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Sample records for o1 hale bopp

  1. New methods for deriving cometary secular light curves: C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Maria; Lastra, Nathan; Harrington, Olga; Curtis, Anthony; Wierzchos, Kacper; Ruffini, Nicholas; Charles, Mentzer; Rabson, David; Cox, Timothy; Rivera, Isabel; Micciche, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    We present an algorithm for reducing scatter and increasing precision in a comet light curve. As a demonstration, we processed apparent magnitudes of comet Hale-Bopp from 16 highly experienced observers (archived with the International Comet Quarterly), correcting for distance from Earth and phase angle. Different observers tend to agree on the difference in magnitudes of an object at different distances, but the magnitude reported by observer is shifted relative to that of another for an object at a fixed distance. We estimated the shifts using a self-consistent statistical approach, leading to a sharper light curve and improving the precision of the measured slopes. The final secular lightcurve for comet Hale-Bopp ranges from -7 au (pre-perihelion) to +8 au (post-perihelion) and is the best secular light curve produced to date for this “great” comet. We discuss Hale-Bopp’s lightcurve evolution and possibly related physical implications, and potential usefulness of this light curve for comparisons with other future bright comets. We also assess the appropriateness of using secular lightcurves to characterize dust production rates in Hale-Bopp and other dust-rich comets. M.W. acknowledges support from NSF grant AST-1615917.

  2. Thermal model of water and CO activity of Comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortsas, N.; Kührt, E.; Motschmann, U.; Keller, H. U.

    2011-04-01

    An investigation of the activity of Comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) with a thermophysical nucleus model that does not rely on the existence of amorphous ice is presented. Our approach incorporates recent observations allowing to constrain important parameters that control cometary activity. The model accounts for heat conduction, heat advection, gas diffusion, sublimation, and condensation in a porous ice-dust matrix with moving boundaries. Erosion due to surface sublimation of water ice leads to a moving boundary. The movement of the boundary is modeled by applying a temperature remapping technique which allows us to account for the loss in the internal energy of the eroded surface material. These kind of problems are commonly referred to as Stefan problems. The model takes into account the diurnal rotation of the nucleus and seasonal effects due to the strong obliquity of Hale-Bopp as reported by Jorda et al. (Jorda, L., Rembor, K., Lecacheux, J., Colom, P., Colas, F., Frappa, E., Lara, L.M. [1997]. Earth Moon Planets 77, 167-180). Only bulk sublimation of water and CO ice are considered without further assumptions such as amorphous ices with certain amount of occluded CO gas. Confined and localized activity patterns are investigated following the reports of Lederer and Campins (Lederer, S.M., Campins, H. [2002]. Earth Moon Planets 90, 381-389) about the chemical heterogeneity of Hale-Bopp and of Bockelée-Morvan et al. (Bockelée-Morvan, D., Henry, F., Biver, N., Boissier, J., Colom, P., Crovisier, J., Despois, D., Moreno, R., Wink, J. [2009]. Astron. Astrophys. 505, 825-843) about a strong CO source at a latitude of 20°. The best fit to the observations of Biver et al. (Biver, N. et al. [2002]. Earth Moon Planets 90, 5-14) is obtained with a low thermal conductivity of 0.01 W m -1 K -1. This is in agreement with recent results of the Deep Impact mission to 9P/Tempel 1 (Groussin, O., A'Hearn, M.F., Li, J.-Y., Thomas, P.C., Sunshine, J.M., Lisse, C.M., Meech, K

  3. An Early Investigation Of The Striated Tail Of Comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittichová, J.; Sekanina, Z.; Birkle, K.; Boehnhardt, H.; Engels, D.; Keller, P.

    1997-07-01

    The Sekanina-Farrell particle fragmentation model for the striated tails of dust comets is successfully applied to two images of comet Hale-Bopp to study the motions of 12 striae in a time span of March 12 15, 1997. There is evidence for recurring outbursts with a periodicity of 11h21m, consistent with results based on analysis of dust jets. The ejecta in all the striae appear to have been released from one source on the nucleus between the end of January and the second half of February 1997, some 60 to 40 days before perihelion. The parent particles were subjected to a radiation pressure acceleration of βp ≃ 0.55 and their fragmentation lifetimes in 11 of the 12 striae were practically constant and equal to 13 15 days, when normalized to 1 AU from the Sun. Brief analysis of Watanabe et al.'s measurements of striae on their images from March 5 9, 1997 shows even shorter fragmentation lifetimes for the parent particles, mostly about 7 11 days at1 AU.

  4. Progress in a Study of Striations in the Dust Tail of Comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Z.; Ryan, O.; Boehnhardt, H.; Birkle, K.; Engels, D.; Jaeger, M.; Keller, P.; Raab, H.

    1999-01-01

    We report preliminary results of a massive investigation of the striation patterns observed in the dust tail of comet Hale-Bopp in March and April 1997. Our findings are based on 16 wide-field photographs taken with Schmidt cameras on March 2-20, with six more, from March 31-April 8, still waiting for analysis. Altogether approximately 700 individual striae were examined on the 16 images, which were scanned and computer processed to enhance the morphology. About 5300 stria points, or some 7-8 points per stria per image on the average, were measured and their astrometric positions determined and subsequently converted to a Cartesian coordinate system, aligned with the comet's projected radius vector and centered on the nucleus. The evolution of the striated tail has been studied using the Sekanina-Farrell fragmentation hypothesis (AJ 85, 1538, 1980), previously applied to other comets. This two-step model is characterized by the time of release from the nucleus of a parent object (or objects) whose motion is assumed to have been subjected to a constant repulsive acceleration betap (presumably due to solar radiation pressure) until the time of fragmentation.

  5. ISO's analysis of Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory ISO inspected Comet Hall-Bopp during the spring and autumn of 1996. The need to keep ISO's telescope extremely cold restricts the spacecraft's pointing in relation to the Sun and the Earth and it ruled out observations at other times. The analyses of the 1996 observations are not yet complete, but already they give new insight into the nature of comets. Comet Hale-Bopp is believed to be a large comet with a nucleus up to 40 kilometres wide. It was discovered in July 1995 by two American astronomers working independently, Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp. At that time, the comet was a billion kilometres away from the Sun, but 200 times brighter than Halley's Comet was, when at a comparable distance. Comet Hale-Bopp will make its closest approach to the Earth on 22 March, and its closest approach to the Sun (perihelion) on 1 April 1997. Some scientific results from ISO The discovery of Comet Hale-Bopp occurred before ISO's launch in November 1995. When first observed by ISO in March and April 1996, the comet was still 700 million kilometres from the Sun, and almost as far from the Earth and ISO. With its privileged view of infrared wavebands inaccessible from the Earth's surface, ISO's photometer ISOPHOT discovered that carbon dioxide was an important constituent of the comet's emissions of vapour.ISOPHOT measured the temperature of the dust cloud around Comet Hale-Bopp. In March 1996, when the comet was still more than 700 million kilometres from the Sun, the dust cloud was at minus 120 degrees C. When ISOPHOT made similar observations in October 1996, the comet was 420 million kilometres from the Sun, and the dust cloud had warmed to about minus 50 degrees C. Intensive observations of Comet Hale-Bopp were also made by ISO's Short-Wave Spectrometer SWS, the Long-Wave Spectrometer LWS, and the ISOPHOT spectrometer PHOT-S. Results are due for publication at the end of March. They will give details about the composition

  6. A search for PAHs in the ISO spectra of comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovisier, J.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.

    2007-12-01

    From a new analysis of a spectrum of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), Lisse et al. (2007) claimed the identification of many new dust species. Among them are PAHs, which were not found in our first analysis of the ISO spectra. We present a re-examination of the ISO observations of comet Hale-Bopp, which does not confirm the conclusion of Lisse et al.

  7. Analysis of total visual and ccd v-broadband observation of comet c/1995 o1 (hale-bopp): 1995-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, A. A.; Boczko, R.; Lopes, A. R.; Sanzovo, G. C.

    The wealth of available information on total visual magnitudes and broadband-V CCD observations of the exceptionally bright Comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) proved to be an excellent opportunity to test the Semi-Empirical Method of Visual Magnitudes (de Almeida, Singh & Huebner, 1997) for very bright comets. The main objective is to extend the method to include total visual magnitude observations obtained with CCD detector and V filter in our analysis of total visual magnitudes and obtain a single light curve. We compare the CCD V-broadband careful observations of Liller (1997) by plotting then together with the total visual magnitude observations from experienced visual observers found in the International Comet Quarterly (ICQ) archive. We find a nice agreement despite of the fact that CCDs and V filter passbands detect systematically more coma than visual observers, since they have different responses to C2, which is the main emission from the coma, and consequently they should be used with larger apperture diameters. A data set of ˜400 CCD selected observations covering about the same 5 years time span of the ˜12,000 ICQ total visual magnitude observations were used in the analysis. A least-squares fit to the values yielded a relation for water production rates vs heliocentric distances for the pre- and post-perihelion phases and are converted into gas production rates (in g/s) released by the nucleus. The dimension of the nucleus as well as its effective active area is determined and compared to other works.

  8. Spectrophotometry of Dust in Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Comets, such as Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1), are frozen reservoirs of primitive solar nebula dust grains and ices. Analysis of the composition of cometary dust grains from infrared spectroscopic techniques permits an estimation of the types of organic and inorganic materials that constituted the early primitive solar nebula. In addition, the cometary bombardment of the Earth (approximately 3.5 Gy ago) supplied the water for the oceans and brought organic materials to Earth which may have been biogenic. Spectroscopic observations of comet Hale-Bopp suggest the possible presence of organic hydrocarbon species, silicate and olivine dust grains, and water ice. Spectroscopy near 3 microns obtained in Nov 1996 r=2.393 AU, delta=3.034 AU) shows a feature which we attribute to PAH emission. The spatial morphology of the 3.28 microns PAH feature is also presented. Optical and infrared spectrophotometric observations of comets convey valuable information about the spatial distribution and properties of dust and gas within the inner coma. In the optical and NIR shortward of 2 microns, the observed light is primarily scattered sunlight from the dust grains. At longer wavelengths, particularly in the 10 gm window, thermal emission from these grains dominates the radiation allowing an accurate estimate of grain sizes and chemical composition. Here we present an initial analysis of spectra taken with the NASA HIFOGS at 7-14 microns as part of a multiwavelength temporal study of the "comet of the century".

  9. New Observations of Comet Hale-Bopp from La Silla

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Methanol and Hydrogen Cyanide Detected at Record Distance Observations of famous Comet Hale-Bopp continue with the 15-m Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) at the La Silla Observatory. They show amazingly strong activity of this unusual object, also at the present, very large distance from the Sun. The radio observations document in detail the release of various molecules from the comet's icy nucleus. Of particular interest is the observed emission from methanol ( CH 3 OH ) and hydrogen cyanide ( HCN ) molecules, never before detected in any comet this far away. Comet Hale-Bopp still going strong Just over 18 months after its perihelion passage on April 1, 1997, Comet Hale-Bopp (official designation C/1995 O1 ) is continuing its outward journey through the Solar System. It is now about 1,000 million kilometres (6.7 AU) from the Sun and the Earth, i.e. almost at the same distance as when it was first discovered in July 1995. After having traversed the northern sky in 1996 and 1997, the comet passed the celestial equator in late June 1997 and is now seen in the southern constellation Volans (The Flying Fish), i.e. just east of the Large Magellanic Cloud. It can only be observed from southern latitudes. The comet's brightness has decreased by a factor of more than 10,000 since it was at its brightest in March 1997, just before perihelion. However, the magnitude is still around 9 - 10, or only about 20-40 times fainter than what can be seen with the unaided eye. Hale-Bopp is therefore visible in binoculars to southern observers as a fuzzy object with a diameter of a few arcminutes. New observations from La Silla Several telescopes at La Silla are following the evolution of the activity of Comet Hale-Bopp as it recedes from the Sun. In particular, the comet is observed monthly with SEST , a 15-m diameter submillimetre telescope operated jointly by the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden) and ESO; it is the only

  10. Modeling Coma Gas Jets in Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, S. M.; Campins, H.

    2001-01-01

    We present an analysis of OH, CN, and C2 jets observed in Comet Hale-Bopp. The relative contributions from and composition of the coma gas sources, and the parameters describing the active areas responsible for the gas jets will be discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Measurements of [C I] 9850 A Emission from Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliversen, R. J.; Doane, N.; Scherb, F.; Harris, W. M.; Morgenthaler, J. P.

    2002-01-01

    We present quantitative measurements of cometary [C I] 9850 A, emission obtained during observations of comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) in 1997 March and April. The observations were carried out using a high-resolution (lambda/Delta lambda approx. 40,000) Fabry-Perot/CCD spectrometer at the McMath-Pierce solar telescope on Kitt Peak. This forbidden line, the carbon analog of [O I] 6300 A, is emitted in the radiative decay of C(1D) atoms. In the absence of other sources and sinks, [C I] 9850 A emission may be used as a direct tracer of CO photodissociation in comets. However, in Hale-Bopp's large, dense coma, other processes, such as collisional excitation of ground-state C(3P), dissociative recombination of CO+, and collisional dissociation of CO and CO2 may produce significant amounts of C(1D). The long C(1D) radiative lifetime (approx. 4000 s) makes collisional de-excitation (quenching) the primary loss mechanism in the inner coma. Thus, a detailed, self-consistent global model of collisional and photochemical interactions is necessary to fully account for [C I] 9850 A emission in comet Hale-Bopp.

  12. Rebuttal to “Comment on the paper “Comparison of the composition of the Tempel 1 ejecta to the dust in Comet C/Hale Bopp 1995 O1 and YSO HD 100546” by C.M. Lisse, K.E. Kraemer, J.A. Nuth III, A. Li, and D. Joswiak"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, C. M.

    2008-06-01

    This response is to address the comments made by Drs. J. Crovisier and D. Bockelee-Morvan concerning the spectral analysis of Lisse et al. [Lisse, C.M., Kraemer, K.E., Nuth, J.A., Li, A., Joswiak, D., 2007. Icarus 187, 69-86] of the mid-IR ISO SWS spectrum of Comet Hale-Bopp 1995 O1 taken on October 6, 1996, and to support the conclusions made in Lisse et al. concerning the positive detection of PAHs in this comet. We also present some additional information determined from the Deep Impact and STARDUST missions, demonstrating the presence of PAHs in other comets, to support the plausibility of the Hale-Bopp PAH detection.

  13. Comment on “Comparison of the composition of the Tempel 1 ejecta to the dust in Comet C/Hale Bopp 1995 O1 and YSO HD 100546” by C.M. Lisse, K.E. Kraemer, J.A. Nuth III, A. Li, D. Joswiak [2007. Icarus 187, 69 86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovisier, Jacques; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique

    2008-06-01

    Lisse et al. [Lisse, C.M., Kraemer, K.E., Nuth III, J.A., Li, A., Joswiak, D., 2007. Icarus 187, 69-86] recently presented a new analysis of an ISO spectrum of Comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp), from which they claimed the identification of many new dust species. Among them are PAHs, which were not found in our first analysis of the ISO spectra. We present here a re-examination of the ISO observations of Comet Hale-Bopp. From the absence of PAHs features in the 5.25-8.5 μm region, we infer that PAHs are at least twice less abundant than derived by Lisse et al. The carbonate feature at 7.00 μm is marginally present, but lower by a factor 2 to 3 than predicted by the model of Lisse et al.

  14. Hyakutake, Hale-Bopp and the chemistry of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachiller, R.; Planesas, P.

    1997-01-01

    Comets can be regarded as messengers from the primitive solar system which can provide precious pieces of information on the composition of the protosolar nebula. Physical and chemical phenomena within comets (shock waves, photodissociation caused by solar radiation, some endothermic chemical reactions, etc) are of the highest interest and cannot be reproduced at terrestrial laboratories in many cases. The passage of Hyakutake in 1996 and that of Hale-Bopp in 1997 are allowing remarkable progress in the understanding of the physico-chemistry of comets. Observations of such comets can be crucial in the study of the origin of life on Earth. (Author)

  15. Rocket Detection of Argon in Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S. A.; Festou, M. C.; Parker, J. Wm.; Slater, D. C.; Gladstone, G. R.; A'Hearn, M. F.

    1998-12-01

    The EUVS planetary sounding rocket spectrograph was flown on 30.2 March 1997 (UT) from White Sands, New Mexico to observe comet Hale-Bopp in the bandpass from 830--1120 A. At the time of launch the comet was near perihelion, 0.915 AU from the Sun, 1.340 AU from Earth, and traveling at a heliocentric radial velocity of +0.70 km/s. EUVS obtained its primary spectra of the comet at resolution near 12 A, collecting 9340 counts over approximately 330 seconds of integration time. To our knowledge, the resulting dataset is both the most sensitive and the highest spectral resolution probe of a comet in the UV below 1200 A as yet achieved, and contains signatures of both the 1048.2 A and 1066.7 A Ar I resonance lines. These features represent the first-ever detections of any noble gas in a comet. The spectrum also includes significant detections which we tentatively attribute to due to 834 A 0 II, 972 A Lyman gamma, 989 A O I, the 1026 A H I Lyman beta/O I. We will discuss the Ar features, retrieve the Ar column in the coma, and discuss the implications of the total Ar/O abundance ratio in Hale-Bopp for the comet's origin.

  16. The 830--1120 A Spectrum of a Bright Comet: First Results on Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S. Alan; Festou, Michel C.; Slater, David C.; Parker, Joel Wm.; A'Hearn, Michael F.

    1998-09-01

    The EUVS planetary sounding rocket spectrograph was flown on 29 March 1997 from White Sands, New Mexico to observe comet Hale-Bopp in the bandpass from 830--1120 Angstroms. At the time of launch the comet was near perihelion, 0.92 AU from the Sun, 1.34 AU from Earth, and traveling at a heliocentric radial velocity of +0.70 km/s. EUVS obtained its primary spectra of the comet at resolution near 3 Angstroms, collecting 9340 counts over approximately 330 seconds of integration time. To our knowledge, the resulting dataset is both the most sensitive and the highest spectral resolution probe of a comet in the UV below 1200 Angstroms yet achieved. The spectrum includes significant detections which we tentatively attribute to due to 834 Angstroms 0 II, the 1026 Angstroms H I Lyman beta /O I blend, and 989 Angstroms O I; we will also discuss evidence for Argon signatures, as well as two additional, yet to be identified features. We will describe the EUVS Hale-Bopp experiment and its results, including feature brightnesses, corresponding columns, and species abundance ratios in the inner coma. In addition to its value for providing insight into comets in general, and Hale-Bopp in particular, this spectrum is serving as an excellent input for New Millennium Deep Space 1/MICAS and Rosetta/ALICE UV observation planning below 1200 Angstroms.

  17. Modeling the Dynamics of Comet Hale-Bopp's Dust at Large Heliocentric Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Emily A.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Kelley, M. S.; Woodney, L. M.; Lisse, C. M.

    2010-10-01

    Comet Hale-Bopp has provided an unprecedented opportunity to observe a bright comet over a wide range of heliocentric distances. We present here Spitzer Space Telescope observations of Hale-Bopp from 2005 and 2008 that show a distinct coma and tail, which is uncommon given its heliocentric distance -- 21.6 AU and 27.2 AU, respectively. These 24 um images (obtained with MIPS, the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer) show thermal emission from the dust, and are being studied using dynamical models [1, 2] to explain the dust morphology and constrain the dust's properties. Preliminary work suggests that the motion of the dust cannot be solely due to the effects of gravity and radiation pressure. We investigate the role of other possible driving forces, including the so-called rocket force [3]. Our initial analysis also shows that: (1) there is no trail lying along the orbit plane, as Spitzer saw for many other comets [4]; (2) the position angle of the tail changed by about 50º between 2005 and 2008; (3) the faintness and shape of the tail in 2008 compared to 2005 cannot solely be due to the change in observing geometry. These points suggest that even though Hale-Bopp is far from the Sun its tail is made of relatively recently-released grains. Our science goals are to understand the comet's activity mechanism, constrain the age of the dust, find the size of the grains, and compare properties of the dust seen now to those of the dust seen in the 1990s. We acknowledge support from the NSF, NASA and the Spitzer Science Center for this work. References: [1] Kelley, M.S., et al.  2008, Icarus 193, 572, [2] Lisse, C.M., et al. 1998, ApJ 496, 971, [3] Reach, W.T., et al. 2009, Icarus 203, 571, [4] Reach, W.T., et al. 2007, Icarus 191, 298.

  18. Morfología de la Coma del Cometa Hale - Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Caballero, M.; Coldwell, G.; Cañada, M.; Godoy, G.; Trozzo, C.; Gómez, G.

    Para lograr comprender plenamente los procesos físicos que se desarrollan en los núcleos cometarios y obtener un modelo que explique, no sólo su actividad, sino también sus efectos sobre la coma, es necesario obtener información detallada para el mayor número de cometas posible, siendo las características más interesantes para estudiar la ubicación de las regiones activas, la presencia de jets, las tasas de producción de gas y polvo y la interacción de la coma con el viento solar. En la actualidad, con técnicas de procesamiento de imágenes y tecnología CCD se pueden obtener este tipo de datos para cometas que ingresan al sistema solar interior y estudiar, de esta manera, la morfología de sus comas, tratando de correlacionar la actividad detectada con algún modelo teórico. En este trabajo se presenta un estudio parcial de la actividad desarrollada por el cometa Hale-Bopp, y sus efectos sobre la morfología de su coma, desde agosto de 1995 hasta la fecha en base a imágenes adquiridas con el telescopio de 0.76 m. de la Estación Astronómica Dr. Carlos Ulrrico Cesco.

  19. An Investigation of Comet Hale-Bopp at 21.6 and 27.2 AU from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Emily A.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Kelley, M. S.; Woodney, L. M.; Lisse, C. M.

    2010-05-01

    Comet Hale-Bopp offered us an unprecedented opportunity to observe a large, bright comet in great detail. Since its 1997 perihelion, continued observations have let us observe how its activity has changed over time. Here we present 2005 and 2008 Spitzer Space Telescope observations of Hale-Bopp that show coma and tail, which is uncommon given its heliocentric distance -- 21.6 AU in 2005 and 27.2 AU in 2008. We have images at 24 µm (obtained with MIPS, the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer) that show thermal emission from the dust, and we are using dynamical models [1,2] to explain the dust morphology and constrain the dust's properties. Preliminary work suggests that the motion of the dust cannot be solely due to the effects of gravity and radiation pressure, which generally are the dominant forces. We investigate the role of other possible driving forces such as the so-called rocket force [3]. Our science goals are to: understand the comet's activity mechanism, constrain the age of the dust, find the size of the grains, and compare properties of the dust we see now to those of the dust seen in the 1990s. Our overarching goal is to use Hale-Bopp and other distant, active comets to understand cometary activity and the structure of cometary nuclei, which is related to icy planetesimal formation and evolution. We acknowledge support from the NSF, NASA and the Spitzer Science Center for this work. References: [1] Kelley, M.S., et al. 2008, Icarus 193, 572, [2] Lisse, C.M., et al. 1998, ApJ 496, 971, [3] Reach, W.T., et al. 2009, Icarus 203, 571.

  20. Coma Morphology Due to an Extended Active Region and Implications for the Spin State of Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasinha, Nalin H.

    2000-01-01

    We show that the circular character of continuum structures observed in the coma of comet Hale-Bopp around the perihelion passage is most likely due to a dust jet from a large extended active region on the surface. Coma morphology due to a wide jet is different from that due to a narrow jet. The latter shows foreshortening effects due to observing geometry, wider jet produces more circular features. This circularization effect provides a self-consistent explanation for the evolution of near-perihelion coma morphology. No changes in the direction of the rotational angular momentum vector are required during this period in contrast to the models of Schleicher et al. This circularization effect also enables us to produce near-circular coma features in the S-E quadrant during 1997 late February and therefore questions the basic premise on which Sekanina bases his morphological arguments for a gravitationally bound satellite nucleus.

  1. ESA's Rosetta mission and the puzzles that Hale-Bopp left behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The scientific payload was confirmed by ESA's Science Programme Committee in February. Now the scientists must perfect the full range of ultra-sensitive yet spaceworthy instruments in good time for Rosetta's despatch by an Ariane 5 launcher in January 2003. And even as most of the world was admiring Comet Hale-Bopp at its brightest, dedicated astronomers were examining the comet that will be Rosetta's target. Although too faint to be seen with the naked eye, Comet Wirtanen made its closest approach to the Sun on 14 March and a fairly close approach to the Earth on 24 March. This comet comes back every 5.5 years. Rosetta will dance attendance on Comet Wirtanen, not at the next return in 2002, nor even in 2008, but in 2013. The project is an ambitious and patient effort to achieve the most thorough investigation of a comet ever attempted. As the successor to ESA's highly successful Giotto mission to Halley's Comet and Comet Grigg-Skjellerup (which took seven years) Rosetta will spend eight years positioning itself. It will manoeuvre around the planets until it is shadowing Comet Wirtanen far beyond Mars, on nearly the same path around the Sun. In 2011 it will rendezvous with the comet and fly near it. In April 2012 Rosetta will go into a near orbit around Comet Wirtanen, and escort it for 17 busy months, as it flies in to make its closest approach to the Sun in September 2013, at the climax of the mission. "The Giotto mission placed us at the forefront of cometary exploration," comments Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "The motivation came from European scientists with a sharp sense of the special importance of comets for understanding the Solar System. The same enthusiasm drives us onward to Rosetta, which will ensure our continued leadership in this important branch of space science." Scientific tasks During its prolonged operations in very close company with the comet's nucleus, Rosetta will map and examine its entire surface from distances of 10 to 50

  2. Comparison of the Composition of the Tempel 1 Ejecta to the Dust in Comet C/Hale-Bopp 1995 O1 and YSO HD 100546

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    but that tinder closer ex- centrifugal forces exceeding the shear strength of the nuclear amination they also have significant differences. We then...Comet HB relationship (or lack thereof) between the parent silicates and coma, and the HD nebula are qualitatively similar. How- daughter carbonate

  3. The Hale Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Katti

    2012-01-01

    Ohio State University's (OSU) Frank W. Hale Jr. Black Cultural Center is a rarity in academia, as was its namesake. When OSU named its standout Black cultural center after the civil rights activist, professor and vice provost who championed such a place, it was commemorating what Dr. Frank W. Hale Jr. stood for. He promoted academic rigor, those…

  4. The haling principle-true or false?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, S.X.; Kropaczek, D.J.; Turinsky, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Haling principle has long been viewed as an idealized control strategy for maximizing thermal margin over the operating cycle of a nuclear reactor core. In essence, the Haling principle states that the time-dependent power distribution that minimizes power peaking over the cycle is that power distribution which remains invariant throughout cycle. Applicable but not strictly limited to boiling water reactor (BWR) operation, maintaining a constant power Haling distribution through manipulation of control materials should, in theory, yield an optimum beyond which further reductions in thermal margin remain unachievable, given a particular arrangement of fuel inventory

  5. BOPP revisited. A study on the toxicity, biodistribution and convection enhanced delivery of BOPP in the 9L intracerebral rat glioma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahl, S.B.; Koo, M.-S.; Ozawa, T.; Afzal, J.; Lamborn, K.R.; Deen, D.F.; Bollen, A.W.; Bauer, W.F.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the toxicity and boron biodistribution of the boronated porphyrin BOPP when administered by either intravenous or convection enhanced delivery (CED). For the toxicity study, Fischer 344 rats were injected with graded concentrations of BOPP into the tail vein. For boron biodistribution studies, 9L tumor-bearing rats received BOPP either systematically or by CED. When given i.v. BOPP showed unacceptable toxicity in normal rats receiving doses of ≥60 mg/kg. In contrast, tumor bearing rats receiving BOPP by CED showed no evidence of toxic effects whatsoever. In the biodistribution study, the maximum tumor boron concentration was ∼21 μ/g at 48 h after i.v. injection, at which time the tumor/blood ratio was ∼1.2. Neither of these values is optimal. However, when BOPP was delivered directly into intracerebral tumors with CED, we obtained tumor boron concentrations much greater than those obtained by i.v. injection. For example, convection enhanced delivery of 1.5 mg BOPP produced an average tumor boron level of 519 μg/g and a tumor/blood ratio of ∼1850:1. Tumor/brain ratios of ∼9:1 (ipsilateral) and ∼41:1 (contralateral) were also found at this dose. We conclude that changing the method of BOPP delivery from i.v. to CED significantly enhances the boron concentration in tumors and produces very favorable tumor/blood and tumor/brain ratios with no concomittant systemic toxicity. (author)

  6. Twisting and Writhing with George Ellery Hale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Richard C.

    2013-06-01

    Early in his productive career in astronomy, George Ellery Hale developed innovative solar instrumentation that allowed him to make narrow-band images. Among the solar phenomena he discovered were sunspot vortices, which he attributed to storms akin to cyclones in our own atmosphere. Using the concept of magnetic helicity, physicists and mathematicians describe the topology of magnetic fields, including twisting and writhing. Our contemporary understanding of Hale's vortices as a consequence of large-scale twist in sunspot magnetic fields hinges on a key property of helicity: conservation. I will describe the critical role that this property plays, when applied to twist and writhe, in a fundamental aspect of global solar magnetism: the hemispheric and solar cycle dependences of active region electric currents with respect to magnetic fields. With the advent of unbroken sequences of high-resolution magnetic images, such as those presently available from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on Solar Dynamics Observatory, the flux of magnetic helicity through the photosphere can be observed quantitatively. As magnetic flux tubes buoy up through the convection zone, buffeted and shredded by turbulence, they break up into fragments by repeated random bifurcation. We track these rising flux fragments in the photosphere, and calculate the flux of energy and magnetic helicity there. Using a quantitative model of coronal currents, we also track connections between these fragments to calculate the energy and magnetic helicity stored at topological interfaces that are in some ways analogous to the storage of stress at faults in the Earth's crust. Comparison of these values to solar flares and interplanetary coronal mass ejections implies that this is the primary storage mechanism for energy and magnetic helicity released in those phenomena, and suggests a useful tool for quantitative prediction of geomagnetic storms.

  7. Boronated protoporphyrin (BOPP): localization in lysosomes of the human glioma cell line SF-767 with uptake modulated by lipoprotein levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, Daniel E.; Forte, Trudy M.; Javed Afzal, S.M.; Deen, Dennis F.; Kahl, Stephen B.; Bjornstad, Kathleen A.; Bauer, William F.; Blakely, Eleanor A.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Boronated protoporphyrin (BOPP) is a candidate for use in both boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Our objectives are to identify factors that influence the uptake and retention of BOPP in vitro and to determine BOPP distribution in a human glioma cell line in vitro. This information will aid the development of compounds and treatment strategies that increase the effectiveness of BNCT therapy for GBM. Methods and Materials: The amount, distribution pattern, and site of internalization of BOPP were assessed using fluorescence microscopy. Living human glioma (SF-767) cells were imaged after a 24-h exposure to BOPP (20-135.6 μg/ml, normal serum). Dose-dependent uptake of BOPP was determined using both fluorescence microscopy of individual living cells and inductively-coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of cell pellets. Lysosome- or mitochondria-specific fluorescent probes were used to identify the cellular compartment containing BOPP. Two human fibroblast cell lines, AG-1522 (LDL receptor-positive) and GM019-15C (LDL receptor-deficient), were used to investigate LDL receptor-dependent BOPP uptake. The dependence of BOPP uptake on lipoproteins in the media was determined by exposing each of the three cell types to BOPP in medium containing either normal (NS) or lipoprotein deficient serum (LPDS). Results: BOPP accumulated in the lysosomes of human glioma cells in vitro, and not in the mitochondria, as reported for C6 rat glioma cells in vitro. BOPP uptake was concentration-dependent and was also dependent on the amount of lipoproteins in the medium. Over the range of incubation concentrations studied and at the single exposure duration time point investigated (24 h), all cells retained a similar amount of BOPP. At the lowest incubation concentration (20 μg/ml, NS), the amount of boron retained was near 10 9 atoms per cell (15 μg B/g cells). Lysosomes containing high

  8. Bopp-Podolsky black holes and the no-hair theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzinatto, R. R.; de Melo, C. A. M.; Medeiros, L. G.; Pimentel, B. M.; Pompeia, P. J.

    2018-01-01

    Bopp-Podolsky electrodynamics is generalized to curved space-times. The equations of motion are written for the case of static spherically symmetric black holes and their exterior solutions are analyzed using Bekenstein's method. It is shown that the solutions split up into two parts, namely a non-homogeneous (asymptotically massless) regime and a homogeneous (asymptotically massive) sector which is null outside the event horizon. In addition, in the simplest approach to Bopp-Podolsky black holes, the non-homogeneous solutions are found to be Maxwell's solutions leading to a Reissner-Nordström black hole. It is also demonstrated that the only exterior solution consistent with the weak and null energy conditions is the Maxwell one. Thus, in the light of the energy conditions, it is concluded that only Maxwell modes propagate outside the horizon and, therefore, the no-hair theorem is satisfied in the case of Bopp-Podolsky fields in spherically symmetric space-times.

  9. Sarah J. Hale High School-Project SABER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Harold

    Project SABER, which operated in Sarah J. Hale High School in South Brooklyn, New York, consisted of bilingual instructional and supportive services to 9th and 10th grade Spanish language students. Students received bilingual instruction in social studies, science, math, and Spanish. All the SABER students received English as a second language…

  10. Toxicity, biodistribution, and convection-enhanced delivery of the boronated porphyrin BOPP in the 9L intracerebral rat glioma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Tomoko; Afzal, Javed; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Bollen, Andrew W.; Bauer, William F.; Koo, Myoung-Seo; Kahl, Stephen B.; Deen, Dennis F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the toxicity, biodistribution, and convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of a boronated porphyrin (BOPP) that was designed for boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy. Methods and Materials: For the toxicity study, Fischer 344 rats were injected with graded concentrations of BOPP (35-100 mg/kg) into the tail vein. For boron biodistribution studies, 9L tumor-bearing rats received BOPP either systematically (intravenously) or locally. Results: All rats that received 70 mg/kg BOPP and 70% of rats that received ≤60 mg/kg BOPP i.v. either had to be euthanized or died within 4 days of injection. In the biodistribution study, boron levels were relatively high in liver, kidney, spleen, and adrenal gland tissue, and moderate levels were found in all other organs. The maximum tumor boron concentration was 21.4 μg/g at 48 h after i.v. injection; this concentration of boron in brain tumors is at the low end of the range considered optimal for therapy. In addition, the tumor/blood ratio (approximately 1.2) was not optimal. When BOPP was delivered directly into intracerebral 9L tumors with CED, we obtained tumor boron concentrations much greater than those obtained by i.v. injection. Convection-enhanced delivery of 1.5 mg BOPP produced an average tumor boron level of 519 μg/g and a tumor/blood ratio of approximately 1850:1. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that changing the method of BOPP delivery from i.v. to CED significantly enhances the boron concentration in tumors and produces very favorable tumor/brain and tumor/blood ratios

  11. Bopp-Podolsky black holes and the no-hair theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuzinatto, R.R. [McGill University, Department of Physics, Montreal, QC (Canada); Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Melo, C.A.M. de [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, L.G. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Escola de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Natal, RN (Brazil); Pimentel, B.M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pompeia, P.J. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Departamento de Fisica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2018-01-15

    Bopp-Podolsky electrodynamics is generalized to curved space-times. The equations of motion are written for the case of static spherically symmetric black holes and their exterior solutions are analyzed using Bekenstein's method. It is shown that the solutions split up into two parts, namely a non-homogeneous (asymptotically massless) regime and a homogeneous (asymptotically massive) sector which is null outside the event horizon. In addition, in the simplest approach to Bopp-Podolsky black holes, the non-homogeneous solutions are found to be Maxwell's solutions leading to a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. It is also demonstrated that the only exterior solution consistent with the weak and null energy conditions is the Maxwell one. Thus, in the light of the energy conditions, it is concluded that only Maxwell modes propagate outside the horizon and, therefore, the no-hair theorem is satisfied in the case of Bopp-Podolsky fields in spherically symmetric space-times. (orig.)

  12. HALE UAS Concept of Operations. Version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This document is a system level Concept of Operations (CONOPS) from the perspective of future High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) service providers and National Airspace System (NAS) users. It describes current systems (existing UAS), describes HALE UAS functions and operations to be performed (via sample missions), and offers insight into the user s environment (i.e., the UAS as a system of systems). It is intended to be a source document for NAS UAS operational requirements, and provides a construct for government agencies to use in guiding their regulatory decisions, architecture requirements, and investment strategies. Although it does not describe the technical capabilities of a specific HALE UAS system (which do, and will vary widely), it is intended to aid in requirements capture and to be used as input to the functional requirements and analysis process. The document provides a basis for development of functional requirements and operational guidelines to achieve unrestricted access into the NAS. This document is an FY06 update to the FY05 Access 5 Project-approved Concept of Operations document previously published in the Public Domain on the Access 5 open website. This version is recommended to be approved for public release also. The updates are a reorganization of materials from the previous version with the addition of an updated set of operational requirements, inclusion of sample mission scenarios, and identification of roles and responsibilities of interfaces within flight phases.

  13. Microfibrillated cellulose and borax as mechanical, O₂-barrier, and surface-modulating agents of pullulan biocomposite coatings on BOPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Carlo A; Campanella, Gaetano; Türe, Hasan; Olsson, Richard T; Farris, Stefano

    2016-06-05

    Multifunctional composite coatings on bi-oriented polypropylene (BOPP) films were obtained using borax and microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) added to the main pullulan coating polymer. Spectroscopy analyses suggested that a first type of interaction occurred via hydrogen bonding between the C6OH group of pullulan and the hydroxyl groups of boric acid, while monodiol and didiol complexation represented a second mechanism. The deposition of the coatings yielded an increase in the elastic modulus of the entire plastic substrate (from ∼2GPa of the neat BOPP to ∼3.1GPa of the P/B+/MFC-coated BOPP). The addition of MFC yielded a decrease of both static and kinetic coefficients of friction of approximately 22% and 25%, respectively, as compared to the neat BOPP. All composite coatings dramatically increased the oxygen barrier performance of BOPP, especially under dry conditions. The deposition of the high hydrophilic coatings allowed to obtain highly wettable surfaces (water contact angle of ∼18°). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Seismological evidence of the Hales discontinuity in northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Aakash; Bora, Dipok K.; Borah, Kajaljyoti; Madhab Borgohain, Jayanta

    2018-04-01

    The crust and upper mantle shear wave velocity structure beneath the northeast India is estimated by joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocity and receiver function, calculated from teleseismic earthquakes data recorded at nine broadband seismic stations. The Assam valley and the Shillong-Mikir plateau are the two important tectonic blocks in the northeast India, which are surrounded by the Himalayan collision zone in the north, Indo-Burma subduction zone in the east and by the Bengal basin in the south. The joint inversion followed by forward modeling reveal crustal thicknesses of 30-34 km beneath the Shillong plateau, 36 km beneath the Mikir hills and 38-40 km beneath the Assam valley with an average shear wave velocity (Vs) of 3.4-3.5 km/s. The estimated low upper mantle shear wave velocity (Vsn) 4.2-4.3 km/s may be due to the rock composition or grain size or increased temperature and partial melt (<1%) in the upper mantle, or an effect of all. Also, we report for the first time, the existence of the Hales discontinuity at depths 56-74 km with Vs ∼4.4-4.6 km/s. Variable depth of the Hales discontinuity may be explained by the geotherm and/or addition of Cr3+ and Fe2+ in the spinel-garnet system.

  15. Application of Nanofibrillated Cellulose on BOPP/LDPE Film as Oxygen Barrier and Antimicrobial Coating Based on Cold Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of nanofibrillated cellulose (NC films in packaging industry has been hindered by its lack of heat-sealing ability. Incorporation of NC films with the biaxially oriented polypropylene/low density polyethylene (BOPP/LDPE laminates can take advantage of each material and endow the films with novel functions for food packaging applications. In this study, a coating that consists of NC and nisin was applied onto a cold plasma treated BOPP/LDPE film to fabricate a novel active packaging with an improved oxygen barrier performance and an added antimicrobial effect. The results showed that cold plasma treatment improved the surface hydrophilicity of BOPP/LDPE films for better attachment of the coatings. NC coatings significantly enhanced oxygen barrier property of the BOPP/LDPE film, with an oxygen transmission rate as low as 24.02 cc/m2·day as compared to that of the non-coated one (67.03 cc/m2·day. The addition of nisin in the coating at a concentration of 5 mg/g caused no significant change in barrier properties but imparted the film excellent antimicrobial properties, with a growth inhibition of L. monocytogenes by 94%. All films exhibit satisfying mechanical properties and transparency, and this new film has the potential to be used as antimicrobial and oxygen barrier packaging.

  16. Hot embossing holographic images in BOPP shrink films through large-area roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Menglin; Lin, Shiwei, E-mail: linsw@hainu.edu.cn; Jiang, Wenkai; Pan, Nengqian

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • High-quality holographic images were replicated in large-area shrink film. • Surface morphology evolution was analyzed in films embossed at different temperatures. • Optical, mechanical, and thermal characteristics were systematically analyzed. - Abstract: Diffraction grating-based holographic images have been successfully replicated in biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) shrink films through large-area roll-to-roll nanoimprint technique. Such hot embossing of holographic images on BOPP films represents a promising means of creating novel security features in packaging applications. The major limitation of the high-quality replication is the relatively large thermal shrinkage of BOPP shrink film. However, although an appropriate shrinkage is demanded after embossing, over-shrinking not only causes distortion in embossed images, but also reduces the various properties of BOPP shrink films mainly due to the disappearance of orientation. The effects of embossing temperature on the mechanical, thermal and optical properties as well as polymer surface morphologies were systematically analyzed. The results show that the optimal process parameters are listed as follows: the embossing temperature at 104–110 °C, embossing force 6 kg/cm{sup 2} and film speed 32 m/min. The variation in flow behavior of polymer surface during hot embossing process is highly dependent on the temperature. In addition, the adhesion from the direct contact between the rubber press roller and polymer surfaces is suggested to cause the serious optical properties failure.

  17. Application of the boron neutron capture therapy to undifferentiated thyroid cancer using two boron compounds (BPA and BOPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viaggi, Mabel; Dagrosa, Maria A.; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario A.; Longhino, Juan M.; Blaumann, Hernan R.; Calzetta Larrieu, Osvaldo A.; Kahl, Stephen B.

    2004-01-01

    We have shown the selective uptake of boronophenylalanine (BPA) by undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UTC) human cell line ARO, both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, a 50% histologic cure of mice bearing the tumor was observed when the complete boron neutron capture therapy was applied. More recently we have analyzed the biodistribution of BOPP (tetrakis-carborane carboxylate ester of 2,4-bis-(ba-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX) and showed that when BOPP was injected 5 days before BPA, and the animals were sacrificed 60 min after the ip injection of BPA, a significant increase in boron uptake by the tumor was found (38-45ppm with both compounds Vs. 20 ppm with BPA alone). Five days post the ip BOPP injection and 1 hr after BPA, the ratios were: tumor/blood 3,75; tumor /distal skin 2. Other important ratios were tumor/thyroid 6,65 and tumor/lung 3,8. The present studies were performed in mice transplanted with ARO cells and injected with BOPP and BPA. Only in mice treated with the neutron beam and injected with the boronated compounds we observed a 100% control of tumor growth. Two groups of mice received different total absorbed doses: 3.00 and 6.01 Gy, but no further improvement in the outcome was found compared to the previous results using BPA alone (4.3 Gy). (author)

  18. History of Solar Magnetic Fields Since George Ellery Hale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenflo, J. O.

    2017-09-01

    As my own work on the Sun's magnetic field started exactly 50 years ago at Crimea in the USSR, I have been a participant in the field during nearly half the time span since Hale's discovery in 1908 of magnetic fields in sunspots. The present historical account is accompanied by photos from my personal slide collection, which show a number of the leading personalities who advanced the field in different areas: measurement techniques, from photographic to photoelectric and imaging methods in spectro-polarimetry; theoretical foundations of MHD and the origin of cosmic magnetic fields (birth of dynamo theory); the quest for increased angular resolution from national projects to international consortia (for instruments both on ground and in space); introduction of the Hanle effect in astrophysics and the Second Solar Spectrum as its playground; small-scale nature of the field, the fundamental resolution limit, and transcending it by resolution-independent diagnostics.

  19. Comparative Study of Wing Lift Distribution Analysis for High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmaned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silitonga, Faber Y.; Agoes Moelyadi, M.

    2018-04-01

    The development of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has been emerged for both civil and military purposes. Its ability of operating in high altitude with long endurance is important in supporting maritime applications.Preliminary analysis of HALE UAV lift distribution of the wing presented to give decisive consideration for its early development. Ensuring that the generated lift is enough to compensate its own weight. Therotical approach using Pradtl’s non-linear lifting line theory will be compared with modern numerical approach using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Results of wing lift distribution calculated from both methods will be compared to study the reliability of it. HALE UAV ITB has high aspect ratio wing and will be analyze at cruise flight condition. The result indicates difference between Non-linear Lifting Line and CFD method.

  20. RE-EXAMINING SUNSPOT TILT ANGLE TO INCLUDE ANTI-HALE STATISTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClintock, B. H.; Norton, A. A.; Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    Sunspot groups and bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs) serve as an observational diagnostic of the solar cycle. We use Debrecen Photohelographic Data (DPD) from 1974-2014 that determined sunspot tilt angles from daily white light observations, and data provided by Li and Ulrich that determined sunspot magnetic tilt angle using Mount Wilson magnetograms from 1974-2012. The magnetograms allowed for BMR tilt angles that were anti-Hale in configuration, so tilt values ranged from 0 to 360° rather than the more common ±90°. We explore the visual representation of magnetic tilt angles on a traditional butterfly diagram by plotting the mean area-weighted latitude of umbral activity in each bipolar sunspot group, including tilt information. The large scatter of tilt angles over the course of a single cycle and hemisphere prevents Joy's law from being visually identified in the tilt-butterfly diagram without further binning. The average latitude of anti-Hale regions does not differ from the average latitude of all regions in both hemispheres. The distribution of anti-Hale sunspot tilt angles are broadly distributed between 0 and 360° with a weak preference for east-west alignment 180° from their expected Joy's law angle. The anti-Hale sunspots display a log-normal size distribution similar to that of all sunspots, indicating no preferred size for anti-Hale sunspots. We report that 8.4% ± 0.8% of all bipolar sunspot regions are misclassified as Hale in traditional catalogs. This percentage is slightly higher for groups within 5° of the equator due to the misalignment of the magnetic and heliographic equators

  1. RE-EXAMINING SUNSPOT TILT ANGLE TO INCLUDE ANTI-HALE STATISTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClintock, B. H. [University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, 4350 (Australia); Norton, A. A. [HEPL, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Li, J., E-mail: u1049686@umail.usq.edu.au, E-mail: aanorton@stanford.edu, E-mail: jli@igpp.ucla.edu [Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    Sunspot groups and bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs) serve as an observational diagnostic of the solar cycle. We use Debrecen Photohelographic Data (DPD) from 1974-2014 that determined sunspot tilt angles from daily white light observations, and data provided by Li and Ulrich that determined sunspot magnetic tilt angle using Mount Wilson magnetograms from 1974-2012. The magnetograms allowed for BMR tilt angles that were anti-Hale in configuration, so tilt values ranged from 0 to 360° rather than the more common ±90°. We explore the visual representation of magnetic tilt angles on a traditional butterfly diagram by plotting the mean area-weighted latitude of umbral activity in each bipolar sunspot group, including tilt information. The large scatter of tilt angles over the course of a single cycle and hemisphere prevents Joy's law from being visually identified in the tilt-butterfly diagram without further binning. The average latitude of anti-Hale regions does not differ from the average latitude of all regions in both hemispheres. The distribution of anti-Hale sunspot tilt angles are broadly distributed between 0 and 360° with a weak preference for east-west alignment 180° from their expected Joy's law angle. The anti-Hale sunspots display a log-normal size distribution similar to that of all sunspots, indicating no preferred size for anti-Hale sunspots. We report that 8.4% ± 0.8% of all bipolar sunspot regions are misclassified as Hale in traditional catalogs. This percentage is slightly higher for groups within 5° of the equator due to the misalignment of the magnetic and heliographic equators.

  2. Aaron Douglas and Hale Woodruff: African American Art Education, Gallery Work, and Expanded Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bey, Sharif

    2011-01-01

    This analysis of archival materials discovered at Fisk and Atlanta Universities examines the teaching careers of Aaron Douglas and Hale Woodruff, two African American artists who came to prominence during the New Negro Movement in the 1920s and taught at historically Black universities in the 1930s and 1940s. These artists had a profound influence…

  3. Set Matching: An Enhancement of the Hales-Jewett Pairing Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiterwijk, JWHM; Winands, Mark; van den Herik, H. Jaap; Kosters, Walter

    2017-01-01

    When solving k-in-a-Row games, the Hales-Jewett pairing strategy [4] is a well-known strategy to prove that specic positions are (at most) a draw. It requires two empty squares per possible winning line (group) to be marked, i.e., with a coverage ratio of 2.0. In this paper we present a new

  4. CBO Testimony: Statement of Robert F. Hale, Assistant Director, National Security Division, Congressional Budget Office

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hale, Robert F

    1991-01-01

    .... This testimony, by Robert F. Hale, Congressional Budget Office, covers the following topics: Socioeconomic Backgrounds of Enlisted Recruits, Racial Mix of Enlisted Recruits, Shifts in Recruiting during the 1980s, Altering the Composition of the Military: Reserve Mobilization and Conscription, and Should the Social Composition of the Military be a Concern?

  5. Gust load estimation and rejection with application to robust flight control design for HALE aircraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) aircraft have garnered increased interest in recent years as they can serve several purposes, including many of the objectives of...

  6. Optimal Sizing of a Photovoltaic-Hydrogen Power System for HALE Aircraft by means of Particle Swarm Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Victor M. Sanchez; Romeli Barbosa; J. C. Cruz; F. Chan; J. Hernandez

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been a growing interest in the research of feasibility to use high altitude long endurance (HALE) aircrafts in order to provide mobile communications. The use of HALEs for telecommunication networks has the potential to deliver a wide range of communication services (from high-quality voice to high-definition videos, as well as high-data-rate wireless channels) cost effectively. One of the main challenges of this technology is to design its power supply system, ...

  7. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Regional consortium activity in its 2nd year (Development of 6-axis Hale machining system); 1999 nendo 6 jiku koseido hale kako system no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    To enhance precision in the machining of complicated shapes and to save labor during the finishing process, research and development is carried out about a Hale machining system based on machining with a non-rotating tool. A tentatively constructed 6-axis Hale machine is tested, and then the intended level of surface coarseness is attained. In relation with machining technologies, a Hale machining tool is modified and provided with a diamond-like carbon coating, and then it is found that this will prolong the tool life. An instrument is developed which measures and evaluates the 6-axis Hale machine operating locus. In relation with CAD/CAM (computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing), propositions over the draft for the ISO14649 international standard involving CAM/NC (numerical control) are collected and put together. As for 5-axis machining using the conventional ball-posed end mill, it is concluded that it will be feasible. In relation with NC, an NC unit for the tentatively constructed 6-axis Hale machine is completed, and is evaluated in an actual operation test aboard a real machine. (NEDO)

  8. Optimal Sizing of a Photovoltaic-Hydrogen Power System for HALE Aircraft by means of Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Sanchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade there has been a growing interest in the research of feasibility to use high altitude long endurance (HALE aircrafts in order to provide mobile communications. The use of HALEs for telecommunication networks has the potential to deliver a wide range of communication services (from high-quality voice to high-definition videos, as well as high-data-rate wireless channels cost effectively. One of the main challenges of this technology is to design its power supply system, which must provide the enough energy for long time flights in a reliable way. In this paper a photovoltaic/hydrogen system is proposed as power system for a HALE aircraft due its high power density characteristic. In order to obtain the optimal sizing for photovoltaic/hydrogen system a particle swarm optimizer (PSO is used. As a case study, theoretical design of the photovoltaic/hydrogen power system for three different HALE aircrafts located at 18° latitude is presented. At this latitude, the range of solar radiation intensity was from 310 to 450 Wh/sq·m/day. The results obtained show that the photovoltaic/hydrogen systems calculated by PSO can operate during one year with efficacies ranging between 45.82% and 47.81%. The obtained sizing result ensures that the photovoltaic/hydrogen system supplies adequate energy for HALE aircrafts.

  9. Comparative study of two boron compounds (BPA and BOPP) for the application of BNCT to an animal model of undifferentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, Maria A.; Viaggi, Mabel; Juvenal, Guillermo; Pisarev, Mario A.

