), Ser(645), and Ser(645,649,653,657)), and phosphorylation of these sites remained decreased after 3.5 h; Ser⁷ phosphorylation was not regulated by exercise. In obese NGT and T2DM subjects, exercise increased GS fractional activity, decreased K(m) for UDP-glucose, and decreased GS phosphorylation as effectively as in lean NGT subjects. We conclude that the molecular regulatory process by which exercise promotes glycogen synthesis in muscle is preserved in insulin-resistant subjects.

  17. Prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome in subjects with and without schizophrenia (CURES-104)

    R Subashini; M Deepa; R Padmavati; R Thara; V Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Background : There are some reports that diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MS) are more prevalent among schizophrenia patients. However, there are very few studies in India which have estimated the prevalence of diabetes and MS in schizophrenia patients. Aims : The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and MS in subjects with and without schizophrenia. Settings and Design : This case control study comprised of "cases" i.e. subjects with schizophrenia recruited...

  18. Prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome in subjects with and without schizophrenia (CURES-104

    R Subashini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There are some reports that diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MS are more prevalent among schizophrenia patients. However, there are very few studies in India which have estimated the prevalence of diabetes and MS in schizophrenia patients. Aims : The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and MS in subjects with and without schizophrenia. Settings and Design : This case control study comprised of "cases" i.e. subjects with schizophrenia recruited from a schizophrenia centre at Chennai and "controls" i.e. healthy age- and gender-matched subjects without psychiatric illness selected from an ongoing epidemiological study in Chennai in a 1:4 ratio of cases: Controls. Materials and Methods : Fasting plasma glucose and serum lipids were estimated for all subjects. Anthropometric measures including height, weight, and waist circumference were assessed. Diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG were defined using American Diabetes Association criteria. Statistical analysis : One-way ANOVA or student′s "t" test was used to compare continuous variables and Chi-square test to compare proportion between two groups. Results : The study group comprised of 655 subjects, 131 with schizophrenia and a control group of 524 subjects without schizophrenia. The prevalence of the diabetes, IFG, abdominal obesity and MS were significantly higher among subjects with schizophrenia compared to those without schizophrenia-diabetes (15.3% vs. 7.3%, P=0.003, IFG (31.3% vs. 8.6%, P<0.001, abdominal obesity (59.2% vs. 44.7%, P<0.001, and MS (34.4% vs. 24%, P=0.014. Conclusion : In subjects with schizophrenia, the prevalence of diabetes, IFG, abdominal obesity, and MS is significantly higher than in those without schizophrenia.

  19. Serum Adiponectin, Visfatin, and Omentin Compared between Non-pregnant and Pregnant Women in Overall, Non-obese, and Obese subjects

    Chantacha Sitticharoon, M.D., Ph.D.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin between non-pregnant and pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese subjects. Methods: There were 40 pregnant and 33 non-pregnant women classified by body mass index (BMI into non-obese or obese subjects. Fasting blood samples were collected in the morning for the non-pregnant group and before delivery for the pregnant group. Results: Plasma glucose levels were significantly lower, but plasma insulin levels were significantly higher in pregnant when compared to non-pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese women (p<0.05 all. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was significantly higher, but the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI was significantly lower only in obese pregnant when compared to obese non-pregnant women (p<0.01 all. However, in non-obese women, HOMA-IR and QUICKI were comparable between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin were significantly lower in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese groups (p<0.05 all. In pregnant women, serum adiponectin and omentin levels were significantly lower in obese compared to non-obese pregnant women while serum visfatin levels were comparable in both groups. Serum adiponectin levels were highest followed by omentin and visfatin, respectively in both non-obese and obese pregnant groups. These results indicated that lower serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin in pregnant women might contribute to higher insulin resistance in pregnancy. Furthermore, serum adiponectin and omentin were reduced in increasing adiposity similarly to non-pregnant women. Conclusion: Lower serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin in pregnant women might lead to decreased insulin sensitivity in these women.

  20. Diabetes is the main factor accounting for hypomagnesemia in obese subjects.

    Albert Lecube

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM and obesity are associated with magnesium deficiency. We aimed to determine whether the presence of type 2 diabetes and the degree of metabolic control are related to low serum magnesium levels in obese individuals. METHODS: A Case-control study: 200 obese subjects [50 with T2DM (cases and 150 without diabetes (controls] prospectively recruited. B Interventional study: the effect of bariatric surgery on serum magnesium levels was examined in a subset of 120 obese subjects (40 with type 2 diabetes and 80 without diabetes. RESULTS: Type 2 diabetic patients showed lower serum magnesium levels [0.75±0.07 vs. 0.81±0.06 mmol/L; mean difference -0.06 (95% CI -0.09 to -0.04; p<0.001] than non-diabetic patients. Forty-eight percent of diabetic subjects, but only 15% of non-diabetic subjects showed a serum magnesium concentration lower than 0.75 mmol/L. Significant negative correlations between magnesium and fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, and BMI were detected. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c independently predicted serum magnesium. After bariatric surgery serum magnesium increased only in those patients in whom diabetes was resolved, but remain unchanged in those who not, without difference in loss weight between groups. Changes in serum magnesium negatively correlated with changes in fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c. Absolute changes in HbA1c independently predicted magnesium changes in the multiple linear regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence that the presence of diabetes and the degree of metabolic control are essential in accounting for the lower levels of magnesium that exist in obese subjects.

  1. Fasting plasma glucose in the screening for type 2 diabetes in morbidly obese subjects.

    Hofsø, Dag; Jenssen, Trond; Hager, Helle; Røislien, Jo; Hjelmesaeth, Jøran

    2010-03-01

    Higher mortality rates among morbidly obese (BMI of > or =40 or > or =35 kg/m2 with weight-related comorbidities) subjects are mainly explained by comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes. As bariatric surgery ameliorates diabetes, obese diabetic subjects will receive great benefits from bariatric surgery. Screening for diabetes prior to surgical referral is therefore crucial. We studied 1,253 consecutively recruited (2005-2008) morbidly obese subjects (67% women). Among subjects without known diabetes, 70% (670/961) performed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Screen-detected diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (fPG) > or =7.0 mmol/l and/or 2-h glucose concentration (2hPG) > or = 11.1 mmol/l. Within the study population, 31% had diabetes, of which 8% were screen-detected. Eighty percent of those with screen-detected diabetes were diagnosed by fPG. In subjects with nondiabetic fPG concentrations, elevating the fPG cutoff value from 5.2 mmol/l to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) recommended value of 6.1 mmol/l reduced the percentage of the population needing an OGTT considerably (78-23%), but only slightly reduced the sensitivity of fPG in detecting a diabetic 2hPG concentration (100-77%). Only 7% of the patients with fPG between 6.1 and 6.9 mmol/l had a diabetic 2hPG concentration. Following the WHO's recommendations, we found that 95% of all subjects with unknown diabetes were identified. Fasting glucose identified four out of five morbidly obese subjects with unknown diabetes. A supplemental OGTT in selected persons identified the majority of the remaining diabetic cases.

  2. RISK OF OBESITY FOR HYPERTENSION DIFFERS BETWEEN DIABETIC AND NON-DIABETIC SUBJECTS

    MA Sayeed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, non-communicable diseases (NCD like obesity, hypertension (HTN and Type2 diabetes (T2DM are on the increase, specially in the developing nations. Body mass index (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR and Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR are used as indices of obesity to relate T2DM, HTN and coronary artery disease (CAD. This study addresses whether the risk of obesity for HTN differs between T2DM and non-DM subjects. We investigated 693 diabetic patients from BIRDEM and 2384 from communities. We measured height, weight, waist-girth, hip-girth and blood pressure. All subjects underwent oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. BMI, WHR and WHtR were calculated. Systolic and diastolic hypertension (sHTN and dHTN were defined as SBP >=140 and DBP >= 90 mmHg, respectively. The prevalence of both sHTN and dHTN in T2DM was higher than the non-DM subjects (sHTN: 49.1 vs 14.3%, dHTN 19.6 vs. 9.5%. The comparison of characteristics between subjects with and without hypertension showed that the differences were significant for age, weight, waist-girth, BMI, WHR and WHtR for both T2DM and non-DM subjects (for all p<0.001. The increasing trend of hypertension with increasing obesity was observed more in the non-DM than in the T2DM subjects. The risk (OR of obesity for hypertension increased with increasing WHR and WHtR in the non-DM than the T2DM subjects. Compared with the non-DM the T2DM participants had two to three folds higher prevalence of HTN. In either group, BMI, WHR and WHtR were significantly higher in the hypertensive than the non-hypertensive subjects. The prevalence of hypertension increased with the increasing BMI, WHR and WHtR but significant only in the non-DM. Further studies may confirm these findings and determine whether there was any altered association between blood pressure and obesity in diabetes possibily, with or without autonomic neuropathy. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2007; 1(1: 1-6

  3. Similar to adiponectin, serum levels of osteoprotegerin are associated with obesity in healthy subjects.

    Ashley, David T

    2011-07-01

    An increase in serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the severity of vascular calcification, and coronary artery disease. Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but little is known about the relationship between OPG and obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in body mass index (BMI) and insulin sensitivity influence circulating OPG in healthy subjects. A total of 100 subjects (36 lean, 41 overweight, and 23 obese) with normal glucose tolerance, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram stress test result volunteered for this study. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test with oral glucose insulin sensitivity analysis. Osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL),soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand (sRANKL), and adiponectin were analyzed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Osteoprotegerin (P < .01) and adiponectin (P < .001) were significantly decreased in the obese compared with lean subjects. There was no significant difference between BMI categories for TRAIL or sRANKL. Controlling for age and sex, there was a significant correlation between OPG and adiponectin (r = 0.391, P < .001), BMI (r = -0.331, P < .001), waist circumference (r = -0.268, P < .01), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = -0.222, P < .05), and oral glucose insulin sensitivity (r = 0.221, P < .05). Both OPG and adiponectin were negatively correlated with body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and fasting plasma insulin while being positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (P < .05). Controlling for age, sex, and BMI, TRAIL was positively related to fat mass (r = 0.373, P < .001) and waist circumference (r = 0.257, P < .05). In contrast to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, circulating OPG is lower in obese, but otherwise healthy subjects and is positively correlated

  4. Effect of gender on lipid-induced insulin resistance in obese subjects

    Vistisen, Bodil; Hellgren, Lars; Vadset, T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In obese subjects, chronically elevated plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) exert a marked risk to contract insulin resistance and subsequently type 2 diabetes. When NEFA is acutely increased due to i.v. infusion of lipid, glucose disposal during...... a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp is reduced. This effect has been explained by a NEFA-induced decrease in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity caused by accumulation of the lipid intermediates Such as ceramide and diacylglycerol in the myocytes. However, neither the lipid-induced reduction of glucose disposal nor...... the clamp was similar in females and males (46+/-10 and 60+/-4%,, respectively, NS). However, whole-body insulin sensitivity as well as non-oxidative glucose disposal was higher in obese females compared with obese males both during lipid and saline infusion (P...

  5. Serum Neuropeptide Y and Leptin Levels compared between Non-pregnant and Pregnant Women in Overall, Non-obese, and Obese Subjects

    Chantacha Sitticharoon, M.D., Ph.D.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective of this study was to compare serum NPY and leptin levels between non-pregnant and pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese subjects. The secondary objective was to compare these peptides between non-obese and obese pregnant women. Methods: Fasting venous blood was collected from non-pregnant women before open abdominal surgery and from pregnant women when admitted to the delivery room during the latent phase of labor. Results: There were 12 non-obese and 14 obese subjects in the non-pregnant group and 9 non-obese and 30 obese subjects in the pregnant group. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was comparable, but heart rate (HR was higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women. Mean±S.E.M serum NPY levels were lower in the pregnant than in the non-pregnant group in overall (0.54±0.02 and 1.34±0.08, respectively, non-obese (0.53±0.05 and 1.23±0.14, respectively, and obese (0.54±0.03 and 1.43±0.09, respectively subjects (p<0.01 for all, but these were comparable between obese and non- obese pregnant subjects. Serum NPY was positively correlated with SBP (R=0.281, p<0.05, but negatively correlated with HR (R=-0.324, p<0.01. Serum leptin levels were not different between pregnant and non-pregnant groups, but were significantly higher in obese than non-obese pregnant subjects (p<0.001. Serum leptin levels were positively correlated with body weight, BMI, waist and hip circumferences in overall and pregnant subjects (p<0.001 all. Conclusion: In pregnancy, decreased NPY levels might be associated with inhibition of SBP rising as well as increased HR. Leptin levels might not be associated with pregnancy, but associated mainly with obesity.

  6. Influence of insulin on beta-endorphin plasma levels in obese and normal weight subjects.

    Brunani, A; Pincelli, A I; Pasqualinotto, L; Tibaldi, A; Baldi, G; Scacchi, M; Fatti, L M; Cavagnini, F

    1996-08-01

    To establish the possible role of hyperinsulinemia in the elevation of plasma beta-endorphin (beta-EP) levels observed in obese patients after an oral glucose load. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Two groups of six (age: 22-39 y, BMI: 30-48 kg/m2) and eight obese men (age: 18-37 y, BMI: 35-45 kg/m2), respectively, and five normal weight healthy men (age: 22-30 y, BMI 22-23 kg/m2). Glucose, insulin and beta-EP levels at baseline and every 30 min until 180 min during the OGTT; glucose, insulin, C-peptide and beta-EP concentrations at baseline and in steady state condition (i.e. during the last 30 min of insulin infusion) in the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. In the six obese patients undergoing the OGTT a significant elevation of beta-EP plasma levels was observed between 60 and 90 min after glucose ingestion. In the clamp studies no significant differences in beta-EP plasma levels, blood glucose and serum insulin were observed between obese and normal weight subjects both at baseline and at steady state. A markedly diminished insulin sensitivity along with a lower inhibition of C-peptide during insulin infusion was observed in obese patients compared to control subjects. A rise in serum insulin levels unaccompanied by a concomitant increase in blood glucose concentration is unable to elicit a beta-EP response in obese patients.

  7. Levels of lipocalin-2 in crevicular fluid and tear fluid in chronic periodontitis and obesity subjects.

    Pradeep, Avani Raju; Nagpal, Kanika; Karvekar, Shruti; Patnaik, Kaushik

    2016-11-01

    Lipocalin-2, a 25 kDa secretory glycoprotein, was first found in the neutrophilic granules of humans and in mouse kidney cells. It has been shown to have an important role in inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lipocalin-2 in gingival crevicular fluid and tear fluid in patients with obesity and chronic periodontitis. A total of 40 subjects in the age group 25-40 years were divided into four groups based on probing depth, gingival index, clinical attachment level, body mass index, and radiographic evidence of bone loss. The groups were: nonobese healthy group; obese healthy group; nonobese chronic periodontitis group; obese chronic periodontitis group Gingival crevicular fluid and tear fluid samples were collected on the subsequent day. There was an increase in lipocalin-2 levels from group 1 to group 4 (with the nonobese healthy group showing the least levels and obese chronic periodontitis group showing the highest levels) in both gingival crevicular fluid and tear fluid. Lipocalin-2 may be an important inflammatory marker that may help link obesity and chronic periodontitis. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Differences in Ventilatory Threshold for Exercise Prescription in Outpatient Diabetic and Sarcopenic Obese Subjects

    Gian Pietro Emerenziani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to examine cardiorespiratory parameters at individual ventilatory threshold (IVT and peak exercise capacity (V˙O2peak in outpatient diabetic and sarcopenic obese subjects. Seventeen obese subjects (BMI: 36.6±4.1 kg·m−1 and sixteen SO subjects (BMI: 37.0±7.3 kg·m−1 were compared with sixteen T2DM subjects (BMI: 37.7±5.6 kg·m−1. All groups performed an incremental exercise test on a treadmill according to their physical ability. V˙O2peak, %HRmax, and maximal metabolic equivalent (METmax were evaluated at maximal effort. Moreover, V˙O2ivt, %V˙O2peak, %HRmax, %HRR, ΔHR, and METivt were assessed at IVT. No significant differences were found in any physiological parameters at maximal effort (V˙O2peak, %HRmax, and METmax in all groups. On the contrary, V˙O2ivt, %V˙O2peak, %HRmax, %HRR, ΔHR, and METivt were significantly lower in T2DM subjects as compared to OB and SO subjects at IVT (p<0.05. Our results show that while at maximal effort there are no differences among groups, at IVT the physiological parameters are lower in T2DM subjects than in OB and SO subjects. Therefore, due to the differences observed in the groups, we suggest usng the IVT as a useful parameter to prescribe aerobic exercise in obese with sarcopenia or diabetes mellitus conditions.

  9. Prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome in subjects with and without schizophrenia (CURES-104).

    Subashini, R; Deepa, M; Padmavati, R; Thara, R; Mohan, V

    2011-01-01

    There are some reports that diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MS) are more prevalent among schizophrenia patients. However, there are very few studies in India which have estimated the prevalence of diabetes and MS in schizophrenia patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and MS in subjects with and without schizophrenia. This case control study comprised of "cases" i.e. subjects with schizophrenia recruited from a schizophrenia centre at Chennai and "controls" i.e. healthy age- and gender-matched subjects without psychiatric illness selected from an ongoing epidemiological study in Chennai in a 1:4 ratio of cases: Controls. Fasting plasma glucose and serum lipids were estimated for all subjects. Anthropometric measures including height, weight, and waist circumference were assessed. Diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were defined using American Diabetes Association criteria. One-way ANOVA or student's "t" test was used to compare continuous variables and Chi-square test to compare proportion between two groups. The study group comprised of 655 subjects, 131 with schizophrenia and a control group of 524 subjects without schizophrenia. The prevalence of the diabetes, IFG, abdominal obesity and MS were significantly higher among subjects with schizophrenia compared to those without schizophrenia-diabetes (15.3% vs. 7.3%, P=0.003), IFG (31.3% vs. 8.6%, Pobesity (59.2% vs. 44.7%, Pobesity, and MS is significantly higher than in those without schizophrenia.

  10. Serum IL-12 Is Increased in Mexican Obese Subjects and Associated with Low-Grade Inflammation and Obesity-Related Parameters

    K. Suárez-Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-(IL- 12 has been recently suggested to participate during development of insulin resistance in obese mice. Nevertheless, serum IL-12 levels have not been accurately determined in overweight and obese humans. We thus studied serum concentrations of IL-12 in Mexican adult individuals, examining their relationship with low-grade inflammation and obesity-related parameters. A total of 147 healthy individuals, 43 normal weight, 61 overweight, and 43 obese subjects participated in the study. Circulating levels of IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, leptin, insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured after overnight fasting in all of the study subjects. Waist circumference and body fat percentage were recorded for all the participants. Serum IL-12 was significantly higher in overweight and obese individuals than in normal weight controls. Besides being strongly related with body mass index (r=0.5154, serum IL-12 exhibited a significant relationship with abdominal obesity (r=0.4481, body fat percentage (r=0.5625, serum glucose (r=0.3158, triglyceride (r=0.3714, and TNF-α (r=0.4717. Thus, serum levels of IL-12 are increased in overweight and obese individuals and show a strong relationship with markers of low-grade inflammation and obesity in the Mexican adult population. Further research is needed to understand the role of IL-12 in developing obesity-associated alterations in humans.

  11. Hormonal and Dietary Characteristics in Obese Human Subjects with and without Food Addiction

    Pardis Pedram

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of food addiction (FA is a potentially important contributing factor to the development of obesity in the general population; however, little is known about the hormonal and dietary differences between obesity with and without FA. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore potential biomarkers, including various hormones and neuropeptides, which regulate appetite and metabolism, and dietary components that could potentially differentiate obesity with and without FA. Of the 737 adults recruited from the general Newfoundland population, 58 food-addicted and non-food-addicted overweight/obese individuals (FAO, NFO matched for age, sex, BMI and physical activity were selected. A total of 34 neuropeptides, gut hormones, pituitary polypeptide hormones and adipokines were measured in fasting serum. We found that the FAO group had lower levels of TSH, TNF-α and amylin, but higher levels of prolactin, as compared to NFO group. The total calorie intake (per kg body weight, the dietary intake of fat (per g/kg body weight, per BMI and per percentage of trunk fat and the percent calorie intake from fat and carbohydrates (g/kg was higher in the FAO group compared to the NFO group. The FAO subjects consumed more sugar, minerals (including sodium, potassium, calcium and selenium, fat and its components (such as saturated, monounsaturated and trans fat, omega 3 and 6, vitamin D and gamma-tocopherol compared to the NFO group. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating possible differences in hormonal levels and micro-nutrient intakes between obese individuals classified with and without food addiction. The findings provide insights into the mechanisms by which FA could contribute to obesity.

  12. Gastric stimulation in obese subjects activates the hippocampus and other regions involved in brain reward circuitry.

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Yang, Julia; Volkow, Nora D; Telang, Frank; Ma, Yeming; Zhu, Wei; Wong, Christopher T; Tomasi, Dardo; Thanos, Panayotis K; Fowler, Joanna S

    2006-10-17

    The neurobiological mechanisms underlying overeating in obesity are not understood. Here, we assessed the neurobiological responses to an Implantable Gastric Stimulator (IGS), which induces stomach expansion via electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve to identify the brain circuits responsible for its effects in decreasing food intake. Brain metabolism was measured with positron emission tomography and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose in seven obese subjects who had the IGS implanted for 1-2 years. Brain metabolism was evaluated twice during activation (on) and during deactivation (off) of the IGS. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire was obtained to measure the behavioral components of eating (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating). The largest difference was in the right hippocampus, where metabolism was 18% higher (P drug craving in addicted subjects (orbitofrontal cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and striatum) suggests that similar brain circuits underlie the enhanced motivational drive for food and drugs seen in obese and drug-addicted subjects, respectively.

  13. Changes in gallbladder bile composition and crystal detection time in morbidly obese subjects after bariatric surgery.

    Gustafsson, Ulf; Benthin, Lisbet; Granström, Lars; Groen, Albert K; Sahlin, Staffan; Einarsson, Curt

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms of development of cholesterol crystals and gallstones during weight reduction in obese subjects. Twenty-five morbidly obese, gallstone-free subjects underwent vertical-banded gastroplasty. Gallbladder bile was collected at the time of the operation via needle aspiration and 1.1-7.3 months after the operation via ultrasound-guided transhepatic puncture of the gallbladder. The mean weight loss was 17 kg. Two patients developed gallstones and 10 patients displayed cholesterol crystals in their bile. In patients with a follow-up time of less than 2 months (n = 13), cholesterol saturation increased from 90% to 114% but tended to decrease in the patients with a follow-up time of more than 2 months. The extraction of the concanavalin-A-binding fraction from gallbladder bile obtained after weight reduction in 7 patients prolonged crystallization detection time from 6 to 10 days. The hexosamine concentration, a marker for mucin, was increased by about 100% in bile obtained in 6 of 7 patients after weight reduction. In conclusion, the results indicate that crystallization-promoting compounds (mucin) are of great importance in the development of cholesterol crystals and gallstones in obese subjects during weight reduction, probably because of defective gallbladder emptying.

  14. Effect of short-term fasting on lipolytic responsiveness in normal and obese human subjects

    Wolfe, R.R.; Peters, E.J.; Klein, S.; Holland, O.B.; Rosenblatt, J.; Gary, H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the rate of lipolysis (fatty acid and glycerol release into blood) has been quantified in both normal weight and obese volunteers after both 15 and 87 h of fasting. In each study, the basal rate and subsequent response to epinephrine infusion were determined. The rate of appearance (R/sub a/) of free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol were quantified by infusion of [1- 13 C]palmitate and D-5-glycerol, respectively. Substrate flux rates per unit of body fat mass and lean body mass were calculated from total body water measurements using H 2 18 O dilution. In normal volunteers, the basal R/sub a/ FFA and R/sub a/ glycerol rose markedly with 87 h of fasting, whereas the increases were more modest in the obese subjects. However, the rate of mobilization of fat, in relation to the lean body mass, was higher in the obese subjects than in the normal subjects after 15 h of fasting, and the values were similar in both groups after 87 h of fasting. There was an increased lipolytic response to epinephrine after fasting in both groups. This increased sensitivity may have resulted from the enhancement of fatty acid-triglyceride substrate cycling that occurred after fasting

  15. Relevance of Mediterranean diet and glucose metabolism for nephrolithiasis in obese subjects

    2014-01-01

    Background Nephrolithiasis is more frequent and severe in obese patients from different western nations. This may be supported by higher calcium, urate, oxalate excretion in obese stone formers. Except these parameters, clinical characteristics of obese stone formers were not extensively explored. Aims In the present paper we studied the relationship between obesity and its metabolic correlates and nephrolithiasis. Materials and methods We studied 478 Caucasian subjects having BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. The presence of nephrolithiasis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome were noted. They underwent measurements of anthropometry (BMI and waist circumference, body composition), serum variables (fasting glucose, serum lipids and serum enzymes) and Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) nutritional questionnaire. Results 45 (9.4%) participants were stone formers. Subjects with high serum concentrations of triglycerides (≥150 mg/dl), fasting glucose (> 100 mg/dl) and AST (>30 U/I in F or >40 U/I in M) were more frequent among stone formers than non-stone formers. Multinomial logistic regression confirmed that kidney stone production was associated with high fasting glucose (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.2, P = 0.011), AST (OR = 4.3, 95% CI 1.1-16.7, P = 0.033) and triglycerides (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.7, P = 0.01). MedDiet score was not different in stone formers and non-stone formers. However, stone formers had a lower consumption frequency of olive oil and nuts, and higher consumption frequency of wine compared with non-stone formers. Conclusions Overweight and obese stone formers may have a defect in glucose metabolism and a potential liver damage. Some foods typical of Mediterranean diet may protect against nephrolithiasis. PMID:24502605

  16. Preoperative gender differences in pulmonary gas exchange in morbidly obese subjects.

    Zavorsky, Gerald S; Christou, Nicolas V; Kim, Do Jun; Carli, Franco; Mayo, Nancy E

    2008-12-01

    Morbidly obese men may have poorer pulmonary gas exchange compared to morbidly obese women (see Zavorsky et al., Chest 131:362-367, 2007). The purpose was to compare pulmonary gas exchange in morbidly obese men and women at rest and throughout exercise. Twenty-five women (age=38+/-10 years, 164+/-7 cm, body mass index or BMI = 51+/-7 kg/m(2), peak oxygen consumption or VO(2peak)=2.0+/-0.4 l/min) and 17 men (age=43+/-9 years, 178+/-7 cm, BMI=50+/-10 kg/m(2), VO(2peak)=2.6+/-0.8 l/min) were recruited to perform a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer with temperature-corrected arterial blood-gas samples taken at rest and every minute of exercise, including peak exercise. At rest, women were 98% predicted for pulmonary diffusion compared to 88% predicted in men. At rest, women had better pulmonary gas exchange compared to the men which was related to women having a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR; por=25 mmHg) at peak exercise, but 75% of the subjects showed inadequate compensatory hyperventilation at peak exercise (arterial carbon dioxide pressure >35 mmHg), and both were not different between genders. At rest, morbidly obese men have poorer pulmonary gas exchange and pulmonary diffusion compared to morbidly obese women. The better gas exchange in women is related to the lower WHR in the women. During exercise, few subjects showed disturbances in pulmonary gas exchange despite demonstrating poor compensatory hyperventilation at peak exercise.

  17. Family History of Type 2 Diabetes is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Female Subjects

    Ticiana Costa Rodrigues

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the family history (FH of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS in a group of non-diabetic obese female subjects. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 239 female patients with obesity, regularly attending the Internal Medicine Division’s outpatient clinic (Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil. The inclusion criteria were patients with body mass index ?30 kg/m2 and absence of type 2 diabetes. The FH was considered positive if a first degree relative had a diagnosis of diabetes. Seventy-four of 239 patients evaluated (30% had a positive FH for type 2 diabetes. Patients with positive FH had higher waist/hip ratio and MetS more often than patients with negative FH. FH of type 2 diabetes was associated with MetS in this sample of non-diabetic obese female patients. Waist/hip ratio and fasting plasma glucose, markers of insulin resistance, were also associated with FH of type 2 diabetes. The simple question: “Do you have a FH of type 2 diabetes?” may help to identify the obese patients that should be better evaluated and intensively treated with the objective of preventing type 2 diabetes.

  18. Metabolic and Inflammatory Changes with Orlistat and Sibutramine Treatment in Obese Malaysian Subjects.

    Al-Tahami, Belqes Abdullah Mohammad; Al-Safi Ismail, Ab Aziz; Sanip, Zulkefli; Yusoff, Zurkurnai; Shihabudin, Tg Muzaffar Tm; Singh, Taran Singh Pall; Rasool, Aida Hanum Ghulam

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous health problems, particularly metabolic and cardiovascular complications. This study aimed to assess the effects that, nine months of pharmacological intervention with orlistat or sibutramine, on obese Malaysians' body weight and compositions, metabolic profiles and inflammatory marker. Seventy-six obese subjects were randomly placed into two groups. The first group received three daily 120 mg dosages of orlistat for nine months (n=39), and the second group received a once daily 10 or 15 mg dosage of sibutramine for nine months (n=37). Baseline measurements for weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BF), visceral fat (VF), adiponectin, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin, pancreatic B cell secretory capacity (HOMA%B), insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were performed and repeated during the sixth and ninth months of treatment. Twenty-four subjects completed the trial in both groups. For both groups, weight, BMI, WC, BF, VF, HOMA-IR and hs-CRP were significantly lower at the end of the nine month intervention. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups for these parameters with nine months treatment. There was a significant decrease in FPG in orlistat group; while fasting insulin and HOMA%B reduced in sibutramine group. For both groups, there were also significant increases in adiponectin levels and HOMA%S at the end of the nine month intervention. Nine months of treatment with orlistat and sibutramine not only reduced weight but also significantly improved BMI, WC, BF, VF, FPG, adiponectin, fasting insulin, HOMA%B, HOMA%S, HOMA-IR and hs-CRP. These improvements could prove useful in the reduction of metabolic and cardiovascular risks in obese subjects.

  19. Gut Microbiota, Microinflammation, Metabolic Profile, and Zonulin Concentration in Obese and Normal Weight Subjects

    Agnieszka Żak-Gołąb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between gut microbiota and circulating zonulin level, a marker of intestinal permeability, has not been studied yet. The aim of the study is the assessment of plasma zonulin, haptoglobin and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6 levels in relation to composition of gut microbiota in obese and normal weight subjects. Circulating inflammation markers, such as TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, IL-6, zonulin, and haptoglobin levels were measured and semiquantitative analysis of gut microbiota composition was carried out in 50 obese and 30 normal weight subjects without concomitant diseases. Higher circulating zonulin, TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, and IL-6 levels were found in the obese subjects. Plasma zonulin level correlated positively with age (r=0.43, P<0.001, body mass (r=0.30, P<0.01, BMI (r=0.33, P<0.01, fat mass and fat percentage (r=0.31, P<0.01 and r=0.23, P<0.05, resp.. Positive correlations between bacterial colony count and sTNFR1 (r=0.33, P<0.01 and plasma zonulin (r=0.26, P<0.05 but not haptoglobin levels were found. Additionally, plasma zonulin level was proportional to daily energy intake (r=0.27, P<0.05 and serum glucose concentration (r=0.18, P<0.05 and inversely proportional to diet protein percentage (r=-0.23, P<0.05. Gut microbiota-related systemic microinflammation in the obese is reflected by circulating zonulin level, a potential marker of interstitial permeability.

  20. Oxidative stress and inflammation in lean and obese subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Blair, Sarah A; Kyaw-Tun, Tommy; Young, Ian S; Phelan, Niamh A; Gibney, James; McEneny, Jane

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) independently influences oxidative stress and inflammation or if the culprit is the comorbidities of obesity and/or insulin resistance common to this condition. Thirty women with PCOS were matched for age, body mass index and insulin resistance with 30 control subjects. Oxidative stress was examined by measuring the total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by spectrophotometric assay. The inflammatory biomarkers, C-reactive protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, myeloperoxidase, neopterin, and serum amyloid A were measured by ELISA methodologies. Oxidative status was increased in the PCOS subjects relative to their weight-matched controls (TOS: obese PCOS patients vs. obese controls, 42.42 +/- 4.49 vs. 32.57 +/- 1.97, plean PCOS patients vs. lean controls, 33.69 +/- 1.59 vs. 28.69 +/- 1.18 micromol H2O2 Equiv/L, p lean PCOS group relative to their weight-matched controls (TAC: lean PCOS patients vs. lean controls, 1.10 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.49 +/- 0.03 nmol Trolox Equiv/L, p PCOS independently influenced oxidative stress. Overall, the presence of PCOS may increase cardiovascular risk.

  1. Expression of Peroxisomes-Proliferate Activated Receptors-γ in Diabetics, Obese and Normal Subjects

    Afzal, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current research in type 2 diabetes mellitus focuses on the role of Peroxisome-Proliferator Activated Receptors (PPARs) in the pathogenesis of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (IRS), which are pre-diabetic lesion and the hallmark of fully developed type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study aims at identifying the abnormal status of the PPAR-g in adipose tissues of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, when compared with matched normal controls. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad, from 2012 to 2014. Sample included three equal groups of patients. Group-1 with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus, aged 40-65 years, acting as the test group, Group-2 included non-diabetic obese, and Group-3 with normal subjects. Transcription Factor Assay for Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma (gamma PPAR) was done on ELISA Technique from Nuclear Extract procured from Adipose Tissue of the subjects. Results: Mean age of enrolled participants was 48.93 SD±6.52.years. Patients ranged between ages of 40 years to 67 years. The mean values of PPAR in normal, obese and diabetic group were 1.72 SD±0.28, 1.282 SE±0.18 and 1.283 SE±0.18 respectively. The difference in mean values of PPAR was significant ρ<0.05. Conclusion: The levels of PPAR-g in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obese cases are significantly lower than normal controls. (author)

  2. Response of growth hormone (GH), FFA, blood sugar and insulin to exercise in obese patients and normal subjects

    Schwarz, F.; Haar, D.J. ter; Riet, H.G. van; Thijssen, J.H.H.

    1969-01-01

    Ergometer tests with a constant workload of 600 Kg./min. during 30 minutes were done on eight normal subjects, eight severely obese patients, and two women who had formerly been obese. Arterial blood was sampled three times before, four times during and three times after exercise. The incidence and

  3. Musculoskeletal findings in obese subjects before and after weight loss following bariatric surgery.

    Hooper, M M; Stellato, T A; Hallowell, P T; Seitz, B A; Moskowitz, R W

    2007-01-01

    To determine the point prevalence of painful musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions in obese subjects before and after weight loss following bariatric surgery. Longitudinal, interventional, unblended. Forty-eight obese subjects (47 women, one man, mean age 44+/-9 years; mean body mass index (BMI) 51+/-8 kg/m(2)) recruited from an academic medical center bariatric surgery program. Comorbid medical conditions; MSK findings; BMI; Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) for pain, stiffness and function; and SF-36 for quality of life. Consecutive subjects were recruited from the University Hospitals of Cleveland Bariatric Surgery Program. Musculoskeletal signs and symptoms and non-MSK comorbid conditions were documented at baseline and at follow-up. SUBJECTS completed the SF-36 and the WOMAC questionnaires. Analyses were carried out for each MSK site, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and for the cumulative effect on the spine, upper and lower extremities. The impact of change in comorbid medical conditions, BMI, physical and mental health domains of the SF-36 on the WOMAC pain subscale score was evaluated. SF-36 outcomes were compared to normal published controls. Forty-eight subjects were available for baseline and a follow-up assessment 6-12 months after gastric bypass surgery. They lost an average of 41+/-15 kg and the mean BMI decreased from 51+/-8 to 36+/-7 kg/m(2). Baseline comorbid medical conditions were present in 96% before surgery and 23% after weight loss. There was an increased prevalence of painful MSK conditions at baseline compared to general population frequencies. Musculoskeletal complaints had been present in 100% of obese subjects before, and 23% after weight loss. The greatest improvements occurred in the cervical and lumbar spine, the foot and in FMS (decreased by 90, 83, 83 and 92%, respectively). Seventy-nine percent had upper extremity MSK conditions before and 40% after weight loss. Before surgery, 100% had lower extremity MSK conditions and

  4. The role of cardiopulmonary exercise test for individualized exercise training recommendation in young obese subjects

    Lucian Hoble

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is affecting a growing segment of the population and should be considered a serious health problem which will lead to medical complications and decreased life span. Lifestyle changes by adopting healthy food and increase energy consumption through physical activity is the most important treatment for obesity. Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET is considered the gold standard for exercise capacity assessment. Purpose: This study is aiming to demonstrate that individualized exercise training programs, designed using CPET results, leads to increase of physical fitness, aerobic capacity, ventilatory and cardiac exercise performance in young obese subjects.Material and method:We performed a prospective research study of 6 months. 43 sedentary subjects without contraindications to exercise, 21.3±3.1 years old, 93% female were included in the study. Assessments were made at baseline and after six months of intervention and consists of cardiopulmonary exercise test on bicycle ergometer. After we recorded oxygen uptake at aerobic threshold (AT, anaerobic threshold (in the range of respiratory compensation point – RCP and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max we designed the training program according to these parameters and individualized heart rate training zones of each subject. Exercise training (60 minutes/session, 3 sessions/week was performed taking in consideration the training zones and using a circuit on cardio devices. Each subject was supervised by a physiotherapist and using heart rate monitors. The number of subjects evaluated at the end of the study was 27 (dropout rate 37%.Results:After six months of intervention we noticed an improvement of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max (from 22.7±3.69 to 27.44±5.55, aerobic threshold (VO2_AT (from 15.48±2.66 to 20.07±4.64 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001 and anaerobic threshold (VO2_RCP (from 20.3±3.66 to 25.11±5.84 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001, cardiac performance during exercise evaluated trough maximal oxygen

  5. Differential regulation of lipid and protein metabolism in obese vs. lean subjects before and after a 72-h fast

    Bak, Ann Mosegaard; Møller, Andreas Buch; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm

    2016-01-01

    release in obese subjects under basal and fasting conditions. We therefore studied nine lean and nine obese subjects twice, after 12 and 72 h of fasting, using measurements of mRNA and protein expression and phosphorylation of lipolytic and protein metabolic signaling molecules in fat and muscle together...... with whole body and forearm tracer techniques. Obese subjects displayed increased whole body lipolysis, decreased urea production rates, and decreased forearm muscle protein breakdown per 100 ml of forearm tissue, differences that persisted after 72 h of fasting. Lipolysis per fat mass unit was reduced...... in obese subjects and, correspondingly, adipose tissue hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) phosphorylation and mRNA and protein levels of the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) coactivator CGI58 were decreased. Fasting resulted in higher HSL phosphorylations and lower protein levels of the ATGL inhibitor G0S2...

  6. Relationship between neck circumference, insulin resistance and arterial stiffness in overweight and obese subjects.

    Fantin, Francesco; Comellato, Gabriele; Rossi, Andrea P; Grison, Elisa; Zoico, Elena; Mazzali, Gloria; Zamboni, Mauro

    2017-09-01

    Background Only a few studies have investigated the relationship between neck circumference and cardiometabolic risk. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between neck circumference, waist circumference, metabolic variables and arterial stiffness in a group of overweight and obese subjects evaluating a possible independent role of neck circumference in determining arterial stiffness. Methods and results We studied 95 subjects (53 women) with an age range of 20-77 years and body mass index range from 25.69 to 47.04 kg/m 2 . In each subject we evaluated body mass index, waist, hip and neck circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, insulin, fasting glucose, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVcf) and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWVcr). Both PWVcf and PWVcr were higher in subjects with high values of neck circumference compared with subjects with normal values of neck circumference. Subjects with high values of neck circumference and abdominal obesity presented higher values of mean arterial pressure, PWVcr and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index and lower values of high-density lipoprotein than subjects with only abdominal obesity. Two models of stepwise multiple regression were performed in order to evaluate the combined effect of independent variables on arterial stiffness. In the first model PWVcf was considered a dependent variable, and age, gender, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, waist circumference, neck circumference, HOMA index and the use of anti-hypertensive medications were considered independent variables. Age, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and waist circumference were significant predictors of PWVcf, explaining 65% of its variance. In the second model, in which PWVcr was considered a dependent variable, neck circumference

  7. Very low calorie diet without aspartame in obese subjects: improved metabolic control after 4 weeks treatment.

    Norén, Erik; Forssell, Henrik

    2014-07-28

    Very low calorie diet (VLCD) is routinely used in programs for treatment of obesity and before bariatric surgery in order to reduce risk of postoperative complications. Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is commonly used in VLCD and is well approved as a food additive without any adverse effects. The development of a new fructose containing VLCD formula without aspartame raises questions as to effects on glucose and lipid control. As part of an ongoing study of a novel bariatric surgery procedure, twenty-five obese subjects with mean body mass index (BMI) 39.8 kg/m2 and mean age of 48.8 years enrolled in a single center observational study. Seven subjects presented with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The subjects underwent four weeks dietary treatment with VLCD Slanka (Slanka). Blood samples including fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, cholesterol and triglycerides were performed at start and after four weeks of diet. Blood pressure and weight were noted. All subjects completed the diet without any adverse events. Mean weight reduction was 8.2 kg with 95% confidence interval 7.1-9.2 kg (p = 0.001). Excess weight (i.e. proportion of weight exceeding BMI 25) loss decreased by median 19.5% (inter quartile range (IQR) 16,8-24,2). Median fasting plasma glucose was at inclusion 5,6 mmol/l (IQR 5,3-6,8) and after diet 4.8 mmol/l (IQR 4,6-5,2) (p = 0.001). Median HbA1c changed from 39 mmol/mol (IQR 37-44) to 37 mmol/mol (IQR 35-43) (p = 0.001). There was also significant reduction in cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as in systolic blood pressure. Changes in other monitored blood chemistry values were without clinical importance. Four weeks treatment with fructose containing VLCD of obese subjects preparing for bariatric surgery gave a substantial weight reduction without any significant negative metabolic effects.

  8. Impaired incretin effect and fasting hyperglucagonaemia characterizing type 2 diabetic subjects are early signs of dysmetabolism in obesity.

    Knop, Filip K; Aaboe, K; Vilsbøll, T; Vølund, A; Holst, J J; Krarup, T; Madsbad, S

    2012-06-01

    People with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are characterized by reduced incretin effect and inappropriate glucagon levels. We evaluated α and β-cell responses to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and isoglycaemic intravenous glucose infusion (IIGI) in lean and obese persons with T2DM or normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to elucidate the impact of obesity on the incretin effect and incretin hormone and glucagon responses. Four hour 50-g OGTT and IIGI were performed in (i) Eight obese patients with T2DM [mean body mass index (BMI): 37 (range: 35-41) kg/m(2)]; (ii) Eight obese subjects with NGT [BMI: 33 (35-38) kg/m(2)]; (iii) Eight lean patients with T2DM [BMI: 24 (22-25) kg/m(2)]; and (iv) Eight lean healthy subjects [BMI: 23 (20-25) kg/m(2)]. The incretin effect was significantly (p obese: 7 ± 7% [mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM)]; lean: 29 ± 8%; p = 0.06)} and was lower in obese subjects (41 ± 4%) than in lean subjects with NGT (53 ± 4%; p Obese subjects with NGT were also characterized by elevated fasting plasma glucagon levels, but the inappropriate glucagon responses to OGTT found in the T2DM patients were not evident in these subjects. Our findings suggest that reduced incretin effect and fasting hyperglucagonaemia constitute very early steps in the pathophysiology of T2DM detectable even in obese people who despite their insulin-resistant state have NGT. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Vascular effects of intravenous intralipid and dextrose infusions in obese subjects.

    Gosmanov, Aidar R; Smiley, Dawn D; Peng, Limin; Siquiera, Joselita; Robalino, Gonzalo; Newton, Christopher; Umpierrez, Guillermo E

    2012-10-01

    Hyperglycemia and elevated free fatty acids (FFA) are implicated in the development of endothelial dysfunction. Infusion of soy-bean oil-based lipid emulsion (Intralipid®) increases FFA levels and results in elevation of blood pressure (BP) and endothelial dysfunction in obese healthy subjects. The effects of combined hyperglycemia and high FFA on BP, endothelial function and carbohydrate metabolism are not known. Twelve obese healthy subjects received four random, 8-h IV infusions of saline, Intralipid 40 mL/h, Dextrose 10% 40 mL/h, or combined Intralipid and dextrose. Plasma levels of FFA increased by 1.03±0.34 mmol/L (p=0.009) after Intralipid, but FFAs remained unchanged during saline, dextrose, and combined Intralipid and dextrose infusion. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations significantly increased after dextrose and combined Intralipid and dextrose (all, pdextrose infusion had neutral effects on BP and FMD. The co-administration of lipid and dextrose decreased FMD by 2.4%±2.1% (p=0.002) from baseline, but did not significantly increase systolic or diastolic BP. Short-term Intralipid infusion significantly increased FFA and BP; in contrast, FFA and BP were unchanged during combined infusion of Intralipid and dextrose. Combined Intralipid and dextrose infusion resulted in endothelial dysfunction similar to Intralipid alone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensitivity of the appetite control system in obese subjects to nutritional and serotoninergic challenges.

    Hill, A J; Blundell, J E

    1990-03-01

    The sensitivity of the appetite system of a group of obese individuals was assessed in response to two challenges known to reduce hunger and enhance satiety in lean people. The challenges were the presentation of a caloric (high protein) load and the activation of serotonin systems. Eight obese female adults (BMI = 38) received 2 X 15 mg d-fenfluramine or placebo daily for 3 days, the study conforming to a 2 X 2 factor (drug X lunch type), double blind, repeated measures design. Three hours after dosing on day 3 they ate either a high carbohydrate (63 percent of total energy) or high protein (54 percent) lunchtime meal (the caloric load). These fixed meal challenges were equal in energy (475 kcal), weight and fat content. Ratings of hunger motivation and food preferences were tracked over the course of lunch and for a further 3 hours, at which point subjects returned for a self-selection test meal. Intakes from this second open meal revealed significant main effects of both caloric load and drug on energy intake, with the high protein d-fenfluramine combination being the most potent anorectic pairing. These findings were supported by the profiles of hunger motivation. This study has confirmed that the appetite system of these subjects was responsive to these biologically relevant challenges. The results suggest that the combination of an appetite modulating drug with specific dietary intervention may represent an effective strategy for the management of hunger arising from caloric restriction.

  11. Changes in body composition during weight loss in obese subjects in the NUGENOB study

    Verdich, C.; Barbe, P.; Petersen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    AIM: We studied the accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess changes in body composition during moderate weight loss in obese subjects. METHODS: Estimates of changes in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) by BIA were compared with those by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA...... DPX-IQ at two centres, Hologic QDR 2000 at another centre) at baseline (n=131) and at week 10 (n=105) after a mean weight loss of -5.7kg. RESULTS: At baseline, BIA significantly overestimated FFM and underestimated FM (by 1-3kg on average) compared with DXA, and the limits of agreement were wide (mean......±7-8.5kg). For body-composition changes, although biases were generally non-significant, the limits of agreement were also wide (mean±3.7-4.6kg). An FFM prediction equation for BIA data was developed in subjects scanned with Lunar instruments and cross-validated in an independent sample of 31 obese...

  12. Differential regulation of lipid and protein metabolism in obese vs. lean subjects before and after a 72-h fast.

    Bak, Ann Mosegaard; Møller, Andreas Buch; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Nielsen, Thomas Svava; Viggers, Rikke; Rungby, Jørgen; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Jessen, Niels; Møller, Niels

    2016-07-01

    Increased availability of lipids may conserve muscle protein during catabolic stress. Our study was designed to define 1) intracellular mechanisms leading to increased lipolysis and 2) whether this scenario is associated with decreased amino acid and urea fluxes, and decreased muscle amino acid release in obese subjects under basal and fasting conditions. We therefore studied nine lean and nine obese subjects twice, after 12 and 72 h of fasting, using measurements of mRNA and protein expression and phosphorylation of lipolytic and protein metabolic signaling molecules in fat and muscle together with whole body and forearm tracer techniques. Obese subjects displayed increased whole body lipolysis, decreased urea production rates, and decreased forearm muscle protein breakdown per 100 ml of forearm tissue, differences that persisted after 72 h of fasting. Lipolysis per fat mass unit was reduced in obese subjects and, correspondingly, adipose tissue hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) phosphorylation and mRNA and protein levels of the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) coactivator CGI58 were decreased. Fasting resulted in higher HSL phosphorylations and lower protein levels of the ATGL inhibitor G0S2. Muscle protein expressions of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and 4EBP1 were lower in obese subjects, and MuRf1 mRNA was higher with fasting in lean but not obese subjects. Phosphorylation and signaling of mTOR decreased with fasting in both groups, whereas ULK1 protein and mRNA levels increased. In summary, obese subjects exhibit increased lipolysis due to a large fat mass with blunted prolipolytic signaling, together with decreased urea and amino acid fluxes both in the basal and 72-h fasted state; this is compatible with preservation of muscle and whole body protein. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Ventilatory Efficiency and Respiratory Drive in Obese Subjects.

    Chlif, Mehdi; Chaouachi, Anis; Ahmaidi, Said

    2017-07-01

    Obese patients show a decline in exercise capacity and diverse degrees of dyspnea in association with mechanical abnormalities, increased ventilatory requirements secondary to the increased metabolic load, and a greater work of breathing. Consequently, obese patients may be particularly predisposed to the development of respiratory muscle fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study was to assess inspiratory muscle performance during incremental exercise in 19 obese male subjects (body mass index 41 ± 6 kg/m 2 ) after aerobic exercise training using the noninvasive, inspiratory muscle tension-time index (T T0.1 ). Measurements performed included anthropometric parameters, lung function assessed by spirometry, rate of perceived breathlessness with the modified Borg dyspnea scale (0-10), breathing pattern, maximal exercise capacity, and inspiratory muscle performance with a breath-by-breath automated exercise metabolic system during an incremental exercise test. T T0.1 was calculated using the equation, T T0.1 = P 0.1 /P Imax × T I /T tot (where P 0.1 represents mouth occlusion pressure, P Imax is maximal inspiratory pressure, and T I /T tot is the duty cycle). At rest, there was no statistically significant difference for spirometric parameters and cardiorespiratory parameters between pre- and post-training. At maximal exercise, the minute ventilation, the rate of exchange ratio, the rate of perceived breathlessness, and the respiratory muscle performance parameters were not significantly different pre- and post-training; in contrast, tidal volume ( P = .037, effect size = 1.51), breathing frequency ( P = .049, effect size = 0.97), power output ( P = .048, effect size = 0.79), peak oxygen uptake ( P = .02, effect size = 0.92) were significantly higher after training. At comparable work load, training induces lower minute ventilation, mouth occlusion pressure, ratio of occlusion pressure to maximal inspiratory pressure, T T0.1 , and rate of perceived

  14. Serotoninergic manipulation, meal-induced satiety and eating pattern: effect of fluoxetine in obese female subjects.

    Lawton, C L; Wales, J K; Hill, A J; Blundell, J E

    1995-07-01

    Twelve nondepressed healthy female obese subjects (BMI > 30 kg/m2) took part in a study which conformed to a double-blind randomized crossover design. Each subject acted as her own control across 2 weeks of treatment with either 60 mg of the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine or matching placebo. On days 7 and 14 of both treatment phases subjects were provided with fixed energy lunch meals high in either CHO or fat. The effect of these meals on satiety during the fluoxetine and placebo phases was assessed by a battery of procedures. Subjects felt less hungry after consuming the high CHO meal than after consuming the high-fat meal. They also felt less hungry when taking fluoxetine than when taking the placebo. Analysis of energy intake from the test meal revealed a main effect of prior lunch meal type (high CHO or high fat) and a main effect of drug treatment. Subjects consumed an average of 574 kcal following the high CHO meal compared to 689 kcal following the high-fat meal. Subjects also consumed an average of 532 kcal when taking fluoxetine compared to 730 kcal when taking the placebo. Fluoxetine did not exert any significant effects on macronutrient selection. Mean daily energy intake, calculated from food diary records, was 1881 kcal when subjects were taking the placebo compared to 1460 kcal when taking fluoxetine (a reduction of 22.4%). Fluoxetine treatment produced a significant weight loss of 1.97 kg over the two weeks of treatment compared to a weight loss of only 0.04 kg on placebo.

  15. [Effect of a hypocaloric diet in the oxidative stress in obese subjects without prescription of exercise and antioxidants].

    Gutiérrez, Liliana; García, José R; Rincón, María de Jesús; Ceballos, Guillermo M; Olivares, Ivonne M

    2015-07-06

    Obesity is characterized by a generalized increase of adipose tissue, high production of adipocytokines and presence of oxidative systemic stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes generated in the oxidative stress and anthropometric parameters in obese subjects by the prescription of a hypocaloric diet in combination with moderate aerobic exercise and supplementation with antioxidants. Oxidative damage was determined in the plasma from 30 normal weight and 30 obese subjects. Three groups of treatment were established: Hypocaloric diet (HD), HD plus moderate aerobic exercise (HDE) and HDE plus antioxidants (DHEA). Biomarkers of oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS], carbonyl groups, dityrosine) and anthropometric parameters were determined. Higher values of biomarkers of oxidative damage were observed in obese (TBARS 13.74 ± 1.2 μM; carbonyl groups 0.89 ± 0.04 nmol of osazone/mg of protein; dityrosine 478.9 ± 27.4 RFU/mg of protein) in comparison to normal weight subjects (TBARS 7.08 ± 0.8 μM; carbonyl groups 0.65 ± 0.04 nmol of osazone/mg of protein; dityrosine 126.3 ± 12.6 RFU/mg of protein), thus showing the presence of an oxidative damage. The prescription of HD decreased the oxidative damage and anthropometric parameters in the obese subjects. We did not observe additional benefit effects on these determinations with HDE or HDEA treatments. We demonstrated that an HD decreases the oxidative damage in obese subjects. Oxidative stress is an important factor in the development of comorbidity in obesity. Therefore, the prescription of a HD could be a key issue in the treatment of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative effects of several simple carbohydrates on erythrocyte insulin receptors in obese subjects.

    Rizkalla, S W; Baigts, F; Fumeron, F; Rabillon, B; Bayn, P; Ktorza, A; Spielmann, D; Apfelbaum, M

    1986-09-01

    The effects of simple carbohydrates on erythrocyte insulin receptors, plasma insulin and plasma glucose were studied during four hypocaloric, hyperproteic, diets. One diet contained no carbohydrate; the other three contained 36 g of either glucose, galactose or fructose. These diets were given for a 14-day period to groups of moderately obese subjects. The hypocaloric carbohydrate-free diet produced a decrease in plasma insulin and glucose concentrations concomitant with an increase in the number of insulin receptors. A similar increase in insulin receptor number was found when the diet was supplemented with glucose or galactose, but not with fructose. The presence of fructose in the diet prevented any increase in insulin receptor number.

  17. Contribution of common PCSK1 genetic variants to obesity in 8,359 subjects from multi-ethnic American population.

    Choquet, Hélène; Kasberger, Jay; Hamidovic, Ajna; Jorgenson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Common PCSK1 variants (notably rs6232 and rs6235) have been shown to be associated with obesity in European, Asian and Mexican populations. To determine whether common PCSK1 variants contribute to obesity in American population, we conducted association analyses in 8,359 subjects using two multi-ethnic American studies: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). By evaluating the contribution of rs6232 and rs6235 in each ethnic group, we found that in European-American subjects from CARDIA, only rs6232 was associated with BMI (P = 0.006) and obesity (P = 0.018) but also increased the obesity incidence during the 20 years of follow-up (HR = 1.53 [1.07-2.19], P = 0.019). Alternatively, in African-American subjects from CARDIA, rs6235 was associated with BMI (P = 0.028) and obesity (P = 0.018). Further, by combining the two case-control ethnic groups from the CARDIA study in a meta-analysis, association between rs6235 and obesity risk remained significant (OR = 1.23 [1.05-1.45], P = 9.5×10(-3)). However, neither rs6232 nor rs6235 was associated with BMI or obesity in the MESA study. Interestingly, rs6232 was associated with BMI (P = 4.2×10(-3)) and obesity (P = 3.4×10(-3)) in the younger European-American group combining samples from the both studies [less than median age (53 years)], but not among the older age group (P = 0.756 and P = 0.935 for BMI and obesity, respectively). By combining all the case-control ethnic groups from CARDIA and MESA in a meta-analysis, we found no significant association for the both variants and obesity risk. Finally, by exploring the full PCSK1 locus, we observed that no variant remained significant after correction for multiple testing. These results indicate that common PCSK1 variants (notably rs6232 and rs6235) contribute modestly to obesity in multi-ethnic American population. Further, these results

  18. Effect of sibutramine on cardiovascular outcomes in overweight and obese subjects.

    James, W Philip T; Caterson, Ian D; Coutinho, Walmir; Finer, Nick; Van Gaal, Luc F; Maggioni, Aldo P; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Sharma, Arya M; Shepherd, Gillian M; Rode, Richard A; Renz, Cheryl L

    2010-09-02

    The long-term effects of sibutramine treatment on the rates of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death among subjects at high cardiovascular risk have not been established. We enrolled in our study 10,744 overweight or obese subjects, 55 years of age or older, with preexisting cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or both to assess the cardiovascular consequences of weight management with and without sibutramine in subjects at high risk for cardiovascular events. All the subjects received sibutramine in addition to participating in a weight-management program during a 6-week, single-blind, lead-in period, after which 9804 subjects underwent random assignment in a double-blind fashion to sibutramine (4906 subjects) or placebo (4898 subjects). The primary end point was the time from randomization to the first occurrence of a primary outcome event (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, resuscitation after cardiac arrest, or cardiovascular death). The mean duration of treatment was 3.4 years. The mean weight loss during the lead-in period was 2.6 kg; after randomization, the subjects in the sibutramine group achieved and maintained further weight reduction (mean, 1.7 kg). The mean blood pressure decreased in both groups, with greater reductions in the placebo group than in the sibutramine group (mean difference, 1.2/1.4 mm Hg). The risk of a primary outcome event was 11.4% in the sibutramine group as compared with 10.0% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.31; P=0.02). The rates of nonfatal myocardial infarction and nonfatal stroke were 4.1% and 2.6% in the sibutramine group and 3.2% and 1.9% in the placebo group, respectively (hazard ratio for nonfatal myocardial infarction, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.57; P=0.02; hazard ratio for nonfatal stroke, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.77; P=0.03). The rates of cardiovascular death and death from any cause were not increased. Subjects with preexisting

  19. Influence of Isometric Exercise Training on Quadriceps Muscle Architecture and Strength in Obese Subjects with Knee Osteoarthritis

    Waleed S Mahmoud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Obese individuals have reduced quadriceps muscle strength relative to body mass that may increase the rate of progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of isometric exercise training on quadriceps muscle architecture and strength in obese subjects with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Fortyfour obese male subjects aged 40–65 years diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned into group A (n=32 and group B (n=12. Group A subjects performed a 12-week isometric exercise program. Group B subjects did not participate in any exercise program and maintained their ordinary activities for the same period. Both groups received the same conventional physical therapy program including hot packs and therapeutic ultrasonic. Muscle thickness, pennation angles and fascicle length of the vastus lateralis (VL muscle of the affected knee were measured at rest by B-mode ultrasonography. Maximal voluntary isometric knee extension torque (MVIC of the affected knee was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Knee pain and function were evaluated using visual analogue pain scale (VAS and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC. All variables were evaluated before and the end of the intervention period for both groups. Results: at the end of the program, group A subjects showed significant improvements compared with group B subjects regarding MVIC and muscle architecture parameters (p<0.05. Also, there was significant improvement in post-test VAS and WOMAC scores in group A subjects compared to group B subjects (p<0.05. Conclusion: A 12-week quadriceps isometric training program improves knee pain and quadriceps muscle strength and architecture in obese subjects with knee OA. These results indicate that isometric training should be regarded as a proper exercise intervention for obese patients with knee OA.