    2003-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the selective uptake of certain boron compounds by tumors. Once the uptake, relative to normal tissues, is equal of greater than 3, the tumoral area is irradiated with an appropriate neutron beam. The 10 B is then converted into 11 B and this decays releasing an atom of Li, gamma rays and alpha particles. These latter have a high linear energy transfer (LET) and will cause local damage, eventually killing the tumoral cells. At the present time several clinical trials are being conducted in different countries to treat patients with glioblastoma multiform and melanomas. So far the results obtained, specially with this last disease, are quite encouraging. Undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UTC) is a very aggressive tumor which does not respond to the therapies available at the present. Usually it has a very bad prognosis with a very short survival period. We have previously shown that the human UTC cell line ARO has an uptake of borophenylanine (BPA) significantly greater than normal thyroid or than human follicular adenoma cells in culture. Moreover, an animal model for UTC was developed in our laboratory by transplanting the human ARO cells into nude mice. This model closely resembles the evolution of human disease and even produces lung metastasis, like the human. In the present studies we have compared the uptake of two boron compounds: BPA and boronated porphyrin (BOPP). BPA was administered via ip in a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight, while BOPP was given either ip or iv, in doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The animals were sacrificed at different times after the injection: up to 150 min for BPA and after 24 h with BOPP. The concentration of boron was determined by ICP-AES. The results obtained showed that the uptake of BPA was significantly greater in the tumoral area and in the infiltrated surrounding skin than in the other organs examined (liver, kidney, lung, mice thyroid, blood, spleen and distal skin

  10. Comparison of three different dietary scores in relation to 10-year mortality in elderly European subjects: the HALE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoops, K.T.B.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Fidanza, F.; Alberti-Fidanza, A.; Kromhout, D.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and compare the associations between dietary patterns and mortality using different European indexes of overall dietary quality. Design, Setting and Participants: The HALE (Healthy Ageing: a Longitudinal study in Europe) population includes 2068 men and 1049 women, aged

  11. Comparison of three different dietary scores in relation to 10-year mortality in elderly European subjects: the HALE project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoops, K T B; Groot, L C de; Fidanza, F; Alberti-Fidanza, A; Kromhout, Daan; Staveren, W A van

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare the associations between dietary patterns and mortality using different European indexes of overall dietary quality. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The HALE (Healthy Ageing: a Longitudinal study in Europe) population includes 2,068 men and 1,049 women, aged

  12. HALE UAS Command and Control Communications: Step 1 - Functional Requirements Document. Version 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) unmanned aircraft system (UAS) communicates with an off-board pilot-in-command in all flight phases via the C2 data link, making it a critical component for the UA to fly in the NAS safely and routinely. This is a new requirement in current FAA communications planning and monitoring processes. This document provides a set of comprehensive C2 communications functional requirements and performance guidelines to help facilitate the future FAA certification process for civil UAS to operate in the NAS. The objective of the guidelines is to provide the ability to validate the functional requirements and in future be used to develop performance-level requirements.

  13. Functional Requirements Document for HALE UAS Operations in the NAS: Step 1. Version 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this Functional Requirements Document (FRD) is to compile the functional requirements needed to achieve the Access 5 Vision of "operating High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) routinely, safely, and reliably in the national airspace system (NAS)" for Step 1. These functional requirements could support the development of a minimum set of policies, procedures and standards by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and various standards organizations. It is envisioned that this comprehensive body of work will enable the FAA to establish and approve regulations to govern safe operation of UAS in the NAS on a routine or daily "file and fly" basis. The approach used to derive the functional requirements found within this FRD was to decompose the operational requirements and objectives identified within the Access 5 Concept of Operations (CONOPS) into the functions needed to routinely and safely operate a HALE UAS in the NAS. As a result, four major functional areas evolved to enable routine and safe UAS operations for an on-demand basis in the NAS. These four major functions are: Aviate, Navigate, Communicate, and Avoid Hazards. All of the functional requirements within this document can be directly traceable to one of these four major functions. Some functions, however, are traceable to several, or even all, of these four major functions. These cross-cutting functional requirements support the "Command / Control: function as well as the "Manage Contingencies" function. The requirements associated to these high-level functions and all of their supporting low-level functions are addressed in subsequent sections of this document.

  14. ‘Imi Hale – The Native Hawaiian Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training Network: Second-Year Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Kathryn L.; Tsark, JoAnn; Ann Santos, Lorrie; Abrigo, Lehua

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe ‘Imi Hale, a program developed and managed by Native Hawaiians to increase cancer awareness and research capacity among Native Hawaiians. This US subgroup of indigenous people of the Hawaiian islands has disproportionately high rates of cancer mortality and low rates of participation in health and research careers. Methods As a community-based research project, ‘Imi Hale spent its first year gathering data from Native Hawaiians about their cancer awareness and research priorities. These findings guide ‘Imi Hale’s community and scientific advisors, a community-based Institutional Review Board, Na Liko Noelo (budding researchers), and staff in developing and carrying out projects that address these priority areas. Emphasis is placed on transferring skills and resources to Native Hawaiians through training, technical assistance, and mentorship. A biennial survey assesses the extent to which community-based participatory research principles are being followed. Principal Findings By the end of the second year, statewide and island-specific awareness plans were produced, and 9 funded awareness projects are supporting the development and dissemination of Hawaiian health education materials. Research accomplishments include the enrollment of 42 Native Hawaiian Na Liko Noelo (budding researchers), 22 of which are involved in 14 funded research projects. The biennial evaluation survey found that 92% of our advisors felt that ‘Imi Hale was promoting scientifically rigorous research that was culturally appropriate and respectful of Native Hawaiian beliefs, and 96% felt that ‘Imi Hale was following its own principles of community-based participatory research. Conclusion ‘Imi Hale’s community-based approach to promoting cancer awareness will result in a sustainable infrastructure for reducing the cancer burden on Native Hawaiians. PMID:15352771

  15. PALM-3000: EXOPLANET ADAPTIVE OPTICS FOR THE 5 m HALE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekany, Richard; Bouchez, Antonin; Baranec, Christoph; Hale, David; Zolkower, Jeffry; Henning, John; Croner, Ernest; McKenna, Dan; Hildebrandt, Sergi; Milburn, Jennifer [Caltech Optical Observatories, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 11-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Roberts, Jennifer; Burruss, Rick; Truong, Tuan; Guiwits, Stephen; Angione, John; Trinh, Thang; Shelton, J. Christopher; Palmer, Dean; Troy, Mitchell; Tesch, Jonathan, E-mail: rgd@astro.caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    We describe and report first results from PALM-3000, the second-generation astronomical adaptive optics (AO) facility for the 5.1 m Hale telescope at Palomar Observatory. PALM-3000 has been engineered for high-contrast imaging and emission spectroscopy of brown dwarfs and large planetary mass bodies at near-infrared wavelengths around bright stars, but also supports general natural guide star use to V ≈ 17. Using its unique 66 × 66 actuator deformable mirror, PALM-3000 has thus far demonstrated residual wavefront errors of 141 nm rms under ∼1'' seeing conditions. PALM-3000 can provide phase conjugation correction over a 6.''4 × 6.''4 working region at λ = 2.2 μm, or full electric field (amplitude and phase) correction over approximately one-half of this field. With optimized back-end instrumentation, PALM-3000 is designed to enable 10{sup –7} contrast at 1'' angular separation, including post-observation speckle suppression processing. While continued optimization of the AO system is ongoing, we have already successfully commissioned five back-end instruments and begun a major exoplanet characterization survey, Project 1640.

  16. An Analysis of the Heroine of North and South---Margaret Hale as an Independent Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mrs. Gaskell is a very important woman writer in the 19th century in Britain, and she is famous for her social novels, in which she highlights complicated social conflicts. North and South is usually considered as the turning point of Mrs. Gaskell’s literary creation, in which she suggests for the first time that there should be a hope of a reconciliation between the working class and the bourgeoisie. Also, the author vividly depicted an independent woman with a sharp mind and a deliberate manner in the book, that is, Margaret Hale. She seems to be very special when compared with the women around her and very attractive to men for her peculiar thoughts as well as her beautiful looks. This thesis mainly analyzes the attractive heroine of the novel in three aspects: her independent character, her independent action and her independent thoughts. What’s more, the thesis aims to shed light on the characteristics a “New Woman” should be endowed with. The heroine, to some extent, is the author Mrs. Gaskell herself, rejecting inferiority to men and defending the rights to express themselves freely. All in all, this thesis tries to enlighten people on woman’s position in today’s society by deriving some inspirations from the literary work.

  17. Mineral Composition, Total Phenol Content and Antioxidant Activity of a Macrolichen Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr. Hale (Parmeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Prashith Kekuda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated for the first time mineral composition, total phenol content and antioxidant activity of a foliose macrolichen Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr. Hale (Parmeliaceae from Bhadra wildlife sanctuary, Karnataka, India. Mineral content of the lichen was estimated by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer after acid digestion. The secondary metabolites were detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC and phytochemical assays. The lichen material was extracted with methanol in soxhlet apparatus. Total phenol content was estimated by folin ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH, Ferric reducing and metal chelating assays. Among the principal elements, calcium was found in high concentration followed by magnesium, potassium and phosphorus. Among trace elements, iron was detected in high amount followed by zinc, manganese and copper. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be dose dependent with an IC50 of 6.73 μg/mL. In ferric reducing assay, the absorbance increased with the concentration of extract suggesting reducing power. The extract exhibited good metal chelating activity with an IC50 value of 29.28 μg/mL. Total phenol content was 101.2 mg tannic acid equivalents per gram of extract. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. TLC revealed atranorin, salazinic acid and protolichesterinic acid. The lichen can be consumed as a source of minerals required for the body as appreciable amount of minerals has been detected. The marked antioxidant activity may be attributed to the presence of phenol content in the extract. Further studies on isolation of metabolites and their bioactivities are under investigation.

  18. OBTAINING A PERMIT-TO-FLY FOR A HALE-UAV IN BELGIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Everaerts

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ever since 2000, VITO has been working on the Pegasus project. This involves a solar High Altitude Long Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (HALE-UAV as a stratospheric platform for Earth Observation. This aircraft, called Mercator, is designed to fly for prolonged duration at altitudes up to 20 km. The technology has been proven by the aircraft’s manufacturer, QinetiQ (UK by a series of test flights over the past years, culminating in a world record flight in duration of over 14 days duration. All test flights, however, were conducted in test ranges, where other air traffic does not pose a concern. Pegasus aims to demonstrate the viability of stratospheric Earth Observation in Belgium, as a proof of concept for other areas around the world. The Belgian air space is completely different from a test range. More than 1 million aircraft movements take place over Belgium and Luxembourg every year, with routes to Amsterdam, Paris, Frankfurt, and London. Although Pegasus will usually be flying above this dense traffic, it does interfere with it during ascent and landing, and needs to be monitored during the cruise phase for safety reasons. Air traffic management in Belgium is a shared responsibility of Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs Belgocontrol (civil, ATCC (military and Eurocontrol MUAC (high altitude. In 2010, VITO applied for a permit-to-fly for a test flight of one day duration. Although the Belgian Civil Aviation Authority (CAA had issued a regulation on UAVs in 2007, it was the first application for a permit to fly in controlled airspace. The Belgian CAA decided to use it as a test for the procedures as well. A prerequisite for flying in controlled airspace was that the aircraft has to carry a mode-S transponder and navigation lights. During first half of 2010, the ANSPs collaborated on a Temporary Operations Instruction and studied the safety impact of this flight on their operations. As an outcome, they decided that the Pegasus

  19. A rule-based expert system for control rod pattern of boiling water reactors by hovering around haling exposure shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, P.-W.; Lin, L.-S.; Yang, J.-T.

    2004-01-01

    Feasible strategies for automatic BWR control rod pattern generation have been implemented in a rule-based expert system. These strategies are majorly based on a concept for which exposure distributions are hovering around the Haling exposure distribution through a cycle while radial and axial power distributions are dominantly controlled by some abstracted factors indicating the desired distributions. The system can either automatically generate expert-level control rod patterns or search for criteria-satisfied patterns originated from user's input. It has successfully been demonstrated by generating control rod patterns for the the 1775 MWth Chinshan plant in Unit I Cycle 13 alternate loading pattern and Unit 2 Cycle 8 but with longer cycle length. All rod patterns for two cycles result in all-rod-out at EOC and no violation against the four criteria. The demonstrations show that the system is considerably good in choosing initial trial rod patterns and adjusting rod patterns to satisfy the design criteria. (author)

  20. Stephen Hales: the contributions of an Enlightenment physiologist to the study of the kidney in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2016-02-01

    Stephen Hales (1677-1761) was an English clergyman who made major contributions to a wide range of scientific topics such as botany, chemistry, pneumatics, and physiology. Early in his career he developed a keen interest in medicine through his association with his younger physician friend at Cambridge, William Stukeley (1687-1765), with whom he dissected animals and attended experiments in the laboratory of Isaac Newton. His fame as a scientist grew and by the end of his life he had achieved an international reputation as a major scientist of the Enlightenment. He is best known for his 1733 Statical Essays, in the second part of which he describes his studies in animal physiology. Most famous amongst those are his assessments of the force of the blood, which he measured in horses and dogs. Less well known and often unrecognized are his studies on the kidney in health and disease, which are the focus of this review. Amongst others Hales described the effects of hemorrhagic shock which he observed as he bled his animals while measuring their blood pressure; he then studied the effect of increasing saline perfusion pressures on the renal secretion of urine; and delved into biochemistry in exploring the composition of and solutions to dissolve bladder stones. His 1733 statement in the introduction to his hemodynamic studies that the healthy State of the Animal principally consists, in the maintaining of a due Equilibrium between the body solids and fluids literally predicts the milieu intrieur that would ultimately be formulated in 1854 by Claude Bernard (1813-1878).

  1. Escape of O(3P), O(1D), and O(1S) from the Martian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jane L.; Hać, Aleksander B.

    2018-01-01

    We have computed here the escape probabilities, fluxes and rates for hot O atoms that are initially produced in the ground state and the first two excited metastable states, O(1D)and O(1S), in the Martian thermosphere by dissociative recombination of O2+. In order to compare our results with those of our previous calculations and with those of others, we have employed here the pre-MAVEN models that we have used previously. To compute the escape probabilities, we have employed the Monte Carlo escape code that has been described previously, but we here use for the first time energy-dependent elastic cross sections for collisions of the energetic O atoms with each of the twelve background species in our model. We also incorporate three mechanisms that interchange identities of the O(3P) and O(1D) atoms, including collisional excitation of O(3P) to O(1D), quenching of O(1D) to O(3P), and excitation exchange of O(1D) with O(3P). We find that the escape probabilities of O atoms that are produced initially as O(1D) are reduced compared to those in which these processes are not included, but the escape probabilities of O atoms that are initially produced as O(3P) are not significantly reduced. As a guide for our future research and those of other investigators, we review here what is known about the interactions of O atoms with other species in which the energies of the O atoms are altered, and several other sources of hot and escaping O, many of which have been suggested by other investigators. We will incorporate these data in a future MAVEN-like model.

  2. A Spitzer IRS Study of Comets 71P/Clark and C/2004 B1 (LINEAR): Water, Carbonates, PAHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Charles E.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Kelley, M. S.; Wooden, D. H.

    2009-01-01

    Production rates of volatiles are used to quantify cometary activity and to measure volatile abundances. Water is the dominant ice in cometary nuclei and its sublimation governs the activity of comets at heliocentric distances, Lisse et al. 2007, Icarus 187, 69 as reviewed by Crovisier and Bockelee-Morvan 2008, Icarus 195, 938) for comets 9P/Tempel 1 and C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). Support for this work provided in part by NASA through contracts 1263741, 1256406, and 1215746 issued by JPL/Caltech to the University of Minnesota, and the National Science Foundation grant AST-0706980.

  3. Bioindication of heavy metal pollution in the area of Southeastern Serbia by using epiphytic lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L. Hale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović, T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The content and distribution of 21 metals in the central and peripheral parts of the foliose epiphytic lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L. Hale, collected in the area of Southeastern Serbia, were analysed in terms of biological monitoring. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry revealed higher concentrations of As, B, Ba, Cd, Ga, Pb, Se, Cr, Cu, Fe, In, Li and/or Ni in peripheral, younger, parts and Ba, K, Tl, Mg, Na and/or Zn in central, older parts of lichens. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to identify the relationship among metals in samples and their possible sources. Significant correlations were found among Ni-Cr, Cd-Ga-In-As-Se, Zn-Ba, Cu-Pb-B, suggesting a common source of pollution. Given the location of sampling, these findings probably reflect airborne metal pollution in relation to the main wind directions and vicinity of the roads and industrial complexes. The importance of this study is the evidence that the Special Nature Reserve Jelašnička Gorge is influenced by pollution sources in the area. Flavoparmelia caperata could be effective as an early indicator of environmental changes of the studied area.

  4. Fix 40!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Ansambel Fix peab 13. detsembril Tallinnas Saku Suurhallis oma 40. sünnipäeva. Kontserdi erikülaline on ansambel Apelsin, kaastegevad Jassi Zahharov ja HaleBopp Singers. Õhtut juhib Tarmo Leinatamm

  5. Infrared Observations of Cometary Dust and Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey

    2004-01-01

    This bibliography lists citations for publications published under the grant. Subjects of the publications include cometary dust, instellar and interplanetary dust, comet nuclei and comae, Comet Hale-Bopp, infrared observations of comets, mass loss, and comet break-up.

  6. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and develop......Summary Background Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research...... birth defects, and skin, oral, and sense organ diseases) either increased or remained unchanged, leading to increases in their relative ranking in many geographies. From 2005 to 2015, HALE at birth increased by an average of 2·9 years (95% uncertainty interval 2·9–3·0) for men and 3·5 years (3...

  7. Comparative Mineralogy of Comets and Exo-Systems Using the Deep Impact Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey M.

    2006-09-01

    We have used the infrared mineralogical model derived from the Spitzer IRS observations of the Deep Impact experiment to study the nature of the dust in the cometary systems 9P/Tempel 1 (Lisse et al. 2006), C/Hale-Bopp 1995 O1 (Crovisier et al. 1997), 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 (Sitko et al. 2007), and 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 (Stansberry et al. 2004), the YSO HD100546 (Malfait et al. 1998), and the debris disk found around the K0V star HD69830 (Beichman et al. 2005). The comets show common emission signatures due to silicates, carbonates, water ice, amorphous carbon, and sulfides. There are differences - unlike Tempel 1, no Fe-rich olivines or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are found in Hale-Bopp, while HD100546 is lacking in carbonates and phyllosilicates but does demonstrate a huge PAH feature. The dust from SW1 and SW3 is much less crystalline, 30%, and does not show strong evidence for phyllosilicates. Located beyond the ice line, SW1 and Hale-Bopp emitted copious amounts of water ice, SW3 at 1.47 AU emitted only water gas. The material around HD100546 appears to be very fresh, rich in PAHs and amorphous silicates; that incorporated into Hale-Bopp, SW1, and SW3 to be middle aged; and that incorporated into Tempel 1 to be mature. Lacking in carbonaceous and ferrous materials but including small, icy, ephemeral grains, the composition of the HD 69830 dust resembles that of a disrupted P or D-type asteroid. The amount of mass responsible for the observed emission is the equivalent of a 6 km radius, 2500 kg m-3 sphere, while the effective temperature of the dust implies that the bulk of the observed material is at 0.5 AU from the central source, between the second and third Neptune-sized planets. The ephemeral nature of the dust implies that ongoing collisional fragmentation is occurring.

  8. NoxO1 Controls Proliferation of Colon Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Moll

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available AimReactive oxygen species (ROS produced by enzymes of the NADPH oxidase family serve as second messengers for cellular signaling. Processes such as differentiation and proliferation are regulated by NADPH oxidases. In the intestine, due to the exceedingly fast and constant renewal of the epithelium both processes have to be highly controlled and balanced. Nox1 is the major NADPH oxidase expressed in the gut, and its function is regulated by cytosolic subunits such as NoxO1. We hypothesize that the NoxO1-controlled activity of Nox1 contributes to a proper epithelial homeostasis and renewal in the gut.ResultsNoxO1 is highly expressed in the colon. Knockout of NoxO1 reduces the production of superoxide in colon crypts and is not subsidized by an elevated expression of its homolog p47phox. Knockout of NoxO1 increases the proliferative capacity and prevents apoptosis of colon epithelial cells. In mouse models of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis and azoxymethane/DSS induced colon cancer, NoxO1 has a protective role and may influence the population of natural killer cells.ConclusionNoxO1 affects colon epithelium homeostasis and prevents inflammation.

  9. Comparative genome analysis of non-toxigenic non-O1 versus toxigenic O1 Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Munmun; Kakarla, Prathusha; Kumar, Sanath; Gonzalez, Esmeralda; Floyd, Jared T.; Inupakutika, Madhuri; Devireddy, Amith Reddy; Tirrell, Selena R.; Bruns, Merissa; He, Guixin; Lindquist, Ingrid E.; Sundararajan, Anitha; Schilkey, Faye D.; Mudge, Joann; Varela, Manuel F.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae are responsible for endemic and pandemic outbreaks of the disease cholera. The complete toxigenic mechanisms underlying virulence in Vibrio strains are poorly understood. The hypothesis of this work was that virulent versus non-virulent strains of V. cholerae harbor distinctive genomic elements that encode virulence. The purpose of this study was to elucidate genomic differences between the O1 serotypes and non-O1 V. cholerae PS15, a non-toxigenic strain, in order to identify novel genes potentially responsible for virulence. In this study, we compared the whole genome of the non-O1 PS15 strain to the whole genomes of toxigenic serotypes at the phylogenetic level, and found that the PS15 genome was distantly related to those of toxigenic V. cholerae. Thus we focused on a detailed gene comparison between PS15 and the distantly related O1 V. cholerae N16961. Based on sequence alignment we tentatively assigned chromosome numbers 1 and 2 to elements within the genome of non-O1 V. cholerae PS15. Further, we found that PS15 and O1 V. cholerae N16961 shared 98% identity and 766 genes, but of the genes present in N16961 that were missing in the non-O1 V. cholerae PS15 genome, 56 were predicted to encode not only for virulence–related genes (colonization, antimicrobial resistance, and regulation of persister cells) but also genes involved in the metabolic biosynthesis of lipids, nucleosides and sulfur compounds. Additionally, we found 113 genes unique to PS15 that were predicted to encode other properties related to virulence, disease, defense, membrane transport, and DNA metabolism. Here, we identified distinctive and novel genomic elements between O1 and non-O1 V. cholerae genomes as potential virulence factors and, thus, targets for future therapeutics. Modulation of such novel targets may eventually enhance eradication efforts of endemic and pandemic disease cholera in afflicted nations. PMID:25722857

  10. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassebaum, N.J.; Arora, Megha; Barber, R.M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Brown, J.; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Coates, M.; Coggeshall, M.S.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background
    Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development,

  11. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990-2015 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Arora, Megha; Barber, Ryan M.; Bhutta, Zulfigar A.; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Coates, Matthew M.; Coggeshall, Megan; Cornaby, Leslie; Dandona, Lalit; Dicker, Daniel J.; Erskine, Holly E.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Graetz, Nicholas; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Johnson, Catherine; Kemmer, Laura; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kutz, Michael J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Leung, Janni; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lim, Stephen S.; Lozano, Rafael; Mensah, George A.; Mikesell, Joe; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nguyen, Grant; Nsoesie, Elaine; Pigott, David M.; Pinho, Christine; Rankin, Zane; Reinig, Nikolas; Salomon, Joshua A.; Sandar, Logan; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Hoek, Hans W.; Singh, Abhishek; Tura, Abera Kenay

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and

  12. Comparative genome analysis of non-toxigenic non-O1 versus toxigenic O1 Vibrio cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Munmun; Kakarla, Prathusha; Kumar, Sanath; Gonzalez, Esmeralda; Floyd, Jared T.; Inupakutika, Madhuri; Devireddy, Amith Reddy; Tirrell, Selena R.; Bruns, Merissa; He, Guixin; Lindquist, Ingrid E.; Sundararajan, Anitha; Schilkey, Faye D.; Mudge, Joann; Varela, Manuel F.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae are responsible for endemic and pandemic outbreaks of the disease cholera. The complete toxigenic mechanisms underlying virulence in Vibrio strains are poorly understood. The hypothesis of this work was that virulent versus non-virulent strains of V. cholerae harbor distinctive genomic elements that encode virulence. The purpose of this study was to elucidate genomic differences between the O1 serotypes and non-O1 V. cholerae PS15, a non-toxigenic strain,...

  13. MULTIPLE ORIGINS OF NITROGEN ISOTOPIC ANOMALIES IN METEORITES AND COMETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleon, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    Isotopic fractionation and mixing calculations compared with coupled hydrogen and nitrogen isotopic composition of organic molecules from primitive chondrites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), and comets C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and 81P/Wild2 reveal that meteoritic and cometary organic matter contains three different isotopic components of different origins. (1) A major component of carbonaceous chondrites, IDPs, and comets Hale-Bopp and Wild2 shows correlated H and N isotopic compositions attributable to isotope exchange between an organic matter of solar composition and a reservoir formed by ion-molecule reactions at T 15 N-rich component having identical 15 N and D enrichments relative to the protosolar gas. Temperatures > 100 K deduced from the low D/H ratio and an anti-correlation between the abundance of this component and meteoritic age indicate a late origin in the solar protoplanetary disk. N 2 self-shielding and the non-thermal nucleosynthesis of 15 N upon irradiation are possible but unlikely sources of this component, and a chemical origin is preferred. (3) An interstellar component with highly fractionated hydrogen isotopes and unfractionated nitrogen isotopes is present in ordinary chondrites. A dominantly solar origin of D and 15 N excesses in primitive solar system bodies shows that isotopic anomalies do not necessarily fingerprint an interstellar origin and implies that only a very small fraction of volatile interstellar matter survived the events of solar system formation.

  14. [Virulence markers of Escherichia coli O1 strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, M A; Kaftyreva, L A; Grigor'eva, N S; Kicha, E V; Lipatova, L A

    2011-01-01

    To detect virulence genes in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli O1 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One hundred and twenty strains of E.coli O1 strains isolated from faeces of patients with acute diarrhea (n = 45) and healthy persons (n = 75) were studied. PCR with primers for rfb and fliC genes, which control synthesis of O- and H- antigens respectively, was used. Fourteen virulence genes (pap, aaf, sfa, afa, eaeA, bfpA, ial, hly, cnf, stx1, stx2, lt, st, and aer) were detected by PCR primers. K1-antigen was determined by Pastorex Meningo B/E. coli O1 kit (Bio-Rad). rfb gene controlling O-antigen synthesis in serogroup O1 as well as fliC gene controlling synthesis of H7 and K1 antigens were detected in all strains. Thus all E. coli strains had antigenic structure O1:K1 :H-:F7. Virulence genes aafl, sfa, afa, eaeA, bfpA, ial, hly, cnf, stx1, stx2, lt, and st were not detected. All strains owned pap and aer genes regardless of the presence of acute diarrhea symptoms. It was shown that E. coli O1:KI:H-:F7 strains do not have virulence genes which are characteristic for diarrhea-causing Escherichia. In accordance with the presence of pap and aer genes they could be attributed to uropathogenic Escherichia (UPEC) or avian-pathogenic Escherichia (APEC). It is necessary to detect virulence factors in order to determine E. coli as a cause of intestinal infection.

  15. Nonperturbative determination of the QCD potential at O(1/m)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koma, Y.; Koma, M.; Wittig, H.

    2006-07-01

    The relativistic correction to the QCD static inter-quark potential at O(1/m) is investigated nonperturbatively for the first time by using lattice Monte Carlo QCD simulations. The correction is found to be comparable with the Coulombic term of the static potential when applied to charmonium, and amounts to 26% of the Coulombic term for bottomonium. (Orig.)

  16. Ocean water temperature from data loggers from the HALE-ALOHA Moorings in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux (JGOFS), the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), and Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) from 24 April 1998 to 03 May 1999 (NODC Accession 9900212)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean water temperature data were collected from data loggers attached to the HALE-ALOHA Moorings in the North Pacific Ocean from 24 April 1998 to 03 May 1999. Data...

  17. Disability-Adjusted Life-Years (DALYs) for 315 Diseases and Injuries and Healthy Life Expectancy (HALE) in Iran and its Neighboring Countries, 1990-2015: Findings from Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Krohn, Kristopher J; Afshin, Ashkan; Farzadfar, Farshad; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Karimkhani, Chante; Bazargan-Hejazi, Sharzad; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Djalalinia, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Ali Reza; Farvid, Maryam S; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Heydarpour, Pouria; Islami, Farhad; Karimi, Seyed M; Katibeh, Marzieh; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Mahdavi, Mahdi; Pishgar, Farhad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Safi, Sare; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Shahraz, Saeid; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mokdad, Ali H; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J L; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Naghavi, Mohsen; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2017-07-01

    Summary measures of health are essential in making estimates of health status that are comparable across time and place. They can be used for assessing the performance of health systems, informing effective policy making, and monitoring the progress of nations toward achievement of sustainable development goals. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) provides disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) as main summary measures of health. We assessed the trends of health status in Iran and 15 neighboring countries using these summary measures. We used the results of GBD 2015 to present the levels and trends of DALYs, life expectancy (LE), and HALE in Iran and its 15 neighboring countries from 1990 to 2015. For each country, we assessed the ratio of observed levels of DALYs and HALE to those expected based on socio-demographic index (SDI), an indicator composed of measures of total fertility rate, income per capita, and average years of schooling. All-age numbers of DALYs reached over 19 million years in Iran in 2015. The all-age number of DALYs has remained stable during the past two decades in Iran, despite the decreasing trends in all-age and age-standardized rates. The all-cause DALY rates decreased from 47,200 in 1990 to 28,400 per 100,000 in 2015. The share of non-communicable diseases in DALYs increased in Iran (from 42% to 74%) and all of its neighbors between 1990 and 2015; the pattern of change is similar in almost all 16 countries. The DALY rates for NCDs and injuries in Iran were higher than global rates and the average rate in High Middle SDI countries, while those for communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders were much lower in Iran. Among men, cardiovascular diseases ranked first in all countries of the region except for Bahrain. Among women, they ranked first in 13 countries. Life expectancy and HALE show a consistent increase in all countries. Still, there are

  18. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Background Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global...... Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE). We used these measures to track trends and benchmark progress compared...... from expected trends when compared with the SDI: the geometric mean of income per person, educational attainment in the population older than age 15 years, and total fertility rate. Findings The highest globally observed HALE at birth for both women and men was in Singapore, at 75·2 years (95...

  19. Immersion vaccination against Yersinia ruckeri O1, biotype 2 confers cross protection against Y. ruckeri O1 biotype 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian; Neumann, Lukas; Kragelund Strøm, Helene

    A new biotype 2 of Y. ruckeri O1, which lacks motility has proven highly virulent for rainbow trout, and is causing disease in cultured trout even in fish vaccinated with commercial ERM biotype 1 vaccines. Not much is known about immunity against biotype 2, and therefore have we produced a Y...... resulted in very low mortalities with no significant difference in mortality between vaccinated and mock-vaccinated fish. Challenge with biotype 1 resulted in a significantly lower mortality (P=0.0001) in the vaccinated group. This result was confirmed 15 months post vaccination (P... 2 confers significant cross protection against biotype 1....

  20. The protective activity of tea against infection by Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, M; Okubo, S; Ikigai, H; Suzuki, T; Suzuki, Y; Shimamura, T

    1991-02-01

    Extracts of black tea exhibited bactericidal activity against Vibrio cholerae O1. The tea extract inhibited the haemolysin activity of V. cholerae O1, El Tor and the morphological changes of Chinese hamster ovary cells induced by cholera toxin. Tea extract also reduced fluid accumulation induced by cholera toxin in sealed adult mice and by V. cholerae O1 in ligated intestinal loops of rabbits. These findings suggest that tea has protective activity against V. cholerae O1.

  1. Dynamic radio bursts associated with important flare activity in Hale region 16923 and the problem of the relative locations of type II 'slow drift' bursts and coronal transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mckenna-Lawlor, S.M.P.

    1983-03-01

    Seven type-II radio bursts associated with solar flares in the Hale region 16923 on June 27-29, 1980, are characterized on the basis of data from dynamic radio spectra, white-light observations, radioheliograms, SMM-C/P observations, and Helios I magnetic-field and solar-wind measurements. The data are summarized in tables and graphs and discussed in terms of transient events occurring in the same region. The magnetic shock waves recorded during the period by Helios are described, and channeling effects which may have prevented the detection of type-II burst shocks are examined.

  2. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-08

    Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and monitor progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We aimed to provide updated HALE and DALYs for geographies worldwide and evaluate how disease burden changes with development. We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost (YLLs) and years of life lived with disability (YLDs) for each geography, age group, sex, and year. We estimated HALE using the Sullivan method, which draws from age-specific death rates and YLDs per capita. We then assessed how observed levels of DALYs and HALE differed from expected trends calculated with the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator constructed from measures of income per capita, average years of schooling, and total fertility rate. Total global DALYs remained largely unchanged from 1990 to 2015, with decreases in communicable, neonatal, maternal, and nutritional (Group 1) disease DALYs offset by increased DALYs due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Much of this epidemiological transition was caused by changes in population growth and ageing, but it was accelerated by widespread improvements in SDI that also correlated strongly with the increasing importance of NCDs. Both total DALYs and age-standardised DALY rates due to most Group 1 causes significantly decreased by 2015, and although total burden climbed for the majority of NCDs, age-standardised DALY rates due to NCDs declined. Nonetheless, age-standardised DALY rates due to several high

  3. Associations between Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1 Expression and Indicators of Hepatic Glucose Production in Transition Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asako Kinoshita

    Full Text Available Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1 is a transcription factor which promotes hepatic glucose production (HGP by up-regulating the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes in monogastric species. The activity of FoxO1 is inhibited by insulin-induced phosphorylation. The aims of the present study were to find associations between FoxO1 expression and variables associated with HGP as affected by feeding regimen in dairy cows during the transition period. Twenty one healthy German Holstein cows were allocated to four groups (LC-CON, HC-CON, LC-NA with 5 cows/group and HC-NA with 6 cows/group, respectively. Cows received 0 (LC-CON and HC-CON or 24 (LC-NA and HC-NA g/d nicotinic acid with high (HC or low (LC concentrate proportion from -42 days (-41.8 + 4.8; mean + standard deviation relative to expected calving date (d-42 to d24. Liver biopsy was taken at d-42, 1, 21, and 100. The total protein expression of FoxO1 (tFoxO1 and the extent of phosphorylation of FoxO1 at serine 256 (pFoxO1 were analysed semiquantitatively by Western Blotting. The expression of hepatic mRNA of FoxO1 and seven genes associated with HGP was measured by real-time RT-PCR. Mixed model and Pearson's correlation were used for statistical evaluation with the level of significance at P<0.05. No dietary effect was observed either on feed intake, energy balance, or on the concentration of blood metabolites. Neither time nor diet affected the expression of FoxO1 total protein and mRNA. A NA × concentrate interaction was found in pFoxO1. However, no corresponding dietary effect was found in the mRNA expression of investigated genes. Different patterns of correlations between FoxO1-related variables and investigated indicators for HGP were found at d21 and 100. The results indicated that the regulation of HGP did not take place on the levels of mRNA and protein expression and the phosphorylation of FoxO1 in dairy cows in early lactation.

  4. Associations between Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1) Expression and Indicators of Hepatic Glucose Production in Transition Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Asako; Locher, Lena; Tienken, Reka; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) is a transcription factor which promotes hepatic glucose production (HGP) by up-regulating the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes in monogastric species. The activity of FoxO1 is inhibited by insulin-induced phosphorylation. The aims of the present study were to find associations between FoxO1 expression and variables associated with HGP as affected by feeding regimen in dairy cows during the transition period. Twenty one healthy German Holstein cows were allocated to four groups (LC-CON, HC-CON, LC-NA with 5 cows/group and HC-NA with 6 cows/group, respectively). Cows received 0 (LC-CON and HC-CON) or 24 (LC-NA and HC-NA) g/d nicotinic acid with high (HC) or low (LC) concentrate proportion from -42 days (-41.8 + 4.8; mean + standard deviation) relative to expected calving date (d-42) to d24. Liver biopsy was taken at d-42, 1, 21, and 100. The total protein expression of FoxO1 (tFoxO1) and the extent of phosphorylation of FoxO1 at serine 256 (pFoxO1) were analysed semiquantitatively by Western Blotting. The expression of hepatic mRNA of FoxO1 and seven genes associated with HGP was measured by real-time RT-PCR. Mixed model and Pearson's correlation were used for statistical evaluation with the level of significance at Pdairy cows in early lactation.

  5. USP7 Attenuates Hepatic Gluconeogenesis Through Modulation of FoxO1 Gene Promoter Occupancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jessica A.; Tabata, Mitsuhisa; Rodgers, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic forkhead protein FoxO1 is a key component of systemic glucose homeostasis via its ability to regulate the transcription of rate-limiting enzymes in gluconeogenesis. Important in the regulation of FoxO1 transcriptional activity are the modifying/demodifying enzymes that lead to posttranslational modification. Here, we demonstrate the functional interaction and regulation of FoxO1 by herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7; also known as herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease, HAUSP), a deubiquitinating enzyme. We show that USP7-mediated mono-deubiquitination of FoxO1 results in suppression of FoxO1 transcriptional activity through decreased FoxO1 occupancy on the promoters of gluconeogenic genes. Knockdown of USP7 in primary hepatocytes leads to increased expression of FoxO1-target gluconeogenic genes and elevated glucose production. Consistent with this, USP7 gain-of-function suppresses the fasting/cAMP-induced activation of gluconeogenic genes in hepatocyte cells and in mouse liver, resulting in decreased hepatic glucose production. Notably, we show that the effects of USP7 on hepatic glucose metabolism depend on FoxO1. Together, these results place FoxO1 under the intimate regulation of deubiquitination and glucose metabolic control with important implication in diseases such as diabetes. PMID:24694308

  6. [Relationship between FoxO1 Expression and Wound Age during Skin Incised Wound Healing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Ji, X Y; Fan, Y Y; Yu, L S

    2018-02-01

    To investigate FoxO1 expression and its time-dependent changes during the skin incised wound healing. After the establishment of the skin incised wound model in mice, the FoxO1 expression of skin in different time periods was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that FoxO1 was weakly expressed in a few fibroblasts of epidermis, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, vessel endothelium and dermis in the control group. The FoxO1 expression was enhanced in the epidermis and skin appendages around the wound during 6-12 h after injury, which could be detected in the infiltrating neutrophils and a small number of monocytes. FoxO1 was mainly expressed in monocytes during 1-3 d after injury, and in neovascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts during 5-10 d. On the 14th day after injury, the FoxO1 expression still could be detected in a few fibroblasts. The Western blotting results showed that the FoxO1 expression quantity of the tissue samples in injury group was higher than in control group. The FoxO1 expression peaked at 12 h and 7 d after injury. FoxO1 is time-dependently expressed in skin wound healing, which can be a useful marker for wound age determination. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  7. FoxO1 in dopaminergic neurons regulates energy homeostasis and targets tyrosine hydroxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Khanh V.; Kinyua, Ann W.; Yang, Dong Joo; Ko, Chang Mann; Moh, Sang Hyun; Shong, Ko Eun; Kim, Hail; Park, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Inki; Paik, Ji-Hye; DePinho, Ronald A.; Yoon, Seul Gi; Kim, Il Yong; Seong, Je Kyung; Choi, Yun-Hee; Kim, Ki Woo

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons are involved in the integration of neuronal and hormonal signals to regulate food consumption and energy balance. Forkhead transcriptional factor O1 (FoxO1) in the hypothalamus plays a crucial role in mediation of leptin and insulin function. However, the homoeostatic role of FoxO1 in DA system has not been investigated. Here we report that FoxO1 is highly expressed in DA neurons and mice lacking FoxO1 specifically in the DA neurons (FoxO1 KODAT) show markedly increased energy expenditure and interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) thermogenesis accompanied by reduced fat mass and improved glucose/insulin homoeostasis. Moreover, FoxO1 KODAT mice exhibit an increased sucrose preference in concomitance with higher dopamine and norepinephrine levels. Finally, we found that FoxO1 directly targets and negatively regulates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, the rate-limiting enzyme of the catecholamine synthesis, delineating a mechanism for the KO phenotypes. Collectively, these results suggest that FoxO1 in DA neurons is an important transcriptional factor that directs the coordinated control of energy balance, thermogenesis and glucose homoeostasis. PMID:27681312

  8. 26 CFR 31.3402(o)-1 - Extension of withholding to supplemental unemployment compensation benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation benefits. 31.3402(o)-1 Section 31.3402(o)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... of withholding to supplemental unemployment compensation benefits. (a) In general. Withholding of income tax is required under section 3402(o) with respect to payments of supplemental unemployment...

  9. The protective activity of tea catechins against experimental infection by Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, M; Okubo, S; Ikigai, H; Suzuki, T; Suzuki, Y; Hara, Y; Shimamura, T

    1992-01-01

    Tea catechins inhibited the fluid accumulation induced by cholera toxin in sealed adult mice. The catechins also reduced fluid accumulation by Vibrio cholerae O1 in ligated intestinal loops of rabbits. These findings suggest that tea catechins may possess protective activity against V. cholerae O1.

  10. Detection of cholera (ctx) and zonula occludens (zot) toxin genes in Vibrio cholerae O1, O139 and non-O1 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, I G; Chowdhury, M A; Sanchez, P S; Sato, M I; Huq, A; Colwell, R R; Martins, M T

    1995-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 and V. cholerae non-O1 strains isolated from environmental samples collected in São Paulo, Brazil, during cholera epidemics and pre-epidemic periods were examined for the presence of toxin genes. V. cholerae O1 strains isolated from clinical samples in Peru and Mexico, and V. cholerae O139 strains from India were also examined for the presence of ctx (cholera toxin gene) and zot (zonula occludens toxin gene) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A modified DNA-extraction method applied in this study yielded satisfactory recovery of genomic DNA from vibrios. Results showed that strains of V. cholerae O1 isolated during the preepidemic period were ctx (-)/zot (-) whereas strains isolated during the epidemic were ctx (+)/zot (+). All V. cholerae non-O1 strains tested in the study were ctx (-)/zot (-), whereas all V. cholerae O139 strains were ctx (+)/zot (+). Rapid detection of the virulence genes (ctx and zot) can be achieved by PCR and this can serve as an important tool in the epidemiology and surveillance of V. cholerae.

  11. Nb 3d and O 1s core levels and chemical bonding in niobates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atuchin, V.V.; Kalabin, I.E.; Kesler, V.G.; Pervukhina, N.V.

    2005-01-01

    A set of available experimental data on binding energies of Nb 3d 5/2 and O 1s core levels in niobates has been observed with using energy difference (O 1s-Nb 3d 5/2 ) as a robust parameter for compound characterization. An empirical relationship between (O 1s-Nb 3d 5/2 ) values measured with XPS for Nb 5+ -niobates and mean chemical bond length L(Nb-O) has been discussed. A range of (O 1s-Nb 3d 5/2 ) values possible in Nb 5+ -niobates has been defined. An energy gap ∼1.4-1.8 eV is found between (O 1s-Nb 3d 5/2 ) values reasonable for Nb 5+ and Nb 4+ states in niobates

  12. Nb 3d and O 1s core levels and chemical bonding in niobates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atuchin, V.V. [Laboratory of Optical Materials and Structures, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: atuchin@thermo.isp.nsc.ru; Kalabin, I.E. [Laboratory of Optical Materials and Structures, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kesler, V.G. [Technical Center, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Pervukhina, N.V. [Laboratory of Crystal Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2005-02-01

    A set of available experimental data on binding energies of Nb 3d{sub 5/2} and O 1s core levels in niobates has been observed with using energy difference (O 1s-Nb 3d{sub 5/2}) as a robust parameter for compound characterization. An empirical relationship between (O 1s-Nb 3d{sub 5/2}) values measured with XPS for Nb{sup 5+}-niobates and mean chemical bond length L(Nb-O) has been discussed. A range of (O 1s-Nb 3d{sub 5/2}) values possible in Nb{sup 5+}-niobates has been defined. An energy gap {approx}1.4-1.8 eV is found between (O 1s-Nb 3d{sub 5/2}) values reasonable for Nb{sup 5+} and Nb{sup 4+} states in niobates.

  13. A novel kit for rapid detection of Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, J A; Huq, A; Tamplin, M L; Siebeling, R J; Colwell, R R

    1994-01-01

    We report on the development and testing of a novel, rapid, colorimetric immunodiagnostic kit, Cholera SMART, for direct detection of the presence of Vibrio cholerae O1 in clinical specimens. Unlike conventional culture methods requiring several days to complete, the Cholera SMART kit can be used directly in the field by untrained or minimally skilled personnel to detect V. cholerae O1 in less than 15 min, without cumbersome laboratory equipment. A total of 120 clinical and environmental bacterial strains, including both O1 and non-O1 serotypes of V. cholerae isolated from samples collected from a variety of geographical regions, were tested, and positive reactions were observed only with V. cholerae O1. Also, results of a field trial in Bangladesh, employing Cholera SMART, showed 100% specificity and 96% sensitivity compared with conventional culture methods. Another field trial, in Mexico, showed that Cholera SMART was 100% in agreement with a recently described coagglutination test when 108 stool specimens were tested.

  14. Non-thermal distribution of O(1D) atoms in the night-time thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Jeng-Hwa

    1988-01-01

    The 6300 A O(1D-3P) emission has been used for many years to remotely monitor the thermospheric temperature from the Doppler width of its line profile. The O(1D) atoms in the nighttime thermosphere are initially produced by the dissociative recombination of O2(+) ions with kinetic energy much greater than the thermal energy of the ambient neutrals. The validity of the technique to monitor neutral ambient temperature by measuring O(1D) 6300 A emission depends on the degree of thermalization of the O(1D) atoms. The object of this study is to calculate the velocity distribution of the O(1D) atoms and to examine the effect of nonthermal distribution on the nighttime thermospheric neutral temperature determined.

  15. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences and the PCR to generate fingerprints of genomic DNAs from Vibrio cholerae O1, O139, and non-O1 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, I G; Chowdhury, M A; Huq, A; Jacobs, D; Martins, M T; Colwell, R R

    1995-08-01

    Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequence polymorphism was studied in Vibrio Cholerae strains isolated before and after the cholera epidemic in Brazil (in 1991), along with epidemic strains from Peru, Mexico, and India, by PCR. A total of 17 fingerprint patterns (FPs) were detected in the V. cholerae strains examined; 96.7% of the toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains and 100% of the O139 serogroup strains were found to belong to the same FP group comprising four fragments (FP1). The nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 also yielded four fragments but constituted a different FP group (FP2). A total of 15 different patterns were observed among the V. cholerae non-O1 strains. Two patterns were observed most frequently for V. cholerae non-01 strains, 25% of which have FP3, with five fragments, and 16.7% of which have FP4, with two fragments. Three fragments, 1.75, 0.79, and 0.5 kb, were found to be common to both toxigenic and nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains as well as to group FP3, containing V. cholerae non-O1 strains. Two fragments of group FP3, 1.3 and 1.0 kb, were present in FP1 and FP2 respectively. The 0.5-kb fragment was common to all strains and serogroups of V. cholerae analyzed. It is concluded from the results of this study, based on DNA FPs of environmental isolates, that it is possible to detect an emerging virulent strain in a cholera-endemic region. ERIC-PCR constitutes a powerful tool for determination of the virulence potential of V. cholerae O1 strains isolated in surveillance programs and for molecular epidemiological investigations.

  16. SCP4 Promotes Gluconeogenesis Through FoxO1/3a Dephosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jin; Yu, Yi; Zhang, Zhengmao; Chen, Xi; Hu, Zhaoyong; Tong, Qiang; Chang, Jiang; Feng, Xin-Hua; Lin, Xia

    2018-01-01

    FoxO1 and FoxO3a (collectively FoxO1/3a) proteins regulate a wide array of cellular processes, including hepatic gluconeogenesis. Phosphorylation of FoxO1/3a is a key event that determines its subcellular location and transcriptional activity. During glucose synthesis, the activity of FoxO1/3a is negatively regulated by Akt-mediated phosphorylation, which leads to the cytoplasmic retention of FoxO1/3a. However, the nuclear phosphatase that directly regulates FoxO1/3a remains to be identified. In this study, we discovered a nuclear phosphatase, SCP4/CTDSPL2 (SCP4), that dephosphorylated FoxO1/3a and promoted FoxO1/3a transcription activity. We found that SCP4 enhanced the transcription of FoxO1/3a target genes encoding PEPCK1 and G6PC, key enzymes in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Ectopic expression of SCP4 increased, while knockdown of SCP4 inhibited, glucose production. Moreover, we demonstrated that gene ablation of SCP4 led to hypoglycemia in neonatal mice. Consistent with the positive role of SCP4 in gluconeogenesis, expression of SCP4 was regulated under pathophysiological conditions. SCP4 expression was induced by glucose deprivation in vitro and in vivo and was elevated in obese mice caused by genetic (A vy ) and dietary (high-fat) changes. Thus, our findings provided experimental evidence that SCP4 regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis and could serve as a potential target for the prevention and treatment of diet-induced glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  17. A novel kit for rapid detection of Vibrio cholerae O1.

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, J A; Huq, A; Tamplin, M L; Siebeling, R J; Colwell, R R

    1994-01-01

    We report on the development and testing of a novel, rapid, colorimetric immunodiagnostic kit, Cholera SMART, for direct detection of the presence of Vibrio cholerae O1 in clinical specimens. Unlike conventional culture methods requiring several days to complete, the Cholera SMART kit can be used directly in the field by untrained or minimally skilled personnel to detect V. cholerae O1 in less than 15 min, without cumbersome laboratory equipment. A total of 120 clinical and environmental bact...

  18. Persistence of plasmids, cholera toxin genes, and prophage DNA in classical Vibrio cholerae O1.

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, W L; Wachsmuth, K; Johnson, S R; Birkness, K A; Samadi, A R

    1984-01-01

    Plasmid profiles, the location of cholera toxin subunit A genes, and the presence of the defective VcA1 prophage genome in classical Vibrio cholerae isolated from patients in Bangladesh in 1982 were compared with those in older classical strains isolated during the sixth pandemic and with those in selected eltor and nontoxigenic O1 isolates. Classical strains typically had two plasmids (21 and 3 megadaltons), eltor strains typically had no plasmids, and nontoxigenic O1 strains had zero to thr...

  19. [Cytotoxic effect of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 on Vero cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Arredondo, P; García-Lozano, H; Gutiérrez-Cogco, L; Valdespino-Gómez, J L

    1994-01-01

    At the present time there is still in Mexico a diarrhoeal outbreak due to Vibrio cholerae O1. In INDRE we have isolated from the same outbreak last year (jan-apr), 70 strains of Vibrio cholerae Non-O1. These were isolated from patients with a diarrhoeal illness different from cholera. Patients were of different ages and sex, and from various geographic areas. The isolated strains were confirmed by serological agglutination test with polyclonal antisera, and they neither belong to O1 serogroup or O139. We assayed all the 70 strains in Vero cells, searching for cytotoxic effect, probably attributed to cholera toxin, or any other toxin. The strains were screened by PCR for cholera toxin gene detection, and negative results were obtained. We have found only one CT-producer strain, but it was a rough one so, we are not able to affirm that is not a V. cholerae O1 serotype. Vibrio cholerae Non-O1 strains, tested in Vero cells assay, produced cytotoxic effect within 24 h. It was found that 48/70 strains (66.6%), had cytotoxic activity, showing rounding and then lysis of cells. From our results we concluded that this cytotoxic effect, is not cholera toxin related, instead we propose it could be due to an unknown virulence factor, probably a different toxin in mexican Vibrio cholerae Non-O1 strains.

  20. Dual ferroic properties of hexagonal ferrite ceramics BaFe_1_2O_1_9 and SrFe_1_2O_1_9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostishyn, V.G.; Panina, L.V.; Timofeev, A.V.; Kozhitov, L.V.; Kovalev, A.N.; Zyuzin, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    Dual ferroic properties of a strong magnetism and large ferroelectricity have been observed in barium BaFe_1_2O_1_9 and strontium SrFe_1_2O_1_9 hexaferrite ceramics. The samples were fabricated by a modified ceramic technique from highly purified raw materials with addition of boron oxide allowing the control of grain size and enhancement of bulk resistivity. Whereas the samples of PbFe_1_2O_1_9 fabricated by the same technological method did not have sufficient electric resistivity to support an electric field and did not exhibit the ferroelectric properties. The structure of the samples examined by X-ray diffraction is consistent with a single hexagonal phase. The grains are randomly oriented with the average grain size of 300–400 nm coated with boron oxide. The magnetic properties are characterised by standard ferrimagnetic behavior with the Neel temperature of about 450 °C. Large spontaneous polarization was observed with the maximal values of 45–50 μC/cm"2 under an applied electric field of 100–300 kV/m. A strong coupling between magnetic and electric ordering was confirmed by measuring the magnetoelectric (ME) parameter and magnetodielectric ratio. These ME characteristics are more advanced than those for well-known room temperature multiferroic BiFeO_3. Furthermore, by applying an electric field, the manipulation of magnetization in the range of up to 9% was observed, which is even greater than in some substituted hexaferrites with a non-collinear magnetic structure. The obtained results on electrical polarization are similar to the values reported for the corresponding hexaferrites sintered by polymer precursor technique. This suggests a promising potential of M-type hexaferrite ceramics in devices utilizing magnetoelectric coupling. - Highlights: • Ba(Sr)Fe_1_2O_1_9-hexaferrites show large room-temperature multiferroic properties. • Small addition of B_2O_3 increases the hexaferrite resistivity by 4 orders of magnitude. • Large spontaneous

  1. Magneto-optical imaging of iron-oxypnictide SmFeAsO1-xFx and SmFeAsO1-y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamegai, T.; Nakajima, Y.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Iyo, A.; Miyazawa, K.; Shirage, P.M.; Kito, H.; Eisaki, H.