  20. Association of adipocyte genes with ASP expression: a microarray analysis of subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in morbidly obese subjects

    Lu HuiLing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of obesity is increasing to pandemic proportions. However, obese subjects differ in insulin resistance, adipokine production and co-morbidities. Based on fasting plasma analysis, obese subjects were grouped as Low Acylation Stimulating protein (ASP and Triglyceride (TG (LAT vs High ASP and TG (HAT. Subcutaneous (SC and omental (OM adipose tissues (n = 21 were analysed by microarray, and biologic pathways in lipid metabolism and inflammation were specifically examined. Methods LAT and HAT groups were matched in age, obesity, insulin, and glucose, and had similar expression of insulin-related genes (InsR, IRS-1. ASP related genes tended to be increased in the HAT group and were correlated (factor B, adipsin, complement C3, p Results HAT adipose tissue demonstrated increased lipid related genes for storage (CD36, DGAT1, DGAT2, SCD1, FASN, and LPL, lipolysis (HSL, CES1, perilipin, fatty acid binding proteins (FABP1, FABP3 and adipocyte differentiation markers (CEBPα, CEBPβ, PPARγ. By contrast, oxidation related genes were decreased (AMPK, UCP1, CPT1, FABP7. HAT subjects had increased anti-inflammatory genes TGFB1, TIMP1, TIMP3, and TIMP4 while proinflammatory PIG7 and MMP2 were also significantly increased; all genes, p Conclusion Taken together, the profile of C5L2 receptor, ASP gene expression and metabolic factors in adipose tissue from morbidly obese HAT subjects suggests a compensatory response associated with the increased plasma ASP and TG.

  1. Hormone-sensitive lipase serine phosphorylation and glycerol exchange across skeletal muscle in lean and obese subjects

    Jocken, Johan We; Roepstorff, Carsten; Goossens, Gijs H.

    2008-01-01

    from the vastus lateralis muscle before and during ISO to investigate hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein expression and serine phosphorylation. Results: Baseline total glycerol release across the forearm was significantly blunted in obese compared with lean subjects (P=0.045). This was accompanied......Objective: Increased intramuscular triacylglycerol (IMTG) storage is a characteristic of the obese insulin resistant state. We aimed to investigate whether a blunted fasting or beta-adrenergically mediated lipolysis contributes to this increased IMTG storage in obesity. Research design and Methods......: Forearm skeletal muscle (SM) lipolysis was investigated in thirteen lean and ten obese men using [(2)H(5)]-glycerol combined with the measurement of arterio-venous differences before and during beta-adrenergic stimulation using the non-selective beta-agonist isoprenaline (ISO). Muscle biopsies were taken...

  2. Different response to hypoxia of adipose-derived multipotent cells from obese subjects with and without metabolic syndrome.

    Wilfredo Oliva-Olivera

    Full Text Available Multiple studies suggest that hypoxia, together with inflammation, could be one of the phenomena involved in the onset and progression of obesity-related insulin resistance. In addition, dysfunction of adipose tissue in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome is associated with decreased angiogenesis. However, some subjects with a high body mass index do not develop metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. The aim of the current study was to examine the neovascular properties of visceral adipose tissue-derived multipotent mesenchymal cells subjected to hypoxia (hypox-visASCs from normal-weight subjects (Nw and obese patients with metabolic syndrome (MS and without metabolic syndrome (NonMS.This was a 2-year study to enroll subjects who underwent bariatric surgery or cholecystectomy. Eight patients who underwent either bariatric surgery or cholecystectomy (27 patients participated in the study. Visceral adipose tissue samples from Nw, MS and NonMS subjects were processed by enzymatic digestion. VisASCs cultured under hypoxic conditions were characterized by tubule formation assay, ELISA, flow cytometry, migration rate, and qRT-PCR, and the effects of visASCs-conditioned medium on survival and endothelial cell tubule formation were evaluated.Hypox-visASCs from NonMS subjects showed a greater capacity for tubule formation than hypox-visASCs from Nw and MS subjects. The lower percentage of CD140b+/CD44+ and CD140b+/CD184+ cells observed in hypox-visASCs from NonMS subjects compared to MS subjects was accompanied not only by a lower migration rate from the chemotactic effects of stromal cell derived factor 1α, but also by lower levels of NOX5 mRNA expression. While the levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 mRNA expressed by hypox-visASCs correlated positively with the body mass index and waist circumference of the subjects, the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor present in hypox-visASC-conditioned culture medium

  3. Different response to hypoxia of adipose-derived multipotent cells from obese subjects with and without metabolic syndrome

    Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Coín-Aragüez, Leticia; Lhamyani, Said; Alcaide Torres, Juan; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Vendrell, Joan; Camargo, Antonio; El Bekay, Rajaa; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives Multiple studies suggest that hypoxia, together with inflammation, could be one of the phenomena involved in the onset and progression of obesity-related insulin resistance. In addition, dysfunction of adipose tissue in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome is associated with decreased angiogenesis. However, some subjects with a high body mass index do not develop metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. The aim of the current study was to examine the neovascular properties of visceral adipose tissue-derived multipotent mesenchymal cells subjected to hypoxia (hypox-visASCs) from normal-weight subjects (Nw) and obese patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and without metabolic syndrome (NonMS). Methods This was a 2-year study to enroll subjects who underwent bariatric surgery or cholecystectomy. Eight patients who underwent either bariatric surgery or cholecystectomy (27 patients) participated in the study. Visceral adipose tissue samples from Nw, MS and NonMS subjects were processed by enzymatic digestion. VisASCs cultured under hypoxic conditions were characterized by tubule formation assay, ELISA, flow cytometry, migration rate, and qRT-PCR, and the effects of visASCs-conditioned medium on survival and endothelial cell tubule formation were evaluated. Results Hypox-visASCs from NonMS subjects showed a greater capacity for tubule formation than hypox-visASCs from Nw and MS subjects. The lower percentage of CD140b+/CD44+ and CD140b+/CD184+ cells observed in hypox-visASCs from NonMS subjects compared to MS subjects was accompanied not only by a lower migration rate from the chemotactic effects of stromal cell derived factor 1α, but also by lower levels of NOX5 mRNA expression. While the levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 mRNA expressed by hypox-visASCs correlated positively with the body mass index and waist circumference of the subjects, the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor present in hypox

  4. Prediction of basal metabolic rate in overweight/obese and non-obese subjects and its relation to pulmonary function tests.

    Merghani, Tarig H; Alawad, Azza O; Ibrahim, Rihab M; Abdelmoniem, Asim M

    2015-08-15

    Few studies investigated the association between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and indicators of pulmonary function. This study was conducted to estimate BMR in overweight/obese and non-obese healthy subjects using four commonly used predictive equations and to investigate its relation to the indicators of lung function tests (LFT). A cross sectional study was conducted in Tabuk University, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. A total of 201 students (98 males and 103 females) participated in the study. Four different values of BMR were calculated for each participant using four different predictive equations (Harris-Benedict, Mifflin, FAO/WHO/UNU and Henry-Rees). A portable All-flow spirometer (Clement Clarke International, Harlow, UK) was used for measurements of LFT. Significantly higher values of spirometric indicators (p BMR values predicted with the four equations were significantly higher in the males compared to the females and among the overweight/obese compared to the non-obese subjects (p BMR values and the indicators of LFT was statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). Mean values of LFT indicators are not related to the estimated values of BMR. A practical calculation of BMR based on direct measurement of oxygen consumption is recommended to confirm the absence of this association.

  5. Improved glucose tolerance after intensive life style intervention occurs without changes in muscle ceramide or triacylglycerol in morbidly obese subjects

    Helge, J. W.; Stallknecht, B.; Drachmann, Tue

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the effect of a 15-week life style intervention (hypocaloric diet and regular exercise) on glucose tolerance, skeletal muscle lipids and muscle metabolic adaptations in 14 female and 9 male morbidly obese subjects (age: 32.5 +/- 2.3 years, BMI: 46.1 +/- 1.9 kg m(-2...

  6. Visceral fat and weight loss in obese subjects : relationship to serum lipids, energy expenditure and sex hormones

    Leenen, R.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the relationships between visceral fat accumulation and serum lipids, energy expenditure, and sex hormone levels in healthy obese men and premenopausal women undergoing weight loss therapy. The subjects, aged 27-51 years, with an initial body mass index of 28-38 kg/m

  7. Overt and subtle discrimination, subjective well-being and physical health-related quality of life in an obese sample.

    Magallares, Alejandro; Benito de Valle, Pilar; Irles, Jose Antonio; Jauregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2014-10-27

    Obesity represents a serious health issue affecting millions of people in Western industrialized countries. The severity of the medical problems it causes is paralleled by the fact that obesity has become a social stigma that affects the psychological health-related quality of life of individuals with weight problems. Our study, with 111 obese patients of a Spanish hospital, focused specifically on how overt and subtle discrimination is related to subjective well-being (affect balance and life satisfaction) and physical health-related quality of life. It was shown that overt (r = -.28, p life satisfaction) and subtle discrimination (r = -.28, p life satisfaction) were negatively linked with subjective well-being, and that there was a negative correlation between overt discrimination and physical health-related quality of life (r = -.26, p quality of life and subjective well-being using the Baron and Kenny procedure. Finally, it is discussed the relationship between discrimination, subjective well-being and physical health-related quality of life in obese people.

  8. Sterol 27-Hydroxylase Polymorphism Significantly Associates With Shorter Telomere, Higher Cardiovascular and Type-2 Diabetes Risk in Obese Subjects

    Sofia Pavanello

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectivesThe pathologic relationship linking obesity and lipid dismetabolism with earlier onset of aging-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease (CVD and type-2 diabetes (T2D, is not fully elucidate. Chronic inflammatory state, in obese individuals, may accelerate cellular aging. However, leukocyte telomere length (LTL, the cellular biological aging indicator, is elusively linked with obesity. Recent studies indicate that sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1 is an emerging antiatherogenic enzyme, that, by converting extrahepatic cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol, facilitates cholesterol removal via high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C. We tested the hypothesis that obese subjects who carry at least three copies of CYP27A1 low-hydroxylation (LH activity genome-wide-validated alleles (rs4674345A, rs1554622A, and rs4674338G present premature aging, as reflected in shorter LTL and higher levels of CVD/T2D risk factors, including reduced HDL-C.Subjects/methodsObese subjects from SPHERE project {n = 1,457; overweight [body mass index (BMI 25–30 kg/m2] 65.8% and severe-obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2 34.2%} were characterized for the presence from 0 to 6 LH-CYP27A1 allele copy number. Univariate and multivariable sex–age–smoking-adjusted linear-regression models were performed to compare CVD/T2D risk factors and biological aging (LTL in relation to the combined BMI-LH groups: overweight-LH: 0–2, overweight-LH: 3–6, severe-obese-LH: 0–2, and severe-obese-LH: 3–6.ResultsHigher LTL attrition was found in severe-obese than overweight individuals (p < 0.001. Multivariable model reveals that among severe-obese patients those with LH: 3–6 present higher LTL attrition than LH: 0–2 (p < 0.05. Univariate and multivariable models remarkably show that insulin resistance is higher both in overweight-LH: 3–6 vs overweight-LH: 0–2 (p < 0.001 and in severe-obese-LH: 3–6 vs severe-obese-LH: 0–2 (p

  9. Obesity

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity happens over time when you eat more calories ...

  10. Brain iron overload, insulin resistance, and cognitive performance in obese subjects: a preliminary MRI case-control study.

    Blasco, Gerard; Puig, Josep; Daunis-I-Estadella, Josep; Molina, Xavier; Xifra, Gemma; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Pedraza, Salvador; Ricart, Wifredo; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2014-11-01

    The linkage among the tissue iron stores, insulin resistance (IR), and cognition remains unclear in the obese population. We aimed to identify the factors that contribute to increased hepatic iron concentration (HIC) and brain iron overload (BIO), as evaluated by MRI, and to evaluate their impact on cognitive performance in obese and nonobese subjects. We prospectively recruited 23 middle-aged obese subjects without diabetes (13 women; age 50.4 ± 7.7 years; BMI 43.7 ± 4.48 kg/m2) and 20 healthy nonobese volunteers (10 women; age 48.8 ± 9.5 years; BMI 24.3 ± 3.54 kg/m2) in whom iron load was assessed in white and gray matter and the liver by MRI. IR was measured from HOMA-IR and an oral glucose tolerance test. A battery of neuropsychological tests was used to evaluate the cognitive performance. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify the independent associations of BIO and cognitive performance. A significant increase in iron load was detected at the caudate nucleus (P cognitive performance. Obesity and IR may contribute to increased HIC and BIO being associated with worse cognitive performance. BIO could be a potentially useful MRI biomarker for IR and obesity-associated cognitive dysfunction. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  11. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Fenxia; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Chu, Chao; Wang, Yang; Wang, Dan; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Wang, Jun-Kui; Guan, Gong-Chang; Ren, Ke-Yu; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-05-26

    Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated fasting ghrelin concentrations during a high-salt diet. Thirty-eight non-obese and normotensive subjects (aged 25 to 50 years) were selected from a rural community in Northern China. They were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for three days at baseline, a low-salt diet for seven days (3 g/day, NaCl), then a high-salt diet for seven days (18 g/day). The concentration of plasma ghrelin was measured using an immunoenzyme method (ELISA). High-salt intake significantly increased fasting ghrelin levels, which were higher during the high-salt diet (320.7 ± 30.6 pg/mL) than during the low-salt diet (172.9 ± 8.9 pg/mL). The comparison of ghrelin levels between the different salt diets was statistically-significantly different (p diet elevates fasting ghrelin in healthy human subjects, which may be a novel underlying mechanism of obesity.

  12. Impaired incretin effect and fasting hyperglucagonaemia characterizing type 2 diabetic subjects are early signs of dysmetabolism in obesity

    Knop, Filip K; Aaboe, K; Vilsbøll, T

    2012-01-01

    Aims: People with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are characterized by reduced incretin effect and inappropriate glucagon levels. We evaluated a and ß-cell responses to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and isoglycaemic intravenous glucose infusion (IIGI) in lean and obese persons with T2DM...... or normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to elucidate the impact of obesity on the incretin effect and incretin hormone and glucagon responses. Methods: Four hour 50-g OGTT and IIGI were performed in (i) Eight obese patients with T2DM [mean body mass index (BMI): 37 (range: 35-41) kg/m(2) ]; (ii) Eight obese...... subjects with NGT [BMI: 33 (35-38) kg/m(2) ]; (iii) Eight lean patients with T2DM [BMI: 24 (22-25) kg/m(2) ]; and (iv) Eight lean healthy subjects [BMI: 23 (20-25) kg/m(2) ]. Results: The incretin effect was significantly (p T2DM {obese: 7 ± 7% [mean ± standard error...

  13. Influence of Chitosan Treatment on Surrogate Serum Markers of Cholesterol Metabolism in Obese Subjects

    Dieter Lütjohann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan treatment results in significantly lower serum low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol concentrations. To assess the working mechanisms of chitosan, we measured serum surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption (campesterol, sitosterol, cholestanol, synthesis (lathosterol, lanosterol, desmosterol, and degradation to bile acids (7α-hydroxy-cholesterol, 27-hydroxy-cholesterol, corrected for cholesterol concentration (R_sterols. Over 12 weeks, 116 obese subjects (Body Mass Index, BMI 31.7, range 28.1–38.9 kg/m2 were studied under chitosan (n = 61 and placebo treatments (n = 55. The participants were briefly educated regarding improvement of nutrition quality and energy expenditure. Daily chitosan intake was 3200 mg. Serum LDL cholesterol concentration decreased significantly more (p = 0.0252 under chitosan (−8.67 ± 18.18 mg/dL, 5.6% than under placebo treatment (−1.00 ± 24.22 mg/dL, 0.9%. This reduction was not associated with the expected greater decreases in markers of cholesterol absorption under chitosan treatment. Also, increases in markers of cholesterol synthesis and bile acid synthesis under chitosan treatment were not any greater than under placebo treatment. In conclusion, a significant selective reduction of serum LDL cholesterol under chitosan treatment is neither associated with a reduction of serum surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption, nor with increases of markers for cholesterol and bile acid synthesis.

  14. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction

    Breum, Leif; Rasmussen, Michael H; Hilsted, Jannik

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and the ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (plasma tryptophan ratio) are reportedly low in obese subjects. The plasma tryptophan ratio predicts brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin production. If this ratio is low in obese subjects......, serotonin function may also be low. Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios have been measured only at single time points in obese subjects; it is not known whether low values for these 2 variables persist throughout a 24-h period. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether plasma tryptophan...... concentrations and ratios in obese subjects are lower than those in normal-weight subjects throughout a 24-h period and whether they increase when body weight is reduced. DESIGN: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios were examined in obese subjects before and after weight loss and in nonobese control...

  15. Usefulness of an accelerated transoesophageal stress echocardiography in the preoperative evaluation of high risk severely obese subjects awaiting bariatric surgery

    Tessier Michel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe obesity is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD. Bariatric surgery is an effective procedure for long term weight management as well as reduction of comorbidities. Preoperative evaluation of cardiac operative risk may often be necessary but unfortunately standard imaging techniques are often suboptimal in these subjects. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility, safety and utility of transesophageal dobutamine stress echocardiography (TE-DSE using an adapted accelerated dobutamine infusion protocol in severely obese subjects with comorbidities being evaluated for bariatric surgery for assessing the presence of myocardial ischemia. Methods Subjects with severe obesity [body mass index (BMI >40 kg/m2] with known or suspected CAD and being evaluated for bariatric surgery were recruited. Results Twenty subjects (9M/11F, aged 50 ± 8 years (mean ± SD, weighing 141 ± 21 kg and with a BMI of 50 ± 5 kg/m2 were enrolled in the study and underwent a TE-DSE. The accelerated dobutamine infusion protocol used was well tolerated. Eighteen (90% subjects reached their target heart rate with a mean intubation time of 13 ± 4 minutes. Mean dobutamine dose was 31.5 ± 9.9 ug/kg/min while mean atropine dose was 0.5 ± 0.3 mg. TE-DSE was well tolerated by all subjects without complications including no significant arrhythmia, hypotension or reduction in blood arterial saturation. Two subjects had abnormal TE-DSE suggestive of myocardial ischemia. All patients underwent bariatric surgery with no documented cardiovascular complications. Conclusions TE-DSE using an accelerated infusion protocol is a safe and well tolerated imaging technique for the evaluation of suspected myocardial ischemia and cardiac operative risk in severely obese patients awaiting bariatric surgery. Moreover, the absence of myocardial ischemia on TE-DSE correlates well with a low operative risk of cardiac event.

  16. Relationship of tumor necrosis factor alpha genotypes with various biochemical parameters of normal, over weight and obese human subjects

    Raza, M.; Chaudhary, B.; Shakoori, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-alpha) is expressed primarily in adipocytes and elevated levels of this cytokine have been associated with obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to test whether the TNF-alpha -308 polymorphism were associated with insulin resistance or obesity related traits in non-diabetic and diabetic patients visiting Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, Fatima Hospital and Irfan Clinic in Sargodha. In non diabetic subjects the AA allele carriers, compared with homozygous G allele carriers had significantly lower (28%) triglyceride values and 15% higher HDL yal ues, whereas other parameters tested 81id not show any significant variation. In diabetic patients the AA allele carriers, compared with GG allele carriers, besides having 31 % higher FBS and 26% higher creatinine, had 20% higher cholesterol and 34% higher triglycerides. The HDL values were 14% less, compared to GG allele carriers. In normal subjects (BMI 22.85:1:0.25 kgim2), the AA allele carriers showed 132%, 125%, 65% and 112% higher triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL values compared with GG allele carriers. The HDL and creatinine did not show any significant change. In the overweight subjects (BMI: 27.17+-0.17 kgim/sup 2/) all these values were lower than in AA allele carriers compared with GG allele carriers. The AA allele carries had FBS, triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL 28%, 48%, 14% and 14% lower than in the GG allele' carriers, respectively. In obese subjects, (BMI: 36.73+-0.78kgm/sup 2/), however, the FBS, triglycerides, cholesterol and creatinine values were 5%, 8%, 7% and 14% higher in AA allele carries compared to GG allele carriers, respectively. The LDL content was 8% lower in AA allele carrier as compared with the respective GG allele carriers, It is concluded that replacement of G at -308 with A leads to reduced risk for cardiovascular disease in non-diabetic subject, whereas in diabetic patients this mutation-increases the risk of CVD. Using BMI as index of obesity, it was

  17. Comparison of Intermittent Fasting Versus Caloric Restriction in Obese Subjects: A Two Year Follow-Up.

    Aksungar, F B; Sarıkaya, M; Coskun, A; Serteser, M; Unsal, I

    2017-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is proven to be effective in increasing life span and it is well known that, nutritional habits, sleeping pattern and meal frequency have profound effects on human health. In Ramadan some Muslims fast during the day-light hours for a month, providing us a unique model of intermittent fasting (IF) in humans. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of IF versus CR on the same non-diabetic obese subjects who were followed for two years according to the growth hormone (GH)/Insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis and insulin resistance. Single-arm Interventional Human Study. 23 female subjects (Body Mass Index (BMI) 29-39, aged between 28-42years). Follow-up is designed as 12 months of CR, after which there was a month of IF and 11 months of CR again, to be totally 24 months. Subjects' daily diets were aligned as low calorie diet during CR and during the IF period, the same subjects fasted for 15 hours in a day for a month and there was no daily calorie restriction. Nutritional pattern was changed as 1 meal in the evening and a late supper before sleeping and no eating and drinking during the day light hours in the IF model. Subjects made brisk walking twice a day during the whole follow-up including both CR and IF periods. BMI, Blood glucose, insulin, TSH, GH, HbA1c, IGF-1, Homa-IR and urinary acetoacetate levels were monitored once in three months and twice in the fasting month. While subjects lost 1250 ± 372g monthly during the CR, in the IF period, weight loss was decreased to 473 ± 146 g. BMI of all subjects decreased gradually and as the BMI decreased, glucose, HbA1c, insulin, Homa-IR and TSH levels were decreased. GH levels were at baseline at the beginning, increased in the first six months and stayed steady during the CR and IF period than began decreasing after the IF period, while IGF-I increased gradually during the CR period and beginning with the 7th day of IF period, it decreased and kept on decreasing till the

  18. Effects of weight loss in metabolically healthy obese subjects after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and hypocaloric diet.

    Giorgio Sesti

    Full Text Available Weight loss in metabolically healthy obese (MHO subjects may result in deterioration of cardio-metabolic risk profile. We analyzed the effects of weight loss induced by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB on cardio-metabolic risk factors in MHO and insulin resistant obese (IRO individuals. This study included 190 morbidly obese non-diabetic subjects. Obese individuals were stratified on the basis of their insulin sensitivity index (ISI, estimated from an OGTT, into MHO (ISI index in the upper quartile and IRO (ISI in the three lower quartiles. Anthropometric and cardio-metabolic variables were measured at baseline and 6-months after LAGB. Six months after LAGB, anthropometric measures were significantly reduced in both MHO and IRO. Percent changes in body weight, BMI, and waist circumference did not differ between the two groups. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, triglycerides, AST, and ALT were significantly reduced, and HDL cholesterol significantly increased, in both MHO and IRO subjects with no differences in percent changes from baseline. Insulin sensitivity increased in both MHO and IRO group. Insulin secretion was significantly reduced in the IRO group only. However, the disposition index significantly increased in both MHO and IRO individuals with no differences in percent changes from baseline between the two groups. The change in insulin sensitivity correlated with the change in BMI (r = -0.43; P<0.0001. In conclusion, our findings reinforce the recommendation that weight loss in response to LAGB intervention should be considered an appropriate treatment option for morbidly obese individuals regardless of their metabolic status, i.e. MHO vs. IRO subjects.

  19. Breast cancer 1 (BrCa1 may be behind decreased lipogenesis in adipose tissue from obese subjects.

    Francisco J Ortega

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Expression and activity of the main lipogenic enzymes is paradoxically decreased in obesity, but the mechanisms behind these findings are poorly known. Breast Cancer 1 (BrCa1 interacts with acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC reducing the rate of fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate BrCa1 in human adipose tissue according to obesity and insulin resistance, and in vitro cultured adipocytes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: BrCa1 gene expression, total and phosphorylated (P- BrCa1, and ACC were analyzed in adipose tissue samples obtained from a total sample of 133 subjects. BrCa1 expression was also evaluated during in vitro differentiation of human adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells. RESULTS: BrCa1 gene expression was significantly up-regulated in both omental (OM; 1.36-fold, p = 0.002 and subcutaneous (SC; 1.49-fold, p = 0.001 adipose tissue from obese subjects. In parallel with increased BrCa1 mRNA, P-ACC was also up-regulated in SC (p = 0.007 as well as in OM (p = 0.010 fat from obese subjects. Consistent with its role limiting fatty acid biosynthesis, both BrCa1 mRNA (3.5-fold, p<0.0001 and protein (1.2-fold, p = 0.001 were increased in pre-adipocytes, and decreased during in vitro adipogenesis, while P-ACC decreased during differentiation of human adipocytes (p = 0.005 allowing lipid biosynthesis. Interestingly, BrCa1 gene expression in mature adipocytes was restored by inflammatory stimuli (macrophage conditioned medium, whereas lipogenic genes significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: The specular findings of BrCa1 and lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue and adipocytes reported here suggest that BrCa1 might help to control fatty acid biosynthesis in adipocytes and adipose tissue from obese subjects.

  20. Maintenance of weight loss or stability in subjects with obesity: a retrospective longitudinal analysis of a real-world population.

    DerSarkissian, Maral; Bhak, Rachel H; Huang, Joanna; Buchs, Sarah; Vekeman, Francis; Smolarz, B Gabriel; Brett, Jason; Ganguly, Rahul; Duh, Mei Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Characterize patterns of weight change among subjects with obesity. A retrospective observational longitudinal study of subjects with obesity was conducted using the General Electric Centricity electronic medical record database. Subjects who were ≥18 years old with BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 (first defining index BMI), had no medical conditions associated with unintentional weight loss, and had ≥4 BMI measurements/year for ≥2.5 years were included and categorized into groups (stable weight: within <5% of index BMI; modest weight loss: ≥5 to <10% of index BMI lost; moderate weight loss: ≥10 to <15% of index BMI lost; and high weight loss: ≥15% of index BMI lost) based on weight change during 6 months following index. No interventions were considered. Patterns of weight change were then assessed for 2 years. A total of 177,743 subjects were included: 85.1% of subjects were in the stable weight, 9.3% in the modest, 2.3% in the moderate, and 3.3% in the high weight loss groups. The proportion of subjects who maintained or continued to lose weight decreased over the 2 year observation period; 11% of those with high weight loss continued to lose weight and 19% maintained their weight loss. This group had the lowest percentage of subjects who regained ≥50% of lost weight and the lowest proportion of subjects with weight cycling (defined as not continuously losing, gaining, or maintaining weight throughout the 2 year observation period relative to its beginning). This trend persisted in subgroups with class II-III obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes. Weight cycling and regain were commonly observed. Subjects losing the most weight during the initial period were more likely to continue losing weight.

  1. Validation of the Italian version of the Laval questionnaire: health-related quality of life in subjects with obesity.

    Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Rosano, Aldo; Di Lazzaro, Luca; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Lubrano, Carla; Migliaccio, Silvia; Carbonelli, Mariagrazia; Pinto, Alessandro; Lenzi, Andrea

    2017-05-15

    Obesity is associated to increased risk of metabolic comorbidity as well as increased mortality. Notably, obesity is also associated to the impairment of the psychological status and of quality of life. Only three questionnaires are available in the Italian language evaluating the health-related quality of life in subjects with obesity. The aim of the present study was to test the validity and reliability of the Italian version of the Laval Questionnaire. The original French version was translated into Italian and back-translated by a French native speaker. 273 subjects with obesity (Body Mass Index ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ) were enrolled; the Italian version of the Laval Questionnaire and the O.R.Well-97 questionnaire were administered in order to assess health- related quality of life. The Laval questionnaire consists of 44 items distributed in 6 domains (symptoms, activity/mobility, personal hygiene/clothing, emotions, social interaction, sexual life). Disability and overall psychopathology levels were assessed through the TSD-OC test (SIO test for obesity correlated disabilities) and the SCL-90 (Symptom Checklist-90) questionnaire, respectively. To verify the validity of the Italian version, the analysis of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity were performed. The observed proportion of agreement concordance of results was 50.2% with Cohen's K = 0.336 (CI 95%: 0.267-0.404), indicating a fair agreement between the two tests. Test-retest correlation was statistically significant (ρ = 0.82; p  0.70). The analysis of construct validity showed a statistically significant association in terms of both total score (ρ = -0.66) and scores at each single domain (p obesity.

  2. Impact Response Comparison Between Parametric Human Models and Postmortem Human Subjects with a Wide Range of Obesity Levels.

    Zhang, Kai; Cao, Libo; Wang, Yulong; Hwang, Eunjoo; Reed, Matthew P; Forman, Jason; Hu, Jingwen

    2017-10-01

    Field data analyses have shown that obesity significantly increases the occupant injury risks in motor vehicle crashes, but the injury assessment tools for people with obesity are largely lacking. The objectives of this study were to use a mesh morphing method to rapidly generate parametric finite element models with a wide range of obesity levels and to evaluate their biofidelity against impact tests using postmortem human subjects (PMHS). Frontal crash tests using three PMHS seated in a vehicle rear seat compartment with body mass index (BMI) from 24 to 40 kg/m 2 were selected. To develop the human models matching the PMHS geometry, statistical models of external body shape, rib cage, pelvis, and femur were applied to predict the target geometry using age, sex, stature, and BMI. A mesh morphing method based on radial basis functions was used to rapidly morph a baseline human model into the target geometry. The model-predicted body excursions and injury measures were compared to the PMHS tests. Comparisons of occupant kinematics and injury measures between the tests and simulations showed reasonable correlations across the wide range of BMI levels. The parametric human models have the capability to account for the obesity effects on the occupant impact responses and injury risks. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  3. Subjective evaluation of psychosocial well-being in children and youths with overweight or obesity: the impact of multidisciplinary obesity treatment.

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Hamann, Sophie Amalie; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Johansen, Mia Østergaard; Grønbæk, Helle Nergaard; Mollerup, Pernille Maria; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effects of a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment programme on subjective evaluations of psychosocial well-being and quality of life. This longitudinal observational study included 1291 children, adolescents and young adults, 6-22 years of age, with overweight or obesity. At entry and after 2-82 months of obesity treatment, the patients evaluated the following domains of psychosocial well-being on a visual analogue scale: quality of life, mood, appetite, bullying, motivation for weight loss and body image satisfaction. The degree of overweight was calculated using a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) at each visit. At entry, the mean BMI SDS was 2.81 (range: 1.35-6.65, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.44-3.18). After a median of 14 months of treatment, the median reduction in BMI SDS was 0.29 (95% CI: 0.26-0.31, p bullying and body image satisfaction (p < 0.0001). Larger reductions in BMI SDS were associated with greater improvements in the domains of quality of life (p = 0.001), mood (p = 0.04) and body image satisfaction (p < 0.0001), independent of BMI SDS at entry. However, improvements in psychosocial well-being were also observed in those increasing their BMI SDS (n = 315). In a large group of children and youths, psychosocial well-being improved during a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment programme, irrespective of the degree of obesity at treatment entry. Greater reductions in BMI SDS were associated with greater improvements in psychosocial well-being, but even in the group increasing their BMI SDS improvements were observed.

  4. 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 in Obese Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Li, Xia; Wang, Jingli; Yang, Qin; Shao, Shiying

    2017-10-01

    Obesity is one of the most significant contributors to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Tissue-specific glucocorticoids regulated by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme (11β-HSD) type 1 are involved in central obesity and obesity-related comorbidities. Moderate downregulation of 11β-HSD1 can attenuate insulin insensitivity and the impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Some of the beneficial effects of 11β-HSD1 inhibition may be mediated, at least in part, through inactivation of tissue-specific glucocorticoid action related to insulin signaling mechanisms, alleviation of abnormal cytokine profile and the improvement of β-cell function. Thus, 11β-HSD1 is a promising target for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus with obesity. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sympathetic neural adaptation to hypocaloric diet with or without exercise training in obese metabolic syndrome subjects

    Straznicky, Nora E; Lambert, Elisabeth A; Nestel, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) overactivity contributes to the pathogenesis and target organ complications of obesity. This study was conducted to examine the effects of lifestyle interventions (weight loss alone or together with exercise) on SNS function....

  6. Effect of a Modest Weight Loss in Normalizing Blood Pressure in Obese Subjects on Antihypertensive Drugs

    Gilardini, Luisa; Redaelli, Gabriella; Croci, Marina; Conti, Antonio; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Invitti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of a lifestyle intervention in lowering/normalizing blood pressure (BP) levels in hypertensive (controlled or not) obese patients. Methods In this prospective observational study, 490 obese hypertensive patients, 389 controlled (BP < 140/90 mm Hg; CH) and 101 uncontrolled (BP ≥ 140/90 mm Hg; UH) attended a 3-month lifestyle intervention. Before and after the intervention we assessed weight, waist circumference, fat mass, BP, metabolic and renal variables, and ph...

  7. Psychological aspects of eating behavior as predictors of 10-y weight changes after surgical and conventional treatment of severe obesity: results from the Swedish Obese Subjects intervention study.

    Konttinen, Hanna; Peltonen, Markku; Sjöström, Lars; Carlsson, Lena; Karlsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of the factors that influence long-term weight outcomes after bariatric surgery. We examined whether pretreatment and posttreatment levels of cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger and 1-y changes in these eating behaviors predict short- and long-term weight changes after surgical and conventional treatments of severe obesity. Participants were from an ongoing, matched (nonrandomized) prospective intervention trial of the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study. The current analyses included 2010 obese subjects who underwent bariatric surgery and 1916 contemporaneously matched obese controls who received conventional treatment. Physical measurements (e.g., weight and height) and questionnaires (e.g., Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) were completed before the intervention and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 y after the start of the treatment. Structural equation modeling was used as the main analytic strategy. The surgery group lost more weight and reported greater decreases in disinhibition and hunger at 1- and 10-y follow-ups (all P women) and experienced larger 1-y decreases in these behaviors (β = 0.31-0.48, P women) lost more weight 2, 6, and 10 y after surgery. In control patients, larger 1-y increases in cognitive restraint predicted a greater 2-y weight loss in both sexes. A higher tendency to eat in response to various internal and external cues shortly after surgery predicted less-successful short- and long-term weight outcomes, making postoperative susceptibility for uncontrolled eating an important indicator of targeted interventions. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Supervised Exercise Training Counterbalances the Adverse Effects of Insulin Therapy in Overweight/Obese Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    Balducci, Stefano; Zanuso, Silvano; Cardelli, Patrizia; Salerno, Gerardo; Fallucca, Sara; Nicolucci, Antonio; Pugliese, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the effect of supervised exercise on traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors in sedentary, overweight/obese insulin-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Italian Diabetes Exercise Study (IDES). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study randomized 73 insulin-treated patients to twice weekly supervised aerobic and resistance training plus structured exercise counseling (EXE) or to counseling alone (CON) for 12 months. Clinical and laboratory paramete...

  9. Obesity

    ... improve or prevent the health problems associated with obesity. Dietary changes, increased physical activity and behavior changes can ... more calories than you burn. And most Americans' diets are too high in calories and are ... factors Obesity usually results from a combination of causes and ...

  10. Obesity and Weight Loss Attempts among Subjects with a Personal History of Cancer.

    Moten, Ambria; Jeffers, Kayin; Larbi, Daniel; Smith-White, Roxanne; Taylor, Teletia; Wilson, Lori; Adenuga, Babafemi; Frederick, Wayne; Laiyemo, Adeyinka

    2014-08-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for many cancers and obese cancer patients have a poorer prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of obesity and attempts to lose weight among cancer survivors. The effects of cancer treatment and time since cancer treatment were also evaluated. The 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey data were analysed between 2011 and 2013; respondents with (n = 966) and without (n = 6,093) a personal history of cancer were identified. Each respondent's body mass index (BMI) was calculated using self-reported height and weight measurements and categorised as normal (<25 kg/m(2)), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m(2)) or obese (≥30 kg/m(2)). Cancer survivors were older (mean age = 63.4 versus 44.7 years for those with no history of cancer). Overall, there were similar percentages of overweight (37.6% versus 34.1%; relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75-1.31) and obese (31.4% versus 27.5%; RRR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.79 1.39) respondents among both cancer survivors and those without a history of cancer. Among overweight and obese participants, cancer survivors did not demonstrate increased weight loss attempts compared to those without a history of cancer (61.6% versus 66.3%; odds ratio = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.73 1.20). A high prevalence of overweight and obese cancer survivors were identified without any association with cancer treatment. However, cancer survivors did not demonstrate increased attempts to lose weight in comparison to those without a history of cancer despite awareness of their degree of body fatness. Increased efforts to promote the maintenance of a healthy weight among cancer survivors are needed.

  11. Obesity and Weight Loss Attempts among Subjects with a Personal History of Cancer

    Ambria Moten

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Obesity is a risk factor for many cancers and obese cancer patients have a poorer prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of obesity and attempts to lose weight among cancer survivors. The effects of cancer treatment and time since cancer treatment were also evaluated. Methods: The 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey data were analysed between 2011 and 2013; respondents with (n = 966 and without (n = 6,093 a personal history of cancer were identified. Each respondent’s body mass index (BMI was calculated using self-reported height and weight measurements and categorised as normal (<25 kg/m2, overweight (25‒29.9 kg/m2 or obese (≥30 kg/m2. Results: Cancer survivors were older (mean age = 63.4 versus 44.7 years for those with no history of cancer. Overall, there were similar percentages of overweight (37.6% versus 34.1%; relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75‒1.31 and obese (31.4% versus 27.5%; RRR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.79‒1.39 respondents among both cancer survivors and those without a history of cancer. Among overweight and obese participants, cancer survivors did not demonstrate increased weight loss attempts compared to those without a history of cancer (61.6% versus 66.3%; odds ratio = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.73‒1.20. Conclusion: A high prevalence of overweight and obese cancer survivors were identified without any association with cancer treatment. However, cancer survivors did not demonstrate increased attempts to lose weight in comparison to those without a history of cancer despite awareness of their degree of body fatness. Increased efforts to promote the maintenance of a healthy weight among cancer survivors are needed.

  12. HOMA-IR Values are Associated With Glycemic Control in Japanese Subjects Without Diabetes or Obesity: The KOBE Study.

    Hirata, Takumi; Higashiyama, Aya; Kubota, Yoshimi; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kadota, Aya; Nishida, Yoko; Imano, Hironori; Nishikawa, Tomofumi; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that insulin resistance was a major risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus in individuals without diabetes or obesity. We aimed to clarify the association between insulin resistance and glycemic control in Japanese subjects without diabetes or obesity. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study including 1083 healthy subjects (323 men and 760 women) in an urban area. We performed multivariate regression analyses to estimate the association between the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values and markers of glycemic control, including glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, after adjustment for potential confounders. Compared with the lowest tertile of HOMA-IR values, the highest tertile was significantly associated with HbA1c and FPG levels after adjustment for potential confounders, both in men (HbA1c: β = 1.83, P = 0.001; FPG: β = 0.49, P HOMA-IR values was inversely associated with 1,5-AG levels compared with the lowest tertile (β = -18.42, P = 0.009) only in men. HOMA-IR values were associated with markers of glycemic control in Japanese subjects without diabetes or obesity. Insulin resistance may influence glycemic control even in a lean, non-diabetic Asian population.

  13. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    Yong Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated fasting ghrelin concentrations during a high-salt diet. Thirty-eight non-obese and normotensive subjects (aged 25 to 50 years were selected from a rural community in Northern China. They were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for three days at baseline, a low-salt diet for seven days (3 g/day, NaCl, then a high-salt diet for seven days (18 g/day. The concentration of plasma ghrelin was measured using an immunoenzyme method (ELISA. High-salt intake significantly increased fasting ghrelin levels, which were higher during the high-salt diet (320.7 ± 30.6 pg/mL than during the low-salt diet (172.9 ± 8.9 pg/mL. The comparison of ghrelin levels between the different salt diets was statistically-significantly different (p < 0.01. A positive correlation between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and fasting ghrelin levels was demonstrated. Our data indicate that a high-salt diet elevates fasting ghrelin in healthy human subjects, which may be a novel underlying mechanism of obesity.

  14. Ondansetron attenuates depression co-morbid with obesity in obese mice subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress; an approach using behavioral battery tests.

    Kurhe, Yeshwant; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh; Gupta, Deepali

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the role of ondansetron on the high fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice for behavioral and biochemical alterations using chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression. Animals were fed with high fat diet for 14 weeks and subjected to different stress procedures for 4 weeks. Treatment with ondansetron was started on day 15. After day 28 behavioral assays and biochemical estimations were performed. Behavioral paradigms viz. sucrose preference test, locomotor score, forced swim test (FST) and elevated plus maze (EPM), whereas biochemical parameters like plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and total proteins were estimated. Results examines that in behavioral assays, ondansetron significantly (P glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and total proteins were significantly (P glucose level indicates that, it could be "altered glucose level" playing an important role in depression co-morbid with obesity. Ondansetron through allosteric modulation of serotonergic system elevates the serotonin level and thereby regulates the insulin secretion and hence, reversing the "altered glucose level", could be the possible antidepressive-like mechanism against depression co-morbid with obesity.

  15. Effect of a Modest Weight Loss in Normalizing Blood Pressure in Obese Subjects on Antihypertensive Drugs

    Luisa Gilardini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effect of a lifestyle intervention in lowering/normalizing blood pressure (BP levels in hypertensive (controlled or not obese patients. Methods: In this prospective observational study, 490 obese hypertensive patients, 389 controlled (BP Results: 18.9% of CH and 20.0% of UH were on ≥ 3 antihypertensive drugs. Weight change (average -4.9 ± 2.7% was independent of the antihypertensive drugs employed. Systolic BP (SBP decreased by 23 mm Hg and diastolic BP (DBP by 9 mm Hg, in patients with UH most of whom (89% normalized BP levels (in 49% after a weight loss Conclusion: Lifestyle interventions are useful for all obese hypertensive patients in most of whom a modest weight loss is sufficient to normalize BP levels avoiding the aggressive use of multiple antihypertensive drugs.

  16. Subjectivity

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  17. Targeted metabolomic analysis reveals the association between the postprandial change in palmitic acid, branched-chain amino acids and insulin resistance in young obese subjects.

    Liu, Liyan; Feng, Rennan; Guo, Fuchuan; Li, Ying; Jiao, Jundong; Sun, Changhao

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is the result of a positive energy balance and often leads to difficulties in maintaining normal postprandial metabolism. The changes in postprandial metabolites after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in young obese Chinese men are unclear. In this work, the aim is to investigate the complex metabolic alterations in obesity provoked by an OGTT using targeted metabolomics. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze serum fatty acids, amino acids and biogenic amines profiles from 15 control and 15 obese subjects at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min during an OGTT. Metabolite profiles from 30 obese subjects as independent samples were detected in order to validate the change of metabolites. There were the decreased levels of fatty acid, amino acids and biogenic amines after OGTT in obesity. At 120 min, percent change of 20 metabolites in obesity has statistical significance when comparing with the controls. The obese parameters was positively associated with changes in arginine and histidine (Pchange in palmitic acid (PA), branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and phenylalanine between 1 and 120 min were positively associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (all Presistance in obesity. Our findings offer new insights in the complex physiological regulation of the metabolism during an OGTT in obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The blunted effect of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects is partly reversed by weight loss

    Asmar, M; Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) appears to have impaired effect on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to examine whether weight loss may reverse the impaired effect of GIP on subcutaneous abdominal...... adipose tissue in obese subjects. METHODS: Five obese males participated in a 12-week weight loss program, which consisted of caloric restriction (800 Cal day(-)(1)) followed by 4 weeks of weight-maintenance diet. Before and after weight loss, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied...... after weight loss, Pobese subjects, weight...

  19. Obesity

    ... Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Men's Health Rare Diseases Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Transgender Health Obesity and Weight Management Women's Health You and Your ...

  20. Thirty days of resveratrol supplementation does not affect postprandial incretin hormone responses, but suppresses postprandial glucagon in obese subjects

    Knop, F K; Konings, E; Timmers, S

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound produced by various plants (e.g. red grapes) and found in red wine, has glucose-lowering effects in humans and rodent models of obesity and/or diabetes. The mechanisms behind these effects have been suggested to include resveratrol......-induced secretion of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1. We investigated postprandial incretin hormone and glucagon responses in obese human subjects before and after 30 days of resveratrol supplementation. METHODS: Postprandial plasma responses of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1...... and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon were evaluated in 10 obese men [subjects characteristics (mean ± standard error of the mean): age 52 ± 2 years; BMI 32 ± 1 kg/m(2) , fasting plasma glucose 5.5 ± 0.1 mmol/l] who had been given a dietary supplement of resveratrol (Resvida(®) 150 mg...

  1. Intact proinsulin and beta-cell function in lean and obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes

    Røder, M E; Dinesen, B; Hartling, S G

    1999-01-01

    , total proinsulin immunoreactivity (PIM), intact insulin, and C-peptide (by radioimmunoassay) by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in the fasting state and during a 120-min glucagon (1 mg i.v.) stimulation test. Lean (BMI 23.5 +/- 0.3 kg/m2) (LD) and obese (30.1 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) (OD) type 2...... diabetic patients matched for fasting glucose (10.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.4 mmol/l) were compared with age- and BMI-matched lean (22.4 +/- 0.6 kg/m2) (LC) and obese (30.8 +/- 0.9 kg/m2) (OC) normal control subjects. RESULTS: Diabetic patients (LD vs. LC and OD vs. OC) had elevated fasting levels of intact......, most pronounced in the lean group. The ratio of intact proinsulin to PIM was higher in diabetic patients after stimulation in both LD versus LC: 32 +/- 3 vs. 23 +/- 2%, and OD versus OC: 28 +/- 4 vs. 16 +/- 2%, both P obese normal subjects, intact proinsulin/PIM was lower both in the fasting...

  2. Reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal energy intake in overweight and obese males.

    Horner, Katy M; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether changes in appetite and energy intake (EI) can be detected and play a role in the effectiveness of interventions, it is necessary to identify their variability under normal conditions. We assessed the reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal EI after a standardised pre-load in overweight and obese males. Fifteen overweight and obese males (BMI 30.3 ± 4.9 kg/m(2), aged 34.9 ± 10.6 years) completed two identical test days, 7 days apart. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast (1676 kJ) and 5 h later an ad libitum pasta lunch. An electronic appetite rating system was used to assess subjective ratings before and after the fixed breakfast, and periodically during the postprandial period. EI was assessed at the ad libitum lunch meal. Sample size estimates for paired design studies were calculated. Appetite ratings demonstrated a consistent oscillating pattern between test days, and were more reproducible for mean postprandial than fasting ratings. The correlation between ad libitum EI on the two test days was r = 0.78 (P appetite and ad libitum test meal EI in overweight and obese males is comparable to previous reports in normal weight adults. Sample size requirements for studies vary depending on the parameter of interest and sensitivity needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dissociated incretin hormone response to protein versus fat ingestion in obese subjects

    Lindgren, O; Carr, RD; Holst, Jens Juul

    2011-01-01

    kcal/kg) fat (olive oil) or protein (whey protein) was ingested by non-diabetic obese male volunteers [body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m(2) ; n = 12] and plasma GIP and GLP-1 were determined. We found no difference in the early GIP or GLP-1 responses to fat versus protein. However, the total 300-min GIP...

  4. Assessment of plasma acylcarnitines before and after weight loss in obese subjects

    Schooneman, Marieke G.; Napolitano, Antonella; Houten, Sander M.; Ambler, Graeme K.; Murgatroyd, Peter R.; Miller, Sam R.; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Tan, Chong Y.; Virtue, Samuel; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Nunez, Derek J.; Soeters, Maarten R.

    2016-01-01

    Acylcarnitines, fatty acid oxidation (FAO) intermediates, have been implicated in diet-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, as increased levels are found in obese insulin resistant humans. Moreover plasma acylcarnitines have been associated with clinical parameters related to

  5. Baroreflex function: determinants in healthy subjects and disturbances in diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Skrapari, Ioanna; Tentolouris, Nicholas; Katsilambros, Nicholas

    2006-08-01

    Arterial baroreceptors play an important role in the short-term regulation of arterial pressure, by reflex chronotropic effect on the heart and by reflex regulation of sympathetic outflow. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) represents an index of arterial baroreceptors function. Several methods of measuring BRS are available nowadays. Different factors influence BRS in the healthy population, including sex, age, blood pressure, heart rate, body fatness, arterial stiffness, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as physical activity. Baroreceptors dysfunction is evident in diseases such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The underlying mechanism of BRS attenuation in diabetes or obesity is not yet well known; however, there is increasing evidence that it is at least partly related to autonomic nervous system dysfunction and particularly to sympathetic overactivity that accompanies these diseases. Blunted BRS provides prognostic information for cardiovascular diseases and possibly for diabetes, while its' prognostic information for obesity is not yet established. This review deals with the mechanisms affecting baroreflex function, the newer techniques of BRS estimation and the most recent insights of baroreflex function in the healthy population and in various diseases with emphasis on diabetes and obesity. In addition, the clinical implication of a reduced BRS in these disorders is discussed.

  6. Sex and muscle structural lipids in obese subjects - an impact on insulin action?

    Haugaard, SB; Vaag, A.; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) especially the n-3-FA of skeletal muscle phospholipids may facilitate insulin action, whereas saturated and trans-FA act oppositely. Community studies show that non-diabetic weight matched obese men and women display similar insulin resis...

  7. Association of Progranulin and High Sensitivity CRP Concentrations in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Serum in Chronic Periodontitis Subjects with and without Obesity

    A. R. Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is considered as a strong risk factor of inflammatory periodontal tissue destruction. The purpose of this study is to determine presence of progranulin (PGRN and high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs CRP levels in serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in obese subjects with chronic periodontitis and to find an association, if any.

  8. Internal Fat and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Following a Meal-Replacement Regimen vs. Comprehensive Lifestyle Changes in Obese Subjects.

    König, Daniel; Zdzieblik, Denise; Deibert, Peter; Berg, Aloys; Gollhofer, Albert; Büchert, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a meal-replacement regimen vs. comprehensive lifestyle changes in overweight or obese subjects on intra-abdominal fat stores (Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measurements) and cardiometabolic risk factors. Forty-two obese men (n = 18) and women (n = 24) (age 49 ± 8 years; weight 96.3 ± 12.1 kg; BMI 32.7 ± 2.3 kg/m2) were selected for this randomized parallel-group design investigation. Subjects in the lifestyle group (LS-G; n = 22) received dietary counselling sessions and instructions how to increase physical activity. In the meal replacement group (MR-G; n = 20) meals were replaced by a low-calorie drink high in soy protein. After six months, subjects in the LS-G lost 8.88 ± 6.24 kg and subjects in the MR-G lost 7.1 ± 2.33 kg; p meal replacement group suggesting an additional effect of soy protein components.

  9. Underestimation of urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in morbidly obese subjects due to high urinary creatinine excretion.

    Guidone, Caterina; Gniuli, Donatella; Castagneto-Gissey, Lidia; Leccesi, Laura; Arrighi, Eugenio; Iaconelli, Amerigo; Mingrone, Geltrude

    2012-04-01

    Albuminuria, a chronic kidney and/or cardiovascular disease biomarker, is currently measured as albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR). We hypothesize that in severely obese individuals ACR might be abnormally low in spite of relatively high levels of urinary albumin due to increased creatininuria. One-hundred-eighty-four subjects were divided into tertiles based on their BMI. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat-mass were assessed by DEXA; 24-h creatinine and albumin excretion, ACR, lipid profile and blood pressure were measured. Twenty-four-hour creatinine highly correlated (R = 0.75) with FFM. Since both creatininuria and albuminuria increased with the BMI, being the increase in creatininuria preponderant in subjects with BMI>35, their ratio (AC-ratio) did not change significantly from that of subjects in the lower BMI tertile. ACR only correlated with the systolic blood pressure, while both albuminuria and cretininuria correlated (P = 0.01) with the absolute 10-year CHD risk. In subjects with BMI>35, 100 mg of albumin excreted with urine increased the CHD risk of 2%. Albumin-to-creatinine ratio is underestimated in severely obese individuals as a consequence of the large creatininuria, which is proportional to the increased FFM. Therefore, at least in this population 24-h albuminuria should be more reliable than ACR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Whole Grain Wheat Bread on Visceral Fat Obesity in Japanese Subjects: A Randomized Double-Blind Study.

    Kikuchi, Yosuke; Nozaki, Satomi; Makita, Miki; Yokozuka, Shoji; Fukudome, Shin-Ichi; Yanagisawa, Takashi; Aoe, Seiichiro

    2018-04-18

    Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and has become increasingly common in Japan. Epidemiological studies show inverse associations between intake of whole wheat grains and metabolic syndrome, but few dietary intervention trials have investigated the effect of whole wheat grain consumption. It was investigated whether a diet in which refined wheat bread (RW diet) was substituted by whole grain wheat bread (WW diet) would reduce visceral fat obesity in Japanese subjects. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study was conducted in 50 Japanese subjects with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23 kg/m 2 . Subjects were randomly assigned WW (WW group) or RW diets (RW group) for 12 weeks. Blood samples and computed tomography scans were obtained every 6th week. The WW group showed decrease (-4 cm 2 ) in visceral fat area (VFA) (p < 0.05), whereas the RW group showed no significant changes. These time-dependent changes were significantly different between the groups. WW diet led to significant and safe reductions in VFA in subjects with BMI ≥ 23 kg/m 2 . WW diet may contribute to preventing visceral fat obesity.

  11. Obese subjects involvement in a population-based survey: the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) to avoid stigmatization.

    Pétré, Benoit; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Crutze, Céline; Husson, Eddy; Scheen, André; Guillaume, Michèle

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiological and health promotion studies in obese subjects are hampered by the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample from the community. The enrollment process can be at high risk of stigmatization. The purpose of this study is to describe an original information and communication technologies (ICT) strategy to get around these ethical and methodological difficulties. A multimedia campaign of communication was organized on the topic of overweight and quality of life (QoL). A specific website was developed to collect via a questionnaire QoL data as well as information related to patient's needs and health perception from participants. To promote the website, multiple information supports were largely diffused. Primary care professionals were solicited to enhance the enrollment. The campaign started with a press conference covered by the main television channels. The ICT-based approach allowed the participation of 4,155 subjects homogeneously distributed with respect to body mass index, age, gender and socioeconomic level. A high percentage of subjects fully completed the web-based questionnaire. The press conference allowed reaching a quarter of the total sample within 5 days. Overweight remains a major public health problem. This survey showed that a holistic approach supported by ICT is a promising way to recruit obese subjects without stigmatizing the disorder.

  12. Circulating cortisol-associated signature of glucocorticoid-related gene expression in subcutaneous fat of obese subjects.

    Pavlatou, Maria G; Vickers, Kasey C; Varma, Sudhir; Malek, Rana; Sampson, Maureen; Remaley, Alan T; Gold, Philip W; Skarulis, Monica C; Kino, Tomoshige

    2013-05-01

    Serum cortisol concentrations fluctuate in a circadian fashion, and glucocorticoids exert strong effects on adipose tissue and induce obesity through the glucocorticoid receptor. To examine the impact of physiologic levels of circulating cortisol on subcutaneous adipose tissue, 25 overweight and obese subjects were employed, and their serum levels of morning (AM) and evening (PM) cortisol, AM/PM cortisol ratios, and 24-h urinary-free cortisol (UFC) were compared with their clinical parameters, serum cytokine levels, and mRNA expression of 93 receptor action-regulating and 93 glucocorticoid-responsive genes in abdominal subcutaneous fat. AM cortisol levels did not correlate with mRNA expression of the all genes examined, whereas PM cortisol levels, AM/PM cortisol ratios, and 24-h UFC were associated with distinct sets of these genes. Body mass index did not significantly correlate with the four cortisol parameters employed. These results suggest that physiologic levels of AM serum cortisol do not solely represent biological effects of circulating cortisol on the expression of glucocorticoid-related genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue, whereas PM levels, amplitude, and net amounts of the diurnally fluctuating serum cortisol have distinct effects. Through the genes identified in this study, glucocorticoids appear to influence intermediary metabolism, energy balance, inflammation, and local circadian rythmicity in subcutaneous fat. Our results may also explain in part the development of metabolic abnormality and obesity in subjects under stress or patients with melancholic/atypical depression who demonstrate elevated levels of PM serum cortisol. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  13. Vagal Blocking Improves Glycemic Control and Elevated Blood Pressure in Obese Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    S. Shikora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. An active device that downregulates abdominal vagal signalling has resulted in significant weight loss in feasibility studies. Objective. To prospectively evaluate the effect of intermittent vagal blocking (VBLOC on weight loss, glycemic control, and blood pressure (BP in obese subjects with DM2. Methods. Twenty-eight subjects were implanted with a VBLOC device (Maestro Rechargeable System at 5 centers in an open-label study. Effects on weight loss, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and BP were evaluated at 1 week to 12 months. Results. 26 subjects (17 females/9 males, 51±2 years, BMI 37±1 kg/m2, mean ± SEM completed 12 months followup. One serious adverse event (pain at implant site was easily resolved. At 1 week and 12 months, mean excess weight loss percentages (% EWL were 9±1% and 25±4% (P<0.0001, and HbA1c declined by 0.3±0.1% and 1.0±0.2% (P=0.02, baseline 7.8±0.2%. In DM2 subjects with elevated BP (n=15, mean arterial pressure reduced by 7±3 mmHg and 8±3 mmHg (P=0.04, baseline 100 ± 2 mmHg at 1 week and 12 months. All subjects MAP decreased by 3 ± 2 mmHg (baseline 95 ± 2 mmHg at 12 months. Conclusions. VBLOC was safe in obese DM2 subjects and associated with meaningful weight loss, early and sustained improvements in HbA1c, and reductions in BP in hypertensive DM2 subjects. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00555958.