    2009-01-01

    We have prepared iron-oxypnictide SmFeAsO 1-x F x by ambient-pressure technique and SmFeAsO 1-y by high-pressure technique, and characterized their bulk and local magnetic properties by using SQUID magnetometer and magneto-optical imaging. While the high-pressure samples have densities close to the theoretical value, the ambient-pressure samples have several small voids. Despite these structural differences between the two kinds of samples, they both have superconducting transition temperature above 50 K. In addition, magneto-optical images for both samples show similar kinds of inhomogeneities with large current concentrated in several grains and with small intergranular current. The estimated intragranular currents for both samples are over 10 5 A/cm 2 at low temperatures and low fields.

  2. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences and the PCR to generate fingerprints of genomic DNAs from Vibrio cholerae O1, O139, and non-O1 strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, I G; Chowdhury, M A; Huq, A; Jacobs, D; Martins, M T; Colwell, R R

    1995-01-01

    Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequence polymorphism was studied in Vibrio Cholerae strains isolated before and after the cholera epidemic in Brazil (in 1991), along with epidemic strains from Peru, Mexico, and India, by PCR. A total of 17 fingerprint patterns (FPs) were detected in the V. cholerae strains examined; 96.7% of the toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains and 100% of the O139 serogroup strains were found to belong to the same FP group comprising four fragments (F...

  3. Effects of FoxO1 on podocyte injury in diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qingzhu; Ren, Lei; Zhou, Yingni [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Ma, Xiaojun [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Wu, Lina [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Qin, Guijun, E-mail: hyqingj@zzu.edu.cn [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2015-10-16

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of forkhead transcription factor O1 (FoxO1) on podocyte injury in rats with diabetic nephropathy. Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were served as DM group, while DM rats transfected with blank lentiviral vectors (LV-pSC-GFP) or lentiviral vectors carrying constitutively active FoxO1 (LV-CA-FoxO1) were served as LV-NC group or LV-CA group, respectively. The control group (NG) consisted of uninduced rats that received an injection of diluent buffer. At 2, 4, and 8 weeks after transfection, the levels of urine albumin, blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urine podocalyxin were measured. Real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to measure mRNA and protein levels of FoxO1, podocalyxin, nephrin, and desmin in renal cortex. In addition, light and electron microscopy were used to detect structural changes in the glomerulus and podocytes. Results: Compared with the rats in LV-NC and DM groups, LV-CA rats showed a significant increase in FoxO1 mRNA and protein levels and a distinct decrease in urine albumin, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine (except at the two-week time point) levels (p < 0.05). Podocalyxin and nephrin mRNA and protein levels increased (p < 0.05), whereas desmin mRNA and protein levels decreased (p < 0.05). Pathological changes in glomerulus were also ameliorated in LV-CA group. Conclusions: Upregulating expression of FoxO1 by transduction with recombinant lentivirus ameliorates podocyte injury in diabetic rats. - Highlights: • The structures and functions of podocytes were impaired in STZ-induced diabetic rats. • Constitutively active FoxO1 ameliorates structure injury and preserves function of podocytes in diabetic rats. • FoxO1 may alleviate the pathological changes associated with diabetic nephropathy.

  4. Effects of FoxO1 on podocyte injury in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Feng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qingzhu; Ren, Lei; Zhou, Yingni; Ma, Xiaojun; Wu, Lina; Qin, Guijun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of forkhead transcription factor O1 (FoxO1) on podocyte injury in rats with diabetic nephropathy. Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were served as DM group, while DM rats transfected with blank lentiviral vectors (LV-pSC-GFP) or lentiviral vectors carrying constitutively active FoxO1 (LV-CA-FoxO1) were served as LV-NC group or LV-CA group, respectively. The control group (NG) consisted of uninduced rats that received an injection of diluent buffer. At 2, 4, and 8 weeks after transfection, the levels of urine albumin, blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urine podocalyxin were measured. Real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to measure mRNA and protein levels of FoxO1, podocalyxin, nephrin, and desmin in renal cortex. In addition, light and electron microscopy were used to detect structural changes in the glomerulus and podocytes. Results: Compared with the rats in LV-NC and DM groups, LV-CA rats showed a significant increase in FoxO1 mRNA and protein levels and a distinct decrease in urine albumin, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine (except at the two-week time point) levels (p < 0.05). Podocalyxin and nephrin mRNA and protein levels increased (p < 0.05), whereas desmin mRNA and protein levels decreased (p < 0.05). Pathological changes in glomerulus were also ameliorated in LV-CA group. Conclusions: Upregulating expression of FoxO1 by transduction with recombinant lentivirus ameliorates podocyte injury in diabetic rats. - Highlights: • The structures and functions of podocytes were impaired in STZ-induced diabetic rats. • Constitutively active FoxO1 ameliorates structure injury and preserves function of podocytes in diabetic rats. • FoxO1 may alleviate the pathological changes associated with diabetic nephropathy.

  5. Inhibition of FoxO1 acetylation by INHAT subunit SET/TAF-Iβ induces p21 transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yun-Cheol; Kim, Kee-Beom; Kang, Joo-Young; Kim, Se-Ryeon; Jung, Hyeon-Soo; Seo, Sang-Beom

    2014-08-25

    Post-translational modification of forkhead family transcription factor, FoxO1, is an important regulatory mode for its diverse activities. FoxO1 is acetylated by HAT coactivators and its transcriptional activity is decreased via reduced DNA binding affinity. Here, we report that SET/TAF-Iβ inhibited p300-mediated FoxO1 acetylation in an INHAT domain-dependent manner. SET/TAF-Iβ interacted with FoxO1 and activated transcription of FoxO1 target gene, p21. Moreover, SET/TAF-Iβ inhibited acetylation of FoxO1 and increased p21 transcription induced by oxidative stress. Our results suggest that SET/TAF-Iβ inhibits FoxO1 acetylation and activates its transcriptional activity toward p21. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. UnoHop: Efficient Distributed Hash Table with O(1 Lookup Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Sitepu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Hash Tables (DHTs with O(1 lookup performance strive to minimize the maintenance traffic which required for propagating membership changes information (events. These events distribution allows each node in the peer-to-peer network maintains accurate routing tables with complete membership information. We present UnoHop, a novel DHT protocol with O(1 lookup performance. The protocol uses an efficient mechanism to distribute events through a dissemination tree that constructed dynamically rooted at the node that detect the events. Our protocol produces symmetric bandwidth usage at all nodes while decreasing the events propagation delay.

  7. Positron annihilation 2D-ACAR study of semi-coherent Li nanoclusters in MgO(1 0 0) and MgO(1 1 0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falub, C.V.; Mijnarends, P.E.; Eijt, S.W.H.; Huis, M.A. van; Veen, A. van; Schut, H.

    2002-01-01

    Depth selective positron annihilation two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) is used to determine the electronic structure of Li nanoclusters formed by implantation of 10 16 cm -2 6 Li ions (with an energy of 30 keV) in MgO(1 0 0) and (1 1 0) crystals, and subsequently annealed at 950 K. The 2D-ACAR spectra of Li-implanted MgO obtained with 4 keV positrons reveal the semi-coherent ordering state of the embedded metallic Li nanoclusters. The results agree with ab initio Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker calculations

  8. Positron annihilation 2D-ACAR study of semi-coherent Li nanoclusters in MgO(1 0 0) and MgO(1 1 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falub, C.V. E-mail: c.falub@iri.tudelft.nl; Mijnarends, P.E.; Eijt, S.W.H.; Huis, M.A. van; Veen, A. van; Schut, H

    2002-05-01

    Depth selective positron annihilation two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) is used to determine the electronic structure of Li nanoclusters formed by implantation of 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} {sup 6}Li ions (with an energy of 30 keV) in MgO(1 0 0) and (1 1 0) crystals, and subsequently annealed at 950 K. The 2D-ACAR spectra of Li-implanted MgO obtained with 4 keV positrons reveal the semi-coherent ordering state of the embedded metallic Li nanoclusters. The results agree with ab initio Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker calculations.

  9. Positron annihilation 2D-ACAR study of semi-coherent Li nanoclusters in MgO( 1 0 0 ) and MgO( 1 1 0 )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falub, C. V.; Mijnarends, P. E.; Eijt, S. W. H.; van Huis, M. A.; van Veen, A.; Schut, H.

    2002-05-01

    Depth selective positron annihilation two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) is used to determine the electronic structure of Li nanoclusters formed by implantation of 10 16 cm -26Li ions (with an energy of 30 keV) in MgO(1 0 0) and (1 1 0) crystals, and subsequently annealed at 950 K. The 2D-ACAR spectra of Li-implanted MgO obtained with 4 keV positrons reveal the semi-coherent ordering state of the embedded metallic Li nanoclusters. The results agree with ab initio Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker calculations.

  10. Water sources as reservoirs of Vibrio cholerae O1 and non-O1 strains in Bepanda, Douala (Cameroon): relationship between isolation and physico-chemical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoachere, Jane-Francis Tatah Kihla; Mbuntcha, Christelle Kwedjeu Pulcherie

    2014-07-30

    Cholera has been endemic in Douala since 1971. Most outbreaks start from Bepanda, an overcrowded neighbourhood with poor hygiene and sanitary conditions. We investigated water sources in Bepanda as reservoirs of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, determined its antibiotic susceptibility and some physico-chemical characteristics that could maintain the endemicity of this organism in Bepanda. Three hundred and eighteen water samples collected from 45 wells, 8 taps and 1 stream from February to July 2009 were analyzed for V. cholerae using standard methods. Isolates were characterized morphologically, biochemically and serologically. The disc diffusion technique was employed to investigate antibiotic susceptibility. Differences in prevalence of organism between seasons were analysed. Correlation strength and direction of association between physico-chemical parameters and occurrence of V. cholerae was analyzed using the Kendall tau_b non-parametric correlation. This was further confirmed with the forward-stepwise binary logistic regression. Eighty-seven (27.4%) samples were positive for V. cholerae. Isolation was highest from wells. The organism was isolated in the rainy season and dry season but the frequency of isolation was significantly higher (χ2 = 7.009, df = 1, P = 0.008) in the rainy season. Of the 96 confirmed V. cholerae isolates, 32 (33.3%) belonged to serogroup O1 and 64 (66.6%) were serogroup non-O1/non-O139. Isolates from tap (municipal water) were non-O1/non-O139 strains. Salinity had a significant positive correlation with isolation in the dry season (+0.267, P = 0.015) and rainy season (+0.223, P = 0.028). The forward-stepwise method of binary logistic regression indicated that as pH (Wald = 11.753, df = 1), P = 0.001) increased, odds of isolation of V. cholerae also increased (B = 1.297, S.E = 0.378, Exp(B) = 3.657). All isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Multi-drug resistance was predominant among the non-O1/non

  11. Isolation of Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 from the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Rodrick, G E

    1981-01-01

    Two strains of Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 Inaba were isolated from eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, collected from estuarine waters in Florida during April 1980. The oyster meats and waters from which the oysters were collected had low fecal coliform counts, and the area had no prior evidence of sewage contamination. PMID:7235700

  12. Determining Vaccination Frequency in Farmed Rainbow Trout Using Vibrio anguillarum O1 Specific Serum Antibody Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Nylén, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite vaccination with a commercial vaccine with a documented protective effect against Vibrio anguillarum O1 disease outbreaks caused by this bacterium have been registered among rainbow trout at Danish fish farms. The present study examined specific serum antibody levels as a valid...

  13. Label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on cerium oxide nanowires for Vibrio cholerae O1 detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, Phuong Dinh; Thang, Cao Xuan

    2016-01-01

    This paper developed a label-free immunosensor based on cerium oxide nanowire for Vibrio cholerae O1 detection application. The CeO 2 nanowires were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction. The immobilization of Anti-V. cholerae O1 onto CeO 2 nanowire-deposited sensor was performed via an amino ester, which was created by using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide, and sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide. The electrochemical responses of the immunosensor were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with [Fe (CN) 6 ] 3−/4− as redox probe. A linear response in electron transfer resistance for cell of V. cholerae O1 concentration was found in the range of 1.0 × 10 2 CFU/mL to 1.0 × 10 4 CFU/mL. The detection limit of the immunosensor was 1.0 × 10 2 CFU/mL. The immunosensor sensitivity was 56.82 Ω/CFU·mL −1 . Furthermore, the parameters affecting immunosensor response were also investigated, as follows: pH value, immunoreaction time, incubation temperature, and anti-V. cholerae O1 concentration. - Highlights: • A label-free immunosensor based on cerium oxide nanowire for Vibrio cholerae O1 detection application was developed. • A linear response was found in the range of 1.0 × 10 2 CFU/mL to 1.0 × 10 4 CFU/mL. • The detection limit of the immunosensor was 1.0 × 10 2 CFU/mL. • The immunosensor sensitivity was 56.82 Ω/CFU.mL −1 .

  14. Label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on cerium oxide nanowires for Vibrio cholerae O1 detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, Phuong Dinh, E-mail: phuongdinhtam@gmail.com; Thang, Cao Xuan, E-mail: thang.caoxuan@hust.edu.vn

    2016-01-01

    This paper developed a label-free immunosensor based on cerium oxide nanowire for Vibrio cholerae O1 detection application. The CeO{sub 2} nanowires were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction. The immobilization of Anti-V. cholerae O1 onto CeO{sub 2} nanowire-deposited sensor was performed via an amino ester, which was created by using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide, and sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide. The electrochemical responses of the immunosensor were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with [Fe (CN) {sub 6}] {sup 3−/4−} as redox probe. A linear response in electron transfer resistance for cell of V. cholerae O1 concentration was found in the range of 1.0 × 10{sup 2} CFU/mL to 1.0 × 10{sup 4} CFU/mL. The detection limit of the immunosensor was 1.0 × 10{sup 2} CFU/mL. The immunosensor sensitivity was 56.82 Ω/CFU·mL{sup −1}. Furthermore, the parameters affecting immunosensor response were also investigated, as follows: pH value, immunoreaction time, incubation temperature, and anti-V. cholerae O1 concentration. - Highlights: • A label-free immunosensor based on cerium oxide nanowire for Vibrio cholerae O1 detection application was developed. • A linear response was found in the range of 1.0 × 10{sup 2} CFU/mL to 1.0 × 10{sup 4} CFU/mL. • The detection limit of the immunosensor was 1.0 × 10{sup 2} CFU/mL. • The immunosensor sensitivity was 56.82 Ω/CFU.mL{sup −1}.

  15. FoxO1 Plays an Important Role in Regulating ?-Cell Compensation for Insulin Resistance in Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ting; Kim, Dae Hyun; Xiao, Xiangwei; Lee, Sojin; Gong, Zhenwei; Muzumdar, Radhika; Calabuig-Navarro, Virtu; Yamauchi, Jun; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Wang, Rennian; Bottino, Rita; Alvarez-Perez, Juan Carlos; Garcia-Oca?a, Adolfo; Gittes, George; Dong, H. Henry

    2016-01-01

    ?-Cell compensation is an essential mechanism by which ?-cells increase insulin secretion for overcoming insulin resistance to maintain euglycemia in obesity. Failure of ?-cells to compensate for insulin resistance contributes to insulin insufficiency and overt diabetes. To understand the mechanism of ?-cell compensation, we characterized the role of forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) in ?-cell compensation in mice under physiological and pathological conditions. FoxO1 is a key transcription factor that...

  16. FoxO1 and HNF-4 are involved in regulation of hepatic glucokinase gene expression by resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjam, Goutham Kumar; Dimova, Elitsa Y; Unterman, Terry G; Kietzmann, Thomas

    2009-11-06

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol derived from grapes, exerts important effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, yet detailed mechanisms mediating these effects remain unknown. The liver plays a central role in energy homeostasis, and glucokinase (GK) is a key enzyme involved in glucose utilization. Resveratrol activates SIRT1 (sirtuin 1), which promotes deacetylation of the forkhead transcription factor FoxO1. Previously, we reported that FoxO1 can suppress and that HNF-4 can stimulate GK expression in the liver. Here, we examined the role of FoxO1 and HNF-4 in mediating resveratrol effects on liver GK expression. Resveratrol suppressed hepatic GK expression in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes, and knocking down FoxO1 with shRNAs disrupted this effect. Reporter gene, gel shift, supershift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that FoxO1 binds to the GK promoter and that the interplay between FoxO1 and HNF-4 within the GK promoter is essential for mediating the effects of resveratrol. Resveratrol promotes deacetylation of FoxO1 and enhances its recruitment to the FoxO-binding element. Conversely, resveratrol suppresses recruitment of HNF-4 to its binding site, and knockdown of FoxO1 blocks this effect of resveratrol. Coprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that resveratrol enhances interaction between FoxO1 and HNF-4, reduces binding of HNF-4 to its own site, and promotes its recruitment to the FoxO site in a FoxO1-dependent manner. These results provide the first evidence that resveratrol represses GK expression via FoxO1 and that the interaction between FoxO1 and HNF-4 contributes to these effects of resveratrol.

  17. FoxO1 and HNF-4 Are Involved in Regulation of Hepatic Glucokinase Gene Expression by Resveratrol*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjam, Goutham Kumar; Dimova, Elitsa Y.; Unterman, Terry G.; Kietzmann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol derived from grapes, exerts important effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, yet detailed mechanisms mediating these effects remain unknown. The liver plays a central role in energy homeostasis, and glucokinase (GK) is a key enzyme involved in glucose utilization. Resveratrol activates SIRT1 (sirtuin 1), which promotes deacetylation of the forkhead transcription factor FoxO1. Previously, we reported that FoxO1 can suppress and that HNF-4 can stimulate GK expression in the liver. Here, we examined the role of FoxO1 and HNF-4 in mediating resveratrol effects on liver GK expression. Resveratrol suppressed hepatic GK expression in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes, and knocking down FoxO1 with shRNAs disrupted this effect. Reporter gene, gel shift, supershift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that FoxO1 binds to the GK promoter and that the interplay between FoxO1 and HNF-4 within the GK promoter is essential for mediating the effects of resveratrol. Resveratrol promotes deacetylation of FoxO1 and enhances its recruitment to the FoxO-binding element. Conversely, resveratrol suppresses recruitment of HNF-4 to its binding site, and knockdown of FoxO1 blocks this effect of resveratrol. Coprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that resveratrol enhances interaction between FoxO1 and HNF-4, reduces binding of HNF-4 to its own site, and promotes its recruitment to the FoxO site in a FoxO1-dependent manner. These results provide the first evidence that resveratrol represses GK expression via FoxO1 and that the interaction between FoxO1 and HNF-4 contributes to these effects of resveratrol. PMID:19740748

  18. STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Orbit Team O1 in MCC Bldg 30 FCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Orbit Team 1 (O1) poses in front of large display screens in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Flight Control Room (FCR) for group portrait. Lead Flight Director (FD) Granvil A. Pennington stands next to a model of the James Cook's ship, the Endeavour (left). Astronaut and Spacecraft Communicator (CAPCOM) John H. Casper stands at the right of the model.

  19. Transcription factor FoxO1 is essential for enamel biomineralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross A Poché

    Full Text Available The Transforming growth factor β (Tgf-β pathway, by signaling via the activation of Smad transcription factors, induces the expression of many diverse downstream target genes thereby regulating a vast array of cellular events essential for proper development and homeostasis. In order for a specific cell type to properly interpret the Tgf-β signal and elicit a specific cellular response, cell-specific transcriptional co-factors often cooperate with the Smads to activate a discrete set of genes in the appropriate temporal and spatial manner. Here, via a conditional knockout approach, we show that mice mutant for Forkhead Box O transcription factor FoxO1 exhibit an enamel hypomaturation defect which phenocopies that of the Smad3 mutant mice. Furthermore, we determined that both the FoxO1 and Smad3 mutant teeth exhibit changes in the expression of similar cohort of genes encoding enamel matrix proteins required for proper enamel development. These data raise the possibility that FoxO1 and Smad3 act in concert to regulate a common repertoire of genes necessary for complete enamel maturation. This study is the first to define an essential role for the FoxO family of transcription factors in tooth development and provides a new molecular entry point which will allow researchers to delineate novel genetic pathways regulating the process of biomineralization which may also have significance for studies of human tooth diseases such as amelogenesis imperfecta.

  20. Persistence of plasmids, cholera toxin genes, and prophage DNA in classical Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, W L; Wachsmuth, K; Johnson, S R; Birkness, K A; Samadi, A R

    1984-07-01

    Plasmid profiles, the location of cholera toxin subunit A genes, and the presence of the defective VcA1 prophage genome in classical Vibrio cholerae isolated from patients in Bangladesh in 1982 were compared with those in older classical strains isolated during the sixth pandemic and with those in selected eltor and nontoxigenic O1 isolates. Classical strains typically had two plasmids (21 and 3 megadaltons), eltor strains typically had no plasmids, and nontoxigenic O1 strains had zero to three plasmids. The old and new isolates of classical V. cholerae had two HindIII chromosomal digest fragments containing cholera toxin subunit A genes, whereas the eltor strains from Eastern countries had one fragment. The eltor strains from areas surrounding the Gulf of Mexico also had two subunit A gene fragments, which were smaller and easily distinguished from the classical pattern. All classical strains had 8 to 10 HindIII fragments containing the defective VcA1 prophage genome; none of the Eastern eltor strains had these genes, and the Gulf Coast eltor strains contained a different array of weakly hybridizing genes. These data suggest that the recent isolates of classical cholera in Bangladesh are closely related to the bacterial strain(s) which caused classical cholera during the sixth pandemic. These data do not support hypotheses that either the eltor or the nontoxigenic O1 strains are precursors of the new classical strains.

  1. Alcohol alters hepatic FoxO1, p53, and mitochondrial SIRT5 deacetylation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieber, Charles S.; Leo, Maria Anna; Wang, Xiaolei; DeCarli, Leonore M.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption affects the gene expression of a NAD-dependent deacetylase Sirtuis 1 (SIRT1) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator1α (PGC-1α). Our aim was to verify that it also alters the forkhead (FoxO1) and p53 transcription factor proteins, critical in the hepatic response to oxidative stress and regulated by SIRT1 through its deacetylating capacity. Accordingly, rats were pair-fed the Lieber-DeCarli alcohol-containing liquid diets for 28 days. Alcohol increased hepatic mRNA expression of FoxO1 (p = 0.003) and p53 (p = 0.001) while corresponding protein levels remained unchanged. However phospho-FoxO1 and phospho-Akt (protein kinase) were both decreased by alcohol consumption (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively) while hepatic p53 was found hyperacetylated (p = 0.017). Furthermore, mitochondrial SIRT5 was reduced (p = 0.0025), and PGC-1α hyperacetylated (p = 0.027), establishing their role in protein modification. Thus, alcohol consumption disrupts nuclear-mitochondrial interactions by post-translation protein modifications, which contribute to alteration of mitochondrial biogenesis through the newly discovered reduction of SIRT5

  2. Tiempo de excreción de Vibrio cholerae O1 en pacientes con tratamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Castañeda

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available El tiempo de excreción del Vibrio cholerae O1 en pacientes con cólera está influenciado por el tratamiento antimicrobiano. Se determinó en un grupo de pacientes con diagnóstico bacteriológico de cólera, que empezaron a recibir tratamiento con antibióticos una vez establecido el diagnóstico clínico, el tiempo de excreción del V. cholerae O1 empleando muestras de materia fecal obtenidas dentro de los cinco días siguientes al diagnóstico clínico inicial. En las 32 muestras obtenidas en ese período de cinco días el porcentaje de negativos fue del 81,2% (26/ 32; en 21 muestras obtenidas 24 horas después de haberse establecido el diagnóstico, se observó negativización en el 81% (17/21. Con nuestros datos podemos confirmar, al compararlos con los datos de la literatura en pacientes no tratados, que el tratamiento acorta el periodo de excreción del V. cholerae O1.

  3. Low-Temperature Experimental and Theoretical Rate Constants for the O(1D) + H2 Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Kevin M; Suleimanov, Yury V

    2017-03-09

    In the present joint experimental and theoretical study, we report thermal rate constants for the O( 1 D) + H 2 reaction within the 50-300 K temperature range. Experimental kinetics measurements were performed using a continuous supersonic flow reactor coupled with pulsed laser photolysis for O( 1 D) production and pulsed laser-induced fluorescence in the vacuum ultraviolet wavelength range (VUV LIF) for O( 1 D) detection. Theoretical rate constants were obtained using the ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) approach over the two lowest potential energy surfaces 1 1 A' and 1 1 A″, which possess barrierless and thermally activated energy profiles, respectively. Both the experimental and theoretical rate constants exhibit a weak temperature dependence. The theoretical results show the dominant role of the 1 1 A' ground state and that contribution of the 1 1 A″ excited state to the total thermal rate decreases dramatically at lower temperature. Agreement between the experimental and theoretical results is good, and the discrepancy does not exceed 25%. It is argued that these differences are likely to be due to nonadiabatic couplings between the 1 1 A' and 2 1 A' surfaces.

  4. An Oblivious O(1)-Approximation for Single Source Buy-at-Bulk

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-10-01

    We consider the single-source (or single-sink) buy-at-bulk problem with an unknown concave cost function. We want to route a set of demands along a graph to or from a designated root node, and the cost of routing x units of flow along an edge is proportional to some concave, non-decreasing function f such that f(0) = 0. We present a polynomial time algorithm that finds a distribution over trees such that the expected cost of a tree for any f is within an O(1)-factor of the optimum cost for that f. The previous best simultaneous approximation for this problem, even ignoring computation time, was O(log |D|), where D is the multi-set of demand nodes. We design a simple algorithmic framework using the ellipsoid method that finds an O(1)-approximation if one exists, and then construct a separation oracle using a novel adaptation of the Guha, Meyerson, and Munagala [10] algorithm for the single-sink buy-at-bulk problem that proves an O(1) approximation is possible for all f. The number of trees in the support of the distribution constructed by our algorithm is at most 1 + log |D|. © 2009 IEEE.

  5. Vibrio cholerae O1 secretes an extracellular matrix in response to antibody-mediated agglutination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E Baranova

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae O1 is one of two serogroups responsible for epidemic cholera, a severe watery diarrhea that occurs after the bacterium colonizes the human small intestine and secretes a potent ADP-ribosylating toxin. Immunity to cholera is associated with intestinal anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS antibodies, which are known to inhibit V. cholerae motility and promote bacterial cell-cell crosslinking and aggregation. Here we report that V. cholerae O1 classical and El Tor biotypes produce an extracellular matrix (ECM when forcibly immobilized and agglutinated by ZAC-3 IgG, an intestinally-derived monoclonal antibody (MAb against the core/lipid A region of LPS. ECM secretion, as demonstrated by crystal violet staining and scanning electron microscopy, occurred within 30 minutes of antibody exposure and peaked by 3 hours. Non-motile mutants of V. cholerae did not secrete ECM following ZAC-3 IgG exposure, even though they were susceptible to agglutination. The ECM was enriched in O-specific polysaccharide (OSP but not Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS. Finally, we demonstrate that ECM production by V. cholerae in response to ZAC-3 IgG was associated with bacterial resistant to a secondary complement-mediated attack. In summary, we propose that V. cholerae O1, upon encountering anti-LPS antibodies in the intestinal lumen, secretes an ECM (or O-antigen capsule possibly as a strategy to shield itself from additional host immune factors and to exit an otherwise inhospitable host environment.

  6. Genetic characterization of ØVC8 lytic phage for Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Sánchez, Alejandro; Hernández-Chiñas, Ulises; Navarro-Ocaña, Armando; De la Mora, Javier; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Eslava-Campos, Carlos

    2016-03-22

    Epidemics and pandemics of cholera, a diarrheal disease, are attributed to Vibrio cholera serogroups O1 and O139. In recent years, specific lytic phages of V. cholera have been proposed to be important factors in the cyclic occurrence of cholera in endemic areas. However, the role and potential participation of lytic phages during long interepidemic periods of cholera in non-endemic regions have not yet been described. The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize specific lytic phages of V. cholera O1 strains. Sixteen phages were isolated from wastewater samples collected at the Endhó Dam in Hidalgo State, Mexico, concentrated with PEG/NaCl, and purified by density gradient. The lytic activity of the purified phages was tested using different V. cholerae O1 and O139 strains. Phage morphology was visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and phage genome sequencing was performed using the Genome Analyzer IIx System. Genome assembly and bioinformatics analysis were performed using a set of high-throughput programs. Phage structural proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Sixteen phages with lytic and lysogenic activity were isolated; only phage ØVC8 showed specific lytic activity against V. cholerae O1 strains. TEM images of ØVC8 revealed a phage with a short tail and an isometric head. The ØVC8 genome comprises linear double-stranded DNA of 39,422 bp with 50.8 % G + C. Of the 48 annotated ORFs, 16 exhibit homology with sequences of known function and several conserved domains. Bioinformatics analysis showed multiple conserved domains, including an Ig domain, suggesting that ØVC8 might adhere to different mucus substrates such as the human intestinal epithelium. The results suggest that ØVC8 genome utilize the "single-stranded cohesive ends" packaging strategy of the lambda-like group. The two structural proteins sequenced and analyzed are proteins of known function. ØVC8 is a lytic phage with specific activity against V. cholerae

  7. {\\rm{ZnO}}_{1-{{x}}}{\\rm{Te}}_{{{x}}} and {\\rm{ZnO}}_{1-{{x}}}\\rm{S}_{{{x}}} semiconductor alloys as competent materials for opto-electronic and solar cell applications: a comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Utsa; Pal, Partha P.

    2017-08-01

    ZnO1-x Te x ternary alloys have great potential to work as a photovoltaic (PV) absorber in solar cells. ZnO1-x S x is also a ZnO based alloy that have uses in solar cells. In this paper we report the comparative study of various parameters of ZnO1-x Te x and ZnO1-x S x for selecting it to be a competent material for solar cell applications. The parameters are mainly being calculated using the well-known VCA (virtual crystal approximation) and VBAC (Valence Band Anti-Crossing) model. It was certainly being analysed that the incorporation of Te atoms produces a high band gap lower than S atoms in the host ZnO material. The spin-orbit splitting energy value of ZnO1-x Te x was found to be higher than that of ZnO1-x S x . Beside this, the strain effects are also higher in ZnO1-x Te x than ZnO1-x S x . The remarkable notifying result which the paper is reporting is that at a higher percentage of Te atoms in ZnO1-x Te x , the spin-orbit splitting energy value rises above the band gap value, which signifies a very less internal carrier recombination that decreases the leakage current and increases the efficiency of the solar cell. Moreover, it also covers a wide wavelength range compared to ZnO1-x S x .

  8. ZnO1-xTex and ZnO1-xSx semiconductor alloys as competent materials for opto-electronic and solar cell applications: a comparative analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Utsa Das; Partha P.Pal

    2017-01-01

    ZnO1-xTex ternary alloys have great potential to work as a photovoltaic (PV) absorber in solar cells.ZnO1-xSx is also a ZnO based alloy that have uses in solar cells.In this paper we report the comparative study of various parameters of ZnO1-xTex and ZnO1-xSx for selecting it to be a competent material for solar cell applications.The parameters are mainly being calculated using the well-known VCA (virtual crystal approximation) and VBAC (Valence Band Anti-Crossing) model.It was certainly being analysed that the incorporation of Te atoms produces a high band gap lower than S atoms in the host ZnO material.The spin-orbit splitting energy value of ZnO1-xTex was found to be higher than that of ZnO1-xSx.Beside this,the strain effects are also higher in ZnO1-xTex than ZnO1-xSx.The remarkable notifying result which the paper is reporting is that at a higher percentage of Te atoms in ZnO1-xTex,the spin-orbit splitting energy value rises above the band gap value,which signifies a very less internal carrier recombination that decreases the leakage current and increases the efficiency of the solar ceil.Moreover,it also covers a wide wavelength range compared to ZnO1-xSx.

  9. Estudo da radiosensibilidade ao 60CO do Vibrio cholerae O1 incorporado em ostras Radiosensibility of Vibrio cholerae o1 incorporated in oysters, to 60CO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivany R de Moraes

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficiência da radiação ionizante por 60CO na eliminação de Vibrio cholerae O1, El Tor Ogawa, não-toxigênico, incorporados laboratorialmente em ostras vivas da espécie Crassostrea brasiliana. MÉTODO: Foram selecionadas amostras de ostras provenientes de Canan��ia (litoral sul de São Paulo, Brasil, as quais foram contaminadas com Vibrio cholerae e irradiadas com doses de 0,5 kGy e 1,0 kGy. RESULTADOS: Foram observadas diminuições significativas do número inicial do microrganismo indicado: de 3,4.10(7 para 10³ e 10², respectivamente. Os valores de D10 correspondentes foram de 0,173 a 0,235. CONCLUSÃO: Adotando-se o fator 6 como nível de segurança, conclui-se que a dose de irradiação de 1,41 kGy é necessária para eliminar números elevados de células viáveis de V. cholerae em ostras. Os experimentos foram realizados com os controles respectivos.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of ionizing irradiation by 60Co on Vibrio cholerae O1, El-Tor, Ogawa, non-toxigenic, incorporated in live oysters Crassostrea brasiliana. METHODS: Samples of oysters were selected from Cananéia town in the South coast of S. Paulo state, Brazil, contaminated with Vibrio cholerae and irradiated with 60Co at 0.5 and 1.0 kGy dosages. RESULTS: Showed significant reductions of the initial number of V. cholerae , ranging from 3.4 x10(7 to 10³ and 10², respectively. The D10 values related with the respective doses of irradiation were 0.173 and 0.235. CONCLUSION: Considering a 6 value as safety factor, it is concluded that 1.41 kGy irradiation dosage is necessary to eliminate a high number of V. cholerae viable cells in oysters. Controls were used in the experiment.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A YERSINIA RUCKERI O1 BIOTYPE 2 WATERBORNE CHALLENGE MODEL FOR FUTURE ERM VACCINE TESTING IN RAINBOW TROUT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Strøm, Helene; Aalbæk, Bent; Otani, Maki

    Yersinia ruckeri (Y.r.) O1 biotype (bt) 2 causes outbreaks of Enteric Redmouth disease (ERM) in vaccinated, farmed rainbow trout around the world. Y.r. O1 bt 1 has been known since first described from the Hagerman Valley in Idaho in the 1950’s and outbreaks have now been controlled by vaccination...... for more than 35 years. Recent years have shown ERM outbreaks caused by Y.r. O1 bt 2 reported from ERM vaccinated farmed rainbow trout stocks in both Europe and the USA. It has been suggested that Y.r. O1 bt 2 is more virulent than bt 1. In order to test this hypothesis we have collected Y.r. O1 isolates...

  11. (2-Formyl-6-methoxyphenolato-κ2O1,O2(perchlorato-κO(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2N,N′copper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Wu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecule, [Cu(C8H7O3(ClO4(C12H8N2], the CuII ion is five-coordinated by two N atoms [Cu—N = 1.995 (3 and 2.022 (3 Å] from a 1,10-phenanthroline ligand, two O atoms [Cu—O = 1.908 (2 and 1.927 (2 Å] from an o-vanillin ligand and one O atom [Cu—O = 2.510 (3 Å] from a perchlorate anion in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. Three O atoms of the perchlorate anion are rotationally disordered between two orientations, with occupancies of 0.525 (13 and 0.475 (13. In the crystal structure, two molecules related by a centre of symmetry are paired in such a way that the phenolate O atom from one molecule completes the distorted octahedral Cu coordination in another molecule [Cu...O = 2.704 (2 Å].

  12. O Serogroup-Specific Touchdown-Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detection and Identification of Vibrio cholerae O1, O139, and Non-O1/Non-O139

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, sensitive locus-specific touchdown-multiplex polymerase chain reaction (TMPCR, which is based on two-stage amplification pertaining to multiplex PCR and conditional touchdown strategy, was used in detecting and differentiating Vibrio cholerae serogroups. A panel of molecular marker-based TMPCR method generates reproducible profiles of V. cholerae-specific (588 bp amplicons derived from ompW gene encoding the outer membrane protein and serogroup-specific amplicons, 364 bp for the O1 and 256 bp for the O139, authentically copied from rfb genes responsible for the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. The TMPCR amplification efficiency yields either equally or unequally detectable duplex DNA bands of the O1 (588 and 364 bp and O139 (588 and 256 bp or a DNA fragment of non-O1/non-O139 (588 bp while providing no false positive identifications using the genomic DNA templates of the other vibrios and Enterobacteriaceae. The reciprocal analysis of two-template combinations demonstrated that, using V. cholerae O1, O139, or equally mixed O1 and O139, the TMPCR had a detection limit of as low as 100 pg of the O1, O139, or non-O1/non-O139 in reactions containing unequally or equally mixed gDNAs. In addition, the O serogroup-specific TMPCR method had 100% agreement with the serotyping method when examined for the serotyped V. cholerae reference strains and those recovered from clinical samples. The potential benefit of using this TMPCR tool would augment the serotyping method used in epidemiological surveillance and monitoring of V. cholerae serogroups, O1, O139, and non-O1/non-O139 present in clinical and environmental samples.

  13. Vibrio cholerae O1 epidemic variants in Angola: a retrospective study between 1992 and 2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy eValia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cholera is still a major public health concern in many African countries. In Angola, after a decade of absence, cholera reemerged in 1987, spreading throughout the country until 1996, with outbreaks recurring in a seasonal pattern. In 2006 Angola was hit by one of the most severe outbreaks of the last decade, with ca. 240,000 cases reported.We analyzed 21 clinical strains isolated between 1992 and 2006 from several provinces throughout the country: Benguela, Bengo, Luanda, Cuando Cubango and Cabinda. We used two multiplex PCR assays to investigate discriminatory mobile genetic elements (ICEs, VSP-II, GI12, GI14, GI15, K and TLC phages and we compared the profiles obtained with those of different reference V. cholerae O1 variants (prototypical, altered and hybrid, responsible for the ongoing 7th pandemic. We also tested the strains for the presence of specific VSP-II variants and for the presence of a genomic island (WASA-1, correlated with the transmission of seventh pandemic cholera from Africa to South America. Based on the presence/absence of the analyzed genetic elements, five novel profiles were detected in the epidemic strains circulating in the 1990s. The most frequent profiles, F and G, were characterized by the absence of ICEs and the three GIs tested, and the presence of genomic island WASA-1 and the WASA variant of the VSP-II island. Our results identified unexpected variability within the 1990s epidemic, showing different rearrangements in a dynamic part of the genome not present in the prototypical V. cholerae O1 N16961. Moreover the 2006 strains differed from the current pandemic V. cholerae O1 strain. Taken together, our results highlight the role of horizontal gene transfer in diversifying the genetic background of V. cholerae within a single epidemic.

  14. Vibrio cholerae O1 epidemic variants in Angola: a retrospective study between 1992 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valia, Romy; Taviani, Elisa; Spagnoletti, Matteo; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Cappuccinelli, Piero; Colombo, Mauro M

    2013-01-01

    Cholera is still a major public health concern in many African countries. In Angola, after a decade of absence, cholera reemerged in 1987, spreading throughout the country until 1996, with outbreaks recurring in a seasonal pattern. In 2006 Angola was hit by one of the most severe outbreaks of the last decade, with ca. 240,000 cases reported. We analyzed 21 clinical strains isolated between 1992 and 2006 from several provinces throughout the country: Benguela, Bengo, Luanda, Cuando Cubango, and Cabinda. We used two multiplex PCR assays to investigate discriminatory mobile genetic elements (MGE) [Integrative Conjugative Elements (ICEs), VSP-II, GI12, GI14, GI15, K, and TLC phages] and we compared the profiles obtained with those of different reference V. cholerae O1 variants (prototypical, altered, and hybrid), responsible for the ongoing 7th pandemic. We also tested the strains for the presence of specific VSP-II variants and for the presence of a genomic island (GI) (WASA-1), correlated with the transmission of seventh pandemic cholera from Africa to South America. Based on the presence/absence of the analyzed genetic elements, five novel profiles were detected in the epidemic strains circulating in the 1990s. The most frequent profiles, F and G, were characterized by the absence of ICEs and the three GIs tested, and the presence of GI WASA-1 and the WASA variant of the VSP-II island. Our results identified unexpected variability within the 1990s epidemic, showing different rearrangements in a dynamic part of the genome not present in the prototypical V. cholerae O1 N16961. Moreover the 2006 strains differed from the current pandemic V. cholerae O1 strain. Taken together, our results highlight the role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in diversifying the genetic background of V. cholerae within a single epidemic.

  15. Benzyl isothiocyanate causes FoxO1-mediated autophagic death in human breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xiao

    Full Text Available Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC, a constituent of edible cruciferous vegetables, inhibits growth of breast cancer cells but the mechanisms underlying growth inhibitory effect of BITC are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that BITC treatment causes FoxO1-mediated autophagic death in cultured human breast cancer cells. The BITC-treated breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, MDA-MB-468, BT-474, and BRI-JM04 and MDA-MB-231 xenografts from BITC-treated mice exhibited several features characteristic of autophagy, including appearance of double-membrane vacuoles (transmission electron microscopy and acidic vesicular organelles (acridine orange staining, cleavage of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3, and/or suppression of p62 (p62/SQSTM1 or sequestosome 1 expression. On the other hand, a normal human mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A was resistant to BITC-induced autophagy. BITC-mediated inhibition of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell viability was partially but statistically significantly attenuated in the presence of autophagy inhibitors 3-methyl adenine and bafilomycin A1. Stable overexpression of Mn-superoxide dismutase, which was fully protective against apoptosis, conferred only partial protection against BITC-induced autophagy. BITC treatment decreased phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream targets (P70s6k and 4E-BP1 in cultured MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-231 xenografts, but activation of mTOR by transient overexpression of its positive regulator Rheb failed to confer protection against BITC-induced autophagy. Autophagy induction by BITC was associated with increased expression and acetylation of FoxO1. Furthermore, autophagy induction and cell growth inhibition resulting from BITC exposure were significantly attenuated by small interfering RNA knockdown of FoxO1. In conclusion, the present study provides novel insights into the molecular circuitry of BITC-induced cell death involving FoxO1-mediated autophagy.

  16. Clonal relationship among Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrascia, Maria; Pugliese, Nicola; Maimone, Francesco; Mohamud, Kadigia A; Grimont, Patrick A D; Materu, Sadiki F; Pazzani, Carlo

    2009-03-01

    One hundred and three Vibrio cholerae O1 strains, selected to represent the cholera outbreaks which occurred in Somalia in 1998-1999, were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns, ribotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility. All strains showed a unique amplified DNA pattern and 2 closely related ribotypes (B5a and B8a), among which B5a was the more frequently identified. Ninety-one strains were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim, conferred, except for spectinomycin, by a conjugative plasmid IncC. These findings indicated that the group of strains active in Somalia in the late 1990s had a clonal origin.

  17. Two-body relativistic scattering with an O(1,1)-symmetric square-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshansky, R.; Horwitz, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Scattering theory in the framework of a relativistic manifestly covariant quantum mechanics is applied to the relativistic analog of the nonrelativistic one-dimensional square-well potential, a two-body O(1,1)-symmetric hyperbolic square well in one space and one time dimension. The unitary S matrix is explicitly obtained. For well sizes large compared to the de Broglie wavelength of the reduced motion system, simple formulas are obtained for the associated sequence of resonances. This sequence has equally spaced levels and constant widths for higher resonances, and linearly increasing widths for lower-lying levels

  18. A tracking detector to study O (1 GeV) νμ CC interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, P.; Marsella, G.; Cecchini, S.; Cindolo, F.; D'Antone, I.; Esposti, L. Degli; Lax, I.; Mandrioli, G.; Mauri, N.; Pasqualini, L.; Patrizii, L.; Pozzato, M.; Sirri, G.; Surdo, A.; Tenti, M.

    2017-01-01

    A tracking system composed of planes of triangular shape scintillator bars coupled to Silicon PhotoMultipliers in analog mode read-out has been developed for applications in neutrino experiments. A spatial resolution of O (1 mm) is required for the determination of momentum and charge of muons produced in ν μ CC interactions at few GeV energy scale. The performance of the system has been studied by exposing it to charged particle beams at the CERN-PS. Preliminary results are discussed.

  19. Charge Fluctuations in the NdO1-xFxBiS2 Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athauda, Anushika; Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu; Nagao, Masanori; Neuefeind, Joerg; Louca, Despina

    2017-12-01

    The local atomic structure of superconducting NdO1-xFxBiS2 (x = 0.2 and 0.4) is investigated using neutron diffraction and the pair density function analysis technique. In the non-superconducting x = 0.2 composition, ferrodistortive displacements of the pyramidal sulfur ions break the tetragonal symmetry and a superlattice structure emerges with peaks appearing at h + k odd reflections superimposed on the even reflections of the P4/nmm symmetry. In the superconducting x = 0.4 composition, similar ferrodistortive displacements are observed but with different magnitudes coupled with in-plane Bi distortions which are indicative of charge fluctuations.

  20. Ti 2p and O 1s core levels and chemical bonding in titanium-bearing oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atuchin, Victor V.; Kesler, Valery G.; Pervukhina, Natalia V.; Zhang, Zhaoming

    2006-01-01

    A set of available experimental data on the binding energies of Ti 2p 3/2 and O 1s core levels in titanium-bearing oxides has been presented by using the binding energy difference (O 1s-Ti 2p 3/2 ) as a robust parameter to characterize these compounds. An empirical relationship between the (O 1s-Ti 2p 3/2 ) values measured with XPS and the mean chemical bond length L(Ti-O) in these crystals has been discussed for Ti 4+ -compounds

  1. Ti 2p and O 1s core levels and chemical bonding in titanium-bearing oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atuchin, Victor V. [Laboratory of Optical Materials and Structures, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: atuchin@thermo.isp.nsc.ru; Kesler, Valery G. [Technical Centre, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Pervukhina, Natalia V. [Laboratory of Crystal Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Zhang, Zhaoming [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2006-06-15

    A set of available experimental data on the binding energies of Ti 2p{sub 3/2} and O 1s core levels in titanium-bearing oxides has been presented by using the binding energy difference (O 1s-Ti 2p{sub 3/2}) as a robust parameter to characterize these compounds. An empirical relationship between the (O 1s-Ti 2p{sub 3/2}) values measured with XPS and the mean chemical bond length L(Ti-O) in these crystals has been discussed for Ti{sup 4+}-compounds.

  2. Electrical and structural characteristics of spray deposited (Zn O)x-(Cd O)1-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarcon F, G.; Pelaez R, A.; Villa G, M.; Carmona T, S.; Luna G, J. A.; Aguilar F, M.; Vasquez P, B.; Falcony, C.

    2013-01-01

    (Zn O) x (Cd O) 1-x thin films were deposited on glass substrates at 300 and 400 C by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis with compositions ranging from Cd O to Zn O. The electrical properties were obtained by impedance spectroscopy and Hall Effect measurements. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, were used to study the structural characteristics of the films. Ellipsometry, in addition, was used to confirm the structural characteristics. The films as deposited resulted mainly polycrystalline and dense, depending on the substrate temperature and on their relative composition. All the films showed n-type conductivity and the films with intermediate compositions resulted in a mixture of both phases; Cd O and Zn O. Hall Effect measurements showed that the highest conductivity of Cd O was close to 1 x 10 3 (Ω-cm) -1 , the highest value obtained for Cd O, without doping. Impedance spectroscopy confirmed the Hall Effect results, showing that the highly conducting character of Cd O influenced dramatically the conductivity of the (Zn O) x (Cd O) 1-x films. In addition, depending on the substrate temperature and on the relative composition of the films, both, the bulk or grains, as well as the grain boundaries properties limit the conductivity in them. (Author)

  3. Survivability of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Cooked Rice, Coffee, and Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Yew Huat Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 in 3 types of preparation for cooked rice, Oryza sativa L., (plain rice, rice with coconut milk, and rice with ginger; coffee, Coffea canephora, (plain coffee, coffee with sugar, and coffee with sweetened condensed milk; and tea, Camellia sinensis, (plain tea, tea with sugar, and tea with sweetened condensed milk held at room temperature (27°C. The survival of V. cholerae O1 was determined by spread plate method on TCBS agar. Initial cultures of 8.00 log CFU/mL were inoculated into each food sample. After 6 h incubation, significant growth was only detected in rice with coconut milk (9.67 log CFU/mL; P<0.05. However, all 3 types of rice preparation showed significant growth of V. cholerae after 24 h (P<0.05. For coffee and tea preparations, V. cholerae survived up to 6 h in tea with condensed milk (4.72 log CFU/mL but not in similar preparation of coffee. This study showed evidence for the survivability of V. cholerae in rice, coffee, and tea. Thus, holding these food and beverages for an extended period of time at room temperature should be avoided.

  4. Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae O1 serogroup in Assam, India: A hospital-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajanta; Dutta, Bornali Sarmah; Rasul, Elmy Samsun; Barkataki, Dipa; Saikia, Anjanamoyee; Hazarika, Naba Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Although cholera remains to be an important public health problem, studies on reliable population-based estimates of laboratory confirmed cholera in endemic areas are limited worldwide. The aim of this hospital-based study was to evaluate the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae serogroup in Assam, India, during 2003-2013. Stool samples/rectal swabs were collected from acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) cases during 2003-2013 and processed by standard microbiological procedures. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Year-wise epidemiological trend of cholera was analyzed. Cholera contributed to 3.93 per cent of AWD cases. In Assam, cholera was found to be more prevalent in the rural areas (6.7%) followed by the tea gardens (5.06%), urban slum (1.9%) and urban areas (1.4%). Highest proportion of cholera (13.7%) was observed in 0-10 yr age group. Of them, 11.5 per cent belonged to 0-5 yr age group. V. cholerae O1 El Tor serotype Ogawa was the predominant isolate. Multiple drug-resistant isolates of V. cholerae O1 Ogawa were reported in the study. Emergence of resistance amongst V. cholerae towards many antibiotics is a matter of concern. Hence, continuous surveillance for diarrhoeal disorders is necessary to control the future outbreaks of cholera in this region.

  5. Solar photolysis of ozone to singlet D oxygen atoms, O(1D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Ground level solar photolysis rate coefficients (jO 3 ) were measured for the photolysis of ozone by sunlight, (O 3 + hnu( 2 + O( 1 D)). The O( 1 D) atoms produced react with nitrous oxide (N 2 O) carrier gas to form higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Computer model predictions show that these are mainly N 2 O 5 and NO 3 . Seventy five days of data were taken during the summer of 1983, at Ann Arbor, Michigan, and are presented in the appendix. Over 390 clear air jO 3 values are correlated with effective ozone column densities, and 500 nm aerosol optical depths. The solar direct beam component of ozone photolysis was measured for the different aerosol optical depths, over two entire days from sun-up to sun-down. Temperature dependence of jO 3 was measured from 10 0 C to 39 0 C with good agreement to models. Comparison of jO 3 versus global and ultraviolet radiation are made under various ozone column densities and aerosol optical depths. A jO 3 -photometer was built using an interference filter to pass only ozone photolyzing light. Improvements to instrumental parts are shown for balloon and aircraft flyable payloads

  6. Survivability of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Cooked Rice, Coffee, and Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, John Yew Huat; Izenty, Bariah Ibrahim; Nur' Izzati, Ahmad Juanda; Masran, Siti Rahmah; Yeo, Chew Chieng; Roslan, Arshad; Abu Bakar, Che Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 in 3 types of preparation for cooked rice, Oryza sativa L., (plain rice, rice with coconut milk, and rice with ginger); coffee, Coffea canephora, (plain coffee, coffee with sugar, and coffee with sweetened condensed milk); and tea, Camellia sinensis, (plain tea, tea with sugar, and tea with sweetened condensed milk) held at room temperature (27°C). The survival of V. cholerae O1 was determined by spread plate method on TCBS agar. Initial cultures of 8.00 log CFU/mL were inoculated into each food sample. After 6 h incubation, significant growth was only detected in rice with coconut milk (9.67 log CFU/mL; P < 0.05). However, all 3 types of rice preparation showed significant growth of V. cholerae after 24 h (P < 0.05). For coffee and tea preparations, V. cholerae survived up to 6 h in tea with condensed milk (4.72 log CFU/mL) but not in similar preparation of coffee. This study showed evidence for the survivability of V. cholerae in rice, coffee, and tea. Thus, holding these food and beverages for an extended period of time at room temperature should be avoided. PMID:26904604

  7. [Phenotypic diversity of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains identified in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuan; Zhang, Li; Li, Jie; Kan, Biao; Liang, Weili

    2014-05-01

    To understand the phenotypic diversity of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated from different provinces in China during the last 50 years. Traditional biotyping testings including susceptibility to polymyxin B, sensitivity to group IV phage, Voges-Proskauer test and haemolysis of sheep erythrocytes were conducted. Data from Biotype-specific phenotype analysis revealed that only 133 isolates carried the typical El Tor phenotypes while the other 251 isolates displayed atypical El Tor phenotypes. Combined with ctxB, rstR genotypes and phenotypic characteristics, 64 isolates were identified as typical El Tor biotype, 21 were El Tor variants that showing the typical El Tor biotype-specific phenotype but with ctxB(class). 280 isolates were defined as the hybrid groups with traits of both classical and El Tor biotypes that could be further classified into 45 groups, based on the combination of genotypes of ctxB, rstR and phenotypic characteristics. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains that isolated from different provinces in China displayed high phenotypic diversity. The traditional biotype traits could not be used to correctly distinguish the two different biotypes.