  14. Effect of Dark Chocolate Extracts on Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate-Induced Oxidative Burst in Leukocytes Isolated by Normo-Weight and Overweight/Obese Subjects.

    Ioannone, Francesca; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Serafini, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative and inflammatory stress represents a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in overweight and obese subjects. Between the different plant foods, chocolate has been shown to decrease CVD risk due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, as we recently showed in epidemiological studies, meta-analyses, and human trials, dietary antioxidants resulted more effective in subjects characterized by an ongoing oxidative stress, than in healthy people. Aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of chocolate phenolic extract (CPE) on in vitro free radical production, stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), in leukocytes extracted from blood of normo-weight and overweight/obese subjects. Neutrophils from overweight/obese group had a significantly higher free radical production compared to the normo-weight group. In neutrophils, the lowest CPE concentration significantly reduced free radical production in overweight/obese group only, and higher CPE concentrations were effective in both groups. In monocytes, the CPE concentration that was significantly effective in reducing free radical production was lower in overweight/obese subjects than in normo-weight subjects. Chocolate polyphenol extracts inhibit oxidative burst in human neutrophils and monocytes with a higher efficiency in subjects characterized by an unphysiological oxidative/inflammatory stress, such as overweight and obese. Results of this study provide further evidence about a differential role of dietary antioxidant strictly related to the "stress" condition of the subjects.

  15. Effect of Dark Chocolate Extracts on Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate-Induced Oxidative Burst in Leukocytes Isolated by Normo-Weight and Overweight/Obese Subjects

    Francesca Ioannone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative and inflammatory stress represents a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD in overweight and obese subjects. Between the different plant foods, chocolate has been shown to decrease CVD risk due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, as we recently showed in epidemiological studies, meta-analyses, and human trials, dietary antioxidants resulted more effective in subjects characterized by an ongoing oxidative stress, than in healthy people. Aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of chocolate phenolic extract (CPE on in vitro free radical production, stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, in leukocytes extracted from blood of normo-weight and overweight/obese subjects. Neutrophils from overweight/obese group had a significantly higher free radical production compared to the normo-weight group. In neutrophils, the lowest CPE concentration significantly reduced free radical production in overweight/obese group only, and higher CPE concentrations were effective in both groups. In monocytes, the CPE concentration that was significantly effective in reducing free radical production was lower in overweight/obese subjects than in normo-weight subjects. Chocolate polyphenol extracts inhibit oxidative burst in human neutrophils and monocytes with a higher efficiency in subjects characterized by an unphysiological oxidative/inflammatory stress, such as overweight and obese. Results of this study provide further evidence about a differential role of dietary antioxidant strictly related to the “stress” condition of the subjects.

  16. Factors associated with early atherosclerosis and arterial calcifications in young subjects with a benign phenotype of obesity.

    Gilardini, Luisa; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Di Matteo, Silvia; Caffetto, Katherine; Croci, Marina; Girola, Andrea; Invitti, Cecilia

    2011-08-01

    We assessed (i) the association between early arterial disease and factors linked to adiposity, dietary habits, and family in a young cohort of 151 obese children and adolescents with less than or equal to one cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, (ii) whether in subjects with carotid calcifications there was an imbalance of calcium-phosphorus homeostasis. Measurement included: carotid ultrasound, oral glucose tolerance test, anthropometry, body composition, dietary history, white blood cells count, lipids, uric acid, adiponectin, insulin, C-reactive protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium and phosphorus. Obese children with carotid artery intima media thickness (cIMT) values >75° percentile (0.55 mm), compared to those with lower cIMT, were more obese, more often pubertal and had higher prevalence of family history of CV disease (CVD) (P < 0.05), higher plasma PAI-1 and uric acid (P < 0.001) and lower adiponectin (P < 0.05) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (P < 0.05). After adjustment for sex, age, puberty, obesity, and insulin levels, only PAI-I remained significantly different between the two groups (10.9 (7.2-29.8) vs. 6.2 (4.3-10.6) ng/ml, P < 0.001). Dietary intake did not affect cIMT values. Eight percent of subjects showed nonatherosclerotic carotid calcifications with patchy pattern. These children had a worse lipid profile (P < 0.05) and higher plasma PTH levels (48.6 ± 21.5 vs 38.5 ± 16.9 pg/ml, P < 0.05) that were inversely associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (r = 0.245, P < 0.01). Present results suggest that (i) several adiposity-related factors may play a role in promoting the development of early arterial diseases in young subjects with a benign phenotype of obesity, (ii) a PTH rise resulting from a subclinical imbalance in calcium-phosphorus homeostasis may affect the biological process of vascular calcifications.

  17. Multi-element analysis of the obese subject by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    Siwek, R A; Burkinshaw, L; Oxby, C B [Leeds General Infirmary (UK); Robinson, P A.J. [Saint James' s University Hospital, Leeds (UK)

    1984-06-01

    The Leeds facility for in vivo neutron activation analysis has been modified and calibrated for the simultaneous measurement of nitrogen, potassium, sodium, chlorine, phosphorus and calcium in obese patients weighing up to 210 kg. The effects of body size and shape were incorporated into the calibration by measuring 14 anthropomorphic phantoms of known composition representing individual patients being treated for obesity. The phantoms were constructed from tissue substitutes representing lean skeletal and adipose tissues, arranged to simulate the distributions of the corresponding tissues within the patients, as visualised by CT scanning. The precision of the method, determined by measuring a single phantom ten times over a period of ten weeks, is between two and three per cent for all elements except calcium, for which it is 11.3%. Accuracy is estimated to be similar to precision. The procedure has been used to study changes in body composition of patients undergoing therapeutic starvation.

  18. Effect of a Modest Weight Loss in Normalizing Blood Pressure in Obese Subjects on Antihypertensive Drugs.

    Gilardini, Luisa; Redaelli, Gabriella; Croci, Marina; Conti, Antonio; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Invitti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effect of a lifestyle intervention in lowering/normalizing blood pressure (BP) levels in hypertensive (controlled or not) obese patients. In this prospective observational study, 490 obese hypertensive patients, 389 controlled (BP < 140/90 mm Hg; CH) and 101 uncontrolled (BP ≥ 140/90 mm Hg; UH) attended a 3-month lifestyle intervention. Before and after the intervention we assessed weight, waist circumference, fat mass, BP, metabolic and renal variables, and physical activity. A multivariate regression model was used to determine the predictors of BP changes. 18.9% of CH and 20.0% of UH were on ≥ 3 antihypertensive drugs. Weight change (average -4.9 ± 2.7%) was independent of the antihypertensive drugs employed. Systolic BP (SBP) decreased by 23 mm Hg and diastolic BP (DBP) by 9 mm Hg, in patients with UH most of whom (89%) normalized BP levels (in 49% after a weight loss < 5%). Age, gender, whole and central obesity, concomitance of type 2 diabetes, chronic renal disease, physical activity intensification, and pharmacological therapy did not affect BP lowering. In the regression analysis with SBP change as dependent variable, weight reduction (β = 0.523, p = 0.005) and group (UH vs. CH, β = -19.40, p = 0.0005) remained associated with SBP reduction. When DBP change was entered as dependent variable, baseline uric acid remained associated with DBP reduction (β = 0.824, p < 0.05). Lifestyle interventions are useful for all obese hypertensive patients in most of whom a modest weight loss is sufficient to normalize BP levels avoiding the aggressive use of multiple antihypertensive drugs. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  19. Systemic Inflammation and Lung Function Impairment in Morbidly Obese Subjects with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Astrid van Huisstede

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and asthma are associated. There is a relationship between lung function impairment and the metabolic syndrome. Whether this relationship also exists in the morbidly obese patients is still unknown. Hypothesis. Low-grade systemic inflammation associated with the metabolic syndrome causes inflammation in the lungs and, hence, lung function impairment. Methods. This is cross-sectional study of morbidly obese patients undergoing preoperative screening for bariatric surgery. Metabolic syndrome was assessed according to the revised NCEP-ATP III criteria. Results. A total of 452 patients were included. Patients with the metabolic syndrome (n=293 had significantly higher blood monocyte (mean 5.3 versus 4.9, P=0.044 and eosinophil percentages (median 1.0 versus 0.8, P=0.002, while the total leukocyte count did not differ between the groups. The FEV1/FVC ratio was significantly lower in patients with the metabolic syndrome (76.7% versus 78.2%, P=0.032. Blood eosinophils were associated with FEV1/FVC ratio (adj. B −0.113, P=0.018. Conclusion. Although the difference in FEV1/FVC ratio between the groups is relatively small, in this cross-sectional study, and its clinical relevance may be limited, these data indicate that the presence of the metabolic syndrome may influence lung function impairment, through the induction of relative eosinophilia.

  20. Relationship between sleep pattern and efficacy of calorie-restricted Mediterranean diet in overweight/obese subjects.

    Pagliai, Giuditta; Dinu, Monica; Casini, Alessandro; Sofi, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    The association between the sleep pattern and the effectiveness of a calorie-restricted Mediterranean diet in people with overweight/obesity has been investigated in this study. Four hundred and three subjects were provided with a calorie-restricted Mediterranean diet and followed for 9 months. Personal information, including sleep pattern, was obtained at the baseline. Body weight and composition were measured every 3 months. Poor sleepers reported to have significantly (p sleeping 6-8 or >8 h/day had an increased probability of losing fat mass than women who reported sleeping sleep pattern is necessary to maintain body weight and optimal body composition.

  1. Roux-en Y gastric bypass surgery reduces hedonic hunger and improves dietary habits in severely obese subjects.

    Ullrich, Jennifer; Ernst, Barbara; Wilms, Britta; Thurnheer, Martin; Schultes, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Many obese subjects suffer from an increased hedonic drive to consume palatable foods, i.e., hedonic hunger, and often show unfavorable dietary habits. Here, we investigated changes in the hedonic hunger and dietary habits after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Forty-four severely obese patients were examined before and on average 15.9 ± 0.9 months after RYGB surgery with the Power of Food Scale (PFS), a questionnaire that reliably measures an individual's motivation to consume highly palatable foods but not actual consumptive behavior. Dietary habits were assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. After the RYGB procedure, patients showed markedly lower aggregated PFS scores and sub-domain scores related to generally available, physically present, as well as tasted foods than before the surgery (all P habits after the surgery were characterized by a more frequent consumption of poultry, fish, eggs, and cooked vegetables (P habits characterized by an increased intake of protein-rich foods and vegetables and a reduced consumption of sugar-containing snacks and beverages after RYGB surgery. Based on these findings, it can be speculated that the reduction of the hedonic drive to consume palatable foods induced by RYGB surgery helps severely obese patients to establish healthier dietary habits.

  2. The relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration and obesity in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    Taheri Ehsaneh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with hypovitaminosis D. The aims of this study were to investigate the association of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH D and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentration with body mass index (BMI in type 2 diabetic patients compared to control subjects and their predicting role in obesity. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 subjects (100 type 2 diabetics and 100 healthy controls. Concentration of 25(OH D, calcium, phosphorous, parathyroid hormone (PTH, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, serum insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was determined in the fasting samples. Anthropometric measurements including body mass index (BMI were also measured. Results Eighty-five percent of type 2 diabetics and 79% of healthy subjects were suffering from vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. Serum concentration of 25(OH D (22.08 ± 15.20 ng/ml (r = −0.11, P = 0.04 and calcium (8.94 ± 0.59 mg/dl (r = −2.25, P = 0.04 has significant statistically with BMI in type 2 diabetic patients. Serum concentration of PTH has non-significantly associated with BMI in diabetic patients and healthy subjects. Conclusion Serum levels of vitamin D inversely and PTH positively are associated with BMI after adjusted for age, gender and serum calcium in both type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects. These associations were statistically significant for serum concentration of vitamin D and calcium only in diabetic patients. So the status of vitamin D is considered as an important factor in type 2 diabetic patients.

  3. Obesity

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-01-01

    A new report provides compelling evidence of the high prevalence of overweight and obesity throughout the world. The prevalence has increased since 1980, but at different rates across ages, times and locations. Studies exploring the causes of these differences could aid development of effective...

  4. Effects of Acute Ingestion of Native Banana Starch on Glycemic Response Evaluated by Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Obese and Lean Subjects

    Guadalupe Jiménez-Domínguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An abnormal glycemic profile, including postprandial glycemia and acute glucose spikes, precedes the onset of overt diabetes in obese subjects. Previous studies have shown the beneficial effects of chronic native banana starch (NBS supplementation. In this study, we examined the effects of acute ingestion of NBS on glycemic profiles by means of continuous glucose monitoring in obese and lean subjects. In a crossover study, obese and lean subjects consumed beverages containing either 38.3 g of NBS or 38.3 g of digestible corn starch (DCS twice daily during 4 days. On day 5, a 3-h meal tolerance test (MTT was performed to evaluate glucose and insulin responses. After 1 week of washout period, treatments were inverted. NBS supplementation reduced the 48-h glycemia AUC in lean, obese, and in the combined group of lean and obese subjects in comparison with DCS. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses at MTT were reduced after NBS in comparison with DCS in all groups. However, no changes were observed in glycemic variability (GV indexes between groups. In conclusion, acute NBS supplementation improved postprandial glucose and insulin responses in obese and lean subjects during 48 h of everyday life and at MTT. Further research to elucidate the mechanism behind these changes is required.

  5. In vitro characterization of the impact of different substrates on metabolite production, energy extraction and composition of gut microbiota from lean and obese subjects.

    Aguirre, Marisol; Jonkers, Daisy M A E; Troost, Freddy J; Roeselers, Guus; Venema, Koen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of galacto-oligosaccharides, lactulose, apple fiber and sugar beet pectin on the composition and activity of human colonic microbiota of lean and obese healthy subjects using an in vitro model of the proximal colon: TIM-2. Substrate fermentation was assessed by measuring the production of short-chain and branched-chain fatty acids, lactate and ammonia and by studying the composition of the bacterial communities over time. The results suggest that energy harvest (in terms of metabolites) of lean and obese microbiotas is different and may depend on the fermentable substrate. For galacto-oligosaccharides and lactulose, the cumulative amount of short-chain fatty acids plus lactate produced in TIM-2 was lower in the fermentation experiments with the lean microbiota (123 and 155 mmol, respectively) compared to the obese (162 and 173 mmol, respectively). This was reversed for the pectin and the fiber. The absolute amount produced of short-chain fatty acids including lactate was higher after 72 h in the fermentation experiments with apple fiber-L (108 mmol) than with apple fiber-O (92 mmol). Sugar beet-L was also higher (130 mmol) compared to sugar beet-O (103 mmol). Galacto-oligosaccharides and lactulose boosted the balance of health-promoting over toxic metabolites produced by the microbiota from obese subjects. Firmicutes were more predominant in the inoculum prepared from feces of obese subjects compared to lean subjects. The average abundance at time zero was 92% and 74%, respectively. On the other hand, Bacteroidetes were more dominant in the microbiota prepared with homogenates from lean subjects with an average abundance of 22% compared with the microbiota prepared with homogenates from obese subjects (3.6%). This study brings evidence that different fermentable carbohydrates are fermented differently by lean and obese microbiotas, which contributes to the understanding of the role of diet and the microbiota in

  6. In vitro characterization of the impact of different substrates on metabolite production, energy extraction and composition of gut microbiota from lean and obese subjects.

    Marisol Aguirre

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of galacto-oligosaccharides, lactulose, apple fiber and sugar beet pectin on the composition and activity of human colonic microbiota of lean and obese healthy subjects using an in vitro model of the proximal colon: TIM-2. Substrate fermentation was assessed by measuring the production of short-chain and branched-chain fatty acids, lactate and ammonia and by studying the composition of the bacterial communities over time. The results suggest that energy harvest (in terms of metabolites of lean and obese microbiotas is different and may depend on the fermentable substrate. For galacto-oligosaccharides and lactulose, the cumulative amount of short-chain fatty acids plus lactate produced in TIM-2 was lower in the fermentation experiments with the lean microbiota (123 and 155 mmol, respectively compared to the obese (162 and 173 mmol, respectively. This was reversed for the pectin and the fiber. The absolute amount produced of short-chain fatty acids including lactate was higher after 72 h in the fermentation experiments with apple fiber-L (108 mmol than with apple fiber-O (92 mmol. Sugar beet-L was also higher (130 mmol compared to sugar beet-O (103 mmol. Galacto-oligosaccharides and lactulose boosted the balance of health-promoting over toxic metabolites produced by the microbiota from obese subjects. Firmicutes were more predominant in the inoculum prepared from feces of obese subjects compared to lean subjects. The average abundance at time zero was 92% and 74%, respectively. On the other hand, Bacteroidetes were more dominant in the microbiota prepared with homogenates from lean subjects with an average abundance of 22% compared with the microbiota prepared with homogenates from obese subjects (3.6%. This study brings evidence that different fermentable carbohydrates are fermented differently by lean and obese microbiotas, which contributes to the understanding of the role of diet and the

  7. Insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral glucose in non-obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    Rask, E; Olsson, T; Söderberg, S

    2004-01-01

    of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, and GIP. Insulin secretion (TIS) and insulin sensitivity (OGIS) were assessed using models describing the relationship between glucose, insulin and C-peptide data. These models allowed estimation also of the hepatic extraction of insulin. The age (54.2 +/- 9.7 [mean......Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are usually overweight and exhibit insulin resistance with a defective compensation of insulin secretion. In this study, we sought to establish the interrelation between insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity after oral glucose in non-obese subjects...... over the whole 180-minute period was higher in IGT (26.2 +/- 2.4 v 20.0 +/- 2.0 nmol/L; P =.035). Hepatic insulin extraction correlated linearly with OGIS (r = 0.71; P

  8. Effect of sibutramine on cardiovascular outcomes in overweight and obese subjects

    James, W Philip T; Caterson, Ian D; Coutinho, Walmir

    2010-01-01

    The long-term effects of sibutramine treatment on the rates of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death among subjects at high cardiovascular risk have not been established.......The long-term effects of sibutramine treatment on the rates of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death among subjects at high cardiovascular risk have not been established....

  9. Randomized comparison of reduced fat and reduced carbohydrate hypocaloric diets on intrahepatic fat in overweight and obese human subjects.

    Haufe, Sven; Engeli, Stefan; Kast, Petra; Böhnke, Jana; Utz, Wolfgang; Haas, Verena; Hermsdorf, Mario; Mähler, Anja; Wiesner, Susanne; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Sell, Henrike; Otto, Christoph; Mehling, Heidrun; Luft, Friedrich C; Eckel, Juergen; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens

    2011-05-01

    Obesity-related hepatic steatosis is a major risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Fat reduced hypocaloric diets are able to relieve the liver from ectopically stored lipids. We hypothesized that the widely used low carbohydrate hypocaloric diets are similarly effective in this regard. A total of 170 overweight and obese, otherwise healthy subjects were randomized to either reduced carbohydrate (n = 84) or reduced fat (n = 86), total energy restricted diet (-30% of energy intake before diet) for 6 months. Body composition was estimated by bioimpedance analyses and abdominal fat distribution by magnetic resonance tomography. Subjects were also submitted to fat spectroscopy of liver and oral glucose tolerance testing. In all, 102 subjects completed the diet intervention with measurements of intrahepatic lipid content. Both hypocaloric diets decreased body weight, total body fat, visceral fat, and intrahepatic lipid content. Subjects with high baseline intrahepatic lipids (>5.56%) lost ≈7-fold more intrahepatic lipids compared with those with low baseline values (diet composition. In contrast, changes in visceral fat mass and insulin sensitivity were similar between subgroups, with low and high baseline intrahepatic lipids. A prolonged hypocaloric diet low in carbohydrates and high in fat has the same beneficial effects on intrahepatic lipid accumulation as the traditional low-fat hypocaloric diet. The decrease in intrahepatic lipids appears to be independent of visceral fat loss and is not tightly coupled with changes in whole body insulin sensitivity during 6 months of an energy restricted diet. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  10. Obesity.

    Callaway, C W

    1987-01-01

    Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complicatio...

  11. Consumption of a liquid high-fat meal increases triglycerides but decreases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance.

    Wang, Feng; Lu, Huixia; Liu, Fukang; Cai, Huizhen; Xia, Hui; Guo, Fei; Xie, Yulan; Huang, Guiling; Miao, Miao; Shu, Guofang; Sun, Guiju

    2017-07-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance, which may be a potential contributor to dyslipidemia. However, the relationship between postprandial insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in abdominally obese subjects remains unknown. We hypothesized that postprandial dyslipidemia would be exaggerated in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance. To test this hypothesis, serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B were measured at baseline and postprandial state at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after a liquid high-fat meal in non-abdominally obese controls (n=44) and abdominally obese subjects with low (AO-LPIR, n=40), middle (n=40), and high postprandial insulin resistance (AO-HPIR, n=40) based on the tertiles ratio of the insulin to glucose areas under the curve (AUC). Their serum adipokines were tested at baseline only. Fasting serum leptin was higher (Pinsulin resistance and controls. The present study indicated that the higher degree of postprandial insulin resistance, the more adverse lipid profiles in abdominally obese subjects, which provides insight into opportunity for screening in health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Massive weight loss restores 24-hour growth hormone release profiles and serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels in obese subjects

    Rasmussen, M H; Hvidberg, A; Juul, A

    1995-01-01

    levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), as well as insulin in obese subjects before and after a massive weight loss. We studied 18 obese subjects (age, 26 +/- 1 yr; body mass index, 40.9 +/- 1.1 kg/m2); 18 normal age-, and sex-matched control subjects; and 9...... using anthropometric measurements and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning (DXA). In the obese subjects, 24-h spontaneous GH release profiles and the GH responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and L-arginine as well as basal IGF-I levels and the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio were decreased, whereas...

  13. Fasting gall bladder volume and lithogenicity in relation to glucose tolerance, total and intra-abdominal fat masses in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Hendel, H W; Højgaard, L; Andersen, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether total body fat mass or fat distribution and associated metabolic disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism influence the well known gallstone pathogenetic factors in obese subjects in order to explain why some obese subjects develop gallstones and some do not...... with a specific radioimmunoassay. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Minimal Model and glucose tolerance by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Serum lipid concentrations were measured by standard methods. RESULTS: The gallbladder volume in the fasting state increased with increasing intra-abdominal fat...... mass (P=0.006) and was increased in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (41 vs 27 ml, P=0.001). The lithogenic index was > 1 in all subjects and correlated with total fat mass (P=0.04). CONCLUSION: Gallstone pathogenesis in obesity seems to be influenced by the total body fat mass and its regional...

  14. EVALUATION OF THE THORACOABDOMINAL MOBILITY OF OBESE SUBJECTS IN PRE-BARIATRIC SURGERY.

    Veloso, Ana Paula Limongi Richardelli; Cusmanich, Karla Garcez

    Obesity can affect the thorax, diaphragm, and alterations in respiratory function even if the lungs are within normality. The respiratory compliance is very reduced by the increase in fat mass. To evaluate the effect of the physical therapeutic respiratory exercises on the thoracoabdominal mobility of obese individuals in pre-bariatric surgery. Cross-sectional and descriptive study, which used the cirtometry (axillary, xiphoid and abdominal) to evaluate the mobility of 74 individuals, 27 men and 47 women, in pre-bariatric surgery, assisted by the team EMAD, after eight weeks of physiotherapy, following a protocol of exercises, reevaluating and compared the measures pre and post intervention. Had positive correlation abdominal mobility in the total volume of all participants (p=0.010) and also for all the measures in the measurement of residual volume in three levels (p=0.000). Comparing genders, in total volume, cirtometry abdominal greater for women (p=0.015) when compared to men and residual volume, significance for either men or women in all measurements (p=0.000). Obese patients that underwent the physiotherapeutic treatment during the preoperative period, had pré respiratory dynamics improved by the increase in the mobility of the chest cavity and by the improvement of respiratory conscience. A obesidade pode afetar o tórax e o diafragma, determinando alterações na função respiratória, mesmo quando os pulmões se apresentam dentro da normalidade. A complacência respiratória é muito reduzida pelo aumento de massa gordurosa. Avaliar o efeito de exercícios fisioterapêuticos respiratórios sobre a mobilidade torácica de indivíduos obesos no pré-operatório de cirurgia bariátrica. Estudo transversal e descritivo, que utilizou a cirtometria (axilar, xifoide e abdominal) para avaliar a mobilidade de 74 indivíduos, 27 homens e 47 mulheres, em pré-operatório de cirurgia bariátrica, assistidos pela equipe EMAD, após oito semanas de fisioterapia

  15. An obesity provoking behaviour negatively influences young normal weight subjects' health related quality of life and causes depressive symptoms.

    Ernersson, Asa; Frisman, Gunilla Hollman; Sepa Frostell, Anneli; Nyström, Fredrik H; Lindström, Torbjörn

    2010-12-01

    In many parts of the world the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in combination with high consumption of food has increased, which contributes to increased risk for becoming overweight. Our primary aim was, in an intervention, to examine the influence on health related quality of life (HRQoL) and mood in young normal weight subjects of both sexes, when adopting an obesity provoking behaviour by increasing the energy intake via fast food and simultaneously adopting a sedentary lifestyle. A secondary aim was to follow-up possible long-term effects on HRQoL and mood 6 and 12 months after this short-term intervention. In this prospective study, 18 healthy normal weight subjects (mean age 26±6.6 years), mainly university students were prescribed doubled energy intake, and maximum 5000 steps/day, during 4 weeks. An age and sex matched control group (n=18), who were asked to have unchanged eating habits and physical activity, was recruited. Before and after the intervention questionnaires including Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety Depression scale, Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, Sense of Coherence and Mastery scale were completed by the subjects in the intervention group and by the controls with 4 weeks interval. Six and 12 months after the intervention the subjects underwent the same procedure as at baseline and the controls completed the same questionnaires. During the intervention, subjects in the intervention group increased their bodyweight and developed markedly lower physical and mental health scores on Short Form-36 as well as depressive symptoms while no changes appeared in the controls. The increase of depressive symptoms was associated with increases of energy intake, body weight and body fat. When followed up, 6 and 12 months after the intervention, physical and mental health had returned completely to baseline values, despite somewhat increased body weight. In conclusion, adopting obesity provoking behaviour for 4 weeks decreases HRQo

  16. A whey-protein supplement increases fat loss and spares lean muscle in obese subjects: a randomized human clinical study

    Ward Loren S

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated a specialized whey fraction (Prolibra™, high in leucine, bioactive peptides and milk calcium for use as a dietary supplement to enhance weight loss. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm, 12-week study. Caloric intake was reduced 500 calories per day. Subjects consumed Prolibra or an isocaloric ready-to-mix beverage 20 minutes before breakfast and 20 minutes before dinner. Body fat and lean muscle tissue were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Body weight and anthropometric measurements were recorded every 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of the study. Statistical analyses were performed on all subjects that completed (completer analysis and all subjects that lost at least 2.25 kg of body weight (responder analysis. Within group significance was determined at P Results Both groups lost a significant amount of weight and the Prolibra group tended to lose more weight than the control group; however the amount of weight loss was not significantly different between groups after 12 weeks. Prolibra subjects lost significantly more body fat compared to control subjects for both the completer (2.81 vs. 1.62 kg P = 0.03 and responder (3.63 vs. 2.11 kg, P = 0.01 groups. Prolibra subjects lost significantly less lean muscle mass in the responder group (1.07 vs. 2.41 kg, P = 0.02. The ratio of fat to lean loss (kg fat lost/kg lean lost was much larger for Prolibra subjects for both completer (3.75 vs. 1.05 and responder (3.39 vs. 0.88 groups. Conclusion Subjects in both the control and treatment group lost a significant amount of weight with a 500 calorie reduced diet. Subjects taking Prolibra lost significantly more body fat and showed a greater preservation of lean muscle compared to subjects consuming the control beverage. Because subjects taking Prolibra lost 6.1% of their body fat mass, and because a 5% reduction of body fat mass has been shown to

  17. Pro-inflammatory wnt5a and anti-inflammatory sFRP5 are differentially regulated by nutritional factors in obese human subjects.

    Dominik M Schulte

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue. These inflammatory cells affect adipocytes not only by classical cytokines but also by the secreted glycopeptide wnt5a. Healthy adipocytes are able to release the wnt5a inhibitor sFRP5. This protective effect, however, was found to be diminished in obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine (1 whether obese human subjects exhibit increased serum concentrations of wnt5a and (2 whether wnt5a and/or sFRP5 serum concentrations in obese subjects can be influenced by caloric restriction.23 obese human subjects (BMI 44.1 ± 1.1 kg/m(2 and 12 age- and sex-matched lean controls (BMI 22.3 ± 0.4 kg/m(2 were included in the study. Obese subjects were treated with a very low-calorie diet (approximately 800 kcal/d for 12 weeks. Body composition was assessed by impedance analysis, insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA-IR and the leptin-to-adiponectin ratio and wnt5a and sFRP5 serum concentrations were measured by ELISA. sFRP5 expression in human adipose tissue biopsies was further determined on protein level by immunohistology.Pro-inflammatory wnt5a was not measurable in any serum sample of lean control subjects. In patients with obesity, however, wnt5a became significantly detectable consistent with low grade inflammation in such subjects. Caloric restriction resulted in a weight loss from 131.9 ± 4.0 to 112.3 ± 3.2 kg in the obese patients group. This was accompanied by a significant decrease of HOMA-IR and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, indicating improved insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, these metabolic improvements were associated with a significant increase in serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory factor and wnt5a-inhibitor sFRP5.Obesity is associated with elevated serum levels of pro-inflammatory wnt5a in humans. Furthermore, caloric restriction beneficially affects serum concentrations of anti-inflammatory sFRP5 in such subjects. These findings suggest a

  18. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    Idoia Ibero-Baraibar; Manuel Suárez; Anna Arola-Arnal; M. Angeles Zulet; J. Alfredo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations.Objective: To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated.Design: Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention st...

  19. Interleukin-6 levels in the central nervous system are negatively correlated with fat mass in overweight/obese subjects.

    Stenlöf, Kaj; Wernstedt, Ingrid; Fjällman, Ted; Wallenius, Ville; Wallenius, Kristina; Jansson, John-Olov

    2003-09-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that intracerebroventricular injection of IL-6 increases energy expenditure and decreases body fat in rodents. Therefore, IL-6 may play a role in appetite and body weight control in the central nervous system. In the present study we evaluated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum IL-6 levels in humans in relation to body fat content and to CSF and serum levels of leptin. Thirty-two healthy overweight/obese male subjects with a body mass index range of 29.3-36.0 kg/m(2) were studied. Total and sc body fat were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography, respectively. CSF IL-6 levels were in some individuals higher than serum IL-6 levels and correlated negatively with total body weight, sc and total body fat. In contrast, CSF leptin levels were 30-60 times lower than serum leptin levels and correlated positively with serum leptin, body weight, sc and total body fat. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between CSF IL-6 and leptin. In conclusion, CSF IL-6 differs in many ways from CSF leptin. CSF IL-6 may be locally produced rather than serum derived, and body fat-regulating regions in the central nervous system may be exposed to insufficient IL-6 levels in more severe obesity.

  20. Effect of Weight Reduction Following Bariatric Surgery on Serum Visfatin and Adiponectin Levels in Morbidly Obese Subjects

    Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Adipokines are signaling and mediator proteins secreted from adipose tissue. A novel adipokine, visfatin, was reported as a protein which was mainly expressed in visceral adipose tissue. Controversial results have been shown regarding the changes of adipokines following weight reduction. So we investigated the effects of weight reduction on serum concentrations of adiponectin and visfatin in morbidly obese subjects. Methods: 35 severely obese patients (26 females and 9 males, aged 15-58 years, were studied. Anthropometric parameters and biochemical parameters as well as adiponectin and visfatin were analyzed before and 6 weeks after weight reduction. Results: Anthropometric indices decreased significantly. Blood levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride were reduced significantly. The reduction of visfatin and the elevation of adiponectin were significant as well. However, other parameters like fasting glucose and insulin did not change. Moreover, we could not find any significant correlation between the change of serum visfatin and that of adiponectin. Conclusions: 6-week weight reduction after bariatric surgery resulted in decreased serum visfatin and increased adiponectin levels. However, we cannot find any significant correlation between changes of adiponectin, visfatin, BMI, waist circumference, and insulin resistance. Further studies with different design are suggested to clarify these associations.

  1. A legume-based hypocaloric diet reduces proinflammatory status and improves metabolic features in overweight/obese subjects.

    Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Zulet, M Ángeles; Abete, Itziar; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2011-02-01

    The nutritional composition of the dietary intake could produce specific effects on metabolic variables and inflammatory marker concentrations. This study assessed the effects of two hypocaloric diets (legume-restricted- vs. legume-based diet) on metabolic and inflammatory changes, accompanying weight loss. Thirty obese subjects (17 M/13F; BMI: 32.5 ± 4.5 kg/m(2); 36 ± 8 years) were randomly assigned to one of the following hypocaloric treatments (8 weeks): Calorie-restricted legume-free diet (Control: C-diet) or calorie-restricted legume-based diet (L-diet), prescribing 4 weekly different cooked-servings (160-235 g) of lentils, chickpeas, peas or beans. Body composition, blood pressure (BP), blood biochemical and inflammatory marker concentrations as well as dietary intake were measured at baseline and after the nutritional intervention. The L-diet achieved a greater body weight loss, when compared to the C-diet (-7.8 ± 2.9% vs. -5.3 ± 2.7%; p = 0.024). Total and LDL cholesterol levels and systolic BP were improved only when consuming the L-diet (p diet also resulted in a significant higher reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement C3 (C3) concentrations (p diet values. Interestingly, the reduction in the concentrations of CRP and C3 remained significantly higher to L-diet group, after adjusting by weight loss (p diet group, independent from weight loss (p hypocaloric diet resulted in a specific reduction in proinflammatory markers, such as CRP and C3 and a clinically significant improvement of some metabolic features (lipid profile and BP) in overweight/ obese subjects, which were in some cases independent from weight loss.

  2. Gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and glycemic responses to erythritol and xylitol in lean and obese subjects.

    Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K; Cajacob, Lucian; Keller, Nino; Doody, Alison; Rehfeld, Jens F; Drewe, Juergen; Peterli, Ralph; Beglinger, Christoph; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin

    2016-06-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity and a possible association with increasing sucrose consumption, nonnutritive sweeteners are gaining popularity. Given that some studies indicate that artificial sweeteners might have adverse effects, alternative solutions are sought. Xylitol and erythritol have been known for a long time and their beneficial effects on caries prevention and potential health benefits in diabetic patients have been demonstrated in several studies. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are released from the gut in response to food intake, promote satiation, reduce gastric emptying (GE), and modulate glucose homeostasis. Although glucose ingestion stimulates sweet taste receptors in the gut and leads to incretin and gastrointestinal hormone release, the effects of xylitol and erythritol have not been well studied. Ten lean and 10 obese volunteers were given 75 g of glucose, 50 g of xylitol, or 75 g of erythritol in 300 ml of water or placebo (water) by a nasogastric tube. We examined plasma glucose, insulin, active GLP-1, CCK, and GE with a [(13)C]sodium acetate breath test and assessed subjective feelings of satiation. Xylitol and erythritol led to a marked increase in CCK and GLP-1, whereas insulin and plasma glucose were not (erythritol) or only slightly (xylitol) affected. Both xylitol and erythritol induced a significant retardation in GE. Subjective feelings of appetite were not significantly different after carbohydrate intake compared with placebo. In conclusion, acute ingestion of erythritol and xylitol stimulates gut hormone release and slows down gastric emptying, whereas there is no or only little effect on insulin release. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Randomized, multi-center trial of two hypo-energetic diets in obese subjects: high- versus low-fat content

    Petersen, M; Taylor, M A; Saris, W H M

    2006-01-01

    :Obese (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2)) adult subjects (n = 771), from eight European centers. MEASUREMENTS: Body weight loss, dropout rates, proportion of subjects who lost more than 10% of initial body weight, blood lipid profile, insulin and glucose. RESULTS: The dietary fat energy percent was 25% in the low-fat group...... and 40% in the high-fat group (mean difference: 16 (95% confidence interval (CI) 15-17)%). Average weight loss was 6.9 kg in the low-fat group and 6.6 kg in the high-fat group (mean difference: 0.3 (95% CI -0.2 to 0.8) kg). Dropout was 13.6% (n = 53) in the low-fat group and 18.3% (n = 70) in the high......-fat group than in the high-fat group. Fasting plasma insulin and glucose were lowered equally by both diets. CONCLUSIONS: The low-fat diet produced similar mean weight loss as the high-fat diet, but resulted in more subjects losing >10% of initial body weight and fewer dropouts. Both diets produced...

  4. A protective effect of the BDNF Met/Met genotype in obesity in healthy Caucasian subjects but not in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Sustar, A; Nikolac Perkovic, M; Nedic Erjavec, G; Svob Strac, D; Pivac, N

    2016-08-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophic factor with an important role in the regulation of body weight, body mass index (BMI) and obesity. Increased BMI that leads to obesity is a substantial risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). The functional BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) has been associated with CHD, obesity and BMI. The aim of the study was to determine the association between BDNF rs6265 polymorphism and CHD and/or BMI in patients with CHD and healthy control subjects. The study included 704 Caucasian subjects: 206 subjects with CHD and 498 healthy control subjects. The BDNF rs6265 genotype frequency was similar in male and female subjects, and there were no differences in the frequency of the BDNF rs6265 genotypes in 206 patients with CHD and in 498 healthy subjects. When study participants were subdivided according to the BMI categories into normal weight, overweight and obese subjects, significantly different BDNF rs6265 genotype frequency was found within healthy subjects, but not within patients with CHD. Healthy subjects, but not patients with CHD, subdivided into carriers of the Met/Met, Met/Val and Val/Val genotype, had different BMI scores. The BDNF rs6265 genotype frequency was similar in male and female subjects, and there were no differences in the frequency of the BDNF rs6265 genotypes in 206 patients with CHD and in 498 healthy subjects. When study participants were subdivided according to the BMI categories into normal weight, overweight and obese subjects, significantly different BDNF rs6265 genotype frequency was found within healthy subjects, but not within patients with CHD. Healthy subjects, but not patients with CHD, subdivided into carriers of the Met/Met, Met/Val and Val/Val genotype, had different BMI scores. BDNF rs6265 polymorphism was not associated with a diagnosis of CHD or with BMI categories among patients with CHD. In contrast, healthy Caucasians, carriers of the BDNF Met/Met genotype, had more

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging determined visceral fat reduction associates with enhanced IL-10 plasma levels in calorie restricted obese subjects.

    Gloria Formoso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is characterized by a low grade chronic inflammation state. Indeed circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, are elevated in obese subjects, while anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, appear to be reduced. Cytokines profile improves after weight loss, but how visceral or subcutaneous fat loss respectively affect pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines plasma levels has not been precisely assessed. Therefore in the present study we correlated changes in circulating cytokine profile with quantitative changes in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots measured by an ad hoc Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI protocol before and after weight loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 14 obese subjects, MRI determination of visceral and subcutaneous fat and plasma glucose, insulin, TNF-α IL-6, and IL-10 measurements were performed before and after a caloric restriction induced weight loss of at least 5% of the original body weight. RESULTS: Weight loss improved insulin sensitivity (QUICKI Index: 0.35±0.03 vs 0.37±0.04; P<0.05, increased IL-10 (3.4±1.9 vs 4.6±1.0 pg/mL; P<0.03, and reduced TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels (2.5±1.3 vs 1.6±1.5 pg/mL, P<0.0015, 2.3±0.4 vs 1.6±0.6 pg/mL, P<0.02 respectively. A significant correlation was observed between the amount of visceral fat loss and the percentage reduction in both TNF-α (r = 0.56, p<0.05 and IL-6 (r = 0.19 p<0.05 plasma levels. In a multiple regression analysis, the amount of visceral fat loss independently correlated with the increase in IL-10 plasma levels. CONCLUSION: The reduction in visceral adipose tissue is the main driver of the improved inflammatory profile induced by weight loss.

  6. Smoking cessation improves cardiometabolic risk in overweight and obese subjects treated with varenicline and dietary counseling.

    Heggen, E; Svendsen, M; Tonstad, S

    2017-04-01

    Weight gain after stopping smoking potentially counteracts improvements in cardiometabolic risks. We investigated changes in metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and homeostasis assessment model insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in smokers given dietary counseling during their quit attempt. Smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day) with BMI 25-40 kg/m 2 were randomized to a low-carbohydrate or low-fat diet and treated with a standard course of varenicline for 12 weeks. Quitters were assessed according to the Russell standard (≤5 cigarettes after the quit date) validated with expired breath carbon monoxide (CO) vs 0.3 ± 3.1 kg; p = 0.7) and change in waist circumference (-2.0 ± 3.8 cm vs -0.9 ± 3.9 cm; p = 0.2). Changes in triglyceride concentrations (-0.16 ± 0.52 mmol/l vs 0.21 ± 0.95 mmol/l; p = 0.015) and diastolic blood pressure (-0.9 ± 6 mmHg vs 1.9 ± 8 mmHg; p = 0.039) were more favorable in quitters. Changes in other cardiometabolic risks and HOMA-IR did not differ between quitters and continuous smokers, nor did energy intake or resting metabolic rate. Dyslipidemia and blood pressure improved and no early weight gain was seen in quitters, suggesting that dietary intervention can mitigate some of the effects of stopping smoking on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese smokers. NCT01069458. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Theobromine consumption does not improve fasting and postprandial vascular function in overweight and obese subjects.

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P; van den Driessche, Jose J; Joris, Peter J; Plat, Jogchum

    2018-01-12

    Theobromine, a component of cocoa, may favorably affect conventional lipid-related cardiovascular risk markers, but effects on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and other vascular function markers are not known. To evaluate the effects of 4-week theobromine consumption (500 mg/day) on fasting and postprandial vascular function markers. In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 44 apparently healthy overweight (N = 30) and obese (N = 14) men and women with low HDL-C concentrations, consumed daily 500 mg theobromine or placebo for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, FMD, peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), augmentation index (AIx), pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure (BP) and retinal microvasculature measurements were performed. These measurements were carried out under fasting conditions and 2.5 h after a high-fat mixed meal challenge. 4-week theobromine consumption did not change fasting vascular function markers, except for a decrease in central AIx (cAIx, - 1.7 pp, P = 0.037) and a trend towards smaller venular calibers (- 2 µm, P = 0.074). Consuming a high-fat mixed meal decreased FMD (0.89 pp, P = 0.002), reactive hyperemia index (RHI, - 0.30, P Theobromine did not modify these postprandial effects, but increased postprandially the brachial artery diameter (0.03 cm, P = 0.015), and decreased the cAIx corrected for a HR of 75 (cAIx75, - 5.0 pp, P = 0.004) and peripheral AIx (pAIx, - 6.3 pp, P = 0.017). Theobromine consumption did not improve fasting and postprandial endothelial function, but increased postprandial peripheral arterial diameters and decreased the AIx. These findings do not suggest that theobromine alone contributes to the proposed cardioprotective effects of cocoa. This trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov under study number NCT02209025.

  8. Effect of weight loss on sympatho-vagal balance in subjects with grade-3 obesity: restrictive surgery versus hypocaloric diet.

    Pontiroli, Antonio E; Merlotti, Claudia; Veronelli, Annamaria; Lombardi, Federico

    2013-12-01

    Few and mostly uncontrolled studies indicate that weight loss improves heart rate variability (HRV) in grade-3 obesity. The aim of this study was to compare in grade-3 obesity surgery and hypocaloric diet on clinical and metabolic variables and on autonomic indices of HRV. Twenty-four subjects (body mass index, BMI 45.5 ± 9.13 kg/m(2)) underwent surgery (n = 12, gastric banding, LAGB) or received hypocaloric diet (n = 12, 1,000-1,200 kg/day). Clinical [BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate] and metabolic variables [glucose, cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, AST and ALT transaminases] and 24-h Holter electrocardiographic-derived HRV parameters [R-R interval, standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDNN); low/high-frequency (LF/HF) ratio, and QT interval] were measured at baseline and after 6 months. The two groups were identical at baseline. BMI (-7.5 ± 3.57 kg/m(2), mean ± SD), glucose (-24.1 ± 26.77 mg/dL), SBP (-16.7 ± 22.19 mmHg) and DBP (-6.2 ± 8.56 mmHg) decreased in LAGB subjects (p < 0.05) and remained unchanged in controls. At 6 months, SDNN increased in LAGB subjects (+25.0 ± 37.19 ms, p < 0.05) and LF/HF ratio diminished (2.9 ± 1.84 vs. 4.9 ± 2.78; p = 0.01), with no change in controls; LF (daytime) and HF (24 h and daytime) increased in LAGB subjects, with no change in controls. Decrease in BMI correlated with SBP and DBP decrease (p < 0.05), and DBP decrease correlated with HR decrease (p < 0.05) and QT shortening (p < 0.05). Weight loss is associated with improvement of glucose metabolism, of blood pressure, and with changes in time and frequency domain parameters of HRV; all these changes indicate recovery of a more physiological autonomic control, with increase in parasympathetic and reduction in sympathetic indices of HRV.

  9. Changes in markers of oxidative stress and DNA damage in human visceral adipose tissue from subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Jones, D A; Prior, S L; Barry, J D; Caplin, S; Baxter, J N; Stephens, J W

    2014-12-01

    In the past 30 years, prevalence of obesity has almost trebled resulting in an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and other co-morbidities. Visceral adipose tissue is believed to play a vital role, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Our aim was to investigate changes in markers of oxidative damage in human visceral adipose tissue to determine levels of oxidative burden that may be attributed to obesity and/or diabetes. Visceral adipose tissue samples from 61 subjects undergoing abdominal surgery grouped as lean, obese and obese with type 2 diabetes mellitus, were examined using 3 different markers of oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was measured as a marker of lipid peroxidation, telomere length and Comet assay as markers of oxidative DNA damage. No significant difference in MDA concentration, telomere length and DNA damage was observed between groups, although longer telomere lengths were seen in the obese with diabetes group compared to the obese group (Pstress and DNA damage was observed in samples from subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further work is required to investigate this further, however this phenomenon may be due to an up regulation of antioxidant defences in adipose tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An ACACB variant implicated in diabetic nephropathy associates with body mass index and gene expression in obese subjects.

    Lijun Ma

    Full Text Available Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase B gene (ACACB single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2268388 is reproducibly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM-associated nephropathy (DN. ACACB knock-out mice are also protected from obesity. This study assessed relationships between rs2268388, body mass index (BMI and gene expression in multiple populations, with and without T2DM. Among subjects without T2DM, rs2268388 DN risk allele (T associated with higher BMI in Pima Indian children (n = 2021; p-additive = 0.029 and African Americans (AAs (n = 177; p-additive = 0.05, with a trend in European Americans (EAs (n = 512; p-additive = 0.09, but not Germans (n = 858; p-additive = 0.765. Association with BMI was seen in a meta-analysis including all non-T2DM subjects (n = 3568; p-additive = 0.02. Among subjects with T2DM, rs2268388 was not associated with BMI in Japanese (n = 2912 or EAs (n = 1149; however, the T allele associated with higher BMI in the subset with BMI≥30 kg/m(2 (n = 568 EAs; p-additive = 0.049, n = 196 Japanese; p-additive = 0.049. Association with BMI was strengthened in a T2DM meta-analysis that included an additional 756 AAs (p-additive = 0.080 and 48 Hong Kong Chinese (p-additive = 0.81 with BMI≥30 kg/m(2 (n = 1575; p-additive = 0.0033. The effect of rs2268388 on gene expression revealed that the T risk allele associated with higher ACACB messenger levels in adipose tissue (41 EAs and 20 AAs with BMI>30 kg/m(2; p-additive = 0.018 and ACACB protein levels in the liver tissue (mixed model p-additive = 0.03, in 25 EA bariatric surgery patients with BMI>30 kg/m(2 for 75 exams. The T allele also associated with higher hepatic triglyceride levels. These data support a role for ACACB in obesity and potential roles for altered lipid metabolism in susceptibility to DN.

  11. Supervised exercise training counterbalances the adverse effects of insulin therapy in overweight/obese subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Balducci, Stefano; Zanuso, Silvano; Cardelli, Patrizia; Salerno, Gerardo; Fallucca, Sara; Nicolucci, Antonio; Pugliese, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effect of supervised exercise on traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors in sedentary, overweight/obese insulin-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Italian Diabetes Exercise Study (IDES). The study randomized 73 insulin-treated patients to twice weekly supervised aerobic and resistance training plus structured exercise counseling (EXE) or to counseling alone (CON) for 12 months. Clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. The volume of physical activity was significantly higher in the EXE versus the CON group. Values for hemoglobin A(1c), BMI, waist circumference, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and the coronary heart disease risk score were significantly reduced only in the EXE group. No major adverse events were observed. In insulin-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes, supervised exercise is safe and effective in improving glycemic control and markers of adiposity and inflammation, thus counterbalancing the adverse effects of insulin on these parameters.

  12. The effect of covert changes in energy density of preloads on subsequent ad libitum energy intake in lean and obese human subjects.

    Durrant, M L; Royston, J P; Wloch, R T; Garrow, J S

    1982-01-01

    1. Covert changes in energy intake were made by giving preloads of disguised energy density three times daily to 14 obese and 6 lean subjects. 2. The preloads contained 2.51 MJ (600 kcal)/d on days 2 and 3 and either 3.77 MJ (900 kcal)/d or 1.26 MJ (300 kcal/d) on days 4 and 5 and 1.26 MJ (300 kcal)/d or 3.77 MJ (900 kcal)/d on days 6 and 7. The order of testing was alternated for each subject. 3. Subsequent energy intake at each meal (lunch, dinner and breakfast) was measured with an automated food-dispensing machine. 4. Overall the obese subjects ate significantly less from the machine, 3.28 +/- 1.89 MJ (785 +/- 452 kcal)/d, than the lean subjects, 6.03 +/- 1.26 MJ (1442 +/- 300 kcal)/d. 5. Both groups of subjects adjusted their energy intake in the right direction to counterbalance the effect of the preloads but the lean subjects changed their intake by an average of 0.74 MJ (176 kcal)/d compared with the obese subjects who changed their intake by an average of 0.29 MJ (70 kcal)/d. 6. Although the lean subjects were better at adjusting their energy intake than the obese subjects, regulation was still imprecise relative to the 2.51 MJ (600 kcal)/d difference in energy intake that was imposed. 7. There were no significant differences in hunger or appetite between subjects or test situations.

  13. Long-term incidence of serious fall-related injuries after bariatric surgery in Swedish obese subjects.

    Carlsson, Lena M S; Sjöholm, Kajsa; Ahlin, Sofie; Jacobson, Peter; Andersson-Assarsson, Johanna C; Karlsson Lindahl, Linda; Maglio, Cristina; Karlsson, Cecilia; Hjorth, Stephan; Taube, Magdalena; Carlsson, Björn; Svensson, Per-Arne; Peltonen, Markku

    2018-05-24

    Obesity increases risk of falling, but the effect of bariatric surgery on fall-related injuries is unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to study the association between bariatric surgery and long-term incidence of fall-related injuries in the prospective, controlled Swedish Obese Subjects study. At inclusion, body mass index was ≥ 34 kg/m 2 in men and ≥38 kg/m 2 in women. The surgery per-protocol group (n = 2007) underwent gastric bypass (n = 266), banding (n = 376), or vertical banded gastroplasty (n = 1365), and controls (n = 2040) received usual care. At the time of analysis (31 December 2013), median follow-up was 19 years (maximal 26 years). Fall-related injuries requiring hospital treatment were captured using data from the Swedish National Patient Register. During follow-up, there were 617 first-time fall-related injuries in the surgery group and 513 in the control group (adjusted hazard ratio 1.21, 95% CI, 1.07-1.36; P = 0.002). The incidence differed between treatment groups (P < 0.001, log-rank test) and was higher after gastric bypass than after usual care, banding and vertical banded gastroplasty (adjusted hazard ratio 0.50-0.52, P < 0.001 for all three comparisons). In conclusion, gastric bypass surgery was associated with increased risk of serious fall-related injury requiring hospital treatment.

  14. Adverse effects of fructose on cardiometabolic risk factors and hepatic lipid metabolism in subjects with abdominal obesity.

    Taskinen, M-R; Söderlund, S; Bogl, L H; Hakkarainen, A; Matikainen, N; Pietiläinen, K H; Räsänen, S; Lundbom, N; Björnson, E; Eliasson, B; Mancina, R M; Romeo, S; Alméras, N; Pepa, G D; Vetrani, C; Prinster, A; Annuzzi, G; Rivellese, A; Després, J-P; Borén, J

    2017-08-01

    Overconsumption of dietary sugars, fructose in particular, is linked to cardiovascular risk factors such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, clinical studies have to date not clarified whether these adverse cardiometabolic effects are induced directly by dietary sugars, or whether they are secondary to weight gain. To assess the effects of fructose (75 g day -1 ), served with their habitual diet over 12 weeks, on liver fat content and other cardiometabolic risk factors in a large cohort (n = 71) of abdominally obese men. We analysed changes in body composition, dietary intake, an extensive panel of cardiometabolic risk markers, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), liver fat content and postprandial lipid responses after a standardized oral fat tolerance test (OFTT). Fructose consumption had modest adverse effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. However, fructose consumption significantly increased liver fat content and hepatic DNL and decreased β-hydroxybutyrate (a measure of β-oxidation). The individual changes in liver fat were highly variable in subjects matched for the same level of weight change. The increase in liver fat content was significantly more pronounced than the weight gain. The increase in DNL correlated positively with triglyceride area under the curve responses after an OFTT. Our data demonstrated adverse effects of moderate fructose consumption for 12 weeks on multiple cardiometabolic risk factors in particular on liver fat content despite only relative low increases in weight and waist circumference. Our study also indicates that there are remarkable individual differences in susceptibility to visceral adiposity/liver fat after real-world daily consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages over 12 weeks. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  15. Central obesity and survival in subjects with coronary artery disease: a systematic review of the literature and collaborative analysis with individual subject data

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of central (waist circumference [WC] and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) and total obesity (body mass index [BMI]) measures with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.......The aim of this study was to examine the association of central (waist circumference [WC] and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) and total obesity (body mass index [BMI]) measures with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients....

  16. GLP-1 and Calcitonin Concentration in Humans: Lack of Evidence of Calcitonin Release from Sequential Screening in over 5000 Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes or Nondiabetic Obese Subjects Treated with the Human GLP-1 Analog, Liraglutide

    Hegedüs, Laszlo; Moses, Alan C; Zdravkovic, Milan

    2011-01-01

    to the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus or nondiabetic obese subjects. Methods: Unstimulated serum CT concentrations were measured at 3-month intervals for no more than 2 yr in a series of trials in over 5000 subjects receiving liraglutide or control therapy....... Results: Basal mean CT concentrations were at the low end of normal range in all treatment groups and remained low throughout the trials. At 2 yr, estimated geometric mean values were no greater than 1.0 ng/liter, well below upper normal ranges for males and females. Proportions of subjects whose CT...

  17. Does des-acyl ghrelin improve glycemic control in obese diabetic subjects by decreasing acylated ghrelin levels?

    Özcan, Behiye; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M; Miller, Anne Reifel; Yang, Hsiu-Chiung; Lucaites, Virginia; Abribat, Thierry; Allas, Soraya; Huisman, Martin; Visser, Jenny A; Themmen, Axel P N; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Delhanty, Patric J D; van der Lely, Aart Jan

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of a continuous overnight infusion of des-acyl ghrelin (DAG) on acylated ghrelin (AG) levels and glucose and insulin responses to a standard breakfast meal (SBM) in eight overweight patients with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, in the same patients and two additional subjects, the effects of DAG infusion on AG concentrations and insulin sensitivity during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC) were assessed. A double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study design was implemented, using overnight continuous infusions of 3 and 10  μg DAG/kg per h and placebo to study the effects on a SBM. During a HEC, we studied the insulin sensitivity. We observed that, compared with placebo, overnight DAG administration significantly decreased postprandial glucose levels, both during continuous glucose monitoring and at peak serum glucose levels. The degree of improvement in glycemia was correlated with baseline plasma AG concentrations. Concurrently, DAG infusion significantly decreased fasting and postprandial AG levels. During the HEC, 2.5  h of DAG infusion markedly decreased AG levels, and the M-index, a measure of insulin sensitivity, was significantly improved in the six subjects in whom we were able to attain steady-state euglycemia. DAG administration was not accompanied by many side effects when compared with placebo. DAG administration improves glycemic control in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes through the suppression of AG levels. DAG is a good candidate for the development of compounds in the treatment of metabolic disorders or other conditions with a disturbed AG:DAG ratio, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus or Prader-Willi syndrome. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  18. Dietary Interventions and Changes in Cardio-Metabolic Parameters in Metabolically Healthy Obese Subjects: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    Marta Stelmach-Mardas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of diet on changes in parameters describing the body size phenotype of metabolically healthy obese subjects. The databases Medline, Scopus, Web of Knowledge and Embase were searched for clinical studies carried out between 1958 and June 2016 that reported the effect of dietary intervention on BMI, blood pressure, concentration of fasting triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, fasting glucose level, the homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP in metabolically healthy, obese subjects. Twelve clinical studies met inclusion criteria. The combined analyzed population consists of 1827 subjects aged 34.4 to 61.1 with a BMI > 30 kg/m2. Time of intervention ranged from eight to 104 weeks. The baseline characteristics related to lipid profile were more favorable for metabolically healthy obese than for metabolically unhealthy obese. The meta-analyses revealed a significant associations between restricted energy diet and BMI (95% confidence interval (CI: −0.88, −0.19, blood pressure (systolic blood pressure (SBP: −4.73 mmHg; 95% CI: −7.12, −2.33; and diastolic blood pressure (DBP: −2.75 mmHg; 95% CI: −4.30, −1.21 and TG (−0.11 mmol/l; 95% CI: −0.16, −0.06. Changes in fasting glucose, HOMA-IR and hsCRP did not show significant changes. Sufficient evidence was not found to support the use of specific diets in metabolically healthy obese subjects. This analysis suggests that the effect of caloric restriction exerts its effects through a reduction in BMI, blood pressure and triglycerides in metabolically healthy obese (MHO patients.