  8. Superconductivity at 43K in SmFeAsO1-xFx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. H.; Wu, T.; Wu, G.; Liu, R. H.; Chen, H.; Fang, D. F.

    2008-06-01

    Since the discovery of high-transition-temperature (high-Tc) superconductivity in layered copper oxides, extensive effort has been devoted to exploring the origins of this phenomenon. A Tc higher than 40K (about the theoretical maximum predicted from Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory), however, has been obtained only in the copper oxide superconductors. The highest reported value for non-copper-oxide bulk superconductivity is Tc = 39K in MgB2 (ref. 2). The layered rare-earth metal oxypnictides LnOFeAs (where Ln is La-Nd, Sm and Gd) are now attracting attention following the discovery of superconductivity at 26K in the iron-based LaO1-xFxFeAs (ref. 3). Here we report the discovery of bulk superconductivity in the related compound SmFeAsO1-xFx, which has a ZrCuSiAs-type structure. Resistivity and magnetization measurements reveal a transition temperature as high as 43K. This provides a new material base for studying the origin of high-temperature superconductivity.

  9. A density functional theory study of CO oxidation on CuO1-x(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing-Xing; Ye, Li-Ping; Gu, Hui-Jie; Huang, Jin-Hua; Li, Hui-Ying; Luo, Yong

    2015-08-01

    The surface structures, CO adsorption, and oxidation-reaction properties of CuO1-x(111) with different reduction degree have been investigated by using density functional theory including on-site Coulomb corrections (DFT + U). Results indicate that the reduction of Cu has a great influence on the adsorption of CO. Electron localization caused by the reduction turns Cu(2+) to Cu(+), which interacts much stronger with CO, and the adsorption strength of CO is related to the electronic interaction with the substrate as well as the structural relaxation. In particular, the electronic interaction is proved to be the decisive factor. The surfaces of CuO1-x(111) with different reduction degree all have good adsorption to CO. With the expansion of the surface reduction degree, the amount of CO that is stably adsorbed on the surface increases, while the number of surface active lattice O decreases. In general, the activity of CO oxidation first rises and then declines.

  10. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of pst2 operon expression in Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da C Leite, Daniel M; Barbosa, Livia C; Mantuano, Nathalia; Goulart, Carolina L; Veríssimo da Costa, Giovani C; Bisch, Paulo M; von Krüger, Wanda M A

    2017-07-01

    One of the most abundant proteins in V. cholerae O1 cells grown under inorganic phosphate (Pi) limitation is PstS, the periplasmic Pi-binding component of the high-affinity Pi transport system Pst2 (PstSCAB), encoded in pst2 operon (pstS-pstC2-pstA2-pstB2). Besides its role in Pi uptake, Pst2 has been also associated with V. cholerae virulence. However, the mechanisms regulating pst2 expression and the non-stoichiometric production of the Pst2 components under Pi-limitation are unknown. A computational-experimental approach was used to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms behind pst2 expression in V. cholerae O1. Bioinformatics analysis of pst2 operon nucleotide sequence revealed start codons for pstS and pstC genes distinct from those originally annotated, a regulatory region upstream pstS containing potential PhoB-binding sites and a pstS-pstC intergenic region longer than predicted. Analysis of nucleotide sequence between pstS-pstC revealed inverted repeats able to form stem-loop structures followed by a potential RNAse E-cleavage site. Another putative RNase E recognition site was identified within the pstA-pstB intergenic sequence. In silico predictions of pst2 operon expression regulation were subsequently tested using cells grown under Pi limitation by promoter-lacZ fusion, gel electrophoresis mobility shift assay and quantitative RT-PCR. The experimental and in silico results matched very well and led us to propose a pst2 promoter sequence upstream of pstS gene distinct from the previously annotated. Furthermore, V. cholerae O1 pst2 operon transcription is PhoB-dependent and generates a polycistronic mRNA molecule that is rapidly processed into minor transcripts of distinct stabilities. The most stable was the pstS-encoding mRNA, which correlates with PstS higher levels relative to other Pst2 components in Pi-starved cells. The relatively higher stability of pstS and pstB transcripts seems to rely on the secondary structures at their 3' untranslated regions

  11. Synthesis, characterization and thermal expansion studies on ThO2-SmO1.5 solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panneerselvam, G.; Antony, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A highly homogeneous Th 1-x Sm x O 2 ; 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8 solid solutions were synthesized by co-precipitation technique and the co-precipitated samples were sintered at 1473 K. Compositions of the solid solutions were characterized by standard wet-chemical analysis. X-ray diffraction measurements were performed in the sintered pellets for structural analysis, lattice parameter calculation and determination of solid solubility of SmO 1.5 in ThO 2 matrix. Bulk and theoretical densities of solid solutions were also determined. A fluorite structure was observed for ThO 2 -SmO 1.5 solid solutions with 0-55.2 mol % SmO 1.5 . Their thermal expansion coefficients were measured using high temperature X-ray diffraction technique. The mean linear thermal expansivity, αm for ThO 2 -SmO 1.5 solid solutions containing 17.9, 41.7 and 52.0 mole percent of SmO 1.5 were determined in the temperature range 298 to 2000 K for the first time. The mean linear thermal expansion coefficients for ThO 2 -SmO 1.5 solid solutions are 10.47x10 -6 K -1 , 11.16x10 -6 K -1 and 11.45x10 -6 K -1 , respectively. The percentage linear thermal expansion in this temperature range, for ThO 2 -SmO 1.5 solid solutions containing 17.9, 41.7 and 52.0 mol % SmO 1.5 are 1.82,1.94 and 1.99 respectively. It is suggested that the solid solutions are stable up to 2000 K. It is also suggested that the effect and nature of the dopant are the important parameters influenced in the thermal expansion of the ThO 2

  12. FoxO1 gain of function in the pancreas causes glucose intolerance, polycystic pancreas, and islet hypervascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Kikuchi

    Full Text Available Genetic studies revealed that the ablation of insulin/IGF-1 signaling in the pancreas causes diabetes. FoxO1 is a downstream transcription factor of insulin/IGF-1 signaling. We previously reported that FoxO1 haploinsufficiency restored β cell mass and rescued diabetes in IRS2 knockout mice. However, it is still unclear whether FoxO1 dysregulation in the pancreas could be the cause of diabetes. To test this hypothesis, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing constitutively active FoxO1 specifically in the pancreas (TG. TG mice had impaired glucose tolerance and some of them indeed developed diabetes due to the reduction of β cell mass, which is associated with decreased Pdx1 and MafA in β cells. We also observed increased proliferation of pancreatic duct epithelial cells in TG mice and some mice developed a polycystic pancreas as they aged. Furthermore, TG mice exhibited islet hypervascularities due to increased VEGF-A expression in β cells. We found FoxO1 binds to the VEGF-A promoter and regulates VEGF-A transcription in β cells. We propose that dysregulation of FoxO1 activity in the pancreas could account for the development of diabetes and pancreatic cysts.

  13. Genomic epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae O1 associated with floods, Pakistan, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Muhammad Ali; Mutreja, Ankur; Thomson, Nicholas; Baker, Stephen; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon; Bokhari, Habib; Wren, Brendan W

    2014-01-01

    In August 2010, Pakistan experienced major floods and a subsequent cholera epidemic. To clarify the population dynamics and transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Pakistan, we sequenced the genomes of all V. cholerae O1 El Tor isolates and compared the sequences to a global collection of 146 V. cholerae strains. Within the global phylogeny, all isolates from Pakistan formed 2 new subclades (PSC-1 and PSC-2), lying in the third transmission wave of the seventh-pandemic lineage that could be distinguished by signature deletions and their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Geographically, PSC-1 isolates originated from the coast, whereas PSC-2 isolates originated from inland areas flooded by the Indus River. Single-nucleotide polymorphism accumulation analysis correlated river flow direction with the spread of PSC-2. We found at least 2 sources of cholera in Pakistan during the 2010 epidemic and illustrate the value of a global genomic data bank in contextualizing cholera outbreaks.

  14. El Tor hemolysin of Vibrio cholerae O1 forms channels in planar lipid bilayer membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikigai, H; Ono, T; Iwata, M; Nakae, T; Shimamura, T

    1997-05-15

    We investigated the channel formation by El Tor hemolysin (molecular mass, 65 kDa) of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor in planar lipid bilayers. The El Tor hemolysin channel exhibited asymmetric and hyperbolic membrane current with increasing membrane potential, meaning that the channel is voltage dependent. The zero-current membrane potential measured in KCI solution showed that permeability ratio PK+/PCl- was 0.16, indicating that the channel is 6-fold more anion selective over cation. The hemolysin channel frequently flickered in the presence of divalent cations, suggesting that the channel spontaneously opens and closes. These data imply that the El Tor hemolysin damages target cells by the formation of transmembrane channels and, consequently, is the cause of osmotic cytolysis.

  15. Doping dependent nonlinear Hall effect in SmFeAsO1-xFx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggs, Scott C; Kemper, J B; Stegen, Z; Boebinger, G S; McDonald, R D; Balakirev, F F; Kohama, Y; Migliori, A; Chen, H; Liu, R H; Chen, X H

    2009-01-01

    We report the Hall resistivity, ρ xy , of polycrystalline SmFeAsO 1-x F x for four different fluorine concentrations from the onset of superconductivity through the collapse of the structural phase transition. For the two more highly doped samples, ρ xy is linear in magnetic field up to 50 T with only weak temperature dependence, reminiscent of a simple Fermi liquid. For the lightly doped samples with x xy (H) being both nonlinear in magnetic field and strongly temperature-dependent even though the Hall angle is small. The onset temperature for this nonlinear regime is in the vicinity of the structural phase (SPT)/magnetic ordering (MO) transitions. The temperature dependence of the Hall resistivity is consistent with a thermal activation of carriers across an energy gap. The evolution of the energy gap with doping is reported. (fast track communication)

  16. Genomic Epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae O1 Associated with Floods, Pakistan, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Muhammad Ali; Mutreja, Ankur; Thomson, Nicholas; Baker, Stephen; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon; Bokhari, Habib

    2014-01-01

    In August 2010, Pakistan experienced major floods and a subsequent cholera epidemic. To clarify the population dynamics and transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Pakistan, we sequenced the genomes of all V. cholerae O1 El Tor isolates and compared the sequences to a global collection of 146 V. cholerae strains. Within the global phylogeny, all isolates from Pakistan formed 2 new subclades (PSC-1 and PSC-2), lying in the third transmission wave of the seventh-pandemic lineage that could be distinguished by signature deletions and their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Geographically, PSC-1 isolates originated from the coast, whereas PSC-2 isolates originated from inland areas flooded by the Indus River. Single-nucleotide polymorphism accumulation analysis correlated river flow direction with the spread of PSC-2. We found at least 2 sources of cholera in Pakistan during the 2010 epidemic and illustrate the value of a global genomic data bank in contextualizing cholera outbreaks. PMID:24378019

  17. NMR study of spin fluctuations and superconductivity in LaFeAsO1-xHx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Naoki; Sakurai, Ryosuke; Iimura, Soushi; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo; Yamakawa, Yoichi; Kontani, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    We have performed NMR measurements in LaFeAsO1-xHx, an isomorphic compound of LaFeAsO1-xFx. LaFeAsO1-xHx is most recently known for having double superconducting (SC) domes on H doping. LaFeAsO1-xHx is an electron- doped system, and protons act as H-1 as well as F-1. The first SC dome is very similar between F and H doping, suggesting that H doping supplies the same amount of electrons as F doping. Interestingly, an excess amount of H up to x=0.5 can be replaced with O2-. In the H-overdoped regime (x > 0 . 2), LaFeAsO1-xHx undergoes the second superconducting state. We measured the relaxation rate of LaFeAsO1-xHx for x=0.2 and 0.4, and fond an anomalous electronic state; spin fluctuations measured from 1 /T1 T is enhanced with increasing the doping level from x = 0 . 2 to 0.4. The enhancement of spin fluctuations with increasing carrier doping is a new phenomenon that has not observed in LaFeAsO1-xFx in which the upper limit of the doping level is at most x = 0 . 2 . We will discuss the phenomenon in relation to superconductivity. Grant (KAKENHI 23340101) from the Ministry of Education, Sports and Science, Japan

  18. Constraining Cometary Crystal Shapes from IR Spectral Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, D. H.; Lindsay, S.; Harker, D. E.; Kelley, M. S.; Woodward, C. E.; Murphy, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    A major challenge in deriving the silicate mineralogy of comets is ascertaining how the anisotropic nature of forsterite crystals affects the spectral features' wavelength, relative intensity, and asymmetry. Forsterite features are identified in cometary comae near 10, 11.05-11.2, 16, 19, 23.5, 27.5 and 33 μm [1-10], so accurate models for forsterite's absorption efficiency (Qabs) are a primary requirement to compute IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs, λFλ vs. λ) and constrain the silicate mineralogy of comets. Forsterite is an anisotropic crystal, with three crystallographic axes with distinct indices of refraction for the a-, b-, and c-axis. The shape of a forsterite crystal significantly affects its spectral features [13-16]. We need models that account for crystal shape. The IR absorption efficiencies of forsterite are computed using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) code DDSCAT [11,12]. Starting from a fiducial crystal shape of a cube, we systematically elongate/reduce one of the crystallographic axes. Also, we elongate/reduce one axis while the lengths of the other two axes are slightly asymmetric (0.8:1.2). The most significant grain shape characteristic that affects the crystalline spectral features is the relative lengths of the crystallographic axes. The second significant grain shape characteristic is breaking the symmetry of all three axes [17]. Synthetic spectral energy distributions using seven crystal shape classes [17] are fit to the observed SED of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). The Hale-Bopp crystalline residual better matches equant, b-platelets, c-platelets, and b-columns spectral shape classes, while a-platelets, a-columns and c-columns worsen the spectral fits. Forsterite condensation and partial evaporation experiments demonstrate that environmental temperature and grain shape are connected [18-20]. Thus, grain shape is a potential probe for protoplanetary disk temperatures where the cometary crystalline forsterite formed. The

  19. AN ANALYSIS OF CO PRODUCTION IN COMETARY COMAE: CONTRIBUTIONS FROM GAS-PHASE PHENOMENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, Donna M.; A'Hearn, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the sources of CO in cometary comae is important for understanding comet chemistry and the roles comets have played in the development of the solar system. Among comets sampled to date, the CO abundances vary widely and no direct correlation of CO abundance with other known comet properties has been identified. The picture is complicated further by the discovery of CO production in the comae of some comets, most notably comets Halley and Hale-Bopp. In this study, we investigate the conditions under which CO can be produced in the coma via gas-phase phenomena. We include photochemistry of several parent molecules, as well as two-body chemical reactions that involve the parents and their photodissociative daughter and granddaughter products. We also consider the level of excitation of 'hot' hydrogen (H*) and O( 1 D) in the network, because the level of excitation of these reactants strongly influences reaction rates. Our results suggest that the dominant gas-phase contributor to CO formation is the photodissociation of H 2 CO. Even though typical abundances of H 2 CO are at ∼1% relative to water in the coma, it produces more CO than other processes due to its relatively short photodissociation lifetime. Because other studies have shown H 2 CO to have a distributed source as well, it suggests that at least some CO formation in the coma is connected to the H 2 CO distributed source. We take the time to examine the CO 2 /CO ratio and note that while the CO 2 /CO ratio in comets Halley, Hale-Bopp, and Hyakutake are noticeably different when only native CO is considered, the CO 2 /CO ratios show greater similarity when total CO is considered. Although this sample is relatively small, should the relatively similar CO 2 /CO Total ratio of ∼0.25 indeed be constant for comets with distributed CO sources, it suggests that the extended CO source of these comets is tied directly to the overall C, H, O chemistry of comets, as is likely to happen if hydrogenation

  20. Acetylation of FoxO1 Activates Bim Expression to Induce Apoptosis in Response to Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Depsipeptide Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors have been shown to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the mechanisms of HDAC inhibitor induced apoptosis are incompletely understood. In this study, depsipeptide, a novel HDAC inhibitor, was shown to be able to induce significant apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer cells. Further study showed that Bim, a BH3-only proapoptotic protein, was significantly upregulated by depsipeptide in cancer cells, and Bim's function in depsipeptide-induced apoptosis was confirmed by knockdown of Bim with RNAi. In addition, we found that depsipeptide-induced expression of Bim was directly dependent on acetylation of forkhead box class O1 (FoxO1 that is catalyzed by cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein-binding protein, and indirectly induced by a decreased four-and-a-half LIM-domain protein 2. Moreover, our results demonstrated that FoxO1 acetylation is required for the depsipeptide-induced activation of Bim and apoptosis, using transfection with a plasmid containing FoxO1 mutated at lysine sites and a luciferase reporter assay. These data show for the first time that an HDAC inhibitor induces apoptosis through the FoxO1 acetylation-Bim pathway.

  1. NASA/University Joint Venture (JOVE) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee-Sauer, Karen P.

    1999-01-01

    Hale-Bopp observations at the NASA IRTF concluded in September 1997. For the post Hale-Bopp period, telescope time was awarded to study comet Giacobini-Zinner in October 1998 at the NASA IRTF. A total of 6 nights were awarded to our team to study the comet where 2 of those 6 nights were awarded to Magee-Sauer as the principal investigator. Other observing trips were awarded to study YSOs (October 1998) and Mars (spring 1999) were Magee-Sauer was a co-investigator. An observing run from July 4 -7 1999 included study of Mars and YSOS. Our group has started to use the NIRSPEC instrument on the Keck II telescope. In collaboration with the development team from UCLA, we obtained images of comet Lee in August 1999. Telescope proposals are submitted each semester for targeted comet observations when a comet is bright enough to observe.

  2. Exploring the sequence-function relationship in transcriptional regulation by the lac O1 operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Tuhin S; Jha, Ramesh K; Strauss, Charlie E M; Dunbar, John

    2012-07-01

    Understanding how binding of a transcription factor to an operator is influenced by the operator sequence is an ongoing quest. It facilitates discovery of alternative binding sites as well as tuning of transcriptional regulation. We investigated the behavior of the Escherichia coli Lac repressor (LacI) protein with a large set of lac O(1) operator variants. The 114 variants examined contained a mean of 2.9 (range 0-4) mutations at positions -4, -2, +2 and +4 in the minimally required 17 bp operator. The relative affinity of LacI for the operators was examined by quantifying expression of a GFP reporter gene and Rosetta structural modeling. The combinations of mutations in the operator sequence created a wide range of regulatory behaviors. We observed variations in the GFP fluorescent signal among the operator variants of more than an order of magnitude under both uninduced and induced conditions. We found that a single nucleotide change may result in changes of up to six- and 12-fold in uninduced and induced GFP signals, respectively. Among the four positions mutated, we found that nucleotide G at position -4 is strongly correlated with strong repression. By Rosetta modeling, we found a significant correlation between the calculated binding energy and the experimentally observed transcriptional repression strength for many operators. However, exceptions were also observed, underscoring the necessity for further improvement in biophysical models of protein-DNA interactions. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  3. Estudo da radiosensibilidade ao 60CO do Vibrio cholerae O1 incorporado em ostras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivany R de Moraes

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficiência da radiação ionizante por 60CO na eliminação de Vibrio cholerae O1, El Tor Ogawa, não-toxigênico, incorporados laboratorialmente em ostras vivas da espécie Crassostrea brasiliana. MÉTODO: Foram selecionadas amostras de ostras provenientes de Cananéia (litoral sul de São Paulo, Brasil, as quais foram contaminadas com Vibrio cholerae e irradiadas com doses de 0,5 kGy e 1,0 kGy. RESULTADOS: Foram observadas diminuições significativas do número inicial do microrganismo indicado: de 3,4.10(7 para 10³ e 10², respectivamente. Os valores de D10 correspondentes foram de 0,173 a 0,235. CONCLUSÃO: Adotando-se o fator 6 como nível de segurança, conclui-se que a dose de irradiação de 1,41 kGy é necessária para eliminar números elevados de células viáveis de V. cholerae em ostras. Os experimentos foram realizados com os controles respectivos.

  4. Estudo da radiosensibilidade ao 60CO do Vibrio cholerae O1 incorporado em ostras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes Ivany R de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficiência da radiação ionizante por 60CO na eliminação de Vibrio cholerae O1, El Tor Ogawa, não-toxigênico, incorporados laboratorialmente em ostras vivas da espécie Crassostrea brasiliana. MÉTODO: Foram selecionadas amostras de ostras provenientes de Cananéia (litoral sul de São Paulo, Brasil, as quais foram contaminadas com Vibrio cholerae e irradiadas com doses de 0,5 kGy e 1,0 kGy. RESULTADOS: Foram observadas diminuições significativas do número inicial do microrganismo indicado: de 3,4.10(7 para 10³ e 10², respectivamente. Os valores de D10 correspondentes foram de 0,173 a 0,235. CONCLUSÃO: Adotando-se o fator 6 como nível de segurança, conclui-se que a dose de irradiação de 1,41 kGy é necessária para eliminar números elevados de células viáveis de V. cholerae em ostras. Os experimentos foram realizados com os controles respectivos.

  5. Two forms of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor hemolysin derived from identical precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikigai, H; Ono, T; Nakae, T; Otsuru, H; Shimamura, T

    1999-01-08

    Vibrio cholerae O1 grown in heart infusion broth produces two forms of El Tor hemolysin (ETH) monomers of 65 and 50 kDa. These monomers form several different sizes of mixed oligomers ranging from 180 to 280 kDa in the liposomal membranes. We found that the N-terminal amino acid sequences, NH2-Trp-Pro-Ala-Pro-Ala-Asn-Ser-Glu, of both the 65- and 50-kDa toxins were identical. We assumed, therefore, that the 65- and 50-kDa toxins were derivatives of the identical precursor protein and the 50-kDa protein was a truncated derivative of 65-kDa ETH. To substantiate this assumption, we treated the 260-kDa oligomer with trypsin and obtained a 190-kDa oligomer. This 190-kDa oligomer consisted of only the 50-kDa subunits. Both 260- and 190-kDa oligomers formed ion channels indistinguishable from each other in planar lipid bilayers. These results suggest that the essential part of the ETH in forming the membrane-damaging aggregate is a 50-kDa protein.

  6. Mechanism of membrane damage by El Tor hemolysin of Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikigai, H; Akatsuka, A; Tsujiyama, H; Nakae, T; Shimamura, T

    1996-08-01

    El Tor hemolysin (ETH; molecular mass, 65 kDa) derived from Vibrio cholerae O1 spontaneously assembled oligomeric aggregates on the membranes of rabbit erythrocyte ghosts and liposomes. Membrane-associated oligomers were resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting into two to nine bands with apparent molecular masses of 170 to 350 kDa. ETH assembled oligomers on a liposomal membrane consisting of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, but not on a membrane of phosphatidylcholine alone. Cholesterol could be replaced with diosgenin or ergosterol but not with 5alpha-cholestane-3-one, suggesting that sterol is essential for the oligomerization. The treatment of carboxyfluorescein-encapsulated liposomes with ETH caused a rapid release of carboxyfluorescein into the medium. Because dextrin 20 (molecular mass, 900 Da) osmotically protected ETH-mediated hemolysis, this hemolysis is likely to be caused by pore formation on the membrane. The pore size(s) estimated from osmotic protection assays was in the range of 1.2 to 1.6 nm. The pore formed on a rabbit erythrocyte membrane was confirmed morphologically by electron microscopy. Thus, we provide evidence that ETH damages the target by the assembly of hemolysin oligomers and pore formation on the membrane.

  7. CREB and FoxO1: two transcription factors for the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Han, Hye-Sook; Kim, Min-Jung; Koo, Seung-Hoi

    2013-01-01

    Liver plays a major role in maintaining glucose homeostasis in mammals. Under fasting conditions, hepatic glucose production is critical as a source of fuel to maintain the basic functions in other tissues, including skeletal muscle, red blood cells, and the brain. Fasting hormones glucagon and cortisol play major roles during the process, in part by activating the transcription of key enzyme genes in the gluconeogenesis such as phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose 6 phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6Pase). Conversely, gluconeogenic transcription is repressed by pancreatic insulin under feeding conditions, which effectively inhibits transcriptional activator complexes by either promoting post-translational modifications or activating transcriptional inhibitors in the liver, resulting in the reduction of hepatic glucose output. The transcriptional regulatory machineries have been highlighted as targets for type 2 diabetes drugs to control glycemia, so understanding of the complex regulatory mechanisms for transcription circuits for hepatic gluconeogenesis is critical in the potential development of therapeutic tools for the treatment of this disease. In this review, the current understanding regarding the roles of two key transcriptional activators, CREB and FoxO1, in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenic program is discussed. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(12): 567-574] PMID:24238363

  8. Tipificación Molecular del Vibrio cholerae O1 en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huguet T José

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio de ribotipificación en 75 cepas de Vibrio cholerae O1 permitió identificar tres variantes ribotípicas, referidas como Per1, Per2 y Per3, aisladas durante el periodo 1991- 1999 en el Perú. La variante Per1 fue reportada tanto en la etapa epidémica y endémica del cólera, mientras que Per2 y Per3 se relacionaron sólo con la etapa endémica. Los resultados mostraron además una aparición constante y mayoritaria de la variante Per1, poniendo en evidencia la emergencia de un mismo grupo clonal en los brotes epidémicos del Perú. Las variantes ribotípicas encontradas fueron comparadas con los ribotipos de diferentes cepas referenciales de V. cholerae previamente caracterizadas. Se observó una identidad total del ribotipo Per1 con la variante ribotípica de aislamientos Asiáticos (Tailandia, encontrándose además altos índices de similitud entre los ribotipos Per1, Per2 y Per3, y evidenciándose una estrecha relación entre las cepas peruanas y los aislamientos asiáticos.

  9. Rapid identification of vibrio-cholerae O1 by coaglutination test using mono-specifis antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazargan SA

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available In our investigation, rabbit hyper-immune serum to V.cholerae ogawa was absorbed with V.cholerae inaba whole-cells and vice versa. Applying ammonium sulphate precipitation method, mono-specific g globulins were purified and concentrated from the absorbed whole serum. These antibodies were fixed on staphylococcus cowan 1 NCTC-8325 whole-cells, using different chemical fixatives. It was observed that maximum fixation of g globulin to protein-A was achieved by 1-propanol 50% at 3 hours, which revealed through single radial immuno-diffusion techniqe. The rectal swab samples were cultured in an enrichment bile-peptons broth. After 5 hours 37°C while agitations, one drop of each sample was mixed with one drop of vibrio-cholerae bivalent mono-specific coagglutination reagent (VBCR. The results were read after 2 to 3 minutes. Finally though statistical analysis sensitivity and specificity of coagglutination test were calculated to be 95.1% and 99.2% respectively, when compared to positive & negative controls and conventional culture methods. Using VBCR, coagglutination test can be therefore considered as a simple, reliable and rapid method to detect V.cholerae O1 in the stool of patients in endemic area and less equipped laboratories

  10. Full band all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the O1 LIGO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Angelova, S. V.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atallah, D. V.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Austin, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barkett, K.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bawaj, M.; Bayley, J. 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C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorosh, O.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Dovale Álvarez, M.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Dreissigacker, C.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dupej, P.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Estevez, D.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fee, C.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finstad, D.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fishbach, M.; Fisher, R. P.; Fitz-Axen, M.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Font, J. A.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garcia-Quiros, C.; Garufi, F.; Gateley, B.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; Goncharov, B.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Gretarsson, E. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Halim, O.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, E. Z.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hinderer, T.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hreibi, A.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kamai, B.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinley-Hanlon, M.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knowles, T. D.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Linker, S. D.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macas, R.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña Hernandez, I.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Marquina, A.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Massera, E.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McNeill, L.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Milovich-Goff, M. C.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moffa, D.; Moggi, A.; Mogushi, K.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muñiz, E. A.; Muratore, M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Neilson, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Nevin, L.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; North, C.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; O'Dea, G. D.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okada, M. A.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ossokine, S.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, Howard; Pan, Huang-Wei; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Parida, A.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patil, M.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pirello, M.; Pisarski, A.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Pratten, G.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rajbhandari, B.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Ramos-Buades, A.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ren, W.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Rutins, G.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sanchez, L. E.; Sanchis-Gual, N.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheel, M.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaner, M. B.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Somala, S.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staats, K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Stops, D. J.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Strunk, A.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Suresh, J.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Tait, S. C.; Talbot, C.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tao, D.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Tasson, J. D.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Tewari, S. V.; Theeg, T.; Thies, F.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres-Forné, A.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tsukada, L.; Tsuna, D.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Wang, Y. F.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Weßels, P.; Westerweck, J.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Wilken, D.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wysocki, D. M.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yap, M. J.; Yazback, M.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadroźny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    We report on a new all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 475-2000 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of [-1.0 ,+0.1 ] ×1 0-8 Hz /s . Potential signals could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly nonaxisymmetric isolated neutron star in our Galaxy. This search uses the data from Advanced LIGO's first observational run O1. No gravitational-wave signals were observed, and upper limits were placed on their strengths. For completeness, results from the separately published low-frequency search 20-475 Hz are included as well. Our lowest upper limit on worst-case (linearly polarized) strain amplitude h0 is ˜4 ×1 0-25 near 170 Hz, while at the high end of our frequency range, we achieve a worst-case upper limit of 1.3 ×1 0-24. For a circularly polarized source (most favorable orientation), the smallest upper limit obtained is ˜1.5 ×1 0-25.

  11. Acetylation curtails nucleosome binding, not stable nucleosome remodeling, by FoxO1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatta, M.; Liu, F.; Cirillo, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    Transcriptional activity of FoxO factors is controlled through the actions of multiple growth factors signaling through protein kinase B, whereby phosphorylation of FoxO factors inhibits FoxO-mediated transactivation by promoting nuclear export. Phosphorylation of FoxO factors is enhanced by p300-mediated acetylation, which decreases their affinity for DNA. The negative effect of acetylation on FoxO DNA binding, together with nuclear FoxO mobility, is eliminated by over-expression of the de-acetylase Sirt1, suggesting that acetylation mobilizes FoxO factors in chromatin for inducible gene expression. Here, we show that acetylation significantly curtails the affinity of FoxO1 for its binding sites in nucleosomal DNA but has no effect on either stable nucleosome binding or remodeling by this factor. We suggest that, while acetylation provides a first, essential step toward mobilizing FoxO factors for inducible gene repression, additional mechanisms exist for overcoming their inherent capacity to stably bind and remodel nuclear chromatin.

  12. Survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 on fomites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farhana, Israt; Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Tulsiani, Suhella Mohan

    2016-01-01

    conditions on fomites, bacteria have been known to assume a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state after a given period of time. To investigate whether and when V. cholerae O1 assumes such a state, this study investigated the survival and viable quantification on a range of fomites such as paper, wood, glass......, plastic, cloth and several types of metals under laboratory conditions. The fomites were inoculated with an outbreak strain of V. cholerae and its culturability was examined by drop plate count method at 30 min intervals for up to 6 h. For molecular detection, the viable/dead stain ethidium monoazide (EMA......) which inhibits amplification of DNA from dead cells was used in combination with real-time polymerase chain reaction (EMA-qPCR) for direct quantitative analyses of viable V. cholerae at 2, 4, 6, 24 h and 7 day time intervals. Results showed that V. cholerae on glass and aluminum surfaces lost...

  13. Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6 nanoroasted rice beads with photocatalytic, antibacterial and anticancer activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvamani, Muthamizh; Krishnamoorthy, Giribabu; Ramadoss, Manigandan; Sivakumar, Praveen Kumar; Settu, Munusamy; Ranganathan, Suresh; Vengidusamy, Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing resistance of pathogens and cancer cell line towards antibiotics and anticancer agents has caused serious health problems in the past decades. Due to these problems in recent years, researchers have tried to combine nanotechnology with material science to have intrinsic antimicrobial and anticancer activity. The metals and metal oxides were investigated with respect to their antimicrobial and anticancer effects towards bacteria and cancer cell line. In the present work metal@metal tungstate (Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6 nanoroasted rice beads) is investigated for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using Mueller-Hinton broth and the anticancer activity against B16F10 cell line was studied. Silver decorated silver tungstate (Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6) was synthesized by the microwave irradiation method using Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB). Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6 was characterized by using various spectroscopic techniques. The phase and crystalline nature were analyzed by using XRD. The morphological analysis was carried out using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM). Further, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectral analysis were carried out in order to ascertain the presence of functional groups in Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6. The optical property was investigated using Diffuse Reflectance Ultraviolet–Visible Spectroscopy (DRS-UV–Vis) and the band gap was found to be 3.08 eV. Surface area of the synthesized Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6 wasanalyzed by BET analysis and Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6 was utilized for the degradation of organic dyes methylene blue and rhodamine B. The morphology of the Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6 resembles roasted rice beads with breath and length in nm range. The oxidation state of tungsten (W) and silver (Ag) was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). - Highlights: • Synthesis of Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6 nanoroasted rice beads using

  14. Density functional study of NO adsorption on undefected and oxygen defective Au–BaO(1 0 0) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Añez, Rafael, E-mail: ranez@ivic.gob.ve [Laboratorio de Química Física y Catálisis Computacional, Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado, 21827 Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Sierraalta, Aníbal; Bastardo, Anelisse [Laboratorio de Química Física y Catálisis Computacional, Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado, 21827 Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Coll, David [Laboratorio de Físico Química Teórica de Materiales, Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado, 21827 Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Garcia, Belkis [Instituto Universitario de Tecnología de Valencia IUTVAL, Valencia, Edo. Carabobo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    A periodic density functional approach has been used in order to explore the interaction of NO with undoped and Au doped BaO(1 0 0) surface. Due to oxygen vacancies increase the interaction between the doping metal and the surface, F{sub S} and F{sub S}{sup +} vacancies were studied and compared with the results obtained on the undefected doped BaO(1 0 0). Our results indicate that the high basicity of the BaO surface, besides the electron density changes produced by the oxygen vacancies, modify considerably how the Au atom interacts with the surface increasing the ionic character of the interaction. F{sub S} vacancy shows to be a promise center to activate de NO bond on the BaO(1 0 0) surface.

  15. Experimental study and thermodynamic assessment of the ZrO2-DyO1.5 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chong; Zinkevich, M.; Aldinger, F.; Stuttgart Univ.

    2007-01-01

    The phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties in the ZrO 2 -DyO 1.5 system have been studied using the experimental methods of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and high temperature drop calorimetry. The tetragonal + fluorite and fluorite + C-Dy 2 O 3 phase equilibria between 1400 C and 1700 C have been determined, together with the enthalpy increments of the materials with 30 mol.% and 50 mol.% DyO 1.5 in the temperature range 200-1400 C. Furthermore, the martensitic transformation temperatures (A s ,M s ) have been measured for the samples with 1 and 2 mol.% DyO 1.5 . Finally, thermodynamic assessment has been carried out using the experimental results obtained and literature data. (orig.)

  16. Trapping of N 2, CO and Ar in amorphous ice—Application to comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Nun, A.; Notesco, G.; Owen, T.

    2007-10-01

    Recent attempts using high resolution spectra to detect N +2 in several comets were unsuccessful [Cochran, A.L., Cochran, W.D., Baker, E.S., 2000. Icarus 146, 583-593; Cochran, A.L., 2002. Astrophys. J. 576, L165-L168]. The upper limits on N +2 in comparison with the positively detected CO + for Comets C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp, 122P/1995 S1 de Vico and 153P/2002 C1 Ikeya-Zhang range between N2+/COLisse, C.M., Shemansky, D.E., 2002. Astrophys. J. 576, L95-L98], with upper limits of Ar/COLisse, C.M., Shemansky, D.E., 2002. Astrophys. J. 576, L95-L98] non-detection of Ar. However, with an extreme starting value for N 2/CO = 0.22 in the region where the ice grains which agglomerated to produce comet nuclei were formed, the expected N 2/CO ratio in the cometary ice should be 6.6×10, much higher than its non-detection limit.

  17. A Spectral Survey of Six Comets in the Mid-Infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey M.; Sitko, M. L.; Reach, W. T.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Kelley, M. S.

    2008-09-01

    With the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) and Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) we are beginning to understand the details of how the composition and formation of our own Solar System compares to those of other stars in our Galaxy. Recent, detailed observations of comets (remnants of the solar system's proto-stellar nebula), protoplanetary disks around young stellar objects (YSOs), and debris disks around moderate-age stars have given us a collection of detailed spectra containing clues about our Galactic context. Here we discuss 5 to 35 micron spectroscopy of the emission from dust grains and gas molecules in the comae of 6 recent comets: C/Hale-Bopp 1995 O1 [1], 29P/SW1 2004 [2], 9P/Tempel 1 2005 (ejecta) [3], 73P/SW3 (fragments B and C) [4], C/McNaught 2006 P1 [5], and 17P/Holmes 2007 [6]. We thank the Spitzer Science Center, the ISO project, and the NASA/IRTF for their support of this work. References: [1] Crovisier, J. et al. 1997, Science 275, 1904. [2] Stansberry, J.A. et al. 2004, ApJ Suppl. 154, 463. [3] Lisse, C.M. et al. 2006, Science 313, 635. [4] Sitko, M.L., et al. 2008, ACM 2008 abstract #8101. [5] Lisse, C.M. et al. 2007, IAUC 8862. [6] Reach, W.T. et al. 2009, in prep.

  18. Midcourse Space Experiment Observations of Small Solar System Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Lisse, C. M.; Price, Stephan D.; Mizuno, D.; Walker, R. G.; Farnham, T. L.; Mäkinen, T.

    2005-11-01

    Eight comets, two transition objects (extinct comet candidates), and two near-Earth asteroids were imaged in four infrared bands with the SPIRIT III instrument on the Midcourse Space Experiment, namely, C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake), C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp), C/1996 Q1 (Tabur), 126P/IRAS, 22P/Kopff, 46P/Wirtanen, (3200) Phaethon, (4015) 107P/Wilson-Harrington, (4179) Toutatis, (4197) 1982 TA, 125P/Spacewatch, and 55P/Tempel-Tuttle. We present maps of each object detected and a description of their characteristics. Five of the comets had extended dust tails, all of which show evidence for silicate emission in the 8.3 μm band. The comet C/Hyakutake had a strong secondary dust tail along the direction of the comet's motion, which the dynamical models showed was consistent with emission from large particles. The dust trail from P/Kopff was detected more than 2° from the coma in three of the four bands and is probably composed of large particles emitted during the 1996 apparition.

  19. NEUTRAL Na IN COMETARY TAILS AS A REMNANT OF EARLY AQUEOUS ALTERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellinger, Y.; Pauzat, F.; Doronin, M.; Zicler, E. [Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS UMR 7616, F-75252 Paris CEDEX 05 (France); Mousis, O. [Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM), Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Guilbert-Lepoutre, A.; Ali-Dib, M. [Observatoire des Sciences de l’Univers de Besançon, Université de Franche-Comté, Institut UTINAM, CNRS/INSU, UMR 6213, F-35030 Besançon CEDEX (France); Leblanc, F. [LATMOS/IPSL, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS UMR 8190, F-75252 Paris CEDEX 05 (France); Doressoundiram, A. [LESIA—Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, CNRS UMR 8109, F-92190 Meudon (France)

    2015-03-10

    Observations of comet C/1995O1 Hale-Bopp during the spring of 1997 led to the discovery of a neutral sodium tail whose origin is still not clearly understood. Here, we propose an interpretation for the origin of this sodium tail, which is based upon chemical grounds. Starting from Na{sup +} trapped chemically during the condensation of refractory material in the protosolar nebula to its incorporation in the building blocks of comets and its transfer from refractory to volatile phases in the nucleus due to aqueous alteration, we follow the chemical path of sodium until its transformation into a neutral atom when released from the sublimating cometary ice. We propose that two Na reservoirs should coexist in a comet: one coming from the refractory dust, the other one from the icy matrix. Their relative importance would depend on the extent of the zone where liquid water formed within the nucleus and the time during which water remained liquid, thus favoring the Na{sup +} exchange between rocks and ice. These two key parameters would in turn strongly depend on the thermal history of the comet (amounts of radiogenic nuclides, orbital history, etc.). If our model is correct, the detection of Na originating from water ice would be a testimonial of the past aqueous alteration of the comet or its parent body.

  20. MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF COMET C/2011 L4 (PAN-STARRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin; Keane, Jacqueline; Meech, Karen [NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Owen, Tobias; Wainscoat, Richard, E-mail: yangbin@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The dynamically new comet C/2011 L4 (Pan-STARRS) is one of the brightest comets observed since the great comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). Here, we present our multi-wavelength observations of C/2011 L4 during its in-bound passage to the inner solar system. A strong absorption band of water ice at 2.0 μm was detected in the near-infrared spectra, obtained with the 8 m Gemini-North and 3 m Infrared Telescope Facility Telescopes. The companion 1.5 μm band of water ice, however, was not observed. Spectral modeling shows that the absence of the 1.5 μm feature can be explained by the presence of sub-micron-sized fine ice grains. No gas lines (i.e., CN, HCN, or CO) were observed pre-perihelion in either the optical or the submillimeter. We derived 3σ upper limits for the CN and CO production rates. The comet exhibited a very strong continuum in the optical and its slope seemed to become redder as the comet approached the Sun. Our observations suggest that C/2011 L4 is an unusually dust-rich comet with a dust-to-gas mass ratio >4.

  1. Detection of CO and Ethane in Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner: Evidence for Variable Chemistry in the Outer Solar Nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma; DiSanti; Dello Russo N; Magee-Sauer; Rettig

    2000-03-10

    Ethane and carbon monoxide were detected in a short-period comet of probable Kuiper Belt origin. Ethane is substantially less abundant compared with Hyakutake and Hale-Bopp, two comets from the giant-planet region of the solar nebula, suggesting a heliocentric gradient in ethane in precometary ices. It is argued that processing by X-rays from the young Sun may be responsible.

  2. Molecular insights into the evolutionary pathway of Vibrio cholerae O1 atypical El Tor variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jin; Lee, Dokyung; Moon, Se Hoon; Lee, Chan Hee; Kim, Sang Jun; Lee, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Ouk; Song, Manki; Das, Bhabatosh; Clemens, John D; Pape, Jean William; Nair, G Balakrish; Kim, Dong Wook

    2014-09-01

    Pandemic V. cholerae strains in the O1 serogroup have 2 biotypes: classical and El Tor. The classical biotype strains of the sixth pandemic, which encode the classical type cholera toxin (CT), have been replaced by El Tor biotype strains of the seventh pandemic. The prototype El Tor strains that produce biotype-specific cholera toxin are being replaced by atypical El Tor variants that harbor classical cholera toxin. Atypical El Tor strains are categorized into 2 groups, Wave 2 and Wave 3 strains, based on genomic variations and the CTX phage that they harbor. Whole-genome analysis of V. cholerae strains in the seventh cholera pandemic has demonstrated gradual changes in the genome of prototype and atypical El Tor strains, indicating that atypical strains arose from the prototype strains by replacing the CTX phages. We examined the molecular mechanisms that effected the emergence of El Tor strains with classical cholera toxin-carrying phage. We isolated an intermediary V. cholerae strain that carried two different CTX phages that encode El Tor and classical cholera toxin, respectively. We show here that the intermediary strain can be converted into various Wave 2 strains and can act as the source of the novel mosaic CTX phages. These results imply that the Wave 2 and Wave 3 strains may have been generated from such intermediary strains in nature. Prototype El Tor strains can become Wave 3 strains by excision of CTX-1 and re-equipping with the new CTX phages. Our data suggest that inter-chromosomal recombination between 2 types of CTX phages is possible when a host bacterial cell is infected by multiple CTX phages. Our study also provides molecular insights into population changes in V. cholerae in the absence of significant changes to the genome but by replacement of the CTX prophage that they harbor.

  3. Regulatory O-GlcNAcylation sites on FoxO1 are yet to be identified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardini, Yann [INSERM, U1016, Institut Cochin, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR8104, Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris (France); Perez-Cervera, Yobana [Structural and Functional Glycobiology Unit, Lille 1 University, CNRS (UMR 8576), IFR 117, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Autónoma Benito Juárez de Oaxaca, Oaxaca (Mexico); Camoin, Luc [INSERM, U1068, CRCM, Marseille Protéomique IBiSA, Marseille, F-13009 (France); Institut Paoli-Calmettes Team, Cell Polarity, Cell Signaling and Cancer, Marseille, F-13009 (France); Aix-Marseille Université, F-13284, Marseille (France); CNRS, UMR7258, CRCM, Marseille, F-13009 (France); Pagesy, Patrick [INSERM, U1016, Institut Cochin, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR8104, Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris (France); Lefebvre, Tony [Structural and Functional Glycobiology Unit, Lille 1 University, CNRS (UMR 8576), IFR 117, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Issad, Tarik, E-mail: tarik.issad@inserm.fr [INSERM, U1016, Institut Cochin, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR8104, Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris (France)

    2015-06-26

    O-GlcNAcylation is a reversible post-translational modification that regulates cytosolic and nuclear proteins. We and others previously demonstrated that FoxO1 is O-GlcNAcylated in different cell types, resulting in an increase in its transcriptional activity. Four O-GlcNAcylation sites were identified in human FOXO1 but directed mutagenesis of each site individually had modest (T317) or no effect (S550, T648, S654) on its O-GlcNAcylation status and transcriptional activity. Moreover, the consequences of mutating all four sites had not been investigated. In the present work, we mutated these sites in the mouse Foxo1 and found that mutation of all four sites did not decrease Foxo1 O-GlcNAcylation status and transcriptional activity, and would even tend to increase them. In an attempt to identify other O-GlcNAcylation sites, we immunoprecipitated wild-type O-GlcNAcylated Foxo1 and analysed the tryptic digest peptides by mass spectrometry using High-energy Collisional Dissociation. We identified T646 as a new O-GlcNAcylation site on Foxo1. However, site directed mutagenesis of this site individually or together with all four previously identified residues did not impair Foxo1 O-GlcNAcylation and transcriptional activity. These results suggest that residues important for the control of Foxo1 activity by O-GlcNAcylation still remain to be identified. - Highlights: • We mutate four previously identified O-GlcNAcylation sites on Foxo1. • Unexpectedly, these mutations do not reduce Foxo1 O-GlcNAcylation. • These mutation do not reduce Foxo1 transcriptional activity. • We identify a new O-GlcNAcylation site on Foxo1 by mass spectrometry. • Mutation of this site increases Foxo1 transcriptional activity.

  4. Regulatory O-GlcNAcylation sites on FoxO1 are yet to be identified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardini, Yann; Perez-Cervera, Yobana; Camoin, Luc; Pagesy, Patrick; Lefebvre, Tony; Issad, Tarik

    2015-01-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a reversible post-translational modification that regulates cytosolic and nuclear proteins. We and others previously demonstrated that FoxO1 is O-GlcNAcylated in different cell types, resulting in an increase in its transcriptional activity. Four O-GlcNAcylation sites were identified in human FOXO1 but directed mutagenesis of each site individually had modest (T317) or no effect (S550, T648, S654) on its O-GlcNAcylation status and transcriptional activity. Moreover, the consequences of mutating all four sites had not been investigated. In the present work, we mutated these sites in the mouse Foxo1 and found that mutation of all four sites did not decrease Foxo1 O-GlcNAcylation status and transcriptional activity, and would even tend to increase them. In an attempt to identify other O-GlcNAcylation sites, we immunoprecipitated wild-type O-GlcNAcylated Foxo1 and analysed the tryptic digest peptides by mass spectrometry using High-energy Collisional Dissociation. We identified T646 as a new O-GlcNAcylation site on Foxo1. However, site directed mutagenesis of this site individually or together with all four previously identified residues did not impair Foxo1 O-GlcNAcylation and transcriptional activity. These results suggest that residues important for the control of Foxo1 activity by O-GlcNAcylation still remain to be identified. - Highlights: • We mutate four previously identified O-GlcNAcylation sites on Foxo1. • Unexpectedly, these mutations do not reduce Foxo1 O-GlcNAcylation. • These mutation do not reduce Foxo1 transcriptional activity. • We identify a new O-GlcNAcylation site on Foxo1 by mass spectrometry. • Mutation of this site increases Foxo1 transcriptional activity

  5. Application of the CCD Fabry-Perot Annular Summing Technique to Thermospheric O(1)D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Monica Marie

    1995-01-01

    This work will detail the verification of the advantages of the Fabry-Perot charge coupled device (CCD) annular summing technique, the development of the technique for analysis of daysky spectra, and the implications of the resulting spectra for neutral temperature and wind measurements in the daysky thermosphere. The daysky spectral feature of interest is the bright (1 kilo-Rayleigh) thermospheric (OI) emission at 6300 A which had been observed in the nightsky in order to determine winds and temperatures in the vicinity of the altitude of 250 km. In the daysky, the emission line sits on top of a bright Rayleigh scattered continuum background which significantly complicates the observation. With a triple etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer, the continuum background can be reduced while maintaining high throughput and high resolution. The inclusion of a CCD camera results in significant savings in integration time over the two more standard scanning photomultiplier systems that have made the same wind and temperature measurements in the past. A comparable CCD system can experience an order of magnitude savings in integration time over a PMT system. Laboratory and field tests which address the advantages and limitations of both the Fabry-Perot CCD annular summing technique and the daysky CCD imaging are included in Chap. 2 and Chap. 3. With a sufficiently large throughput associated with the spectrometer and a CCD detector, rapid observations (~4 minute integrations) can be made. Extraction of the line width and line center from the daysky near-continuum background is complicated compared to the nightsky case, but possible. Methods of fitting the line are included in Chap. 4. The daysky O ^1D temperatures are consistent with a lower average emission height than predicted by models. The data and models are discussed in Chap. 5. Although some discrepancies exist between resulting temperatures and models, the observations indicate the potential for other direct measurements

  6. Manipulation of magnetic and magneto-transport properties of amorphous CoO1–v films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yan-ling; Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-huan; Tian, Yu-feng; Yan, Shi-shen; Xiao, Shu-qin; Chen, Yan-xue; Kang, Shi-shou; Liu, Guo-lei; Mei, Liang-mo

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic and magneto-transport properties of amorphous CoO 1−v films have been systematically studied and manipulated by changing the concentration of oxygen vacancies. A giant exchange bias field H E ≈4380 Oe and a large coercivity H C ≈8500 Oe are observed at 5 K for the composite films. And, a metal to insulator transition has been demonstrated in CoO 1−v films by decreasing the concentration of oxygen vacancies. Moreover, a remarkable decrease of the exchange bias and a slight increase of the saturation magnetization can be obtained by modifying the microstructures through post-thermal annealing. - Highlights: • Magnetic and magneto-transport properties of amorphous CoO 1−v are studied. • A giant exchange bias effect with H E ≈4380 Oe and H C ≈8500 Oe is observed at 5 K. • A metal–insulator transition is observed in CoO 1−v by changing the oxygen pressure. • The exchange bias decreases while saturation magnetization increases with annealing

  7. A survey of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 in estuarine waters and sediments of Beira, Mozambique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Preez, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available 5 ocean fish and 1 deep sea water sample were also collected. The samples were analysed for the presence of V. cholerae O1 and O139 using culture methods, the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a single...

  8. Characterization of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 powders synthesized by spray drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Chen, Weiwu; Lundberg, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 powders were synthesized by spray drying and successive calcinations. The phase purity, BET surface area, and particle morphology of as-sprayed and calcined powders were characterized. After calcination above 300 °C, the powders were single phase and showed a BET surface area of 68...

  9. Surface and virulence properties of environmental Vibrio cholerae non-O1 from Albufera Lake (Valencia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, C; Toranzo, A E; González, E A; Blanco, J; Pujalte, M J; Aznar, R; Garay, E

    1990-04-01

    A total of 140 environmental Vibrio cholerae non-O1 isolates, together with several culture collection strains from both environmental and clinical sources, were studied in relation to hemagglutination, surface hydrophobicity, and the enzymatic, hemolytic, cytotoxic, and enterotoxic activities of their extracellular products. A total of 78 and 62% of the strains produced hemagglutinins and exohemagglutinins, respectively. Four different hemagglutinating and two exohemagglutinating activities were found by using eight sugars in the inhibition assays. Cell-bound mannose-sensitive hemagglutination was detected mainly in chicken blood, whereas fucose-sensitive hemagglutination was recorded only in human blood. Cell-bound hemagglutinin resistant to all sugars tested was the only one related to surface hydrophobicity. The surface properties varied along the growth curves. The non-O1 strains displayed strong enzymatic and hemolytic activities, except for esculin hydrolysis. Of 26 non-O1 isolates selected for cytotoxin and enterotoxin production, 23 showed a wide spectrum of cytotoxic effects on cell lines of poikilothermic and homoiothermic species, but they were weakly enterotoxigenic in the infant mouse test. All extracellular products of cytotoxic strains were proteolytic, lipolytic, and hemolytic, and a high percentage produced hemagglutination of chicken blood. The cytotoxic factors in the non-O1 strains analyzed were not R plasmid mediated.