  19. Intake of non-nutritive sweeteners is associated with an unhealthy lifestyle: a cross-sectional study in subjects with morbid obesity.

    Winther, Robert; Aasbrenn, Martin; Farup, Per G

    2017-01-01

    Subjects with morbid obesity commonly use Non-Nutritive Sweeteners (NNS), but the health-related effects of NNS have been questioned. The objectives of this study were to explore the associations between theuse of NNS and the health and lifestyle in subjects with morbid obesity. This cross-sectional study included subjects with morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m 2 or ≥35 kg/m 2 with obesity-related comorbidity). Information about demographics, physical and mental health, and dietary habits was collected, and a blood screen was taken. One unit of NNS was defined as 100 ml beverages with NNS or 2 tablets/units of NNS for coffee or tea. The associations between the intake of NNS and the health-related variables were analyzed with ordinal regression analyses adjusted for age, gender and BMI. One hundred subjects (women/men 83/17; mean age 44.3 years (SD 8.5)) were included. Median intake of NNS was 3.3 units (range 0 - 43). Intake of NNS was not associated with BMI ( p  = 0.64). The intake of NNS was associated with reduced heavy physical activity ( p  = 0.011), fatigue ( p  unhealthy lifestyle, reduced physical and mental health and unfavourable dietary habits with increased energy intake including sugar, and reduced intake of some vitamins.

  20. Lipase inhibition and hormonal status, body composition and gastrointestinal processing of a liquid high-fat mixed meal in moderately obese subjects.

    Drent, M.L.; Popp-Snijders, C.; Adèr, H.J.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; van der Veen, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    DRENT, MADELEINE L, CORRIE POPP‐SNIJDERS, HERMAN J ADER, JAN BMJ JANSEN AND EDUARD A VAN DER VEEN. Lipase inhibition and hormonal status, body composition and gastrointestinal processing of a liquid high‐fat mixed meal in moderately obese subjects. Obes Res. The effect of Orlistat, a lipase

  1. In vitro characterization of the impact of different substrates on metabolite production, energy extraction and composition of gut microbiota from lean and obese subjects

    Aguirre, M.; Jonkers, D.M.A.E.; Troost, F.J.; Roeselers, G.; Venema, K.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of galacto-oligosaccharides, lactulose, apple fiber and sugar beet pectin on the composition and activity of human colonic microbiota of lean and obese healthy subjects using an in vitro model of the proximal colon: TIM-2. Substrate fermentation

  2. NF-κB activity in muscle from obese and type 2 diabetic subjects under basal and exercise-stimulated conditions.

    Tantiwong, Puntip; Shanmugasundaram, Karthigayan; Monroy, Adriana; Ghosh, Sangeeta; Li, Mengyao; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Cersosimo, Eugenio; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Mohan, Sumathy; Musi, Nicolas

    2010-11-01

    NF-κB is a transcription factor that controls the gene expression of several proinflammatory proteins. Cell culture and animal studies have implicated increased NF-κB activity in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and muscle atrophy. However, it is unclear whether insulin-resistant human subjects have abnormal NF-κB activity in muscle. The effect that exercise has on NF-κB activity/signaling also is not clear. We measured NF-κB DNA-binding activity and the mRNA level of putative NF-κB-regulated myokines interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in muscle samples from T2DM, obese, and lean subjects immediately before, during (40 min), and after (210 min) a bout of moderate-intensity cycle exercise. At baseline, NF-κB activity was elevated 2.1- and 2.7-fold in obese nondiabetic and T2DM subjects, respectively. NF-κB activity was increased significantly at 210 min following exercise in lean (1.9-fold) and obese (2.6-fold) subjects, but NF-κB activity did not change in T2DM. Exercise increased MCP-1 mRNA levels significantly in the three groups, whereas IL-6 gene expression increased significantly only in lean and obese subjects. MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expression peaked at the 40-min exercise time point. We conclude that insulin-resistant subjects have increased basal NF-κB activity in muscle. Acute exercise stimulates NF-κB in muscle from nondiabetic subjects. In T2DM subjects, exercise had no effect on NF-κB activity, which could be explained by the already elevated NF-κB activity at baseline. Exercise-induced MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expression precedes increases in NF-κB activity, suggesting that other factors promote gene expression of these cytokines during exercise.

  3. Effect of eight weeks of endurance exercise training on right and left ventricular volume and mass in untrained obese subjects: a longitudinal MRI study

    Vogelsang, T W; Hanel, B; Kristoffersen, U S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to examine how 8 weeks of intense endurance training influenced right and left ventricular volumes and mass in obese untrained subjects. Ten overweight subjects (19-47 years; body mass index of 34+/-5 kg/m(2)) underwent intensive endurance training (rowing......) and ventricular mass (VM) were measured by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Submaximal heart rate decreased from 126+/-5 to 113+/-3 b.p.m. (10%; P...

  4. Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes are associated with obstructive sleep apnea in extremely obese subjects: A cross-sectional study

    Røislien Jo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common yet underdiagnosed condition. The aim of our study is to test whether prediabetes and type 2 diabetes are associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in extremely obese (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2 subjects. Methods One hundred and thirty seven consecutive extremely obese patients (99 females from a controlled clinical trial [MOBIL-study (Morbid Obesity treatment, Bariatric surgery versus Intensive Lifestyle intervention Study (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00273104] underwent somnography with Embletta® and a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. OSA was defined by an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI ≥ 5 events/hour. Patients were categorized into three groups according to criteria from the American Diabetes Association: normal glucose tolerance, pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify possible determinants of OSA. Results The patients had a mean (SD age of 43 (11 years and a body mass index (BMI of 46.9 (5.7 kg/m2. Males had significantly higher AHI than females, 29 (25 vs 12 (17 events/hour, p Conclusions Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes are associated with OSA in extremely obese subjects. Trial registration MOBIL-study (Morbid Obesity treatment, Bariatric surgery versus Intensive Lifestyle intervention Study (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00273104

  5. Abdominal obesity is a common finding in normal and overweight subjects of Chile and is associated with increased frequency of cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Beatriz Villanueva

    Full Text Available Abdominal obesity (AO is associated with elevated risk for cardiovascular diseases; however, this association is less clear for non-obese people. We estimated the association of AO and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF and disease in non-obese adult individuals from Chile.5248 adults (15 years of age or older of both sexes from the Chilean National Health Survey (October 2009 -September 2010, response rate 85%. were included. Information on myocardial infarction and stroke was self-reported. BMI, waist circumference (WC, arterial pressure, plasma glucose, and cholesterol levels were measured. Predictive accuracy of WC was evaluated by area under curve of receiver operating characteristic analysis and cut off points were established by Youden Index. Relationship between AO and CVRF was analyzed by Chi-squared tests.Normal weight/overweight/obesity were present in 34.4%/45.2%/18.1% of men and 33.4%/33.6%/27.5% of women. Predictive accuracy of WC to identify at least one CVRF was 0.70/0.67 and optimal cutoff points for WC in non-obese subjects were 91/83 cm in men/women, respectively. AO was present in 98.2%/99.1% of obese, 70.5%/77.4% of overweight and 12.4%/16.4% of normal weight men/women. AO was associated with increased frequency of CVRF in overweight men (6/8 and stroke and women (4/8 and higher frequency in normal weight men (8/8 and myocardial infarction/stroke and women (6/8 and myocardial infarction.WC cutoff points calculated for non-obese chilean population discriminate more differences in CVRF in normal weight woman. AO significantly increases the frequency of CVRF and diseases in overweight and especially normal weight individuals. WC can be used as a low cost, feasible and reproducible predictor for CVRF in non-obese individuals in most clinical settings.

  6. Lansoprazole enhances the antidiabetic effect of sitagliptin in mice with diet-induced obesity and healthy human subjects.

    Hao, ShaoJun; Sun, JianHua; Tian, XiKui; Sun, Xu; Zhang, ZhenXing; Gao, Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Proton pump inhibitors as adjunctive therapy would improve diabetes control and could enhance the hypoglycaemic activity of DPP-4 inhibitors. The aim of the study was to investigate the short-term effects of lansoprazole (LPZ), sitagliptin (SITA) and their combination therapy on glucose regulation and gut peptide secretion. Glucose and gut peptide were determined and compared after short-term administration of LPZ or SITA, or in combination to mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) and to healthy human subjects (n = 16) in a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) by a crossover design. In DIO mice, LPZ significantly improve glucose metabolism, increase plasma C-peptide and insulin compared with vehicle treatment. Furthermore, the combination of LPZ and SITA improved glucose tolerance additively, with higher plasma insulin and C-peptide levels compared with SITA-treated mice. Similarly, in human in the OGTT, the combination showed significant improvement in glucose-lowering and insulin increase vs SITA-treated group. However, no significant differences in area under curve (AUC) of insulin, glucose and C-peptide between the LPZ-treated group and baseline, except that mean AUCgastrin was significantly increased by LPZ. LPZ and SITA combination therapy appears to have complementary mechanisms of action and additive antidiabetic effect. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Diet and exercise reduce low-grade inflammation and macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue but not in skeletal muscle in severely obese subjects

    Bruun, Jens M; Helge, Jørn W; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of a 15-wk lifestyle intervention (hypocaloric diet and daily exercise) on inflammatory markers in plasma, adipose tissue (AT), and skeletal muscle...... (SM) in 27 severely obese subjects (mean body mass index: 45.8 kg/m2). Plasma samples, subcutaneous abdominal AT biopsies, and vastus lateralis SM biopsies were obtained before and after the intervention and analyzed by ELISA and RT-PCR. The intervention reduced body weight (P

  8. Potential Benefits and Harms of Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Amongst Obese, Overweight and Normal Weight Subjects-A Narrative Review of Human and Animal Evidence.

    Harvie, Michelle; Howell, Anthony

    2017-01-19

    Intermittent energy restriction (IER) has become popular as a means of weight control amongst people who are overweight and obese, and is also undertaken by normal weight people hoping spells of marked energy restriction will optimise their health. This review summarises randomised comparisons of intermittent and isoenergetic continuous energy restriction for weight loss to manage overweight and obesity. It also summarises the potential beneficial or adverse effects of IER on body composition, adipose stores and metabolic effects from human studies, including studies amongst normal weight subjects and relevant animal experimentation. Six small short term (<6 month) studies amongst overweight or obese individuals indicate that intermittent energy restriction is equal to continuous restriction for weight loss, with one study reporting greater reductions in body fat, and two studies reporting greater reductions in HOMA insulin resistance in response to IER, with no obvious evidence of harm. Studies amongst normal weight subjects and different animal models highlight the potential beneficial and adverse effects of intermittent compared to continuous energy restriction on ectopic and visceral fat stores, adipocyte size, insulin resistance, and metabolic flexibility. The longer term benefits or harms of IER amongst people who are overweight or obese, and particularly amongst normal weight subjects, is not known and is a priority for further investigation.

  9. Combining Body Mass Index With Measures of Central Obesity in the Assessment of Mortality in Subjects With Coronary Disease

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity.......This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity....

  10. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity is independently determined by obesity and insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects

    de Vries, Rindert; Kappelle, Paul J. W. H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an emerging cardio-metabolic risk factor which is intricately involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Elevated plasma PLTP activity levels are reported in obesity and diabetes mellitus, but the relative contributions of obesity and insulin resistance to plasma

  11. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity is independently determined by obesity and insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects

    de Vries, Rindert; Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Background: Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an emerging cardio-metabolic risk factor which is intricately involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Elevated plasma PLTP activity levels are reported in obesity and diabetes mellitus, but the relative contributions of obesity and insulin resistance

  12. Evaluation of Mangosteen juice blend on biomarkers of inflammation in obese subjects: a pilot, dose finding study

    Singh Betsy B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to reduce inflammation in overweight and obese individuals may be valuable in preventing the progression to metabolic syndrome with associated risks for heart disease and diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of multiple dosages of a proprietary Mangosteen Juice blend on indicators of inflammation and antioxidant levels in obese patients with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Methods The study was an 8 week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with a pre-study 2 week washout period. The study included four groups including placebo and three difference doses of the test product, XanGo Juice™: 3, 6 or 9 oz twice daily. The primary outcome measure of this study was high-sensitivity (HS-CRP. Secondary outcome measures included other biochemical indicators of inflammation, anthropomorphic measures and a safety evaluation. Results One hundred twenty two (122 persons were screened for the study, 44 were randomized and 40 completed the study. HS-CRP measurements dropped after 8 weeks treatment compared to baseline in all 3 dose groups and increased in the placebo group. The changes from baseline were not significant but the comparison of change from baseline was significant for the 18 oz group when compared to placebo (p = 0.02. Other markers of inflammation (inflammatory cytokines and a marker for lipid peroxidation (F2 isoprostane did not show any significant differences when compared with placebo. There was a trend towards a decrease in BMI in the juice groups. There were no side effects reported in any of the groups and none of the laboratory or EKG safety assessments indicated clinically significant changes for any subject. Conclusion In this pilot, dose-finding study, a proprietary mangosteen juice blend (XanGo Juice™ reduced CRP levels (increased change from baseline compared to placebo for those taking the highest dose of 18 oz per day. Further studies with a

  13. Evaluation of Mangosteen juice blend on biomarkers of inflammation in obese subjects: a pilot, dose finding study.

    Udani, Jay K; Singh, Betsy B; Barrett, Marilyn L; Singh, Vijay J

    2009-10-20

    The ability to reduce inflammation in overweight and obese individuals may be valuable in preventing the progression to metabolic syndrome with associated risks for heart disease and diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of multiple dosages of a proprietary Mangosteen Juice blend on indicators of inflammation and antioxidant levels in obese patients with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The study was an 8 week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with a pre-study 2 week washout period. The study included four groups including placebo and three difference doses of the test product, XanGo Juice: 3, 6 or 9 oz twice daily. The primary outcome measure of this study was high-sensitivity (HS)-CRP. Secondary outcome measures included other biochemical indicators of inflammation, anthropomorphic measures and a safety evaluation. One hundred twenty two (122) persons were screened for the study, 44 were randomized and 40 completed the study. HS-CRP measurements dropped after 8 weeks treatment compared to baseline in all 3 dose groups and increased in the placebo group. The changes from baseline were not significant but the comparison of change from baseline was significant for the 18 oz group when compared to placebo (p = 0.02). Other markers of inflammation (inflammatory cytokines) and a marker for lipid peroxidation (F2 isoprostane) did not show any significant differences when compared with placebo. There was a trend towards a decrease in BMI in the juice groups. There were no side effects reported in any of the groups and none of the laboratory or EKG safety assessments indicated clinically significant changes for any subject. In this pilot, dose-finding study, a proprietary mangosteen juice blend (XanGo Juice) reduced CRP levels (increased change from baseline) compared to placebo for those taking the highest dose of 18 oz per day. Further studies with a larger population are required to confirm and further define the

  14. Are there healthy obese?

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of weight loss and adipocytokines levels after two hypocaloric diets with different macronutrient distribution in obese subjects with rs9939609 gene variant.

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Aller, Rocío; Izaola, Olatz; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Conde, Rosa; Sagrado, Manuel Gonzalez; Primo, David

    2012-11-01

    Common polymorphisms of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) have been linked to obesity in some populations. One of these genetic variants (rs9939609) has been related to an increased risk of obesity. Our aim was to evaluate weight loss and adipocytokine levels after two hypocaloric diets with different macronutrient distribution in obese subjects with RS9939609 gene variant. 305 obese patients were enrolled in a prospective way. In the basal visit, patients were randomly allocated during 3 months to low carbohydrates and low fat. After treatment with both diets and in both genotypes, weight, fat mass, waist circumference and systolic blood pressures decreased. With the diet type I and in TT genotype, insulin (-6.6 ± 9.8 IU/L) and homeostasis model assessment (-2.9 ± 6.1 units) decreased. With the diet type II and in both genotypes (wild and mutant type), insulin (-5.2 ± 6.1 vs. -3.8 ± 6.1 IU/L; p diet II. The decrease of leptin levels was higher in mutant type group than wild type group with low fat diet (-10.3 ± 36.1 vs. -28.6 ± 53.7 ng/mL; p hypocaloric diet. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Different Intestinal Microbial Profile in Over-Weight and Obese Subjects Consuming a Diet with Low Content of Fiber and Antioxidants

    Tania Fernández-Navarro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been related to an increased risk of multiple diseases in which oxidative stress and inflammation play a role. Gut microbiota has emerged as a mediator in this interaction, providing new mechanistic insights at the interface between fat metabolism dysregulation and obesity development. Our aim was to analyze the interrelationship among obesity, diet, oxidative stress, inflammation and the intestinal microbiota in 68 healthy adults (29.4% normal-weight. Diet was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire and converted into nutrients and dietary compounds using food composition tables. The intestinal microbiota was assessed by quantitative PCR, fecal short chain fatty acids by gas chromatography and serum biomarkers by standard protocols. Higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, C reactive protein (CRP, serum leptin, glucose, fat percentage and the intestinal Lactobacillus group were found in the obese people. Cluster analysis of body mass index, fat mass, glucose, LDL/HDL ratio, leptin, MDA and CRP classified the subjects into two groups. The levels of the intestinal Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group were lower in the cluster and linked to a higher pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory status, whose individuals also had lower intake of fruits, dried fruits, and fish. These results could be useful for designing strategies targeted to obesity prevention.

  17. Physical activity and sedentary behavior measured objectively and subjectively in overweight and obese adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders.

    Janney, Carol A; Ganguli, Rohan; Tang, Gong; Cauley, Jane A; Holleman, Robert G; Richardson, Caroline R; Kriska, Andrea M

    2015-10-01

    Describe objective and subjective physical activity levels and time spent being sedentary in adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (SZO/SA). Baseline physical activity and sedentary behaviors were assessed among 46 overweight and obese community-dwelling adults (aged 18-70 years; BMI > 27 kg/m(2)) diagnosed with SZO/SA by DSM-IV-TR, with mild symptom severity (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score physical activity levels, measured using actigraphs, in WAIST were compared to a nationally representative sample of users (n = 46) and nonusers (n = 46) of mental health service (MHS) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2004) matched by sex, BMI, and age. On average, adults with SZO/SA wore actigraphs more than 15 h/d for 7 days averaging 151,000 counts/d. The majority of monitoring time (81%) was classified as sedentary (approximately 13 h/d). Moderate/vigorous and light physical activity accounted for only 2% (19 min/d) and 17% (157 min/d) of monitoring time/d, respectively. Primary source of activity was household activities (409 ± 438 min/wk). Fifty-three percent reported walking for transportation or leisure. Adults with SZO/SA were significantly less active (176 min/d) and more sedentary (756 min/d) than NHANES users of MHS (293 and 640 min/d, respectively) and nonusers of MHS (338 and 552 min/d, respectively) (P physical activity; and significantly less active than NHANES users and nonusers of MHS. This sedentary lifestyle is significantly lower than those of other inactive US populations, is costly for the individual and community, and highlights the need for physical activity promotion and interventions in this high risk population. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  18. Effects of bariatric surgery on gout incidence in the Swedish Obese Subjects study: a non-randomised, prospective, controlled intervention trial.

    Maglio, Cristina; Peltonen, Markku; Neovius, Martin; Jacobson, Peter; Jacobsson, Lennart; Rudin, Anna; Carlsson, Lena M S

    2017-04-01

    To assess the long-term effect of bariatric surgery on the incidence of gout and hyperuricaemia in participants of the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study. This report includes 1982 subjects who underwent bariatric surgery and 1999 obese controls from the SOS study, a prospective intervention trial designed to assess the effect of bariatric surgery compared with conventional treatment. None of the subjects had gout at baseline. An endpoint on gout incidence was created based on information on gout diagnosis and use of gout medications through national registers and questionnaires. Median follow-up for the incidence of gout was about 19 years for both groups. Moreover, the incidence of hyperuricaemia over up to 20 years was examined in a subgroup of participants having baseline uric acid levels gout compared with usual care (adjusted HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.75, pgout event was 32 (95% CI 22 to 59). The effect of bariatric surgery on gout incidence was not influenced by baseline risk factors, including body mass index. During follow-up, the surgery group had a lower incidence of hyperuricaemia (adjusted HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.58, pgout and hyperuricaemia in obese subjects. NCT01479452; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Differences in vitamin D concentration between metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese adults: associations with inflammatory and cardiometabolic markers in 4391 subjects.

    Esteghamati, A; Aryan, Z; Esteghamati, A; Nakhjavani, M

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to compare concentrations of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and inflammatory markers in metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO), and to determine whether the relationship between vitamin D levels and both cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers differs between MHO and MUO. This cross-sectional study comprised 4391 obese subjects aged>18 years. A panel of cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers, including anthropometric variables, glycaemic indices, lipid profiles, liver enzymes, homocysteine, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, was investigated. All cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers in MHO and MUO as well as in vitamin D deficiency were compared. Prevalence of MHO was 41.9% in our obese subjects using International Diabetes Federation criteria. Considering insulin resistance and inflammation, the prevalence of MHO was 38.4%. Individuals with MHO had significantly higher vitamin D concentrations compared with MUO, and this difference in vitamin D status persisted after accounting for BMI and waist circumference. Subjects with MHO had significantly better metabolic status, lower liver enzymes, lower inflammatory markers and higher serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D than those with MUO. Associations between vitamin D levels and inflammatory and cardiometabolic markers differed according to MHO/MUO status. Among MUO subjects, vitamin D deficiency was associated with higher liver marker and homocysteine levels. Serum vitamin D was negatively associated with fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c in MHO only. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were lower in MUO vs MHO, and reduced vitamin D concentrations were more strongly associated with cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers in MUO than in MHO subjects. These findings suggest that a deficiency in vitamin D could be a key component of MUO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Herzig Karl-Heinz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2 participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04. Conclusion We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564

  1. Polymorphism rs3123554 in the cannabinoid receptor gene type 2 (CNR2) reveals effects on body weight and insulin resistance in obese subjects.

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Aller, Rocio

    2017-10-01

    Few studies assessing the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms in CNR2 and obesity or its related metabolic parameters are available. To investigate the influence of polymorphism rs3123554 in the CNR2 receptor gene on obesity anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance, and adipokines in subjects with obesity. The study population consisted of 1027 obese subjects, who were performed bioelectrical impedance analyses, blood pressure measurements, serial assessments of dietary intake during three days, and biochemical tests. Genotypes GG, GA, and AA were found in 339 (33.0%), 467 (45.5%), and 221 (21.5%) respectively. Body mass index, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, insulin, HOMA-IR, and triglyceride and leptin levels were higher in A-allele carriers as compared to non A-allele carriers. No differences were seen in these parameters between the GA and AA genotypes. There were no statistical differences in dietary intake. The main study finding was the association of the minor allele of the SNP rs3123554 in the CNR2 gene with body weight and triglyceride, HOMA-IR, insulin, and leptin levels. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and glycemic responses to erythritol and xylitol in lean and obese subjects

    Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K; Cajacob, Lucian; Keller, Nino

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity and a possible association with increasing sucrose consumption, nonnutritive sweeteners are gaining popularity. Given that some studies indicate that artificial sweeteners might have adverse effects, alternative solutions are sought. Xylitol and erythritol...... satiation, reduce gastric emptying (GE), and modulate glucose homeostasis. Although glucose ingestion stimulates sweet taste receptors in the gut and leads to incretin and gastrointestinal hormone release, the effects of xylitol and erythritol have not been well studied. Ten lean and 10 obese volunteers...

  3. Obesity increases the prevalence and severity of focal knee abnormalities diagnosed using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects - data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    Laberge, Marc A.; Baum, Thomas; Virayavanich, Warapat; Nardo, Lorenzo; Link, Thomas M.; Nevitt, M.C.; Lynch, J.; McCulloch, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of BMI on the prevalence, severity, and 36-month progression of early degenerative changes in the knee by using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects without radiographic osteoarthritis (OA). We examined baseline and 36-month follow-up MR studies from 137 middle-aged individuals (45-55 years old) with risk factors for knee OA but no radiographic OA from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Subjects were grouped into three categories: normal BMI (BMI 2 , n = 38), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m 2 , n = 37), and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 , n = 62). Using 3T MRI, cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow abnormalities were graded using the OA Whole-organ MR Imaging Score (WORMS). The statistical analysis was corrected as necessary for differences in age, sex, and OA risk factors other than BMI. The overall prevalence of lesions was 64% for meniscus and 79% for cartilage (including low grade lesions). At baseline, the prevalence and severity of knee lesions was positively associated with BMI, with a nearly fourfold increase in meniscal tears and more than twofold increase in high-grade cartilage defects in obese individuals relative to normal-weight subjects. Over the 36-month follow-up period, the number of new or worsening cartilage lesions of any grade was significantly higher in obese subjects (p = 0.039), while there was no significant difference in meniscal lesion progression. Obesity was associated with both higher prevalence and severity of early degenerative changes in the knee in middle-aged individuals without radiographic OA and with significantly increased cartilage lesion progression (of any grade) over 36 months. (orig.)

  4. Obesity increases the prevalence and severity of focal knee abnormalities diagnosed using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects - data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    Laberge, Marc A.; Baum, Thomas; Virayavanich, Warapat; Nardo, Lorenzo; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nevitt, M.C.; Lynch, J.; McCulloch, C.E. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    To study the effect of BMI on the prevalence, severity, and 36-month progression of early degenerative changes in the knee by using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects without radiographic osteoarthritis (OA). We examined baseline and 36-month follow-up MR studies from 137 middle-aged individuals (45-55 years old) with risk factors for knee OA but no radiographic OA from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Subjects were grouped into three categories: normal BMI (BMI < 25 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 38), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 37), and obese (BMI {>=} 30 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 62). Using 3T MRI, cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow abnormalities were graded using the OA Whole-organ MR Imaging Score (WORMS). The statistical analysis was corrected as necessary for differences in age, sex, and OA risk factors other than BMI. The overall prevalence of lesions was 64% for meniscus and 79% for cartilage (including low grade lesions). At baseline, the prevalence and severity of knee lesions was positively associated with BMI, with a nearly fourfold increase in meniscal tears and more than twofold increase in high-grade cartilage defects in obese individuals relative to normal-weight subjects. Over the 36-month follow-up period, the number of new or worsening cartilage lesions of any grade was significantly higher in obese subjects (p = 0.039), while there was no significant difference in meniscal lesion progression. Obesity was associated with both higher prevalence and severity of early degenerative changes in the knee in middle-aged individuals without radiographic OA and with significantly increased cartilage lesion progression (of any grade) over 36 months. (orig.)

  5. Insulin resistance in non-obese subjects is associated with activation of the JNK pathway and impaired insulin signaling in skeletal muscle.

    Umesh B Masharani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of insulin resistance in the absence of obesity is unknown. In obesity, multiple stress kinases have been identified that impair the insulin signaling pathway via serine phosphorylation of key second messenger proteins. These stress kinases are activated through various mechanisms related to lipid oversupply locally in insulin target tissues and in various adipose depots.To explore whether specific stress kinases that have been implicated in the insulin resistance of obesity are potentially contributing to insulin resistance in non-obese individuals, twenty healthy, non-obese, normoglycemic subjects identified as insulin sensitive or resistant were studied. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies obtained during euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp were evaluated for insulin signaling and for activation of stress kinase pathways. Total and regional adipose stores and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL were assessed by DXA, MRI and (1H-MRS. In muscle of resistant subjects, phosphorylation of JNK was increased (1.36±0.23 vs. 0.78±0.10 OD units, P<0.05, while there was no evidence for activation of p38 MAPK or IKKβ. IRS-1 serine phosphorylation was increased (1.30±0.09 vs. 0.22±0.03 OD units, P<0.005 while insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation decreased (10.97±0.95 vs. 0.89±0.50 OD units, P<0.005. IMCL levels were twice as high in insulin resistant subjects (3.26±0.48 vs. 1.58±0.35% H(2O peak, P<0.05, who also displayed increased total fat and abdominal fat when compared to insulin sensitive controls.This is the first report demonstrating that insulin resistance in non-obese, normoglycemic subjects is associated with activation of the JNK pathway related to increased IMCL and higher total body and abdominal adipose stores. While JNK activation is consistent with a primary impact of muscle lipid accumulation on metabolic stress, further work is necessary to determine the relative contributions of the various mediators of impaired

  6. Effects of a leucine and pyridoxine-containing nutraceutical on body weight and composition in obese subjects

    Zemel MB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael B Zemel,1,2 Antje Bruckbauer11NuSirt Sciences Inc, 2Nutrition Department, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USABackground: We recently demonstrated leucine to modulate energy partitioning between adipose tissue and muscle. Further, leucine exhibits a synergy with B6, resulting in reduced adipocyte lipid storage coupled with increased muscle fat oxidation. Accordingly, a nutraceutical (NuShape™ containing 2.25 g leucine and 30 mg B6 increased fat oxidation by > 30 g/day in a 28-day randomized controlled trial. The present study evaluated the long-term efficacy of this combination in modulating body weight and composition.Methods: Two 24-week, placebo-controlled, randomized trials, one with weight maintenance (n = 20 and one hypocaloric (-500 kcal/day; n = 24, were conducted using the nutraceutical Nushape in obese subjects.Results: The supplement resulted in fat loss in the maintenance study (-1.12 ± 0.36 and -1.82 ± 0.70 kg at 12 and 24 weeks, P < 0.01 versus placebo while no change was found in the placebo group. In the hypocaloric study, the supplement group lost up to twice as much weight (6.18 ± 1.02 versus 3.40 ± 0.81 kg at 12 weeks and 8.15 ± 1.33 versus 5.25 ± 1.13 kg at 24 weeks, P < 0.01 and fat (4.96 ± 0.61 versus 2.31 ± 0.53 kg at 12 weeks and 7.00 ± 0.95 versus 4.22 ± 0.74 kg at 24 weeks, P < 0.01 than the placebo group.Conclusion: This nutraceutical combination results in significant fat loss in the absence of caloric restriction and markedly enhances weight and fat loss by 50%–80% over a 24-week period.Keywords: leucine, vitamin B6, pyridoxine, fat loss, weight loss, caloric restriction, adiposity, body composition

  7. Risk factors for obesity among school aged children in western Algeria: results of a study conducted on 293 subjects.

    Abbes, Mohamed Abdelhaq; Bereksi-Reguig, Karima

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Before a prevention approach, it is essential to make a diagnosis on the problem and its risk factors. We opted for a cross-sectional survey of 293 primary students of Sougueur. The prevalence of overweight including obesity according to IOTF cutoffs was 8.18%. A significant relationship existed between obesity and educational level of parents, level of physical activity; taking a snack and skipping the dinner. Our results seem much lower than published values. We find that excess food intake and light exercise can trigger overweight. In Algeria, it is time to launch programs for good nutritional information and a sufficient physical activity in children.

  8. Clinical implications of gait analysis in the rehabilitation of adult patients with "Prader-Willi" Syndrome: a cross-sectional comparative study ("Prader-Willi" Syndrome vs matched obese patients and healthy subjects

    Baccalaro Gabriele

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being severely overweight is a distinctive clinical feature of Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS. PWS is a complex multisystem disorder, representing the most common form of genetic obesity. The aim of this study was the analysis of the gait pattern of adult subjects with PWS by using three-Dimensional Gait Analysis. The results were compared with those obtained in a group of obese patients and in a group of healthy subjects. Methods Cross-sectional, comparative study: 19 patients with PWS (11 males and 8 females, age: 18–40 years, BMI: 29.3–50.3 kg/m2; 14 obese matched patients (5 males and 9 females, age: 18–40 years, BMI: 34.3–45.2 kg/m2; 20 healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females, age: 21–41 years, BMI: 19.3–25.4 kg/m2. Kinematic and kinetic parameters during walking were assessed by an optoelectronic system and two force platforms. Results PWS adult patients walked slower, had a shorter stride length, a lower cadence and a longer stance phase compared with both matched obese, and healthy subjects. Obese matched patients showed spatio-temporal parameters significantly different from healthy subjects. Furthermore, Range Of Motion (ROM at knee and ankle, and plantaflexor activity of PWS patients were significantly different between obese and healthy subjects. Obese subjects revealed kinematic and kinetic data similar to healthy subjects. Conclusion PWS subjects had a gait pattern significantly different from obese patients. Despite that, both groups had a similar BMI. We suggest that PWS gait abnormalities may be related to abnormalities in the development of motor skills in childhood, due to precocious obesity. A tailored rehabilitation program in early childhood of PWS patients could prevent gait pattern changes.

  9. Could Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Reduce Rates of Cancer in Obese, Overweight, and Normal-Weight Subjects? A Summary of Evidence.

    Harvie, Michelle N; Howell, Tony

    2016-07-01

    Animal studies and human observational data link energy restriction (ER) to reduced rates of carcinogenesis. Most of these studies have involved continuous energy restriction (CER), but there is increasing public and scientific interest in the potential health and anticancer effects of intermittent energy restriction (IER) or intermittent fasting (IF), which comprise periods of marked ER or total fasting interspersed with periods of normal eating. This review summarizes animal studies that assessed tumor rates with IER and IF compared with CER or ad libitum feed consumption. The relevance of these animal data to human cancer is also considered by summarizing available human studies of the effects of IER or IF compared with CER on cancer biomarkers in obese, overweight, and normal-weight subjects. IER regimens that include periods of ER alternating with ad libitum feed consumption for 1, 2, or 3 wk have been reported to be superior to CER in reducing tumor rates in most spontaneous mice tumor models. Limited human data from short-term studies (≤6 mo) in overweight and obese subjects have shown that IER can lead to greater improvements in insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment) than can CER, with comparable reductions in adipokines and inflammatory markers and minor changes in the insulin-like growth factor axis. There are currently no data comparing IER or IF with CER in normal-weight subjects. The benefits of IER in these short-term trials are of interest, but not sufficient evidence to recommend the use of IER above CER. Longer-term human studies of adherence to and efficacy and safety of IER are required in obese and overweight subjects, as well as normal-weight subjects. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Could Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Reduce Rates of Cancer in Obese, Overweight, and Normal-Weight Subjects? A Summary of Evidence12

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies and human observational data link energy restriction (ER) to reduced rates of carcinogenesis. Most of these studies have involved continuous energy restriction (CER), but there is increasing public and scientific interest in the potential health and anticancer effects of intermittent energy restriction (IER) or intermittent fasting (IF), which comprise periods of marked ER or total fasting interspersed with periods of normal eating. This review summarizes animal studies that assessed tumor rates with IER and IF compared with CER or ad libitum feed consumption. The relevance of these animal data to human cancer is also considered by summarizing available human studies of the effects of IER or IF compared with CER on cancer biomarkers in obese, overweight, and normal-weight subjects. IER regimens that include periods of ER alternating with ad libitum feed consumption for 1, 2, or 3 wk have been reported to be superior to CER in reducing tumor rates in most spontaneous mice tumor models. Limited human data from short-term studies (≤6 mo) in overweight and obese subjects have shown that IER can lead to greater improvements in insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment) than can CER, with comparable reductions in adipokines and inflammatory markers and minor changes in the insulin-like growth factor axis. There are currently no data comparing IER or IF with CER in normal-weight subjects. The benefits of IER in these short-term trials are of interest, but not sufficient evidence to recommend the use of IER above CER. Longer-term human studies of adherence to and efficacy and safety of IER are required in obese and overweight subjects, as well as normal-weight subjects. PMID:27422504

  11. Acute administration of capsaicin increases resting energy expenditure in young obese subjects without affecting energy intake, appetite, and circulating levels of orexigenic/anorexigenic peptides.

    Rigamonti, Antonello E; Casnici, Claudia; Marelli, Ornella; De Col, Alessandra; Tamini, Sofia; Lucchetti, Elisa; Tringali, Gabriella; De Micheli, Roberta; Abbruzzese, Laura; Bortolotti, Mauro; Cella, Silvano G; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2018-04-01

    Although capsaicin has been reported to reduce energy intake and increase energy expenditure in an adult (normal weight or overweight) population, thus resulting in a net negative energy balance and weight loss, these beneficial effects have not been investigated in young obese subjects. We hypothesize that capsaicin acutely administered in young obese subjects exerts the same effects on energy balance and that these effects are mediated by changes in gastrointestinal peptides regulating appetite. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of capsaicin (2 mg) or placebo on energy intake, hunger, and satiety in obese adolescents and young adults (female-male ratio: 4:6, age: 21.0 ± 5.8 years; body mass index: 41.5 ± 4.3 kg/m 2 ) provided an ad libitum dinner. Furthermore, circulating levels of some orexigenic (ghrelin) and anorexigenic (glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY) peptides were measured after a meal completely consumed (lunch), together with the evaluation of hunger and satiety and assessment of resting energy expenditure (REE) through indirect computerized calorimetry. When compared to placebo, capsaicin did not significantly change either energy intake or hunger/satiety 6 hours after its administration (dinner). No differences in circulating levels of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and peptide YY and in hunger/satiety were found in the 3 hours immediately after food ingestion among obese subjects treated with capsaicin or placebo (lunch). By contrast, the meal significantly increased REE in the capsaicin- but not placebo-treated group (capsaicin: from 1957.2 ± 455.1 kcal/d up to 2342.3 ± 562.1 kcal/d, P < .05; placebo: from 2060.1 ± 483.4 kcal/d up to 2296.0 ± 484.5 kcal/d). The pre-post meal difference in REE after capsaicin administration was significantly higher than that observed after placebo (385.1 ± 164.4 kcal/d vs 235.9 ± 166.1 kcal/d, P < .05). In conclusion, although capsaicin does not exert hypophagic

  12. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide has impaired effect on abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism in obese subjects

    Asmar, M; Simonsen, L; Arngrim, N

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) appears to have a role in lipid metabolism. Recently, we showed that GIP in combination with hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia increases triglyceride uptake in abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue in lean humans. It has been suggested...... that increased GIP secretion in obesity will promote lipid deposition in adipose tissue. In light of the current attempts to employ GIP antagonists in the treatment and prevention of human obesity, the present experiments were performed in order to elucidate whether the adipose tissue lipid metabolism would...... to an oral glucose challenge: (i) NGT and (ii) IGT. Abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied by conducting measurements of arteriovenous concentrations of metabolites and regional adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) during GIP (1.5 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) in combination with a HI...

  13. Monte Carlo study of thermal flux profiles and body correction factors for body protein measurements of obese subjects

    McGregor, B.J.; Allen, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    In previous calculations for total body nitrogen measurements of children, the anterior/posterior thermal neutron flux profile with depth was found to be fairly flat after an initial rise. However, for obese adults significant variations are found in the flux profile with the central flux value being as low as 20% of the peak value. The significance of these flux variations is examined. Correction factors are calculated for the varying attenuation of the nitrogen and hydrogen photons by a range of obese bodies. The calculations included the effect of the thermal flux profile as well as that of an outer layer of low nitrogen content adipose tissue. The bodies are assumed to have a homogeneous hydrogen content. A study of four obese body models with varying sex and fat content shows that the correction factors do not vary much between males and females. This is surprising since the female models are assumed to have a surface fat layer twice as thick as for the male models. The correction factors are found to be only slightly sensitive to the thermal flux variations with depth. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  14. Effects of once-weekly semaglutide on appetite, energy intake, control of eating, food preference and body weight in subjects with obesity.

    Blundell, J; Finlayson, G; Axelsen, MB; Flint, A; Gibbons, C; Kvist, T; Hjerpsted, J

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of this trial was to investigate the mechanism of action for body weight loss with semaglutide. Materials and methods This randomised, double?blind, placebo?controlled, two?period crossover trial investigated the effects of 12?weeks of treatment with once?weekly subcutaneous semaglutide, dose?escalated to 1.0?mg, in 30 subjects with obesity. Ad libitum energy intake, ratings of appetite, thirst, nausea and well?being, control of eating, food preference, resting metabolic rate, bod...

  15. Effects of Weight Reduction After Sleeve Gastrectomy on Metabolic Variables in Saudi Obese Subjects in Aseer Province of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Bawahab, Mohammed A; Assiri, Abdullah S; Maksoud, Walid Abdel; Patel, Ayyub; Kadoumi, Osama; Zaman, Gaffar Sarwar; Alessih, Riyad Mohammed Khalil; Haider, Syed Saleem

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the occurrence of oxidative stress, status of protective antioxidants enzymes, inflammatory biomarkers, and some metabolic health variables in the blood and to compare the results between those of the normal controls and obese patients submitted to sleeve gastrectomy-induced weight loss over a 1-year follow-up period. A prospective study was conducted in Aseer Central Hospital and Abha Private Hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2012 to January 2013 on 50 normal (BMI = 22-25 kg/m 2 ) control subjects and 50 obese (BMI = 45-50 kg/m 2 ) patients. A subset of 20 men and 80 women patients, aged 20-45 years, was included. The systemic blood cell counts were determined by Beckman Coulter UniCel analyzer. The occurrence of oxidative stress, the status of antioxidant enzyme system in the blood, levels of serum hepatic enzymes, cardiovascular risk factors, and serum sodium, potassium, copper, and zinc levels were determined by spectrophotometric procedures. The concentration of TSH and T 4 were analyzed by Siemens Immunoassay System. Group 1 (Obese: preoperative) This group compared with the normal controls exhibited significant (p copper and zinc levels were significantly (p phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), and vitamin C, were remarkably (p potassium, copper, zinc, and TSH levels were significantly (p < 0.001) decreased. Obesity is a chronic disease of multifactorial origin and resulted in perturbations of whole body metabolism in this study. It is thus likely that this imbalance was associated with an inhibition in protective antioxidants and occurrence of oxidative stress. The staging concept of sleeve gastrectomy is a safe and effective approach with remarkable efficacy in sustaining weight loss and bringing back normal metabolism of variables in tissues over a 1-year follow-up period.

  16. Neuromodulation directed at the prefrontal cortex of subjects with obesity reduces snack food intake and hunger in a randomized trial.

    Heinitz, Sascha; Reinhardt, Martin; Piaggi, Paolo; Weise, Christopher M; Diaz, Enrique; Stinson, Emma J; Venti, Colleen; Votruba, Susanne B; Wassermann, Eric M; Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Krakoff, Jonathan; Gluck, Marci E

    2017-12-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with reduced activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a region of the brain that plays a key role in the support of self-regulatory aspects of eating behavior and inhibitory control. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique used to modulate brain activity. Objectives: We tested whether repeated anodal tDCS targeted at the left DLPFC (compared with sham tDCS) has an immediate effect on eating behavior during ad libitum food intake, resulting in weight change, and whether it might influence longer-term food intake-related appetite ratings in individuals with obesity. Design: In a randomized parallel-design study combining inpatient and outpatient assessments over 31 d, 23 individuals with obesity [12 men; mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ): 39.3 ± 8.42] received 15 sessions of anodal (i.e., enhancing cortical activity) or sham tDCS aimed at the left DLPFC. Ad libitum food intake was assessed through the use of a vending machine paradigm and snack food taste tests (SFTTs). Appetite was evaluated with a visual analog scale (VAS). Body weight was measured. We examined the effect of short-term (i.e., 3 sessions) and long-term (i.e., 15 sessions) tDCS on these variables. Results: Relative to sham tDCS, short-term anodal tDCS did not influence ad libitum intake of food from the vending machines. Accordingly, no effect on short-term or 4-wk weight change was observed. In the anodal tDCS group, compared with the sham group, VAS ratings for hunger and the urge to eat declined significantly more ( P = 0.01 and P = 0.05, respectively), and total energy intake during an SFTT was relatively lower in satiated individuals ( P = 0.01), after long-term tDCS. Conclusions: Short-term anodal tDCS of the left DLPFC did not have an immediate effect on ad libitum food intake or thereby weight change, relative to sham tDCS. Hunger and snack food intake were reduced only after a longer period

  17. Increased abundance of insulin/insulin-like growth factor-I hybrid receptors in skeletal muscle of obese subjects is correlated with in vivo insulin sensitivity.

    Federici, M; Porzio, O; Lauro, D; Borboni, P; Giovannone, B; Zucaro, L; Hribal, M L; Sesti, G

    1998-08-01

    We reported that in noninsulin-dependent diabetes melitus (NIDDM) patients expression of insulin/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) hybrid receptors is increased in insulin target tissues. Whether this is a defect associated with NIDDM or represents a generalized abnormality associated with insulin resistant states is still unsettled. To address this, we applied a microwell-based immunoassay to measure abundance of insulin receptors, type 1 IGF receptors, and hybrid receptors in muscle of eight normal and eight obese subjects. Maximal insulin binding to insulin receptors was lower in obese than in control subjects (B/T = 1.8 +/- 0.20 and 2.6 +/- 0.30; P < 0.03, respectively) and was negatively correlated with insulinemia (r = -0.60; P < 0.01). Maximal IGF-I binding to type 1 IGF receptors was higher in obese than in controls (B/T = 1.9 +/- 0.20 and 0.86 +/- 0.10; P < 0.0001, respectively) and was negatively correlated with plasma IGF-I levels (r = -0.69; P < 0.003). Hybrid receptor abundance was higher in obese than in normal subjects (B/T = 1.21 +/- 0.14 and 0.44 +/- 0.06; P < 0.0003, respectively) and was negatively correlated with insulin binding (r = -0.60; P < 0.01) and positively correlated with IGF-I binding (r = 0.92; P < 0.0001). Increased abundance of hybrids was correlated with insulinemia (r = 0.70; P < 0.002) and body mass index (r = 0.71; P < 0.0019), whereas it was negatively correlated with in vivo insulin sensitivity measured by ITT (r = -0.67; P < 0.016). These results indicate that downregulation of insulin receptors or upregulation of type 1 IGF receptors because of changes in plasma insulin and IGF-I levels may result in modifications in hybrid receptor abundance.

  18. More pronounced effect of acute exercise-induced increase in circulating inflammatory markers in obese compared to lean subjects

    Christiansen, Tore; Paulsen, Søren Kildeberg; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard

    2010-01-01

    in circulation, and on gene expression on these infammatory marker in skeletal muscle (SM) and adipose tissue (AT) biopsies. Material and Methods: 15 lean males and females (BMI 22.4±2 kg/m2) and 16 obese males and females (BMI 31.6±3 kg/m2) exercised for 120 minutes by ergometer bicycling at moderate intensity......Objective: Exercise modulates the immune system and in young males acute exercise has been found associated with increased systemic level of infam-matory markers such as IL-6 and IL-8. In this study we investigated the impact of obesity on the exercise induced release of infammatory markers...... (55-60% of maximal heart rate). Blood samples were obtained at baseline (T0), after 60 minutes of bicycling (T=60), after 120 minutes of bicycling (T=120), whereas biopsies from AT and SM were obtained at T0 and T120. Results: Divided into weight-status, plasma levels of IL-8 and TNFα were at T=120...

  19. Impact of intermittent hypoxia and exercise on blood pressure and metabolic features from obese subjects suffering sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.

    González-Muniesa, P; Lopez-Pascual, A; de Andrés, J; Lasa, A; Portillo, M P; Arós, F; Durán, J; Egea, C J; Martinez, J A

    2015-09-01

    Strategies designed to reduce adiposity and cardiovascular-accompanying manifestations have been based on nutritional interventions conjointly with physical activity programs. The aim of this 13-week study was to investigate the putative benefits associated to hypoxia plus exercise on weight loss and relevant metabolic and cardiorespiratory variables, when prescribed to obese subjects with sleep apnea syndrome following dietary advice. The participants were randomly distributed in the following three groups: control, normoxia, and hypoxia. All the subjects received dietary advice while, additionally, normoxia group was trained under normal oxygen concentration and Hypoxia group under hypoxic conditions. There was a statistically significant decrease in fat-free mass (Kg) and water (%) on the control compared to normoxia group (p hypoxia compared to control group (p hypoxia group showed some specific benefits concerning appetite and cardiometabolic-related measurements as exertion time and diastolic blood pressure, with a therapeutical potential.

  20. [Effect of healthy diet and physical activity on the level of non-HDL cholesterol in obese subjects without cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus].

    Móczár, Csaba

    2015-10-18

    Prevention program including lifestyle changes was initiated with the participation of obese and overweight subjects recruited from the practices of 29 family doctors. The aim of the author was to analyse changes of non-HDL-cholesterol levels, especially when triglyceride levels were above 2.26 mmol/l, and when non-HDL cholesterol levels were high in association with low HDL-cholesterol levels in overweight or obese subjects who had no cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Data obtained from 1192 subjects (424 men and 768 women) before and 12 month after inclusion into the prevention program was analysed. The average level of non-HDL-cholesterol in the whole group of subjects decreased from 4.74 to 4.64 mmol/l, but the change was not significant. However, the average concentration of non-HDL-cholesterol was reduced significantly from 4.87 to 4.4 mmol/l in men, whereas no significant change was detected in women. In cases when triglyceride levels were higher than 2.26 mmol/l, the non-HDL-cholesterol level was reduced by 0.65 mmol/l. In cases when the non-HDL-cholesterol level was high in association with low HDL-cholesterol level, the non-HDL-cholesterol was significantly decreased from 5.22 to 4.48 mmol/l. In addition, in cases when HDL-cholesterol levels were low, the average level of the HDL-cholesterol significantly increased from 0.84 to 1.3 mmol/l. Lifestyle changes decrease the level of atherogenic lipid fractions, particularly in men with high triglyceride levels. Improvement of the atherogenic lipid profile in response to lifestyle changes is related not only to the reduction of atherogenic lipid fractions, but also to the increase of HDL-cholesterol level.

  1. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Promoter Polymorphisms (−794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C: Relationship with mRNA Expression and Soluble MIF Levels in Young Obese Subjects

    Inés Matia-García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the relationship of −794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C MIF polymorphisms with mRNA and soluble MIF in young obese subjects. A total of 250 young subjects, 150 normal-weight and 100 obese subjects, were recruited in the study. Genotyping of −794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C MIF polymorphisms was performed by PCR and PCR-RFLP, respectively. MIF mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR and serum MIF levels were measured using an ELISA kit. For both MIF promoter polymorphisms, no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies between groups were observed. MIF mRNA expression was slightly higher in obese subjects than in normal-weight subjects (1.38-fold, while soluble MIF levels did not show differences between groups. In addition, we found an increase in MIF mRNA expression in carriers of the 6,6 and C/C genotypes and the 6G haplotype of the −794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C MIF polymorphisms, although it was not significant. In conclusion, this study found no relationship between obesity and MIF gene promoter polymorphisms with MIF mRNA expression in young obese subjects.

  2. Adipose tissue gene expression analysis reveals changes in inflammatory, mitochondrial respiratory and lipid metabolic pathways in obese insulin-resistant subjects

    Soronen Jarkko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To get insight into molecular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance, we compared acute in vivo effects of insulin on adipose tissue transcriptional profiles between obese insulin-resistant and lean insulin-sensitive women. Methods Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained before and after 3 and 6 hours of intravenously maintained euglycemic hyperinsulinemia from 9 insulin-resistant and 11 insulin-sensitive females. Gene expression was measured using Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 2 microarrays and qRT-PCR. Microarray data and pathway analyses were performed with Chipster v1.4.2 and by using in-house developed nonparametric pathway analysis software. Results The most prominent difference in gene expression of the insulin-resistant group during hyperinsulinemia was reduced transcription of nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial respiration (mitochondrial respiratory chain, GO:0001934. Inflammatory pathways with complement components (inflammatory response, GO:0006954 and cytokines (chemotaxis, GO:0042330 were strongly up-regulated in insulin-resistant as compared to insulin-sensitive subjects both before and during hyperinsulinemia. Furthermore, differences were observed in genes contributing to fatty acid, cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism (FATP2, ELOVL6, PNPLA3, SREBF1 and in genes involved in regulating lipolysis (ANGPTL4 between the insulin-resistant and -sensitive subjects especially during hyperinsulinemia. Conclusions The major finding of this study was lower expression of mitochondrial respiratory pathway and defective induction of lipid metabolism pathways by insulin in insulin-resistant subjects. Moreover, the study reveals several novel genes whose aberrant regulation is associated with the obese insulin-resistant phenotype.

  3. FA1 Induces Pro-Inflammatory and Anti-Adipogenic Pathways/Markers in Human Myotubes Established from Lean, Obese, and Type 2 Diabetic Subjects but Not Insulin Resistance

    Abdallah, Basem M; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Gaster, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Delta like 1/fetal antigen 1 (Dlk1/FA1) is a protein secreted by hormone producing cells in adult human and mice that is known to inhibit adipogenesis. Recent studies demonstrated the role of Dlk1/FA1 in inducing insulin resistance in mice. To investigate the involvement of circulating Dlk1....../FA1 in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in human subjects, we studied the effects of chronic FA1 on the intermediary metabolism in myotubes established from lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects. Methods: Myotube cultures were established from lean and obese control subjects......, and obese T2D subjects and treated with soluble FA1 for 4 days supplemented with/without palmitate (PA). Lipid- and glucose metabolism were studied with labeled precursors while quantitative expression of genes was analyzed using real-time PCR. Results: Diabetic myotubes express significantly reduced...

  4. A comparative genotoxicity study of a supraphysiological dose of triiodothyronine (T₃) in obese rats subjected to either calorie-restricted diet or hyperthyroidism.

    De Sibio, Maria Teresa; Luvizotto, Renata Azevedo Melo; Olimpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Corrêa, Camila Renata; Marino, Juliana; de Oliveira, Miriane; Conde, Sandro José; Ferreira, Ana Lúcia dos Anjos; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the genotoxicity of a supraphysiological dose of triiodothyronine (T3) in both obese and calorie-restricted obese animals. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the two following groups: control (C; n = 10) and obese (OB; n = 40). The C group received standard food, whereas the OB group was fed a hypercaloric diet for 20 weeks. After this period, half of the OB animals (n = 20) were subjected to a 25%-calorie restriction of standard diet for 8 weeks forming thus a new group (OR), whereas the remaining OB animals were kept on the initial hypercaloric diet. During the following two weeks, 10 OR animals continued on the calorie restriction diet, whereas the remaining 10 rats of this group formed a new group (ORS) given a supraphysiological dose of T3 (25 µg/100 g body weight) along with the calorie restriction diet. Similarly, the remaining OB animals were divided into two groups, one that continued on the hypercaloric diet (OB, n = 10), and one that received the supraphysiological dose of T3 (25 µg/100 g body weight) along with the hypercaloric diet (OS, n = 10) for two weeks. The OB group showed weight gain, increased adiposity, insulin resistance, increased leptin levels and genotoxicity; T3 administration in OS animals led to an increase in genotoxicity and oxidative stress when compared with the OB group. The OR group showed weight loss and normalized levels of adiposity, insulin resistance, serum leptin and genotoxicity, thus having features similar to those of the C group. On the other hand, the ORS group, compared to OR animals, showed higher genotoxicity. Our results indicate that regardless of diet, a supraphysiological dose of T3 causes genotoxicity and potentiates oxidative stress.

  5. A Comparative Genotoxicity Study of a Supraphysiological Dose of Triiodothyronine (T3) in Obese Rats Subjected to Either Calorie-Restricted Diet or Hyperthyroidism

    De Sibio, Maria Teresa; Luvizotto, Renata Azevedo Melo; Olimpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Corrêa, Camila Renata; Marino, Juliana; de Oliveira, Miriane; Conde, Sandro José; Ferreira, Ana Lúcia dos Anjos; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the genotoxicity of a supraphysiological dose of triiodothyronine (T3) in both obese and calorie-restricted obese animals. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the two following groups: control (C; n = 10) and obese (OB; n = 40). The C group received standard food, whereas the OB group was fed a hypercaloric diet for 20 weeks. After this period, half of the OB animals (n = 20) were subjected to a 25%-calorie restriction of standard diet for 8 weeks forming thus a new group (OR), whereas the remaining OB animals were kept on the initial hypercaloric diet. During the following two weeks, 10 OR animals continued on the calorie restriction diet, whereas the remaining 10 rats of this group formed a new group (ORS) given a supraphysiological dose of T3 (25 µg/100 g body weight) along with the calorie restriction diet. Similarly, the remaining OB animals were divided into two groups, one that continued on the hypercaloric diet (OB, n = 10), and one that received the supraphysiological dose of T3 (25 µg/100 g body weight) along with the hypercaloric diet (OS, n = 10) for two weeks. The OB group showed weight gain, increased adiposity, insulin resistance, increased leptin levels and genotoxicity; T3 administration in OS animals led to an increase in genotoxicity and oxidative stress when compared with the OB group. The OR group showed weight loss and normalized levels of adiposity, insulin resistance, serum leptin and genotoxicity, thus having features similar to those of the C group. On the other hand, the ORS group, compared to OR animals, showed higher genotoxicity. Our results indicate that regardless of diet, a supraphysiological dose of T3 causes genotoxicity and potentiates oxidative stress. PMID:23468891

  6. A comparative genotoxicity study of a supraphysiological dose of triiodothyronine (T₃ in obese rats subjected to either calorie-restricted diet or hyperthyroidism.