  10. Photoionization-induced water migration in the amide group of trans-acetanilide-(H2O)1 in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Kenji; Harada, Satoshi; Shimazaki, Yuiga; Sekiya, Hiroshi

    2011-02-10

    IR-dip spectra of trans-acetanilide-water 1:1 cluster, AA-(H(2)O)(1), have been measured for the S(0) and D(0) state in the gas phase. Two structural isomers, where a water molecule binds to the NH group or the CO group of AA, AA(NH)-(H(2)O)(1) and AA(CO)-(H(2)O)(1), are identified in the S(0) state. One-color resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization, (1 + 1) RE2PI, of AA(NH)-(H(2)O)(1) via the S(1)-S(0) origin generates [AA(NH)-(H(2)O)(1)](+) in the D(0) state, however, photoionization of [AA(CO)-(H(2)O)(1)] does not produce [AA(CO)-(H(2)O)(1)](+), leading to [AA(NH)-(H(2)O)(1)](+). This observation explicitly indicates that the water molecule in [AA-(H(2)O)(1)](+) migrates from the CO group to the NH group in the D(0) state. The reorganization of the charge distribution from the neutral to the D(0) state of AA induces the repulsive force between the water molecule and the CO group of AA(+), which is the trigger of the water migration in [AA-(H(2)O)(1)](+).

  11. Cosmology based on f(R) gravity with O(1) eV sterile neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudaykin, Anton S.; Gorbunov, Dmitry S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Starobinsky, Alexei A. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Burenin, Rodion A., E-mail: chudy@ms2.inr.ac.ru, E-mail: gorby@ms2.inr.ac.ru, E-mail: alstar@landau.ac.ru, E-mail: rodion@hea.iki.rssi.ru [Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IKI), Moscow, ul. Profsoyuznaya, 84/32, 117997 (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-01

    We address the cosmological role of an additional O(1) eV sterile neutrino in modified gravity models. We confront the present cosmological data with predictions of the FLRW cosmological model based on a variant of f(R) modified gravity proposed by one of the authors previously. This viable cosmological model which deviation from general relativity with a cosmological constant Λ decreases as R{sup −2n} for large, but not too large values of the Ricci scalar R (while no Λ is introduced by hand at small R) provides an alternative explanation of present dark energy and the accelerated expansion of the Universe (the case n=2 is considered in the paper). Various up-to-date cosmological data sets exploited include measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy, the CMB lensing potential, the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), the cluster mass function and the Hubble constant. We find that the CMB+BAO constraints strongly restrict the sum of neutrino masses from above. This excludes values of the model parameter λ∼ 1 for which distinctive cosmological features of the model are mostly pronounced as compared to the ΛCDM model, since then free streaming damping of perturbations due to neutrino rest masses is not sufficient to compensate their extra growth occurring in f(R) modified gravity. Thus, in the gravity sector we obtain λ>8.2 (2σ) with the account of systematic uncertainties in galaxy cluster mass function measurements and λ>9.4 (2σ) without them. At the same time in the latter case we find for the sterile neutrino mass 0.47 eV < m{sub ν, sterile} < 1 eV (2σ) assuming that the sterile neutrinos are thermalized and the active neutrinos are massless, not significantly larger than in the standard ΛCDM with the same data set: 0.45 eV < m{sub ν, sterile} < 0.92 eV (2σ). However, a possible discovery of a sterile neutrino with the mass m{sub ν, sterile} ≈ 1.5 eV motivated by various anomalies in neutrino oscillation

  12. Viabilidade de Vibrio cholerae O1 em diferentes tipos de águas em condições experimentais Viability of Vibrio cholerae O1 in different types of water under experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseli Maria da Rocha Nogueira

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A natureza endêmica e sazonal da cólera depende da sobrevivência de Vibrio cholerae O1 em estado viável, mas não necessariamente cultivável em nichos ambientais aquáticos durante períodos interepidêmicos, sendo de suma importância o estudo da sobrevivência deste microrganismo nesses locais. Para tal, foram coletadas, semanalmente, alíquotas de água pertencentes a duas lagoas e dois rios do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Esses volumes foram divididos em duas porções idênticas, uma das quais foi autoclavada. Uma diluição padronizada de V. cholerae O1 Inaba e de V. cholerae O1 Ogawa, foi inoculada em três alíquotas de 100ml dessas diferentes águas e mantidas em diferentes temperaturas. A sobrevivência desses microorganismos no âmbito aquático sob esses diferentes fatores foi então analisada. Os resultados demonstraram que o V. cholerae sorogrupo O1, independente do sorotipo, é capaz de se manter em água com salinidade abaixo de 0,5‰ e em diferentes temperaturas, por períodos suficientes para sua disseminação através de "corpos d'água", demonstrando a necessidade de monitoramento constante em áreas de possível contaminação, principalmente onde a água é utilizada para o consumo, evitando assim, a disseminação da doença para as populações próximas a esses ambientes.The endemic and seasonal nature of cholera depends upon the survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 in a viable but not necessarily culturable state in ecological niches in aquatic environments during inter-epidemic periods, and investigation on the survival of this microorganism in such sites is therefore of the utmost importance. Weekly water aliquots were thus taken from 2 ponds and 2 rivers in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The samples were divided into two identical portions, one of which was autoclaved. A standardized dilution of V. cholerae O1 Inaba and of V. cholerae O1 Ogawa was inoculated in three aliquots of 100ml of these different water samples and

  13. The NADPH organizers NoxO1 and p47phox are both mediators of diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Rezende

    2018-05-01

    Innovation and conclusion: ROS production stimulated by NoxO1 and p47phox limit endothelium-dependent relaxation and maintain blood pressure in mice. However, NoxO1 and p47phox cannot substitute each other despite their similar effect on vascular function. Deletion of NoxO1 induced an anti-inflammatory phenotype, whereas p47phox deletion rather elicited a hyper-inflammatory response.

  14. Efficacy of Ciprofloxacin for Treatment of Cholera Associated with Diminished Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin to Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Wasif Ali; Saha, Debasish; Ahmed, Sabeena; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Bennish, Michael Louis

    2015-01-01

    We identified a poor clinical response to treatment of cholera with a single 1 g dose of ciprofloxacin, a standard treatment for cholera. To determine reasons for the poor response and better therapeutic approaches we examined the minimal inhibitor concentration (MIC, n = 275) and disc-diffusion zone sizes (n = 205) for ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid of V. cholerae O1 strains isolated in Bangladesh from 1994 to 2012, and reexamined data from 161 patients infected with Vibrio cholerae O1 recruited in four clinical trials who received single- or multiple-dose ciprofloxacin for treatment of cholera and compared their clinical response to the V. cholerae O1 susceptibility. Although all 275 isolates of V. cholerae O1 remained susceptible to ciprofloxacin using standard MIC and disc-diffusion thresholds, the MIC90 to ciprofloxacin increased from 0.010 in 1994 to 0.475 μgm/ml in 2012. Isolates became frankly resistant to nalidixic with the MIC90 increasing from 21 μgm/ml in 1994 to >256 μgm/ml and 166 of 205 isolates from 1994 to 2005 being frankly resistant using disc-diffusion testing. Isolates resistant to nalidixic acid by disc-diffusion testing had a median ciprofloxacin MIC of 0.190 μgm/ml (10th-90th centiles 0.022 to 0.380); nalidixic acid-susceptible isolates had a median ciprofloxacin MIC of 0.002 (0.002 to 0.012).The rate of clinical success with single-dose ciprofloxacin treatment for nalidixic acid-susceptible strains was 94% (61 of 65 patients) and bacteriologic success 97% (63/65) compared to 18% (12/67) and 8% (5/67) respectively with nalidixic acid-resistant strains (Ptreatment with ciprofloxacin had 86% and 100% clinical and bacteriologic success rates respectively in patients infected with nalidixic acid-susceptible strains of V. cholerae O1 compared to clinical success 67% and bacteriologic success 60% with nalidixic acid-resistant strains. Single-dose ciprofloxacin is not effective for treating cholera caused by V. cholerae O1 with diminished

  15. Phase variable O antigen biosynthetic genes control expression of the major protective antigen and bacteriophage receptor in Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley D Seed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide O1 antigen is a major target of bacteriophages and the human immune system and is of critical importance for vaccine design. We used an O1-specific lytic bacteriophage as a tool to probe the capacity of V. cholerae to alter its O1 antigen and identified a novel mechanism by which this organism can modulate O antigen expression and exhibit intra-strain heterogeneity. We identified two phase variable genes required for O1 antigen biosynthesis, manA and wbeL. manA resides outside of the previously recognized O1 antigen biosynthetic locus, and encodes for a phosphomannose isomerase critical for the initial step in O1 antigen biosynthesis. We determined that manA and wbeL phase variants are attenuated for virulence, providing functional evidence to further support the critical role of the O1 antigen for infectivity. We provide the first report of phase variation modulating O1 antigen expression in V. cholerae, and show that the maintenance of these phase variable loci is an important means by which this facultative pathogen can generate the diverse subpopulations of cells needed for infecting the host intestinal tract and for escaping predation by an O1-specific phage.

  16. Characteristic charge transport in oxygen-deficiency-controlled LnFeAsO1-y (Ln = La and Nd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Shigeyuki; Nakajima, Masamichi; Tomioka, Yasuhide; Ito, Toshimitsu; Miyazawa, Kiichi; Kito, Hijiri; Lee, Chul-Ho; Ishikado, Motoyuki; Shamoto, Shin-ichi; Iyo, Akira; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Kojima, Kenji M.; Uchida, Shin-ichi

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the transport properties of LnFeAsO 1-y (Ln = La, Nd) over a wide range of doping. When we compare the exponent n of resistivity ρ(T)∼T n , a marked difference is found between La and Nd system. In the La system with lower T C ,ρ(T) is always dominated by a T 2 term at low temperatures, showing relatively large magnetoresistance. On the other hand, in the Nd system with higher T C ,ρ(T) is linear on T with a small magnetoresistance. These results indicate that the carriers are subject to stronger scattering in NdFeAsO 1-y , which might be linked to the higher T C .

  17. New strategy for surface functionalization of periodic mesoporous silica based on meso-HSiO1.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhuoying; Bai, Ling; Huang, Suwen; Zhu, Cun; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhong-Ze

    2014-01-29

    Organic functionalization of periodic mesoporous silicas (PMSs) offers a way to improve their excellent properties and wide applications owing to their structural superiority. In this study, a new strategy for organic functionalization of PMSs is demonstrated by hydrosilylation of the recently discovered "impossible" periodic mesoporous hydridosilica, meso-HSiO1.5. This method overcomes the disadvantages of present pathways for organic functionalization of PMSs with organosilica. Moreover, compared to the traditional functionalization on the surface of porous silicon by hydrosilylation, the template-synthesized meso-HSiO1.5 is more flexible to access functional-groups-loaded PMSs with adjustable microstructures. The new method and materials will have wider applications based on both the structure and surface superiorities.

  18. Viabilidade de Vibrio cholerae O1 em diferentes tipos de águas em condições experimentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira Joseli Maria da Rocha

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A natureza endêmica e sazonal da cólera depende da sobrevivência de Vibrio cholerae O1 em estado viável, mas não necessariamente cultivável em nichos ambientais aquáticos durante períodos interepidêmicos, sendo de suma importância o estudo da sobrevivência deste microrganismo nesses locais. Para tal, foram coletadas, semanalmente, alíquotas de água pertencentes a duas lagoas e dois rios do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Esses volumes foram divididos em duas porções idênticas, uma das quais foi autoclavada. Uma diluição padronizada de V. cholerae O1 Inaba e de V. cholerae O1 Ogawa, foi inoculada em três alíquotas de 100ml dessas diferentes águas e mantidas em diferentes temperaturas. A sobrevivência desses microorganismos no âmbito aquático sob esses diferentes fatores foi então analisada. Os resultados demonstraram que o V. cholerae sorogrupo O1, independente do sorotipo, é capaz de se manter em água com salinidade abaixo de 0,5? e em diferentes temperaturas, por períodos suficientes para sua disseminação através de "corpos d'água", demonstrando a necessidade de monitoramento constante em áreas de possível contaminação, principalmente onde a água é utilizada para o consumo, evitando assim, a disseminação da doença para as populações próximas a esses ambientes.

  19. Solid-state synthesis of Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 whiskers from TiO_2-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Wenjun; Zhuang, Wei; Ji, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jingjing; Lu, Xiaohua; Wang, Changsong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 whiskers were synthesized from TiO_2-B whiskers via a solid state reaction. • The TiO_2-B crystal structure for lithium diffusion is easier than anatase. • The separated diffusion and reaction process is crucial for the solid-state syntheses of Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 whiskers. - Abstract: In this work, Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 (LTO) was synthesized from the precursors of TiO_2-B and anatase whiskers, respectively. The synthesized LTO whiskers from TiO_2-B whiskers via a solid state reaction at 650 °C have a high degree of crystallinity with an average diameter of 300 nm. However, when anatase whiskers were used as the precursor, only particle morphology LTO was produced at 750 °C. The further analysis of the precursors, the intermediate products and the final products reveal that the crystal structure of the anatase hinders the diffusion of lithium, leading to a typical reaction–diffusion process. Under this condition, only particle morphology LTO can be produced. However, the crystal structure of the TiO_2-B is easy for lithium diffusion and the process is performed in two separated steps (i.e., diffusion and reaction), which makes it possible to decrease the solid-state reaction temperature down to 650 °C and then maintain the morphologies of whiskers.

  20. Detection of ctx gene positive non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in shrimp aquaculture environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudana, Rao B; Surendran, P K

    2013-06-01

    Water and post-larvae samples from black tiger (Penaeus monodon) shrimp hatcheries; pond water, pond sediment and shrimp from aquaculture farms were screened for the presence of V. cholerae. A V. cholerae-duplex PCR method was developed by utilizing V. cholerae species specific sodB primers and ctxAB genes specific primers. Incidence of V. cholerae was not observed in shrimp hatchery samples but was noticed in aquaculture samples. The incidence of V. cholerae was higher in pond water (7.6%) than in pond sediment (5.2%). Shrimp head (3.6%) portion had relatively higher incidence than shrimp muscle (1.6%). All the V. cholerae isolates (n = 42) belonged to non-O1/non-O139 serogroup, of which 7% of the V. cholerae isolates were potentially cholera-toxigenic (ctx positive). All the ctx positive V. cholerae (n = 3) were isolated from the pond water. Since, cholera toxin (CT) is the major contributing factor for cholera gravis, it is proposed that the mere presence of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae need not be the biohazard criterion in cultured black tiger shrimp but only the presence of ctx carrying non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae may be considered as potential public health risk.

  1. The aquatic environment as a reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1 in hydrographic basins of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Marques, Carina Lucena; Silveira Filho, Vladimir da Mota; da Costa, Ana Paula Rocha; Nunes, Mariana de Lira; da Silva Filho, Sandoval Vieira; Figueirôa, Ângela Cristina Torres de Araújo; Hofer, Ernesto; de Almeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; Leal, Nilma Cintra

    2013-01-01

    After the worldwide cholera epidemic in 1993, permanent environmental monitoring of hydrographic basins was established in Pernambuco, Brazil, where cholera is endemic. After a quiescent period, 4 rfbN (serogroup O1) positive water samples that were culture negative were detected by multiplex single-tube nested PCR (MSTNPCR); 2 of these were also ctxA (cholera toxin) positive. From May to June 2012, 30 V. cholerae O1 isolates were obtained by culturing samples. These isolates were analyzed for the presence of virulence genes by PCR, intergenic spacer region 16S-23S PCR (ISR-PCR), and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The isolates were positive for the rfbN gene and negative for the assessed pathogenic genes and were classified into 2 groups by ISR and the same profile by PFGE. Close genetic similarity was observed between them (2012) and environmental strains from 2004 to 2005, indicating the permanence of endemic V. cholerae O1 in the region.

  2. The Aquatic Environment as a Reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Hydrographic Basins of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Lucena Mendes-Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After the worldwide cholera epidemic in 1993, permanent environmental monitoring of hydrographic basins was established in Pernambuco, Brazil, where cholera is endemic. After a quiescent period, 4 rfbN (serogroup O1 positive water samples that were culture negative were detected by multiplex single-tube nested PCR (MSTNPCR; 2 of these were also ctxA (cholera toxin positive. From May to June 2012, 30 V. cholerae O1 isolates were obtained by culturing samples. These isolates were analyzed for the presence of virulence genes by PCR, intergenic spacer region 16S-23S PCR (ISR-PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The isolates were positive for the rfbN gene and negative for the assessed pathogenic genes and were classified into 2 groups by ISR and the same profile by PFGE. Close genetic similarity was observed between them (2012 and environmental strains from 2004 to 2005, indicating the permanence of endemic V. cholerae O1 in the region.

  3. Non-toxigenic environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 strain from Haiti provides evidence of pre-pandemic cholera in Hispaniola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarian, Taj; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A.; Jubair, Mohammad; Cella, Eleonora; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Nolan, David J.; Farmerie, William; Rashid, Mohammad H.; Sinha-Ray, Shrestha; Alam, Meer T.; Morris, J. Glenn; Salemi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is ubiquitous in aquatic environments, with environmental toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains serving as a source for recurrent cholera epidemics and pandemic disease. However, a number of questions remain about long-term survival and evolution of V. cholerae strains within these aquatic environmental reservoirs. Through monitoring of the Haitian aquatic environment following the 2010 cholera epidemic, we isolated two novel non-toxigenic (ctxA/B-negative) Vibrio cholerae O1. These two isolates underwent whole-genome sequencing and were investigated through comparative genomics and Bayesian coalescent analysis. These isolates cluster in the evolutionary tree with strains responsible for clinical cholera, possessing genomic components of 6th and 7th pandemic lineages, and diverge from “modern” cholera strains around 1548 C.E. [95% HPD: 1532–1555]. Vibrio Pathogenicity Island (VPI)-1 was present; however, SXT/R391-family ICE and VPI-2 were absent. Rugose phenotype conversion and vibriophage resistance evidenced adaption for persistence in aquatic environments. The identification of V. cholerae O1 strains in the Haitian environment, which predate the first reported cholera pandemic in 1817, broadens our understanding of the history of pandemics. It also raises the possibility that these and similar environmental strains could acquire virulence genes from the 2010 Haitian epidemic clone, including the cholera toxin producing CTXϕ. PMID:27786291

  4. Protein kinase A-alpha directly phosphorylates FoxO1 in vascular endothelial cells to regulate expression of vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Won; Chen, Hui; Pullikotil, Philomena; Quon, Michael J

    2011-02-25

    FoxO1, a forkhead box O class transcription factor, is abundant in insulin-responsive tissues. Akt, downstream from phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in insulin signaling, phosphorylates FoxO1 at Thr(24), Ser(256), and Ser(319), negatively regulating its function. We previously reported that dehydroepiandrosterone-stimulated phosphorylation of FoxO1 in endothelial cells requires cAMP-dependent protein kinase α (PKA-α). Therefore, we hypothesized that FoxO1 is a novel direct substrate for PKA-α. Using an immune complex kinase assay with [γ-(32)P]ATP, purified PKA-α directly phosphorylated wild-type FoxO1 but not FoxO1-AAA (mutant with alanine substitutions at known Akt phosphorylation sites). Phosphorylation of wild-type FoxO1 (but not FoxO1-AAA) was detectable using phospho-specific antibodies. Similar results were obtained using purified GST-FoxO1 protein as the substrate. Thus, FoxO1 is a direct substrate for PKA-α in vitro. In bovine aortic endothelial cells, interaction between endogenous PKA-α and endogenous FoxO1 was detected by co-immunoprecipitation. In human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC), pretreatment with H89 (PKA inhibitor) or siRNA knockdown of PKA-α decreased forskolin- or prostaglandin E(2)-stimulated phosphorylation of FoxO1. In HAEC transfected with a FoxO-promoter luciferase reporter, co-expression of the catalytic domain of PKA-α, catalytically inactive mutant PKA-α, or siRNA against PKA-α caused corresponding increases or decreases in transactivation of the FoxO promoter. Expression of vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 mRNA, up-regulated by FoxO1 in endothelial cells, was enhanced by siRNA knockdown of PKA-α or treatment of HAEC with the PKA inhibitor H89. Adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells was enhanced by H89 treatment or overexpression of FoxO1-AAA, similar to effects of TNF-α treatment. We conclude that FoxO1 is a novel physiological substrate for PKA-α in vascular endothelial cells.

  5. Herstellung und Charakterisierung von ZnO1-xSx-Dünnschichten : Dotierung mit Wasserstoff und Einsatz in ZnO1-xSx/GaN-Heterostruktur-Leuchtdioden

    OpenAIRE

    Kronenberger, Achim

    2013-01-01

    Das ternäre Materialsystem ZnO1-xSx ist für den Einsatz als Cd-freie Pufferschicht in Solarzellen, für Halbleiter-Heterostrukturen (z.B. Leuchtdioden) oder als Bandkanten-Filter interessant, da sich die energetische Lage von Valenzband-Maximum und Leitungsband-Minimum und somit ebenfalls die Energie der Bandlücke durch die Komposition beeinflussen lassen. Zusätzlich eignet es sich aufgrund der damit einhergehenden Veränderung der elektrischen und phononischen Eigenschaften als Modelsystem für...

  6. Virulence factors of non-O1 non-O139 Vibrio cholerae isolated in Córdoba, Argentina Factores de virulencia de Vibrio cholerae no-O1 no-O139 aislados en Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bidinost

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available V. cholerae non-O1 non-O139 serogroups isolated from clinical and environmental sources in Córdoba, Argentina, were analyzed for the presence and expression of virulence genes. Most of the strains studied contained the genes toxR and hlyA, but lacked ctxA, zot, ace, tcpA and stn. The culture supernatants were tested for hemolytic and cytotoxic activity. The enterotoxic potential of the strains was studied in a rabbit ileal loop assay and their genetic profiles were compared by PFGE. The environmental strains varied in their virulence phenotype and showed no-clonal relationships. The clinical strains were highly enterotoxic, hemolytic, proteolytic and showed indistinguishable PFGE profiles, although they differed in their cytotoxic activity. This is the first description, using cell culture and “in vivo” studies, of the virulence properties of non-O1 non-O139 V. cholerae from Argentina.En este trabajo se analizó la presencia y expresión de genes de virulencia en V. cholerae no-O1 no-O139 de origen clínico y ambiental, aislados en Córdoba, Argentina. La mayoría de las cepas estudiadas contiene los genes toxR y hlyA, pero no ctxA, zot, ace, tcpA y stn. Se analizó la actividad hemolítica y citotóxica de estas cepas en los sobrenadantes de cultivo, así como su potencial enterotóxico en ensayos de asa ileal ligada de conejo. Además, los aislamientos fueron comparados por sus perfiles genéticos en PFGE. Las cepas del medio ambiente mostraron variación en su fenotipo de virulencia y no mostraron relación clonal. Las cepas clínicas fueron muy enterotóxicas, hemolíticas, proteolíticas y mostraron perfiles indistinguibles de PFGE, aunque mostraron diferencias en su actividad citotóxica. En este trabajo se describen por primera vez, utilizando ensayos de cultivo celular e “in vivo”, propiedades de virulencia de V. cholerae no-O1 no-O139 aislados en Argentina.

  7. Bacteriemia por Vibrio cholerae no-O1, no-O139 en un paciente en hemodiálisis crónica Non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae bacteremia in a chronic hemodialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela S. Zárate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae no-O1, no-O139 es un agente poco frecuente como causal de bacteriemias y no hay informes que documenten su presencia en pacientes en hemodiálisis crónica. Se describe el caso de una paciente en hemodiálisis crónica que presentó un cuadro de sepsis, por lo cual inició un tratamiento con vancomicina y ceftacidima. Al cabo de seis horas y media de incubación en el sistema BACT/ALERT de hemocultivo, se evidenció la presencia de bacilos curvos gram negativos, posteriormente identificados como Vibrio cholerae mediante pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y el uso de los kits API 20 NE y VITEK 2. La evaluación del serogrupo y de la presencia de factores de patogenicidad, realizada en el laboratorio de referencia, determinó que el microorganismo hallado pertenecía al serogrupo no-O1, no-O139. No se detectó la toxina de cólera, tampoco el factor de colonización ni la toxina termoestable. El aislamiento presentó sensibilidad frente a ampicilina, trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol, ciprofloxacina, tetraciclina, ceftacidima y cefotaxima por el método de difusión con discos y por VITEK 2. La paciente cumplió 14 días de tratamiento con ceftacidima endovenosa, con evolución favorable.Non-O1, and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae is an infrequent cause of bacteremia. There are no reports of such bacteremia in chronic hemodialysis patients. This work describes the case of a chronic hemodialysis patient that had an episode of septicemia associated with dialysis. Blood cultures were obtained and treatment was begun with vancomycin and ceftazidime. After 6.5 hours of incubation in the Bact/Alert system there is evidence of gram-negative curved bacilli that were identified as Vibrio cholerae by conventional biochemical tests, API 20 NE and the VITEK 2 system. This microorganism was sent to the reference laboratory for evaluation of serogroup and virulence factors and was identified as belonging to the non-O1 and non-O139 serogroup. The cholera

  8. Controlled nitric oxide production via O(1D) + N2O reactions for use in oxidation flow reactor studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Andrew; Massoli, Paola; Zhang, Xuan; Canagaratna, Manjula; Nowak, John; Daube, Conner; Yan, Chao; Nie, Wei; Onasch, Timothy; Jayne, John; Kolb, Charles; Davidovits, Paul; Worsnop, Douglas; Brune, William

    2017-06-01

    Oxidation flow reactors that use low-pressure mercury lamps to produce hydroxyl (OH) radicals are an emerging technique for studying the oxidative aging of organic aerosols. Here, ozone (O3) is photolyzed at 254 nm to produce O(1D) radicals, which react with water vapor to produce OH. However, the need to use parts-per-million levels of O3 hinders the ability of oxidation flow reactors to simulate NOx-dependent secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation pathways. Simple addition of nitric oxide (NO) results in fast conversion of NOx (NO + NO2) to nitric acid (HNO3), making it impossible to sustain NOx at levels that are sufficient to compete with hydroperoxy (HO2) radicals as a sink for organic peroxy (RO2) radicals. We developed a new method that is well suited to the characterization of NOx-dependent SOA formation pathways in oxidation flow reactors. NO and NO2 are produced via the reaction O(1D) + N2O → 2NO, followed by the reaction NO + O3 → NO2 + O2. Laboratory measurements coupled with photochemical model simulations suggest that O(1D) + N2O reactions can be used to systematically vary the relative branching ratio of RO2 + NO reactions relative to RO2 + HO2 and/or RO2 + RO2 reactions over a range of conditions relevant to atmospheric SOA formation. We demonstrate proof of concept using high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) measurements with nitrate (NO3-) reagent ion to detect gas-phase oxidation products of isoprene and α-pinene previously observed in NOx-influenced environments and in laboratory chamber experiments.

  9. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 clinical isolates collected through national antimicrobial resistance surveillance network in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Geeta; Kim, Dong Wook; Clemens, John D; Malla, Sarala; Upadhyaya, Bishnu Prasad; Dumre, Shyam Prakash; Shrestha, Sirjana Devi; Adhikari, Shailaja; Sharma, Supriya; Rijal, Nisha; Shrestha, Sanjaya K; Mason, Carl; Kansakar, Palpasa

    2012-08-01

    Cholera occurs in sporadic cases and outbreaks in Nepal each year. Vibrio cholerae O1 (n = 522) isolated during 2007-2010 from diarrheal patients at 10 different hospital laboratories in Nepal were characterized. Biochemical and serologic identifications showed that all the isolates belonged to serogroup O1, El Tor biotype. Except 72 isolates of Inaba serotype isolated in the year 2007, all the remaining isolates were of Ogawa serotype. All isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and furazolidone. Resistance to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and co-trimoxazole were 21, 4, 16 and 90 % respectively. Seventy-seven of these isolates were selected for further characterization for ctxB gene and MLVA typing. Two different variants of classical type cholera toxin were observed. Ogawa strains from 2007 and 2010-Western Nepal outbreak harbored CTX-3 type cholera toxin, whereas Inaba serotypes in 2007 and the remaining Ogawa serotypes in 2008-2010 harbored CTX 3b-type toxin. MLVA analysis showed circulation of four different groups of altered V. cholerae O1 El Tor strains. Two different profiles were seen among 2007 Inaba (9, 3, 6, x, x) and Ogawa (10, 7, 6, x, x) isolates. The MLVA profile of 2008 and 2009 Ogawa isolates were similar to those of Inaba strains of 2007. Isolates from 2010 also showed three different MLVA profiles; profile 9, 3, 6, x, x in 3 isolates, 11, 7, 6, x, x among 2010 Western Nepal outbreak strains and profile 8, 3, 6, x, x among isolates from Butwal and Kathmandu.

  10. Upper limits for the circular dichroism for the C 1s and O 1s core excitation of methyl oxirane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruemper, G; Lischke, T; Fukuzawa, H; Reinkoester, A; Ueda, K

    2007-01-01

    The circular dichroism (CD) in the total and partial ion yields of methyl-oxirane C 3 H 6 O was measured at the C 1s and O 1s edges. The difference of the response of the chiral molecule to circularly polarized light with opposite handedness was found to be less than 0.2% for the total ion yield and less than 0.5% for the partial ion yield. Additionally we tried to find a dipole allowed molecular orientation CD effect by analysing the fragmentation in the forward and backward direction. For this effect we found an upper limit of 1-2% for all abundant ionic fragments

  11. Anomalous He-gas high-pressure studies on superconducting LaO1-xFxFeAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, W; Banks, H B; Schilling, J S; Takahashi, H; Okada, H; Kamihara, Y; Hirano, M; Hosono, H

    2010-01-01

    Ac susceptibility measurements have been carried out on superconducting LaO 1-x F x FeAs for x=0.07 and 0.14 under He-gas pressures to ∼0.8 GPa. Not only do the measured values of dT c /dP differ substantially from those obtained in previous studies using other pressure media, but also the T c (P) dependences observed depend on the detailed pressure/temperature history of the sample. A sizeable sensitivity of T c (P) to shear stresses provides a possible explanation.

  12. A recent outbreak of cholera due to Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa in & around Chandigarh, North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Neelam; Kaur, Jasjit; Sharma, Kusum; Singh, Malkit; Kalra, J K; Sharma, N M; Sharma, Meera

    2003-06-01

    An outbreak of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa occurred in and around Chandigarh during July 22-31, 2002. Of the 303 patients admitted to two hospitals, 82 were confirmed by culture. Two rehabilitation colonies located at the periphery of Chandigarh were mainly affected. The isolates were biotyped as Eltor and were susceptible to many antibiotics. Thirty one (35.2%) of 88 water samples showed evidence of faecal contamination. The survey of the area revealed sewage contamination of the drinking water supply. The outbreak was controlled by providing safe drinking water to the people and correcting the defects in the sewage and water pipelines.

  13. Caracterización de aislamientos de Vibrio cholerae no-O1, no-O139 asociados a cuadros de diarrea Characterization of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 and non-O139 isolates associated with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. González Fraga

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La infección por Vibrio cholerae, el agente causal del cólera, se trasmite al hombre por ingestión de agua y alimentos contaminados. Aunque son los serogrupos O1 y O139 los que habitualmente se asocian al cólera epidémico, los aislamientos de otros serogrupos también son causales de gastroenteritis e infecciones extra-intestinales. Durante el período 2003-2005, se investigó la presencia de V. cholerae en la materia fecal de niños con diarrea atendidos en el Hospital del Niño Jesús, Tucumán. Se recuperaron 34 aislamientos de V. cholerae no-O1, no-O139. Se determinaron sus perfiles de virulencia por PCR, la sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos y la diversidad genética por electroforesis en campo pulsado. Se obtuvieron ocho perfiles de virulencia, aunque ningún aislamiento fue positivo para la toxina colérica ni para la toxina termoestable. Cuatro aislamientos fueron positivos para el sistema de secreción de tipo tres. El 17,6% de los aislamientos fueron resistentes o de sensibilidad intermedia a ampicilina y el 5,9% fueron resistentes a trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol. Los aislamientos resultaron muy diversos: se hallaron 27 patrones distintos en 29 aislamientos tipificables por electroforesis en campo pulsado. A pesar de su baja incidencia, V. cholerae continúa siendo un agente causal de diarrea en niños, los que se ven afectados por una amplia variedad de cepas circulantes.Vibrio cholerae, etiologic agent of cholera, is transmitted to humans by ingestion of contaminated food or water. Even though serogroups O1 and O139 are the ones usually associated to epidemic cholera, isolates from other serogroups also cause gastroenteritis and extraintestinal infections. During the period 2003-2005, presence of V. cholerae in stools was investigated in children with diarrhea that seaked assistance at the Niño Jesús Hospital in Tucumán. Thirty four isolates of V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 were recovered. We characterized the isolates studying

  14. The NADPH organizers NoxO1 and p47phox are both mediators of diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Flávia; Moll, Franziska; Walter, Maria; Helfinger, Valeska; Hahner, Fabian; Janetzko, Patrick; Ringel, Christian; Weigert, Andreas; Fleming, Ingrid; Weissmann, Norbert; Kuenne, Carsten; Looso, Mario; Rieger, Michael A; Nawroth, Peter; Fleming, Thomas; Brandes, Ralf P; Schröder, Katrin

    2018-05-01

    NADPH oxidases are important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several Nox homologues are present together in the vascular system but whether they exhibit crosstalk at the activity level is unknown. To address this, vessel function of knockout mice for the cytosolic Nox organizer proteins p47phox, NoxO1 and a p47phox-NoxO1-double knockout were studied under normal condition and during streptozotocin-induced diabetes. In the mouse aorta, mRNA expression for NoxO1 was predominant in smooth muscle and endothelial cells, whereas p47phox was markedly expressed in adventitial cells comprising leukocytes and tissue resident macrophages. Knockout of either NoxO1 or p47phox resulted in lower basal blood pressure. Deletion of any of the two subunits also prevented diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction. mRNA expression analysis by MACE (Massive Analysis of cDNA ends) identified substantial gene expression differences between the mouse lines and in response to diabetes. Deletion of p47phox induced inflammatory activation with increased markers of myeloid cells and cytokine and chemokine induction. In contrast, deletion of NoxO1 resulted in an attenuated interferon gamma signature and reduced expression of genes related to antigen presentation. This aspect was also reflected by a reduced number of circulating lymphocytes in NoxO1-/- mice. ROS production stimulated by NoxO1 and p47phox limit endothelium-dependent relaxation and maintain blood pressure in mice. However, NoxO1 and p47phox cannot substitute each other despite their similar effect on vascular function. Deletion of NoxO1 induced an anti-inflammatory phenotype, whereas p47phox deletion rather elicited a hyper-inflammatory response. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. CD36-dependent Regulation of Muscle FoxO1 and PDK4 in the PPARδ/β-mediated Adaptation to Metabolic Stress*

    OpenAIRE

    Nahlé, Zaher; Hsieh, Michael; Pietka, Terri; Coburn, Chris T.; Grimaldi, Paul A.; Zhang, Michael Q.; Das, Debopriya; Abumrad, Nada A.

    2008-01-01

    The transcription factor FoxO1 contributes to the metabolic adaptation to fasting by suppressing muscle oxidation of glucose, sparing it for glucose-dependent tissues. Previously, we reported that FoxO1 activation in C2C12 muscle cells recruits the fatty acid translocase CD36 to the plasma membrane and increases fatty acid uptake and oxidation. This, together with FoxO1 induction of lipoprotein lipase, would promote the reliance on fatty acid utilization characteristic of the fasted muscle. H...

  16. Development of stable Vibrio cholerae O1 Hikojima type vaccine strains co-expressing the Inaba and Ogawa lipopolysaccharide antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan L Karlsson

    Full Text Available We describe here the development of stable classical and El Tor V. cholerae O1 strains of the Hikojima serotype that co-express the Inaba and Ogawa antigens of O1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Mutation of the wbeT gene reduced LPS perosamine methylation and thereby gave only partial transformation into Ogawa LPS on the cell surface. The strains express approximately equal amounts of Inaba- and Ogawa-LPS antigens which are preserved after formalin-inactivation of the bacteria. Oral immunizations of both inbred and outbred mice with formalin-inactivated whole-cell vaccine preparations of these strains elicited strong intestinal IgA anti-LPS as well as serum vibriocidal antibody responses against both Inaba and Ogawa that were fully comparable to the responses induced by the licensed Dukoral vaccine. Passive protection studies in infant mice showed that immune sera raised against either of the novel Hikojima vaccine strains protected baby mice against infection with virulent strains of both serotypes. This study illustrates the power of using genetic manipulation to improve the properties of bacteria strains for use in killed whole-cell vaccines.

  17. Culture supernatants from V. cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated from different geographic areas induce cell vacuolation and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jorge E; Enríquez-Rincón, Fernando; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia; Ribas-Aparicio, Rosa María; Figueroa-Arredondo, Paula

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether the HlyA-induced vacuolating effect is produced by V. cholerae O1 ElTor strains isolated from different geographic origins, including Mexico. Supernatant-induced haemolysis, vacuolating activity and cytotoxicity in Vero cells were recorded. PCR, RFLP analysis and molecular cloning were performed. All ElTor strains analyzed induced cellular vacuolation. Ribotype 2 strains isolates from the U.S. gulf coast yielded the highest titer of vacuolating activity. Eight of nine strains were haemolytic, while all strains were PCR positive for the hlyA gene. We cloned the hlyA gene from two ElTor strains, a toxigenic (2514-88, ctxAB+) and a non-toxigenic Mexican strain (CM 91-3, ctxAB-). Supernatant from those recombinant E. coli strains induced haemolysis, cell vacuolation and cytotoxicity. RFLP-PCR analysis revealed similarities in the hlyA gene from all strains tested. The HlyA-induced vacuolating effect is a widespread phenotype of epidemic V. cholerae O1 ElTor strains.

  18. Anethole inhibits growth of recently emerged multidrug resistant toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strains in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, M Shamim Hasan; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-05-01

    To search natural compounds having inhibitory effect on bacterial growth is important, particularly in view of growing multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of bacterial pathogens. Like other bacterial pathogens, MDR Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of diarrheal disease cholera, is becoming a great concern. As an approach of searching new antimicrobial agents, here, we show that anethole, a well-studied natural component of sweet fennel and star anise seeds, could potentially inhibit the growth of MDR O1 El Tor biotype, the ongoing 7th cholera pandemic variant strains of toxigenic V. cholerae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of anethole against diverse O1 El Tor biotype strains is evaluated as 200 µg/ml. Moreover, the effect of anethole is bactericidal and exerts rapid-killing action on V. cholerae cells. This study is the first report which demonstrates that anethole, purified from natural compound, is a potent inhibitor of growth of toxigenic V. cholerae. Our data suggest that anethole could be a potential antimicrobial drug candidate, particularly against MDR V. cholerae mediated infections.

  19. Semi-synthetic preparation of 1-O-[1'-14C]hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (platelet activating factor) using plant cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, N.; Mangold, H.K.

    1985-01-01

    Incubation of photomixotrophic cell suspension cultures of rape (Brassica napus) and heterotrophic cell suspension cultures of soya (Glycine max) with 1-O-[1'- 14 C]hexadecyl-sn-glycerol or rac-1-O-[1'- 14 C]hexadecylglycerol leads in high yield (up to 78%) to labeled 1-O-hexadecyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholines. Alkaline hydrolysis of the choline glycerophospholipids yields pure 1-O-[1'- 14 C]hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. 1-O-[1'-14C]Hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (platelet activating factor) is obtained by acetylating the lyso compound. The semi-synthetic preparation described leads to labeled platelet activating factor in an overall yield of 50-60% without loss of specific activity

  20. Purification and characterization of a surfactin-like molecule produced by Bacillus sp. H2O-1 and its antagonistic effect against sulfate reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korenblum Elisa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus sp. H2O-1, isolated from the connate water of a Brazilian reservoir, produces an antimicrobial substance (denoted as AMS H2O-1 that is active against sulfate reducing bacteria, which are the major bacterial group responsible for biogenic souring and biocorrosion in petroleum reservoirs. Thus, the use of AMS H2O-1 for sulfate reducing bacteria control in the petroleum industry is a promising alternative to chemical biocides. However, prior to the large-scale production of AMS H2O-1 for industrial applications, its chemical structure must be elucidated. This study also analyzed the changes in the wetting properties of different surfaces conditioned with AMS H2O-1 and demonstrated the effect of AMS H2O-1 on sulfate reducing bacteria cells. Results A lipopeptide mixture from AMS H2O-1 was partially purified on a silica gel column and identified via mass spectrometry (ESI-MS. It comprises four major components that range in size from 1007 to 1049 Da. The lipid moiety contains linear and branched β-hydroxy fatty acids that range in length from C13 to C16. The peptide moiety contains seven amino acids identified as Glu-Leu-Leu-Val-Asp-Leu-Leu. Transmission electron microscopy revealed cell membrane alteration of sulfate reducing bacteria after AMS H2O-1 treatment at the minimum inhibitory concentration (5 μg/ml. Cytoplasmic electron dense inclusions were observed in treated cells but not in untreated cells. AMS H2O-1 enhanced the osmosis of sulfate reducing bacteria cells and caused the leakage of the intracellular contents. In addition, contact angle measurements indicated that different surfaces conditioned by AMS H2O-1 were less hydrophobic and more electron-donor than untreated surfaces. Conclusion AMS H2O-1 is a mixture of four surfactin-like homologues, and its biocidal activity and surfactant properties suggest that this compound may be a good candidate for sulfate reducing bacteria control. Thus, it is a potential

  1. Purification and characterization of a surfactin-like molecule produced by Bacillus sp. H2O-1 and its antagonistic effect against sulfate reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacillus sp. H2O-1, isolated from the connate water of a Brazilian reservoir, produces an antimicrobial substance (denoted as AMS H2O-1) that is active against sulfate reducing bacteria, which are the major bacterial group responsible for biogenic souring and biocorrosion in petroleum reservoirs. Thus, the use of AMS H2O-1 for sulfate reducing bacteria control in the petroleum industry is a promising alternative to chemical biocides. However, prior to the large-scale production of AMS H2O-1 for industrial applications, its chemical structure must be elucidated. This study also analyzed the changes in the wetting properties of different surfaces conditioned with AMS H2O-1 and demonstrated the effect of AMS H2O-1 on sulfate reducing bacteria cells. Results A lipopeptide mixture from AMS H2O-1 was partially purified on a silica gel column and identified via mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). It comprises four major components that range in size from 1007 to 1049 Da. The lipid moiety contains linear and branched β-hydroxy fatty acids that range in length from C13 to C16. The peptide moiety contains seven amino acids identified as Glu-Leu-Leu-Val-Asp-Leu-Leu. Transmission electron microscopy revealed cell membrane alteration of sulfate reducing bacteria after AMS H2O-1 treatment at the minimum inhibitory concentration (5 μg/ml). Cytoplasmic electron dense inclusions were observed in treated cells but not in untreated cells. AMS H2O-1 enhanced the osmosis of sulfate reducing bacteria cells and caused the leakage of the intracellular contents. In addition, contact angle measurements indicated that different surfaces conditioned by AMS H2O-1 were less hydrophobic and more electron-donor than untreated surfaces. Conclusion AMS H2O-1 is a mixture of four surfactin-like homologues, and its biocidal activity and surfactant properties suggest that this compound may be a good candidate for sulfate reducing bacteria control. Thus, it is a potential alternative to the

  2. Comparative genomic characterization of a Thailand-Myanmar isolate, MS6, of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, which is phylogenetically related to a "US Gulf Coast" clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kazuhisa; Na-Ubol, Mathukorn; Natakuathung, Wirongrong; Roobthaisong, Amonrattana; Maruyama, Fumito; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Chantaroj, Siriporn; Hamada, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    The cholera outbreaks in Thailand during 2007-2010 were exclusively caused by the Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant carrying the cholera toxin gene of the classical biotype. We previously isolated a V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain from a patient with diarrhea and designated it MS6. Multilocus sequence-typing analysis revealed that MS6 is most closely related to the U. S. Gulf Coast clone with the exception of two novel housekeeping genes. The nucleotide sequence of the genome of MS6 was determined and compared with those of 26 V. cholerae strains isolated from clinical and environmental sources worldwide. We show here that the MS6 isolate is distantly related to the ongoing seventh pandemic V. cholerae O1 El Tor strains. These strains differ with respect to polymorphisms in housekeeping genes, seventh pandemic group-specific markers, CTX phages, two genes encoding predicted transmembrane proteins, the presence of metY (MS6_A0927) or hchA/luxR in a highly conserved region of the V. cholerae O1 serogroup, and a superintegron (SI). We found that V. cholerae species carry either hchA/luxR or metY and that the V. cholerae O1 clade commonly possesses hchA/luxR, except for MS6 and U. S. Gulf Coast strains. These findings illuminate the evolutionary relationships among V. cholerae O1 strains. Moreover, the MS6 SI carries a quinolone-resistance gene cassette, which was closely related with those present in plasmid-borne integrons of other gram-negative bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that MS6 is most closely related to a U. S. Gulf Coast clone, indicating their divergence before that of the El Tor biotype strains from a common V. cholerae O1 ancestor. We propose that MS6 serves as an environmental aquatic reservoir of V. cholerae O1.

  3. Tuning of superconductivity by Ni substitution into noncentrosymmetric ThC o1 -xN ixC2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, T. W.; Cigarroa, O. V.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Machado, A. J. S.; Fisk, Z.

    2017-07-01

    The recently discovered noncentrosymmetric superconductor ThCoC2 was observed to show unusual superconducting behavior with a critical temperature of Tc=2.65 K . Here we investigate the effect of nickel substitution on the superconducting state in ThC o1 -xN ixC2 . Magnetization, resistivity, and heat capacity measurements demonstrate Ni substitution has a dramatic effect with critical temperature increased up to Tc=12.1 K for x =0.4 Ni concentration, which is a rather high transition temperature for a noncentrosymmetric superconductor. In addition, the unusual superconducting characteristics observed in pure ThCoC2 appear to be suppressed or tuned with Ni substitution towards a more conventional fully gapped superconductor.

  4. [Antibiotic resistance pattern of 24, 526 strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated in Mexico from 1991 to 1993].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giono-Cerezo, S; Zárate, A; Gutiérrez, L; Valdespino, J L

    1994-01-01

    Profile of antimicrobial resistance by Kirby-Bauer method was performed on 24526 Vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated in México (1991-1993) from fecal swabs in cholera cases and from asymptomatic carriers. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests for tetracycline (Te) and doxycycline (D) were done on selected strains. Single antibiotic discs were used at concentrations of: Te, 30 micrograms; D, 30 micrograms; erythromycin (E), 15 micrograms; chloramphenicol (CM), 30 micrograms; ampicillin (AM), 10 micrograms; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) 1.25 micrograms/23.75 micrograms. Strains whose halos were of a smaller diameter than the intermediate value were considered resistant. It is important to maintain surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility as epidemiological marker on geographical selected areas in order to detect changes of resistant patterns.

  5. Outbreak of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor strain--La Huasteca Region, Mexico, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Quiñonez, Alberto; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; Montes-Colima, Norma; Moreno-Pérez, Asunción; Galicia-Nicolás, Adriana; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Carmona-Ramos, Concepción; Sánchez-Mendoza, Miroslava; Rodríguez-Martínez, José Cruz; Suárez-Idueta, Lorena; Jiménez-Corona, María Eugenia; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo

    2014-06-27

    On September 2 and 6, 2013, Mexico's National System of Epidemiological Surveillance identified two cases of cholera in Mexico City. Rectal swab cultures from both patients were confirmed as toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and virulence gene amplification (ctxA, ctxB, zot, and ace) demonstrated that the strains were identical to one another but different from strains circulating in Mexico previously. The strains were indistinguishable from the strain that has caused outbreaks in Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Cuba. The strain was susceptible to doxycycline, had intermediate susceptibility to ampicillin and chloramphenicol, was less than fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin, and was resistant to furazolidone and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. An investigation failed to identify a common source of infection, additional cases, or any epidemiologic link between the cases. Both patients were treated with a single, 300-mg dose of doxycycline, and their symptoms resolved.

  6. Effect of sintering time on the physical characteristics of CaCu_3Ti_4O_1_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, E. de; Muccillo, E.N.S.

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystalline CaCu_3Ti_4O_1_2 (CCTO) with the perovskite type structure has a high dielectric constant that can do up to 10"5, at room temperature, which make it an interesting material to be applied at several microelectronic devices. In this work, CCTO was prepared by the conventional solid state method, in order to identify the influence of process parameters in its properties. Powders were homogenized in a mechanical mixer, calcined at 900 °C for 18 hours, pressed into 10 mm diameter pellets and sintered at 1050 °C for 12 and 18 hours. Density achieved was 94 and 87%, pellets sintered for 12 and 18 hours, respectively. X-ray diffraction confirms the presence of the cubic phase of perovskite type. The observation of micrographs shows an increase of the grain size with the sintering time. Dielectric properties present a dependence on the sample process. (author)

  7. Insulin/IGF-I regulation of necdin and brown adipocyte differentiation via CREB- and FoxO1-associated pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cypess, Aaron M; Zhang, Hongbin; Schulz, Tim J

    2011-01-01

    is regulated by the phosphoinositide 3 kinase-Akt pathway, increased necdin promoter activity. Based on reporter gene assays using truncations of the necdin promoter and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies, we demonstrated that CREB and FoxO1 are recruited to the necdin promoter, likely interacting......Brown adipose tissue plays an important role in obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. We have previously shown that the transition from brown preadipocytes to mature adipocytes is mediated in part by insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and the cell cycle regulator protein necdin. In this study...... with specific consensus sequences in the proximal region. Based on these results, we propose that insulin/IGF-I act through IRS-1 phosphorylation to stimulate differentiation of brown preadipocytes via two complementary pathways: 1) the Ras-ERK1/2 pathway to activate CREB and 2) the phosphoinositide 3 kinase-Akt...

  8. Growing barium hexaferrite (BaFe_1_2O_1_9) thin films using chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiawanti, Sri; Soegijono, Bambang

    2016-01-01

    Barium hexaferrite (BaFe_1_2O_1_9, or simply known as BaM) thin films has been recognized as a potential candidate for microwave-based devices, magnetic recording media and data storage. To grow BaM thin films, chemical solution deposition is conducted using the aqueous solution of metal nitrates, which involves spin coatings on Si substrates. Furthermore, Thermal Gravimeter Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) are applied to evaluate the decomposition behavior, structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of BaM thin films. Additionally, the effects of number of layers variation are also investigated. Finally, magnetic properties analysis indicates the isotropic nature of the films.

  9. Two component butterfly hysteresis in RuSr2EuCeCu2O1 ruthenocuprate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivkovic, I.; Drobac, D.; Prester, M.

    2006-01-01

    We report detailed studies of the ac susceptibility butterfly hysteresis on the RuSr 2 EuCeCu 2 O 1 (Ru1222) ruthenocuprate compound. Two separate contributions to these hysteresis have been identified and studied. One contribution is ferromagnetic-like and is characterized by the coercive field maximum. Another contribution, represented by the so called inverted maximum, is related to the unusual inverted loops, unique feature of Ru1222 butterfly hysteresis. The different nature of the two identified magnetic contributions is proved by the different temperature dependences involved. By lowering the temperature the inverted peak gradually disappears while the coercive field slowly raises. If the maximum dc field for the hysteresis is increased, the size of the inverted part of the butterfly hysteresis monotonously grows while the position of the peak saturates. In reaching saturation exponential field dependence has been demonstrated to take place. At T = 78 K the saturation field is 42 Oe

  10. Low toxicity binder systems for tape cast Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 laminates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemensø, Trine; Menon, Mohan; Ramousse, Severine

    2010-01-01

    Conventional binder systems for tape casting contain toxic phthalate plasticizers and butanone (MEK) as part of the solvent. The effects of exchanging the phthalate with a non-toxic alternative, and butanone with ethanol, were studied on laminates of high-green density CGO (Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95) tapes....... Samples were prepared with a binder system containing DBP (dibutyl phthalate) plasticizer and MEK solvent, and with a binder system based on a non-toxic non-phthalate plasticizer and ethanol. In both systems, the weight ratio of plasticizer to the PVB (polyvinyl butyral) binder was varied between 0.......4 and 0.7. Substitution to the less toxic binder system had no adverse impacts on the microstructure. In fact, denser packing and improved homogeneity were observed with the non-phthalate-based system at ratio 0.5 indicating improved dispersion in this system. The denser packing also coincided...

  11. YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS, SEROGROUP O:1A, INFECTION IN TWO AMAZON PARROTS (AMAZONA AESTIVA AND AMAZONA ORATRIX) WITH HEPATIC HEMOSIDEROSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galosi, Livio; Farneti, Silvana; Rossi, Giacomo; Cork, Susan Catherine; Ferraro, Stefano; Magi, Gian Enrico; Petrini, Stefano; Valiani, Andrea; Cuteri, Vincenzo; Attili, Anna-Rita

    2015-09-01

    Necropsies were conducted on a female blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) and a female yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix) that died after depression, ruffled feathers, diarrhea, and biliverdin in the urine. Gross and microscopic examinations revealed multifocal necrosis in the liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, intestines, and heart caused by acute bacteremia. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, serogroup O:1a, was isolated by culturing from the visceral lesions in the liver, intestines, and spleen. Virulence gene analysis showed the presence of the inv gene and the complete pathogenicity island: IS100, psn, yptE, irp1, irp2 ybtP-ybtQ, ybtX-ybtS, and int asnT-Int. Histopathologic findings and chemical analysis also demonstrated hepatic hemosiderosis. As has been demonstrated in other species, hemosiderosis may predispose Amazona spp. to systemic infection with Y. pseudotuberculosis after enteric disease.

  12. Immunogenicity of a killed bivalent (O1 and O139 whole cell oral cholera vaccine, Shanchol, in Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richelle C Charles

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the immunogenicity of the killed bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine, Shanchol, have been performed in historically cholera-endemic areas of Asia. There is a need to assess the immunogenicity of the vaccine in Haiti and other populations without historical exposure to Vibrio cholerae.We measured immune responses after administration of Shanchol, in 25 adults, 51 older children (6-17 years, and 47 younger children (1-5 years in Haiti, where cholera was introduced in 2010. A≥4-fold increase in vibriocidal antibody titer against V. cholerae O1 Ogawa was observed in 91% of adults, 74% of older children, and 73% of younger children after two doses of Shanchol; similar responses were observed against the Inaba serotype. A≥2-fold increase in serum O-antigen specific polysaccharide IgA antibody levels against V. cholerae O1 Ogawa was observed in 59% of adults, 45% of older children, and 61% of younger children; similar responses were observed against the Inaba serotype. We compared immune responses in Haitian individuals with age- and blood group-matched individuals from Bangladesh, a historically cholera-endemic area. The geometric mean vibriocidal titers after the first dose of vaccine were lower in Haitian than in Bangladeshi vaccinees. However, the mean vibriocidal titers did not differ between the two groups after the second dose of the vaccine.A killed bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine, Shanchol, is highly immunogenic in Haitian adults and children. A two-dose regimen may be important in Haiti, and other populations lacking previous repeated exposures to V. cholerae.

  13. Pulsed laser deposition of SmFeAsO1-δ on MgO(100) substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haindl, Silvia; Kinjo, Hiroyuki; Hanzawa, Kota; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Hosono, Hideo

    2018-04-01

    Layered iron oxyarsenides are novel interesting semimetallic compounds that are itinerant antiferromagnets in their ground state with a transition to high-temperature superconductivity upon charge carrier doping. The rare earth containing mother compounds offer rich physics due to different antiferromagnetic orderings: the alignment of Fe magnetic moments within the FeAs sublattice, which is believed to play a role for the superconducting pairing mechanism, and the ordering of the rare-earth magnetic moments at low temperatures. Here, we present thin film preparation and a film growth study of SmFeAsO on MgO(100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). In general, the PLD method is capable to produce iron oxyarsenide thin films, however, competition with impurity phase formation narrows the parameter window. We assume that the film growth in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environment results in an oxygen-deficient phase, SmFeAsO1-δ. Despite the large lattice misfit, we find epitaxial oxyarsenide thin film growth on MgO(100) with evolving film thickness. Bragg reflections are absent in very thin films although they locally show indications for pseudomorphic growth of the first unit cells. We propose the possibility for a Stranski-Krastanov growth mode as a result of the large in-plane lattice misfit between the iron oxypnictide and the MgO unit cells. A columnar 3-dimensional film growth mode dominates and the surface roughness is determined by growth mounds, a non-negligible parameter for device fabrication as well as in the application of surface sensitive probes. Furthermore, we found evidence for a stratified growth in steps of half a unit cell, i.e. alternating growth of (FeAs)- and (SmO1-δ)+ layers, the basic structural components of the unit cell. We propose a simple model for the growth kinetics of this compound.

  14. Critical Role of FoxO1 in Granulosa Cell Apoptosis Caused by Oxidative Stress and Protective Effects of Grape Seed Procyanidin B2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Qing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are closely related to the follicular granulosa cell apoptosis. Grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2 has been reported to possess potent antioxidant activity. However, the GSPB2-mediated protective effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms in granulosa cell apoptosis process remain unknown. In this study, we showed for the first time that GSPB2 treatment decreased FoxO1 protein level, improved granulosa cell viability, upregulated LC3-II protein level, and reduced granulosa cell apoptosis rate. Under a condition of oxidative stress, GSPB2 reversed FoxO1 nuclear localization and increased its level in cytoplasm. In addition, FoxO1 knockdown inhibited the protective effects of GSPB2 induced. Our findings suggest that FoxO1 plays a pivotal role in regulating autophagy in granulosa cells, GSPB2 exerts a potent and beneficial role in reducing granulosa cell apoptosis and inducing autophagy process, and targeting FoxO1 could be significant in fighting against oxidative stress-reduced female reproductive system diseases.

  15. Density functional theory study of the adsorption and dissociation of O{sub 2} on CuO(1 1 1) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shujuan, E-mail: sunshujuan@hebut.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Li, Chunyu [Science and Technology Innovation Center, Datang Technologies Industry Group Company Limited, Beijing (China); Zhang, Dongsheng [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Wang, Yanji, E-mail: yjwang@hebut.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • The dissociation mechanisms of O{sub 2} on the CuO(1 1 1) surface have been obtained. • The energy barriers and reaction energies are calculated. • The presence of oxygen vacancy can obviously improve the catalytic activity of CuO. - Abstract: Density functional theory (DFT) have been performed to investigate the adsorption and dissociation of O{sub 2} on the perfect and oxygen-deficient CuO(1 1 1) surfaces. The calculated results indicate that the bridge site of two Cu{sub sub} atoms is the most favorable site for O adsorption on the perfect CuO(1 1 1) surface. But on the oxygen-deficient CuO(1 1 1) surface, the O atom adsorbed on O{sub vacancy} site after optimization. On the perfect and oxygen-deficient CuO(1 1 1) surfaces, the O{sub 2} are all paralleling to the surface after optimization. Possible dissociation pathways of molecularly adsorbed O{sub 2} on the two surfaces are identified. The calculated results suggest that the presence of oxygen vacancy exhibits a strong chemical reactivity towards the dissociation of O{sub 2} and can obviously improve the catalytic activity of CuO.

  16. GCN5L1 modulates cross-talk between mitochondria and cell signaling to regulate FoxO1 stability and gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingdi; Scott, Iain; Zhu, Lu; Wu, Kaiyuan; Han, Kim; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Sack, Michael N

    2017-09-12

    The mitochondrial enriched GCN5-like 1 (GCN5L1) protein has been shown to modulate mitochondrial protein acetylation, mitochondrial content and mitochondrial retrograde signaling. Here we show that hepatic GCN5L1 ablation reduces fasting glucose levels and blunts hepatic gluconeogenesis without affecting systemic glucose tolerance. PEPCK and G6Pase transcript levels are downregulated in hepatocytes from GCN5L1 liver specific knockout mice and their upstream regulator, FoxO1 protein levels are decreased via proteasome-dependent degradation and via reactive oxygen species mediated ERK-1/2 phosphorylation. ERK inhibition restores FoxO1, gluconeogenic enzyme expression and glucose production. Reconstitution of mitochondrial-targeted GCN5L1 blunts mitochondrial ROS, ERK activation and increases FoxO1, gluconeogenic enzyme expression and hepatocyte glucose production. We suggest that mitochondrial GCN5L1 modulates post-translational control of FoxO1, regulates gluconeogenesis and controls metabolic pathways via mitochondrial ROS mediated ERK activation. Exploring mechanisms underpinning GCN5L1 mediated ROS signaling may expand our understanding of the role of mitochondria in gluconeogenesis control.Hepatic gluconeogenesis is tightly regulated at transcriptional level and is essential for survival during prolonged fasting. Here Wang et al. show that the mitochondrial enriched GCN5-like 1 protein controls hepatic glucose production by regulating FoxO1 protein levels via proteasome-dependent degradation and, in turn, gluconeogenic gene expression.

  17. Luminescent and scintillation properties of the Pr"3"+ doped single crystalline films of Lu_3Al_5_−_xGa_xO_1_2 garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbenko, V.; Zorenko, Yu; Zorenko, T.; Voznyak, T.; Paprocki, K.; Fabisiak, K.; Fedorov, A.; Bilski, P.; Twardak, A.; Zhusupkalieva, G.

    2016-01-01

    The Pr"3"+ d–f luminescence was investigated in the single crystalline films (SCF) of Lu_3Al_5_−_xGa_xO_1_2:Pr garnet solid solution at x = 1–3, grown by the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) method from the melt-solution based on the PbO–B_2O_3 flux. The shape of CL spectra and decay kinetics of Pr"3"+ ions in Lu_3Al_5_−_xGa_xO_1_2 SCFs strongly depend on the total gallium concentration x and distribution of Ga"3"+ ions between the tetrahedral and octahedral position of the garnet host. The best scintillation properties of Lu_3Al_5_−_xGa_xO_1_2:Pr SCF are achieved at the nominal Ga content in melt-solution in the x = 2–2.5 range. - Highlights: • Single crystalline films of Lu_3Al_5_−_x Ga_xO_1_2:Pr garnet at x = 1–3 were grown by the LPE method. • Pr"3"+ emission spectra, light yield and decay time of films show strong dependence on Ga content. • The maximal light yield of Lu_3Al_5_−_x Ga_xO_1_2:Pr film is observed at Ga content x = 2.0–2.5.

  18. A hot implantation study on the evolution of defects in He ion implanted MgO(1 0 0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, A.V.; Huis, M.A. van; Veen, A. van

    2002-01-01

    Ion implantation at elevated temperature, so-called hot implantation, was used to study nucleation and thermal stability of the defects. In this work, MgO(1 0 0) single crystal samples were implanted with 30 keV He ions at various implantation temperatures. The implantation doses ranged from 10 14 to 10 16 cm -2 . The implantation introduced defects were subsequently studied by thermal helium desorption spectroscopy (THDS) and Doppler broadening positron beam analysis (PBA). The THDS study provides vital information on the kinetics of He release from the sample. PBA technique, being sensitive to the open volume defects, provides complementary information on cavity evolution. The THD study has shown that in most cases helium release is characterised by the activation energy of Q=4.7±0.5 eV with the maximum release temperature of T max =1830 K. By applying first order desorption model the pre-exponent factor is estimated as ν=4.3x10 11 s -1

  19. Growth and physicochemical properties of organometallic (DL)-trithioureatartrato-O1,O2,O3-cadmium(II) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyamoorthy, K.; Vinothkumar, P.; Irshad Ahamed, J.; Murali Manohar, P.; Priya, M.; Liu, Jinghe

    2018-04-01

    Single crystals of organometallic (DL)-trithioureatartrato-O1,O2,O3-cadmium(II) (TUDLC) have been grown from methanol solution by using the slow evaporation of solvent growth technique. The lattice structure and crystalline perfection have been determined by carrying out single crystal X-ray diffraction and high resolution X-ray diffraction measurements. The grown crystal was characterized thermally and mechanically by carrying out thermo-gravimetric and micro hardness measurements. The linear and nonlinear optical characterizations were made by carrying out optical transmittance, surface laser damage threshold, particle size-dependent second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency and photo conductivity measurements. The grown crystal was electrically characterized by carrying out frequency-dependent dielectric measurements. Chemical etching study was also carried out and the dislocation density was estimated. Results obtained in the present study indicate that the grown TUDLC crystal is optically transparent with lower cut-off wavelength 304 nm, mechanically soft, thermally stable up to 101 °C and NLO active with SHG efficiency 2.13 (in KDP unit). The grown crystal is found to have considerably large size, good crystalline perfection, large specific heat capacity, higher surface laser damage threshold and negative photoconductivity.

  20. The dynamics of the reaction of 16O(1D)+D218O→16OD+18OD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillory, W.A.; Gericke, K.H.; Comes, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    The detailed energy partitioning in the reaction of a metastable oxygen atom O( 1 D) with D 2 O proceeding to two OD molecules has been studied. In order to distinguish the product state distribution between the two chemically identical product molecules OD, the oxygen atom in the heavy water molecule was labeled isotopically. The use of spectroscopic methods allows a complete analysis of the products' state distribution including such fine details as the distribution of the different #betta# components and of the electron spin. The vibrational energy is almost exclusively channeled into the new ( 16 OD) bond, whereas the original ( 18 OD) bond is produced (>90%) in the ground vibrational state. Both OD radicals show a broad rotational excitation and the rotational energy is equally partitioned among the two bonds. The energy distribution over the rovibrational levels strongly reflects the influence of coincident product molecules emerging from this chemical reaction. The reaction is very direct and must proceed on a time scale which does not allow for efficient energy transfer into all the available phase space

  1. Advanced glycosylation end product promotes forkhead box O1 and inhibits Wnt pathway to suppress capacities of epidermal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Wang, Peng; Yu, Zhimin; Lai, Wei; Cao, Yi; Huang, Pinbo; Xu, Qiaodong; Yu, Menglei; Xu, Junyao; Huang, Zitong; Zeng, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is frequently accompanied by chronic complications like delayed wound healing, which is consider to be attributed to the accumulation of advanced glycosylation end product (AGE). However, the impacts of AGE on epidermal stem cells (ESCs) are largely unknown. This study aims to address the influence and mechanism of AGE on ESCs. ESCs isolated from rats were cultured in AGE-modified bovine serum albumin and transfected with small interfering RNA to knock down AGE-specific receptor (AGER). Expression of stem cell markers integrin β1 (ITGB1) and keratin 19 (KRT19), cell viability, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined. Wnt pathway-related factors Wnt family member 1 (WNT1), WNT3A, β-catenin, v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC), cyclin D1 (CCND1) and matrix metallopeptidase 7 (MMP7) were quantified. The interaction between forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) and β-catenin was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation. Results indicated that AGE down-regulated ITGB1 and KRT19 expression, suppressed ESC viability and promoted apoptosis, and ROS level ( P factor 1 to interact with β-catenin, which might help to elucidate the mechanism of AGE repressing ESCs. This study helps to understand the mechanism of accumulated AGE in affecting ESC capacities, and provides potential therapeutic targets to meliorate diabetic wound healing.

  2. Loss of Interdependent Binding by the FoxO1 and FoxA1/A2 Forkhead Transcription Factors Culminates in Perturbation of Active Chromatin Marks and Binding of Transcriptional Regulators at Insulin-sensitive Genes*

    OpenAIRE

    Yalley, Akua; Schill, Daniel; Hatta, Mitsutoki; Johnson, Nicole; Cirillo, Lisa Ann

    2016-01-01

    FoxO1 binds to insulin response elements located in the promoters of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), activating their expression. Insulin-mediated phosphorylation of FoxO1 promotes cytoplasmic translocation, inhibiting FoxO1-mediated transactivation. We have previously demonstrated that FoxO1 opens and remodels chromatin assembled from the IGFBP1 promoter via a highly conserved winged helix motif. This finding, which established FoxO1 ...

  3. Esculetin ameliorates hepatic fibrosis in high fat diet induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by regulation of FoxO1 mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anuradha; Raj, Priyank; Goru, Santosh Kumar; Kadakol, Almesh; Malek, Vajir; Sharma, Nisha; Gaikwad, Anil Bhanudas

    2017-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a chronic metabolic disorder is associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrotic cascades. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of Esculetin, a well-known anti-oxidant on TGF-β1 mediated liver fibrosis and FoxO1 activity. A non-genetic murine model for NAFLD was developed by chronic high fat diet (HFD) (58% calories from fats) feeding in Wistar rats. The plasma biochemical parameters, liver function tests, oxidative stress, and histopathological alterations were assessed. The alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and FoxO1 activity were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The aberrations in plasma parameters, liver functioning, morphometric and microscopic changes in liver structure of HFD fed rats were significantly improved by treatment with Esculetin. Liver fibrosis, identified in the form of collagen deposition and expression of fibrotic proteins like TGF-β1 and fibronectin was also markedly controlled by Esculetin. The expression of phospho-FoxO1 was found to be reduced in HFD fed rats' liver, showing an increase in activation of FoxO1 under insulin resistant and hyperglycemic states. Esculetin treatment could improve phospho-FoxO1 expression, thus showing its ability to act on Akt/PI3K/FoxO1 pathway. As per the previous studies, a potential therapy for NAFLD may be the one with multi-faceted actions on insulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. This study demonstrates the efficiency of Esculetin in improving liver fibrosis in HFD induced NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic and antigenic relationship of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O isolates with the vaccine strain O1/BFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanhong; Zhang, Zhidong; Nfon, Charles; Yang, Ming

    2018-05-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease serotype O viruses (FMDV/O) are responsible for the most outbreaks in FMD endemic countries. O1/BFS is one of the recommended FMD/O vaccine strains by World Reference Laboratory for FMD. In the current study, FMDV/O1 BFS vaccine strain and serotype O field isolates (45) were analyzed phylogenetically and antigenically to gain more insight into the genetic and antigenic characteristics of the vaccine strain and field isolates. O1/BFS showed similarity with 89% of the field isolates using a virus neutralization test (VNT). The P1 region encoding the FMDV capsid was sequenced and analysed for 46 strains of FMDV/O. Phylogenetic analysis showed these viruses originated from five continents and covered eight of 11 reported topotypes. Five isolates that demonstrated low antigenic similarities with O1/BFS were analyzed for their antigenic variation at the known neutralizing antigenic sites. Three of the five isolates demonstrated unique amino acid substitutions at various antigenic sites. No unique amino acid substitutions were observed for the other two unmatched isolates. Positively selected residues were identified on the surface of the FMD virus capsid supporting that it is important to continuously monitor field isolates for their antigenic and phenotypic changes. In conclusion, the vaccine strain O1/BFS is likely to confer protection against 89% of the 45 FMDV/O isolates based on VNT. Thus O1/BFS vaccine strain is still suitable for use in global FMD serotype O outbreak control. Combining data from phylogenetic, molecular and antigenic analysis can provide improvements in the process of vaccine selection. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative protection of two different commercial vaccines against Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 and biotype 2 in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, S.; Raida, M. K.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2012-01-01

    Differentially extended specific protection by two commercial vaccines against Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 biotype 2 was studied following 30s immersion exposure. Rainbow trout were challenged intra-peritoneally (i.p.) with Y. ruckeri serotype O1, biotype 2 (≈106 to 107CFU/fish) at 4, 6 and 8...... months after vaccination with vaccines containing either biotype 1 (AquaVac® ERM) or both biotypes 1 and 2 (AquaVac® RELERA™). The specific pattern of vaccine-mediated protection was evaluated by relative percentage survival (RPS) analysis at 4 and 6 months post-vaccination and by obtaining gross...

  6. Adsorption of SO{sub 2} on Li atoms deposited on MgO (1 0 0) surface: DFT calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eid, Kh.M., E-mail: Kheid98@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11757 (Egypt); Ammar, H.Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Najran University, Najran 1988 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-05-01

    The adsorption of sulfur dioxide molecule (SO{sub 2}) on Li atom deposited on the surfaces of metal oxide MgO (1 0 0) on both anionic and defect (F{sub s}-center) sites located on various geometrical defects (terrace, edge and corner) has been studied using density functional theory (DFT) in combination with embedded cluster model. The adsorption energy (E{sub ads}) of SO{sub 2} molecule (S-atom down as well as O-atom down) in different positions on both of O{sup -2} and F{sub s} sites is considered. The spin density (SD) distribution due to the presence of Li atom is discussed. The geometrical optimizations have been done for the additive materials and MgO substrate surfaces (terrace, edge and corner). The oxygen vacancy formation energies have been evaluated for MgO substrate surfaces. The ionization potential (IP) for defect free and defect containing of the MgO surfaces has been calculated. The adsorption properties of SO{sub 2} are analyzed in terms of the E{sub ads}, the electron donation (basicity), the elongation of S-O bond length and the atomic charges on adsorbed materials. The presence of the Li atom increases the catalytic effect of the anionic O{sup -2} site of MgO substrate surfaces (converted from physisorption to chemisorption). On the other hand, the presence of the Li atom decreases the catalytic effect of the F{sub s}-site of MgO substrate surfaces. Generally, the SO{sub 2} molecule is strongly adsorbed (chemisorption) on the MgO substrate surfaces containing F{sub s}-center.

  7. Hierarchical Li_4Ti_5O_1_2/C composite for lithium-ion batteries with enhanced rate performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Ning; Song, Zhonghai; Liang, Qiu; Gao, Xuejiao; Qin, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The composite was prepared via one-pot way by utilizing glucose as carbon source. • The obtained composite consists some grain-like particles pasted on the bulk LTO sheets. • The composite possesses excellent cycle performance and high rate capacity - Abstract: Considering the charming merits and natural defects of Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 (LTO), we build a hierarchical LTO/C composite through a rational hydrothermal route by utilizing the low-cost glucose as carbon source. The obtained composite consists of some grain-like secondary particles (10–15 nm) pasted on the relatively bulk LTO sheets (50–100 nm). Due to the introduction of carbon, the composite has the smaller particle size, lower polarization and superior electrical conductivity. Besides, the as-prepared sample exhibits good cycling stability and outstanding rate performance. It delivers the discharge capacity of 174.1 mAh g"−"1 at 1C and left 131.7 mAh g"−"1 even at 50C, which is apparently superior than pristine LTO. Furthermore, the discharge capacity maintains 93.4% after 500 cycles at 1C and 80.5% after 1000 cycles at 50C. Even after 3000 ultralong cycles at 5C, the value still retains 74.2% which is much higher than that of pure LTO (38.4%). The ideal proportion of carbon modified in LTO is also explored. The LTO/C-3.74 wt% composite is demonstrated to possess optimal electrochemical performance.

  8. A density functional study of NO{sub 2} adsorption on perfect and defective MgO (1 0 0) and Li/MgO (1 0 0) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eid, Kh.M., E-mail: Khaled_eid@edu.asu.edu.eg [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 11757, Cairo (Egypt); Ammar, H.Y. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 11757, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Najran University, Najran (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-07-15

    The density functional theory (DFT) in combination with embedded cluster model have been used to study the adsorption of nitrogen dioxide molecule (NO{sub 2}) on Li atom deposited on the surfaces of metal oxide MgO (1 0 0) on both anionic (O{sup 2-}) and defect (F{sub s} and F{sub s}{sup +}-centers) sites. The adsorption energy (E{sub ads}) of NO{sub 2} molecule (N-down as well as O-down) in different positions on O{sup -2}, F{sub s} and F{sub s}{sup +}-sites is considered. The geometrical optimizations have been done for the additive materials and MgO substrate surfaces. The formation energies have been evaluated for F{sub s} and F{sub s}{sup +} of MgO substrate surfaces. The ionization potential (IP) and electron affinity (eA) for defect free and defect containing surfaces have been calculated. The adsorption properties of NO{sub 2} are analyzed in terms of the adsorption energy, the electron donation (basicity), the elongation of N-O bond length and the atomic charges on adsorbed materials. The densities of states (DOS) have been calculated and used for examining the adsorption properties. The NO{sub 2} molecule is dissociated due to the interaction with the defective substrate surface (F{sub s}-site) producing an oxygen atom strongly chemisorbed to the vacancy of the substrate and gaseous NO far away from the surface. The presence of the Li atom increases the surface chemistry of the anionic O{sup 2-}-site of MgO substrate surfaces (converted from physisorption to chemisorption). On the other hand, the presence of the Li atom decreases the surface chemistry of the F{sub s} and F{sub s}{sup +}-sites of MgO substrate surfaces. Generally, the NO{sub 2} molecule is strongly adsorbed (chemisorption) on the MgO substrate surfaces containing F{sub s} and F{sub s}{sup +}-centers.

  9. The Photometric lightcurve of Comet 1P/Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Allison N.; Schleicher, David G.

    2014-11-01

    Comet 1P/Halley is considered an important object for a number of reasons. Not only is it the first-identified and brightest periodic comet, being the only periodic comet visible to the naked eye at every apparition, but in 1986 Halley became the first comet to be imaged by fly-by spacecraft. The NASA-funded International Halley Watch (IHW) directly supported the spacecraft by providing narrowband filters for groundbased photometric observations, and until the arrival of Hale-Bopp (1995 O1), Halley was the subject of the largest groundbased observational campaign in history. Following considerable controversy regarding its rotation period, it was eventually determined to be in complex rotation -- the first comet to be so identified. While the overall brightness variations of the coma repeated with a period of about 7.4 days, the detailed period and shape of the lightcurve constantly evolved. The determination of the specific characteristics of each of the two components of its non-principal axis rotational state has remained elusive.To resolve this situation we have now incorporated all of the narrowband photometry, taken by 21 telescopes from around the world and submitted to the IHW archive, to create the most complete homogeneous lightcurve possible. Using measurements of three gas species and the dust, the lightcurve was investigated and found to alternate between a double- and triple-peaked shape, with no single feature being present throughout the entire duration of our dataset (316 days). The apparent period as a function of time was extracted and seen to vary in a step-wise manner between 7.27 and 7.60 days. Taken together, these results were used to produce a synthetic lightcurve revealing Halley's behavior even when no data were available. Details of this and other results, to be used to constrain future detailed modeling, will be presented. This research is supported by NASA's Planetary Atmospheres Program.

  10. Rate Constants and H-Atom Product Yields for the Reactions of O(1D) Atoms with Ethane and Acetylene from 50 to 296 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Reyes, Dianailys; Hickson, Kevin M

    2018-05-01

    The gas phase reactions of atomic oxygen in its first excited state with ethane and acetylene have been investigated in a continuous supersonic flow reactor over the temperature range 50 K to 296 K. O(1D) atoms were produced by pulsed laser photolysis of ozone at 266 nm. Two different types of experiments, kinetics measurements and H-atom product yield determinations, were performed by detecting O(1D) atoms and H(2S) atoms respectively by vacuum ultraviolet laser induced fluorescence. The measured rate constants are in agreement with previous work at room temperature and little or no temperature dependence was observed as the temperature is decreased to 50 K. H-atoms yields were found to be independent of temperature for the reaction of O(1D) with ethane. These product yields are discussed in the context of earlier dynamics measurements at higher temperature. Due to the influence of secondary reactions, no H-atom yields could be obtained for the reaction of O(1D) with acetylene.

  11. Reduced electric-octupole transition probabilities, B(E3;O1+ → 31-), for even-even nuclides throughout the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spear, R.H.

    1988-11-01

    Adopted values for the excitation energy, E x( 3 1 - ), of the first 3 - state of the even-even nuclei are tabulated. Values of the reduced electric-octupole transition probability, B(E3;O 1 + → 3 1 - ), from the ground state to this state, as determined from Coulomb excitation, lifetime measurements, inelastic electron scattering, deformation parameters β 3 obtained from angular distributions of inelastically scattered nucleons and light ions, and other miscellaneous procedures are listed in separate Tables. Adopted values for B(E3; O 1 + → 3 1 - ) are presented in Table VII, together with the E3 transition strengths, in Weisskopf units, and the product E x( 3 1 - ) x B(E3; O 1 + → 3 1 - - ) expressed as a percentage of the energy-weighted E3 sum-rule strength. An evaluation is made of the reliability of B(E3; O 1 + → 3 1 - ) values deduced from deformation parameters β 3 . The literature has been covered to March 1988

  12. The genome and proteome of a virulent Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteriophage closely resembling Salmonella phage Felix O1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waddell Thomas E

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based upon whole genome and proteome analysis, Escherichia coli O157:H7-specific bacteriophage (phage wV8 belongs to the new myoviral genus, "the Felix O1-like viruses" along with Salmonella phage Felix O1 and Erwinia amylovora phage φEa21-4. The genome characteristics of phage wV8 (size 88.49 kb, mol%G+C 38.9, 138 ORFs, 23 tRNAs are very similar to those of phage Felix O1 (86.16 kb, 39.0 mol%G+C, 131 ORFs and 22 tRNAs and, indeed most of the proteins have their closest homologs within Felix O1. Approximately one-half of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 mutants resistant to phage wV8 still serotype as O157:H7 indicating that this phage may recognize, like coliphage T4, two different surface receptors: lipopolysaccharide and, perhaps, an outer membrane protein.

  13. Deletion of hepatic FoxO1/3/4 genes in mice significantly impacts on glucose metabolism through downregulation of gluconeogenesis and upregulation of glycolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Xiong

    Full Text Available Forkhead transcription factors FoxO1/3/4 have pleiotrophic functions including anti-oxidative stress and metabolism. With regard to glucose metabolism, most studies have been focused on FoxO1. To further investigate their hepatic functions, we generated liver-specific FoxO1/3/4 knockout mice (LTKO and examined their collective impacts on glucose homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions. As compared to wild-type mice, LTKO mice had lower blood glucose levels under both fasting and non-fasting conditions and they manifested better glucose and pyruvate tolerance on regular chow diet. After challenged by a high-fat diet, wild-type mice developed type 2 diabetes, but LTKO mice remained euglycemic and insulin-sensitive. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we examined the roles of SIRT6 (Sirtuin 6 and Gck (glucokinase in the FoxO-mediated glucose metabolism. Interestingly, ectopic expression of SIRT6 in the liver only reduced gluconeogenesis in wild-type but not LTKO mice whereas knockdown of Gck caused glucose intolerance in both wild-type and LTKO mice. The data suggest that both decreased gluconeogenesis and increased glycolysis may contribute to the overall glucose phenotype in the LTKO mice. Collectively, FoxO1/3/4 transcription factors play important roles in hepatic glucose homeostasis.

  14. Solution-combustion synthesis of Bi1–xLnxO1⋅ 5 (Ln= Y and La–Yb ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    combustion synthesis of Bi1–LnO1.5 (Ln = Y and La–Yb) oxide ion conductors. Manjunath B Bellakki A S Prakash C Shivakumara M S Hegde A K Shukla. Ceramics and Glasses Volume 29 Issue 4 August 2006 pp 339-345 ...

  15. Densification and Grain Growth during Early-stage Sintering of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95-δ in Reducing Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Zeming; Yuan, Hao; Glasscock, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the processes of densification and grain growth of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95-δ (CGO10) during sintering in reducing atmosphere. Sintering variables were experimentally characterized and analyzed using defect chemistry and sintering constitutive laws. Based on the achieved...

  16. The b-quark mass from non-perturbative $N_f=2$ Heavy Quark Effective Theory at $O(1/m_h)$

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernardoni, F.; Blossier, B.; Bulava, J.

    2014-01-01

    We report our final estimate of the b-quark mass from $N_f=2$ lattice QCD simulations using Heavy Quark Effective Theory non-perturbatively matched to QCD at $O(1/m_h)$. Treating systematic and statistical errors in a conservative manner, we obtain $\\overline{m}_{\\rm b}^{\\overline{\\rm MS}}(2 {\\rm...

  17. Epitaxial growth of bcc-FexCo100-x thin films on MgO(1 1 0) single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nishiyama, Tsutomu; Shikada, Kouhei; Kirino, Fumiyoshi; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    Fe x Co 100-x (x=100, 65, 50 at%) epitaxial thin films were prepared on MgO(1 1 0) single-crystal substrates heated at 300 deg. C by ultra-high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The film structure and the growth mechanism are discussed. FeCo(2 1 1) films with bcc structure grow epitaxially on MgO(1 1 0) substrates with two types of variants whose orientations are rotated around the film normal by 180 deg. each other for all compositions. Fe x Co 100-x film growth follows the Volmer Weber mode. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings are in agreement with the values of respective bulk Fe x Co 100-x crystals with very small errors less than ±0.4%, suggesting the strains in the films are very small. High-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy shows that periodical misfit dislocations are preferentially introduced in the film at the Fe 50 Co 50 /MgO interface along the MgO[1 1-bar 0] direction. The presence of such periodical dislocations decreases the large lattice mismatch of about -17% existing at the FeCo/MgO interface along the MgO[1 1-bar 0] direction.

  18. Epitaxial growth of bcc-Fe{sub x}Co{sub 100-x} thin films on MgO(1 1 0) single-crystal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru, E-mail: ohtake@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.j [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Nishiyama, Tsutomu; Shikada, Kouhei [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan); Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    Fe{sub x}Co{sub 100-x} (x=100, 65, 50 at%) epitaxial thin films were prepared on MgO(1 1 0) single-crystal substrates heated at 300 deg. C by ultra-high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The film structure and the growth mechanism are discussed. FeCo(2 1 1) films with bcc structure grow epitaxially on MgO(1 1 0) substrates with two types of variants whose orientations are rotated around the film normal by 180 deg. each other for all compositions. Fe{sub x}Co{sub 100-x} film growth follows the Volmer Weber mode. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings are in agreement with the values of respective bulk Fe{sub x}Co{sub 100-x} crystals with very small errors less than +-0.4%, suggesting the strains in the films are very small. High-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy shows that periodical misfit dislocations are preferentially introduced in the film at the Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50}/MgO interface along the MgO[1 1-bar 0] direction. The presence of such periodical dislocations decreases the large lattice mismatch of about -17% existing at the FeCo/MgO interface along the MgO[1 1-bar 0] direction.

  19. Li_4Ti_5O_1_2/Ketjen Black with open conductive frameworks for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yang; Dong, Hui; Zhang, Huang; Liu, Yijun; Ji, Mandi; Xu, Yunlong; Wang, Qingqing; Luo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The Li_4Ti_5O_1_2/Ketjen Black composites are synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method. As an anode for lithium ion battery, the composite exhibits ultrahigh capacity and excellent low temperature performance. - Highlights: • Mesoporous LTO/KB composites were synthesized via hydrothermal method. • KB is used as carbon template and conductive additive. • The LTO/KB electrode without carbon black was fabricated. • This as-prepared electrode shows excellent rate capacity performance. • LTO/KB composite exhibits ultrahigh cycle performance at low temperature. - Abstract: The Li_4Ti_5O_1_2/Ketjen Black composites are synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method. The materials are characterized by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, EDS, galvanostatic charge/discharge test, CV and EIS. The results indicate that Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 (LTO) particles grow both in the pores and on the surface of mesoporous Ketjen Black (KB) forming open conductive frameworks and the Ketjen Black works as host forthe growth of Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 primary nanoparticles. The LTO/KB electrode is fabricated without extra carbon black conductive agents and exhibits excellent electrochemical performances, especially at low temperature. The improved performances can be attributed to the presence of mesoporous Ketjen Black conductive templates with high electronic conductivity and formed 3D frameworks beneficial to the lithium ion diffusion.

  20. Ferromagnetism in reactive sputtered Cu0.96Fe 0.04O1-δ nanocrystalline films evidenced by anomalous Hall effect

    KAUST Repository

    Mi, Wenbo; Bai, Haili; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Xixiang

    2011-01-01

    Cu0.96Fe0.04O1-δ nanocrystalline films were fabricated using reactive sputtering at different oxygen partial pressures (PO2). The electrical transport properties of the films were measured in a broad temperature range (10-300 K) under magnetic

  1. Bi1−xNbxO1.5+x (x=0.0625, 0.12) fast ion conductors: Structures, stability and oxide ion migration pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tate, Matthew L.; Hack, Jennifer; Kuang, Xiaojun; McIntyre, Garry J.; Withers, Ray L.; Johnson, Mark R.; Radosavljevic Evans, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    A combined experimental and computational study of Bi 1−x Nb x O 1.5+x (x=0.0625 and 0.12) has been carried out using laboratory X-ray, neutron and electron diffraction, impedance measurements and ab-initio molecular dynamics. We demonstrate that Bi 0.9375 Nb 0.0625 O 1.5625 , previously reported to adopt a cubic fluorite-type superstructure, can form two different polymorphs depending on the synthetic method: a metastable cubic phase is produced by quenching; while slower cooling yields a stable material with a tetragonal √2×√2×1 superstructure, which undergoes a reversible phase transition into the cubic form at ~680 °C on subsequent reheating. Neutron diffraction reveals that the tetragonal superstructure arises mainly from ordering in the oxygen sublattice, with Bi and Nb remaining disordered, although structured diffuse scattering observed in the electron diffraction patterns suggests a degree of short-range ordering. Both materials are oxide ion conductors. On thermal cycling, Bi 0.88 Nb 0.12 O 1.62 exhibits a decrease in conductivity of approximately an order of magnitude due to partial transformation into the tetragonal phase, but still exhibits conductivity comparable to yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ). Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations performed on Bi 0.9375 Nb 0.0625 O 1.5625 show that oxide ion diffusion occurs by O 2− jumps between edge- and corner-sharing OM 4 groups (M=Bi, Nb) via tetrahedral □M 4 and octahedral □M 6 vacancies. - Graphical abstract: Oxide ion migration in tetragonal Bi 0.9375 Nb 0.0625 O 1.5625 occurs by O 2− jumps between edge- and corner-sharing OM 4 groups (M=Bi, Nb) via tetrahedral M 4 and octahedral M 6 vacancies. - Highlights: • Bi 0.9375 Nb 0.0625 O 1.5625 adopts a tetragonal √2×√2×1 fluorite superstructure. • Superstructure is due to ordering in the O-sublattice, with Bi/Nb disordered. • Bi 0.9375 Nb 0.0625 O 1.5625 is a good oxide ion conductor. • O 2− jump between OM 4 groups (M

  2. Detection of Salmonella Spp., Shigella (Flexneri and Sonnei) and Vibrio Cholerae O1 by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in Exported Shrimp from the Mexican Northeast Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, L.; Nuñez, F.; Rubio, M.; Nicoli, M. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia (Mexico)

    2005-01-15

    The objective of the present work was to use the PCR technique for the simultaneous detection of Salmonella spp and Vibrio cholerae O1 in frozen shrimp for export. The DNA segments located in the gene A [284 pairs of bases (pb)] from Salmonella spp. locus ial (217 and 320 pb) from Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei and the gene ctxA and ctxB (777 pb) from Vibrio cholerae O1 were amplified. The different primers that amplify these segments were assayed in a PCR reaction for the simultaneous detection of DNA from the microorganisms. It was not possible to amplify the gene of Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri under the assay’s conditions, whilst those of Salmonella spp. and Vibrio cholerae O1 were successfully amplified. The amplification conditions for the PCR were: 94° C, 58° C and 72° C during 30 cycles, allowing a reduction from 15 days test time with the official microbiological methods to 28 hours (24 for the pre-enrichment and four for the PCR). Samples of raw-frozen-headless shrimps were taken from production plants located in the State of Sinaloa, Mexico. A random sampling procedure was used, according to the guidelines described by the International Commission of Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF, 1999). Five packages per lot per production plant were obtained. From each individual package (5 pounds 80 OZ ≈ 2.27 kg) three samples were taken for the bacteriological assays to search for Salmonella spp. and Vibrio cholerae O1, respectively. The samples were also analyzed by PCR. Results showed that none of the samples were positive by PCR to any of the studied bacteria. Salmonella spp. and Vibrio cholerae O1 were not detected in these samples by the official methods. However, the latter were able to identify other Vibrio species and enterobacteria like Proteus and Acromobacter. These results confirmed PCR’s rapidity, sensitivity and specificity. (author)

  3. Unique Clones of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor with Haitian Type ctxB Allele Implicated in the Recent Cholera Epidemics from Nigeria, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, Akinsinde Kehinde; Pazhani, Gururaja Perumal; Abiodun, Iwalokun Bamidele; Afolabi, Oluwadun; Kolawole, Olukoya Daniel; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Ramamurthy, Thanadarayan

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and genetic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae O1, which is responsible for several cholera epidemics in Nigeria, are not reported in detail since 2007. In this study, we screened V. cholerae O1 El Tor biotype isolates from cholera cases and water samples from different states to investigate their phenotypic and genetic attributes with special reference to their clonality. All the V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor isolates isolated during 2007-2013 were susceptible to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline, the drugs currently used in the treatment of cholera cases in Nigeria. Emergence of CT genotype 7 (Haitian type of ctxB allele) was predominantly seen among Ogawa serotype and the CT genotype 1 (classical ctxB allele) was mostly found in Inaba serotype. Overall, V. cholerae O1 from clinical and water samples were found to be closely related as determined by the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. V. cholerae isolates from Abia, Kano and Bauchi were found to be genetically distinct from the other states of Nigeria. Fecal contamination of the water sources may be the possible source of the cholera infection. Combined prevalence of Haitian and classical ctxB alleles were detected in Ogawa and Inaba serotypes, respectively. This study further demonstrated that V. cholerae O1 with the ctxB has been emerged similar to the isolates reported in Haiti. Our findings suggest that the use of fluoroquinolones or tetracycline/doxycycline may help in the effective management of acute cholera in the affected Nigerian states. In addition, strengthening the existing surveillance in the hospitals of all the states and supply of clean drinking water may control cholera outbreaks in the future.

  4. Obtención de extractos de membrana externa de Vibrio cholerae O1, mediante el uso de diferentes detergentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pérez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad existen dos variantes principales de vacunas orales contra el cólera: una basada en células inactivadas de diferentes biotipos y serotipos y otra basada en la administración de cepas vivas genéticamente atenuadas. Una vacuna por subunidades pudiera ser una variante muy atractiva. Este trabajo describe la purificación parcial y caracterización preliminar de extractos de proteínas de membrana externa-lipopolisacárido (PME-LPS, obtenidos a partir de Vibrio cholerae O1, con el interés de seleccionar un proteoliposoma que posteriormente será estructurado en forma de cocleatos para su uso por vía oral en humanos. Las preparaciones fueron obtenidas a través del uso de diferentes detergentes. La cantidad de LPS en cada preparación fue estimada mediante la determinación de las unidades endotóxicas en el ensayo del Limulus (LAL. La composición de cada muestra fue evaluada mediante SDS-PAGE y Dot Blot. La inoculación intranasal (IN en ratones Balb/c se utilizó para la evaluación de la inmunogenicidad de las preparaciones, y la respuesta inmune fue determinada por ELISA y el título de anticuerpos vibriocidas. El tamaño molecular de la preparación con mejores resultados en inmunogenicidad se estimó mediante la cromatografía en Sephacryl S-1000. Se obtuvieron diferentes perfiles electroforéticos de acuerdo con el tipo de detergente utilizado. El LPS fue identificado en todas las preparaciones y aquella obtenida con el SDS al 15% mostró la más baja relación proteínas/LPS y los mejores resultados en los ensayos de inmunogenicidad. Adicionalmente se comprobó que su tamaño molecular es similar al observado en el proteoliposoma de VAMENGOC- BC. La preparación obtenida con el SDS al 15% constituye un proteoliposoma, con capacidad para estimular altos niveles de anticuerpos IgG anti-LPS y altos títulos de anticuerpos vibriocidas, luego de su administración por vía intranasal en ratones. Estos resultados constituyen

  5. Are climatological correlations with the Hale double sunspot cycle meaningful

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, R.A.; Herman, J.R.

    1975-09-01

    A sunspot cycle which may have been subject to a predicted phase reversal between 1800 and 1880 A.D. is discussed. Several climatological parameters normally correlated with this cycle are examined and do not exhibit a corresponding phase reversal during this period. It is proposed that this apparent discrepency can be resolved by suitable observations during the upcoming half decade

  6. Agapeist ethics in Giovanni Papini's Storia di Cristo | Hale | Italian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La Storia di Cristo (1921) di Giovanni Papini ha segnato l'inizio di una nuova fase nel tortuoso viaggio intellettuale e spirituale dal suo originario ateismo. In questa biografia leggermente romanzata, egli ha posto l'accento sull'etica dell'assoluta rinuncia del sé di Gesù, come appare nel Sermone sul Monte, con particolare ...

  7. Automatic collection of bovine blood samples | Hale | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (1974) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  8. Automatic collection of bovine blood samples | Hale | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A technique is described which allows automatic collection of jugular venous blood from tethered cows. In this system, blood is pumped continuously from an intravenous cannula which has a double lumen while an anticoagulant is pumped through the second opening. Diluted blood is collected in a fraction collector which ...

  9. Antifungal activity of Parmotrema tinctorum (Delise ex Nyl.) hale and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lichens are composite organisms comprising of a photobiont and a mycobiont. Studies have shown that extracts and secondary metabolites from lichens exhibit various bioactivities. The present study evaluates antifungal potential of crude methanolic extract of two corticolous Parmotrema species viz. Parmotrema tinctorum ...

  10. CO gas sensing properties of In_4Sn_3O_1_2 and TeO_2 composite nanoparticle sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaei, Ali; Park, Sunghoon; Sun, Gun-Joo; Kheel, Hyejoon; Lee, Chongmu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • In4Sn3O12–TeO2 composite nanoparticles were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route. • The response of the In4Sn3O12–TeO2 composite sensor to CO was stronger than the pristine In4Sn3O12 sensor. • The response of the In4Sn3O12–TeO2 composite sensor to CO was faster than the pristine In4Sn3O12 sensor. • The improved sensing performance of the In4Sn3O12–TeO2 nanocomposite sensor is discussed in detail. • The In4Sn3O12-based nanoparticle sensors showed selectivity to CO over NH3, HCHO and H2. - Abstract: A simple hydrothermal route was used to synthesize In_4Sn_3O_1_2 nanoparticles and In_4Sn_3O_1_2–TeO_2 composite nanoparticles, with In(C_2H_3O_2)_3, SnCl_4, and TeCl_4 as the starting materials. The structure and morphology of the synthesized nanoparticles were examined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The gas-sensing properties of the pure and composite nanoparticles toward CO gas were examined at different concentrations (5–100 ppm) of CO gas at different temperatures (100–300 °C). SEM observation revealed that the composite nanoparticles had a uniform shape and size. The sensor based on the In_4Sn_3O_1_2–TeO_2 composite nanoparticles showed stronger response to CO than its pure In_4Sn_3O_1_2 counterpart. The response of the In_4Sn_3O_1_2–TeO_2 composite-nanoparticle sensor to 100 ppm of CO at 200 °C was 10.21, whereas the maximum response of the In_4Sn_3O_1_2 nanoparticle sensor was 2.78 under the same conditions. Furthermore, the response time of the composite sensor was 19.73 s under these conditions, which is less than one-third of that of the In_4Sn_3O_1_2 sensor. The improved sensing performance of the In_4Sn_3O_1_2–TeO_2 nanocomposite sensor is attributed to the enhanced modulation of the potential barrier height at the In_4Sn_3O_1_2–TeO_2 interface, the stronger oxygen adsorption of p-type TeO_2, and the formation of preferential adsorption sites.

  11. Deletion of FoxO1 Leads to Shortening of QRS by Increasing Na+ Channel Activity through Enhanced Expression of both Cardiac NaV1.5 and β3 Subunit

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Benzhi; Wang, Ning; Mao, Weike; You, Tao; Lu, Yan; Li, Xiang; Ye, Bo; Li, Faqian; Xu, Haodong

    2014-01-01

    Our in vitro studies revealed that a transcription factor, Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1), negatively regulates the expression of NaV1.5, a main α subunit of the cardiac Na+ channel, by altering the promoter activity of SCN5a in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. The in vivo role of FoxO1 in the regulation of cardiac NaV1.5 expression remains unknown. The present study aimed to define the role of FoxO1 in the regulation of NaV1.5 expression and cardiac Na+ channel activity in mouse ventricular cardiomyocy...

  12. Oxygen permeation in thin, dense Ce0.9Gd0.1O 1.95- membranes I. Model study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Søgaard, Martin; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2011-01-01

    at the feed and permeate side of the membrane, related to the gaseous oxygen reduction and fuel oxidation, respectively, as well as the gas conversion and gas diffusion resistances in the porous support structure at the permeate side. The temperature and oxygen activity dependence of the oxide ionic...... was analyzed by a separation of the various losses. The chemical expansion of Ce 0.9Gd0.1O1.95-δ under operation was estimated from the calculated oxygen activity and nonstoichiometry profiles inside the membrane. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.......A model of a supported planar Ce0.9Gd0.1O 1.95-δ oxygen membrane in a plug-flow setup was constructed and a sensitivity analysis of its performance under varying operating conditions and membrane parameters was performed. The model takes into account the driving force losses at the catalysts...

  13. Characterization and study of dielectric and electrical properties of CaBi4Ti4O_1_5 (CBT) added with Bi_2O_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, D.B.; Campos Filho, M.C.; Sales, J.C.; Silva, P.M.O.; Sombra, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The ceramic perovskite CaBi_4Ti_4O_1_5 (CBT) of space group A21am, Aurivillius family with deficiency A_5B_4O_1_5 cation has been prepared by solid state method in a planetary ball mill of high energy. The reagents samples were ground and calcined and then added with Bi_2O_3 (2% wt.) This work aims to characterize by X-ray diffraction to study the electrical properties and dielectric properties of (CBT). The x-ray diffraction revealed the formation of single orthorhombic phase. As for the dielectric properties (dielectric constant and dielectric loss) were measured at 30 deg C to 450 deg C, through which can be verified the presence of thermally activated processes. This phase has properties very relevant for possible use in capacitive devices, miniaturized filters, dielectric resonators antennas and oscillators. (author)

  14. Acalculous cholecystitis and septicemia caused by non-O1 Vibrio cholerae: first reported case and review of biliary infections with Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, B C; Silberman, R; Otterson, W N

    1998-03-01

    The first case of septicemic acute acalculous cholecystitis caused by non-O1 Vibrio cholerae is described in a healthy traveler, and biliary tract infections from V. cholerae are reviewed. Immediately after a vacation in Cancun, Mexico, a 55-year-old man developed acute cholecystitis. Blood and bile cultures grew non-O1 V. cholerae. At surgery, the gallbladder was acalculous, inflamed, distended, and nearly ruptured. Pathogenetic factors may have included diarrhea prophylaxis with bismuth subsalicylate, distension of the gallbladder from illness-induced fasting, and bacterial toxins in the gallbladder. The patient received i.v. cephapirin, followed by oral cephradine for a total of 10 days, and he made a quick and complete recovery. V. cholerae should be considered in the differential diagnosis of persons from endemic areas who present with cholecystitis or acute jaundice.

  15. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in vegetables and fish raised in wastewater irrigated fields and stabilization ponds during a non-cholera outbreak period in Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounmanou, Yaovi M G; Mdegela, Robinson H; Dougnon, Tamègnon V

    2016-01-01

    gene (tcpA) and the haemolysin gene (hlyA). RESULTS: The prevalence of V. cholerae in wastewater, vegetables and fish was 36.7, 21.7 and 23.3 %, respectively. Two isolates from fish gills were V. cholerae O1 and tested positive for ctx and tcpA. One of these contained in addition the hlyA gene while......BACKGROUND: Cholera, one of the world's deadliest infectious diseases, remains rampant and frequent in Tanzania and thus hinders existing control measures. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the occurrence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in wastewater, fish and vegetables during a non......-outbreak period in Morogoro, Tanzania. METHODS: From October 2014 to February 2015, 60 wastewater samples, 60 fish samples from sewage stabilization ponds and 60 wastewater irrigated vegetable samples were collected. Samples were cultured for identification of V. cholerae using conventional bacteriological...

  16. Equivalence of Electron-Vibration Interaction and Charge-Induced Force Variations: A New O(1 Approach to an Old Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunna Baruah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Calculating electron-vibration (vibronic interaction constants is computationally expensive. For molecules containing N nuclei it involves solving the Schrödinger equation for Ο(3N nuclear configurations in addition to the cost of determining the vibrational modes. We show that quantum vibronic interactions are proportional to the classical atomic forces induced when the total charge of the system is varied. This enables the calculation of vibronic interaction constants from O(1 solutions of the Schrödinger equation. We demonstrate that the O(1 approach produces numerically accurate results by calculating the vibronic interaction constants for several molecules. We investigate the role of molecular vibrations in the Mott transition in κ-(BEDT-TTF2Cu[N(CN2]Br.

  17. Oxygen permeation in thin, dense Ce0.9Gd0.1O 1.95- membranes II. experimental determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Søgaard, Martin; Glasscock, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Thin (∼30 m), dense Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95- (CGO10) membranes (5 5 cm2+) supported on a porous NiO/YSZ substrate were fabricated by tape casting, wet powder spraying and lamination. A La 0.58Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O 3-δ/Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95- (LSCF/CGO10) composite cathode was applied by screen printing. Oxygen...... compartment. The performance of the membrane was also investigated under varying CH 4 and H2O gas mixtures at 1106 K. The oxygen flux increased with decreasing steam to carbon ratio and was found to exceed 10 N mL min-1 cm-2 of O2 for steam to carbon ratios below 4:3. Post-test analysis of the tested membrane...