    Maria Teresa De Sibio

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the genotoxicity of a supraphysiological dose of triiodothyronine (T3 in both obese and calorie-restricted obese animals. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the two following groups: control (C; n = 10 and obese (OB; n = 40. The C group received standard food, whereas the OB group was fed a hypercaloric diet for 20 weeks. After this period, half of the OB animals (n = 20 were subjected to a 25%-calorie restriction of standard diet for 8 weeks forming thus a new group (OR, whereas the remaining OB animals were kept on the initial hypercaloric diet. During the following two weeks, 10 OR animals continued on the calorie restriction diet, whereas the remaining 10 rats of this group formed a new group (ORS given a supraphysiological dose of T3 (25 µg/100 g body weight along with the calorie restriction diet. Similarly, the remaining OB animals were divided into two groups, one that continued on the hypercaloric diet (OB, n = 10, and one that received the supraphysiological dose of T3 (25 µg/100 g body weight along with the hypercaloric diet (OS, n = 10 for two weeks. The OB group showed weight gain, increased adiposity, insulin resistance, increased leptin levels and genotoxicity; T3 administration in OS animals led to an increase in genotoxicity and oxidative stress when compared with the OB group. The OR group showed weight loss and normalized levels of adiposity, insulin resistance, serum leptin and genotoxicity, thus having features similar to those of the C group. On the other hand, the ORS group, compared to OR animals, showed higher genotoxicity. Our results indicate that regardless of diet, a supraphysiological dose of T3 causes genotoxicity and potentiates oxidative stress.

  7. Cortisol response and desire to binge following psychological stress: comparison between obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder.

    Rosenberg, Noa; Bloch, Miki; Ben Avi, Irit; Rouach, Vanessa; Schreiber, Shaul; Stern, Naftali; Greenman, Yona

    2013-07-30

    While stress and negative affect are known to precede "emotional eating", this relationship is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between induced psychological stress, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and eating behavior in binge eating disorder (BED). The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was applied in obese participants with (n=8) and without BED (n=8), and normal weight controls (n=8). Psychological characteristics, eating-related symptoms, and cortisol secretion were assessed. Baseline stress, anxiety and cortisol measures were similar in all groups. At baseline desire to binge was significantly higher among the BED group. While the TSST induced an increase in cortisol levels, a blunted cortisol response was observed in the BED group. In the BED group, a positive correlation was found between cortisol (area under the curve) levels during the TSST and the change in VAS scores for desire to binge. Post-TSST desire to binge and sweet craving were significantly higher in the BED group and correlated positively with stress, anxiety, and cortisol response in the BED group only. These results suggest chronic down-regulation of the HPA axis in participants with BED, and a relationship between psychological stress, the acute activation of the HPA axis, and food craving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Similar elimination rates of glucagon-like peptide-1 in obese type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Agersø, H; Krarup, T

    2003-01-01

    of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of GLP-1 in healthy subjects and type 2 diabetic patients after iv bolus doses ranging from 2.5-25 nmol/subject. Bolus injections iv of 2.5, 5, 15, and 25 nmol of GLP-1 and a meal test were performed in six type 2 diabetic patients [age, mean (range): 56 (48...... response seen after ingestion of a standard breakfast meal must therefore be caused by a decreased secretion of GLP-1 in type 2 diabetic patients....

  9. Discriminated benefits of a Mediterranean dietary pattern within a hypocaloric diet program on plasma RBP4 concentrations and other inflammatory markers in obese subjects.

    Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Zulet, M Ángeles; Abete, Itziar; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2009-12-01

    Personalized nutritional strategies to treat obesity may specifically influence inflammatory markers, in addition to reduce body weight. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of a hypocaloric diet based on a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) on nutritional status as well as on plasma concentrations of retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) and other proinflammatory markers. Fourty-one subjects (24F/17M; age: 37 ± 7 years; BMI: 32.2 ± 3.9 kg/m²) were assigned to follow a MDP within a caloric-restricted diet over an 8-week period. Anthropometrical, clinical, and biochemical variables were measured at baseline and endpoint after the nutritional program. Dietary intervention resulted in a mean weight loss of -4.4 ± 2.5 kg (P diet score from baseline was a significant and independent predictor factor for the decrease in plasma RBP4 concentration (P hypocaloric diet accompanying a high adherence to a MDP resulted in specific reductions on proinflammatory markers, in addition to a significant improvement in some metabolic syndrome features induced by weight loss, which could be a good combined strategy to treat obesity as well as related metabolic and inflammatory disorders.

  10. Low Oxygen Consumption is Related to a Hypomethylation and an Increased Secretion of IL-6 in Obese Subjects with Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome.

    Lopez-Pascual, Amaya; Lasa, Arrate; Portillo, María P; Arós, Fernando; Mansego, María L; González-Muniesa, Pedro; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation is an epigenetic modification involved in gene expression regulation, usually via gene silencing, which contributes to the risks of many multifactorial diseases. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of resting oxygen consumption on global and gene DNA methylation as well as protein secretion of inflammatory markers in blood cells from obese subjects with sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). A total of 44 obese participants with SAHS were categorized in 2 groups according to their resting oxygen consumption. DNA methylation levels were evaluated using a methylation-sensitive high resolution melting approach. The analyzed interleukin 6 (IL6) gene cytosine phosphate guanine (CpG) islands showed a hypomethylation, while serum IL-6 was higher in the low compared to the high oxygen consumption group (p DNA methylation of tumor necrosis factor (B = -0.82, 95% CI -1.33 to -0.30) and long interspersed nucleotide element 1 (B = -0.46; 95% CI -0.87 to -0.04) gene CpGs were found. Finally, studied CpG methylation levels of serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E member 1 (r = 0.43; p = 0.01), and IL6 (r = 0.41; p = 0.02) were positively associated with fat-free mass. These findings suggest a potential role of oxygen in the regulation of inflammatory genes. Oxygen consumption measurement at rest could be proposed as a clinical biomarker of metabolic health. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Effects of once-weekly semaglutide on appetite, energy intake, control of eating, food preference and body weight in subjects with obesity.

    Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham; Axelsen, Mads; Flint, Anne; Gibbons, Catherine; Kvist, Trine; Hjerpsted, Julie B

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this trial was to investigate the mechanism of action for body weight loss with semaglutide. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover trial investigated the effects of 12 weeks of treatment with once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide, dose-escalated to 1.0 mg, in 30 subjects with obesity. Ad libitum energy intake, ratings of appetite, thirst, nausea and well-being, control of eating, food preference, resting metabolic rate, body weight and body composition were assessed. After a standardised breakfast, semaglutide, compared with placebo, led to a lower ad libitum energy intake during lunch (-1255 kJ; P  energy intake across all ad libitum meals throughout the day (-3036 kJ; P  baseline in mean body weight of 5.0 kg, predominantly from body fat mass. After 12 weeks of treatment, ad libitum energy intake was substantially lower with semaglutide vs placebo with a corresponding loss of body weight observed with semaglutide. In addition to reduced energy intake, likely mechanisms for semaglutide-induced weight loss included less appetite and food cravings, better control of eating and lower relative preference for fatty, energy-dense foods. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Type I iodothyronine 5′-deiodinase mRNA and activity is increased in adipose tissue of obese subjects

    Ortega, F.J.; Jílková, Zuzana; Moreno-Navarrete, J.M.; Pavelka, S.; Rodriguez-Hermosa, J.I.; Kopecký, Jan; Fernández-Real, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2012), s. 320-324 ISSN 0307-0565 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC08008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adipose tissue * thyroid hormones * deiodinases * tissue expression * enzyme activity Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 5.221, year: 2012

  13. Effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on fasting and postprandial inflammation-related parameters in obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance and in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes

    Bovbjerg, Kirsten Katrine Lindegaard; Jorgensen, Nils Bruun; Just, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    after surgery. Interleukin (IL)-6, leptin, adiponectin, IL-8, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), and the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured in the fasting state and during a liquid meal. Insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA-IR. Results: Weight loss did not differ...... between the two groups. Before surgery, HbA1c was higher and HOMA-IR lower in T2D patients, however, converged to the values of NGT subjects one year after surgery. Circulating cytokine concentrations did not differ between the two groups at any time point. One week after surgery, circulating IL-6 and IL...

  14. Transcriptome profiling from adipose tissue during a low-calorie diet reveals predictors of weight and glycemic outcomes in obese, nondiabetic subjects

    Armenise, Claudia; Lefebvre, Gregory C; Carayol, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    and glycemic outcomes both at LCD termination and 6 mo after the LCD.Design: Using RNA sequencing (RNAseq), we analyzed transcriptome changes in AT from 191 obese, nondiabetic patients within a multicenter, controlled dietary intervention. Expression changes were associated with outcomes after an 8-wk LCD (800......-1000 kcal/d) and 6 mo after the LCD. Results were validated by using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in 350 subjects from the same cohort. Statistical models were constructed to classify weight maintainers or glycemic improvers.Results: With RNAseq analyses, we identified 1173...... expression combined with clinical variables enabled us to distinguish weight and glycemic responders from nonresponders. These potential biomarkers may help clinicians understand intersubject variability and better predict the success of dietary interventions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials...

  15. Effect of caloric restriction with or without n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin sensitivity in obese subjects: A randomized placebo controlled trial.

    Razny, Urszula; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Polus, Anna; Goralska, Joanna; Malczewska-Malec, Malgorzata; Wnek, Dominika; Zdzienicka, Anna; Gruca, Anna; Childs, Caroline E; Kapusta, Maria; Slowinska-Solnica, Krystyna; Calder, Philip C; Dembinska-Kiec, Aldona

    2015-12-01

    Caloric restriction and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation protect from some of the metabolic complications. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of a low calorie diet with or without n-3 PUFA supplementation on glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) output and insulin sensitivity markers in obese subjects. Obese, non-diabetic subjects (BMI 30-40 kg/m(2)) and aged 25-65 yr. were put on low calorie diet (1200-1500 kcal/day) supplemented with either 1.8 g/day n-3 PUFA (DHA/EPA, 5:1) (n = 24) or placebo capsules (n = 24) for three months in a randomized placebo controlled trial. Insulin resistance markers and GIP levels were analysed from samples obtained at fasting and during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Caloric restriction with n-3 PUFA led to a decrease of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and a significant reduction of insulin output as well as decreased GIP secretion during the OGTT. These effects were not seen with caloric restriction alone. Changes in GIP output were inversely associated with changes in red blood cell EPA content whereas fasting GIP level positively correlated with HOMA-IR index. Blood triglyceride level was lowered by caloric restriction with a greater effect when n-3 PUFA were included and correlated positively with fasting GIP level. Three months of caloric restriction with DHA + EPA supplementation exerts beneficial effects on insulin resistance, GIP and triglycerides. Combining caloric restriction and n-3 PUFA improves insulin sensitivity, which may be related to a decrease of GIP levels.

  16. Changes in fat-free mass in obese subjects after weight loss : a comparison of body composition measures

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Deurenberg, P.; Seidell, J C; Westerterp, K R; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    Estimates of body composition by densitometry were made in 84 apparently healthy subjects (42 men, 42 women) with a mean age of 40 +/- 6 years (mean +/- s.d.), before and after weight loss. The initial body mass index (BMI) was 30.7 +/- 2.3 kg/m2 and the achieved weight loss on a 4.2 MJ/day energy

  17. Resveratrol does not influence metabolic risk markers related to cardiovascular health in overweight and slightly obese subjects: a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    Sanne M van der Made

    Full Text Available In vitro and animal studies have shown positive effects of resveratrol on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, but human studies specifically designed to examine these effects are lacking.The primary outcome parameter of this study in overweight and slightly obese subjects was the effect of resveratrol on apoA-I concentrations. Secondary outcome parameters were effects on other markers of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, glucose metabolism, and markers for inflammation and endothelial function.This randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted in 45 overweight and slightly obese men (n = 25 and women (n = 20 with a mean age of 61 ± 7 years. Subjects received in random order resveratrol (150 mg per day or placebo capsules for 4 weeks, separated by a 4-week wash-out period. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of each intervention period.Compliance was excellent as indicated by capsule count and changes in resveratrol and dihydroresveratrol concentrations. No difference between resveratrol and placebo was found in any of the fasting serum or plasma metabolic risk markers (mean ± SD for differences between day 28 values of resveratrol vs. placebo: apoA-I; 0.00 ± 0.12 g/L (P = 0.791, apoB100; -0.01 ± 0.11 g/L (P = 0.545, HDL cholesterol; 0.00 ± 0.09 mmol/L (P = 0.721, LDL cholesterol -0.03 ± 0.57 mmol/L (P = 0.718, triacylglycerol; 0.10 ± 0.54 mmol/L (P = 0.687, glucose; -0.08 ± 0.28 mmol/L (P = 0.064, insulin; -0.3 ± 2.5 mU/L (P = 0.516. Also, no effects on plasma markers for inflammation and endothelial function were observed. No adverse events related to resveratrol intake were observed.150 mg of daily resveratrol intake for 4 weeks does not change metabolic risk markers related to cardiovascular health in overweight and slightly obese men and women. Effects on glucose metabolism warrant further study.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01364961.

  18. Exploring glycosuria as a mechanism for weight and fat mass reduction. A pilot study with remogliflozin etabonate and sergliflozin etabonate in healthy obese subjects

    Antonella Napolitano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 increase glucose excretion in the urine and improve blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glycosuria provides an energy and osmotic drain that could alter body composition. We therefore conducted a pilot study comparing the effects on body composition of two SGLT2 inhibitors, remogliflozin etabonate (RE 250 mg TID (n = 9 and sergliflozin etabonate (SE (1000 mg TID (n = 9, with placebo (n = 12 in obese non-diabetic subjects. Both drugs were well tolerated during 8 weeks of dosing, and the most common adverse event was headache. No urinary tract infections were observed, but there was one case of vaginal candidiasis in the RE group. As expected, RE and SE increased urine glucose excretion, with no change in the placebo group. All the subjects lost weight over 8 weeks, irrespective of treatment assignment. There was a reduction in TBW measured by D2O dilution in the RE group that was significantly greater than placebo (1.4 kg, p = 0.029. This was corroborated by calculation of fat-free mass using a quantitative magnetic resonance technique. All but one subject had a measurable decrease in fat mass. There was significant between-subject variability of weight and fat loss, and no statistically significant differences were observed between groups. Despite a lack of a difference in weight and fat mass loss, the leptin/adiponectin ratio, a measure of insulin resistance, was significantly decreased in the RE group when compared to placebo and SE, suggesting that this SGTL-2 inhibitor may improve metabolic health independent of a change in fat mass.

  19. Changes of Insulin Resistance and Adipokines Following Supplementation with Glycyrrhiza Glabra L. Extract in Combination with a Low-Calorie Diet in Overweight and Obese Subjects: a Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial

    Mohammad Alizadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Adipose tissue is a highly active endocrine organ which plays a key role in energy homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dried licorice extract along with a calorie restricted diet on body composition, insulin resistance and adipokines in overweight and obese subjects. Methods: Sixty-four overweight and obese volunteers (27 men, 37 women were recruited into this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, clinical trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the Licorice (n=32 or the placebo group (n=32, and each group received a low-calorie diet with either 1.5 g/day of Licorice extract or placebo for 8 weeks. Biochemical parameters, anthropometric indices, body composition and dietary intake were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Results: A total of 58 subjects completed the trial. No side effects were observed following licorice supplementation. At the end of the study, waist circumference, fat mass, serum levels of vaspin, zinc-α2 glycoprotein, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly decreased in the intervention group, but only the reduction in serum vaspin levels in the licorice group was significant when compared to the placebo group (p<0.01. Conclusion: Supplementation with dried licorice extract plus a low-calorie diet can increase vaspin levels in obese subjects. However, the anti-obesity effects of the intervention were not stronger than a low-calorie diet alone in the management of obesity.

  20. Change in weight and body composition in obese subjects following a hypocaloric diet plus different training programs or physical activity recommendations.

    Benito, Pedro J; Bermejo, Laura M; Peinado, Ana B; López-Plaza, Bricia; Cupeiro, Rocío; Szendrei, Barbara; Calderón, Francisco J; Castro, Eliane A; Gómez-Candela, Carmen

    2015-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different physical activity programs, in combination with a hypocaloric diet, on anthropometric variables and body composition in obese subjects. Ninety-six obese (men: n = 48; women: n = 48; age range: 18-50 yr) participated in a supervised 22-wk program. They were randomized into four groups: strength training (S; n = 24), endurance training (E; n = 26), combined strength + endurance training (SE; n = 24), and physical activity recommendations (C; n = 22). In addition, all groups followed the same hypocaloric diet. At baseline and at the end of the intervention, dietetic and physical activity variables were assessed using validated questionnaires. Anthropometric variables were recorded along with body composition variables measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry techniques. At the end of the intervention, significant improvements were seen within groups in terms of body weight (S: -9.21 ± 0.83 kg; E: -10.55 ± 0.80 kg; SE: -9.88 ± 0.85 kg; C: -8.69 ± 0.89 kg), and total fat mass (S: -5.24 ± 0.55%; E: -5.35 ± 0.55%; SE: -4.85 ± 0.56%; C: -4.89 ± 0.59%). No differences were seen between groups at this time in terms of any other anthropometric or body composition variables examined. All groups increased their total physical activity in metabolic equivalents (MET) per week during the intervention, but with no difference between groups (S: 976 ± 367 MET-min/wk; E: 954 ± 355 MET-min/wk; SE: 1 329 ± 345 MET-min/wk; C: 763 ± 410 MET-min/wk). This study shows that, when combined with a hypocaloric diet, exercise training and adherence to physical activity recommendations are equally effective at reducing body weight and modifying body composition in the treatment of obesity (Clinical Trials Gov. number: NCT01116856). Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Zulet, M. Angeles; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). Results In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood

  2. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    Idoia Ibero-Baraibar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective: To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design: Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols, while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group. Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1 and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2. Results: In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC of systolic blood pressure (SBP was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007, showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1 was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016. Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions: The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on

  3. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet.

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Zulet, M Angeles; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood pressure homeostasis.

  4. High plasma apolipoprotein B identifies obese subjects who best ameliorate white adipose tissue dysfunction and glucose-induced hyperinsulinemia after a hypocaloric diet.

    Bissonnette, Simon; Saint-Pierre, Nathalie; Lamantia, Valerie; Leroux, Catherine; Provost, Viviane; Cyr, Yannick; Rabasa-Lhoret, Remi; Faraj, May

    2018-06-18

    To optimize the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), high-risk obese subjects with the best metabolic recovery after a hypocaloric diet should be targeted. Apolipoprotein B lipoproteins (apoB lipoproteins) induce white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction, which in turn promotes postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance (IR), and hyperinsulinemia. The aim of this study was to explore whether high plasma apoB, or number of plasma apoB lipoproteins, identifies subjects who best ameliorate WAT dysfunction and related risk factors after a hypocaloric diet. Fifty-nine men and postmenopausal women [mean ± SD age: 58 ± 6 y; body mass index (kg/m2): 32.6 ± 4.6] completed a prospective study with a 6-mo hypocaloric diet (-500 kcal/d). Glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) and insulin sensitivity (IS) were measured by 1-h intravenous glucose-tolerance test (IVGTT) followed by a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, respectively. Ex vivo gynoid WAT function (i.e., hydrolysis and storage of 3H-triolein-labeled triglyceride-rich lipoproteins) and 6-h postprandial plasma clearance of a 13C-triolein-labeled high-fat meal were measured in a subsample (n = 25). Postintervention first-phase GIISIVGTT and total C-peptide secretion decreased in both sexes, whereas second-phase and total GIISIVGTT and clamp IS were ameliorated in men (P hypocaloric diet. We propose that subjects with high plasma apoB represent an optimal target group for the primary prevention of T2D by hypocaloric diets. This trial was registered at BioMed Central as ISRCTN14476404.

  5. Is perceived intolerance to milk and wheat associated with the corresponding IgG and IgA food antibodies? A cross sectional study in subjects with morbid obesity and gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Kvehaugen, Anne Stine; Tveiten, Dag; Farup, Per G

    2018-01-30

    Serum IgG and IgA food antibodies have been used for dietary advice to subjects with gastrointestinal symptoms and perceived food intolerance, but the role of these antibodies in mediating intolerance is controversial. The present study investigated associations between perceived gastrointestinal intolerance to milk-or wheat and the corresponding s-IgG and s-IgA food antibodies in subjects with morbid obesity. Subjects with morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m 2 or ≥35 kg/m 2 with obesity-related complications) were included. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) was diagnosed based on the Rome III criteria. Severity of specific gastrointestinal symptoms were measured with the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS)-IBS. S-IgG against cow's milk, cheese, wheat and gluten, and s-IgA against casein and gliadin were measured. Ninety-seven subjects (80 females) with mean age 45 (SD 8.4) years were included, 70 had gastrointestinal complaints, 25 had IBS, and 22 and 20 reported milk- and wheat- intolerance respectively. There were no significant differences in serum concentrations or proportions of subjects above defined cut-off values for the antibodies between subjects with and without gastrointestinal complaints. In the group with gastrointestinal complaints, no significant differences were found between subjects with and without perceived food intolerance. Except for a significant correlation between IgG against cheese and GSRS-diarrhea (Rho: -0.25, P = 0.04), no significant correlations were found between the antibodies and type or degree of gastrointestinal symptoms, including IBS. The study showed no associations between perceived milk or wheat intolerance and the corresponding s-IgG and s-IgA food antibodies in subjects with morbid obesity.

  6. Zinc monotherapy increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and decreases depressive symptoms in overweight or obese subjects: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Solati, Zahra; Jazayeri, Shima; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Mahmoodianfard, Salma; Gohari, Mahmood Reza

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have shown a positive effect of zinc as an adjunctive therapy on reducing depressive symptoms. However, to our knowledge, no study has examined the effect of zinc monotherapy on mood. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of zinc monotherapy on depressive symptoms and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in overweight or obese subjects. Fifty overweight or obese subjects were randomly assigned into two groups and received either 30 mg zinc or placebo daily for 12 weeks. At baseline and post-intervention, depression severity was assessed using Beck depression inventory II (BDI II), and serum BDNF and zinc levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and atomic absorption spectrophotometry, respectively. The trial was completed with 46 subjects. After a 12-week supplementation, serum zinc and BDNF levels increased significantly in the zinc-supplemented group compared with the placebo group. BDI scores declined in both the groups at the end of the study, but reduction in the zinc-supplemented group was significantly higher than the placebo group. More analysis revealed that following supplementation, BDI scores decreased in subgroup of subjects with depressive symptoms (BDI ≥ 10) (n = 30), but did not change in the subgroup of non-depressed subjects (BDI BDNF levels and depression severity in all participants. Interestingly, a significant positive correlation was found between serum BDNF and zinc levels at baseline. Zinc monotherapy improves mood in overweight or obese subjects most likely through increasing BDNF levels.

  7. Assessment of DNA damage using comet assay in middle-aged overweight/obese subjects after following a hypocaloric diet supplemented with cocoa extract.

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Azqueta, Amaya; Lopez de Cerain, Adela; Martinez, J Alfredo; Zulet, M Angeles

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient excess and unbalanced diets can result in overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are associated with oxidative stress. Cocoa extract contains antioxidants that inhibit the harmful effects of ROS. This trial analysed the effect of cocoa extract consumption integrated as a bioactive compound into ready-to-eat meals, on oxidative stress at the level of DNA in overweight/obese subjects. Fifty volunteers [57.26(5.24) years, 30.59(2.33)kg/m(2)] participated in a 4-week double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled parallel nutritional intervention. Half of the volunteers received meals supplemented with 1.4 g/day cocoa extract, while the other half received control meals, both within a 15% energy restriction diet. Lymphocytes were isolated and endogenous strand breaks, oxidised bases and resistance to H2O2-induced damage were measured by the comet assay. The intake of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract did not show relevant changes in the oxidative status of DNA. However, in the cocoa group, oxidised bases negatively correlated with methyl epicatechin-O-sulphate (r = -0.76; P = -0.007) and epicatechin sulphate (r = -0.61; P = -0.046). When volunteers of both groups were analysed together, a marginal decrease (P = 0.072) in oxidised bases was observed, which attributed to weight loss. Subjects who started the intervention with higher levels of damage showed a greater reduction in oxidised bases after 4 weeks (P = 0.040) compared to those who had lower baseline levels. In conclusion, even if 1.4 g of cocoa supplementation for 4 weeks did not show notable changes in terms of antioxidant status of DNA, the energy restriction showed a slightly decrease in oxidised bases and this was seen to a greater extent in subjects who started the intervention with higher levels of damage. On the other hand, the inverse associations found between oxidised bases and some cocoa-derived metabolites suggest that a protective effect might be seen in a

  8. Comparative effect of a 1 h session of electrical muscle stimulation and walking activity on energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in obese subjects.

    Grosset, Jean-François; Crowe, Louis; De Vito, Giuseppe; O'Shea, Donal; Caulfield, Brian

    2013-01-01

    It has previously been shown that low-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) techniques can induce increases in energy expenditure similar to those associated with exercise. This study investigated the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of a 1 h session of lower limb NMES and compared cardiovascular response with that observed during walking in nine obese subjects (three males) (age = 43.8 ± 3.0 years; body mass index (BMI) = 41.5 ± 1.8 kg/m(2)). The NMES protocol consisted of delivering a complex pulse pattern to the thigh muscles for 1 h. The walking test consisted of five 4-min bouts starting at 2 km/h with 1 km/h increments up to 6 km/h. In both tests, an open-circuit gas analyser was used to assess O(2) consumption ([Formula: see text]O(2)), CO(2) production ([Formula: see text]CO(2)), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate (HR). Rates of fat oxidation (RFO) and carbohydrate oxidation (CHO) were estimated by indirect calorimetry. One hour of NMES significantly increased [Formula: see text]O(2), HR, RER, and mean energy expenditure compared with resting values, reaching 8.7 ± 1.3 mL·min(-2)·kg(-1) (47% of [Formula: see text]O(2peak)), 114.8 ± 7.5 bpm, 0.95, and 318.5 ± 64.3 kcal/h, respectively. CHO, but not RFO, increased during 1 h of NMES. With NMES, CHO was greater and RFO was less than at all walking speeds except 6 km/h. Lactate also increased more with NMES, to 3.5 ± 0.7 mmol versus a maximum of 1.5 ± 0.3 mmol with the walking protocol. These results suggest that NMES can be used in an obese population to induce an effective cardiovascular exercise response. In fact, the observed increase in energy expenditure induced by 1 h of NMES is clinically important and comparable with that recommended in weight management programs.

  9. Haplotypes in the CRP gene associated with increased BMI and levels of CRP in subjects with type 2 diabetes or obesity from Southwestern Mexico.

    Martínez-Calleja, América; Quiróz-Vargas, Irma; Parra-Rojas, Isela; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Leyva-Vázquez, Marco A; Fernández-Tilapa, Gloria; Vences-Velázquez, Amalia; Cruz, Miguel; Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Flores-Alfaro, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between four polymorphisms in the CRP gene with circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity, and risk score of coronary heart disease. We studied 402 individuals and classified them into four groups: healthy, obese, T2D obese, and T2D without obesity, from Guerrero, Southwestern Mexico. Blood levels of CRP, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and leukocytes were measured. Genotyping was performed by PCR/RFLP, and the risk score for coronary heart disease was determined by the Framingham's methodology. The TT genotype of SNP rs1130864 was associated with increased body mass index and T2D patients with obesity. We found that the haplotype 2 (TGAG) was associated with increased levels of CRP (β = 0.3; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.5; P = 0.005) and haplotype 7 (TGGG) with higher body mass index (BMI) (β = 0.2; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.3; P obesity and the haplotype 7 with BMI may explain how obesity and genetic predisposition increase the risk of diseases such as T2D in the population of Southwestern Mexico.

  10. Haplotypes in the CRP Gene Associated with Increased BMI and Levels of CRP in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes or Obesity from Southwestern Mexico

    América Martínez-Calleja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We evaluated the association between four polymorphisms in the CRP gene with circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, type 2 diabetes (T2D, obesity, and risk score of coronary heart disease. Methods. We studied 402 individuals and classified them into four groups: healthy, obese, T2D obese, and T2D without obesity, from Guerrero, Southwestern Mexico. Blood levels of CRP, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and leukocytes were measured. Genotyping was performed by PCR/RFLP, and the risk score for coronary heart disease was determined by the Framingham's methodology. Results. The TT genotype of SNP rs1130864 was associated with increased body mass index and T2D patients with obesity. We found that the haplotype 2 (TGAG was associated with increased levels of CRP (β=0.3; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.5; P=0.005 and haplotype 7 (TGGG with higher body mass index (BMI (β=0.2; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.3; P<0.001. The risk score for coronary heart disease was associated with increased levels of CRP, but not with any polymorphism or haplotype. Conclusions. The association between the TT genotype of SNP rs1130864 with obesity and the haplotype 7 with BMI may explain how obesity and genetic predisposition increase the risk of diseases such as T2D in the population of Southwestern Mexico.

  11. Efficacy of a 3-month lifestyle intervention program using a Japanese-style healthy plate on body weight in overweight and obese diabetic Japanese subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Yamauchi, Keiko; Katayama, Tomomi; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sakane, Naoki

    2014-11-24

    The portion size of food is a determinant of energy intake, linking with obese traits. A healthy plate for portion control has recently been made in a Japanese style. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention program using the Japanese-style healthy plate on weight reduction in overweight and obese diabetic Japanese subjects. We randomized overweight and obese diabetic subjects (n = 19, 10 women) into an intervention group including educational classes on lifestyle modification incorporating the healthy plate (n = 10) or a waiting-list control group (n = 9). The intervention period was three months, and the educational classes using the healthy plate were conducted monthly in a group session for the intervention group. The body weight, blood glycemic and metabolic measures, and psychosocial variables were measured at the baseline and after the 3-month intervention in both groups. The impression of the intervention was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. There was one drop-out in the control group. No adverse events were reported in the groups. Subjects in the intervention group had a greater weight change from baseline to the end of the 3-month intervention period (-3.7 +/- 2.5 [SD] kg in the intervention group vs. -0.1 +/- 1.4 kg in the control group, P = 0.002). Most subjects recorded that the use of a healthy plate could be recommended to other people. The lifestyle intervention program using the Japanese-style healthy plate, which was developed for portion control, may effectively reduce body weight in overweight and obese diabetic subjects in Japan. Further studies are needed to establish the efficacy of this methodology on weight management.

  12. The effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on calciotropic hormones and bone mineral density in obese subjects with low levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin d: results from a randomized controlled study.

    Wamberg, Louise; Pedersen, Steen B; Richelsen, Bjørn; Rejnmark, Lars

    2013-07-01

    Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) are associated with increased bone turnover and risk of fractures. Plasma 25OHD is inversely related to body mass index, and vitamin D deficiency is common in obesity. We aimed to determine whether vitamin D supplementation affects bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD) in obese subjects. Fifty-two healthy obese men and women aged 18-50 years with plasma 25OHD levels below 50 nmol/L were randomized to 7,000 IU of cholecalciferol daily or placebo for 26 weeks. We measured plasma levels of 25OHD, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and markers of bone turnover, as well as BMD at the hip, spine, forearm, and whole body. Compared with placebo, treatment with cholecalciferol increased mean plasma 25OHD from 35 to 110 nmol/L (p importance to bone health in young obese subjects as increased levels of 25OHD are associated with a decrease in both PTH and bone turnover and with an increase in BMD at the forearm.

  13. Coleus forskohlii Extract Supplementation in Conjunction with a Hypocaloric Diet Reduces the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight and Obese Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Loftus, Hayley L.; Astell, Katie J.; Mathai, Michael L.; Su, Xiao Q.

    2015-01-01

    Limited studies have shown that Coleus forskohlii extract may aid in weight management. This randomized, double blind placebo-controlled clinical study assessed the effects of supplementation with C. forskohlii extract on key markers of obesity and metabolic parameters in overweight and obese individuals. Thirty participants completed the trial and they were randomly assigned to receive either 250 mg of C. forskohlii extract (n = 15) or a placebo twice daily for 12 weeks. All participants wer...

  14. Studies of the associations between functional beta2-adrenergic receptor variants and obesity, hypertension and type 2 diabetes in 7,808 white subjects

    Gjesing, A P; Andersen, G; Burgdorf, K S

    2007-01-01

    Functional and common Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu polymorphisms have been identified in ADRB2, the gene encoding the beta2-adrenergic receptor. These variants have previously been examined for association with obesity, hypertension and diabetes with inconclusive results.......Functional and common Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu polymorphisms have been identified in ADRB2, the gene encoding the beta2-adrenergic receptor. These variants have previously been examined for association with obesity, hypertension and diabetes with inconclusive results....

  15. Weight loss is effective for symptomatic relief in obese subjects with knee osteoarthritis independently of joint damage severity assessed by high-field MRI and radiography

    Gudbergsen, H.; Boesen, M.; Lohmander, L. S.

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing prevalence of older and obese citizens, the problems of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) will escalate. Weight loss is recommended for obese KOA patients and in a majority of cases this leads to symptomatic relief. We hypothesized that pre-treatment structural status of the knee joint......, assessed by radiographs, 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and knee-joint alignment, may influence the symptomatic changes following a significant weight reduction....

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors and adipocytokines levels after two hypocaloric diets with different fat distribution in obese subjects and rs6923761 gene variant of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor.

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Aller, Rocío; Izaola, Olatz; Bachiller, R; Pacheco, D

    2014-09-01

    The role of GLP-1 R variants on body weight response after dietary intervention is unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of this polymorphism on cardiovascular risk factors, adipokine levels and weight loss secondary to a high monounsaturated fat vs. a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets in obese subjects. 391 obese subjects were randomly allocated to one of these two diets for a period of 3 months; diet M (high monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet) and diet P (high polyunsaturated (PUFAs) fat hypocaloric diet). Two hundred and twelve patients (54.2 %) had the genotype GG (wild group) and 179 (45.8 %) patients had the next genotypes; GA (146 patients, 37.3 %) or AA (33 patients, 8.7 %) (Mutant group). With both diets and in wild-type and mutant-type groups, BMI, weight, fat mass, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure decreased. Anthropometric parameters were higher in non-A-allele carriers than A-allele carriers. With both diets and in both genotypes, leptin, insulin levels and HOMA decreased. With the diet P and in wild genotype, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels decreased, too. Our data showed a lack of association of rs6923761 GLP-1 R polymorphism with weight loss after a high monounsaturated fat and a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets. Better anthropometric parameters in obese subjects with the mutant allele (A) of rs6923761 GLP-1 R polymorphism were observed. Insulin levels and HOMA decreased in non-A carriers.

  17. Leptin administration to overweight and obese subjects for 6 months increases free leptin concentrations but does not alter circulating hormones of the thyroid and IGF axes during weight loss induced by a mild hypocaloric diet.

    Shetty, Greeshma K; Matarese, Giuseppe; Magkos, Faidon; Moon, Hyun-Seuk; Liu, Xiaowen; Brennan, Aoife M; Mylvaganam, Geetha; Sykoutri, Despina; Depaoli, Alex M; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2011-08-01

    Short-term energy deprivation reduces leptin concentrations and alters the levels of circulating hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-peripheral axis in lean subjects. Whether the reduction in leptin concentration during long-term weight loss in obese individuals is linked to the same neuroendocrine changes seen in lean, leptin-sensitive subjects remains to be fully clarified. In this study, 24 overweight and obese adults (16 women and eight men; body mass index (BMI): 27.5-38.0 kg/m(2)) were prescribed a hypocaloric diet (-500 kcal/day) and were randomized to receive recombinant methionyl leptin (n=18, metreleptin, 10 mg/day self-injected s.c.) or placebo (n=6, same volume and time as metreleptin) for 6 months. Metreleptin administration did not affect weight loss beyond that induced by hypocaloric diet alone (P for interaction=0.341) but increased the serum concentrations of total leptin by six- to eight-fold (Phypocaloric diet in overweight and obese subjects.

  18. Efficacy of low-calorie, partial meal replacement diet plans on weight and abdominal fat in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial of two diet plans - one high in protein and one nutritionally balanced.

    Lee, K; Lee, J; Bae, W K; Choi, J K; Kim, H J; Cho, B

    2009-02-01

    Little is known about the relative efficacy of high-protein vs. conventional diet plans that include partial meal replacements on body fat loss in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of two low-calorie diets with partial meal replacement plans-a high-protein plan (HP) and a nutritionally balanced conventional (C) plan-on reducing obesity in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. In a 12-week, double-blind study, we randomised 75 participants to either the HP- or the C-plan group. We recorded key metrics at 0 and 12 weeks. The overall mean weight loss was 5 kg in the HP-plan group and 4.9 kg in the C-plan group (p = 0.72). Truncal fat mass decreased 1.6 kg in the HP-plan group (p or = 70% dietary compliance, however, truncal and whole body fat mass decreased more in the HP-plan group (Delta 2.2 kg and Delta 3.5 kg respectively) than in the C-plan group (Delta 1.3 kg and Delta 2.3 [corrected] kg respectively) (p < 0.05). The HP- and C-plans had a similar effect on weight and abdominal fat reduction, but the HP-plan was more effective in reducing body fat among compliant subjects.

  19. Reproducibility of MR-based liver fat quantification across field strength: Same-day comparison between 1.5T and 3T in obese subjects.

    Artz, Nathan S; Haufe, William M; Hooker, Catherine A; Hamilton, Gavin; Wolfson, Tanya; Campos, Guilherme M; Gamst, Anthony C; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B; Sirlin, Claude B; Reeder, Scott B

    2015-09-01

    To examine the reproducibility of quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) methods to estimate hepatic proton density fat-fraction (PDFF) at different magnetic field strengths. This Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Following informed consent, 25 severely obese subjects (mean body mass index [BMI]: 45 ± 4, range: 38-53 kg/m(2) ) were scanned at 1.5T and 3T on the same day. Two confounder-corrected multiecho chemical shift-encoded gradient-echo-based imaging methods were acquired to estimate PDFF over the entire liver: 3D complex-based (MRI-C) and 2D magnitude-based (MRI-M) MRI. Single-voxel MR spectroscopy (MRS) was performed in the right liver lobe. Using linear regression, pairwise comparisons of estimated PDFF were made between methods (MRI-C, MRI-M, MRS) at each field strength and for each method across field strengths. 1.5T vs. 3T regression analyses for MRI-C, MRI-M, and MRS PDFF measurements yielded R(2) values of 0.99, 0.97, and 0.90, respectively. The best-fit line was near unity (slope(m) = 1, intercept(b) = 0), indicating excellent agreement for each case: MRI-C (m = 0.92 [0.87, 0.99], b = 1.4 [0.7, 1.8]); MRI-M (m = 1.0 [0.90, 1.08], b = -1.4 [-2.4, -0.5]); MRS (m = 0.98 [0.82, 1.15], b = 1.2 [-0.2, 3.0]). Comparing MRI-C and MRI-M yielded an R(2)  = 0.98 (m = 1.1 [1.02, 1.16], b = -1.8 [-2.8, -1.1]) at 1.5T, and R(2)  = 0.99 (m = 0.98 [0.93, 1.03], b = 1.2 [0.7, 1.7]) at 3T. This study demonstrates that PDFF estimation is reproducible across field strengths and across two confounder-corrected MR-based methods. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Exenatide has a Pronounced Effect on Energy Intake but not Energy Expenditure in Non-Diabetic Subjects with Obesity: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Basolo, Alessio; Burkholder, Joshua; Osgood, Kristy; Graham, Alexis; Bundrick, Sarah; Frankl, Joseph; Piaggi, Paolo; Thearle, Marie S; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2018-03-26

    Exenatide is a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) mimetic which induces weight loss predominantly, it is presumed, via decreased food intake. However, circulating GLP-1 is also a determinant of energy expenditure. We sought to quantify the effect of exenatide on energy expenditure (EE) and energy intake. In this single-center, randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial, we randomized 80 healthy, non-diabetic volunteers with obesity (46 women, age: 34.4±8.7 y, body fat by DXA: 44.2±7.8%) to subcutaneous exenatide 10 μg twice daily or placebo. Subjects were admitted to our clinical research unit for measurement of 24h-EE in a whole-room indirect calorimeter and ad libitum food intake using an automated vending machine paradigm before and after randomization. Furthermore, energy expenditure and ad libitum food intake measures were repeated at 24-week after readmission for 7-day inpatient stay. Body weight was obtained weekly for up to 5 weeks and was recorded at each monthly follow up visit up to 24 weeks. Prior to randomization, participants over ate during the 3-day vending machine period in the whole study group (114.6±35.2 %), expressed as percentage of weight maintaining energy needs (WMEN) with those who were eventually randomized to exenatide overeating more (121.6±37.7 %) compared to placebo group (107.6±31.5 %). In the exenatide group, ad libitum absolute energy intake decreased by 1016.1±724.5 kcal/day (95% CI: -1250.9 to -781.2) versus a 245.1±710.5 kcal/day (95% CI: -475.4 to -14.7) decrease in placebo (Δ= -624.8 Kcal/day, p energy intake between exenatide group and placebo group and the treatment group decreased 24-h EE more compared to placebo (β = -160.6 Kcal/day, 95% CI: -307.6 to 13.6, p = 0.03) compared to their pre-randomization measurement. However, this reduction was not present after adjustment for changes in FM and FFM (β = -87 kcal/day, p = 0.14). No difference was observed in body weight (Δ = -1.72 kg, 95% CI: -5.77 to 2.30, p

  1. The effect of casein, hydrolyzed casein and whey proteins on urinary and postprandial plasma metabolites in overweight and moderately obese human subjects

    Schmedes, Mette S; Bendtsen, Line Quist; Gomes, Sisse

    2018-01-01

    , hydrolyzed casein and whey proteins in overweight and moderately obese men and women by investigating select urinary and blood plasma metabolites. RESULTS: A total of 21 urinary and 23 plasma metabolites were identified by NMR spectroscopy. The postprandial plasma metabolites revealed a significant diet...

  2. Effects of short-term caloric restriction on circulating free IGF-I, acid-labile subunit, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in obese subjects

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Kjems, Lise Lund

    2006-01-01

    , no published data exist on free IGF-I levels, acid labile subunit (ALS), or IGFBP protease activity in relation to GH release during a hypocaloric diet. The main purpose of this study was to determine free IGF-I, ALS, IGFBPs-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in relation to 24-h GH release before and after......Decreased levels of GH and total IGF-I have been reported in obesity. It has been hypothesized that increased free (biologically active) IGF-I levels generated from IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) protease activity could be the mechanism for the low GH release in dieting obese subjects. However...... a short-term very low-calorie diet (VLCD)....

  3. Effects of short-term caloric restriction on circulating free IGF-I, acid-labile subunit, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in obese subjects

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Kjems, Lise Lund

    2006-01-01

    Decreased levels of GH and total IGF-I have been reported in obesity. It has been hypothesized that increased free (biologically active) IGF-I levels generated from IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) protease activity could be the mechanism for the low GH release in dieting obese subjects. However......, no published data exist on free IGF-I levels, acid labile subunit (ALS), or IGFBP protease activity in relation to GH release during a hypocaloric diet. The main purpose of this study was to determine free IGF-I, ALS, IGFBPs-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in relation to 24-h GH release before and after...... a short-term very low-calorie diet (VLCD)....

  4. Oral glutamine increases circulating glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon, and insulin concentrations in lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic subjects

    Greenfield, Jerry R; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Keogh, Julia M

    2008-01-01

    objective was to determine whether glutamine increases circulating GLP-1 and GIP concentrations in vivo and, if so, whether this is associated with an increase in plasma insulin. DESIGN: We recruited 8 healthy normal-weight volunteers (LEAN), 8 obese individuals with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose...... plasma insulin concentrations. Glutamine stimulated glucagon secretion in all 3 study groups. CONCLUSION: Glutamine effectively increases circulating GLP-1, GIP, and insulin concentrations in vivo and may represent a novel therapeutic approach to stimulating insulin secretion in obesity and type 2......BACKGROUND: Incretin hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), play an important role in meal-related insulin secretion. We previously demonstrated that glutamine is a potent stimulus of GLP-1 secretion in vitro. OBJECTIVE: Our...

  5. Consuming a hypocaloric high fat low carbohydrate diet for 12 weeks lowers C-reactive protein, and raises serum adiponectin and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in obese subjects.

    Ruth, Megan R; Port, Ava M; Shah, Mitali; Bourland, Ashley C; Istfan, Nawfal W; Nelson, Kerrie P; Gokce, Noyan; Apovian, Caroline M

    2013-12-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate (HFLC) diets have become popular tools for weight management. We sought to determine the effects of a HFLC diet compared to a low fat high carbohydrate (LFHC) diet on the change in weight loss, cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation in subjects with obesity. Obese subjects (29.0-44.6 kg/m2) recruited from Boston Medical Center were randomized to a hypocaloric LFHC (n=26) or HFLC (n=29) diet for 12 weeks. The age range of subjects was 21-62 years. As a percentage of daily calories, the HFLC group consumed 33.5% protein, 56.0% fat and 9.6% carbohydrate and the LFHC group consumed 22.0% protein, 25.0% fat and 55.7% carbohydrate. The change in percent body weight, lean and fat mass, blood pressure, flow mediated dilation, hip:waist ratio, hemoglobin A1C, fasting insulin and glucose, and glucose and insulin response to a 2h oral glucose tolerance test did not differ (P>0.05) between diets after 12 weeks. The HFLC group had greater mean decreases in serum triglyceride (P=0.07), and hs-CRP (P=0.03), and greater mean increases in HDL cholesterol (P=0.004), and total adiponectin (P=0.045) relative to the LFHC. Secreted adipose tissue adiponectin or TNF-α did not differ after weight loss for either diet. Relative to the LFHC group, the HFLC group had greater improvements in blood lipids and systemic inflammation with similar changes in body weight and composition. This small-scale study suggests that HFLC diets may be more beneficial to cardiovascular health and inflammation in free-living obese adults compared to LFHC diets. © 2013.

  6. Low-fat, high-carbohydrate (low-glycaemic index) diet induces weight loss and preserves lean body mass in obese healthy subjects: results of a 24-week study.

    Bahadori, B; Yazdani-Biuki, B; Krippl, P; Brath, H; Uitz, E; Wascher, T C

    2005-05-01

    The traditional treatment for obesity which is based on a reduced caloric diet has only been partially successful. Contributing factors are not only a poor long-term dietary adherence but also a significant loss of lean body mass and subsequent reduction in energy expenditure. Both low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets and diets using low-glycaemic index (GI) foods are capable of inducing modest weight loss without specific caloric restriction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and medium-term effect of a low-fat diet with high (low GI) carbohydrates on weight loss, body composition changes and dietary compliance. Obese patients were recruited from two obesity outpatient clinics. Subjects were given advise by a dietician, then they attended biweekly for 1-hour group meetings. Bodyweight and body composition were measured at baseline and after 24 weeks. One hundred and nine (91%) patients completed the study; after 24 weeks the average weight loss was 8.9 kg (98.6 vs. 89.7 kg; p fat mass (42.5 vs. 36.4 kg; p vs. 53.3 kg; p low-fat, low-GI diet led to a significant reduction of fat mass; adherence to the diet was very good. Our results suggest that such a diet is feasible and should be evaluated in randomized controlled trials.

  7. Concurrent Improvement in Both Binge Eating and Depressive Symptoms with Naltrexone/Bupropion Therapy in Overweight or Obese Subjects with Major Depressive Disorder in an Open-Label, Uncontrolled Study.

    Guerdjikova, Anna I; Walsh, Brandon; Shan, Kevin; Halseth, Amy E; Dunayevich, Eduardo; McElroy, Susan L

    2017-10-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is associated with obesity and major depressive disorder (MDD). Naltrexone extended-release (ER)/bupropion ER (NB) is approved as an adjunct to diet and physical activity for chronic weight management. In a prospectively designed 24-week open-label, single-arm, single-site trial of 25 women with MDD and overweight/obesity, NB reduced weight and depressive symptoms. This post hoc analysis investigated the relationship between change in self-reported binge eating behavior (evaluated with the Binge Eating Scale [BES]) and changes in weight, control of eating, and depressive symptoms. At baseline, 91% of subjects had moderate or severe BES scores, suggesting BED. BES scores were significantly improved from week 4, and by week 24, 83% reported "little or no problem." Improvement in BES scores correlated with improvement in depressive symptoms and control of eating. NB may be effective in reducing binge eating symptoms associated with MDD and overweight/obesity. Evaluation of NB in BED appears warranted. Orexigen Therapeutics, Inc.

  8. Effect of birth year on birth weight and obesity in adulthood: comparison between subjects born prior to and during the great depression in Iceland.

    Imai, Cindy Mari; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Aspelund, Thor; Jonsson, Gudmundur; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2012-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have linked small size at birth to adverse adult health outcomes but the relative influence of environmental exposures is less well established. The authors investigated the impact of prenatal environmental exposure by comparing 2750 participants born before (1925-1929) and during (1930-1934) the Great Depression in Reykjavik, Iceland. Calendar year served as proxy for environmental effects. Anthropometric measurements at birth and school-age (8-13 years) were collected from national registries. Participants were medically examined as adults (33-65 years). Mean birth weight, adjusted for maternal age and parity, decreased by 97 g (95% confidence interval (CI): 39, 156) for men and 70 g (95% CI: 11, 129) for women from 1925 to 1934; growth at school-age was significantly reduced for participants growing during the Depression. As adults, women prenatally exposed to the Depression had higher body mass index (Δ0.6 kg/m(2), 95% CI: 0.2, 1.1), higher fasting blood glucose levels (Δ0.16 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.23) and greater odds of being obese 1.43 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.02) compared to unexposed counterparts. Non-significant associations were observed in men. Reduction in birth weight due to rapid shifts in the economic environment appears to have a modest but significant association with later obesity for women while male offspring appear to be less affected by these conditions.

  9. Coleus forskohlii Extract Supplementation in Conjunction with a Hypocaloric Diet Reduces the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight and Obese Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Loftus, Hayley L; Astell, Katie J; Mathai, Michael L; Su, Xiao Q

    2015-11-17

    Limited studies have shown that Coleus forskohlii extract may aid in weight management. This randomized, double blind placebo-controlled clinical study assessed the effects of supplementation with C. forskohlii extract on key markers of obesity and metabolic parameters in overweight and obese individuals. Thirty participants completed the trial and they were randomly assigned to receive either 250 mg of C. forskohlii extract (n = 15) or a placebo twice daily for 12 weeks. All participants were advised to follow a hypocaloric diet throughout the study. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, and waist to hip ratio, were monitored fortnightly. Dietary intake was assessed at the baseline and weeks 4, 8 and 12. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales and blood samples were analyzed for plasma lipids, ghrelin, leptin, glucose and insulin at the baseline and end of the intervention. Significant reductions to waist and hip circumference (p = 0.02; p = 0.01, respectively) were recorded in both experimental and placebo groups after the 12 week intervention. Furthermore, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly increased (p = 0.01) in both groups. The experimental group showed a favorable improvement in insulin concentration and insulin resistance (p = 0.001; 0.01 respectively) compared to the placebo group. These findings suggest that C. forskohlii extract in conjunction with a hypocaloric diet may be useful in the management of metabolic risk factors.

  10. Coleus forskohlii Extract Supplementation in Conjunction with a Hypocaloric Diet Reduces the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight and Obese Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Hayley L. Loftus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Limited studies have shown that Coleus forskohlii extract may aid in weight management. This randomized, double blind placebo-controlled clinical study assessed the effects of supplementation with C. forskohlii extract on key markers of obesity and metabolic parameters in overweight and obese individuals. Thirty participants completed the trial and they were randomly assigned to receive either 250 mg of C. forskohlii extract (n = 15 or a placebo twice daily for 12 weeks. All participants were advised to follow a hypocaloric diet throughout the study. Body weight, body mass index (BMI, waist and hip circumference, and waist to hip ratio, were monitored fortnightly. Dietary intake was assessed at the baseline and weeks 4, 8 and 12. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales and blood samples were analyzed for plasma lipids, ghrelin, leptin, glucose and insulin at the baseline and end of the intervention. Significant reductions to waist and hip circumference (p = 0.02; p = 0.01, respectively were recorded in both experimental and placebo groups after the 12 week intervention. Furthermore, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C was significantly increased (p = 0.01 in both groups. The experimental group showed a favorable improvement in insulin concentration and insulin resistance (p = 0.001; 0.01 respectively compared to the placebo group. These findings suggest that C. forskohlii extract in conjunction with a hypocaloric diet may be useful in the management of metabolic risk factors.

  11. Effects of Glucomannan-Enriched, Aronia Juice-Based Supplement on Cellular Antioxidant Enzymes and Membrane Lipid Status in Subjects with Abdominal Obesity

    Nevena Kardum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a 4-week-long consumption of glucomannan-enriched, aronia juice-based supplement on anthropometric parameters, membrane fatty acid profile, and status of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes obtained from postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. Twenty women aged 45–65 with a mean body mass index (BMI of 36.1 ± 4.4 kg/m2 and waist circumference of 104.8 ± 10.1 cm were enrolled. Participants were instructed to consume 100 mL of supplement per day as part of their regular diet. A significant increase in the content of n-3 (P<0.05 polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids was observed, with a marked increase in the level of docosahexaenoic fatty acid (P<0.05. Accordingly, a decrease in the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids ratio was observed (P<0.05. The observed effects were accompanied with an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity (P<0.05. Values for BMI (P<0.001, waist circumference (P<0.001, and systolic blood pressure (P<0.05 were significantly lower after the intervention. The obtained results indicate a positive impact of tested supplement on cellular oxidative damage, blood pressure, and anthropometric indices of obesity.

  12. Plasma Periostin Levels Are Increased in Chinese Subjects with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes and Are Positively Correlated with Glucose and Lipid Parameters.

    Luo, Yuanyuan; Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang; Wei, Huili; Wu, Jing; Duan, Yang; Liu, Dan; Deng, Huacong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relations among plasma periostin, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and inflammation in Chinese patients with obesity (OB), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Plasma periostin levels in the T2DM group were significantly higher than the NGT group (P index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h postchallenge plasma glucose (2 h PG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TNF-α, and IL-6 (P < 0.05 or 0.001) and negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that TG, TNF-α, and HOMA-IR were independent related factors in influencing the levels of plasma periostin (P < 0.001). These results suggested that Chinese patients with obesity and T2DM had significantly higher plasma periostin levels. Plasma periostin levels were strongly associated with plasma TG, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance.

  13. Altered Plasma Lysophosphatidylcholines and Amides in Non-Obese and Non-Diabetic Subjects with Borderline-To-Moderate Hypertriglyceridemia: A Case-Control Study

    Jung, Saem; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated alterations in plasma metabolites associated with borderline-to-moderate HTG (triglycerides (TG) 150-500 mg/dL). Using UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis, the metabolomics profiles of 111 non-diabetic and non-obese individuals with borderline-to-moderate HTG were compared with those of 111 age- and sex-matched controls with normotriglyceridemia (NTG, TG amides, including N-ethyldodecanamide (q = 2.9E-05), N-propyldodecanamide (q = 3.5E-05), palmitoleamide (q = 2.9E-06), and palmitic amide (q = 0.019). The metabolomic profiles of the HTG group also exhibited lower plasma levels of cis-4-octenedioic acid (qamides, and cis-4-octenedioic acid among non-diabetic and non-obese individuals with borderline-to-moderate HTG. These results provide novel insights into the metabolic alterations that occur in the early metabolic stages of HTG. This information may facilitate the design of early interventions to prevent disease progression. PMID:25856314

  14. Efficacy and safety comparison between liraglutide as add-on therapy to insulin and insulin dose-increase in Chinese subjects with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and abdominal obesity

    Li Chun-jun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of adding liraglutide to established insulin therapy in poorly controlled Chinese subjects with type 2 diabetes and abdominal obesity compared with increasing insulin dose. Methods A 12-week, randomized, parallel-group study was carried out. A total of 84 patients completed the trial who had been randomly assigned to either the liraglutide-added group or the insulin-increasing group while continuing current insulin based treatment. Insulin dose was reduced by 0-30% upon the initiation of liraglutide. Insulin doses were subsequently adjusted to optimized glycemic control. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c values, blood glucose, total daily insulin dose, body weight, waist circumference, and the number of hypoglycemic events and adverse events were evaluated. Results At the end of study, the mean reduction in HbA1c between the liraglutide-added group and the insulin-increasing group was not significantly different (1.9% vs. 1.77%, p>0.05. However, the percentage of subjects reaching the composite endpoint of HbA1c ≤ 7.0% with no weight gain and no hypoglycemia, was significantly higher in the liraglutide-added group than in the insulin-increasing group (67% vs. 19%, p2, p Conclusions Addition of liraglutide to abdominally obese, insulin-treated patients led to improvement in glycemic control similar to that achieved by increasing insulin dosage, but with a lower daily dose of insulin and fewer hypoglycemic events. Adding liraglutide to insulin also induced a significant reduction in body weight and waist circumference. Liraglutide combined with insulin may be the best treatment option for poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and abdominal obesity.

  15. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Insulin Resistance after Two Hypocaloric Diets with Different Fat Distribution in Obese Subjects: Effect of the rs10767664 Gene Variant in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor.

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Romero, Enrique; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; Aller, Rocío

    2017-01-01

    The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) variants on change in body weight and cardiovascular risk factors after weight loss remains unclear in obese patients. Our aim was to analyze the effects of the rs10767664 BDNF gene polymorphism on body weight, cardiovascular risk factors, and serum adipokine levels after a high monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) hypocaloric diet (diet M) versus a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) hypocaloric diet (diet P). A Caucasian population of 361 obese patients was enrolled. Subjects who met the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to one of two diets for a period of 3 months. Two hundred and sixteen subjects (59.8%) had the genotype AA (wild-type group), and 145 (40.2%) patients had the genotypes AT (122 patients, 33.8%) or TT (23 patients, 6.4%) (mutant-type group). After weight loss with diet P and diet M and in both genotype groups, body mass index, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, serum leptin levels, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol decreased in a significant way. Secondary to weight loss with diet M and only in the wild-type group, insulin levels (-2.1 ± 2.0 vs. -0.7 ± 2.9 IU/L, p hypocaloric diet enriched with MUFAs. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The HOT (Healthy Outcome for Teens) project. Using a web-based medium to influence attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention for obesity and type 2 diabetes prevention.

    Muzaffar, Henna; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Castelli, Darla M; Scherer, Jane A

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs (behavioral belief, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, knowledge and behavioral intention) regarding preventive behaviors for obesity and type 2 diabetes will change favorably after completing the web-based intervention, HOT (Healthy Outcome for Teens) project, grounded in the TPB; and that passive online learning (POL) group will improve more than the active online learning (AOL) group. The secondary hypothesis was to determine to what extent constructs of the TPB predict intentions. 216 adolescents were recruited, 127 randomly allocated to the treatment group (AOL) and 89 to the control group (POL). The subjects completed a TPB questionnaire pre and post intervention. Both POL and AOL groups showed significant improvements from pretest to posttest survey. However, the results indicated no significant difference between POL and AOL for all constructs except behavioral belief. Correlational analysis indicated that all TPB constructs were significantly correlated with intentions for pretest and posttest for both groups. Attitude and behavioral control showed strongest correlations. Regression analysis indicated that TPB constructs were predictive of intentions and the predictive power improved post intervention. Behavioral control consistently predicted intentions for all categories and was the strongest predictor for pretest scores. For posttest scores, knowledge and attitude were the strongest predictors for POL and AOL groups respectively. Thus, HOT project improved knowledge and the TPB constructs scores for targeted behaviors, healthy eating and physical activity, for prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The Effect of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy Surgery on Dietary Intake, Food Preferences, and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Post-Surgical Morbidly Obese Lebanese Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study.

    El Labban, Sibelle; Safadi, Bassem; Olabi, Ammar

    2015-12-01

    Data on gastrointestinal (GI) and dietary changes following bariatric surgery are scarce in the Middle Eastern region. The objective of this work was to retrospectively compare dietary intake, food preferences, and GI symptoms in subjects with extreme obesity after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Sixty subjects equally divided between RYGB and SG with a postoperative period of ≥6 months were recruited for a retrospective, non-randomized, and observational study. All subjects completed three questionnaires (GI symptoms, food preferences, and quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)) and three 24-h recalls. At one year postoperatively, both surgical groups showed similar percentage of excess weight loss that exceeded 50%. In addition, percentage of carbohydrate, protein, and sugar intake from total energy, frequency of daily consumption from the eight food categories and daily energy intake were comparable between surgical groups. RYGB subjects consumed significantly more fruits and juices from total energy (P fast heartbeat (P food preferences between RYGB and SG groups. There was a trend for sweet-eating in SG subjects with less dumping symptoms to suggest different mechanisms of action for each procedure, which might impact eating behavior.

  18. Effects of PYY1-36 and PYY3-36 on appetite, energy intake, energy expenditure, glucose and fat metabolism in obese and lean subjects

    Sloth, Birgitte; Holst, Jens Juul; Flint, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Peptide YY (PYY)(3-36) has been shown to produce dramatic reductions in energy intake (EI), but no human data exist regarding energy expenditure (EE), glucose and fat metabolism. Nothing is known regarding PYY1-36. To compare effects of PYY(1-36) and PYY(3-36) on appetite, EI, EE, insulin, glucose...... and eight obese participants completed 0.2 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1) PYY(3-36) and 1.6 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1) PYY(1-36) infusions. PYY(3-36) [corrected] produced [corrected] lower ratings of well-being and [corrected] increases in heart rate, [corrected] FFA, and [corrected] postprandial [corrected] insulin...

  19. Effect of birth year on birth weight and obesity in adulthood: comparison between subjects born prior to and during the great depression in Iceland.

    Cindy Mari Imai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many epidemiological studies have linked small size at birth to adverse adult health outcomes but the relative influence of environmental exposures is less well established. METHODS: The authors investigated the impact of prenatal environmental exposure by comparing 2750 participants born before (1925-1929 and during (1930-1934 the Great Depression in Reykjavik, Iceland. Calendar year served as proxy for environmental effects. Anthropometric measurements at birth and school-age (8-13 years were collected from national registries. Participants were medically examined as adults (33-65 years. RESULTS: Mean birth weight, adjusted for maternal age and parity, decreased by 97 g (95% confidence interval (CI: 39, 156 for men and 70 g (95% CI: 11, 129 for women from 1925 to 1934; growth at school-age was significantly reduced for participants growing during the Depression. As adults, women prenatally exposed to the Depression had higher body mass index (Δ0.6 kg/m(2, 95% CI: 0.2, 1.1, higher fasting blood glucose levels (Δ0.16 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.23 and greater odds of being obese 1.43 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.02 compared to unexposed counterparts. Non-significant associations were observed in men. CONCLUSION: Reduction in birth weight due to rapid shifts in the economic environment appears to have a modest but significant association with later obesity for women while male offspring appear to be less affected by these conditions.

  20. Effect of Persea americana (avocado) fruit extract on the level of expression of adiponectin and PPAR-γ in rats subjected to experimental hyperlipidemia and obesity.

    Padmanabhan, Monika; Arumugam, Geetha

    2014-06-01

    Persea americana, commonly known as avocado, is traditionally consumed fruit which possesses body fat lowering capacity. Adiponectin plays an important role in regulating obesity. In this study, the effect of hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of P. americana (HAEPA) on the level of blood lipids, glutathione, lipid peroxidation products, adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ expressions was investigated in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups: groups 1 and 2 were fed normal rat chow (5% fat) and groups 3 and 4 were fed HFD (23% fat) for a period of 14 weeks. In addition, groups 2 and 4 rats were administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of HAEPA from third week. After 14 weeks, rats were sacrificed, and serum/plasma levels of total cholesterol, phospholipids, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and adiponectin were determined. The mRNA expression of adiponectin, PPAR-γ and protein expression of PPAR-γ were also evaluated. The body mass index (BMI), total fat pad mass and adiposity index were significantly decreased in HAEPA co-administered rats than in HFD-fed rats. The levels of LDL and lipid peroxides were significantly higher in HFD group than in HFD+HAEPA group. Levels of reduced glutathione, adiponectin, mRNA expression of adiponectin, PPAR-γ and protein expression of PPAR-γ were found to be increased in HFD+HAEPA group than in HFD group. The hypolipidemic effect of HAEPA is also evidenced by the histological observations in liver, heart and adipose tissue. The results indicate that HAEPA exhibits hypolipidemic activity probably by increasing the mRNA expression of adiponectin and PPAR-γ, which reduce the risk of hyperlipidemia and obesity.

  1. Altered plasma lysophosphatidylcholines and amides in non-obese and non-diabetic subjects with borderline-to-moderate hypertriglyceridemia: a case-control study.

    Sae Young Lee

    Full Text Available Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG is a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD. We investigated alterations in plasma metabolites associated with borderline-to-moderate HTG (triglycerides (TG 150-500 mg/dL. Using UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis, the metabolomics profiles of 111 non-diabetic and non-obese individuals with borderline-to-moderate HTG were compared with those of 111 age- and sex-matched controls with normotriglyceridemia (NTG, TG <150 mg/dL. When compared to the NTG control group, the HTG group exhibited higher plasma levels of lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs, including C14:0 (q = 0.001 and C16:0 (q = 1.8E-05, and several amides, including N-ethyldodecanamide (q = 2.9E-05, N-propyldodecanamide (q = 3.5E-05, palmitoleamide (q = 2.9E-06, and palmitic amide (q = 0.019. The metabolomic profiles of the HTG group also exhibited lower plasma levels of cis-4-octenedioic acid (q<1.0E-9 and docosanamide (q = 0.002 compared with those of the NTG controls. LysoPC 16:0 and palmitoleamide emerged as the primary metabolites able to discriminate the HTG group from the NTG group in a partial least-squares discriminant analysis and were positively associated with the fasting triglyceride levels. We identified alterations in lysoPCs, amides, and cis-4-octenedioic acid among non-diabetic and non-obese individuals with borderline-to-moderate HTG. These results provide novel insights into the metabolic alterations that occur in the early metabolic stages of HTG. This information may facilitate the design of early interventions to prevent disease progression.

  2. Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products as a potential biomarker to predict weight loss and improvement of insulin sensitivity by a very low calorie diet of obese human subjects.

    Hagen, Imke; Schulte, Dominik M; Müller, Nike; Martinsen, Jessica; Türk, Kathrin; Hedderich, Jürgen; Schreiber, Stefan; Laudes, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is associated with low-grade systemic inflammation which is thought to trigger the development of comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes. The soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) belongs to the innate immune system and has been linked to obesity, recently. The aim of the present study was to examine whether serum sRAGE concentrations are related to the grade of weight loss and improvement of insulin resistance due to a very low calorie diet (VLCD). 22 severe obese subjects (Median Body Mass Index (BMI): 44.5kg/m(2)) were included in a dietary intervention study of 6month, consisting of a very low calorie formula diet phase (VLCD: 800kcal/d) for 12 weeks and a following 12 week weight maintenance phase. Fasting glucose, fasting insulin, adiponectin, leptin and sRAGE were determined from sera. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index and leptin-to-adiponectin-ratio (LAR). Mean body weight reduction by VLCD accounted to 21.7kg with a significant improvement of insulin resistance. At baseline, sRAGE serum levels were significantly inversely related to BMI (rS=-0.642, p=0.001) and HOMA (rS=-0.419, p=0.041). Of interest, sRAGE serum levels at baseline were significantly lower in study subjects with greater reduction of BMI (p=0.017). In addition, a significantly greater HOMA reduction was observed in subjects with lower sRAGE serum levels at baseline (p=0.006). Finally, correlation analysis revealed, that changes of sRAGE serum levels were significantly correlated to changes of BMI (rS=-0.650, p=0.022) during intervention. Anti-inflammatory sRAGE might be a potential future biomarker to predict weight loss and improvement of insulin resistance by a VLCD whereby lower baseline sRAGE serum levels indicate a better outcome of the dietary intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Obesity and carotid artery remodeling

    Kozakova, M; Palombo, C; Morizzo, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The present study tested the hypothesis that obesity-related changes in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) might represent not only preclinical atherosclerosis but an adaptive remodeling meant to preserve circumferential wall stress (CWS) in altered hemodynamic conditions...... and CCA LD (266 healthy subjects with wide range of body weight (24-159 kg)); (B) longitudinal associations between CCA LD and 3-year IMT progression rate (ΔIMT; 571 healthy non-obese subjects without increased cardiovascular (CV) risk); (C) the impact of obesity on CCA geometry and CWS (88 obese subjects...... without CV complications and 88 non-obese subjects matched for gender and age). RESULTS: CCA LD was independently associated with SV that was determined by body size. In the longitudinal study, baseline LD was an independent determinant of ΔIMT, and ΔIMT of subjects in the highest LD quartile...

  4. The Effect of Normally Consumed Amounts of Sucrose or High Fructose Corn Syrup on Lipid Profiles, Body Composition and Related Parameters in Overweight/Obese Subjects

    Joshua Lowndes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association (AHA has advocated that women and men not consume more than 100 and 150 kcal/day, respectively, from added sugars. These levels are currently exceeded by over 90% of the adult population in the United States. Few data exist on longer-term metabolic effects when sucrose and High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS, the principal sources of added dietary sugars, are consumed at levels typical of the general population. Sixty five overweight and obese individuals were placed on a eucaloric (weight stable diet for 10-weeks, which incorporated sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened, low-fat milk at 10% or 20% of calories in a randomized, double-blinded study. All groups responded similarly (interaction p > 0.05. There was no change in body weight in any of the groups over the 10-week study, or in systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Likewise, there were no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, or apolipoprotein B (Apo B. We conclude that (1 when consumed as part of a eucaloric diet fructose—when given with glucose (as normally consumed does not promote weight gain or an atherogenic lipid profile even when consumed at two to four times the level recently recommended by the AHA. (2 There were no differences between HFCS and sucrose on these parameters.

  5. The effect of normally consumed amounts of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on lipid profiles, body composition and related parameters in overweight/obese subjects.

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Pardo, Sabrina; Nguyen, Von T; Melanson, Kathleen J; Yu, Zhiping; Lowther, Britte E; Rippe, James M

    2014-03-17

    The American Heart Association (AHA) has advocated that women and men not consume more than 100 and 150 kcal/day, respectively, from added sugars. These levels are currently exceeded by over 90% of the adult population in the United States. Few data exist on longer-term metabolic effects when sucrose and High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS), the principal sources of added dietary sugars, are consumed at levels typical of the general population. Sixty five overweight and obese individuals were placed on a eucaloric (weight stable) diet for 10-weeks, which incorporated sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened, low-fat milk at 10% or 20% of calories in a randomized, double-blinded study. All groups responded similarly (interaction p > 0.05). There was no change in body weight in any of the groups over the 10-week study, or in systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Likewise, there were no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or apolipoprotein B (Apo B). We conclude that (1) when consumed as part of a eucaloric diet fructose--when given with glucose (as normally consumed) does not promote weight gain or an atherogenic lipid profile even when consumed at two to four times the level recently recommended by the AHA. (2) There were no differences between HFCS and sucrose on these parameters.

  6. Obesity and Asthma

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is more prevalent in obese compared with normal weight subjects. Our aim has been to review current knowledge of the impact of obesity on asthma severity, asthma control, and response to therapy.Several studies have shown that overweight and obesity is associated with more severe asthma...... and impaired quality of life compared with normal weight individuals. Furthermore, obesity is associated with poorer asthma control, as assessed by asthma control questionnaires, limitations in daily activities, breathlessness and wheezing, use of rescue medication, unscheduled doctor visits, emergency...... department visits, and hospitalizations for acute asthma. Studies of the impact of a high body mass index (BMI) on response to asthma therapy have, however, revealed conflicting results. Most studies show that overweight and obesity is associated with less favorable response to asthma therapy with regard...

  7. Medidas espirométricas em pessoas eutróficas e obesas nas posições ortostática, sentada e deitada Spirometric values of obese and non-obese subjects on orthostatic, sitting and supine positions

    Nilsa Cristina Domingos-Benício

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Alguns autores demonstraram que a obesidade gera restrição pulmonar, levando a uma redução dos volumes pulmonares. Entretanto, ainda existem controvérsias acerca da existência dessa restrição e do possível mecanismo responsável por essa alteração. Frente a isso, esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do excesso de peso corporal na espirometria, em três diferentes posições corporais, avaliado pelo Índice de Massa Corpórea (IMC, percentual de gordura e relação cintura/quadril. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e seis universitários sedentários, com idades entre 20 e 40 anos, foram avaliados e distribuídos em cinco grupos, de acordo com o IMC. Os voluntários foram submetidos ao exame físico e à mensuração das pregas cutâneas e da circunferência da cintura e do quadril. CVF, VEF1 e VEF1/CVF foram avaliados em três diferentes posições - sentado, deitado e em pé. RESULTADOS: Quando comparados os valores obtidos e previstos entre os grupos, nenhuma diferença estatisticamente significante foi detectada. Quando comparadas as posições corporais, a posição deitada apresentou valores menores que as posições sentado e em pé (pBACKGROUND: It is possible that obesity could lead to pulmonary restriction with decreasing lung volumes. However, controversies about this restriction and its etiology still exist. Thus, the purpose of this report was to evaluate the effects of body weigh excess on spirometry, on three different body positions, evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI, percentage of fatness and the ratio of abdominal girth to hip breadth (AG/HB. METHODS: Forty-six sedentary volunteers, with ages between 20 and 40 years, were studied and distributed on five groups, based on BMI. Skin fold thickness and ratio of abdominal girth to hip breadth (AG/HB of the volunteers were measured. FVC, FEV1 and ratio of FEV1 to FVC were measured on three different body positions - sitting, supine and orthostatic positions

  8. Altered Resting and Exercise Respiratory Physiology in Obesity

    Sood, Akshay

    2009-01-01

    Obesity, particularly severe obesity, affects both resting and exercise-related respiratory physiology. Severe obesity classically produces a restrictive ventilatory abnormality, characterized by reduced expiratory reserve volume. However, obstructive ventilatory abnormality may also be associated with abdominal obesity. Decreased peak work rates are usually seen among obese subjects in a setting of normal or decreased ventilatory reserve and normal cardiovascular response to exercise. Weight...

  9. Prevalence of comorbidities and baseline characteristics of LAP-BAND AP® subjects in the Helping Evaluate Reduction in Obesity (HERO study.

    Nancy Dreyer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the baseline characteristics in patients who chose placement of a LAP-BAND AP® System (LBAP and participated in the Helping Evaluate Reduction in Obesity (HERO Study across regions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: HERO is a five-year, prospective, multicenter, international study of patients with LBAP placement between July 22, 2009 and January 31, 2011. In addition to baseline and peri-surgery clinical data, seven follow up visits are scheduled at 3, 6 and 12 months, and annually through year five. Data collection included family and medical history, clinical outcomes, laboratory data, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, productivity, healthcare resource utilization, and adverse events. RESULTS: LBAP were placed in 1106 enrolled patients; 56.6% from the US, 26.3% from Europe, 7.1% from Canada, and 10.0% from Australia. The majority were female (n = 877 (79.3% with a mean age of 43 years (s.d. = 11.4 and mean body mass index of 45.1 kg/m(2 (s.d. = 6.9. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (HTN (overall  = 42.9% and diabetes (overall 22.2%, with 27% from the US and 14% from Europe. Overall, less than 5% had a history of cardiovascular disease. The prevalence rates of HTN, diabetes and cardiovascular disease were significantly (p<0.001 higher in men than in women across all regions. Overall HRQoL also worsened with increasing BMI. CONCLUSIONS: The HERO study is the first large, multinational and long-term registry with the LBAP. This study will provide real-world outcomes data on LAGB that will help inform patient choice, clinician treatment strategies, and payer reimbursement decisions.

  10. CLA does not impair endothelial function and decreases body weight as compared with safflower oil in overweight and obese male subjects.

    Pfeuffer, Maria; Fielitz, Kerstin; Laue, Christiane; Winkler, Petra; Rubin, Diana; Helwig, Ulf; Giller, Katrin; Kammann, Julia; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Böger, Rainer H; Bub, Achim; Bell, Doris; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2011-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) showed a wide range of beneficial biological effects with relevance for cardiovascular health in animal models and humans. Most human studies used olive oil as a reference. This study assessed the effect of CLA as compared with safflower oil on endothelial function and markers of cardiovascular risk in overweight and obese men. Heated safflower oil and olive oil were given for additional descriptive control. Eighty-five overweight men (aged 45-68 years, body mass index 25-35 kg/m(2)) were randomized to receive 4.5 g/d of the CLA isomeric mixture, safflower oil, heated safflower oil, or olive oil in a 4-week double-blind study. Endothelial function was assessed by peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) index determination in the fasting and postprandial state (i.e., 4 hours after consumption of a fat- and sucrose-rich meal). CLA as compared with safflower oil consumption did not impair fasting or postprandial PAT index but decreased body weight. CLA as compared with safflower oil did not change total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; triglycerides; insulin sensitivity indices; C-reactive protein; soluble adhesion molecules; oxidized LDL; lipoprotein a (Lp[a]); paraoxonase; or platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity, but significantly reduced arylesterase activity and increased concentrations of the F(2)-isoprostane 8-iso-prostaglandin F (PGF)(2α). CLA did not impair endothelial function. Other parameters associated with metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress were not changed or were slightly improved. Results suggest that CLA does not increase cardiovascular risk. Increased F(2)-isoprostane concentrations in this context may not indicate increased oxidative stress.

  11. The effects of the dopamine D₃ receptor antagonist GSK598809 on attentional bias to palatable food cues in overweight and obese subjects.

    Nathan, Pradeep J; O'Neill, Barry V; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P; Beaver, John; Bani, Massimo; Merlo-Pich, Emilio; Fletcher, Paul C; Swirski, Bridget; Koch, Annelize; Dodds, Chris M; Bullmore, Edward T

    2012-03-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine system plays a critical role in the reinforcing effects of rewards. Evidence from pre-clinical studies suggests that D₃ receptor antagonists may attenuate the motivational impact of rewarding cues. In this study we examined the acute effects of the D₃ receptor antagonist GSK598809 on attentional bias to rewarding food cues in overweight to obese individuals (n=26, BMI mean=32.7±3.7, range 27-40 kg/m²) who reported binge and emotional eating. We also determined whether individual differences in restrained eating style modulated the effects of GSK598809 on attentional bias. The study utilized a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design with each participant tested following acute administration of placebo and GSK598809 (175 mg). Attentional bias was assessed by the visual probe task and modified Stroop task using food-related words. Overall GSK598809 had no effects on attentional bias in either the visual probe or food Stroop tasks. However, the effect of GSK598809 on both visual probe and food Stroop attentional bias scores was inversely correlated with a measure of eating restraint allowing the identification of two subpopulations, low- and high-restrained eaters. Low-restrained eaters had a significant attentional bias towards food cues in both tasks under placebo, and this was attenuated by GSK598809. In contrast, high-restrained eaters showed no attentional bias to food cues following either placebo or GSK598809. These findings suggest that excessive attentional bias to food cues generated by individual differences in eating traits can be modulated by D₃ receptor antagonists, warranting further investigation with measures of eating behaviour and weight loss.

  12. [Obesity-hypoventilation syndrome].

    Weitzenblum, E; Kessler, R; Canuet, M; Chaouat, A

    2008-04-01

    The obesity-hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), or alveolar hypoventilation in the obese, has been described initially as the "Pickwickian syndrome". It is defined as chronic alveolar hypoventilation (PaO2 or =45 mmHg) in obese patients (body mass index>30 kg/m2) who have no other respiratory disease explaining the hypoxemia-hypercapnia. The large majority of obese subjects are not hypercapnic, even in case of severe obesity (>40 kg/m2). There are three principal causes, which can be associated, explaining alveolar hypoventilation in obese subjects: high cost of respiration and weakness of the respiratory muscles (probably the major cause), dysfunction of the respiratory centers with diminished chemosensitivity, long-term effects of the repeated episodes of obstructive sleep apneas observed in some patients. The role of leptin (hormone produced by adipocytes) in the pathogenesis of this syndrome, has been recently advocated. OHS is generally observed in subjects over 50 years. Its prevalence has markedly increased in recent years, probably due to the present "epidemic" of obesity. The diagnosis is often made after an episode of severe respiratory failure. Comorbidities, favored by obesity, are very frequent: systemic hypertension, left heart diseases, diabetes. OHS must be distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) even if the two conditions are often associated. OSAS may be absent in certain patients with OHS (20% of the patients in our experience). On the other hand obesity may be absent in certain patients with OSAS. Losing weight is the "ideal" treatment of OHS but in fact it cannot be obtained in most patients. Nocturnal ventilation (continuous positive airway pressure and mainly bilevel non invasive ventilation) is presently the best treatment of OHS and excellent short and long-term results on symptoms and arterial blood gases have been recently reported.

  13. Double-blind randomised controlled trial of the independent and synergistic effect of Spirulina maxima with exercise (ISESE) on general fitness, lipid profile and redox status in overweight and obese subjects: study protocol.

    Hernández-Lepe, Marco Antonio; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Rosa, Laura Alejandra de la; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Juarez-Oropeza, Marco Antonio; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Urquidez-Romero, Rene; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo

    2017-06-23

    In order to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors, a healthy diet must include dietary antioxidants from different sources (eg, Spirulina maxima ) and regular practice of exercise should be promoted. There is some evidence from animal studies that S. maxima and exercise decrease cardiovascular disease risks factors. However, very few studies have proved the independent or synergistic effect of S. maxima plus exercise in humans. This study attempts to address the independent and synergistic effects in overweight and obese subjects participating in a systematic physical exercise programme at moderate intensity on general fitness, plasma lipid profile and antioxidant capacity. Using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced crossover study design, 80 healthy overweight and obese subjects will be evaluated during a 12-week isoenergetic diet accompanied by 4.5 g/day S. maxima intake and/or a physical systematic exercise programme at moderate intensity. Body composition, oxygen uptake, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, plasma concentrations of triacylglycerols, total, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, antioxidant status, lipid oxidation, protein carbonyls, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and paraoxonase will be assessed. This study and all the procedures have been approved by the Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez Bioethics Committee. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02837666. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Comparable attenuation of sympathetic nervous system activity in obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance and treatment naïve type 2 diabetes following equivalent weight loss

    Nora E. Straznicky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Elevated sympathetic nervous system (SNS activity is a characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D that contributes to target organ damage and cardiovascular risk. In this study we examined whether baseline metabolic status influences the degree of sympathoinhibition attained following equivalent dietary weight loss. Methods: Un-medicated obese individuals categorized as normal glucose tolerant (NGT, n=15, impaired glucose tolerant (IGT, n=24 and newly-diagnosed T2D (n=15 consumed a hypocaloric diet (29% fat, 23% protein, 45% carbohydrate for 4-months. The three groups were matched for baseline age (56 + 1 years, body mass index (BMI, 32.9 + 0.7 kg/m2 and gender. Clinical measurements included whole-body norepinephrine kinetics, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, by microneurography, spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS and oral glucose tolerance test. Results: Weight loss averaged -7.5 + 0.8, -8.1 + 0.5 and -8.0 + 0.9 % of body weight in NGT, IGT and T2D groups, respectively. T2D subjects had significantly greater reductions in fasting glucose, 2-h glucose and glucose area under the curve (AUC0-120 compared to NGT and IGT (group effect, P<0.001. Insulinogenic index decreased in IGT and NGT groups and increased in T2D (group x time, P=0.04. The magnitude of reduction in MSNA (-7 + 3, -8 + 4, -15 + 4 burst/100hb, respectively and whole-body norepinephrine spillover rate (-28 + 8, -18 + 6 and -25 + 7 %, respectively, time effect both P<0.001, did not differ between groups. After adjustment for age and change in body weight, ∆ insulin AUC0-120 was independently associated with reduction in arterial norepinephrine concentration, whilst ∆ LDL-cholesterol and improvement in BRS were independently associated with decrease in MSNA. Conclusions: Equivalent weight loss through hypocaloric diet is accompanied by similar sympathoinhibition in matched obese subjects with different baseline glucose tolerance

  15. Which increases depressive symptoms in obese patients, hypertension or diabetes?

    Sakir Özgür Keskek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression and obesity are common disorders. Obesity is also predictive of several chronic diseases like hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare depression frequency of obese patients with hypertension or diabetes. Methods: Weight, height and body mass index (BMI were measured. The definition of obesity was a body mass index (weight (kg/height (m2 ≥30 kg/m2. Obese patients with hypertension or diabetes were documented. All participants had a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI evaluation. Results: A total of 389 subjects were included, of whom 100, 101, 92, 96 participants were healthy, obese, obese with hypertension, obese with diabetes, respectively. Beck Depression Inventory scores of obese patients, obese patients with hypertension or diabetes were higher compared to the control group. BDI scores of obese patients with diabetes were higher compared to obese and obese with hypertension subjects.

  16. A multifunctional diet improves cardiometabolic-related biomarkers independently of weight changes: an 8-week randomized controlled intervention in healthy overweight and obese subjects.

    Tovar, Juscelino; Johansson, Maria; Björck, Inger

    2016-10-01

    A multifunctional diet (MFD) was previously shown to reduce blood lipids, CRP and blood pressure in a 4-week intervention under weight-maintenance conditions. Here, MFD effects were evaluated in an 8-week intervention with no restriction for weight changes. Healthy subjects consumed MFD (23 subjects) or a control diet (CD) devoid of the functional components (24 subjects) in a "free-living" randomized controlled experiment. MFD included several functional concepts: low-glycemic-impact meals, antioxidant-rich foods, oily fish, viscous dietary fibers, soybean and whole barley kernel products, almonds and plant stanols. Measured outcomes were fasting blood values of lipids, glucose, insulin, GGT, CRP, HbA1c, PAI-1, GLP-1, GLP-2, body weight, blood pressure and breath hydrogen. At baseline, participants were 51-72 years old, with BMI between 25 and 34 and fasting glycemia  ≤ 6.1 mmol/L. Consumption of both diets resulted in similar weight loss after 8 weeks (-4 %; P  diets, which remained significant after adjustment for body weight. Reduced systolic blood pressure, circulating GGT, HbA1c and insulin concentrations were observed with both MFD and CD with no difference between diets. The Reynolds cardiovascular risk score was decreased by 36 % (P  <  0.0001) with MFD. MFD increased breath hydrogen levels (120 %; P  <  0.05). Consumption of MFD decreased blood lipids and improved several other aspects of the cardiometabolic risk profile. This effect was not dependent on weight loss.

  17. Effect of PGX, a novel functional fibre supplement, on subjective ratings of appetite in overweight and obese women consuming a 3-day structured, low-calorie diet.

    Kacinik, V; Lyon, M; Purnama, M; Reimer, R A; Gahler, R; Green, T J; Wood, S

    2011-12-12

    Dietary factors that help control perceived hunger might improve adherence to calorie-reduced diets. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of supplementing a three-day, low-calorie diet with PolyGlycopleX (PGX), a highly viscous fibre, on subjective ratings of appetite compared with a placebo. In a double-blind crossover design with a 3-week washout, 45 women (aged 38±9 years, body mass index 29.9±2.8 kg m(-2)) were randomised to consume a 1000-kcal per day diet for 3 days, supplemented with 5 g of PGX or placebo at each of breakfast, lunch and dinner. Subjective appetite was assessed using 100 mm visual analogue scales that were completed daily before, between and after consumption of meals. Thirty-five women completed the study. Consumption of PGX compared with placebo led to significantly lower mean area under the curve for hunger on day 3 (440.4 versus 375.4; P=0.048), prospective consumption on day 3 (471.0 versus 401.8; P=0.017) and the overall 3-day average (468.6 versus 420.2; P=0.026). More specifically, on day 3 PGX significantly reduced total appetite, hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption for 2.5 and 4.5 h after lunch and before dinner times, with hunger also being reduced 2.5 h after dinner (P<0.05). The results show that adding 5 g of PGX to meals during consumption of a low-calorie diet reduces subjective ratings of prospective consumption and increases the feelings of satiety, especially during afternoon and evening. This highly viscous polysaccharide may be a useful adjunct to weight-loss interventions involving significant caloric reductions.

  18. O efeito da obesidade sobre parâmetros espirométricos em adolescentes submetidos à broncoprovocação por exercício = The effect of obesity on spirometric parameters in adolescents subjected to exercise bronchoprovocation

    Fabrício Cieslak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da obesidade sobre parâmetros espirométricos em adolescentes submetidos ao teste de broncoprovocação por exercício físico. Estudo transversal, descritivo e correlacional, composto por 15 adolescentes, de ambos os sexos. O diagnóstico de asma foi realizado por meio de histórico clínico e questionário ISAAC, e a obesidade, pelo IMC acima do percentil 95. Utilizou-se o teste de broncoprovocação com exercício físico para avaliação da asma induzida pelo exercício (AIE, considerando-se positiva a diminuição do volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1 > 10% do valor pré-exercício e a intensidade da AIE foi calculada pela queda percentual máxima do VEF1 (% Quedamáx VEF1. Foram utilizados o teste t independente ou U de Mann-Whitney e a correlação de Spearman rho (p The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of obesity on spirometric parameters in adolescents subjected to a physical exercise bronchoprovocation test. It was a cross-sectional, descriptive and correlational study composed of 15 adolescents of both genders. The diagnosis of asthma was made by clinical history and ISAAC questionnaire, and obesity by BMI above the 95th percentile. The bronchoprovocation test with physical exercise was used for assessment of exercise induced asthma (EIA, considering positive a decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 > 10% of pre-exercise, and the intensity was calculated by the EIA maximum percentage fall in FEV1 (% Fallmax FEV1. We used the independent t test or Mann-Whitney U test and the Spearman rho correlation (p < 0.05. Significant differences were found between asthmatics and non-asthmatics to % Fallmax FEV1 (p = 0.034. There was a negative moderate relationship to Fallmax FEV1 with leukocytes, and % Fallmax FEV1 with leukocytes. It can be concluded that the spirometric variables presented moderated correlation with the systemic inflammation of

  19. Effects of Sleeve Gastrectomy vs. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Eating Behavior and Sweet Taste Perception in Subjects with Obesity

    Katie Nance

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB has greater effects on taste perception and eating behavior than comparable weight loss induced by sleeve gastrectomy (SG. We evaluated the following outcomes in 31 subjects both before and after ~20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n = 23 or SG (n = 8: (1 sweet, savory, and salty taste sensitivity; (2 the most preferred concentrations of sucrose and monosodium glutamate; (3 sweetness palatability, by using validated sensory testing techniques; and (4 eating behavior, by using the Food Craving Inventory and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. We found that neither RYGB nor SG affected sweetness or saltiness sensitivity. However, weight loss induced by either RYGB or SG caused the same decrease in: (1 frequency of cravings for foods; (2 influence of emotions and external food cues on eating behavior; and (3 shifted sweetness palatability from pleasant to unpleasant when repetitively tasting sucrose (all p-values ≤ 0.01. Therefore, when matched on weight loss, SG and RYGB cause the same beneficial effects on key factors involved in the regulation of eating behavior and hedonic component of taste perception.

  20. Childhood Obesity

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  1. Obesity and target organ damage : the kidney

    de Jong, PE; Verhave, JC; Pinto-Sietsma, SJ; Hillege, HL

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is a risk marker for progressive renal function loss in patients with known renal disease. There is, however, increasing evidence that obesity may also damage the kidney in otherwise healthy subjects. There appears to be an intriguing parallel between the renal effects of obesity and those

  2. [Epigenetics and obesity].

    Casanello, Paola; Krause, Bernardo J; Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Uauy, Ricardo

    Current evidence supports the notion that exposure to various environmental conditions in early life may induce permanent changes in the epigenome that persist throughout the life-course. This article focuses on early changes associated with obesity in adult life. A review is presented on the factors that induce changes in whole genome (DNA) methylation in early life that are associated with adult onset obesity and related disorders. In contrast, reversal of epigenetic changes associated with weight loss in obese subjects has not been demonstrated. This contrasts with well-established associations found between obesity related DNA methylation patterns at birth and adult onset obesity and diabetes. Epigenetic markers may serve to screen indivuals at risk for obesity and assess the effects of interventions in early life that may delay or prevent obesity in early life. This might contribute to lower the obesity-related burden of death and disability at the population level. The available evidence indicates that epigenetic marks are in fact modifiable, based on modifications in the intrauterine environment and changes in food intake, physical activity and dietary patterns patterns during pregnancy and early years of adult life. This offers the opportunity to intervene before conception, during pregnancy, infancy, childhood, and also in later life. There must be documentation on the best preventive actions in terms of diet and physical activity that will modify or revert the adverse epigenetic markers, thus preventing obesity and diabetes in suceptible individuals and populations. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Employment discrimination against obese women in obesity clinic's patients perspective.

    Obara-Gołębiowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    The workplace is one of many areas of life where obese people are unfairly treated. According to the literature obese women are particularly susceptible to discrimination in employment. There is a lack of polish researches of this subject. The main objective of this study was to analyze personal, subjective experiences related to weight bias and discrimination against obese people in the workplace of obese Polish women. The study was carried out in a hospital clinic for obesity management. A total of 420 women with BMI>30, aged 21 to 72, participated in group interviews focused on the weight bias and discrimination against obese people in the workplace. In the group of clinically obese women, 5.3% of subjects had experienced employment discrimination and 10.5% had been victims of verbal and social abuse in the workplace. The most common psycho-physical consequences of the weight stigma were emotional problems, lack of motivation and overeating in response to stress. Weight-based discrimination in the workplace poses a problem in Poland. The weight stigma and occupational discrimination lead to psycho-physical discomfort which exacerbates overeating and obesity.

  4. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    ... Obesity Causes & Consequences CDC Reports Improvement in Childhood Obesity among Young Children Participating in WIC Data & Statistics Adult Obesity Facts Childhood Obesity Facts Data, Trends and ...

  5. Calprotectin--a novel marker of obesity

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Nielsen, Anders Rinnov; Erikstrup, Christian

    2009-01-01

    obese subjects or subjects with type 2 diabetes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma calprotectin and skeletal muscle S100A8 mRNA levels were measured in a cohort consisting of 199 subjects divided into four groups depending on presence or absence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and presence or absence...... of obesity. There was a significant interaction between obesity and T2D (p = 0.012). Plasma calprotectin was increased in obese relative to non-obese controls (pobese and non-obese patients with T2D (p = 0.62). S100A8 mRNA levels in skeletal muscle were...... not influenced by obesity or T2D. Multivariate regression analysis (adjusting for age, sex, smoking and HOMA2-IR) showed plasma calprotectin to be strongly associated with BMI, even when further adjusted for fitness, CRP, TNF-alpha or neutrophil number. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Plasma calprotectin is a marker...

  6. Anesthetizing the obese child

    Mortensen, Anette; Lenz, Katja; Abildstrøm, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    drugs. This has important implications on how to estimate the optimal drug dose. This article offers a review of the literature on definition, prevalence and the pathophysiology of childhood obesity and provides suggestions on preanesthetic evaluation, airway management and dosage of the anesthetic...... drugs in these patients. The authors highlight the need of supplemental studies on various areas of the subject....

  7. Obesity vaccines

    Monteiro, Mariana P

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is one of the largest and fastest growing public health problems in the world. Last century social changes have set an obesogenic milieu that calls for micro and macro environment interventions for disease prevention, while treatment is mandatory for individuals already obese. The cornerstone of overweight and obesity treatment is diet and physical exercise. However, many patients find lifestyle modifications difficult to comply and prone to failure in the long-term; therefore many pa...

  8. Whole-grain wheat consumption reduces inflammation in a randomized controlled trial on overweight and obese subjects with unhealthy dietary and lifestyle behaviors: role of polyphenols bound to cereal dietary fiber.

    Vitaglione, Paola; Mennella, Ilario; Ferracane, Rosalia; Rivellese, Angela A; Giacco, Rosalba; Ercolini, Danilo; Gibbons, Sean M; La Storia, Antonietta; Gilbert, Jack A; Jonnalagadda, Satya; Thielecke, Frank; Gallo, Maria A; Scalfi, Luca; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiology associates whole-grain (WG) consumption with several health benefits. Mounting evidence suggests that WG wheat polyphenols play a role in mechanisms underlying health benefits. The objective was to assess circulating concentration, excretion, and the physiologic role of WG wheat polyphenols in subjects with suboptimal dietary and lifestyle behaviors. A placebo-controlled, parallel-group randomized trial with 80 healthy overweight/obese subjects with low intake of fruit and vegetables and sedentary lifestyle was performed. Participants replaced precise portions of refined wheat (RW) with a fixed amount of selected WG wheat or RW products for 8 wk. At baseline and every 4 wk, blood, urine, feces, and anthropometric and body composition measures were collected. Profiles of phenolic acids in biological samples, plasma markers of metabolic disease and inflammation, and fecal microbiota composition were assessed. WG consumption for 4-8 wk determined a 4-fold increase in serum dihydroferulic acid (DHFA) and a 2-fold increase in fecal ferulic acid (FA) compared with RW consumption (no changes). Similarly, urinary FA at 8 wk doubled the baseline concentration only in WG subjects. Concomitant reduction in plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) after 8 wk and increased interleukin (IL)-10 only after 4 wk with WG compared with RW (P = 0.04) were observed. No significant change in plasma metabolic disease markers over the study period was observed, but a trend toward lower plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 with higher excretion of FA and DHFA in the WG group was found. Fecal FA was associated with baseline low Bifidobacteriales and Bacteroidetes abundances, whereas after WG consumption, it correlated with increased Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes but reduced Clostridium. TNF-α reduction correlated with increased Bacteroides and Lactobacillus. No effect of dietary interventions on anthropometric measurements and body composition was found. WG wheat

  9. Does maternal obesity have an influence on feeding behavior of obese children?

    Cebeci, A N; Guven, A

    2015-12-01

    Although the pathogenesis of childhood obesity is multi factorial, maternal obesity and parenting have major roles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of maternal obesity on feeding practices toward their obese school children. Obese children and adolescents referred to the pediatric endocrinology department were enrolled consecutively. Height and weight of all children and their mothers were measured. Maternal feeding practices were measured using an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Answers were compared between obese (Body Mass Index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2) and non-obese mothers. A total of 491 obese subjects (292 girls, mean age 12.0 ± 2.8 years) and their mothers participated in this study. A direct correlation between children's BMI and their mothers' BMI was found (Pobese in the study, only half of them consider themselves as obese. No difference were found in the scores of the subscales "perceived responsibility", "restriction", "concern for child's weight" and "monitoring" between obese and non-obese mothers. Child's BMI-SDS positively correlated with mothers' personal weight perception, concern for child's weight and restriction after adjustment for child's age (P obesity increases mothers' concern and food restriction behavior. While mothers of obese children have a high prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity was found to have no significant influence on feeding behavior of obese school children.

  10. Desaturation of excess intramyocellular triacylglycerol in obesity

    Haugaard, S B; Madsbad, S; Mu, Huiling

    2010-01-01

    , however, was increased twofold in obese women compared to obese men (Pfasting glucose (P...OBJECTIVE: Excess intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG), found especially in obese women, is slowly metabolized and, therefore, prone to longer exposure to intracellular desaturases. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that IMTG content correlates inversely with IMTG fatty acid (FA) saturation...... in sedentary subjects. In addition, it was validated if IMTG palmitic acid is associated with insulin resistance as suggested earlier. DESIGN: Cross-sectional human study. SUBJECTS: In skeletal muscle biopsies, which were obtained from sedentary subjects (34 women, age 48+/-2 years (27 obese including 7 type 2...

  11. Interleukin-18 in plasma and adipose tissue: effects of obesity, insulin resistance, and weight loss

    Bruun, Jens M; Stallknecht, Bente; Helge, Jørn W

    2007-01-01

    , and skeletal muscle (SM) in obese subjects after weight loss. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: At baseline, plasma and AT IL-18 in 23 obese subjects were compared with that in 12 lean subjects. The obese subjects were submitted to a 15-week life-style intervention (hypocaloric diet and daily exercise) after which plasma...

  12. Reimagining Obesity

    Schultz, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    This article draws on Mills' sociological imagination (from the 1959 publication "The Sociological Imagination") to consider the connections between personal trouble and social issues when it comes to the causes and consequences of obesity. These connections may be important for assuaging the "obesity bias" that pervades our…

  13. [Childhood obesity].

    Chueca, M; Azcona, C; Oyárzabal, M

    2002-01-01

    Obesity during childhood and adolescence is an increasingly frequent cause for medical consultation. The increase in the prevalence of this disease, which has been considered as an epidemic by the World Health Organisation, is worrying. Obesity is a complex disease, whose aetiology still remains to be clarified due to the numerous factors involved: environmental, genetic, life style and behavioural, neuroendocrinological and metabolic. The persistence of childhood obesity until adulthood significantly increases the risk of suffering from diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Treatment of obesity is complicated and few patients regularly attend follow up examinations. A multidisciplinary team is required to carry out a suitable treatment, composed of paediatricians, dieticians, nurses, psychologists and psychiatrists. Successful treatment of obesity resides in reducing the calorie intake in relation to energy expenditure, and at the time providing instruction in appropriate eating habits and life styles that in the long term will promote the maintenance of the ideal weight.

  14. Negative legacy of obesity.

    Kohsuke Shirakawa

    Full Text Available Obesity promotes excessive inflammation, which is associated with senescence-like changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. We have reported that a unique population of CD44hi CD62Llo CD4+ T cells that constitutively express PD-1 and CD153 exhibit cellular senescence and cause VAT inflammation by producing large amounts of osteopontin. Weight loss improves glycemic control and reduces cardiovascular disease risk factors, but its long-term effects on cardiovascular events and longevity in obese individuals with T2DM are somewhat disappointing and not well understood. High-fat diet (HFD-fed obese mice were subjected to weight reduction through a switch to a control diet. They lost body weight and visceral fat mass, reaching the same levels as lean mice fed a control diet. However, the VAT of weight reduction mice exhibited denser infiltration of macrophages, which formed more crown-like structures compared to the VAT of obese mice kept on the HFD. Mechanistically, CD153+ PD-1+ CD4+ T cells are long-lived and not easily eliminated, even after weight reduction. Their continued presence maintains a self-sustaining chronic inflammatory loop via production of large amounts of osteopontin. Thus, we concluded that T-cell senescence is essentially a negative legacy effect of obesity.

  15. Childhood obesity.

    Sabin, M A; Shield, J P H

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity continues to increase worldwide. Its presence is associated with significant adverse effects on health including an increased propensity to type II diabetes, cardiovascular, respiratory, and liver disease. In the vast majority of children, obesity is lifestyle-related, yet there is a dearth of evidence on how to best develop effective prevention and treatment strategies. This review outlines the importance of childhood and adolescent growth on long-term health, the definitions used to define obesity in children (along with up-to-date prevalence data), causes and consequences, and aspects of prevention and management.

  16. The Predictors of Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Aylin Pıhtılı

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: As obesity increases, the frequency of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome increases also. However, obesity hypoventilation syndrome frequency is not known, as capnography and arterial blood gas analysis are not routinely performed in sleep laboratories. Aims: To investigate the frequency and predictors of obesity hypoventilation syndrome in obese subjects. Study Design: Retrospective clinical study Methods: Obese subjects who had arterial blood gas analysis admitted to the sleep laboratory and polysomnography were retrospectively analyzed. Subjects with restrictive (except obesity and obstructive pulmonary pathologies were excluded. Demographics, Epworth-Sleepiness-Scale scores, polysomnographic data, arterial blood gas analysis, and spirometric measurements were recorded. Results: Of the 419 subjects, 45.1% had obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Apnea hypopnea index (p<0.001, oxygen desaturation index (p<0.001 and sleep time with SpO2<90% (p<0.001 were statistically higher in subjects with obesity hypoventilation syndrome compared to subjects with eucapnic obstructive sleep apnea. The nocturnal mean SpO2 (p<0.001 and lowest SpO2 (p<0.001 were also statistically lower in subjects with obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Logistic regression analysis showed that the lowest SpO2, oxygen desaturation index, apnea hypopnea index and sleep time with SpO2 <90% were related factors for obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Conclusion: Obesity hypoventilation syndrome should be considered when oxygen desaturation index, apnea hypopnea index and sleep time with SpO2 <90% are high

  17. Childhood Obesity

    Trandafir, Laura Mihaela; Ioniuc, Ileana; Miron, Ingrith

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  18. IMMUNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF OBESITY

    Z. R. Gusova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: At present, convincing data on the role of immune system in pathophysiology of obesity are lacking, which makes it necessary to investigate this issue. Aim: To assess metabolic status and characteristics of immune system in patients with overweight and morbid obesity.Materials and methods: One hundred and ninety two patients with overweight and advanced obesity (mean body mass index (BMI 36.8 ± 7.3 kg/m. aged from 19 to 55 years were recruited in to the study. Depending on the grade of obesity, the patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included 84 overweight patients (BMI 27.65 ± 0.17 kg/m., group 2 included 88 patients with obesity grade III (BMI 44.03 ± 0.44 kg/m.. The groups were comparable as to their age and gender. The control group comprised 20 otherwise healthy subjects with normal body weight. Assessments included parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, hemodynamic parameters, immune status including cytokine profile.Results: In patients of both groups abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were found, together with changes of hemodynamic parameters which were more advanced with higher degree of obesity. These parameters demonstrated that obesity promotes manifestation of metabolic syndrome. There was remarkable imbalance in pro-inflammatory cytokines. Patients with obesity grade III had a statistically significant (р = 0.05 increase in their serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (6.32 ± 0.49 vs 2.14 ± 0.25, interleukin (IL-4 (7.56 ± 0.44 vs 1.44 ± 0.10, IL-6 (5.39 ± 0.89 vs 2.02 ± 0.16, IL-17 (2.74 ± 0.29 vs 0.59 ± 0.20 both in basal and stimulated conditions, compared to those in patients with overweight and control patients.Conclusion: The study showed that imbalance in immune system increases with an increase of obesity grade. This imbalance implies lymphocyte maturation and differentiation, higher cytotoxicity of immunocompetent cells, over expression of receptors both to

  19. Fatty Acids, Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    Peter Arner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although elevated free fatty acid (FFA levels in obesity have been considered to be of importance for insulin resistance, a recent meta-analysis suggested normal FFA levels in obese subjects. We investigated fasting circulating FFA and glycerol levels in a large cohort of non-obese and obese subjects. Methods: Subjects recruited for a study on obesity genetics were investigated in the morning after an overnight fast (n = 3,888. Serum FFA (n = 3,306, plasma glycerol (n = 3,776, and insulin sensitivity index (HOMA-IR,n = 3,469 were determined. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and insulin resistance as HOMA-IR ≥ 2.21. Results: In obese subjects, circulating FFA and glycerol levels were higher than in non-obese individuals (by 26% and 47%, respectively; both p Conclusion: Circulating FFA and glycerol levels are markedly elevated in obesity but only marginally influenced by insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Whether these differences persist during diurnal variations in circulating FFA/glycerol, remains to be established.

  20. Comparison of Pulmonary Functions, Physical Activity Level and Quality of Life in Obese and Pre-Obese Individuals

    Rıdvan Aktan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are studies regarding pulmonary functions of obese individuals in literature; however, there is insufficient data regarding pre-obese individuals. This study aimed to compare the pulmonary functions, physical activity levels, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL of obese and pre-obese individuals. Methods: The characteristics of 62 subjects participating in the study were recorded All subjects were evaluated using pulmonary function tests (PFT, short form-36 health survey (SF-36, obesity and weight loss quality of life measure (OWLQOL, international physical activity questionnaires (IPAQ, and modified medical research council (mMRC scale. Results: The severity of perceived dyspnea in obese subjects was significantly higher than that in pre-obese subjects. The PFT parameters (FVC, FEV1, PEF, FEF25–75, FEF25–75%, MVV, and MVV% were significantly lower in obese subjects. Although individuals in both groups were inactive, the inactivity levels in obese subjects were significantly higher. HRQOL scores were significantly lower in obese individuals. The body mass index (BMI was significantly correlated with dyspnea severity, SF-36 subscores, OWLQOL scores, and PFT parameters. Conclusion: While an increasing BMI has an adverse effect on the pulmonary functions of pre-obese individuals, increased BMI coupled with reduced pulmonary functions causes a decrease in the physical activity levels and reduces HRQOL of obese individuals.

  1. Study of somatostatin in simple obesity

    Abdel-Hafez, M A; El-Ghazaly, S; El-Feky, N A; Sayed, S N [Cairo Univ. (Egypt)

    1990-02-01

    C-peptide, as a marker for pancreatic beta cells function, and somatostatin (SS) in plasma of obese males (n = 15) and a corresponding normal weight control subjects (n = 10) are studied. Fasting plasma SS and serum C-peptide are significantly higher in obese vs lean group. This can be explained by hypertrophy of both D- and B-cells of the pancreatic islets reported by other investigators. Post-prandial plasma SS is insignificantly increased in obese vs the control group whereas the increase in C-peptide levels is significant suggesting unequal response of B- and D-cells to meal in the obese group. It is concluded that circulating SS may play an important role in the development if obesity. Hyperinsulinaemia documented in obesity may be due to hypersecretion of insulin. That may contribute to increased somatomedin-C in obesity. (author).

  2. Study of somatostatin in simple obesity

    Abdel-Hafez, M.A.; El-Ghazaly, S.; El-Feky, N.A.; Sayed, S.N.

    1990-01-01

    C-peptide, as a marker for pancreatic beta cells function, and somatostatin (SS) in plasma of obese males (n = 15) and a corresponding normal weight control subjects (n = 10) are studied. Fasting plasma SS and serum C-peptide are significantly higher in obese vs lean group. This can be explained by hypertrophy of both D- and B-cells of the pancreatic islets reported by other investigators. Post-prandial plasma SS is insignificantly increased in obese vs the control group whereas the increase in C-peptide levels is significant suggesting unequal response of B- and D-cells to meal in the obese group. It is concluded that circulating SS may play an important role in the development if obesity. Hyperinsulinaemia documented in obesity may be due to hypersecretion of insulin. That may contribute to increased somatomedin-C in obesity. (author)

  3. Effect of Obesity on Arch Index in Young Adults

    Sneha Sameer Ganu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive increases in weight bearing forces caused by obesity may negatively affect the lower limbs and feet but minimal research has examined the long-term loading effects of obesity on the musculoskeletal system, particularly in reference to the feet. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of obesity on medial longitudinal arch of foot in young adults. Method: 60 subjects, 30 obese & 30 non obese were assessed for height & weight using standard technique. Radiographic images under static condition were used for calculating the arch index. Result: The arch index of obese subjects was significantly lower than the non obese subjects & there is a negative correlation between the BMI & the arch index. Conclusion: These results suggests that obesity lowers the medial longitudinal arch of foot.

  4. Obesity and Anesthesia

    ... Resources About Policymakers Media ASA Member Toolkit Risks Obesity Explore this page: Obesity How does being overweight ... What you can do to reduce your risk? Obesity More than one-third of Americans are obese ...

  5. Cancer and Obesity

    ... Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Cancer and obesity Overweight and obesity are associated with cancer Language: ... a cancer associated with overweight and obesity. Problem Obesity is a leading cancer risk factor. What’s happening? ...

  6. OBESITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH HYPERTENSION IN ADOLESCENTS

    Hendy Hendy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a global issue. Previous studies in Bali reveal an increase in the proportionof obesity in adolescents. Obesity causes hypertension; hence there should also be an increase inthe prevalence of hypertension as well in Bali. Hypertension in obese adolescents could be causedby various factors, hence identification of the risks factors is crucial as a preventive approach.The aim of this study was to prove an association between obesity and hypertension in adolescents,and to look for the risk factors. We used an analitical cross sectional design conducted to 12-14years old samples. We took body weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, andblood pressure measurements with appropriate devices and asked for information regarding lifestyle and familial history by a questionnare filled in by the samples. The association of obeseadolescents with hypertension and their risk factors was analyzed by Chi-square and multivariatetests. A total of 225 subjects from Santo Yoseph junior high school students, west Denpasar,Bali, met the inclusion criteria. The proportion of obese subjects in this study was 25.7%. Wefound that proportion in familial history of obesity was greater in obese than non-obese subjects(70.7 % vs 41.3%. Logistic regression test revealed that obese subjects with hypertension had abody mass index (BMI > 30 with odds ratio of 7.3 (CI 95% = 1.8 to 28.8 and P = 0.005. Weconcluded that there was an association between obesity and adolescents with hypertension,and BMI > 30 could be a risk factor for obese adolescents with hypertension.

  7. Expanding subjectivities

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  8. Iron status in obese women.

    Stankowiak-Kulpa, Hanna; Kargulewicz, Angelika; Styszyński, Arkadiusz; Swora-Cwynar, Ewelina; Grzymisławski, Marian

    2017-12-23

    A decreased concentration of iron, and consecutively haemoglobin, ferritin and decreased level of saturated transferrin, were observed in obese individuals more often than in healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation are significantly diminished in obese female patients compared to non-obese counterparts, and whether excess adiposity and inflammation were associated with depleted iron. Female patients (n=48) diagnosed with obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2), aged 18-40 were accepted for the study. A control group (n=30) encompassed normal weight women, aged 18-30. All obese women obtained an individually adjusted dietary plan with an energy content of 1,500 kcal. Blood glucose, insulin, lipids, ferritin, TIBC and iron concentrations were assayed in serum twice, initially and after 8 weeks of dieting. The obese women at the initial evaluation, in comparison to non-obese control women, were characterized by a significantly lower mean red blood cell volume (MCV; 84.2±12.4 vs. 91.3±9.3 fL; piron level (92.6±42.4 vs. 119.8±44.0 μg/dL; piron homeostasis. Weight loss leads to decrease in the CRP level, but it does not change haematologic parameters in the period of 8 weeks.

  9. Obesity genes and insulin resistance.

    Belkina, Anna C; Denis, Gerald V

    2010-10-01

    The exploding prevalence of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) linked to obesity has become an alarming public health concern. Worldwide, approximately 171 million people suffer from obesity-induced diabetes and public health authorities expect this situation to deteriorate rapidly. An interesting clinical population of 'metabolically healthy but obese' (MHO) cases is relatively protected from T2D and its associated cardiovascular risk. The molecular basis for this protection is not well understood but is likely to involve reduced inflammatory responses. The inflammatory cells and pathways that respond to overnutrition are the primary subject matter for this review. The chance discovery of a genetic mutation in the Brd2 gene, which is located in the class II major histocompatibility complex and makes mice enormously fat but protects them from diabetes, offers revolutionary new insights into the cellular mechanisms that link obesity to insulin resistance and T2D. These Brd2-hypomorphic mice have reduced inflammation in fat that is normally associated with insulin resistance, and resemble MHO patients, suggesting novel therapeutic pathways for obese patients at risk for T2D. Deeper understanding of the functional links between genes that control inflammatory responses to diet-induced obesity is crucial to the development of therapies for obese, insulin-resistant patients.

  10. Obesity Related Indices for Screening of Obesity in Adolescents

    Amit Sohani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a fast growing problem in the developing countries like India and is now known to be associated with increased health risk. Realizing the fact that the obesity in adolescent age group does not receive the deserved attention in the prevention and control programme, the present study was undertaken on 585 adolescent subjects studying in one college and three schools. Aims and Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescent population. 2. To find the association of body mass index (BMI with important parameters like skin fold thickness, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio. Methods: It was a cross sectional observational study. The study population was school and college going adolescents in the age group of 11-19 years. The estimated sample size for present study is 585 students. The subjects were screened by body mass index, skin fold thickness, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 19.14% and 4.44% respectively. It was found that there was strong association between the waist circumference with overweight and obesity. Similarly a strong association between waist to hip ratio with overweight and obesity has been found. Also it was found that there was a strong association between skin fold thickness with overweight and obesity. Skin-fold thickness has more sensitivity as compared to waist circumference and waist to hip ratio. Waist to hip ratio has got maximum specificity amongst all but when both sensitivity and specificity criteria are considered together waist circumference stands out. Conclusion: It was found that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 19.14% and 4.44% respectively. Skin-fold thickness has more sensitivity as compared waist circumference and waist to hip ratio. Waist to hip ratio has got maximum specificity. When sensitivity and specificity criteria are considered together waist circumference can be

  11. Cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test in obese and reduced obese individuals.

    Therrien, Fanny; Drapeau, Vicky; Lalonde, Josée; Lupien, Sonia J; Beaulieu, Serge; Doré, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Richard, Denis

    2010-05-01

    Impact of body weight loss, body fat distribution and the nutritional status on the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was investigated in this study. Fifty-one men (17 non-obese, 20 abdominally obese and 14 reduced obese) and 28 women (12 non-obese, 10 peripherally obese and 6 reduced obese) were subjected to the TSST in fed and fasted states. The TSST response was determined using salivary cortisol measurements. The nutritional status (being fed or fasted) had no effect on the cortisol levels during and following the TSST. Reduced obese men exhibited lower cortisol levels than non-obese men. Cortisol levels in obese men were not different from those of non-obese and reduced obese subjects. In women, there was no significant difference between groups. These finding suggest that weight status in men influences cortisol reactivity to a psychological stress and the different responses seen among genders could be linked to the different fat distributions that characterize men and women. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Treating Obesity As a Disease

    ... Obesity, And What You Can Do Understanding the American Obesity Epidemic Stress Management How Does Stress Affect You? ... Keeping the Weight Off • Obesity - Introduction - Understanding the American Obesity Epidemic - Treating Obesity as a Disease - Childhood Obesity ...