  18. Spin fluctuation mechanism to normal state resistivity of iron-based superconductors La(O1-xFx)FeAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, K.K.; Singh, S.; Prasad, D.; Kaurav, N.; Varshney, Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    Temperature-dependant resistivity of iron-based superconductors La(O 1-x F x )FeAs (for x = 0.12) is theoretically analysed by considering the strong spin fluctuations effect. In addition to the spin fluctuation-induced contribution the electron-phonon ρ e-ph (T) = AT, and electron-electron ρ e-e (T) = BT 2 contributions are also incorporated for complete understanding of experimental data. (author)

  19. Molecular Analyses of Vibrio cholerae O1 Clinical Strains, Including New Nontoxigenic Variants Isolated in Mexico during the Cholera Epidemic Years between 1991 and 2000▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizárraga-Partida, Marcial Leonardo; Quilici, Marie-Laure

    2009-01-01

    We studied the evolution of Vibrio cholerae O1 during the 1991 to 2000 cholera epidemic in Mexico by biochemical, serological, and molecular characterization of strains collected during this period. Strains were divided into toxigenic and nontoxigenic groups according to the presence or absence of genes encoding cholera toxin. As previously reported, we characterized two populations among toxigenic strains, which were present from the first year of the epidemic. BglI rRNA analysis revealed that these strains had ribotype profiles, denoted M5 and M6 in our study, that were identical to those previously designated Koblavi B5 or Popovic 5 and Popovic 6a or Tamayo B21a, respectively. Ribotype M5 was isolated between 1991 and 1993. This ribotype had a low level of genetic variation as detected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ribotype M6 persisted from 1991 to 2000. However, PFGE profiles suggested that two epidemiologically unrelated strains coexisted within this single ribotype from 1995 until the end of the epidemic. We identified three new BglI ribotypes, Mx1, Mx2, and Mx3, from nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains isolated between 1998 and 2000; one of them grouped strains positive for the toxin-coregulated pilus island. They differed from nontoxigenic clones isolated in Latin America and on the U.S. Gulf Coast and are probably autochthonous Mexican V. cholerae O1 variants. Most of these new variants were isolated from states surrounding the Gulf of Mexico, where the highest incidence of cholera in the country was recorded. Thus, the Mexican Gulf Coast, like the U.S. Gulf Coast, may act as an environmental reservoir of V. cholerae O1. PMID:19213700

  20. Molecular analyses of Vibrio cholerae O1 clinical strains, including new nontoxigenic variants isolated in Mexico during the Cholera epidemic years between 1991 and 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizárraga-Partida, Marcial Leonardo; Quilici, Marie-Laure

    2009-05-01

    We studied the evolution of Vibrio cholerae O1 during the 1991 to 2000 cholera epidemic in Mexico by biochemical, serological, and molecular characterization of strains collected during this period. Strains were divided into toxigenic and nontoxigenic groups according to the presence or absence of genes encoding cholera toxin. As previously reported, we characterized two populations among toxigenic strains, which were present from the first year of the epidemic. BglI rRNA analysis revealed that these strains had ribotype profiles, denoted M5 and M6 in our study, that were identical to those previously designated Koblavi B5 or Popovic 5 and Popovic 6a or Tamayo B21a, respectively. Ribotype M5 was isolated between 1991 and 1993. This ribotype had a low level of genetic variation as detected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ribotype M6 persisted from 1991 to 2000. However, PFGE profiles suggested that two epidemiologically unrelated strains coexisted within this single ribotype from 1995 until the end of the epidemic. We identified three new BglI ribotypes, Mx1, Mx2, and Mx3, from nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains isolated between 1998 and 2000; one of them grouped strains positive for the toxin-coregulated pilus island. They differed from nontoxigenic clones isolated in Latin America and on the U.S. Gulf Coast and are probably autochthonous Mexican V. cholerae O1 variants. Most of these new variants were isolated from states surrounding the Gulf of Mexico, where the highest incidence of cholera in the country was recorded. Thus, the Mexican Gulf Coast, like the U.S. Gulf Coast, may act as an environmental reservoir of V. cholerae O1.

  1. Molecular Analyses of Vibrio cholerae O1 Clinical Strains, Including New Nontoxigenic Variants Isolated in Mexico during the Cholera Epidemic Years between 1991 and 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Lizárraga-Partida, Leonardo; Quilici, Marie-Laure

    2009-01-01

    International audience; We studied the evolution of Vibrio cholerae O1 during the 1991 to 2000 cholera epidemic in Mexico by biochemical, serological, and molecular characterization of strains collected during this period. Strains were divided into toxigenic and nontoxigenic groups according to the presence or absence of genes encoding cholera toxin. As previously reported, we characterized two populations among toxigenic strains, which were present from the first year of the epidemic. BglI r...

  2. Ursodeoxycholic Acid Influences the Expression of p27kip1 but Not FoxO1 in Patients with Non-Cirrhotic Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Milkiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Enhanced expression of cell cycle inhibitor p27kip1 suppresses cell proliferation. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA delays progression of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC but its effect on p27kip1 expression is uncertain. Aims. To analyze the expression of p27kip1 and its transcription modulator FoxO1 in patients with PBC, and to assess the impact of UDCA on this pathway. Materials and Methods. The examined human tissue included explanted livers from patients with cirrhotic PBC (n=23, primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC; n=9, alcoholic liver disease (ALD; n=9, and routine liver biopsies from patients with non-cirrhotic PBC (n=26. Healthy liver samples served as controls (n=19. Livers of FoxO-deficient mice were also studied. mRNA and protein expressions were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot. Results. p27kip1 expression was increased in cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic PBC. FoxO1 mRNA levels were increased in PBC (8.5-fold increase versus controls. FoxO1 protein expression in PBC was comparable to controls, but it was decreased in patients with PSC and ALD (63% and 70% reduction, respectively; both P<0.05 versus control. UDCA-treated non-cirrhotic patients with PBC showed decreased expression of p27kip1 mRNA. Conclusion. PBC progression is characterized by a FoxO1-independent increase of p27kip1 expression. In early PBC, UDCA may enhance liver regeneration via p27kip1-dependent mechanism.

  3. THEORETICAL-ANALYSIS OF THE O(1S) BINDING-ENERGY SHIFTS IN ALKALINE-EARTH OXIDES - CHEMICAL OR ELECTROSTATIC CONTRIBUTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PACCHIONI, G; BAGUS, PS

    1994-01-01

    We report results from ab initio cluster-model calculations on the O(1s) binding energy (BE) in the alkaline-earth oxides, MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO; all these oxides have a cubic lattice structure. We have obtained values for both the initial- and final-state BE's. A simple point-charge model, where

  4. Composite cathode La0.15Bi0.85O1.5-Ag for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhan; Mao Zongqiang; Huang Jianbing; Gao Ruifeng; Wang Cheng; Liu Zhixiang

    2008-01-01

    Composites consisting of silver and lanthanum stabilized bismuth oxide (La 0.15 Bi 0.85 O 1.5 ) were investigated as cathodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells with doped ceria as electrolyte. No stable phases were formed via reaction between La 0.15 Bi 0.85 O 1.5 and Ag. The microstructure of the interfaces between composite cathodes and Ce 0.8 Sm 0.2 O 1.5 electrolytes was studied by scanning electron microscopy after sintering at various temperatures. Impedance spectroscopy measurements revealed that the performance of cathode fired at 700 deg. C was the best. When the optimum fraction of Ag was 50 vol.%, polarization resistance values for the LSB-Ag50 cathode were as low as 0.14 Ω cm 2 at 700 deg. C and 0.18 Ω cm 2 at 650 deg. C. The steady-state polarization investigations on LSB and LSB-Ag50 cathodes were performed using typical three-electrode test cells in air. The results showed that the LSB-Ag50 composite cathode exhibited a lower overpotential and higher exchange current density than LSB, which indicated the electrochemical performance of LSB-Ag50 for the oxygen reduction reaction was superior to the LSB

  5. Plasma and Mucosal Immunoglobulin M, Immunoglobulin A, and Immunoglobulin G Responses to the Vibrio cholerae O1 Protein Immunome in Adults With Cholera in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Richelle C; Nakajima, Rie; Liang, Li; Jasinskas, Al; Berger, Amanda; Leung, Daniel T; Kelly, Meagan; Xu, Peng; Kovác, Pavol; Giffen, Samantha R; Harbison, James D; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I; Calderwood, Stephen B; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Harris, Jason B; Felgner, Philip L; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T

    2017-07-01

    Cholera is a severe dehydrating illness of humans caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139. Identification of immunogenic V. cholerae antigens could lead to a better understanding of protective immunity in human cholera. We probed microarrays containing 3652 V. cholerae antigens with plasma and antibody-in-lymphocyte supernatant (ALS, a surrogate marker of mucosal immune responses) from patients with severe cholera caused by V. cholerae O1 in Bangladesh and age-, sex-, and ABO-matched Bangladeshi controls. We validated a subset of identified antigens using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, we identified 608 immunoreactive V. cholerae antigens in our screening, 59 of which had higher immunoreactivity in convalescent compared with acute-stage or healthy control samples (34 in plasma, 39 in mucosal ALS; 13 in both sample sets). Identified antigens included cholera toxin B and A subunits, V. cholerae O-specific polysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide, toxin coregulated pilus A, sialidase, hemolysin A, flagellins (FlaB, FlaC, and FlaD), phosphoenolpyruvate-protein phosphotransferase, and diaminobutyrate-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase. This study is the first antibody profiling of the mucosal and systemic antibody responses to the nearly complete V. cholerae O1 protein immunome; it has identified antigens that may aid in the development of an improved cholera vaccine. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  6. Curcumin attenuates palmitate-induced apoptosis in MIN6 pancreatic β-cells through PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 and mitochondrial survival pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Feng; Kang, Jinsen; Cao, Yajun; Fan, Shengjun; Yang, Haopeng; An, Yu; Pan, Yan; Tie, Lu; Li, Xuejun

    2015-11-01

    Lipotoxicity plays a vital role in development and progression of type 2 diabetes. Prolonged elevation of free fatty acids especially the palmitate leads to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenol from the curry spice turmeric, is considered to be a broadly cytoprotective agent. The present study was designed to determine the protective effect of curcumin on palmitate-induced apoptosis in β-cells and investigate underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that curcumin improved cell viability and enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretory function in MIN6 pancreatic β-cells. Palmitate incubation evoked chromatin condensation, DNA nick end labeling and activation of caspase-3 and -9. Curcumin treatment inhibited palmitate-induced apoptosis, relieved mitochondrial depolarization and up-regulated Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Palmitate induced the generation of reactive oxygen species and inhibited activities of antioxidant enzymes, which could be neutralized by curcumin treatment. Moreover, curcumin could promote rapid phosphorylation of Akt and nuclear exclusion of FoxO1 in MIN6 cells under lipotoxic condition. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt specific inhibitors abolished the anti-lipotoxic effect of curcumin and stimulated FoxO1 nuclear translocation. These findings suggested that curcumin protected MIN6 pancreatic β-Cells against apoptosis through activation of Akt, inhibition of nuclear translocation of FoxO1 and mitochondrial survival pathway.

  7. Effect of Mg"2"+ ions co-doping on timing performance and radiation tolerance of Cerium doped Gd_3Al_2Ga_3O_1_2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchini, M.T.; Babin, V.; Bohacek, P.; Gundacker, S.; Kamada, K.; Nikl, M.; Petrosyan, A.; Yoshikawa, A.; Auffray, E.

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic scintillators with high density and high light yield are of major interest for applications in medical imaging and high energy physics detectors. In this work, the optical and scintillation properties of Mg co-doped Ce:Gd_3Al_2Ga_3O_1_2 crystals, grown using Czochralski technique, have been investigated and compared with Ce:Gd_3Al_2Ga_3O_1_2 ones prepared with identical technology. Improvements in the timing performance of the Mg co-doped samples with respect to Ce:Gd_3Al_2Ga_3O_1_2 ones have been measured, namely a substantial shortening of the rise time and scintillation decay components and lower afterglow were achieved. In particular, a significantly better coincidence time resolution of 233 ps FWHM, being a fundamental parameter for TOF-PET devices, has been observed in Mg co-doped crystals. The samples have also shown a good radiation tolerance under high doses of γ-rays, making them suitable candidates for applications in harsh radiation environments, such as detectors at future collider experiments.

  8. Effect of orally-administered Lactobacillus plantarum LPLM-O1 strain in an immunosuppressed mouse model of urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arellano, A Ramírez; Sánchez, M; Vera, R; Jara, S; González, M; Castro, E

    2012-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect both healthy and immunocompromised people, and they are treated with antibiotics. However, the high recurrence of UTIs obliges the use of natural mechanisms to regulate the normal microbiota through the use of e.g. lactic acid bacteria. In order to induce a UTI, 20 µl of the Escherichia coli (Ec-01) strain, in doses of 2.7×10(7) cfu/ml, was inoculated by way of the urethra in female Balb/c mice, all of them immunosuppressed with dexamethasone (10 mg/kg). Lactobacillus plantarum LPLM-O1 was used as a treatment, in daily doses of 1×10(7) cfu/ml, which were orally administered for seven days before the infection (preventive) or alongside the infection for seven days (curative). The oral administration of LPLM-O1 did not cause any adverse effects when used in an immunosuppressed animal model. It was observed that, when used as a preventive measure, LPLM-O1 induces a decrease in the infection, in the concentration of urinary leukocytes, and in the bacterial load. This study proposes the use of this lactic bacterium as a probiotic.

  9. Study of the structure, dielectric and ferroelectric behavior of BaBi_4_+_δTi_4O_1_5 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, Anita; Goyal, Parveen K.; Sreenivas, K.; Thakur, O. P.

    2016-01-01

    The structure and ferroelectric properties of excess bismuth doped barium bismuth titanate BaBi_4_+_δTi_4O_1_5 (δ = 2 - 10 wt.%)) ceramics prepared by solid-state reaction method have been investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of a single phase material with a change in the orthorhombic distortion with varying excess of bismuth content. There is no change in the phase transition temperature (T_m) while the relaxor behaviour has been modified significantly with excess of bismuth doping. Saturated hysteresis loops with high remnant polarization (P_r ~ 12.5  µC/cm"2), low coercive fields (E_c ~ 26 kV/cm) are measured and a high piezoelectric coefficient (d_3_3 ~ 29 pC/N) is achieved in poled BaBi_4Ti_4O_1_5 ceramics prepared with up to 8 wt.% of excess bismuth oxide. The improvement in the ferroelectric properties with increase in the excess bismuth content in BaBi_4Ti_4O_1_5 ceramics has been explained in terms of changing oxygen vacancy concentration and structural relaxation. Tunable ferroelectric materials can be obtained by manipulating the doping amount of excess bismuth.

  10. Characterization of bicrystalline epitaxial LaNiO{sub 3} films fabricated on MgO (1 0 0) substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Liang [School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhu Jun [School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)]. E-mail: junzhu@uestc.edu.cn; Zhang Ying [School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Jiang Shuwen [School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Li Yanrong [School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Huawei Xian [School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Li Jinlong [School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2006-03-15

    A series of metallic LaNiO{sub 3} (LNO) thin films were deposited on MgO (1 0 0) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) under the oxygen pressure of 20 Pa at different substrate temperatures from 450 to 750 deg. C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to characterize the crystal structure of LNO films. {theta}-2{theta} scans of XRD indicate that LNO film deposited at a substrate temperature of 700 deg. C has a high orientation of (l l 0). At other substrate temperatures, the LNO films have mixed phases of (l l 0) and (l 0 0). Furthermore, pole figure measurements show that LNO thin films, with the bicrystalline structure, were epitaxially deposited on MgO (1 0 0) substrates in the mode of LNO (1 1 0)//MgO (1 0 0) at 700 deg. C. Reflection high-energy electric diffraction (RHEED) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were also performed to investigate the microstructure of LNO films with the high (l l 0) orientation. RHEED patterns clearly confirm this epitaxial relationship. An atomically smooth surface of LNO films at 700 deg. C was obtained. In addition, bicrystalline epitaxial LNO films, fabricated at 700 deg. C, present a excellent conductivity with a lower electrical resistivity of 300 {mu} {omega} cm. Thus, the obtained results indicate that bicystalline epitaxial LNO films could serve as a promising candidate of electrode materials for the fabrication of ferroelectric or dielectric films.

  11. Study of dielectric properties and structural ceramics Na_2Nb_4O_1_1 matrices for applications in components of radio frequency and microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.G.M.; Romeu, M.C.; Sombra, A.S.B.; Silva, P.M.O.; Filho, J.M.S.; Sales, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The ferroelectric phase Na_2Nb_4O_1_1 has shown a great potential for Y applications: in electromagnetic components. In literature we find studies where their ferroelectric properties are examined. This work aims to characterize the electrical and structural properties (in region of 10Hz to 110MHz) of Na_2Nb_4O_1_1: Y, in which additions were made Bi2O3 in proportions = 0%, 1%, 2% and 10%. As for conductivity, we find that this increases with the increase of the addition of bismuth oxide. We observed that the addition of bismuth increased the electric permittivity (ε) and loss (tan δ). At high frequencies (f = 10MHz) the sample that showed smaller loss was the Y = 10% (tg δ = 3.10-2) and was more permissive by Y = 5% (with εR = 30). We can conclude that the addition of bismuth provided an improvement in densification and led to an increase in permissiveness and increased losses. The study indicates that large possible applications of the matrix Na_2Nb_4O_1_1: Y components in radio frequency. (author)

  12. Comparative genomic analysis of two isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa El Tor isolated during outbreak in Mariupol in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshov, Konstantin V; Kostikova, Anna; Pisarenko, Sergey V; Kovalev, Dmitry A; Tikhonov, Sergey N; Savelievа, Irina V; Saveliev, Vilory N; Vasilieva, Oksana V; Zinich, Liliia S; Pidchenko, Nadiia N; Kulichenko, Alexander N; Shipulin, German A

    2016-10-01

    Cholera is a water-borne, severe enteric infection essentially caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholera O1 and O139 serogroups. An outbreak of cholera was registered during May-July 2011 in Mariupol, Ukraine, with 33 cholera cases and 25 carriers of cholera. Following this outbreak, the toxigenic strain of V. cholerae 2011EL-301 was isolated from seawater in the recreation area of Taganrog city on the territory of Russia. The aim of our study was to understand genomic features of Mariupol isolates as well as to evaluate hypothesis about possible interconnection between the outbreak of cholera in Mariupol and the single case of isolation of V. cholerae from the Sea of Azov in Russia. Mariupol isolates were phenotypically characterized and subsequently subjected to whole genome sequencing procedure. Phylogenetic analysis based on high-quality SNPs of V. cholera O1 El Tor isolates of the 7th pandemic clade from different regions showed that clinical and environmental isolates from Mariupol outbreak were attributable to a unique phylogenetic clade within wave 3 of V. cholera O1 El Tor isolates and characterized by six clade-specific SNPs. Whereas Taganrog isolate belonged to distantly related clade which allows us to reject the hypothesis of transmission the outbreak strain of V. cholerae O1 from Ukraine to Russia in 2011. Mariupol isolates shared a common ancestor with Haiti\\Nepal-4\\India clade indicating that outbreak progenitor strain most likely originated in the South Asia region and later was introduced to Ukraine. Moreover, genomic data both based on hqSNPs and similarity of virulence-associated mobile genomic elements of Mariupol isolates suggests that environmental and clinical isolates are a part of joint outbreak which confirms the role of contaminated domestic sewage, as an element of the complex chain of infection spread during cholera outbreak. In general, the genome-wide comparative analysis of both genes and genomic regions of epidemiological

  13. Genotypic and PFGE/MLVA analyses of Vibrio cholerae O1: geographical spread and temporal changes during the 2007-2010 cholera outbreaks in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhisa Okada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor dominated the seventh cholera pandemic which occurred in the 1960s. For two decades, variants of V. cholerae O1 El Tor that produce classical cholera toxin have emerged and spread globally, replacing the prototypic El Tor biotype. This study aims to characterize V. cholerae O1 isolates from outbreaks in Thailand with special reference to genotypic variations over time. METHODS/FINDINGS: A total of 343 isolates of V. cholerae O1 from cholera outbreaks from 2007 to 2010 were investigated, and 99.4% were found to carry the classical cholera toxin B subunit (ctxB and El Tor rstR genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE differentiated the isolates into 10 distinct pulsotypes, clustered into two major groups, A and B, with an overall similarity of 88%. Ribotyping, multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA, and PCR to detect Vibrio seventh pandemic island II (VSP-II related genes of randomly selected isolates from each pulsotype corresponded to the results obtained by PFGE. Epidemiological investigations revealed that MLVA type 2 was strongly associated with a cholera outbreak in northeastern Thailand in 2007, while MLVA type 7 dominated the outbreaks of the southern Gulf areas in 2009 and MLVA type 4 dominated the outbreaks of the central Gulf areas during 2009-2010. Only MLVA type 16 isolates were found in a Thai-Myanmar border area in 2010, whereas those of MLVA types 26, 39, and 41 predominated this border area in 2008. Type 39 then disappeared 1-2 years later as MLVA type 41 became prevalent. Type 41 was also found to infect an outbreak area. CONCLUSIONS: MLVA provided a high-throughput genetic typing tool for understanding the in-depth epidemiology of cholera outbreaks. Our epidemiological surveys suggest that some clones of V. cholerae O1 with similar but distinctive genetic traits circulate in outbreak sites, while others disappear over time.

  14. Li_2ZrO_3-coated Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 with nanoscale interface for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Han; Liu, Yang; Wang, Ting; Yang, Yang; Shi, Shaojun; Yang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zr doped and Li_2ZrO_3 coated Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 are prepared by a solid-state method. • Zr-doping and LZO coating are positive in improving lithium diffusion ability. • Li_2ZrO_3 coated Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 deliver 168.1 mAh g"−"1 higher than 150.2 mAh g"−"1 of Li_4Ti_5O_1_2. • Li_2ZrO_3 coated Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 remains 162 mAh g"−"1 after 100 cycles. • The lowest D_L_i"+ is 5.97 × 10"−"1"7 and 1.85 × 10"−"1"5 cm"2 s"−"1 of Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 before and after coating. - Abstract: Zr doped sample of Li_4Ti_4_._9_9Zr_0_._0_1O_1_2 (LZTO) and Li_2ZrO_3 (LZO) coated Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 (LTO) are prepared by a solid-state method. The lattice structure of LTO is remained after doping element of Zr and coating layer of LZO. The crystal structure and electrochemical performance of the material are investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) and charge-discharge tests, respectively. Zr-doping and LZO coating play the positive role in improving the diffusion ability of lithium cations. LZTO and LZO-LTO show much improved specific capacity and rate capability compared with pristine sample of LTO. LZO-LTO has the smallest voltage differential (ΔV) of the redox peaks because the coating of Li_2ZrO_3 is helpful for the diffusion ability of lithium ions during charge/discharge processes. LZTO and LZO-LTO as electrode deliver the initial capacities of 164.8, 168.1 mAh g"−"1, respectively, which are much higher than 150.2 mAh g"−"1 of intrinsic sample of LTO. Even at the current density of 2 A g"−"1, LTZO and LZO-LTO offer capacity of 96 and 106 mAh g"−"1, which are much higher than 33 mAh g"−"1 of LTO. The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the improved diffusion ability of lithium. During the whole discharge process, the lowest value of LTO is 5.97 × 10"−"1"7 cm"2 s"−"1 that is

  15. Complex titanates Sr_1_-_xPb_xLi_2Ti_6O_1_4 (0≤x≤1) as anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Shangshu; Yu, Haoxiang; Yan, Lei; Li, Peng; Lin, Xiaoting; Wu, Yaoyao; Long, Nengbing; Shui, Miao; Shu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sr_1_-_xPb_xLi_2Ti_6O_1_4 (0≤x≤1) is prepared by a simple solid state reaction. • Sr_0_._5Pb_0_._5Li_2Ti_6O_1_4 exhibits enhanced lithium storage capability. • Sr_0_._5Pb_0_._5Li_2Ti_6O_1_4 can deliver a capacity of 141.8 mAh g"−"1 at 700 mA g"−"1. • In-situ XRD is performed to study the reversibility of Sr_1_-_xPb_xLi_2Ti_6O_1_4. - Abstract: With the Pb doping content at Sr-site increasing, a series of Sr_1_-_xPb_xLi_2Ti_6O_1_4 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0) are synthesized by a simple solid-state reaction. It is found that the reversible capacity and rate capability experience a parabolic course from SrLi_2Ti_6O_1_4 to PbLi_2Ti_6O_1_4. Among all the as-prepared samples, Sr_0_._5Pb_0_._5Li_2Ti_6O_1_4 shows the best cycling and rate properties. It delivers an initial charge capacity of 163.2 mAh g"−"1 at 100 mA g"−"1 with the capacity retention of 96.08% after 100 cycles. In addition, it can also deliver a reversible capacity of 141.8 mAh g"−"1 at 700 mA g"−"1. The superior electrochemical properties of Sr_0_._5Pb_0_._5Li_2Ti_6O_1_4 are attributed to the reduced charge transfer resistance and increased lithium-ion diffusion coefficient after doping. Besides, in-situ X-ray diffraction is also performed to investigate the lithium-ion insertion/extraction behaviors of SrLi_2Ti_6O_1_4, Sr_0_._5Pb_0_._5Li_2Ti_6O_1_4 and PbLi_2Ti_6O_1_4. The observed results confirm that Sr_0_._5Pb_0_._5Li_2Ti_6O_1_4 has good structural stability and reversibility for repeated lithium storage.

  16. Protective effects of high-potency FMDV O1 Manisa monovalent vaccine in cattle challenged with FMDV O/SKR/2010 at 7 or 4 days post vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsington, Jacquelyn; Perez, Claudia Beascoechea; Maradei, Eduardo; Novo, Sabrina Galdo; Gonzales, Jose L; Singanallur, Nagendrakumar B; Bonastre, Paula; Vosloo, Wilna

    2017-09-12

    Serotype O foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus belonging to the SEA topotype continues to be a significant problem in the Eastern Asia region, with outbreaks in Japan and South Korea resulting in the culling of over 3.5 million cattle and pigs in recent years. High-potency O1 Manisa vaccine was previously shown to provide protection in cattle 21days post vaccination (dpv) following challenge with a representative virus, O/SKR/2010. This study tested the ability of the O1 Manisa vaccine to protect cattle from infection and disease with the O/SKR/2010 virus within just 4 or 7days post vaccination. The vaccine protected 50% of cattle from clinical disease when administered 7days prior to challenge, but was not protective with just 4days between vaccination and challenge. Viraemia was significantly reduced in animals challenged 7 dpv but not 4 dpv, compared to unvaccinated controls, however, there were no effects on the level of virus detected in nasal and oral secretions regardless of vaccination time. The level of neutralising antibodies detected in cattle challenged 7 dpv correlated with protection from clinical disease. All animals seroconverted to FMDV non-structural proteins, suggesting no sterile protection. An equal number of animals became persistently infected in both vaccine groups. The results indicated that high-potency O1 Manisa vaccine administered just 7days prior to challenge should provide partial protection of cattle if an outbreak of O/SKR/2010, or related viruses, occurs, and would be useful to limit spread of FMDV when used in conjunction with other control measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. GdCl3 reduces hyperglycaemia through Akt/FoxO1-induced suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis in Type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Wang, Ning; Dong, Mei; Chen, Fang; Li, Zhong; Chen, Yuanyuan

    2014-07-01

    GdCl3 (gadolinium chloride) has been shown to reduce blood glucose; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Liver gluconeogenesis is an important pathway involved in the maintenance of glucose homoeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of GdCl3 in hepatic gluconeogenesis and explore the precise molecular mechanism. Animals from a classical Type 2 diabetic mouse model, created by exposing C57BL/6J mice to a high-fat diet for 4 months, were treated with GdCl3 or saline. Body weight, blood glucose and insulin sensitivity were monitored. It was observed that GdCl3 significantly reduced blood glucose levels and improved insulin sensitivity. A pyruvate tolerance test showed further that GdCl3 suppressed gluconeogenesis in diabetic mice. In the livers of GdCl3-treated mice, the expression of Pepck (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) and G6pase (glucose-6-phosphatase), the key enzymes in gluconeogenesis, were dramatically reduced. Furthermore, experiments in hepatocarcinoma cells revealed that GdCl3 activated the Akt pathway to promote the phosphorylation of FoxO1 (forkhead box O1), leading to the suppression of gluconeogenesis by reducing the expression of PEPCK and G6Pase and resulting in decreased cellular production of glucose. Comparable results were observed in the livers of GdCl3-treated mice. In addition, we have shown that GdCl3 augmented the role of insulin to control hepatic glucose production. We conclude that GdCl3 reduces hyperglycaemia via the Akt/FoxO1-induced suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis, both in Type 2 diabetic mice (in vivo) and in hepatocarcinoma cells (in vitro), suggesting that GdCl3 may be a potential therapeutic agent for diabetes.

  18. Obtaining of a rapid diagnostic test for Cholera, based on latex particles coupled with a monoclonal antibody against Vibrio cholera O1 lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Reyes-López

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholera is an acute contagious intestinal disease caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with O1 and O139 serotypes of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Cholera is characterized by abundant secretory diarrhea leading to dehydration. Death occurs within hours without treatment, so early diagnosis is very important, especially at the beginning of the disease, because it is difficult to differentiate from other acute diarrheal diseases. The diagnostic golden test is the stool culture; however, it does not guarantee a rapid detection of the disease. Rapid tests have been recently developed; they are based on test strips and agglutination with latex particles, which are very effective, but difficult to acquire for their high prices. The objective of this research was to obtain a quick assay based on latex particles coupled with a monoclonal antibody (mAb against V. cholerae O1 lipopolysaccharide obtained in Finlay Institute. Latex particles of 0.8 µm were used in a 10% suspension, and they were coupled to the mAb (0.25 mg/ml for 2 hours at 37°C. The sensitivity, specificity and performance were evaluated in 84 stool samples from patients with presumptive diagnosis of cholera. The diagnostic test obtained showed no cross-reactivity against no-O1 strains and other enteropathogens. Latex diagnostic test showed values of sensitivity, specificity and efficacy of 97.87; 97.29 and 97.6% respectively, very similar to the commercial diagnostic test CTK- Biotech. The latex reagent obtained can be used in the rapid diagnosis of the disease.

  19. Controlled nitric oxide production via O(1D  + N2O reactions for use in oxidation flow reactor studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lambe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation flow reactors that use low-pressure mercury lamps to produce hydroxyl (OH radicals are an emerging technique for studying the oxidative aging of organic aerosols. Here, ozone (O3 is photolyzed at 254 nm to produce O(1D radicals, which react with water vapor to produce OH. However, the need to use parts-per-million levels of O3 hinders the ability of oxidation flow reactors to simulate NOx-dependent secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation pathways. Simple addition of nitric oxide (NO results in fast conversion of NOx (NO + NO2 to nitric acid (HNO3, making it impossible to sustain NOx at levels that are sufficient to compete with hydroperoxy (HO2 radicals as a sink for organic peroxy (RO2 radicals. We developed a new method that is well suited to the characterization of NOx-dependent SOA formation pathways in oxidation flow reactors. NO and NO2 are produced via the reaction O(1D + N2O  →  2NO, followed by the reaction NO + O3  →  NO2 + O2. Laboratory measurements coupled with photochemical model simulations suggest that O(1D + N2O reactions can be used to systematically vary the relative branching ratio of RO2 + NO reactions relative to RO2 + HO2 and/or RO2 + RO2 reactions over a range of conditions relevant to atmospheric SOA formation. We demonstrate proof of concept using high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS measurements with nitrate (NO3− reagent ion to detect gas-phase oxidation products of isoprene and α-pinene previously observed in NOx-influenced environments and in laboratory chamber experiments.

  20. Improved dielectric properties and grain boundary response in neodymium-doped Y_2_/_3Cu_3Ti_4O_1_2 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Pengfei; Yang, Zupei; Chao, Xiaolian

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth element neodymium was adopted to refine grain and in turn increase the volume of grain boundary of Y_2_/_3Cu_3Ti_4O_1_2 ceramics, which could strongly increase the resistance of grain boundary. Proper amount of Nd substitution in Y_2_/_3_−_xNd_xCu_3Ti_4O_1_2 ceramics could significantly depress the low-frequency dielectric loss. When the doping level is 0.06 and 0.09, the samples exhibited a relatively low dielectric loss (below 0.050 between 0.3 and 50 kHz) and high dielectric constant above 11000 over a wide frequency range from 40 Hz to 100 kHz. Based on the ε′-T plots, dielectric relaxation intensity was substantially weakened by Nd doping so that the temperature stability of dielectric constant was improved obviously. The correlations between low-frequency dielectric loss and the resistance of grain boundary were revealed. After Nd doping, the activation energies for the conduction behavior in grain boundaries were significantly enhanced, and the activation energies for the dielectric relaxation process in grain boundaries were slightly influenced. - Highlights: • Significant decrease in dielectric loss of Y_2_/_3_−_xNd_xCu_3Ti_4O_1_2 ceramics was realized. • The enhanced grain boundary density is responsible for the lowered dielectric loss. • Nd doping could improve the temperature stability of dielectric constant. • Oxygen vacancies contribute to conduction and relaxation process of grain boundaries.

  1. Whole genome PCR scanning reveals the syntenic genome structure of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae strains in the O1/O139 population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Pang

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae is commonly found in estuarine water systems. Toxigenic O1 and O139 V. cholerae strains have caused cholera epidemics and pandemics, whereas the nontoxigenic strains within these serogroups only occasionally lead to disease. To understand the differences in the genome and clonality between the toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains of V. cholerae serogroups O1 and O139, we employed a whole genome PCR scanning (WGPScanning method, an rrn operon-mediated fragment rearrangement analysis and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH to analyze the genome structure of different strains. WGPScanning in conjunction with CGH revealed that the genomic contents of the toxigenic strains were conservative, except for a few indels located mainly in mobile elements. Minor nucleotide variation in orthologous genes appeared to be the major difference between the toxigenic strains. rrn operon-mediated rearrangements were infrequent in El Tor toxigenic strains tested using I-CeuI digested pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE analysis and PCR analysis based on flanking sequence of rrn operons. Using these methods, we found that the genomic structures of toxigenic El Tor and O139 strains were syntenic. The nontoxigenic strains exhibited more extensive sequence variations, but toxin coregulated pilus positive (TCP+ strains had a similar structure. TCP+ nontoxigenic strains could be subdivided into multiple lineages according to the TCP type, suggesting the existence of complex intermediates in the evolution of toxigenic strains. The data indicate that toxigenic O1 El Tor and O139 strains were derived from a single lineage of intermediates from complex clones in the environment. The nontoxigenic strains with non-El Tor type TCP may yet evolve into new epidemic clones after attaining toxigenic attributes.

  2. Synthesis of LaO1-xFxFeAs (x=0-0.15) via solid state metathesis reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankovsky, Rainer; Marchuk, Alexey; Pobel, Roman; Johrendt, Dirk

    2012-04-01

    LaOFeAs and superconducting LaO1-xFxFeAs have been synthesized via salt metathesis reactions and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The process uses LaOCl and NaFeAs as precursors and yielded very pure samples. Superconductivity was confirmed in samples with x=0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 at critical temperatures of 11 K, 26 K and 9 K, respectively. According to temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction data, the reaction pathway is not topotactic in contrast to earlier suggestions.

  3. Quasi-classical trajectory approach to the O(1D)+HBr→OH+Br reaction stereo-dynamics on X1A' potential energy surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Zheng Bin; Yin Ji-Qing; Meng Qing-Tian

    2011-01-01

    The vector properties of reaction O( 1 D)+HBr→OH+Br on the potential energy surface (PES) of X 1 A' ground singlet state are studied by using the quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) theory. The polarization-dependent differential cross sections (PDDCSs), the average rotational alignment factor 2 (j' · k)>, as well as the distributions reflecting vector correlations are also computed. The analysis of the results shows that the alignment and the orientation distribution of the rotation angular momentum vector of product molecule OH is influenced by both the effect of heavy—light—heavy (HLH) type mass combination and the deep well of PES. (atomic and molecular physics)

  4. Dual effects of fructose on ChREBP and FoxO1/3α are responsible for AldoB up-regulation and vascular remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Chang, Tuanjie; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Rui; Wu, Lingyun

    2017-02-01

    Increased production of methylglyoxal (MG) in vascular tissues is one of the causative factors for vascular remodelling in different subtypes of metabolic syndrome, including hypertension and insulin resistance. Fructose-induced up-regulation of aldolase B (AldoB) contributes to increased vascular MG production but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Serum levels of MG and fructose were determined in diabetic patients with hypertension. MG level had significant positive correlations with blood pressure and fructose level respectively. C57BL/6 mice were fed with control or fructose-enriched diet for 3 months and ultrasonographic and histologic analyses were performed to evaluate arterial structural changes. Fructose-fed mice exhibited hypertension and high levels of serum MG with normal glucose level. Fructose intake increased blood vessel wall thickness and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. Western blotting and real-time PCR analysis revealed that AldoB level was significantly increased in both the aorta of fructose-fed mice and the fructose-treated VSMCs, whereas aldolase A (AldoA) expression was not changed. The knockdown of AldoB expression prevented fructose-induced MG overproduction and VSMC proliferation. Moreover, fructose significantly increased carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP), phosphorylated FoxO1/3α and Akt1 levels. Fructose induced translocation of ChREBP from the cytosol to nucleus and activated AldoB gene expression, which was inhibited by the knockdown of ChREBP. Meanwhile, fructose caused FoxO1/3α shuttling from the nucleus to cytosol and inhibited its binding to AldoB promoter region. Fructose-induced AldoB up-regulation was suppressed by Akt1 inhibitor but enhanced by FoxO1/3α siRNA. Collectively, fructose activates ChREBP and inactivates FoxO1/3α pathways to up-regulate AldoB expression and MG production, leading to vascular remodelling. © 2017 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on

  5. The first imported human case of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype O1 septicemia presents with acute appendicitis-like syndrome in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsu Lai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human nonplague yersiniosis occurs more commonly in temperate regions than in tropical or subtropical regions. In Taiwan, which is located in a subtropical region of Southeast Asia, only environmental isolates and human infection of Yersinia enterocolitica were reported, but a human case of Y. pseudotuberculosis infection had not been identified. We report the first person with Y. pseudotuberculosis serotype O1 septicemia who presented with acute appendicitis-like syndrome and who was probably contracted the infection via ingestion of raw foods in a barbecue restaurant in Japan.

  6. Phase relationships in the quasi-ternary LaO1.5–SiO2–MgO system at 1773 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Kobayashi and Yoshio Sakka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase relationships in the LaO1.5–SiO2–MgO quasi-ternary system at 1773 K were investigated by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD analysis applying single- and multiple-phase Rietveld methods. Most of the formed phases satisfied the Gibbs' phase rule, except for the samples containing LaO1.5 and a liquid phase at 1773 K. The detection of segregated MgO phases was difficult in the XRD profiles of the compositional samples around the oxyapatite single phase because the MgO peaks were weak and heavily overlapped by peaks from the oxyapatite and La(OH3 phases. The solid solubility limit of MgO in oxyapatite was determined not only from the chemical composition of the oxyapatite phase, which was confirmed by XRD, but also from several phase boundary compositions among the two-phase and three-phase regions based on the Gibbs' phase rule. Formation of a liquid phase at 1773 K was observed in a wide range of compositions and considered when constructing the phase diagram.

  7. Application of high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy: Vibrational resolved C 1s and O 1s spectra of CO adsorbed on Ni(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foehlisch, A.; Nilsson, A.; Martensson, N. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    There are various effects which determine the line shape of a core-level electron spectrum. These are due to the finite life-time of the core hole, inelastic scattering of the outgoing photoelectron, electronic shake-up and shake-off processes and vibrational excitations. For free atoms and molecules the different contributions to the observed line shapes can often be well separated. For solids, surfaces and adsorbates the line shapes are in general much broader and it has in the past been assumed that no separation of the various contributions can be made. In the present report the authors will show that this is indeed not the case. Surprisingly, the vibrational fine structure of CO adsorbed on Ni(100) can be resolved in the C 1s and O 1s electron spectra. This was achieved by the combination of highly monochromatized soft X-rays from B18.0 with a high resolution Scienta 200 mm photoelectron spectrometer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with tunable excitation energy yields as a core level spectroscopy atomic and site-specific information. The presented measurements allow for a determination of internuclear distances and potential energy curves in corehole ionized adsorbed molecules. The authors analysis of the c(2x2) phase CO/Ni(100) on {open_quotes}top{close_quotes} yielded a vibrational splitting of 217 +/- 2 meV for C 1s ionization. For O 1s ionization a splitting of 173 +/- 8 meV was found.

  8. Hydrogen-rich medium protects mouse embryonic fibroblasts from oxidative stress by activating LKB1-AMPK-FoxO1 signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Yang, Goowon; Kim, Young-Joo; Tran, Quynh Hoa; Choe, Wonchae; Kang, Insug; Kim, Sung Soo; Ha, Joohun

    2017-09-23

    Persistent oxidative stress is recognized as a major cause of many pathological conditions as well as ageing. However, most clinical trials of dietary antioxidants have failed to produce successful outcomes in treating oxidative stress-induced diseases. Molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) has recently received considerable attention as a therapeutic agent owing to its novel antioxidant properties, a selective scavenger of hydroxyl and peroxynitrite radicals. Beyond this, numerous reports support that H 2 can modulate the activity of various cellular signal pathways. However, its effect on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signal pathway, a central regulator of energy hemostasis, has remained almost elusive. Here, we report that hydrogen-rich medium activated LKB1-AMPK signal pathway without ATP depletion, which in turn induced FoxO1-dependent transcription of manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Moreover, hydrogen-rich media effectively reduced the level of reactive oxygen species in cells treated with hydrogen peroxide and protected these cells from apoptosis in an AMPK-dependent manner. These results suggest that the LKB1-AMPK-FoxO1 signaling pathway is a critical mediator of the antioxidant properties of H 2 , further supporting the idea that H 2 acts as a signaling molecule to serve various physiological functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A simple and convenient microtiter plate assay for the detection of bactericidal antibodies to Vibrio cholerae O1 and Vibrio cholerae O139.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutonnier, Alain; Dassy, Bruno; Duménil, Rémy; Guénolé, Alain; Ratsitorahina, Maherisoa; Migliani, René; Fournier, Jean-Michel

    2003-12-01

    It is believed that the correlate of protection for cholera can be determined by the serum vibriocidal assay. The currently available vibriocidal assays, based on the conventional agar plating technique, are labor intensive. We developed a simple and convenient microtiter plate assay for the detection of vibriocidal antibodies that is equally as efficient for Vibrio cholerae O1 and for V. cholerae O139. The addition of succinate and neotetrazolium made it possible to measure the growth of surviving bacterial target cells by monitoring a color change. We evaluated assay parameters (target strains, growth of target cells, complement source and concentration) that may affect the reproducibility of the method for V. cholerae O139. The results obtained with the microtiter plate assay were uniformly similar to those obtained with the conventional agar plating assay, when testing both the Inaba and Ogawa serotypes of V. cholerae O1. The microtiter plate assay was also convenient for measuring the activity of animal sera and mouse monoclonal antibodies.

  10. Antimicrobial Susceptibility among Urban Wastewater and Wild Shellfish Isolates of Non-O1/Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae from La Rance Estuary (Brittany, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Baron

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The early 2000s marked the end of the Golden age of the antibiotics and the beginning of the awareness on the potential threat to human health due to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. As a base-line study, we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility of 99 strains of non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae isolated from wastewater and shellfish in 2000/2001 within La Rance estuary (Brittany, France. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, imipenem, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin. The only resistances were to streptomycin, sulfonamides and ampicillin: 54.6% of the isolates had acquired resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent among them and only six isolates from cockles were multidrug resistant. On the basis of the distribution of a limited selection of resistance associated genes, our study shows that V. cholerae can constitute an environmental reservoir for these genes. However, none of our isolates harbored integron. This result casts doubt on the capacity of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae to acquire resistance-associated genes in such context, and on its potential role of indicator of the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in the aquatic environment.

  11. Observation and resonant x-ray optical interpretation of multi-atom resonant photoemission effects in O 1s emission from NiO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannella, N.; Yang, S.-H.; Mun, B.S.; Garcia de Abajo, F.J.; Kay, A.W.; Sell, B.C.; Watanabe, M.; Ohldag, H.; Arenholz, E.; Young, A.T.; Hussain, Z.; Van Hove, M.A.; Fadley, C.S.

    2006-01-01

    We present experimental and theoretical results for the variation of the O 1s intensity from a NiO(001) surface as the excitation energy is varied through the Ni 2p1/2,3/2 absorption resonances, and as the incidence angle of the radiation is varied from grazing to larger values. For grazing incidence, a strong multi-atom resonant photoemission(MARPE) effect is seen on the O 1s intensity as the Ni 2p resonances are crossed, but its magnitude decreases rapidly as the incidence angle is increased. Resonant x-ray optical (RXRO) calculations are found to predict these effects very well, although the experimental effects are found to decrease at higher incidence angles faster than those in theory. The potential influence of photoelectron diffraction effects on such measurements are also considered, including experimental data with azimuthal-angle variation and corresponding multiple-scattering-diffraction calculations, but we conclude that they do not vary beyond what is expected on the basis of the change in photoelectron kinetic energy. Varying from linear polarization to circular polarization is found to enhance these effects in NiO considerably, although the reasons are not clear. We also discuss the relationship of these measurements to other related interatomic resonance experiments and theoretical developments, and make some suggestions for future studies in this area

  12. Manipulation of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of single Fe atom adsorbed graphene via MgO(1 1 1) substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mingming; Tang, Weiqing; Wu, Yaping; Ke, Congming; Guo, Fei; Zhang, Chunmiao; Yang, Weihuang; Wu, Zhiming; Kang, Junyong

    2018-05-01

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is significantly important for realizing a long-term retention of information for spintronics devices. Inspired by 2D graphene with its high charge carrier mobility and long spin diffusion length, we report a first-principles design framework on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy engineering of a Fe atom adsorbed graphene by employing a O-terminated MgO (1 1 1) substrate. Determined by the adsorption sites of the Fe atom, a tunable magnetic anisotropy is realized in Fe/graphene/MgO (1 1 1) structure, with the magnetic anisotropy energy of  ‑0.48 meV and 0.23 meV, respectively, corresponding to the in-plane and out of plane easy magnetizations. Total density of states suggest a half-metallicity with a 100% spin polarization in the system. Decomposed densities of Fe-3d states reveal the orbital contributions to the magnetic anisotropy for different Fe adsorption sites. Bonding interaction and charge redistribution regulated by MgO substrate are found responsible for the novel perpendicular magnetic anisotropy engineering in the system. The effective manipulation of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in present work offers some references for the design and construction of 2D spintronics devices.

  13. Cell envelope proteins of environmental Vibrio cholerae non O1 isolates from Albufera Lake (Valencia, Spain) influence of some factors on OMP expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, C; Herrero, E; Arnau, A; Garay, E

    1989-11-01

    The cell envelope proteins of 89 environmental Vibrio cholerae non O1 strains isolated from lake and coastal waters near Valencia, Spain, and six Vibrio cholerae strains from culture collections were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Considerable heterogeneity was found in the major proteins of the environmental non-O1 strains, but bands between 25,000 and 48,000 daltons were observed in the majority of the strains. Estimated relative mobilities of the total protein profile ranged between 11 and more than 100 Kd. Cluster analysis revealed four groups of strains distinguishable by presence or absence of high and low molecular weight proteins. After treatment with Sarkosyl, the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) were characterized in all strains by densitometric methods. They ranged from 19 to 87 Kilodaltons, and corresponded to the major proteins observed in the total membrane preparations. The major OMP most frequently found had a molecular weight around 37 Kd, similar to that of porins in other Gram-negative bacteria. The OMP composition varied in response to culture medium and growth phase. Generally the OMP expression was affected only in a quantitative way by the growth phase while the growth medium had both a qualitative and a quantitative effect.

  14. Magnetic nanosized rare earth iron garnets R_3Fe_5O_1_2: Sol–gel fabrication, characterization and reinspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opuchovic, Olga; Kareiva, Aivaras; Mazeika, Kestutis; Baltrunas, Dalis

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic nanosized rare earth iron garnets (R_3Fe_5O_1_2, where R=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) were prepared by an aqueous sol–gel method. Herein we present, that all these garnets can be obtained by this effective synthesis method simply by changing the temperature of the final annealing. It was also demonstrated, that a different annealing temperature leads to a different particle size distribution of the final product. The SEM analysis results revealed that the smallest particles were formed in the range of 75–130 nm. The phase purity and structure of the rare earth iron garnets were estimated using XRD analysis and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Magnetic properties were determined by magnetization measurements. The relation between the particle size, composition and magnetic properties of the sol-gel derived garnets were also discussed in this study. - Highlights: • First time series of R_3Fe_5O_1_2 (R=from Sm to Lu) are prepared by sol–gel process. • Different sintering temperature leads to the different particle size distribution. • Correlation between microstructure, composition and magnetic properties is shown.

  15. Assessment of the synthesis conditions for nano-Bi_4Ti_3O_1_2 production by the combustion route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Jeferson A.; Nascimento, Cassia C.; Oliveira, Jessica A.; Morelli, Marcio R.

    2016-01-01

    The bismuth titanate has interesting optoelectronic properties. Its production in nanometric scale is important due to the demand of miniaturized electronic devices and greater synthesization facility. This study aims at the evaluation of synthesis parameters for nano-Bi_4Ti_3O_1_2 production by the combustion route. For that, the materials were synthesized and calcined at 600°C, 700°C and 800°C. The materials were posteriorly characterized by X-Ray diffraction, SEM, DSC-TGA, FTIR; DRS and impedance spectroscopy. The results have demonstrated that the combustion method was effective for nanocrystalline powders production, which also showed high levels of purity. Particles size growth was observed for high treatment temperatures. Low level of residual organic matter was determined and the high electrical resistivity was observed. The temperature of 600°C was enough to produce particles with optimal properties. Therefore, the results have confirmed the efficacy of combustion route to produce nanometric Bi_4Ti_3O_1_2. (author)

  16. Microstructural evolution of nanosized Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9/Ni infiltrate in a Zr0.84Y0.16O1.92-Sr0.94Ti0.9Nb0.1O3-δ based SOFC anode under electrochemical evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Ramos, Tania

    are of paramount importance for performance and performance stability. Therefore an accurate understanding of the microstructure evolution during electrochemical operation will facilitate evaluating performances of SOFC anodes, and in turn optimize its design. Here we report a wealth of microstructural...... investigations of Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9/Ni (hereafter CGO/Ni)-infiltrated Zr0.84Y0.16O1.92 composited Sr0.94Ti0.9Nb0.1O3-δ (STN94/8YSZ) anode in a symmetric cell design under a short electrochemical evaluation test (fingerprint test), applying electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at mild 3% H2O/H2 and harsh 50...

  17. "Denuy Jangal Seen Bopp" (They Teach Themselves): Children's Music Learning in the Gambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Lisa Huisman

    2010-01-01

    The author investigated the teaching and learning processes among children in a suburban community of The Gambia, West Africa. Participants included children and adults in the community (N = 101). The researcher used ethnographic techniques of participant and nonparticipant observation, interviews, and song and chant collection. Data consisted of…

  18. High frequency characteristics of (Ni75Fe2)x(ZnO)1−x granular thin films with tunable damping coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wen-Chun; Liu Xiao-Hong; Wei Qing-Qing; Yao Dong-Sheng; Zuo Ya-Lu; Zhou Xue-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the volume fraction of ferromagnetic metal (x) in (Ni 75 Fe 25 ) x (ZnO) 1−x nanogranular thin films on microstructural, soft-magnetic, and high-frequency properties was investigated. Good soft-magnetic properties were obtained in a broad x range, with 0.55 < x < 0.82. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations reveal that the grain size of the samples is lower than 14 nm, and that it decreases with decreasing x. Of special interest, our investigation of the permeability spectra indicates that these films exhibit an adjustable frequency linewidth of resonance peak, dependant upon changing x. Correspondingly, large and adjustable damping coefficients (α eff ) from 0.023 to 0.043 were achieved by decreasing x from 0.82 to 0.55. Combined with the HRTEM results, the variation of α eff with x was analyzed in detail. (paper)

  19. Electronic structure of the iron-based superconductor (La,Eu)FeAsO1-xFx investigated by laser photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaeb, Walid; Awad, Ramadan; Hibino, Taku; Kamihara, Yoichi; Kondo, Takeshi; Shin, Shik

    2018-05-01

    We have implemented laser photoemission spectroscopy (PES) to investigate the electronic structure of the iron-based superconductor (La,Eu)FeAsO1-xFx (LaEu1111) which is an interesting compound in the "1111" family showing a high value of the superconducting (SC) transition temperature (Tc) due to Eu doping. At least two energy scales were observed from the PES data in the SC compound: One at ∼14 meV closing around Tc and thus corresponding to the SC gap. Another energy scale appears at ∼35 meV and survives at temperatures above Tc which represents the pseudogap (PG). The non-SC sample (La,Eu)FeAsO shows a PG at ∼ 41 meV. These observations in this new superconductor are consistent with the general trend followed by other compounds in the "1111" family.