  13. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth. We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI?>25?kg/m2, nongeneral obesity; BMI ?25?kg/m2, abdominal obesity; waist circumference?>85?cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ?85?cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health ...

  14. Study of obesity associated proopiomelanocortin gene polymorphism: Relation to metabolic profile and eating habits in a sample of obese Egyptian children and adolescents

    Farida El-Baz Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This polymorphism was associated with higher fasting insulin levels in the obese patients only. These findings support the hypothesis that the melanocortin pathway may modulate glucose metabolism in obese subjects indicating a possible gene-environment interaction. POMC variant may be involved in the natural history of polygenic obesity, contributing to the link between type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  15. BMC Obesity

    Wang, Guoqing; McConn, Betty R.; Liu, Dongmin; Cline, Mark A.; Gilbert, Elizabeth R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Broiler chickens are compulsive feeders that become obese as juveniles and are thus a unique model for metabolic disorders in humans. However, little is known about the relationship between dietary composition, fasting and refeeding and adipose tissue physiology in chicks. Our objective was to determine how dietary macronutrient composition and fasting and refeeding affect chick adipose physiology during the early pos...

  16. Obesity in Malaysia.

    Ismail, M N; Chee, S S; Nawawi, H; Yusoff, K; Lim, T O; James, W P T

    2002-08-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the recent data on Malaysian adult body weights and associations of ethnic differences in overweight and obesity with comorbid risk factors, and to examine measures of energy intake, energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity changes in urban and rural populations of normal weight. Three studies were included (1) a summary of a national health morbidity survey conducted in 1996 on nearly 29 000 adults > or =20 years of age; (2) a study comparing energy intake, BMR and physical activity levels (PALs) in 409 ethnically diverse, healthy adults drawn from a population of 1165 rural and urban subjects 18-60 years of age; and (3) an examination of the prevalence of obesity and comorbid risk factors that predict coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes in 609 rural Malaysians aged 30-65 years. Overweight and obesity were calculated using body mass index (BMI) measures and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Energy intake was assessed using 3-d food records, BMR and PALs were assessed with Douglas bags and activity diaries, while hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance were specified using standard criteria. The National Health Morbidity Survey data revealed that in adults, 20.7% were overweight and 5.8% obese (0.3% of whom had BMI values of >40.0 kg m(-2)); the prevalence of obesity was clearly greater in women than in men. In women, obesity rates were higher in Indian and Malay women than in Chinese women, while in men the Chinese recorded the highest obesity prevalences followed by the Malay and Indians. Studies on normal healthy subjects indicated that the energy intake of Indians was significantly lower than that of other ethnic groups. In women, Malays recorded a significantly higher energy intake than the other groups. Urban male subjects consumed significantly more energy than their rural counterparts, but this was not the case in women. In both men and women, fat intakes (%) were

  17. Obesity research - where do we stand?

    Ob-gene is also subject to nutritional regulation; for example, it falls on fasting and vice ... hypertension and increased susceptibility to type 11 diabetes, commonly known as the .... therapy, aimed at altering eating patterns of obese individuals.

  18. Obesity changes the human gut mycobiome

    Mar Rodríguez, M.; Pérez, Daniel; Javier Chaves, Felipe; Esteve, Eduardo; Marin-Garcia, Pablo; Xifra, Gemma; Vendrell, Joan; Jové, Mariona; Pamplona, Reinald; Ricart, Wifredo; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Chacón, Matilde R.; Fernández Real, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The human intestine is home to a diverse range of bacterial and fungal species, forming an ecological community that contributes to normal physiology and disease susceptibility. Here, the fungal microbiota (mycobiome) in obese and non-obese subjects was characterized using Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS)-based sequencing. The results demonstrate that obese patients could be discriminated by their specific fungal composition, which also distinguished metabolically “healthy” from “unhealthy” obesity. Clusters according to genus abundance co-segregated with body fatness, fasting triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. A preliminary link to metabolites such as hexadecanedioic acid, caproic acid and N-acetyl-L-glutamic acid was also found. Mucor racemosus and M. fuscus were the species more represented in non-obese subjects compared to obese counterparts. Interestingly, the decreased relative abundance of the Mucor genus in obese subjects was reversible upon weight loss. Collectively, these findings suggest that manipulation of gut mycobiome communities might be a novel target in the treatment of obesity. PMID:26455903

  19. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in morbidly obese patients

    Dejgaard, A; Andersen, T; Christoffersen, Pernille Yde

    1984-01-01

    Plasma fibronectin concentrations and liver morphology were investigated in 45 morbidly obese subjects (median overweight 88%) and in 42 normal weight controls, matched for sex and age. A significantly (P less than 0.01) raised plasma fibronectin concentration (median 464 mg/l, range 276-862 mg...... in their liver biopsies (r = 0.33, P less than 0.05). Significantly (P less than 0.05) elevated plasma fibronectin concentrations even in obese subjects without hepatic fatty change indicate that liver fat accumulation is no prerequisite of the obesity-related elevation of plasma fibronectin. Raised plasma...

  20. Reduced insulin-like growth factor-I serum levels in formerly obese women subjected to laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or diet-induced long-term caloric restriction.

    Mitterberger, Maria C; Mattesich, Monika; Klaver, Elise; Piza-Katzer, Hildegunde; Zwerschke, Werner

    2011-11-01

    Life-span extension in laboratory rodents induced by long-term caloric restriction correlates with decreased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels. Reduced activity of the growth hormone/IGF-I signaling system slows aging and increases longevity in mutant mouse models. In the present study, we show that long-term caloric restriction achieved by two different interventions for 4 years, either laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or reducing diet, leads to reduced IGF-I serum levels in formerly obese women relative to normal-weight women eating ad libitum. Moreover, we present evidence that the long-term caloric restriction interventions reduce fasting growth hormone serum levels. The present study indicates that the activity of the growth hormone/IGF-I axis is reduced in long-term calorically restricted formerly obese humans. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the duration and severity of the caloric restriction intervention are important for the outcome on the growth hormone/IGF-I axis in humans.

  1. Dicarbonyl stress in clinical obesity.

    Masania, Jinit; Malczewska-Malec, Malgorzata; Razny, Urszula; Goralska, Joanna; Zdzienicka, Anna; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Gruca, Anna; Stancel-Mozwillo, Julita; Dembinska-Kiec, Aldona; Rabbani, Naila; Thornalley, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    The glyoxalase system in the cytoplasm of cells provides the primary defence against glycation by methylglyoxal catalysing its metabolism to D-lactate. Methylglyoxal is the precursor of the major quantitative advanced glycation endproducts in physiological systems - arginine-derived hydroimidazolones and deoxyguanosine-derived imidazopurinones. Glyoxalase 1 of the glyoxalase system was linked to anthropometric measurements of obesity in human subjects and to body weight in strains of mice. Recent conference reports described increased weight gain on high fat diet-fed mouse with lifelong deficiency of glyoxalase 1 deficiency, compared to wild-type controls, and decreased weight gain in glyoxalase 1-overexpressing transgenic mice, suggesting a functional role of glyoxalase 1 and dicarbonyl stress in obesity. Increased methylglyoxal, dicarbonyl stress, in white adipose tissue and liver may be a mediator of obesity and insulin resistance and thereby a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Increased methylglyoxal formation from glyceroneogenesis on adipose tissue and liver and decreased glyoxalase 1 activity in obesity likely drives dicarbonyl stress in white adipose tissue increasing the dicarbonyl proteome and related dysfunction. The clinical significance will likely emerge from on-going clinical evaluation of inducers of glyoxalase 1 expression in overweight and obese subjects. Increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin and increased total body interstitial fluid volume in obesity likely makes levels of glycation of plasma protein unreliable indicators of glycation status in obesity as there is a shift of albumin dwell time from plasma to interstitial fluid, which decreases overall glycation for a given glycemic exposure.

  2. High prevalence of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in men referred for obesity treatment.

    Hofstra, J.M.; Loves, S.; Wageningen, B. van; Ruinemans-Koerts, J.; Jansen, I.; Boer, H. de

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity can be associated with biochemical evidence of isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) in men. Prevalence and severity of IHH in obese men are not exactly known. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of IHH in obese men. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Cross-sectional study of 160 obese

  3. Musculoskeletal pain in obese adolescents.

    Jannini, Suely Nóbrega; Dória-Filho, Ulysses; Damiani, Durval; Silva, Clovis Artur Almeida

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of pain, musculoskeletal syndromes, orthopedic disorders and using computers and playing videogames among obese adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study that investigated 100 consecutive obese adolescents and 100 healthy-weight controls using a confidential, self-report questionnaire covering demographic data, sports participation, painful musculoskeletal system symptoms and using computers and playing videogames. The questionnaire's test-retest reliability was tested. Physical examination covered six musculoskeletal syndromes and seven orthopedic disorders. The kappa index for test-retest was 0.724. Pain and musculoskeletal syndromes were equally prevalent in both groups (44 vs. 56%, p = 0.09; 12 vs. 16%, p = 0.541; respectively). Notwithstanding, orthopedic disorders (98 vs. 76%, p = 0.0001), tight quadriceps (89 vs. 44%, p = 0.0001) and genu valgum (87 vs. 24%, p = 0.0001) were significantly more prevalent in obese adolescents than in controls. Median time spent using a computer the day before, on Saturdays and on Sundays were all lower among the obese subjects (30 vs. 60 minutes, p = 0.0001; 1 vs. 60 minutes, p = 0.001; and 0 vs. 30 minutes, p = 0.02; respectively). Obese adolescents were less likely to play handheld videogames (2 vs. 11%, p = 0.003) and there was no difference in the two groups' use of full-sized videogames (p > 0.05). Comparing obese adolescents with pain to those free from pain revealed that pain was more frequent among females (59 vs. 39%, p = 0.048) and was associated with greater median time spent playing on Sundays [0 (0-720) vs. 0 (0-240) minutes, p = 0.028]. Obesity can cause osteoarticular system damage at the start of adolescence, particularly to the lower limbs. Programs developed specifically for obese female adolescents with musculoskeletal pain are needed.

  4. Obesity, growth hormone and exercise.

    Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Kraemer, William J; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Maresh, Carl M; Volek, Jeff S

    2013-09-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is regulated, suppressed and stimulated by numerous physiological stimuli. However, it is believed that obesity disrupts the physiological and pathological factors that regulate, suppress or stimulate GH release. Pulsatile GH has been potently stimulated in healthy subjects by both aerobic and resistance exercise of the right intensity and duration. GH modulates fuel metabolism, reduces total fat mass and abdominal fat mass, and could be a potent stimulus of lipolysis when administered to obese individuals exogenously. Only pulsatile GH has been shown to augment adipose tissue lipolysis and, therefore, increasing pulsatile GH response may be a therapeutic target. This review discusses the factors that cause secretion of GH, how obesity may alter GH secretion and how both aerobic and resistance exercise stimulates GH, as well as how exercise of a specific intensity may be used as a stimulus for GH release in individuals who are obese. Only five prior studies have investigated exercise as a stimulus of endogenous GH in individuals who are obese. Based on prior literature, resistance exercise may provide a therapeutic target for releasing endogenous GH in individuals who are obese if specific exercise programme variables are utilized. Biological activity of GH indicates that this may be an important precursor to beneficial changes in body fat and lean tissue mass in obese individuals. However, additional research is needed including what molecular GH variants are acutely released and involved at target tissues as a result of different exercise stimuli and what specific exercise programme variables may serve to stimulate GH in individuals who are obese.

  5. Divergent effects of obesity on fragility fractures

    Caffarelli C

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carla Caffarelli, Chiara Alessi, Ranuccio Nuti, Stefano Gonnelli Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, University of Siena, Siena, Italy Abstract: Obesity was commonly thought to be advantageous for maintaining healthy bones due to the higher bone mineral density observed in overweight individuals. However, several recent studies have challenged the widespread belief that obesity is protective against fracture and have suggested that obesity is a risk factor for certain fractures. The effect of obesity on fracture risk is site-dependent, the risk being increased for some fractures (humerus, ankle, upper arm and decreased for others (hip, pelvis, wrist. Moreover, the relationship between obesity and fracture may also vary by sex, age, and ethnicity. Risk factors for fracture in obese individuals appear to be similar to those in nonobese populations, although patterns of falling are particularly important in the obese. Research is needed to determine if and how visceral fat and metabolic complications of obesity (type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, etc are causally associated with bone status and fragility fracture risk. Vitamin D deficiency and hypogonadism may also influence fracture risk in obese individuals. Fracture algorithms such as FRAX® might be expected to underestimate fracture probability. Studies specifically designed to evaluate the antifracture efficacy of different drugs in obese patients are not available; however, literature data may suggest that in obese patients higher doses of the bisphosphonates might be required in order to maintain efficacy against nonvertebral fractures. Therefore, the search for better methods for the identification of fragility fracture risk in the growing population of adult and elderly subjects with obesity might be considered a clinical priority which could improve the prevention of fracture in obese individuals. Keywords: bone mineral density, BMI

  6. Determination of Insulin Resistance and Beta Cell Function in Healthy Obese and Non-obese Individuals

    Kazmi, A.; Sattar, A.; Tariq, K. M.; Najamussahar; Hashim, R.; Almani, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine insulin resistance and beta cell function in healthy obese and nonobese individuals of the local population. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: AFIP Rawalpindi in collaboration with department of medicine military hospital(MH) Rawalpindi, from Aug 2008 to Mar 2009. Methods: Eighty obese(n=40) and non-obese(n=40) subjects were selected by non-probability convenience sampling. Plasma insulin, glucose, and serum total cholestrol were estimated in fasting state. Insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR and beta cell function by HOMA- equation. Results: Significant differences were observed between obese and non-obese individuals regarding insulin resistance, beta cell function, and BMI and serum total cholesterol. Mean insulin resistance in obese group was found to be 11.1 +- 5.1(range 7.0-16.2) and in non-obese group it was 0.9+-0.4 (range 0.5-1.3). This difference was highly significant (p=0.001). There was a highly significant difference between the two groups in term of beta cell function with mean rank 60.1 for obese group and 20.9 non obese groups (Asym sig. 2 tailed 0.000). Also the correlation (r = 0.064) between insulin resistance and beta cell function in obese group is highly significant (p = 0.000). Mean serum leptin levels were lower (6.3 ng/ml) in non-obese, and high (57.2 ng/ml) in the obese group. Conclusions: Insulin resistance is found higher in obese individuals. Beta cell function is significantly different between obese and non-obese groups. (author)

  7. Pulmonary dysfunction in obese early adolescents

    Bambang Supriyatno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim Obesity leads to various complications, including pulmonary dysfunction. Studies on pulmonary function of obese children are limited and the results are controversial. This study was aimed to determine proportion of pulmonary dysfunction on early adolescents with obesity and to evaluate correlation between obesity degree with pulmonary dysfunction degree.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Child Health, Medical School, University of Indonesia, from November 2007 to December 2008. Subjects were 10 to 12 year-old adolescents with obesity. Subjects underwent pulmonary function test (PFT to assess FEV1/FVC, FEV1, FVC, V50, and V25.Results 110 subjects fulfilled study criteria, 83 (75.5% were male and 27 (24.5% were female with median BMI 26.7 (22.6-54.7 kg/m2; 92 subjects (83.6% were superobese. History of asthma and allergic rhinitis were found in 32 (29.1% and 46 (41.8% subjects, respectively. 64 (58.2% subjects had abnormal PFT results consisting of restrictive type in 28 (25.5% subjects, obstructive in 3 (2.7%, and combined type in 33 (30%. Mean FEV1, FVC, V50, and V25 values were below normal, while mean FEV1/FVC ratio was normal. There was no statistically significant correlation between BMI and PFT parameters. No significant correlation was found between degree of obesity and the severity of pulmonary dysfunction.Conclusions Pulmonary dysfunction occurs in 58.2% obese early adolescents. The most common abnormality was combined type (30%, followed by restrictive (25.5%, and obstructive type (2.7%. There was no correlation between BMI and pulmonary function test parameters. (Med J Indones 2010;19:179-84Key words: early adolescents, obesity, pulmonary function test

  8. Metabolic profiles and lipoprotein lipid concentrations in non-obese and obese patients with polycystic ovarian disease.

    Mahabeer, S; Naidoo, C; Norman, R J; Jialal, I; Reddi, K; Joubert, S M

    1990-10-01

    Clinical parameters, androgen status and lipoprotein lipid profiles were assessed in 10 non-obese and 10 obese patients with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and reference subjects matched for age, height and weight. Both obese and non-obese women with PCOD had significantly higher androgen levels when compared to the reference groups. When comparison of lipoprotein lipid profiles were made between groups, non-obese women with PCOD had significantly higher total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol levels than non-obese reference subjects. Obese PCOD women manifested significantly higher total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, cholesterol/HDL, and LDL/HDL values than did obese reference subjects. Correlations between serum androgens and lipoprotein lipid concentrations in PCOD and normal women were unhelpful. Both non-obese and obese patients with PCOD had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BPs) than the reference groups. Thus, both non-obese and obese women with PCOD manifest hyperandrogenaemia which may result in a male pattern of lipoprotein lipid concentrations.

  9. Increased glycemic variability and decrease of the postprandial glucose contribution to HbA1c in obese subjects across the glycemic continuum from normal glycemia to first time diagnosed diabetes.

    Fysekidis, Marinos; Cosson, Emmanuel; Banu, Isabela; Duteil, Régine; Cyrille, Chantal; Valensi, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The contribution of postprandial glycemia (PPG) to hyperglycemia has been shown to decrease as HbA1c increased in type 2 diabetic patients. This study aimed at examining, in a series of overweight/obese patients without known glycemic disorder, the contribution of PPG to a "relative" hyperglycemia (glucose values≥5.5 mmol/L) and the presence of glycemic variability according to HbA1c levels. Seventy overweight/obese inpatients (body mass index 35.2±6.8 kg/m2) without known glycemic disorder were included. Participants were classified according to an oral glucose tolerance test (according to the American Diabetes Association criteria) as patients with normoglycemia (n=33), with intermediate hyperglycemia (n=24) or diabetes (n=13). They were separated into HbA1c quartiles (Q1 to Q4). A 24 hour continuous glucose monitoring was used under a 1800 kcal diet and minimal physical activity. We assessed PPG contribution (3 hour period after each meal) to the "relative" 24 hour hyperglycemia (glucose values ≥5.5 mmol/L); the remaining time was considered as the fasting/post-absorptive period. HbA1c range was from 5.1% to 7.4% (32 to 57 mmol/mmol). From the lowest to the highest HbA1c quartile, the area under the curve (AUC) for the "relative" hyperglycemia presented a 17-fold increase for the fasting/post-absorptive (pAUC-3 h AUC for a constant 5.5 mmol/L glycemia)/(total 24 h AUC-24 h AUC for constant 5. 5 mmol/L glycemia)] and decreased from Q1 to Q4 of HbA1c (81.2%, 66%, 65.8%, 57%; pblood glucose level (pglucose variability indices, including mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (p<0.01). In overweight/obese patients, HbA1c was associated with lower PPG contribution to "relative" hyperglycemia and greater glycemic variability. The present findings support the importance of postprandial period in glycemic exposure even before the appearance of diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Obesity and African Americans

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  11. Obesity and Asian Americans

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  12. Childhood Obesity Facts

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000-2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States Childhood obesity is a ...

  13. Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... determine how a community is designed. Consequences of Obesity More Immediate Health Risks Obesity during childhood can ...

  14. Gastric and oesophageal emptying in obesity

    Maddox, A.; Horowitz, M.; Wishart, J.; Collins, P. (Royal Adelaide Hospital (Australia))

    1989-01-01

    Gastric and esophageal emptying were evaluated in 31 obese patients and 31 control subjects. A double-isotope techniques was used to measure gastric emptying of a mixed solid/liquid meal, and esophageal emptying was measured as the time taken for a bolus of the solid meal to enter the stomach. Gastric emptying of the solid and the liquid meal and esophageal emptying were delayed in the obese patients compared with the control subjects. There were no significant relationships among gastric emptying, esophageal emptying, and upper gastrointestinal symptoms in the obese patients alone. However, in the total group of 62 subjects there were significant correlations between body mass index and both gastric and esophageal emptying. These results indicate that delayed gastric and esophageal emptying occurs frequently in obesity and that these abnormalties relate to body weight.

  15. Relationship between overweight-obesity and periodontal disease in Mexico

    Zermeño-Ibarra, Jorge A; Delgado-Pastrana, Soledad; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Loyola-Rodríguez, Juan P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between overweight-obesity and periodontal disease in subjects who attended the clinic of Periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, San Luis de Potosi, Mexico. This was cross-sectional study involving 88 subjects - 60 without overweight-obesity and 28 with overweight-obesity. The following clinical parameters were evaluated: dental bacterial plaque, index of calculus, gingivitis, probing depth and periodontal disease index (PDI). When comparing t...

  16. The effects of aerobic exercise training on oxidant–antioxidant balance, neurotrophic factor levels, and blood–brain barrier function in obese and non-obese men

    Hee-Tae Roh

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that obesity can reduce serum neurotrophic factor levels and can induce BBB dysfunction. On the other hand, aerobic exercise can improve an oxidant–antioxidant imbalance in obese subjects and limit BBB dysfunction.

  17. Relationship of obesity with osteoporosis

    Zhao, Lan-Juan; Liu, Yong-Jun; Liu, Peng-Yuan; Hamilton, James; Recker, Robert R.; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Context The relationship between obesity and osteoporosis has been widely studied, and epidemiological evidence shows that obesity is correlated with increased bone mass. Previous analyses, however, did not control for the mechanical loading effects of total body weight on bone mass and may have generated a confounded or even biased relationship between obesity and osteoporosis. Objective To re-evaluate the relationship between obesity and osteoporosis by accounting for the mechanical loading effects of total body weight on bone mass. Methods We measured whole body fat mass, lean mass, percentage fat mass (PFM), body mass index (BMI), and bone mass in two large samples of different ethnicity: 1,988 unrelated Chinese subjects and 4,489 Caucasian subjects from 512 pedigrees. We first evaluated the Pearson correlations among different phenotypes. We then dissected the phenotypic correlations into genetic and environmental components, with bone mass unadjusted, or adjusted, for body weight. This allowed us to compare the results with and without controlling for mechanical loading effects of body weight on bone mass. Results In both Chinese and Caucasians, when the mechanical loading effect of body weight on bone mass was adjusted for, the phenotypic correlation (including its genetic and environmental components) between fat mass (or PFM) and bone mass was negative. Further multivariate analyses in subjects stratified by body weight confirmed the inverse relationship between bone mass and fat mass, after mechanical loading effects due to total body weight was controlled. Conclusions Increasing fat mass may not have a beneficial effect on bone mass. PMID:17299077

  18. Psychiatric disorders of patients seeking obesity treatment

    Lin Hung-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Methods Subjects were retrospectively recruited from an obesity treatment center in Taiwan. The obesity treatments included bariatric surgery and non-surgery treatment. All subjects underwent a standardized clinical evaluation with two questionnaires and a psychiatric referral when needed. The psychiatric diagnosis was made thorough psychiatric clinic interviews using the SCID. A total of 841 patients were recruited. We compared the difference in psychiatric disorder prevalence between patients with surgical and non-surgical treatment. Results Of the 841 patients, 42% had at least one psychiatric disorder. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders and eating disorders were the most prevalent categories of psychiatric disorders. Females had more mood disorders and eating disorders than males. The surgical group had more binge-eating disorder, adjustment disorder, and sleep disorders than the non-surgical group. Conclusion A high prevalence of psychiatric disorders was found among ethnic Chinese seeking obesity treatment. This is consistent with study results in the US and Europe.

  19. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    ... and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Share ...

  20. Erectile dysfunction and central obesity: an Italian perspective

    Giovanni Corona

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED is a frequent complication of obesity. The aim of this review is to critically analyze the framework of obesity and ED, dissecting the connections between the two pathological entities. Current clinical evidence shows that obesity, and in particular central obesity, is associated with both arteriogenic ED and reduced testosterone (T levels. It is conceivable that obesity-associated hypogonadism and increased cardiovascular risk might partially justify the higher prevalence of ED in overweight and obese individuals. Conversely, the psychological disturbances related to obesity do not seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related ED. However, both clinical and preclinical data show that the association between ED and visceral fat accumulation is independent from known obesity-associated comorbidities. Therefore, how visceral fat could impair penile microcirculation still remains unknown. This point is particularly relevant since central obesity in ED subjects categorizes individuals at high cardiovascular risk, especially in the youngest ones. The presence of ED in obese subjects might help healthcare professionals in convincing them to initiate a virtuous cycle, where the correction of sexual dysfunction will be the reward for improved lifestyle behavior. Unsatisfying sexual activity represents a meaningful, straightforward motivation for consulting healthcare professionals, who, in turn, should take advantage of the opportunity to encourage obese patients to treat, besides ED, the underlying unfavorable conditions, thus not only restoring erectile function, but also overall health.

  1. The Effect of 12-Week Passive Aquatic Bodywork on Sympathovagal Balance of Obese Youth

    Tufekcioglu, Ertan; Erzeybek, Mustafa Sait; Kaya, Fatih; Ozan, Goksel

    2018-01-01

    Background: Obesity has been identified as a global epidemic that is associated with numerous comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cancer, cardiovascular disease. We have investigated the effects of Watsu® therapy and Immersion on HRV parameters of obese male subjects. Methods and Results: Volunteer 34 obese subjects with BMI above…

  2. Socioeconomic Inequality in Childhood Obesity.

    Moradi, Ghobad; Mostafavi, Farideh; Azadi, Namamali; Esmaeilnasab, Nader; Ghaderi, Ebrahim

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity and overweight in children aged 10 to 12 yr old. A cross-sectional study. This study was conducted on 2506 children aged 10 to 12 yr old in the city of Sanandaj, western Iran in 2015. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Considering household situation and assets, socioeconomic status (SES) of the subjects was determined using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Concentration Index was used to measure inequality and Oaxaca decomposition was used to determine the share of different determinants of inequality. The prevalence of overweight was 24.1% (95% CI: 22.4, 25.7). 11.5% (95% CI: 10.0, 12.0) were obese. The concentration index for overweight and obesity, respectively, was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.15), and 0.07 (95% CI:0.00, 0.14) which indicated inequality and a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight in higher SES. The results of Oaxaca decomposition suggested that socioeconomic factors accounted for 75.8% of existing inequalities. Residential area and mother education were the most important causes of inequality. To reduce inequalities in childhood obesity, mother education must be promoted and special attention must be paid to residential areas and children gender.

  3. Obesity - an indication for GLP-1 treatment?

    Torekov, S S; Madsbad, S; Holst, Jens Juul

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is common and associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality; therefore, treatment is of great interest. At present, bariatric surgery is the only truly successful treatment of severe obesity. Mimicking one of the effects of bariatric surgery, namely the increased secretion...... of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, by artificially increasing the levels of GLP-1 might prove successful as obesity treatment. Recent studies have shown that GLP-1 is a physiological regulator of appetite and food intake. The effect on food intake and satiety is preserved in obese subjects and GLP-1 may...... therefore have a therapeutic potential. The GLP-1 analogues result in a moderate average weight loss, which is clinically relevant in relation to reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Inspired by the hormone profile after gastric bypass, a future strategy in obesity drug...

  4. The Effect of Obesity Degree on Childhood Pulmonary Function Tests

    Emel Torun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity has become a global epidemic. It is related to several chronic diseases such as essential hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and renal disease. The relationship between the degree of obesity and lung functions is well defined in adults, but limited information is available about the childhood period. Aims: This study aims to determine the impact of the degree of obesity on the pulmonary functions of school children and adolescents. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: Included in the study were a total of 170 school children and adolescents (9-17 years old referred to our paediatric outpatient clinic. Of these subjects, 42 were lean and non-obese (BMI % <85, 30 subjects were overweight (BMI % ˃85, <95, 34 subjects were obese (BMI % ˃95, <97, and 64 subjects were morbidly obese (BMI % ˃97. Anthropometric measurements were taken and spirometry was performed on all subjects. Forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, forced vital capacity 25-75 (FEV25-75 and peak expiratory flow (PEF were used to measure the ventilatory functions for all the subjects. Results: The groups showed no significant differences in age or gender. Despite no statistically significant differences in FEV1, FVC, or FEV1/FVC, there were significant reductions in PEF (p<0.001 and FEV25-75 (p<0.001 in the overweight, obese and morbidly obese subjects, when compared with those who were non-obese. Conclusion: Overweight, obese and morbidly obese children have no obstructive abnormalities compared with healthy lean subjects.

  5. Triceps-surae musculotendinous stiffness: relative differences between obese and non-obese postmenopausal women.

    Faria, Aurélio; Gabriel, Ronaldo; Abrantes, João; Brás, Rui; Moreira, Helena

    2009-12-01

    There is a lack of research into the relationship between obesity and muscle-tendon unit stiffness in postmenopausal women. Muscle-tendon unit stiffness appears to affect human motion performance and excessive and insufficient stiffness can increase the risk of bone and soft tissue injuries, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle-tendon unit stiffness and obesity in postmenopausal women. 105 postmenopausal women (58 [SD 5.5] years) participated. Four groups (normal weight, pre-obese, obesity class I and obesity class II) were defined according World Health Organization classification of body mass index. The ankle muscle-tendon unit stiffness was assessed in vivo with a free oscillation technique using a load of 30% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction. ANOVA shows significant difference in muscle-tendon unit stiffness among the groups defined (Pnormal weight-pre-obese; normal weight-obesity class I and normal weight-obesity class II. The normal weight group had stiffness of 15789 (SD 2969) N/m, pre-obese of 19971 (SD 3678) N/m, obesity class I of 21435 (SD 4295) N/m, and obesity class II of 23497 (SD 1776) N/m. Obese subjects may have increased muscle-tendon unit stiffness because of fat infiltration in leg skeletal muscles, range of motion restrictions and stability/posture reasons and might be more predisposed to develop musculoskeletal injuries. Normal weight group had identical stiffness values to those reported in studies where subjects were not yet menopausal, suggesting that stiffness might not be influenced by menopause.

  6. Association between vitamin deficiency and metabolic disorders related to obesity.

    Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Tostes, Maria das Graças V; Anunciação, Pamella C; da Silva, Bárbara P; Sant'Ana, Helena M Pinheiro

    2017-10-13

    Inappropriate food behavior contributes to obesity and leads to vitamin deficiency. This review discusses the nutritional status of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in obese subjects. We verified that most vitamins are deficient in obese individuals, especially the fat-soluble vitamins, folic acid, vitamin B 12 and vitamin C. However, some vitamins have been less evaluated in cases of obesity. The adipose tissue is considered a metabolic and endocrine organ, which in excess leads to changes in body homeostasis, as well as vitamin deficiency which can aggravate the pathological state. Therefore, the evaluation of vitamin status is of fundamental importance in obese individuals.

  7. Collagen metabolism in obesity: the effect of weight loss

    Rasmussen, M H; Jensen, L T; Andersen, T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of obesity, fat distribution and weight loss on collagen turnover using serum concentrations of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (S-PICP) and the aminoterminal propeptide of type III pro-collagen (S-PIIINP) as markers for collagen turnover...... an increased turnover of type III collagen related to obesity in general and to abdominal obesity in particular. S-PIIINP levels decreases during weight loss in obese subjects, whereas S-PICP levels seems un-related to obesity and weight loss....

  8. Effects of obesity and chronic low back pain on gait

    Cimolin, Veronica; Vismara, Luca; Galli, Manuela; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is often associated with low back pain (LBP). Despite empirical evidence that LBP induces gait abnormalities, there is a lack of quantitative analysis of the combined effect of obesity and LBP on gait. The aim of our study was to quantify the gait pattern of obese subjects with and without LBP and normal-mass controls by using Gait Analysis (GA), in order to investigate the cumulative effects of obesity and LBP on gait. Methods Eight obese females with chronic LBP ...

  9. Obesity and fracture risk

    Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Nuti, Ranuccio

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and osteoporosis are two common diseases with an increasing prevalence and a high impact on morbidity and mortality. Obese women have always been considered protected against osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. However, several recent studies have challenged the widespread belief that obesity is protective against fracture and have suggested that obesity is a risk factor for certain fractures.

  10. Core body temperature in obesity.

    Heikens, Marc J; Gorbach, Alexander M; Eden, Henry S; Savastano, David M; Chen, Kong Y; Skarulis, Monica C; Yanovski, Jack A

    2011-05-01

    A lower core body temperature set point has been suggested to be a factor that could potentially predispose humans to develop obesity. We tested the hypothesis that obese individuals have lower core temperatures than those in normal-weight individuals. In study 1, nonobese [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) temperature-sensing capsules, and we measured core temperatures continuously for 24 h. In study 2, normal-weight (BMI of 18-25) and obese subjects swallowed temperature-sensing capsules to measure core temperatures continuously for ≥48 h and kept activity logs. We constructed daily, 24-h core temperature profiles for analysis. Mean (±SE) daily core body temperature did not differ significantly between the 35 nonobese and 46 obese subjects (36.92 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.89 ± 0.03°C; P = 0.44). Core temperature 24-h profiles did not differ significantly between 11 normal-weight and 19 obese subjects (P = 0.274). Women had a mean core body temperature ≈0.23°C greater than that of men (36.99 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.76 ± 0.03°C; P body temperature. It may be necessary to study individuals with function-altering mutations in core temperature-regulating genes to determine whether differences in the core body temperature set point affect the regulation of human body weight. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00428987 and NCT00266500.

  11. Obesity and dermatology.

    Scheinfeld, Noah S

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a number of dermatoses. It affects cutaneous sensation, temperature regulation, foot shape, and vasculature. Acanthosis nigricans is the most common dermatological manifestation of obesity. Skin tags are more commonly associated with diabetes than with obesity. Obesity increases the incidence of cutaneous infections that include: candidiasis, intertigo, candida folliculitis, furunculosis, erythrasma, tinea cruris, and folliculitis. Less common infections include cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and gas gangrene. Leg ulcerations, lymphedema, plantar hyperkeratosis, and striae are more common with obesity. Hormonal abnormalities and genetic syndromes (Prader-Willi) are related to obesity and its dermatoses; however, cellulite is not related to obesity.

  12. Energy expenditure in obesity associated with craniopharyngioma

    Shah, Rachana; Tershakovec, Andy M.; Zemel, Babette S.; Sutton, Leslie N.; Grimberg, Adda; Moshang, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Obesity is a common yet incompletely understood complication of childhood craniopharyngioma. We hypothesized that craniopharyngioma is associated with specific defects in energy balance compared to obese control children. Methods Eleven craniopharyngioma patients were recruited for a study on body composition and energy balance. Eight subjects were obese. The obese craniopharyngioma patients had a mean age (±SD) of 11.2±1.7 years. The average body mass index z score was 2.33 (±0.32). A previously studied group of obese children (BMI z score 2.46±0.46) served as controls. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was determined by indirect calorimetry and body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in all children. Results Obese craniopharyngioma patient subjects had increased mean (±standard error) fat-free mass compared to obese controls (57%±0.88 % vs 50.0%±0.87%, p=0.02). The obese craniopharyngioma patients had a 17% lower REE compared to values expected from the World Health Organization equation (1,541±112.6 vs 1,809±151.8 kcal; p=0.01). In contrast, the obese control children had measured REE within 1% of predicted (1,647±33.2 vs. 1,652±40.2; p=0.8). In a linear regression model, REE remained significantly lower than predicted after controlling for FFM. Conclusions Lower REE may be a factor contributing to obesity in children with craniopharyngioma. Further study is needed into the mechanisms for reduced energy expenditure in patients with craniopharyngioma. PMID:20107994

  13. Effect of aerobic exercise on Pancreas Beta-cells function in adult obese males

    Mojtaba Eizadi

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Aerobic exercise training increases beta cells function and decreases FBS in obese men. These findings support the hypothesis that regular physical activity postpones the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in adult obese subjects.

  14. Insulin resistance in obesity can be reliably identified from fasting plasma insulin

    ter Horst, K. W.; Gilijamse, P. W.; Koopman, K. E.; de Weijer, B. A.; Brands, M.; Kootte, R. S.; Romijn, J. A.; Ackermans, M. T.; Nieuwdorp, M.; Soeters, M. R.; Serlie, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is the major contributor to cardiometabolic complications of obesity. We aimed to (1) establish cutoff points for insulin resistance from euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps (EHCs), (2) identify insulin-resistant obese subjects and (3) predict insulin resistance from routinely

  15. [Pharmacological therapy of obesity].

    Pagotto, Uberto; Vanuzzo, Diego; Vicennati, Valentina; Pasquali, Renato

    2008-04-01

    uric acid as well and it increases HDL cholesterol; in diabetics it improves glycated hemoglobin. Sibutramine has conflicting effects on blood pressure: in some studies there was a minimal decrease, in some others a modest increase. In all the studies this drug increased pulse rate. Sibutramine is not recommended in patients with uncontrolled hypertension, or in case of history of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease. Orlistat is a pancreatic lipase inhibitor that reduces fat absorption by partially blocking the hydrolysis of dietary triglycerides. A recent meta-analysis evaluated 22 studies lasting for at least 12 months, in obese patients with a mean body mass index of 36.7 kg/m2, where orlistat was associated with hypocaloric diet or behavioral interventions: the net average weight loss was 2.89 kg (confidence interval 2.27-3.51 kg). Considering the principal studies, attrition rate ranged from 33 to 57%. Orlistat significantly decreases waist circumference, blood pressure, total and LDL cholesterol, but has no effect on HDL and triglycerides. This drug significantly reduced the incidence of diabetes only in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. The major adverse effects with orlistat are mainly gastrointestinal (fatty and oily stool, fecal urgency, oily spotting, fecal incontinence) and attenuate over time. Orlistat should be avoided in patients with chronic malabsorption and cholestasis. Rimonabant is a selective antagonist of cannabinoid type 1 receptor. This drug, by inhibiting the overactivation of the endocannabinoid system, produces anorectic stimuli at the central nervous level, but also has effects on the peripheral systems involved in metabolism control, such as liver, adipose tissue, skeletal muscles, endocrine pancreas, and gastrointestinal apparatus, influencing many processes partially unknown. An ample experimental program named RIO (Rimonabant In Obesity) involved about 6600 obese or overweight patients to identify the effects of rimonabant in

  16. Diminished hepatic insulin removal in obesity

    Cano, I.; Salvador, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Arraiza, M.C.; Goena, M.; Barberia, J.J.; Moncada, E.

    1986-01-01

    Peripheral insulin and C-peptide levels during oral glucose load were measured in 20 obese and 23 normal weight nondiabetic subjects. The fasting C-peptide to insulin molar ratios (Cp/I), as well as the relation between incremental areas of the two polypeptides (ACp-AI)/ACp, were used as relative measures of the hepatic insulin extraction (HIE). The insulin and C-peptide basal levels as well as incremental areas under plasma curves were higher in the obese subjects (P<0.001). HIE was lower in obeses than in controls assessed in the fasting state (P<0.05), as well as after glucose load (P<0.001). Nevertheless, obeses and controls with similar insulin fasting levels showed identical hepatic insulin extraction in fasting or after glucose load. HIE was independent of obesity degree, but was related to insulin basal levels (r=-0.60, P<0.01). This study suggests the hypothesis that the decreased hepatic insulin extraction in obeses is a result of the chronically increased insulin delivery to the liver and is not a consequence of obesity, although a contributory role cannot be ruled out

  17. Diminished hepatic insulin removal in obesity

    Cano, I; Salvador, J; Rodriguez, R; Arraiza, M C; Goena, M; Barberia, J J; Moncada, E

    1986-01-01

    Peripheral insulin and C-peptide levels during oral glucose load were measured in 20 obese and 23 normal weight nondiabetic subjects. The fasting C-peptide to insulin molar ratios (Cp/I), as well as the relation between incremental areas of the two polypeptides (ACp-AI)/ACp, were used as relative measures of the hepatic insulin extraction (HIE). The insulin and C-peptide basal levels as well as incremental areas under plasma curves were higher in the obese subjects (P<0.001). HIE was lower in obeses than in controls assessed in the fasting state (P<0.05), as well as after glucose load (P<0.001). Nevertheless, obeses and controls with similar insulin fasting levels showed identical hepatic insulin extraction in fasting or after glucose load. HIE was independent of obesity degree, but was related to insulin basal levels (r=-0.60, P<0.01). This study suggests the hypothesis that the decreased hepatic insulin extraction in obeses is a result of the chronically increased insulin delivery to the liver and is not a consequence of obesity, although a contributory role cannot be ruled out.

  18. Obesity and Knee Arthroscopy – a Review

    Tilinca Mariana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is currently a global epidemic, often referred to as “globesity”, impacting the life of millions worldwide. A risk factor for many diseases, obesity can also be linked to developing intra-articular lesions of the knee, affecting the menisci, ligaments and cartilage. Furthermore, obesity has been shown to influence the outcome of surgical interventions, including those of the musculoskeletal system. Although many studies addressed the relationship of obesity and joint replacement, articles relating to arthroscopy and obesity, and knee arthroscopy in particular, are a bit scarcer. The majority of data suggest that an increase in BMI leads to a similar increase in the rates of intra- and postoperative complications, and most authors agree that a higher body mass index can influence both the procedure itself and its outcomes, including the subjective results reported by the patients. Still, some studies show different results, especially in patients that are overweight or with low-grade obesity, where the outcomes are comparable to those of the non-obese population. Thus, it can be concluded that obesity is an important patient characteristic that needs to be taken into consideration when planning, performing, and assessing the results of knee arthroscopy.

  19. Relationship between heavy drinking, binge drinking, and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Korean male adults.

    Oh, Jung Eun

    2018-04-01

    Obesity and alcohol drinking are associated with metabolic syndrome. However, few studies show the relationship between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome according to varying degrees of obesity. This study aimed to determine the association between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Korean male adults. This cross-sectional study included 5,867 males aged ≥ 20 years who were examined at the Soonchunhyang University health promotion center during June 2008-December 2010. The subjects were divided into non-obese (body mass index [BMI] 14 drinks/week) groups. The subjects were also categorized into binge drinking and non-binge drinking groups. To obtain odds ratios (ORs) for metabolic syndrome, binary logistic regression analysis was performed. The overall metabolic syndrome prevalence was 27.3% (12.8%, non-obese group; 50.4%, obese group). After adjusting for age, physical activity, and smoking, in the non-obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking (reference: nondrinking) was 1.56 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-2.18), with a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. In the obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking was 1.42 (95% CI = 1.07-1.88), showing a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence ( P metabolic syndrome. Thus, both non-obese and obese males should restrict their alcohol intake and not indulge in binge drinking.

  20. Association of surfactant protein-d with obesity

    Jawed, S.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with inflammatory diseases and obese individual's poses high risk for infections. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an important regulator of immunity and inflammation. Latest studies have suggested that it is also involved in lipid homeostasis and obese subjects have decrease concentration of SPD as compared to normal weight peoples. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the relationship among serum SP-D and BMI. Method: This cross sectional study was performed at Dow University of health sciences (DUHS), Karachi. We analysed 90 obese and non-obese subjects for serum SP-D concentration. SP-D was estimated by ELISA. Data was analysed by SPSS 16. Mean SP-D level and demographical variables between the groups were compared by t test, Associations of SP-D with BMI investigated by regression analysis. Results: obese subjects have significant lower levels of Serum SP-D than non-obese and negatively associated with BMI in both genders (p=0.000). Conclusion: This study concluded that obese subjects have lower concentration of SP-D as compare to non-obese and there is an inverse association between the SP-D and BMI. (author)

  1. DNA methylation is altered in B and NK lymphocytes in obese and type 2 diabetic human

    Simar, David; Versteyhe, Soetkin; Donkin, Ida

    2014-01-01

    (T2D). The aim of this study was to determine the global DNA methylation profile of immune cells in obese and T2D individuals in a cell type-specific manner. Material and methods Fourteen obese subjects and 11 age-matched lean subjects, as well as 12 T2D obese subjects and 7 age-matched lean subjects.......001). Results Global DNA methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, monocytes, lymphocytes or T cells was not altered in obese or T2D subjects. However, analysis of blood fractions from lean, obese, and T2D subjects showed increased methylation levels in B cells from obese and T2D subjects...

  2. Relationships among Obesity, Sarcopenia, and Osteoarthritis in the Elderly

    Woo Sung Jin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : The present study examined the correlations between obesity, sarcopenia, and osteoarthritis in Korea’s elderly population. Methods : A cross-sectional analysis of 1,865 and 1,769 respondents with knee osteoarthritis and lumbar spondylosis, respectively, was performed by using data from the 2010 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Obesity was defined as a body mass index of ≥25 kg/m²; osteoarthritis, as a Kellgren/Lawrence grade of ≥2; and sarcopenia, as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM; ASM/weight ×100 on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of two standard deviations below the mean reference value. Results : The unadjusted and age-adjusted risks of knee osteoarthritis were as follows: 1.88 and 1.92 times greater, respectively, for male subjects with sarcopenic obesity; 6.03 and 7.64 times greater, respectively, for female subjects with non-sarcopenic obesity; and 1.97 and 2.43 times greater, respectively, for female subjects with sarcopenic obesity. The age-and-waist circumference-adjusted risks were 5.88 and 1.80 times greater for the female subjects with non-sarcopenic and sarcopenic obesities, respectively. No statistically significant finding was obtained for lumbar spondylosis. Conclusion : Obesity and sarcopenia were associated with knee osteoarthritis in the elderly subjects. The risk of knee osteoarthritis was greater in the male subjects with sarcopenic obesity than in the male subjects with non-sarcopenic obesity. In the female subjects, the risk of knee osteoarthritis was high in both obesity groups. Further research to explain the sex-related difference in knee osteoarthritis risk based on body composition will be beneficial.

  3. Obesity, sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity and reduced mobility in Brazilian older people aged 80 years and over.

    Santos, Vanessa Ribeiro Dos; Gomes, Igor Conterato; Bueno, Denise Rodrigues; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Freitas, Ismael Forte; Gobbo, Luis Alberto

    2017-01-01

    To analyze which abnormalities in body composition (obesity, sarcopenia or sarcopenic obesity) are related to reduced mobility in older people aged 80 years and older. The sample included 116 subjects aged 80 years and older. The body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and mobility was assessed by motor tests. The χ2 test was used to analyze the proportion of older people with sarcopenia, obesity and sarcopenic obesity based on sex as well as to indicate an association between obesity, sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity and mobility. Binary logistic regression, adjusted for the variables (sex and osteoarticular diseases), was used to express the magnitude of these associations. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the mobility of four groups (Normal, Obesity, Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity). The Sarcopenia Group had lower performance in the lower limbs strength test and in sum of two tests compared with Obesity and Normal Groups. Older people with sarcopenia had higher chance of reduced mobility (OR: 3.44; 95%CI: 1.12-10.52). Older people aged 80 years and older with sarcopenia have more chance for reduction in mobility.

  4. Trends of obesity and abdominal obesity in Tehranian adults: a cohort study

    Mirmiran Parvin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the increasing trend of obesity reported in current data, this study was conducted to examine trends of obesity and abdominal obesity among Tehranian adults during a median follow-up of 6.6 years. Methods Height and weight of 4402 adults, aged 20 years and over, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS, were measured in 1999-2001(phase I and again in 2002-2005(phase II and 2006-2008 (phase III. Criteria used for obesity and abdominal obesity defined body mass index (BMI ≥ 30 and waist circumference ≥ 94/80 cm for men/women respectively. Subjects were divided into10-year groups and the prevalence of obesity was compared across sex and age groups. Results The prevalence of obesity was 15.8, 18.6 and 21% in men and 31.5, 37.7 and 38.6% in women in phases I, II and III respectively (p Conclusion This study demonstrates alarming rises in the prevalences of both obesity and abdominal obesity in both sexes especially in young men, calling for urgent action to educate people in lifestyle modifications.

  5. Adipokine Profiling in Adult Women With Central Obesity and Hypertension

    Rashmi Supriya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Central obesity and hypertension are common risk factors for the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular and renal diseases. Studies have shown that it is more difficult to control blood pressure and prevent end-organ damage in obese individuals with hypertension compared to their non-obese counterparts, especially among women. Obese females have a 6 times higher risk of developing hypertension than non-obese females while obese males are at a 1.5 times higher risk of developing hypertension, compared to their non-obese counterparts. Indeed, the inter-relationship between obesity and hypertension is unclear. Adipokines have been proposed to play a mediating role in the relationship between obesity and hypertension and are involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Therefore, this study sought to determine the role of adipokines (adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α in hypertensive Hong Kong Chinese women with central obesity. A total of 387 women aged 58 ± 11 years who were examined with a 2 × 2 factorial design for central obesity (waist circumference ≥ 80 cm and hypertension (blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg, were recruited from a pool of 1,492 Hong Kong Chinese adults who were previously screened for metabolic syndrome. Subjects with hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and dyslipidemia were excluded to eliminate confounding effects. Our findings revealed that hypertensive women with central obesity had a lower anti-inflammatory status (adiponectin and a higher pro-inflammatory status (TNF-α than obese alone or hypertensive alone women. Also, women with central obesity had higher circulatory PAI-1 and leptin concentrations than their non-obese counterparts. We conclude that obesity may shift toward a more pro-inflammatory state and may become more severe in the presence of hypertension or vice versa.

  6. Evaluation of cardiac risk marker levels in obese and non-obese patients with polycystic ovaries.

    Elci, Erkan; Kaya, Cihan; Cim, Numan; Yildizhan, Recep; Elci, Gulhan Gunes

    2017-01-01

    To compare cardiac risk markers such as asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), C-reactive protein (CRP), homocystein (Hcy), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-related growth factor 6 (ANGPTL6) in obese and non-obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Thirty obese (BMI >30 kg/m 2 ) and 30 non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m 2 ) patients diagnosed with PCOS and 30 age-matched healthy controls were included in the study. The ages of subjects were varying between 18 and 30 years. Serum ADMA, CRP, Hcy, PAI-1, VEGF and ANGPTL6 levels were analyzed for each subject. Serum ADMA, CRP, Hcy, PAI-1, VEGF and ANGPTL6 levels were significantly elevated in obese and non-obese women with PCOS in comparison to control subjects (p < 0.05). This elevation was more obvious in the obese PCOS group than in the other group. Cardiovascular risk markers such as ADMA, CRP, Hcy, PAI-1, VEGF and ANGPTL6 levels are elevated in women with PCOS.

  7. Obesity prevention: Comparison of techniques and potential solution

    Zulkepli, Jafri; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-12-01

    Over the years, obesity prevention has been a broadly studied subject by both academicians and practitioners. It is one of the most serious public health issue as it can cause numerous chronic health and psychosocial problems. Research is needed to suggest a population-based strategy for obesity prevention. In the academic environment, the importance of obesity prevention has triggered various problem solving approaches. A good obesity prevention model, should comprehend and cater all complex and dynamics issues. Hence, the main purpose of this paper is to discuss the qualitative and quantitative approaches on obesity prevention study and to provide an extensive literature review on various recent modelling techniques for obesity prevention. Based on these literatures, the comparison of both quantitative and qualitative approahes are highlighted and the justification on the used of system dynamics technique to solve the population of obesity is discussed. Lastly, a potential framework solution based on system dynamics modelling is proposed.

  8. Obesity and functional constipation in children

    Natasha Yuwanita

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Functional constipation is a common pediatric problem in both developed and developing countries.  In the past two decades, the prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide. Obesity itself leads to many health problems, including functional constipation. Studies correlating obesity to functional constipation have thus far mostly originated from developed countries. Objective To assess for a possible correlation between obesity and functional constipation in children in a developing country. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Al-Mukhlisin Islamic Boarding School, Batu Bara District, North Sumatera Province, Indonesia, between July and August 2015. The subjects were 150 students aged 12 to 17 years. Questionnaires were used to determine functional constipation and filled by direct interview. Obesity was determined by body mass index. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results Of 150 children, 49 had functional constipation; and 18 of the 49 were obese. The mean age of children with constipation was 14.7 (SD 1.07 years (95%CI 14.1 to 14.7 and their mean body weight was 53.8 (SD 15.10 kg (95%CI 49.4 to 58.1. The prevalence for functional constipation in obese children was  58% There was a statistically significant correlation between obesity and functional constipation (prevalence ratio=4; 95%CI 1.72 to 8.94; P=0.001, indicating that obese children had 4 times higher risk of having functional constipation. Conclusion There is a significant correlation between obesity and functional constipation in children.

  9. Dietary Habits and Cardiometabolic Health in Obese Children

    Gilardini, Luisa; Croci, Marina; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Caffetto, Katherine; Invitti, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Background Prevalence rates of cardiometabolic risk factors vary largely among overweight children. This study investigated the relationships between dietary habits and cardiometabolic health among obese children living in a city of Northern Italy. Methods Dietary habits were collected in 448 obese subjects aged 6-18 years, attending an obesity outpatient center in Milan. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP), lipids, fasting and post-load glucose, and insulin were measured. Physical activity wa...

  10. Effect of age and sex on the association between lipid profile and obesity among telecomunication workers in Palembang

    Hardi Darmawan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study objective is to examine the effects of age and sex on the association between various obesity parameters and lipid profile. The measurements of whole body obesity (body fat, body fat % and BMI, abdominal obesity (waist to hip ratio, waist to thigh ratio and waist circumference and lipid profile (HDL, LDL, VLDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride were performed on 112 telecom workers in Palembang (84 men and 28 women, age 25, 35, 45, and 55 years. All lipid parameters results depend on sex and age of subjects. The association between obesity assessments and HDL or LDL was independent of sex and age of subjects, whereas the association between obesity assessments and total cholesterol, VLDL and triglyceride is dependent on sex and age of subjects. Abdominal obesity has greater effect on VLDL and triglyceride levels than on other lipid parameters. Whole body obesity has equal effects on all lipid parameters. When comparing results of male and female subjects, obesity measurements and lipid profile association is stronger in male subjects of almost all age groups. The exception is a stronger association between abdominal obesity and VLDL or triglyceride levels in 45 years old female subjects. Obesity measurements and VLDL or triglyceride level association is independent of age, whereas obesity and total cholesterol association is stronger in younger subjects. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:251-6Keywords: Lipid profile, fat distribution, obesity, abdominal obesity

  11. Allegheny County Obesity Rates

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Obesity rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  12. Defining Overweight and Obesity

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Defining Adult Overweight and Obesity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... weight for a given height is described as overweight or obese. Body Mass Index, or BMI, is ...

  13. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  14. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000085.htm Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is a condition in some ...

  15. Obesity in Children

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... always easy to know when a child has obesity or is overweight. Ask your health care provider ...

  16. Obesity and health (image)

    Obesity increases a person's risk of illness and death due to diabetes, stroke, heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, and kidney and gallbladder disease. Obesity may increase the risk for some types of ...

  17. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions Page Content Article Body Everyone, it ... for less than 1% of the cases of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and ...

  18. Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention

    Yi Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity.

  19. Economics and obesity policy.

    Lusk, J L

    2017-06-01

    This paper elucidates the challenges surrounding the economics of some popular obesity-related policy proposals. Solid economic justifications for anti-obesity policies are often lacking, and evidence suggests policies like fat and soda taxes or restrictions on food stamp spending are unlikely to substantively affect obesity prevalence. In short, many of the same factors that make obesity such a complicated and multifaceted issue extend to the economic analysis of public health policies.

  20. Canine and feline obesity

    Sandøe, Peter; Palmer, Clare; Corr, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a drastic increase in the rates of overweight and obesity among people living in some developed nations. There has also been increased concern over obesity in companion animals. In the latest article in Veterinary Record's series on One Health, Peter Sandøe and colleagues...... argue that the relationship between obesity in people and in companion animals is closer and more complex than previously thought, and that obesity should be treated as a One Health problem....

  1. The metabolic portrait of obese children

    S. I. Malyavskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the important problem of metabohc syndrome and obesity and the need for atherosclerotic and diabetogenic risk stratincation in childhood and adolescence. To study the prevalence of components of the metabohc syndrome at a normal weight and to reveal metabohc phenotypes of obesity in Arkhangelsk schoolchildren, clinical and laboratory tests were used to examine 369 children and adolescents aged 10 to 15 years who were divided into groups according to the criteria of obesity and to identify different metabohc variants: metabohcally healthy normal-weight, metabohcally unhealthy normal-weight, metabohcally healthy obese, and metabohcally unhealthy obese subjects.The important result of the investigation is the established fact that metabohc atherogenic disturbances are detected in a high proportion (43.82% of individuals without abdominal obesity. These patients may represent a portion of the range of children and adolescents with insulin resistance syndrome, which is confirmed by the abnormal mean levels of triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and blood pressure in the group of metabohcally unhealthy normal-weight children.The study shows that the concept of early detection of predictive signs should be extrapolated to the entire pediatric population, regardless of the presence or absence of obesity when efforts are aimed at verifying the metabohc activity of different fat types. The metabohcally unhealthy normal-weight children require special attention and timely therapeutic and preventive measures as soon as any component of the metabohc syndrome is identified.

  2. Perspectives of drug treatment of obesity

    Alfredo Halpern

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The perspectives in the pharmacological treatment of obesitycan be classified in two classes: drugs already in the market,in advanced clinical trial or in final approval, or drugs in earlydevelopment. Among the first class are antiepileptic drugslike topiramate (although it was studied for obesity treatmentit was descontinued for this indication because of the highdrop-out rate in clinical trials and zonisamide (with someshort term studies in obese adults; antidepressives likebupropion (that leads to weight reduction and also diminishesthe weight gain associated to smoking cessation andradafaxine (a bupropion metabolite, without reported trials inobese subjects; glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues like exenatide(exendin-4, pramlintide and liraglutide (with studiesin type 2 diabetic obese subjects and the selective blockerof the cannabinoid-1 receptor, rimonabant, with a large bodyof studies (Rimonabant in Obesity, RIO-Europe, RIO-NorthAmerica, RIO-Lipids and RIO-Diabetes, involving more than6.600 patients with obesity, with and without diabetes, beingan important perspective of treatment for obesity andmetabolic syndrome. In early phase of development, we canreport some energy balance modulators like neuropeptide Yantagonists, melanocortin agonists, leptine and its analoguesand ciliary neurotrophic factor (axokine; termogenic agentslike agonists of the beta-3 adrenergic receptor, uncouplingagents of the mithocondrial membrane and peripheralmodulators of the energy balance (cholecystokinine.

  3. Relationship between overweight-obesity and periodontal disease in Mexico.

    Zermeño-Ibarra, Jorge A; Delgado-Pastrana, Soledad; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Loyola-Rodríguez, Juan P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between overweight-obesity and periodontal disease in subjects who attended the clinic of Periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, San Luis de Potosi, México. This was cross-sectional study involving 88 subjects--60 without overweight-obesity and 28 with overweight-obesity. The following clinical parameters were evaluated: dental bacterial plaque, index of calculus, gingivitis, probing depth and periodontal disease index (PDI). When comparing the group of subjects with overweight-obesity to the control, there were statistically significant differences in the variables calculus (p = 0.0015), gingivitis (p = 0.0050) and periodontal disease (p = 0.0154). Regarding the logistic regression analysis, the dependent variable was subjects with and without overweight-obesity and the independent variables were sex, age and periodontal disease. We found statistically significant differences (p = 0.0162) with OR = 3.16 in periodontal disease. Periodontal disease showed statistically significant differences in the group of subjects with overweight-obesity. The oral health of subjects with overweight-obesity should be supervised and checked in order to prevent oral alterations.

  4. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile

  5. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  6. [Endocrine function in obesity].

    Álvarez-Castro, Paula; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Brandón-Sandá, Iria; Cordido, Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Obesity is associated to significant disturbances in endocrine function. Hyper insulinemia and insulin resistance are the best known changes in obesity, but their mechanisms and clinical significance are not clearly established. Adipose tissue is considered to be a hormone-secreting endocrine organ; and increased leptin secretion from the adipocyte, a satiety signal, is a well-established endocrine change in obesity. In obesity there is a decreased GH secretion. Impairment of somatotropic function in obesity is functional and may be reversed in certain circumstances. The pathophysiological mechanism responsible for low GH secretion in obesity is probably multifactorial. There are many data suggesting that a chronic state of somatostatin hypersecretion results in inhibition of GH release. Increased FFA levels, as well as a deficient ghrelin secretion, probably contribute to the impaired GH secretion. In women, abdominal obesity is associated to hyperandrogenism and low sex hormone-binding globulin levels. Obese men, particularly those with morbid obesity, have decreased testosterone and gonadotropin levels. Obesity is associated to an increased cortisol production rate, which is compensated for by a higher cortisol clearance, resulting in plasma free cortisol levels that do not change when body weight increases. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic factor, and has been found to be decreased in obese people. In obesity there is also a trend to increased TSH and free T3 levels. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Christopher Zammit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

  8. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 percent are overweight ... inhqrdr/data/query At a Glace – Risk Factors: Obesity is a risk ... Americans Heart Disease – See Heart Disease and Hispanic Americans ...

  9. Childhood environment and obesity

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  10. Asthma and obesity

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma....

  11. Association between vitamin D status and physical function in the severely obese.

    Ahern, T

    2014-07-01

    Mortality is 85% higher in severely obese subjects (body mass index [BMI] > 40 kg\\/m(2)) than in subjects with a healthy BMI; poor physical function may be contributory. Hypovitaminosis D is common in obese subjects and is associated with physical dysfunction in the elderly.

  12. Bariatric surgery for severely obese adolescents.

    Fitzgerald, Dominic A; Baur, Louise

    2014-09-01

    Severe obesity is increasing in adolescents and is associated with cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnoea, polycystic ovarian syndrome and a range of musculoskeletal problems. Premature death is the inevitable outcome of persistent severe obesity in adolescents. In adults with severe obesity, medical and lifestyle interventions have been shown to be expensive and less effective in terms of weight loss than has bariatric surgery. The single completed randomised controlled trial in adolescents shows the same outcome. This is supported by meta analyses of bariatric surgery in adolescent subjects. A more aggressive approach to severe obesity, utilising bariatric surgery in selected cases, within the context of a multi-disciplinary team, is required. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Insulin sensitivity in post-obese women

    Toubro, S; Western, P; Bülow, J

    1994-01-01

    1. Both increased and decreased sensitivity to insulin has been proposed to precede the development of obesity. Therefore, insulin sensitivity was measured during a 2 h hyperinsulinaemia (100 m-units min-1 m-2) euglycaemic (4.5 mmol/l) glucose clamp combined with indirect calorimetry in nine weight......-1 kg-1, not significant). Basal plasma concentrations of free fatty acids were similar, but at the end of the clamp free fatty acids were lower in the post-obese women than in the control women (139 +/- 19 and 276 +/- 48 mumol/l, P = 0.02). 3. We conclude that the insulin sensitivity of glucose...... metabolism is unaltered in the post-obese state. The study, however, points to an increased antilipolytic insulin action in post-obese subjects, which may favour fat storage and lower lipid oxidation rate postprandially.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  14. Obesity in Nigeria: Current trends and management | Akpa ...

    The objective of the study is to review the current knowledge on the problems associated with obesity, as well as the measures and strategies that have evolved in its management. A review of the literature on the subject of obesity, its epidemiology, risk factors, clinical complications and treatment (using Medline computer ...

  15. The impact of obesity on physiological responses during prolonged exercise

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Veltmeijer, M.T.; Schreuder, T.H.A.; Poelkens, F.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background:Prolonged, moderate-intensity exercise training is routinely prescribed to subjects with obesity. In the general population, this type of exercise can lead to fluid and sodium imbalance. However, little is known whether obesity alters the risk of fluid and sodium imbalances.Objective:This

  16. Bone turnover biomarkers in obese postmenopausal Saudi women ...

    Background: There is a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus type-2 (T2DM) and osteoporosis are problems worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between T2DM and bone turnover in diabetic obese postmenopausal Saudi women. Subjects and Methods: The present study included total of 65 T2-DM obese ...

  17. Prevalence and awareness of obesity among people of different age ...

    Prevalence and awareness of obesity among people of different age groups in educational institutions in Morogoro, Tanzania. ... The four institutions included a primary and a secondary school, a teacher's training college and a university. ... Employed subjects had higher rate of obesity (22.2%) than pupils or students.

  18. Efeitos da redução de peso superior a 5% nos perfis hemodinâmico, metabólico e neuroendócrino de obesos grau I Effects of greater-than-5% weight reduction on hemodynamic, metabolic and neuroendocrine profiles of grade I obese subjects

    Kelly Biancardini Gomes Barbato

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da redução de peso superior a 5% nos perfis hemodinâmico, metabólico e neuroendócrino de obesos grau I. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional com 47 obesos grau I, média de idade de 33 anos, submetidos a orientação mensal quanto a dieta, exercício físico e comportamento alimentar, durante quatro meses. A pressão arterial, pelo método auscultatório, e a freqüência cardíaca, pelo método palpatório, foram avaliadas mensalmente, enquanto as seguintes variáveis (e respectivos métodos foram medidas no início e final do estudo: colesterol total, triglicerídeos, HDL-colesterol (enzimático, LDL-colesterol (fórmula de Friedwald, glicemia (enzimático hexoquinase, leptina, adiponectina, renina, aldosterona, insulina (radioimunoensaio e índice de resistência à insulina (HOMA. RESULTADOS: Observamos, após ajuste para outras variáveis, reduções significativas de 6 mmHg na pressão arterial diastólica, 7 pg/ml na renina, 13 mg/dl no colesterol total e 12 mg/dl no LDL-colesterol, no grupo com redução de peso superior a 5%. Notamos, também nesse grupo, tendência ao aumento de maior magnitude da adiponectina ao final do estudo, bem como diminuição três vezes maior dos níveis de glicemia, insulina e HOMA, e seis vezes maior da leptina. CONCLUSÃO: Medidas não-farmacológicas capazes de promover redução de peso superior a 5% produzem efeitos hemodinâmicos, metabólicos e neuroendócrinos que melhoram o risco cardiovascular de obesos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a greater-than-5% weight reduction in hemodynamic, metabolic, and neuroendocrine profiles of grade I obese subjects. METHODS: Observational study with 47 grade I obese subjects, with mean age of 33 years who received monthly orientation regarding diet, physical exercises, and eating behavior for four months. Blood pressure using the auscultatory method and pulse rate were assessed monthly, whereas the following variables (and

  19. NEURAXIAL ANESTHESIA and OBESITY

    Aynur sahin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the serious condition that commonly effects health in modern age. It was reported that obesity was three-fold increased in the last three decades. According to the statement by World Health Organisation in 2005, 700 million people will be estimated obese in 2015. While neuraxial anesthesia is a commonly used technique in the worldwide, the process may have difficulties in obese patients. In this review, the pathophysiological changes and challenges in neuraxial anesthesia procedure in obesity were assessed with current literatures. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(3.000: 234-236

  20. Obesity Prevention and Screening.

    Mackey, Eleanor R; Olson, Alexandra; DiFazio, Marc; Cassidy, Omni

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is widespread, associated with several physical and psychosocial comorbidities, and is difficult to treat. Prevention of obesity across the lifespan is critical to improving the health of individuals and society. Screening and prevention efforts in primary care are an important step in addressing the obesity epidemic. Each period of human development is associated with unique risks, challenges, and opportunities for prevention and intervention. Screening tools for overweight/obesity, although imperfect, are quick and easy to administer. Screening should be conducted at every primary care visit and tracked longitudinally. Screening tools and cutoffs for overweight and obesity vary by age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Surgical treatment of pathological obesity

    Portie Felix, Antonio; Navarro Sanchez, Gustavo; Hernandez Solar, Abel; Grass Baldoquin, Jorge Alberto; Domloge Fernandez, Joana

    2011-01-01

    The obesity is the chronic non-communicable disease with a higher rate of growth in past 20 years. It is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, cardiovascular and respiratory affections, infertility, sexual and functional impotence, metabolic syndrome, load joint disorders and some types of cancer (breast, colon, prostate). The metabolic bariatric surgery is the surgical treatment more effective for the morbid obesity at long -and medium- term and not the pharmacologic treatment and the isolated diets. The aim of present historical review of the international literature on the evolution of surgical techniques of the bariatric surgery (malabsorption techniques, gastric restrictive techniques and mixed techniques), is to make available to those interested in this subject, a valuable therapeutic tool to be rationally used. (author)

  2. Common Genetic Variant of INSIG2 Gene rs7566605 Polymorphism Is Associated with Severe Obesity in North India

    Prakash, Jai; Mittal, Balraj; Srivastava, Apurva; Awasthi, Shally; Srivastava, Pranjal; Srivastava, Neena

    2017-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a very common disorder resulting from an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure, and it has a substantial impact on the development of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the association of INSIG2 (rs7566605) gene polymorphism with obesity and obesity associated phenotypes in North Indian subjects. Methods: The variants were investigated for association in 642 obese and non-obese individuals. The genotyping of INSIG2 (rs7566605) single n...

  3. Characterization of 24-h cortisol release in obese and non-obese hyperandrogenic women.

    Miller, J E; Bray, M A; Faiman, C; Reyes, F I

    1994-12-01

    Excessive androgen output is a well-recognized feature of adrenocortical oversecretion in women with ovarian hyperandrogenism, or polycystic ovary disease (PCOD). However, evidence of a concomitant alteration of cortisol secretion is lacking even though obesity per se, a common clinical feature of PCOD, has been shown to be associated with cortisol oversecretion. To clarify whether a subtle alteration in cortisol secretion exists, a study of 24-h episodic cortisol release and post-prandial cortisol responses was undertaken in eight women with PCOD and eight normal women comprising equal numbers of obese and non-obese subjects. All four groups showed normal biphasic 24-h cortisol secretion profiles but cortisol pulse frequency was increased in the PCOD groups. Independently, both hyperandrogenism and obesity were associated with an accelerated cortisol clearance rate. These changes, together with normal or only slightly elevated 24-h cortisol integrated area under the curve, suggest an increased compensatory cortisol production in women with PCOD. Furthermore, subjects with PCOD and subjects with obesity showed different post-prandial cortisol responses to normal non-obese women. In conclusion, these subtle cortisol abnormalities may be a manifestation of altered central regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and peripheral metabolic abnormalities, and may be linked to the pathophysiology of PCOD.

  4. Core body temperature in obesity123

    Heikens, Marc J; Gorbach, Alexander M; Eden, Henry S; Savastano, David M; Chen, Kong Y; Skarulis, Monica C

    2011-01-01

    Background: A lower core body temperature set point has been suggested to be a factor that could potentially predispose humans to develop obesity. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that obese individuals have lower core temperatures than those in normal-weight individuals. Design: In study 1, nonobese [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) <30] and obese (BMI ≥30) adults swallowed wireless core temperature–sensing capsules, and we measured core temperatures continuously for 24 h. In study 2, normal-weight (BMI of 18–25) and obese subjects swallowed temperature-sensing capsules to measure core temperatures continuously for ≥48 h and kept activity logs. We constructed daily, 24-h core temperature profiles for analysis. Results: Mean (±SE) daily core body temperature did not differ significantly between the 35 nonobese and 46 obese subjects (36.92 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.89 ± 0.03°C; P = 0.44). Core temperature 24-h profiles did not differ significantly between 11 normal-weight and 19 obese subjects (P = 0.274). Women had a mean core body temperature ≈0.23°C greater than that of men (36.99 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.76 ± 0.03°C; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Obesity is not generally associated with a reduced core body temperature. It may be necessary to study individuals with function-altering mutations in core temperature–regulating genes to determine whether differences in the core body temperature set point affect the regulation of human body weight. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00428987 and NCT00266500. PMID:21367952

  5. Challenges in obesity research.

    Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors--often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood--can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Association between obesity and asthma in a twin cohort

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Kyvik, KO

    2007-01-01

    Background: Obesity is linked to asthma in a yet poorly understood manner. We examined the relationship between obesity and asthma in a population-based sample of twins. Methods: From the cohorts born between 1953 and 1982, who were enrolled in The Danish Twin Registry, a total of 29 183 twin ind...... to obesity and asthma were significantly correlated only in females, r = 0.28 (0.16-0.38). Conclusions: Obese subjects have an increased risk for asthma, which in females seems partly because of common genes....

  7. Obesity and kidney disease

    Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity has been pointed out as an important cause of kidney diseases. Due to its close association with diabetes and hypertension, excess weight and obesity are important risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD. Obesity influences CKD development, among other factors, because it predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Excess weight and obesity are associated with hemodynamic, structural and histological renal changes, in addition to metabolic and biochemical alterations that lead to kidney disease. Adipose tissue is dynamic and it is involved in the production of "adipokines", such as leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, transforming growth factor-β and angiotensin-II. A series of events is triggered by obesity, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and hypertension. There is evidence that obesity itself can lead to kidney disease development. Further studies are required to better understand the association between obesity and kidney disease.

  8. Endoscopic Devices for Obesity.

    Sampath, Kartik; Dinani, Amreen M; Rothstein, Richard I

    2016-06-01

    The obesity epidemic, recognized by the World Health Organization in 1997, refers to the rising incidence of obesity worldwide. Lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy are often ineffective long-term solutions; bariatric surgery remains the gold standard for long-term obesity weight loss. Despite the reported benefits, it has been estimated that only 1% of obese patients will undergo surgery. Endoscopic treatment for obesity represents a potential cost-effective, accessible, minimally invasive procedure that can function as a bridge or alternative intervention to bariatric surgery. We review the current endoscopic bariatric devices including space occupying devices, endoscopic gastroplasty, aspiration technology, post-bariatric surgery endoscopic revision, and obesity-related NOTES procedures. Given the diverse devices already FDA approved and in development, we discuss the future directions of endoscopic therapies for obesity.

  9. Obesity and bone.

    Compston, Juliet

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies indicate that fractures in obese postmenopausal women and older men contribute significantly to the overall fracture burden. The effect of obesity is to some extent site-dependent, the risk being increased for some fractures and decreased for others, possibly related to different patterns of falling and the presence or absence of soft tissue padding. Risk factors for fracture in obese individuals appear to be similar to those in the nonobese population, although falls may be particularly important in the obese. There is some evidence that the morbidity associated with fractures in obese individuals is greater than in the nonobese; however, a recent study indicates that the mortality associated with fracture is lower in obese and overweight people than in those of normal weight. The evidence base for strategies to prevent fractures in obese individuals is weak and is an important area for future research.

  10. Childhood obesity affects adult metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

    Liang, Yajun; Hou, Dongqing; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Liang; Hu, Yuehua; Liu, Junting; Cheng, Hong; Yang, Ping; Shan, Xinying; Yan, Yinkun; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Mi, Jie

    2015-09-01

    We seek to observe the association between childhood obesity by different measures and adult obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and diabetes. Thousand two hundred and nine subjects from "Beijing Blood Pressure Cohort Study" were followed 22.9 ± 0.5 years in average from childhood to adulthood. We defined childhood obesity using body mass index (BMI) or left subscapular skinfold (LSSF), and adult obesity as BMI ≥ 28 kg/m(2). MetS was defined according to the joint statement of International Diabetes Federation and American Heart Association with modified waist circumference (≥ 90/85 cm for men/women). Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L or blood glucose 2 h after oral glucose tolerance test ≥ 11.1 mmol/L or currently using blood glucose-lowering agents. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association. The incidence of adult obesity was 13.4, 60.0, 48.3, and 65.1 % for children without obesity, having obesity by BMI only, by LSSF only, and by both, respectively. Compared to children without obesity, children obese by LSSF only or by both had higher risk of diabetes. After controlling for adult obesity, childhood obesity predicted independently long-term risks of diabetes (odds ratio 2.8, 95 % confidence interval 1.2-6.3) or abdominal obesity (2.7, 1.6-4.7) other than MetS as a whole (1.2, 0.6-2.4). Childhood obesity predicts long-term risk of adult diabetes, and the effect is independent of adult obesity. LSSF is better than BMI in predicting adult diabetes.

  11. The impact of obesity on hypertension and diabetes control following healthy Lifestyle Intervention Program in a developing country setting

    Aliakbar Tavassoli

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Our lifestyle interventions did not show any improving effect on HTN or DM control among obese subjects based on different obesity indices. Other lifestyle intervention strategies are suggested.

  12. Obesity, Asthma, and the Microbiome

    Cho, Youngji; Shore, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but standard asthma drugs have reduced efficacy in the obese. Obesity alters the gastrointestinal microbial community structure. This change in structure contributes to some obesity-related conditions and also could be contributing to obesity-related asthma. Although currently unexplored, obesity may also be altering lung microbiota. Understanding the role of microbiota in obesity-related asthma could lead to novel treatments for these patients.

  13. Obesity and associated factors in young adults attending tertiary ...

    aDepartment of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. bDepartment of ... and 20–30% in Malaysia.12,13 ... presumed healthy and are therefore rarely the subjects of obesity.

  14. Sarcopenic obesity and dyslipidemia response to selective exercise ...

    Maged A. Basha

    2015-01-28

    Jan 28, 2015 ... physical therapy approach in treatment of sarcopenic obesity and dyslipidemia after liver transplantation. Subjects .... fasting and were asked to empty their bladders before mea- surements. ..... RA, et al. Continuous low- to.

  15. Saliva of obese patients – is it different?

    Katarzyna Choromańska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health concern that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer. The incidence of obesity has increased significantly in recent years, not only in adults, but also in adolescents and children. This is evidenced by rapidly developing bariatric surgery, the most effective method of treating morbid obesity. Obesity is a multifactorial disease, and its pathogenesis is not completely understood. Numerous studies have been performed to clarify pathogenetic mechanisms, based mostly on blood and sometimes urine samples. Saliva is easily accessible and can be obtained non-invasively. Our aim was to review studies performed on saliva obtained from obese subjects in order to answer the title question.Obese people have different composition of salivary bacteria. Changes in the concentration of sialic acid, phosphorus and peroxidase activity as well as a lower flow rate of stimulated whole saliva promote dental caries and periodontal disease. Concentrations of salivary uric acid, endocannabinoids and CRP are increased in obesity and may provide a useful index of cardiometabolic risk. Assessment of fasting salivary ghrelin might facilitate choosing the best type of bariatric surgery for a specific patient. A significant decrease in salivary cortisol in women with morbid obesity also seems interesting.There is sufficient evidence to state that the saliva of obese and lean subjects is different. Saliva as an easily accessible research material seems promising, as shown by the few studies performed so far.

  16. Obesity, periodontal and general health: Relationship and management

    Parveen Dahiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a multifaceted subject. It has increased at an alarming rate in recent years. Being overweight increases the likelihood of a patient having associated health and social problems which may affect dental services and dental management. A review of the literature on obesity and periodontal disease suggested that they both confound each other and obesity itself has been recognized as a major risk factor for periodontal disease. It has been found that adverse effects of obesity on the periodontium may be mediated through pro-inflammatory cytokines and various other bioactive substances. This article tries to focus on the possible role of obesity and obesity-related diseases like diabetes and coronary heart diseases (CHD, as a potential contributor to periodontal disease and vice versa. The meanings of these associations can be useful for various diagnostic and treatment planning purposes.

  17. Defining Metabolically Healthy Obesity: Role of Dietary and Lifestyle Factors

    Phillips, Catherine M.; Dillon, Christina; Harrington, Janas M.; McCarthy, Vera J. C.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Fitzgerald, Anthony P.; Perry, Ivan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a current lack of consensus on defining metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). Limited data on dietary and lifestyle factors and MHO exist. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence, dietary factors and lifestyle behaviours of metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese and non-obese subjects according to different metabolic health criteria. Method Cross-sectional sample of 1,008 men and 1,039 women aged 45-74 years participated in the study. Participants were classified as obese (BMI ≥30kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI unhealthy subjects was 21.8% to 87%. Calorie intake, dietary macronutrient composition, physical activity, alcohol and smoking behaviours were similar between the metabolically healthy and unhealthy regardless of BMI. Greater compliance with food pyramid recommendations and higher dietary quality were positively associated with metabolic health in obese (OR 1.45-1.53 unadjusted model) and non-obese subjects (OR 1.37-1.39 unadjusted model), respectively. Physical activity was associated with MHO defined by insulin resistance (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.19-2.92, p = 0.006). Conclusion A standard MHO definition is required. Moderate and high levels of physical activity and compliance with food pyramid recommendations increase the likelihood of MHO. Stratification of obese individuals based on their metabolic health phenotype may be important in ascertaining the appropriate therapeutic or intervention strategy. PMID:24146838

  18. Obesity as an Emerging Risk Factor for Iron Deficiency

    Elmar Aigner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron homeostasis is affected by obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance in a many-facetted fashion. On one hand, iron deficiency and anemia are frequent findings in subjects with progressed stages of obesity. This phenomenon has been well studied in obese adolescents, women and subjects undergoing bariatric surgery. On the other hand, hyperferritinemia with normal or mildly elevated transferrin saturation is observed in approximately one-third of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. This constellation has been named the “dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome (DIOS”. Both elevated body iron stores and iron deficiency are detrimental to health and to the course of obesity-related conditions. Iron deficiency and anemia may impair mitochondrial and cellular energy homeostasis and further increase inactivity and fatigue of obese subjects. Obesity-associated inflammation is tightly linked to iron deficiency and involves impaired duodenal iron absorption associated with low expression of duodenal ferroportin (FPN along with elevated hepcidin concentrations. This review summarizes the current understanding of the dysregulation of iron homeostasis in obesity.

  19. Are Dietary Intakes Related to Obesity in Children?

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this study was to report obesity status and identify any dietary substances that may be related to obesity in healthy school children from Northern Greece. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-five (n = 425 children were randomly selected to participate in the study. A 24-h recall of three days (two weekdays and one weekend day was used to analyze the dietary data of the subjects. RESULTS: Out of 425 subjects, 146 (34.3% of them were found to be overweight and obese. Energy, protein, carbohydrate and thiamin intake was statistically positively correlated with obesity while dietary iron intake was statistically negatively correlated with obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the children with dietary iron deficiency were 1.128 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.161 P < 0.031 times more likely of being obese compared to the normal group after adjustment for energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the dietary intakes of our subjects were adequate, special consideration should be given to energy, carbohydrate, protein, and sugar and iron intake especially and its relation to obesity. Furthermore, additional studies are required to investigate any possible relation of low dietary iron consumption and obesity.

  20. Early Effects of a Hypocaloric, Mediterranean Diet on Laboratory Parameters in Obese Individuals

    Greco, Marta; Chiefari, Eusebio; Montalcini, Tiziana; Accattato, Francesca; Costanzo, Francesco S.; Pujia, Arturo; Foti, Daniela; Brunetti, Antonio; Gulletta, Elio

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction is a common strategy for weight loss in obese individuals. However, little is known about the impact of moderate hypocaloric diets on obesity-related laboratory parameters in a short-term period. Aim of this study was to evaluate the variation of laboratory biomarkers in obese individuals following a Mediterranean, hypocaloric (1400–1600 Kcal/die) diet. 23 obese, pharmacologically untreated patients were enrolled and subjected to the determination of anthropometric variabl...

  1. Retinol binding protein 4, obesity, and insulin resistance in adolescents

    Ronaldi Noor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity is a global problem. Even in poor and developing countries, obesity has reached alarming levels. In childhood, obesity may lead to insulin resistance. Retinol binding protein (RBP4, secreted primarily by liver and adipose tissues, was recently proposed as a link between obesity and insulin resistance. The role of RBP4 in pediatric obesity and its relationship with insulin resistance have not been well elucidated. Objective To compare RBP4 levels in obese and lean adolescents and to assess for a relationship between RBP4 levels and insulin resistance. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted in three senior high schools in Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia. Subjects were adolescents aged 14-18 years, who were obese or normal weight (n=56. We measured subjects’ body mass index (BMI and serum RBP4 concentrations. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index. Results Similar RBP4 levels were found in the obese and normoweight groups (P>0.05. Higher RBP4 levels were found in the insulin resistant compared to the non-insulin resistant group, but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05. Conclusion There is no significant difference in mean RBP4 levels in obese adolescents compared to normoweight adolescents. Nor are mean RBP4 levels significantly different between obese adolescents with and without insulin resistance.

  2. [The relationship between sleep and obesity: current perspective].

    Piskáčková, Zlata; Forejt, Martin; Martykánová, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of circadian rhythms negatively affects regulation of metabolism and energy homeostasis. Disrupted metabolism in response to disrupted biological rhythms might lead, together with genetic background, to obesity and to other health complications. Results of epidemiologic surveys are consistent with mechanistic theory showing the interconnection between the biological rhythms, sleep and metabolism. Epidemiologic surveys confirm that sleep duration of less than 6 hours increases significantly the risk of obesity. Systematic reviews of epidemiologic surveys examining association of sleep and obesity refer to large heterogeneity in involved subjects, methodological approaches of measuring obesity and sleep, and confounders. Design of study plays also essential role in interpretation and definition of causal relationship. Reduced sleep duration in relation to obesity is in the literature discussed from different points of view: 1. as a possible primary cause of obesity, 2. as a result of comorbidities resulting from obesity and 3. as an accompanied part of the third factor contributing to obesity (e.g. long working hours, chronic emotional stress, overusing of media). Causal relationship between sleep and obesity is not yet fully elucidated, however the association is supposed to be bidirectional. The article gives an overview of current knowledge concerning the influence of sleep on the development of obesity and points to the critical points of current research.

  3. Psychosocial aspects of obesity.

    Vaidya, Varsha

    2006-01-01

    Obese patients have many physical limitations and much psychiatric burden to overcome. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the obese is similar to those with normal weight. However, in obese patients seeking treatment there is an increased prevalence (40-60%) of psychiatric morbidity, most commonly depression. It is difficult to separate the effects of depression on obesity and, on the contrary, the neuroendocrine changes associated with stress and depression may cause metabolic changes that predispose and perpetuate obesity. The stigma associated with obesity causes bullying in school as well as childhood psychiatric morbidity. Prejudice is not limited to the general public but exists among health professionals too. This chapter discusses the treatment of depression in obesity and the psychiatric evaluation of the pre-bariatric surgery patient. Education of society, starting with schools and including healthcare professionals will reduce bias and stigma as well as assist this vulnerable group of patients to seek help for their obesity and the many problems that come with it. Given that by the year 2025 obesity will be the world's number one health problem with the US leading the way, it is very important that we pursue preventive measures as well as encourage research for treatments of obesity.

  4. Dietary patterns and their associations with general obesity and abdominal obesity among young Chinese women.

    Zhang, J G; Wang, Z H; Wang, H J; Du, W W; Su, C; Zhang, J; Jiang, H R; Zhai, F Y; Zhang, B

    2015-09-01

    Dietary patterns represent the combined effects of foods and efficaciously illustrate the impact of diet on health outcomes. This study identified the dietary patterns and determined their relationships with obesity among young Chinese women. In 2011, the China Health and Nutrition Survey included 2363 young women aged 18-44 years. Factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls identified the dietary patterns. Weight, height and waist circumstance (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. General obesity was defined as BMI ⩾28 kg/m(2) and abdominal obesity as WC ⩾85 cm. Four dietary patterns were identified: traditional south; traditional north; snack; and high protein. After adjusting for confounders and energy intake, women in the highest-score quintiles of the traditional south pattern were less likely to have general obesity (odds ratio (OR)=0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29-0.78) and abdominal obesity (OR=0.64; 95% CI 0.46-0.90). Subjects in the highest-score quintiles of the traditional north pattern had significantly greater risk of general obesity (OR=2.28; 95% CI 1.38-3.74) and of abdominal obesity (OR=2.32; 95% CI 1.66-3.24). The traditional south pattern of rice as the major staple food with pork and vegetable dishes is associated with lower risk of general and abdominal obesity. The traditional north pattern of high intake of wheat, other cereals and tubers is positively associated with general and abdominal obesity. This provides important information for interventions and policies addressing obesity prevention among young Chinese women.

  5. Is obesity a disease?

    Šumarac-Dumanović Mirjana 0000-0002-6216-6650

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a complex entity that can have many causes, such as endocrine (like thyroid dysfunction or hyperfunctioning of the suprarenall gland-Cushing’s syndrome but often obesity is from a combination of inactivity and overeating. On the other side, there are genetic factors that produce a tendency to overweight even with the consumption of what would be for most people an appropriate number of calories. Whether the causes are hormonal, genetic or reside in the brain (its reward system or the circuitry that underlies habit, perception of portion size, the choice of food... is often difficult to sort out. Proponents contend that obesity is a disease because it meets the definition of disease. Obesity decreases life expectancy and impairs the normal body functions, also it can be caused by genetic factors. Opponents contend that obesity is not a disease because it is a preventable risk factor for other diseases. Obesity is the result of eating too much as well as it is caused by exercising too little. Formaly disease or condition obesity is associated with a variety of diseases such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers, and may also be responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality. Understanding the pathophysiology of obesity has grown significantly over the last few decades. Pathogenetic mechanisms in obesity and in the development of comorbidities that accompany obesity exhibit many of the characteristics of inflammatory processes. A key role in the pathogenesis of obesity could play the immune system. Despite identifying many critical players in these processes and finding new therapeutic modalities in the fight against obesity, treatment of obesity is still a great challenge and mostly with not-so-successful outcomes.

  6. Determinants of gallbladder kinetics in obesity

    Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.; van Ierland-van Leeuwen, M. L.; Terpstra, A.

    2004-01-01

    Obese subjects are at risk of developing gallstones both by being overweight and by reducing their body weight. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors related to disturbances in gallbladder emptying measured by ultrasound. Detailed information about weight loss attempts, age at

  7. Brazilian obesity prevention and control initiatives.

    Jaime, P C; da Silva, A C F; Gentil, P C; Claro, R M; Monteiro, C A

    2013-11-01

    Obesity prevalence in the Brazilian adult population is 12.5% among men and 16.9% among women. Obesity control has been a subject of concern in Brazilian health policies since the publication of the National Food and Nutrition Policy in 1999. The initiatives include a comprehensive national intersectorial plan for obesity prevention and control focused on confronting its social and environmental causes, development of a food and nutrition education framework aimed at intersectorial public policies in the food and nutritional security field, promotion and provision of healthy food in school environments (linked to family farming), structuring nutrition actions in primary healthcare in the national healthcare system, promoting community physical activity, food regulation and control, and encouragement of public participation and food control. We conclude that several initiatives have been developed in Brazil to deal with the challenge of implementing an intergovernmental, intersectorial response to reverse the rising overweight and obesity rates. The success of this response will depend on a governance model that promotes joint and integrated action by different sectors and active participation of society to consolidate the actions, places and laws that protect health and promote healthy lifestyles. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  8. Matrix metalloproteinases in exercise and obesity.

    Jaoude, Jonathan; Koh, Yunsuk

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc- and calcium-dependent endoproteinases that have the ability to break down extracellular matrix. The large range of MMPs' functions widens their spectrum of potential role as activators or inhibitors in tissue remodeling, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. In particular, MMP-1, -2, and -9 may be associated with exercise and obesity. Thus, the current study reviewed the effects of different types of exercise (resistance and aerobic) on MMP-1, -2, and -9. Previous studies report that the response of MMP-2 and -9 to resistance exercise is dependent upon the length of exercise training, since long-term resistance exercise training increased both MMP-2 and -9, whereas acute bout of resistance exercise decreased these MMPs. Aerobic exercise produces an inconsistent result on MMPs, although some studies showed a decrease in MMP-1. Obesity is related to a relatively lower level of MMP-9, indicating that an exercise-induced increase in MMP-9 may positively influence obesity. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between exercise, obesity, and MMPs does not exist yet. Future studies examining the acute and chronic responses of these MMPs using different subject models may provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with exercise, obesity, and cardiovascular disease.

  9. The Obesity Paradox and Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    Paul A. McAuley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory fitness as an explanation for the obesity paradox warrants further examination. We evaluated independent and joint associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity with all-cause mortality in 811 middle-aged (age, 53.3±7.2 years male never smokers without documented cardiopulmonary disease or diabetes from the Veterans Exercise Testing Study (VETS. Cardiorespiratory fitness was quantified in metabolic equivalents (METs using final treadmill speed and grade achieved on a maximal exercise test. Subjects were grouped for analysis by METs: unfit (lowest third and fit (upper two-thirds; and by body mass index (kg/m2: nonobese (18.5−29.9 and obese (≥30.0. Associations of baseline fitness and adiposity measures with all-cause mortality were determined by Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusted for age, ethnicity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, family history of coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular medication use. In multivariate analysis, mortality risk for obese/fit men did not differ significantly from the nonobese/fit reference group. However, compared to the reference group, nonobese and obese unfit men were 2.2 (=0.01 and 1.9 (=0.03 times more likely to die, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness altered the obesity paradox such that mortality risk was lower for both obese and nonobese men who were fit.

  10. Obesity prevention in pediatrics: A pilot pediatric resident curriculum intervention on nutrition and obesity education and counseling.

    Gonzalez, Jose L; Gilmer, Loise

    2006-09-01

    Obesity is a highly burdensome public health issue associated with premature death, multiple comorbid disabilities and staggering healthcare costs. Between 1980-2000, the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents nearly tripled. Obesity subjects youth to social stigmatization and discrimination. These economic and personal burdens mandate targeted prevention and detection educational programs for all individuals at risk. The most cost-effective method of approaching this obesity epidemic is through education of health professionals. As part of an "Obesity Prevention in Pediatrics" curriculum, postgraduate-year (PGY)-2 residents first observed and then participated in the dietary evaluation and counseling of pediatric patients and their families. Attitudinal questionnaires, multiple-choice knowledge examinations and a pre-established checklist of desired skills and behaviors provided evaluation of the curriculum's effect on the participants' ability and willingness to manage actually obese or at-risk pediatric patients and their families. Attitudinal survey and knowledge test scores from control PGY-3 residents generally confirmed that their knowledge and counseling skills on obesity prevention and management were well below expectation. Following participation in the curriculum, study residents' knowledge tended to improve, as did their level of comfort in counseling obese and at-risk children, adolescents and their parents. Implementation of an "Obesity Prevention in Pediatrics" curriculum appears to improve participants' knowledge base as well as their skills and level of personal comfort in the recognition, evaluation and management, including counseling, of both obese and at-risk pediatric patients and their families.

  11. Comparison of CAD risk factors in abdominal obesity versus General obesity with normal WC in adult males

    Kamran, S.M.; Iftikhar, R.; Khan, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the presence of coronary artery disease risk factors in patients with abdominal obesity versus generalised obesity and to determine the probability of developing the disease in both groups. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out at the Department of Medicine, Combined Military Hospital, Okara, from January 2012 to April 2013. Using consecutive sampling, 785 outdoor healthy adult males were enrolled. Body mass index >25kg/m/sup 2/ and waist circumference >90cm defined obesity and abdominal obesity respectively. Blood pressure >140/90mmHg defined Hypertension. All the subjects underwent BSF, electrocardiogram, Lipid profile, personality and physical activity assessment. Risk estimation was done using Eric Brittain scoring system. Data was analysed using SPSS 16. Results: In patients with abdominal obesity, 583 (99.2 %) individuals had at least 1 risk factor for coronary artery disease, while in those with generalised obesity this prevalence was 96.5% (n=191). In patients with abdominal obesity, 52.9% had more than 4% risk of developing the disease in the next 6 years compared to 36.9% individuals with generalised obesity. Conclusion: Both increasing body mass index and waist circumference are associated with increased risk of developing coronary artery disease, with significantly higher risk prevalence in the latter group. Moreover, those with abdominal obesity had a higher risk of developing CAD in next 6 years as compared to those with generalised obesity. Thus waist circumference offers additional prognostic information beyond body mass index. (author)

  12. Ceramide content is higher in type I compared to type II fibers in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Kristensen, Ditte Bech; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Larsen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated fiber-type-specific muscle ceramide content in obese subjects and type 2 diabetes patients. Two substudies, one which compared type 2 diabetes patients to both lean- and obese BMI-matched subjects and the other study which compared lean body-matched post-obese, obese......, and control subjects, were performed. A fasting blood sample was obtained and plasma insulin and glucose determined. A muscle biopsy was obtained from deltoideus and vastus lateralis, and fiber-type ceramide content was determined by fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Insulin sensitivity estimated by Quicki...... index was higher in lean compared to type 2 diabetes patients and obese controls. Also in control and post-obese subjects, a higher insulin sensitivity was observed compared to obese subjects. Ceramide content was consistently higher in type I than in type II muscle fibers and higher in deltoideus than...

  13. Intestinal Ralstonia pickettii augments glucose intolerance in obesity

    Udayappan, Shanthadevi D; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Bakker, Guido J

    2017-01-01

    of insulin resistance in obesity. Here, we report that bacterial DNA is present in mesenteric adipose tissue of obese but otherwise healthy human subjects. Pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that DNA from the Gram-negative species Ralstonia was most prevalent. Interestingly, fecal abundance...... had reduced glucose tolerance. In addition, circulating levels of endotoxin were increased in R. pickettii-treated mice. In conclusion, this study suggests that intestinal Ralstonia is increased in obese human subjects with T2DM and reciprocally worsens glucose tolerance in DIO mice....

  14. Alterations of plasma lysophosphatidylcholine species in obesity and weight loss.

    Susanne Heimerl

    Full Text Available Obesity and related diseases of the metabolic syndrome contribute to the major health problems in industrialized countries. Alterations in the metabolism of lipid classes and lipid species may significantly be involved in these metabolic overload diseases. However, little is known about specific lipid species in this syndrome and existing data are contradictive.In this study, we quantified plasma lipid species by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS in obese subjects before and after 3 month weight loss as well as in a control group.The comparison of obese subjects with control subjects before weight loss revealed significantly lower lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC concentrations in obesity. LPC concentrations did not significantly increase during the observed period in the weight loss group. Analysis of LPC species revealed a decrease of most species in obesity and negative correlations with C-reactive protein (CRP and body mass index (BMI. Correlating BMI ratio before and after weight loss with the ratio of total LPC and individual LPC species revealed significant negative relationships of LPC ratios with BMI ratio.Our findings contribute to the contradictive discussion of the role of LPC in obesity and related chronic inflammation strongly supporting pre-existing data in the literature that show a decrease of LPC species in plasma of obese and a potentially anti-inflammatory role in these subjects.

  15. Relationship between heavy drinking, binge drinking, and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Korean male adults

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Obesity and alcohol drinking are associated with metabolic syndrome. However, few studies show the relationship between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome according to varying degrees of obesity. This study aimed to determine the association between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Korean male adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS This cross-sectional study included 5,867 males aged ≥ 20 years who were examined at the Soonchunhyang University health promotion center during June 2008–December 2010. The subjects were divided into non-obese (body mass index [BMI] 14 drinks/week) groups. The subjects were also categorized into binge drinking and non-binge drinking groups. To obtain odds ratios (ORs) for metabolic syndrome, binary logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS The overall metabolic syndrome prevalence was 27.3% (12.8%, non-obese group; 50.4%, obese group). After adjusting for age, physical activity, and smoking, in the non-obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking (reference: nondrinking) was 1.56 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12–2.18), with a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. In the obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking was 1.42 (95% CI = 1.07–1.88), showing a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence (P metabolic syndrome. Thus, both non-obese and obese males should restrict their alcohol intake and not indulge in binge drinking. PMID:29629034

  16. Genetics of Childhood Obesity

    Jianhua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common disorders; indeed there is general consensus on these findings from generally positive replication outcomes by independent groups. To date, there have been only a few GWAS-related reports for childhood obesity specifically, with studies primarily uncovering loci in the adult setting instead. It is clear that a number of loci previously reported from GWAS analyses of adult BMI and/or obesity also play a role in childhood obesity.

  17. Ciliary dysfunction and obesity.

    Mok, C A; Héon, E; Zhen, M

    2010-01-01

    Obesity associates with increased health risks such as heart disease, stroke and diabetes. The steady rise in the obese population worldwide poses an increasing burden on health systems. Genetic factors contribute to the development of obesity, and the elucidation of their physiological functions helps to understand the cause, and improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment for this disorder. Primary cilia are evolutionarily conserved organelles whose dysfunctions lead to human disorders now defined as ciliopathies. Human ciliopathies present pleiotropic and overlapping phenotypes that often include retinal degeneration, cystic renal anomalies and obesity. Increasing evidence implicates an intriguing involvement of cilia in lipid/energy homeostasis. Here we discuss recent studies in support of the key roles of ciliary genes in the development and pathology of obesity in various animal models. Genes affecting ciliary development and function may pose promising candidate underlying genetic factors that contribute to the development of common obesity.

  18. Gastrointestinal Complications of Obesity

    Camilleri, Michael; Malhi, Harmeet; Acosta, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Obesity usually is associated with morbidity related to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are many gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases for which obesity is the direct cause (eg, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) or is a significant risk factor, such as reflux esophagitis and gallstones. When obesity is a risk factor, it may interact with other mechanisms and result in earlier presentation or complicated diseases. There are increased odds ratios or relative risks of several gastrointestinal complications of obesity: gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, erosive gastritis, gastric cancer, diarrhea, colonic diverticular disease, polyps, cancer, liver disease including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstones, acute pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterologists are uniquely poised to participate in the multidisciplinary management of obesity as physicians caring for people with obesity-related diseases, in addition to their expertise in nutrition and endoscopic interventions. PMID:28192107

  19. Obesity and pregnancy

    Andreasen, Kirsten Riis; Andersen, Malene Lundgren; Schantz, Anne Louise

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As obesity is an increasing problem among fertile women, it is crucial that specialists involved in the treatment of these women be aware of the risks of complications and know how to deal with them. Complications associated with obesity in pregnancy are gestational diabetes mellitus......, hypertensive disorders, and thromboembolic complications. Complications associated with obesity in labor are augmentation, early amniotomy, cephalopelvic disproportion, cesarean section, and perioperative morbidity. Complications associated with obesity in children are macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, small...... for gestational age, late fetal death, and congenital malformations, especially neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the potential complications associated with obesity and pregnancy. RESULTS: Obesity is associated with a higher risk of all reviewed complications except small for gestational age....

  20. Predisposition to Obesity

    Olsen, Nanna Julie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2012-01-01

    Obesity prevention should remain a priority, even if there is some suggestion that the epidemic may presently have reached a stable level. However, previous interventions have not been effective in preventing overweight and obesity, and at the same time studies suggest that some subgroups are more...... predisposed to future obesity. The purpose of this paper is to review interventions on obesity prevention published during the past year, and to examine if interventions targeting predisposed groups or individuals seem more efficient in preventing obesity than studies targeting general populations. Among 15...... status. Thus, we may be more successful in preventing obesity when targeting predisposed individuals, but more studies are needed before a firm conclusion can be drawn....

  1. Obesity and asthma

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Diamant, Zuzana; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant impact on asthma incidence and manifestations. The purpose of the review is to discuss recent observations regarding the association between obesity and asthma focusing on underlying mechanisms, clinical presentation, response to therapy and effect...... of weight reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obese patients with asthma may represent a unique phenotype, which is more difficult to control, less responsive to asthma medications and by that may have higher healthcare utilization. A number of common comorbidities...... have been linked to both obesity and asthma, and may, therefore, contribute to the obese-asthma phenotype. Furthermore, recently published studies indicate that even a modest weight reduction can improve clinical manifestations and outcome of asthma. SUMMARY: Compared with normal-weight patients, obese...

  2. Anorexigenic postprandial responses of PYY and GLP1 to slow ice cream consumption: preservation in obese adolescents, but not in obese adults.

    Rigamonti, A E; Agosti, F; Compri, E; Giunta, M; Marazzi, N; Muller, E E; Cella, S G; Sartorio, A

    2013-03-01

    Eating slowly increases the postprandial responses of some anorexigenic gut hormones in healthy lean subjects. As the rate of food intake is positively associated with obesity, the aim of the study was to determine whether eating the same meal at different rates evokes different postprandial anorexigenic responses in obese adolescent and adult subjects. Eighteen obese adolescents and adults were enrolled. A test meal was consumed on two different sessions by each subject, meal duration taking either 5  min (fast feeding) or 30  min (slow feeding). Circulating levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1), peptide YY (PYY), glucose, insulin, and triglycerides were measured over 210  min. Visual analog scales were used to evaluate the subjective feelings of hunger and satiety. fast feeding did not stimulate GLP1 release in obese adolescent and adults, whereas slow feeding increased circulating levels of GLP1 only in obese adolescents. Plasma PYY concentrations increased both in obese adolescents and in adults, irrespective of the eating rate, but slow feeding was more effective in stimulating PYY release in obese adolescents than in adults. simultaneously, slow feeding evoked a higher satiety only in obese adolescents compared with fast feeding but not in obese adults. in obese adolescents, slow feeding decreased hunger (only at 210 min). irrespective of the eating rate, postprandial responses of insulin and triglycerides were higher in obese adults than in obese adolescents. Slow feeding leads to higher concentrations of anorexigenic gut peptides and favors satiety in obese adolescents, but this physiological control of food intake is lost in obese adults.

  3. Peptide YY: a potential therapy for obesity.

    Renshaw, D; Batterham, R L

    2005-03-01

    Obesity now represents a modern epidemic in western society with major health and economic consequences. Unfortunately, previous pharmacological approaches to the treatment of obesity have been associated with life-threatening side effects and limited efficacy. Over recent years there has been a marked increase in our understanding of the physiological mechanisms that regulate body weight and how these are perturbed in obesity. One therapeutic strategy is to develop drugs which both mimic and enhance the body's own satiety signals. The gut hormone peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), which is released postprandially from the gastrointestinal tract, has recently been shown to be a physiological regulator of food intake. Peripheral administration of PYY reduces feeding in rodents via a mechanism which requires the Y2 receptor and is thought to primarily involve modulation of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) circuitry. In humans a single 90-minute infusion of PYY has been shown to markedly reduce subsequent 24-hour caloric intake in lean, normal-weight and obese subjects. Moreover, obese subjects have been found to have low levels of fasting and postprandial PYY suggesting a role for this hormone in the pathogenesis of obesity. Although studies examining the effects of chronic peripheral administration of PYY to humans are awaited, the results from continuous infusion studies in a number of obese rodent models are encouraging with reductions in food intake, body weight and adiposity observed. Potential therapeutic manipulations based on the PYY system include development of Y2 agonists, exogenously administration of PYY or increased endogenous release from the gastrointestinal tract.

  4. High fat diet and in utero exposure to maternal obesity disrupts circadian rhythm and leads to metabolic programming of liver in rat offspring

    The risk of obesity in adulthood is subject to programming beginning at conception. In animal models, exposure to maternal obesity and high fat diets influences the risk of obesity in the offspring. Among other long-term changes, offspring from obese rats develop hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosi...

  5. Pharmacological management of obesity in pediatric patients.

    Boland, Cassie L; Harris, John Brock; Harris, Kira B

    2015-02-01

    To review current evidence of pharmacological options for managing pediatric obesity and provide potential areas for future research. A MEDLINE search (1966 to October 2014) was conducted using the following keywords: exenatide, liraglutide, lorcaserin, metformin, obesity, orlistat, pediatric, phentermine, pramlintide, topiramate, weight loss, and zonisamide. Identified articles were evaluated for inclusion, with priority given to randomized controlled trials with orlistat, metformin, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists, topiramate, and zonisamide in human subjects and articles written in English. References were also reviewed for additional trials. Whereas lifestyle modification is considered first-line therapy for obese pediatric patients, severe obesity may benefit from pharmacotherapy. Orlistat is the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medication for pediatric obesity and reduced body mass index (BMI) by 0.5 to 4 kg/m(2), but gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects may limit use. Metformin has demonstrated BMI reductions of 0.17 to 1.8 kg/m(2), with mild GI adverse effects usually managed with dose titration. Exenatide reduced BMI by 1.1 to 1.7 kg/m(2) and was well-tolerated with mostly transient or mild GI adverse effects. Topiramate and zonisamide reduced weight when used in the treatment of epilepsy. Future studies should examine efficacy and safety of pharmacological agents in addition to lifestyle modifications for pediatric obesity. Lifestyle interventions remain the treatment of choice in pediatric obesity, but concomitant pharmacotherapy may be beneficial in some patients. Orlistat should be considered as second-line therapy for pediatric obesity. Evidence suggests that other diabetes and antiepileptic medications may also provide weight-loss benefits, but safety should be further evaluated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Relationship between bread and obesity.

    Serra-Majem, Luis; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada

    2015-04-01

    Some studies have indicated that promoting the Mediterranean diet pattern as a model of healthy eating may help to prevent weight gain and the development of overweight/obesity. Bread consumption, which has been part of the traditional Mediterranean diet, has continued to decline in Spain and in the rest of the world, because the opinion of the general public is that bread fattens. The present study was conducted to assess whether or not eating patterns that include bread are associated with obesity and excess abdominal adiposity, both in the population at large or in subjects undergoing obesity management. The results of the present review indicate that reducing white bread, but not whole-grain bread, consumption within a Mediterranean-style food pattern setting is associated with lower gains in weight and abdominal fat. It appears that the different composition between whole-grain bread and white bread varies in its effect on body weight and abdominal fat. However, the term 'whole-grain bread' needs to be defined for use in epidemiological studies. Finally, additional studies employing traditional ways of bread production should analyse this effect on body-weight and metabolic regulation.

  7. Oral health and obesity indicators

    Östberg Anna-Lena

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In western Sweden, the aim was to study the associations between oral health variables and total and central adiposity, respectively, and to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors (SES, lifestyle, dental anxiety and co-morbidity. Methods The subjects constituted a randomised sample from the 1992 data collection in the Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden (n = 999, 38- > =78 yrs. The study comprised a clinical and radiographic examination, together with a self-administered questionnaire. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI > =30 kg/m2, waist-hip ratio (WHR > =0.80, and waist circumference >0.88 m. Associations were estimated using logistic regression including adjustments for possible confounders. Results The mean BMI value was 25.96 kg/m2, the mean WHR 0.83, and the mean waist circumference 0.83 m. The number of teeth, the number of restored teeth, xerostomia, dental visiting habits and self-perceived health were associated with both total and central adiposity, independent of age and SES. For instance, there were statistically significant associations between a small number of teeth ( Conclusions Associations were found between oral health and obesity. The choice of obesity measure in oral health studies should be carefully considered.

  8. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Zammit, Christopher; Liddicoat, Helen; Moonsie, Ian; Makker, Himender

    2010-01-01

    Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ produ...

  9. [Obesity and free inquiry].

    Kutnowski, M

    2006-09-01

    The W.H.O. identifies obesity as one of the ten leading health risk factors. Obesity is a worldwide non-infectious pandemic with dramatic consequences, and its usual treatment comes generally to a failure. One may wonder if our therapeutic proposal is adequate, instead of speaking about the lack of willpower of our patients. The explanation of weight gain should not be reduced to a caloric balance. Obese people may have other physiological characteristics than lean ones. Examples are quoted.

  10. Early prevention of obesity

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating...

  11. Neurological Consequences of Obesity

    O’Brien, Phillipe D.; Hinder, Lucy M.; Callaghan, Brian C.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity, primarily a consequence of poor dietary choices and an increased sedentary lifestyle, has become a global pandemic that brings with it enormous medical, social, and economic challenges. Not only does obesity increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers, but it is also recognized as a key driver of other metabolic syndrome (MetS) components. These components include insulin resistance, hyperglycemia with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, and are underlying contributors to systemic metabolic dysfunction. More recently, obesity and diet-induced metabolic dysfunction have been identified as risk factors for the development of a wide variety of neurological disorders in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. An abundance of literature has shown that obesity is associated with mild cognitive impairment and altered hippocampal structure and function, and there is a robust correlation between obesity and Alzheimer’s type dementia. Similarly, many reports show that both the autonomic and somatic components of the peripheral nervous system are impacted by obesity. The autonomic nervous system, under control of the hypothalamus, displays altered catabolic and anabolic processes in obese individuals attributed to sympathetic-parasympathetic imbalances. A close association also exists between obesity and polyneuropathy, a complication most commonly found in prediabetic and diabetic patients, and is likely secondary to a combination of obesity-induced dyslipidemia with hyperglycemia. This review will outline the pathophysiological development of obesity and dyslipidemia, discuss the adverse impact of these conditions on the nervous system, and provide evidence for lipotoxicity and metabolic inflammation as the drivers underlying the neurological consequences of obesity. In addition, this review will examine the benefits of lifestyle and surgical interventions in obesity-induced neurological disorders. PMID

  12. Obesity and Diabetes

    Riobó Serván, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and relative impairment in insulin secretion and its possible long term complications. Its pathogenesis is poorly understood, but both genetic and environmental factors, such as obesity and aging, play a key role. "Diabesity" is a new term which refers to diabetes occurring in the context of obesity. In this article, we will discuss the epidemiology and impact of diabetes and obesity and will also outline the comp...

  13. Current mapping of obesity

    Carmen Pérez Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of women are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced ...

  14. Challenges in obesity research

    Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M. Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors -often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood- can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regard...

  15. The adipose transcriptional response to insulin is determined by obesity, not insulin sensitivity

    Rydén, Mikael; Hrydziuszko, Olga; Mileti, Enrichetta

    2016-01-01

    Metabolically healthy obese subjects display preserved insulin sensitivity and a beneficial white adipose tissue gene expression pattern. However, this observation stems from fasting studies when insulin levels are low. We investigated adipose gene expression by 5'Cap-mRNA sequencing in 17 healthy...... non-obese (NO), 21 insulin-sensitive severely obese (ISO), and 30 insulin-resistant severely obese (IRO) subjects, before and 2 hr into a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. ISO and IRO subjects displayed a clear but globally similar transcriptional response to insulin, which differed from the small...... effects observed in NO subjects. In the obese, 231 genes were altered; 71 were enriched in ISO subjects (e.g., phosphorylation processes), and 52 were enriched in IRO subjects (e.g., cellular stimuli). Common cardio-metabolic risk factors and gender do not influence these findings. This study demonstrates...

  16. Overweight and Obesity Statistics

    ... and resources from NIDDK on obesity, weight control, physical activity, and related topics ... translates and disseminates research findings through its clearinghouses and education programs to ...

  17. DBS for Obesity

    Ruth Franco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic, progressive and prevalent disorder. Morbid obesity, in particular, is associated with numerous comorbidities and early mortality. In patients with morbid obesity, pharmacological and behavioral approaches often have limited results. Bariatric surgery is quite effective but is associated with operative failures and a non-negligible incidence of side effects. In the last decades, deep brain stimulation (DBS has been investigated as a neurosurgical modality to treat various neuropsychiatric disorders. In this article we review the rationale for selecting different brain targets, surgical results and future perspectives for the use of DBS in medically refractory obesity.

  18. Obesity in show cats.

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. DGAT inhibitors for obesity.

    Matsuda, Daisuke; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2007-10-01

    Obesity is characterized by the accumulation of triacylglycerol in adipocytes. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final reaction of triacylgycerol synthesis. Two isozymes of DGAT, DGAT1 and DGAT2, have been reported. Increased DGAT2 activity has a role in steatosis, while DGAT1 plays a role in very (V)LDL synthesis; increased plasma VLDL concentrations may promote obesity and thus DGAT1 is considered a potential therapeutic target of inhibition for obesity control. Several DGAT inhibitors of natural and synthetic origin have been reported, and their future prospect as anti-obesity drugs is discussed in this review.

  20. Obesity and pregnancy

    Andreasen, Kirsten Riis; Andersen, Malene Lundgren; Schantz, Anne Louise

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As obesity is an increasing problem among fertile women, it is crucial that specialists involved in the treatment of these women be aware of the risks of complications and know how to deal with them. Complications associated with obesity in pregnancy are gestational diabetes mellitus...... for gestational age, late fetal death, and congenital malformations, especially neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the potential complications associated with obesity and pregnancy. RESULTS: Obesity is associated with a higher risk of all reviewed complications except small for gestational age....