  20. Ferromagnetism in reactive sputtered Cu0.96Fe 0.04O1-δ nanocrystalline films evidenced by anomalous Hall effect

    KAUST Repository

    Mi, Wenbo

    2011-03-14

    Cu0.96Fe0.04O1-δ nanocrystalline films were fabricated using reactive sputtering at different oxygen partial pressures (PO2). The electrical transport properties of the films were measured in a broad temperature range (10-300 K) under magnetic fields of up to 5T. Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) of up to 0.4μΩ cm was observed at 10 K and decreased to 0.2μΩ cm at 300 K. The characteristic AHE clearly indicated the existence of ferromagnetism in these materials. The AHE weakened as PO2 increased because the increasing PO2 reduced the fraction of Fe2+ ions, and consequently weakened the double exchange coupling between Fe2+-O2--Cu2+ in the materials. © 2011 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  1. Comparative genome analysis of VSP-II and SNPs reveals heterogenic variation in contemporary strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated from cholera patients in Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Daisuke; Morita, Masatomo; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Tamaki; Takemura, Taichiro; Yamashiro, Tetsu; Chowdhury, Goutam; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Miyoshi, Shin-Ichi; Kuroda, Makoto; Shinoda, Sumio; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2017-02-01

    Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease and a major public health problem in many developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Since the Bay of Bengal is considered the epicenter for the seventh cholera pandemic, it is important to understand the genetic dynamism of Vibrio cholerae from Kolkata, as a representative of the Bengal region. We analyzed whole genome sequence data of V. cholerae O1 isolated from cholera patients in Kolkata, India, from 2007 to 2014 and identified the heterogeneous genomic region in these strains. In addition, we carried out a phylogenetic analysis based on the whole genome single nucleotide polymorphisms to determine the genetic lineage of strains in Kolkata. This analysis revealed the heterogeneity of the Vibrio seventh pandemic island (VSP)-II in Kolkata strains. The ctxB genotype was also heterogeneous and was highly related to VSP-II types. In addition, phylogenetic analysis revealed the shifts in predominant strains in Kolkata. Two distinct lineages, 1 and 2, were found between 2007 and 2010. However, the proportion changed markedly in 2010 and lineage 2 strains were predominant thereafter. Lineage 2 can be divided into four sublineages, I, II, III and IV. The results of this study indicate that lineages 1 and 2-I were concurrently prevalent between 2007 and 2009, and lineage 2-III observed in 2010, followed by the predominance of lineage 2-IV in 2011 and continued until 2014. Our findings demonstrate that the epidemic of cholera in Kolkata was caused by several distinct strains that have been constantly changing within the genetic lineages of V. cholerae O1 in recent years.

  2. Vibrio cholerae No O1 en muestras de aguas no cloradas consumidas por pobladores de las localidades de Santa y Coishco (Ancash, 2003 - 2004

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    Ana García P

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar la presencia de Vibrio cholerae en muestras de agua no cloradas para consumo humano en las localidades de Santa y Coishco. Materiales y métodos: Entre julio de 2003 a junio de 2004 se tomaron muestras de agua, en forma semanal, provenientes de siete pozos con bomba manuable y de seis pozos con reservorio. A cada muestra de agua se le midió in situ el cloro residual mediante un comparador de cloro Hatch, método colorimétrico, usando para ello las pastillas DPD 1. En las muestras con cloro <0,05mg/L se realizó el cultivo según los manuales de procedimientos del Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS, Lima. Las cepas aisladas se enviaron al INS para confirmación diagnóstica y pruebas serológicas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 308 muestras de agua para consumo humano en ambos distritos (201 de pozos con bomba manuable y 107 con reservorio. Se realizó el aislamiento en 70(22,7% muestras: Aeromonas caviae 34(11,0%, Aeromonas hidrophyla 17(5,5% y Vibrio cholerae No O1 19(6,2%, no se encontró V. cholerae del serotipo O139. El Vibrio cholerae No O1 se aisló en 11(5,5% muestras de pozos con bomba manuable y en 8(7,4% pozos con reservorio, respectivamente. Conclusión: El agua de consumo humano proveniente de pozos tubulares representa un reservorio potencial para bacterias como Aeromonas y Vibrio cholerae, resaltando la necesidad de realizar la desinfección correspondiente de ésta antes de su consumo.

  3. Vigilancia en red de los serotipos y la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. Y Vibrio cholerae O1, 1997 - 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélida Muñoz

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available En 1997, el Grupo de Microbiología del INS estableció un programa en red con los Laboratorios de Salud Pública (LSP del país y el apoyo de la OPS, para la vigilancia de los principales patógenos causantes de enfermedad diarreica aguda. El objetivo fue conocer los serotipos y los patrones de resistencia antimicrobiana de Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. y Vibrio cholerae O1. Los aislamientos fueron confirmados de acuerdo con los esquemas de identificación bioquímica y serológica estandarizados y la determinación de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se realizó por la técnica de difusión de disco (Kirby-Bauer. De 1997 a 1999, participaron 22 LSP con el envio de 976 aislamientos, 96% de origen clínico y 4% de alimentos; 34% Salmonella spp., 23% Shigella spp. y 42% V. cholerae 01. La distribución por serotipo de Salmonella fue 39% S. Enteritidis, 27% S. Typhimurium, 9% grupo El, 5% S. Typhi y 20% otros serotipos; de los aislamientos de Shigella, 67% fueron S. grupo flexneriza, 30% S sonnei, 2% S. dysenteriae y 1% S. boydii. Para V. cholerae 01, 99% fue serotipo Ogawa. La susceptibilidad antimicrobiana determinó que 56% de los aislamientos de Salmonella eran resistentes y 22% multirresistentes, con un patrón predominante de ampicilina, tetraciclina y trimetoprim-sulfa (SXT. De los aislamientos de Shigella, 97% fueron resistentes y 57% multirresistentes, con un patrón de ampicilina, tetraciclina, cloranfenicol y SXT. No se observaron cambios en la susceptibilidad de V. cholerae O1. Este estudio enfatiza la importancia de continuar con el programa de vigilancia, para conocer la epidemiologia de la EDA en Colombia, darle un tratamiento óptimo a estas infecciones y poder diseñar programas para disminuir la diseminación de bacterias resistentes.

  4. TGF-β1/Smad3 Pathway Targets PP2A-AMPK-FoxO1 Signaling to Regulate Hepatic Gluconeogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hariom; Devalaraja, Samir; Chung, Stephanie T.; Rane, Sushil G.

    2017-01-01

    Maintenance of glucose homeostasis is essential for normal physiology. Deviation from normal glucose levels, in either direction, increases susceptibility to serious medical complications such as hypoglycemia and diabetes. Maintenance of glucose homeostasis is achieved via functional interactions among various organs: liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, brain, and the endocrine pancreas. The liver is the primary site of endogenous glucose production, especially during states of prolonged fasting. However, enhanced gluconeogenesis is also a signature feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Thus, elucidating the signaling pathways that regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis would allow better insight into the process of normal endogenous glucose production as well as how this process is impaired in T2D. Here we demonstrate that the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis, both upon prolonged fasting and during T2D. In contrast, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of TGF-β1/Smad3 signals suppressed endogenous glucose production. TGF-β1 and Smad3 signals achieved this effect via the targeting of key regulators of hepatic gluconeogenesis, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and FoxO1 proteins. Specifically, TGF-β1 signaling suppressed the LKB1-AMPK axis, thereby facilitating the nuclear translocation of FoxO1 and activation of key gluconeogenic genes, glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. These findings underscore an important role of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling in hepatic gluconeogenesis, both in normal physiology and in the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases such as diabetes, and are thus of significant medical relevance. PMID:28069811

  5. TGF-β1/Smad3 Pathway Targets PP2A-AMPK-FoxO1 Signaling to Regulate Hepatic Gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hariom; Devalaraja, Samir; Chung, Stephanie T; Rane, Sushil G

    2017-02-24

    Maintenance of glucose homeostasis is essential for normal physiology. Deviation from normal glucose levels, in either direction, increases susceptibility to serious medical complications such as hypoglycemia and diabetes. Maintenance of glucose homeostasis is achieved via functional interactions among various organs: liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, brain, and the endocrine pancreas. The liver is the primary site of endogenous glucose production, especially during states of prolonged fasting. However, enhanced gluconeogenesis is also a signature feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Thus, elucidating the signaling pathways that regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis would allow better insight into the process of normal endogenous glucose production as well as how this process is impaired in T2D. Here we demonstrate that the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis, both upon prolonged fasting and during T2D. In contrast, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of TGF-β1/Smad3 signals suppressed endogenous glucose production. TGF-β1 and Smad3 signals achieved this effect via the targeting of key regulators of hepatic gluconeogenesis, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and FoxO1 proteins. Specifically, TGF-β1 signaling suppressed the LKB1-AMPK axis, thereby facilitating the nuclear translocation of FoxO1 and activation of key gluconeogenic genes, glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. These findings underscore an important role of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling in hepatic gluconeogenesis, both in normal physiology and in the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases such as diabetes, and are thus of significant medical relevance. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Mevastatin ameliorates sphingosine 1‐phosphate‐induced COX‐2/PGE2‐dependent cell migration via FoxO1 and CREB phosphorylation and translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih‐Kai; Lin, Chih‐Chung; Hsiao, Li‐Der

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Sphingosine 1‐phosphate (S1P), an important inflammatory mediator, has been shown to regulate COX‐2 production and promote various cellular responses such as cell migration. Mevastatin, an inhibitor of 3‐hydroxy‐3‐methylglutaryl‐CoA reductase (HMG‐CoA), effectively inhibits inflammatory responses. However, the mechanisms underlying S1P‐evoked COX‐2‐dependent cell migration, which is modulated by mevastatin in human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs) remain unclear. Experimental Approach The expression of COX‐2 was determined by Western blotting, real time‐PCR and promoter analyses. The signalling molecules were investigated by pretreatment with respective pharmacological inhibitors or transfection with siRNAs. The interaction between COX‐2 promoter and transcription factors was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Finally, the effect of mevastatin on HTSMC migration and leukocyte counts in BAL fluid and COX‐2 expression induced by S1P was determined by a cell migration assay, cell counting and Western blot. Key Results S1P stimulated mTOR activation through the Nox2/ROS and PI3K/Akt pathways, which can further stimulate FoxO1 phosphorylation and translocation to the cytosol. We also found that S1P induced CREB activation and translocation via an mTOR‐independent signalling pathway. Finally, we showed that pretreatment with mevastatin markedly reduced S1P‐induced cell migration and COX‐2/PGE2 production via a PPARγ‐dependent signalling pathway. Conclusions and Implications Mevastatin attenuates the S1P‐induced increased expression of COX‐2 and cell migration via the regulation of FoxO1 and CREB phosphorylation and translocation by PPARγ in HTSMCs. Mevastatin could be beneficial for prevention of airway inflammation in the future. PMID:26359950

  7. The studies of a new ceramic composite — (Zr0.92Y0.08)O1.96 dispersed lanthanum titanium aluminium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Peng; Choy, Kwang-leong

    2016-01-01

    A new ceramic composite (Zr 0.92 Y 0.08 )O 1.96 dispersed in LaTi 2 Al 9 O 19 as a thermal barrier material was synthesized by the hybrid sol–gel method. The composite ceramic has good thermochemical stability up to 1500 °C. The thermal conductivity of composite ceramic is circa. 1.0 W/m·K at ambient temperature and the coefficients of thermal expansion are very stable and comparable to (Zr 0.92 Y 0.08 )O 1.96 about 10.7 × 10 −6 K −1 at 1223 K. The sintering resistance and mechanical properties become better after being dispersed. Therefore, the new ceramic composite synthesized by hybrid sol–gel method can be a promising candidate as a thermal barrier material on Ni-based superalloy. - Highlights: • New composite 4 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (4YSZ) dispersed LaTi 2 Al 9 O 19 (LTA) is synthesized by a hybrid sol-gel method. • The new ceramic composite shows good thermochemical stability up to 1500 o C. • The thermal conductivity of the new ceramic composite is lower than each component at ambient temperature. • The coefficient of thermal expansion of 4YSZ dispersed in LTA (LTA-4YSZ) is comparable to 4YSZ. • Compared with LTA and 4YSZ, LTA-4YSZ has the best sintering resistance. • The Young’s Modulus of LTA-4YSZ composite becomes lower while the hardness becomes higher.

  8. Culture supernatants from V. cholerae O1 ElTor strains isolated from different geographic areas induce cell vacuolation and cytotoxicity Cepas de V. cholerae O1 biotipo ElTor aisladas de diferente origen geográfico inducen vacuolización celular y citotoxicidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Vidal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the HlyA-induced vacuolating effect is produced by V. cholerae O1 ElTor strains isolated from different geographic origins, including Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Supernatant-induced haemolysis, vacuolating activity and cytotoxicity in Vero cells were recorded. PCR, RFLP analysis and molecular cloning were performed. RESULTS: All ElTor strains analyzed induced cellular vacuolation. Ribotype 2 strains isolates from the U.S. gulf coast yielded the highest titer of vacuolating activity. Eight of nine strains were haemolytic, while all strains were PCR positive for the hlyA gene. We cloned the hlyA gene from two ElTor strains, a toxigenic (2514-88, ctxAB+ and a non-toxigenic Mexican strain (CM 91-3, ctxAB-. Supernatant from those recombinant E. coli strains induced haemolysis, cell vacuolation and cytotoxicity. RFLP-PCR analysis revealed similarities in the hlyA gene from all strains tested. CONCLUSION: The HlyA-induced vacuolating effect is a widespread phenotype of epidemic V. cholerae O1 ElTor strains.OBJETIVO: Analizar el efecto vacuolizante de cepas de V. cholerae O1 ElTor aisladas de diferente origen geográfico, incluyendo México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizaron pruebas de hemolisis, vacuolización y citotoxicidad en células Vero, así como PCR, análisis por RFLP y clonación molecular. RESULTADOS: Todas las cepas indujeron el efecto vacuolizante. Las cepas del ribotipo 2, aisladas de las costas del Golfo en Estados Unidos, presentaron títulos altos de vacuolización. El gen hlyA fue amplificado en las nueve cepas mediante PCR, aunque sólo ocho fueron hemolíticas. Se clonó el gen hlyA de una cepa toxigénica (2514-88, ctxAB+ y de una cepa no toxigénica aislada en México (CM 91-3, ctxAB-. El sobrenadante de las clonas recombinantes indujo hemólisis, efecto vacuolizante y citotoxicidad. El RFLP mostró alta similitud del gen hlyA de las cepas estudiadas. CONCLUSIÓN: El efecto vacuolizante es un

  9. Synthesis of graphitized carbon, nanodiamond and graphene supported Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 and comparison of their electrochemical performance as anodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shuai; Miao, Juan; Wang, Qiufen; Lu, Mengwei; Sun, Jiufang; Wen, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We synthesized graphitized carbon, nanodiamond and graphene supported Li_4Ti_5O_1_2, respectively. • The order of the capacities is LTO/GE > LTO/GC > LTO > LTO/ND after 500 cycles. • The rate capabilities and cycling stabilities are in the order of LTO/GE > LTO/ND > LTO/GC > LTO. - Abstract: Graphitized carbon (GC), nanodiamond (ND) and graphene (GE) supported Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 (LTO) composites have been synthesized via a solid-state reaction, respectively. The particle sizes of LTO/GC, LTO/ND and LTO/GE are smaller than pure LTO. When tested as the anode for lithium ion batteries, the discharge capacities of LTO, LTO/GC, LTO/ND and LTO/GE composites are 100.1 mAh g"−"1, 150.4 mAh g"−"1, 90.4 mAh g"−"1 and 218.3 mAh g"−"1 at the current density of 175 mA g"−"1 after 500 cycles. Their rate capacities retain 59.8%, 80.0%, 81.0% and 85.7% at the current density of 175 mA g"−"1, 438 mA g"−"1, 875 mA g"−"1 and 175 mA g"−"1, respectively. Moreover, the recovery rates of their rate capacities are 78.6%, 83.4%, 88.9% and 90.1% when returned to the current density of 175 mA g"−"1, respectively. The reasons can be attributed to the synergistic effect between GC (ND and GE) and LTO as well as the features of the different carbon supports. This strategy, with the carbon constituting a good supporting structure, is an effective way to improve the cycling performance of anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  10. Molecular characterisation of Vibrio cholerae O1 strains carrying an SXT/R391-like element from cholera outbreaks in Kenya: 1994-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goddeeris Bruno M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decade, cholera outbreaks in parts of Kenya have become common. Although a number of recent studies describe the epidemiology of cholera in Kenya, there is paucity of information concerning the diversity and occurrence of mobile genetic elements in Vibrio cholerae strains implicated in these outbreaks. A total of 65 Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor serotype Inaba isolated between 1994 and 2007 from various outbreaks in Kenya were investigated for mobile genetic elements including integrons, transposons, the integrating conjugative elements (ICEs, conjugative plasmids and for their genotypic relatedness. Results All the strains were haemolytic on 5% sheep blood and positive for the Vibrio cholerae El Tor-specific haemolysin toxin gene (hylA by PCR. They all contained strB, sulII, floR and the dfrA1 genes encoding resistance to streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim respectively. These genes, together with an ICE belonging to the SXT/R391 family were transferable to the rifampicin-resistant E. coli C600 en bloc. All the strains were negative for integron class 1, 2 and 3 and for transposase gene of transposon Tn7 but were positive for integron class 4 and the trpM gene of transposon Tn21. No plasmids were isolated from any of the 65 strains. All the strains were also positive for all V. cholera El Tor pathogenic genes except the NAG- specific heat-stable toxin (st gene. None of the strains were positive for virulence genes associated with the V. cholerae classical biotype. All the strains were positive for El Tor-specific CTXphi bacteriophage rstrR repressor gene (CTXETΦ but negative for the Classical, Calcutta, and the Environmental repressor types. Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE showed that regardless of the year of isolation, all the strains bearing the SXT element were clonally related. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the V. cholerae O1 strains carrying an SXT/R391-like

  11. Single-dose Live Oral Cholera Vaccine CVD 103-HgR Protects Against Human Experimental Infection With Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wilbur H; Cohen, Mitchell B; Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Brady, Rebecca C; Galloway, David; Gurwith, Marc; Hall, Robert H; Kessler, Robert A; Lock, Michael; Haney, Douglas; Lyon, Caroline E; Pasetti, Marcela F; Simon, Jakub K; Szabo, Flora; Tennant, Sharon; Levine, Myron M

    2016-06-01

    No licensed cholera vaccine is presently available in the United States. Cholera vaccines available in other countries require 2 spaced doses. A single-dose cholera vaccine that can rapidly protect short-notice travelers to high-risk areas and help control explosive outbreaks where logistics render 2-dose immunization regimens impractical would be a major advance.PXVX0200, based on live attenuated Vibrio cholerae O1 classical Inaba vaccine strain CVD 103-HgR, elicits seroconversion of vibriocidal antibodies (a correlate of protection) within 10 days of a single oral dose. We investigated the protection conferred by this vaccine in a human cholera challenge model. Consenting healthy adult volunteers, 18-45 years old, were randomly allocated 1:1 to receive 1 oral dose of vaccine (approximately 5 × 10(8) colony-forming units [CFU]) or placebo in double-blind fashion. Volunteers ingested approximately 1 × 10(5) CFU of wild-type V. cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba strain N16961 10 days or 3 months after vaccination and were observed on an inpatient research ward for stool output measurement and management of hydration. The vaccine was well tolerated, with no difference in adverse event frequency among 95 vaccinees vs 102 placebo recipients. The primary endpoint, moderate (≥3.0 L) to severe (≥5.0 L) diarrheal purge, occurred in 39 of 66 (59.1%) placebo controls but only 2 of 35 (5.7%) vaccinees at 10 days (vaccine efficacy, 90.3%; P < .0001) and 4 of 33 (12.1%) vaccinees at 3 months (vaccine efficacy, 79.5%; P < .0001). The significant vaccine efficacy documented 10 days and 3 months after 1 oral dose of PXVX0200 supports further development as a single-dose cholera vaccine. NCT01895855. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. High-Tc superconductivity near the anion height instability in Fe-based superconductors: analysis of LaFeAsO(1-x)H(x).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onari, Seiichiro; Yamakawa, Youichi; Kontani, Hiroshi

    2014-05-09

    The isostructural transition in the tetragonal phase with a sizable change in the anion height, is realized in heavily H-doped LaFeAsO and (La,P) codoped CaFe2As2. In these compounds, the superconductivity with higher Tc (40-50 K) is realized near the isostructural transition. To find the origin of the anion-height instability and the role in realizing the higher-Tc state, we develop the orbital-spin fluctuation theory by including the vertex correction. We analyze LaFeAsO(1-x)H(x) and find that the non-nematic orbital fluctuations, which induce the anion-height instability, are automatically obtained at x∼0.5, in addition to the conventional nematic orbital fluctuations at x∼0. The non-nematic orbital order triggers the isostructural transition, and its fluctuation would be a key ingredient to realize higher-Tc superconductivity of order 50 K.

  13. A robust NiO-Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 anode for direct-methane solid oxide fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Dong

    2015-07-02

    In order to directly use methane without a reforming process, NiO-Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 (NiO-SDC) nanocomposite anode are successfully synthesized via a one-pot, surfactant-assisted co-assembly approach for direct-methane solid oxide fuel cells. Both NiO with cubic phase and SDC with fluorite phase are obtained at 550 °C. Both NiO nanoparticles and SDC nanoparticles are highly monodispersed in size with nearly spherical shapes. Based on the as-synthesized NiO-SDC, two kinds of single cells with different micro/macro-porous structure are successfully fabricated. As a result, the cell performance was improved by 40%-45% with the new double-pore NiO-SDC anode relative to the cell performance with the conventional NiO-SDC anode due to a wider triple-phase-boundary (TPB) area. In addition, no significant degradation of the cell performance was observed after 60 hours, which means an increasing of long term stability. Therefore, the as-synthesized NiO-SDC nanocomposite is a promising anode for direct-methane solid oxide fuel cells.

  14. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy on multi-layered cuprate superconductor Ba2Ca5Cu6O12 (O1-x Fx)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, A.; Shohara, K.; Ekino, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Harada, Y.; Mikusu, S.; Tokiwa, K.; Watanabe, T.

    2009-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) measurements on multi-layered cuprate superconductor Ba 2 Ca 5 Cu 6 O 12 (O 1-x F x ) 2 are carried out. STM topographies show randomly distributed bright spot structures with a typical spot size of ∼0.8 nm. These bright spots are occupied about 28% per one unit cell of c-plane, which is comparable to the regular amount of apical oxygen of 20% obtained from element analysis. Tunneling spectra simultaneously show both the small and the large gap structures. These gap sizes at 4.9 K are about Δ ∼15 meV and ∼90 meV, respectively. The small gap structure disappears at the temperature close to T C , while the large gap persists up to ∼200 K. Therefore, these features correspond to the superconducting gap and pseudogap, respectively. These facts give evidence for some ordered state with large energy scale even in the superconducting state. For the superconducting gap, the ratio of 2Δ/K B T C = 4.9 is obtained with T C = 70 K, which is determined from temperature dependence of the tunneling spectra.

  15. CAR T Cells Releasing IL-18 Convert to T-Bethigh FoxO1low Effectors that Exhibit Augmented Activity against Advanced Solid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Chmielewski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive therapy with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-redirected T cells has achieved remarkable efficacy in the treatment of hematopoietic malignancies. However, eradicating large solid tumors in advanced stages of the disease remains challenging. We explored augmentation of the anti-tumor immune reaction by establishing an acute inflammatory reaction. Systematic screening indicates that IL-18 polarizes CAR T cells toward T-bethigh FoxO1low effectors with an acute inflammatory response. CAR T cells engineered with inducible IL-18 release exhibited superior activity against large pancreatic and lung tumors that were refractory to CAR T cells without cytokines. IL-18 CAR T cell treatment was accompanied by an overall change in the immune cell landscape associated with the tumor. More specifically, CD206− M1 macrophages and NKG2D+ NK cells increased in number, whereas Tregs, suppressive CD103+ DCs, and M2 macrophages decreased, suggesting that “iIL18 TRUCKs” can be used to sensitize large solid tumor lesions for successful immune destruction.

  16. Microhardness and fracture toughness of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 for manufacturing solid oxide electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangalaraja, R.V.; Ananthakumar, S.; Uma, Kasimayan; Jimenez, Romel M.; Lopez, Marta; Camurri, Carlos P.

    2009-01-01

    Synthesis of nanocrystalline gadolinium doped ceria (Ce 0.9 Gd 0.1 O 1.95 ) was attempted by nitrate-fuel combustion technique involving different organic fuels namely urea, citric acid, glycine and poly ethylene glycol. As-combusted ceria precursors were calcined at 700 deg. C for 2 h for obtaining fully dense, nanocrystalline ceria powders. Cylindrical ceria discs were fabricated by uni-axial pressing and sintered intentionally at low temperature of 1200 deg. C for 2 h for assessing the sintering characteristics of the nano powders as well as the mechanical performance of the sintered ceria body. The study confirms that the nano powders could be sintered to 98% theoretical sintered density at 1200 deg. C with a grain size of 400 nm to 1 μm. The sintered samples exhibited the Vickers microhardness of 8.82 ± 0.2 GPa and the fracture toughness of 1.75 ± 0.3 MPa m 1/2 at a load 20 N for glycine and citric acid fuels derived ceria, respectively. A comparison between the fuels was made with respect to the sintering and mechanical properties of doped ceria. Citric acid and glycine fuels resulted in sintered ceria with high hardness where as the urea and polyethylene fuels derived nano ceria resulted in high fracture toughness.

  17. Evaluation of an experimental and commercial state-of-the-art vaccine against enteric redmouth disease (ERM) in rainbow trout by waterborne challenge with Y. ruckeri O1 biotype 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Strøm, Helene; Otani, Maki; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer

    strain obtained from an ERM disease outbreak in a Danish trout farm. This waterborne infection model gives us the opportunity to test and evaluate the effect of commercial and experimental vaccines against Y. ruckeri O1 biotype 2. An experimental vaccine containing equal amounts of Y. ruckeri O1 biotype...... has been compared to a state-of-the-art commercial ERM immersion vaccine (AquaVac® ReleraTM). Un-vaccinated and sham vaccinated rainbow trout were included as controls. Two months post vaccination the rainbow trout were challenged in duplicate with Y. ruckeri O1 biotype 2 by bath. No effect...... of the experimental immersion or bath vaccine was observed in the present study. However, full protection was achieved with i.p. injection of the experimental vaccine (pVac® ReleraTM induced a significant, partial protection relative to the control groups (p=0.002, RPS=58...

  18. Clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Ogawa of 2009 from Kolkata, India: preponderance of SXT element and presence of Haitian ctxB variant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braj M R N S Kutar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increase in the number of multidrug resistant pathogens and the accompanied rise in case fatality rates has hampered the treatment of many infectious diseases including cholera. Unraveling the mechanisms responsible for multidrug resistance in the clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae would help in understanding evolution of these pathogenic bacteria and their epidemic potential. This study was carried out to identify genetic factors responsible for multiple drug resistance in clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor isolated from the patients admitted to the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kolkata, India, in 2009. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and nineteen clinical isolates of V. cholerae were analysed for their antibiotic resistance phenotypes. Antibiogram analysis revealed that majority of the isolates showed resistance to co-trimoxazole, nalidixic acid, polymixin B and streptomycin. In PCR, SXT integrase was detected in 117 isolates and its sequence showed 99% identity notably to ICEVchInd5 from Sevagram, India, ICEVchBan5 from Bangladesh and VC1786ICE sequence from Haiti outbreak among others. Antibiotic resistance traits corresponding to SXT element were transferred from the parent Vibrio isolate to the recipient E. coli XL-1 Blue cells during conjugation. Double-mismatch-amplification mutation assay (DMAMA revealed the presence of Haitian type ctxB allele of genotype 7 in 55 isolates and the classical ctxB allele of genotype 1 in 59 isolates. Analysis of topoisomerase sequences revealed the presence of mutation Ser83 → Ile in gyrA and Ser85→ Leu in parC. This clearly showed the circulation of SXT-containing V. cholerae as causative agent for cholera in Kolkata. CONCLUSIONS: There was predominance of SXT element in these clinical isolates from Kolkata region which also accounted for their antibiotic resistance phenotype typical of this element. DMAMA PCR showed them to be a mixture

  19. Cholera outbreak caused by drug resistant Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 biotype ElTor serotype Ogawa in Nepal; a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappu Kumar Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholera is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in underdeveloped countries including Nepal. Recently drug resistance in Vibrio cholerae has become a serious problem mainly in developing countries. The main objectives of our study were to investigate the occurrence of Vibrio cholerae in stool samples from patients with watery diarrhea and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of V. cholerae isolates. Methods A total of 116 stool samples from patients suffering from watery diarrhea during July to December 2012 were obtained from outbreak areas from all over Nepal. Alkaline peptone water and thiosulphate citrate bile salt sucrose agar (TCBS were used to isolate the Vibrio cholerae. The isolates were identified with the help of colony morphology, Gram’s staining, conventional biochemical testing, serotyping and biotyping. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC by agar dilution method. Results Vibrio cholerae was isolated from 26.72 % of total samples. All isolated Vibrio cholerae were confirmed to be Vibrio cholerae serogoup O1 biotype El Tor and serotype Ogawa. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Twenty nine isolates were resistant toward two different classes of antibiotics, one strain was resistant to three different classes of antibiotics and one strain was resistant to four different classes of antibiotics. According to the definition of the multidrug resistant bacteria; 6.45 % of the strains of Vibrio cholerae were found to be multidrug resistant. Conclusions Cholera due to multidrug resistant Vibrio cholerae is also possible in Nepal. According to the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Vibrio cholerae in our study we recommend to use any antibiotics among tetracycline, doxycycline, levofloxacin, azithromycin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin for preliminary treatment of cholera in Nepal.

  20. Enhanced piezoelectric properties and excellent thermal stabilities of cobalt-modified Aurivillius-type calcium bismuth titanate (CaBi_4Ti_4O_1_5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Tian-Long; Wang, Chun-Ming; Wang, Chun-Lei; Wang, Yi-Ming; Dong, Shuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cobalt oxide modified CBT-based ceramics were prepared and investigated in detail. • XRPD analysis revealed Co ions enter into B-site of CBT-based ceramics. • CBT-Co4 ceramics show the enhanced d_3_3 of 14 pC/N and T_c of 782 °C. • CBT-Co4 ceramics present the improved high-temperature resistivity. • Thermal depoling behavior indicates CBT-Co4 ceramics exhibit good thermal stability. - Abstract: Bismuth layer-structured ferroelectric (BLSF) calcium bismuth titanate (CaBi_4Ti_4O_1_5, CBT) piezoelectric ceramics with 0.0–1.0 wt.% cobalt oxide (Co_2O_3) have been prepared via a conventional solid-state reaction method. Microstructural morphology and electrical properties of cobalt oxide-modified CBT ceramics were investigated in detail. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis revealed that the cobalt oxide-modified CBT ceramics have a pure four-layer Aurivillius-type structure. The piezoelectric properties of CBT ceramics were significantly enhanced by cobalt oxide modifications. The piezoelectric coefficient d_3_3 and Curie temperature T_c of 0.2 wt.% cobalt oxide-modified CBT ceramics (CBT-Co4) are 14 pC/N and 782 °C, respectively. The DC resistivity and thermal depoling behavior at elevated temperature indicated that the CBT-Co4 ceramics exhibit good thermal stability, demonstrating that the CBT-Co4 ceramics are potential materials for high temperature piezoelectric applications.

  1. Polymorphism of Bi1-xLnxO1.5 phases (04Ln2O9 (x=0.33; Ln=La, Pr, Nd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drache, Michel; Huve, Marielle; Roussel, Pascal; Conflant, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The Bi 1-x Ln x O 1.5 solid solutions (Ln=La, Pr, Nd), of the β 2 /β 1 /ε (Bi-Sr-O) structural type, have been investigated in their Ln-rich domains. For Ln=La, Pr, and Nd, the upper limits are 0.35, 0.35 and 0.33, respectively. The Bi 4 Ln 2 O 9 ε phase (x=0.33) appears to be the single definite compound. For Bi 4 La 2 O 9 , Bi 4 Pr 2 O 9 and Bi 4 Nd 2 O 9 , the ε-type cells are respectively: a=9.484(4) A, b=3.982(2) A, c=7.030(3) A, β=104.75(3) deg.; a=9.470(5) A, b=3.945(2) A, c=6.968(4) A, β=104.73(3) deg. and a=9.439(3) A, b=3.944(2) A, c=6.923(2) A, β=105.03(3) deg. . Upon heating, each monoclinic (ε) compound transforms successively into rhombohedral phases (β 2 /β 1 ) and finally into a cubic fluorite-type phase. For La- and Pr-based compounds, all transitions are reversible; for Nd, depending on the thermal treatment, the reversibility of ε→β 2 can be incomplete. These transformations are characterized using X-ray thermodiffractometry, differential thermal analysis, dilatometry and impedance spectroscopy versus temperature. Examination of Bi 4 (Ln, Ln') 2 O 9 samples allows to correlate the evolution of the thermal behavior and of the unit cell parameters, to the lanthanide size. A partial plot of the (Bi 2 O 3 ) 1-x -(La 2 O 3 ) x phase diagram (0≤x≤0.40) is proposed

  2. Preparation of Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 nanosheets/carbon nanotubes composites and application of anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Chen, Ming; Shen, Xiao; Wu, Qianhui; Zhang, Xiue; Huan, Long; Diao, Guowang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • LTO NSs/CNTs composites are synthesized by a facile and scalable strategy. • The incorporation of CNTs into LTO NSs forms a delicate conductive network. • LTO NSs/CNTs composites display excellent rate and cycling performances. • LTO NSs/CNTs show low polarization and large diffusion coefficient of Li"+. - Abstract: Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 nanosheets (LTO NSs)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composites are synthesized using a facile, reproducible, and scalable strategy. In the hydrothermal process, the introduction of CNTs significantly improves the rate performance of LTO NSs. The incorporation of CNTs into the LTO NSs forms a delicate conductive network for rapid electron and lithium ions transport, resulting in excellent rate performance and superior cycling performance. LTO NSs/7.5%-CNTs composites show the highest reversible capacity and high-rate capability (a reversible capability of 157, 145, 132, 118, and 105 mA h g"−"1 at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 A g"−"1, respectively) with good cycling performance (approximate 6.9% capacity loss after 1000 cycles at 2 A g"−"1 with a capacity retention of 135 mA h g"−"1), which is apparently larger than pristine LTO NSs. The significantly improved rate capability and cycling performance of the LTO NSs/CNTs composites are mainly attributed to their the lower polarization of potential difference, the larger diffusion coefficient of lithium ion and smaller charge-transfer resistance than pure LTO NSs.

  3. Multilayered cuprate superconductor Ba2Ca5Cu6O12(O1-x,Fx) 2 studied by temperature-dependent scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Akira; Ekino, Toshikazu; Gabovich, Alexander M.; Sekine, Ryotaro; Tanabe, Kenji; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu

    2017-05-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) measurements were carried out on a multilayered cuprate superconductor Ba2Ca5Cu6O12 (O1 -x,Fx )2. STM topography revealed random spot structures with the characteristic length ≤0.5 nm. The conductance spectra d I /d V (V ) show the coexistence of smaller gaps ΔS and large gaps (pseudogaps) ΔL. The pseudogap-related features in the superconducting state were traced with the spatial resolution of ˜0.07 nm. Here, I and V are the tunnel current and bias voltage, respectively. The temperature, T , dependence of ΔS follows the reduced Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) dependence. The hallmark ratio 2 ΔS(T =0 ) /kBTc equals to 4.9, which is smaller than those of other cuprate superconductors. Here, Tc is the superconducting critical temperature and kB is the Boltzmann constant. The larger gap ΔL survives in the normal state and even increases with T above Tc. The T dependencies of the spatial distributions for both relevant gaps (Δ map), as well as for each gap separately (ΔS and ΔL), were obtained. From the histogram of Δ map, the averaged gap values were found to be Δ¯S=˜24 meV and Δ¯L=˜79 meV. The smaller gap ΔS shows a spatially homogeneous distribution while the larger gap ΔL is quite inhomogeneous, indicating that rather homogeneous superconductivity coexists with the patchy distributed pseudogap. The spatial variation length ξΔ L of ΔL correlates with the scale of the topography spot structures, being approximately 0.4 nm. This value is considerably smaller than the coherence length of this class of superconductors, suggesting that ΔL is strongly affected by the disorder of the apical O/F.

  4. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Biotype Variant Clinical Isolates from Bangladesh and Haiti, Including a Molecular Genetic Analysis of Virulence Genes ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mike S.; Megli, Christina J.; Kovacikova, Gabriela; Qadri, Firdausi; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera, is divided into two biotypes: classical and El Tor. Both biotypes produce the major virulence factors toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT). Although possessing genotypic and phenotypic differences, El Tor biotype strains displaying classical biotype traits have been reported and subsequently were dubbed El Tor variants. Of particular interest are reports of El Tor variants that produce various levels of CT, including levels typical of classical biotype strains. Here, we report the characterization of 10 clinical isolates from the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, and a representative strain from the 2010 Haiti cholera outbreak. We observed that all 11 strains produced increased CT (2- to 10-fold) compared to that of wild-type El Tor strains under in vitro inducing conditions, but they possessed various TcpA and ToxT expression profiles. Particularly, El Tor variant MQ1795, which produced the highest level of CT and very high levels of TcpA and ToxT, demonstrated hypervirulence compared to the virulence of El Tor wild-type strains in the infant mouse cholera model. Additional genotypic and phenotypic tests were conducted to characterize the variants, including an assessment of biotype-distinguishing characteristics. Notably, the sequencing of ctxB in some El Tor variants revealed two copies of classical ctxB, one per chromosome, contrary to previous reports that located ctxAB only on the large chromosome of El Tor biotype strains. PMID:21880975

  5. Microcrustáceos y Vibrio cholerae O1 viable no cultivable (VNC: resultados en la Cuenca del Río Salí, Tucumán, Argentina Microcrustaceans and viable but nonculturable (VNC Vibrio cholerae O1: results in the Salí River basin, Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Locascio de Mitrovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae reside habitualmente en aguas marinas y continentales. Según las condiciones ambientales y los recursos le sean “favorables” o “desfavorables”, se generan estados viables cultivables (VC o viables no cultivables (VNC respectivamente y, bajo esta última forma sobrevive. Para abordar la problemática del cólera en la Cuenca del Río Salí (Tucumán, Argentina, se realizaron muestreos durante los años 2003-2005 donde se consideraron aspectos fisicos, químicos, biológicos y sanitarios. Para evaluar los probables reservorios del patógeno, se analizó el zooplancton del Río Salí (Canal Norte y Banda Río Salí y Río Lules. La mayor representatividad taxonómica la registraron los copépodos, especialmente Eucyclops neumani (Pesta, 1927, junto a Acanthocyclops robustus (Sars, 1863, Metacyclops sp., Paracyclops chiltoni y Notodiaptomus incompositus (Brian, 1925, además de algunos rotíferos y cladóceros como (Lecane sp., y (Brachionus sp., Moina sp. y Leydigia sp.. La frecuencia de ocurrencia fue baja y no superó el 25%. El Canal Norte fue ambiente más propicio por la riqueza específica, abundancia y constancia de la comunidad. Las variables fisicas y químicas asociadas al zooplancton coincidirían con los valores que por nuestros registros y los antecedentes, se conocen para el desarrollo del patógeno. En el período estival hubo coincidencia entre la presencia de la forma VNC de V. cholerae O1 (inmunofluorescencia con anticuerpos anti O1 y el desarrollo del zooplancton. Se observaron formas VNC sobre apéndices o estructuras de copépodos ciclopoideos y cladóceros quidóridos, reflejando probablemente afinidad con sustratos quitinosos.Vibrio cholerae habitually lives in marine and continental waters. According to "favourable" or "unfavourable" resources and environmental conditions, viable (VC or viable non-culturable (VNC states will be generated, surviving only the latter form. To address the problem of

  6. Preparation of Er"3"+:Y_3Al_5O_1_2/KNbO_3 composite and application in innocent treatment of ketamine by using sonocatalytic decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Wei, Chunsheng; Huang, Yingying; Li, Guanshu; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Jun; Song, Youtao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Upconversion luminescence agent Er:YAG can enhance sonocatalytic activity of KNbO_3. • Harmless of narcotic drugs was achieved through sonocatalytic destruction. • Possible sonocatalytic destruction mechanism on narcotic drugs was proposed. - Abstract: A novel sonocatalyst, Er"3"+:Y_3Al_5O_1_2/KNbO_3 composite, was synthesized, and then, characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). In order to evaluate the sonocatalytic activity of prepared Er"3"+:Y_3Al_5O_1_2/KNbO_3 composite, the sonocatalytic degradation of ketamine, a kind of narcotic drug, was studied. In addition, some influencing factors such as mass ratio, heat-treated temperature and heat-treated time on the sonocatalytic activity of prepared Er"3"+:Y_3Al_5O_1_2/KNbO_3 powders and ultrasonic irradiation time on the sonocatalytic degradation of ketamine were examined by using GC–MS machine. The experimental results showed that the Er"3"+:Y_3Al_5O_1_2/KNbO_3 composite is a good sonocatalyst in the field of ultrasonic chemistry and the sonocatalytic degradation was an effective method for the innocent treatment of ketamine.

  7. OmpU as a biomarker for rapid discrimination between toxigenic and epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1/O139 and non-epidemic Vibrio cholerae in a modified MALDI-TOF MS assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paauw, A.; Trip, H.; Niemcewicz, M.; Sellek, R.; Heng, J.M.E.; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Jong, A.L. de; Majchrzykiewicz-Koehorst, J.A.; Olsen, J.S.; Tsivtsivadze, E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae. Outbreaks are caused by a genetically homogenous group of strains from serogroup O1 or O139 that are able to produce the cholera toxin. Rapid detection and identification of these epidemic strains is essential for an

  8. Development of an allele-specific PCR assay for simultaneous sero-typing of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli predominant O1, O2, O18 and O78 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaohui; Meng, Qingmei; Dai, Jianjun; Han, Xiangan; Han, Yue; Ding, Chan; Liu, Haiwen; Yu, Shengqing

    2014-01-01

    Systemic infections by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are economically devastating to poultry industries worldwide. E. coli strains belonging to serotypes O1, O2, O18 and O78 are preferentially associated with avian colibacillosis. The rfb gene cluster controlling O antigen synthesis is usually various among different E. coli serotypes. In present study, the rfb gene clusters of E. coli serotypes O1, O2, O18 and O78 were characterized and compared. Based on the serotype-specific genes in rfb gene cluster, an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed. This PCR assay was highly specific and reliable for sero-typing of APEC O1, O2, O18 and O78 strains. The sensitivity of the assay was determined as 10 pg DNA or 10 colony forming units (CFUs) bacteria for serotypes O2 and O18 strains, and 500 pg DNA or 1,000 CFUs bacteria for serotypes O1 and O78 strains. Using this PCR system, APEC isolates and the infected tissue samples were categorized successfully. Furthermore, it was able to differentiate the serotypes for the samples with multi-agglutination in the traditional serum agglutination assay. Therefore, the allele-specific PCR is more simple, rapid and accurate assay for APEC diagnosis, epidemiologic study and vaccine development.

  9. Development of an allele-specific PCR assay for simultaneous sero-typing of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli predominant O1, O2, O18 and O78 strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Wang

    Full Text Available Systemic infections by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC are economically devastating to poultry industries worldwide. E. coli strains belonging to serotypes O1, O2, O18 and O78 are preferentially associated with avian colibacillosis. The rfb gene cluster controlling O antigen synthesis is usually various among different E. coli serotypes. In present study, the rfb gene clusters of E. coli serotypes O1, O2, O18 and O78 were characterized and compared. Based on the serotype-specific genes in rfb gene cluster, an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was developed. This PCR assay was highly specific and reliable for sero-typing of APEC O1, O2, O18 and O78 strains. The sensitivity of the assay was determined as 10 pg DNA or 10 colony forming units (CFUs bacteria for serotypes O2 and O18 strains, and 500 pg DNA or 1,000 CFUs bacteria for serotypes O1 and O78 strains. Using this PCR system, APEC isolates and the infected tissue samples were categorized successfully. Furthermore, it was able to differentiate the serotypes for the samples with multi-agglutination in the traditional serum agglutination assay. Therefore, the allele-specific PCR is more simple, rapid and accurate assay for APEC diagnosis, epidemiologic study and vaccine development.

  10. Observation of atomic oxygen O(1S) green-line emission in the summer polar upper mesosphere associated with high-energy (≥30 keV) electron precipitation during high-speed solar wind streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sook; Kwak, Young-Sil; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Solheim, Brian; Lee, Regina; Lee, Jaejin

    2017-01-01

    The auroral green-line emission at 557.7 nm wavelength as arising from the atomic oxygen O(1S → 1D) transition typically peaks at an altitude of 100 km specifically in the nightside oval, induced by auroral electrons within an energy range of 100 eV-30 keV. Intense aurora is known as being suppressed by sunlight in summer daytime but usually occurs in low electrical background conductivity. However, in the present study in summer (July) sunlit condition, enhancements of O(1S) emission rates observed by using the Wind Imaging Interferometer/UARS were frequently observed at low altitudes below 90 km, where ice particles are created initially as subvisible and detected as polar mesosphere summer echoes, emerging to be an optical phenomenon of polar mesospheric clouds. The intense O(1S) emission occurring in summer exceeds those occurring in the daytime in other seasons both in occurrence and in intensity, frequently accompanied by occurrences of supersonic neutral velocity (300-1500 m s-1). In the mesosphere, ion motion is controlled by electric field and the momentum is transferred to neutrals. The intense O(1S) emission is well associated with high-energy electron precipitation as observed during an event of high-speed solar wind streams. Meanwhile, since the minimum occurrences of O(1S) emission and supersonic velocity are maintained even in the low precipitation flux, the mechanism responsible is not only related to high-energy electron precipitation but also presumably to the local conditions, including the composition of meteoric-charged ice particles and charge separation expected in extremely low temperatures (<150 K).

  11. Experimental and modeling analysis of thermal runaway propagation over the large format energy storage battery module with Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Peifeng; Ping, Ping; Li, Ke; Chen, Haodong; Wang, Qingsong; Wen, Jennifer; Sun, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The heat generation and gas production of four main thermal-chemical reactions are detected. • The fire-impingement takes an unordinary thermal runaway propagation for battery module. • There is a “smoldering period” before the explosion of lithium ion battery module. • Semenov and Frank-Kamenetskii models are used to analysis and predict the onset of runaway. - Abstract: Insight of the thermal characteristics and potential flame spread over lithium-ion battery (LIB) modules is important for designing battery thermal management system and fire protection measures. Such thermal characteristics and potential flame spread are also dependent on the different anode and cathode materials as well as the electrolyte. In the present study, thermal behavior and flame propagation over seven 50 A h Li(Ni_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3Co_1_/_3)O_2/Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 large format LIBs arranged in rhombus and parallel layouts were investigated by directly heating one of the battery units. Such batteries have already been used commercially for energy storage while relatively little is known about its safety features in connection with potential runaway caused fire and explosion hazards. It was found in the present heating tests that fire-impingement resulted in elevated temperatures in the immediate vicinity of the LIBs that were in the range of between 200 °C and 900 °C. Such temperature aggravated thermal runaway (TR) propagation, resulting in rapid temperature rise within the battery module and even explosions after 20 min of “smoldering period”. The thermal runaway and subsequent fire and explosion observed in the heating test was attributed to the violent reduction of the cathode material which coexisted with the electrolyte when the temperature exceeded 260 °C. Separate laboratory tests, which measured the heat and gases generation from samples of the anode and cathode materials using C80 calorimeter, provided insight of the physical-chemistry processes inside the

  12. Comet C2012 S1 (ISON): Observations of the Dust Grains From SOFIA and of the Atomic Gas From NSO Dunn and Mcmath-Pierce Solar Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Woodward, Charles E.; Harker, David E.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Sitko, Michael; Reach, William T.; De Pater, Imke; Gehrz, Robert D.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Cochran, Anita L.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) is unique in that it is a dynamically new comet derived from the Oort cloud reservoir of comets with a sun-grazing orbit. Infrared (IR) and visible wavelength observing campaigns were planned on NASA's Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and on National Solar Observatory Dunn (DST) and McMath-Pierce Solar Telescopes, respectively. We highlight our SOFIA (+FORCAST) mid- to far-IR images and spectroscopy (approx. 5-35 microns) of the dust in the coma of ISON are to be obtained by the ISON-SOFIA Team during a flight window 2013 Oct 21-23 UT (r_h approx. = 1.18 AU). Dust characteristics, identified through the 10 micron silicate emission feature and its strength, as well as spectral features from cometary crystalline silicates (Forsterite) at 11.05-11.2 microns, and near 16, 19, 23.5, 27.5, and 33 microns are compared with other Oort cloud comets that span the range of small and/or highly porous grains (e.g., C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) to large and/or compact grains (e.g., C/2007 N4 (Lulin) and C/2006 P1 (McNaught)). Measurement of the crystalline peaks in contrast to the broad 10 and 20 micron amorphous silicate features yields the cometary silicate crystalline mass fraction, which is a benchmark for radial transport in our protoplanetary disk. The central wavelength positions, relative intensities, and feature asymmetries for the crystalline peaks may constrain the shapes of the crystals. Only SOFIA can look for cometary organics in the 5-8 micron region. Spatially resolved measurements of atoms and simple molecules from when comet ISON is near the Sun (r_hmeasures 4 settings: Na I, K, C2 to sample cometary organics (along with Mg I), and [OI] as a proxy for activity from water (along with Si I and Fe I). State-of-the-art instruments that will also be employed include IBIS, which is a Fabry-Perot spectral imaging system that concurrently measures lines of Na, K, Ca II, or Fe, and ROSA (CSUN/QUB), which is a

  13. Concurrent acetylation of FoxO1/3a and p53 due to sirtuins inhibition elicit Bim/PUMA mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in berberine-treated HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, Shatrunajay [Herbal Research Section, CSIR — Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow‐226001 (India); Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi ‐110062 (India); Sharma, Ankita [Herbal Research Section, CSIR — Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow‐226001 (India); Pandey, Vivek Kumar [Herbal Research Section, CSIR — Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow‐226001 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (India); Raisuddin, Sheikh [Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi ‐110062 (India); Kakkar, Poonam, E-mail: kakkarp59@gmail.com [Herbal Research Section, CSIR — Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow‐226001 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (India)

    2016-01-15

    Post-translational modifications i.e. phosphorylation and acetylation are pivotal requirements for proper functioning of eukaryotic proteins. The current study aimed to decode the impact of acetylation/deacetylation of non-histone targets i.e. FoxO1/3a and p53 of sirtuins (NAD{sup +} dependent enzymes with lysine deacetylase activity) in berberine treated human hepatoma cells. Berberine (100 μM) inhibited sirtuins significantly (P < 0.05) at transcriptional level as well as at translational level. Combination of nicotinamide (sirtuin inhibitor) with berberine potentiated sirtuins inhibition and increased the expression of FoxO1/3a and phosphorylation of p53 tumor suppressor protein. As sirtuins deacetylate non-histone targets including FoxO1/3a and p53, berberine increased the acetylation load of FoxO1/3a and p53 proteins. Acetylated FoxO and p53 proteins transcriptionally activate BH3-only proteins Bim and PUMA (3.89 and 3.87 fold respectively, P<0.001), which are known as direct activator of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bax that culminated into mitochondria mediated activation of apoptotic cascade. Bim/PUMA knock-down showed no changes in sirtuins' expression while cytotoxicity induced by berberine and nicotinamide was curtailed up to 28.3% (P < 0.001) and it restored pro/anti apoptotic protein ratio in HepG2 cells. Sirtuins inhibition was accompanied by decline in NAD{sup +}/NADH ratio, ATP generation, enhanced ROS production and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. TEM analysis confirmed mitochondrial deterioration and cell damage. SRT-1720 (1–10 μM), a SIRT-1 activator, when pre-treated with berberine (25 μM), reversed sirtuins expression comparable to control and significantly restored the cell viability (P < 0.05). Thus, our findings suggest that berberine mediated sirtuins inhibition resulting into FoxO1/3a and p53 acetylation followed by BH3-only protein Bim/PUMA activation may in part be responsible for mitochondria

  14. Metabolomic Analysis of Two Parmotrema Lichens: P. robustum (Degel. Hale and P. andinum (Mull. Arg. Hale Using UHPLC-ESI-OT-MS-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Torres-Benítez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi with microalgae and/or cyanobacteria. Lichens belonging to the Parmeliaceae family comprise 2700 species of lichens, including the Parmotrema genus which is composed of 300 species. The metabolites of this genus include depsides, depsidones, phenolics, polysaccharides, lipids, diphenylethers and dibenzofurans, which are responsible for the biological activities reported including antidiabetic, antihelmintic, anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antimitotic, antitumoral, antifungal, and antioxidant enzyme inhibitory. Due to scarce knowledge of metabolomic profiles of Parmotrema species (P. andinum and P. robustum, a full metabolome study based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography- diode array detector-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-orbitrap-mass-spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-ESI-Q-orbitrap MS was performed for a comprehensive characterization of their substances. From the methanolic extracts of these species, a total of 54 metabolites were identified for the first time using this hyphenated technique, including thirty compounds in P. andinum, and thirty-seven in P. robustum. Moreover, two compounds were not identified as known compounds, and could be new structures, according to our data. This report shows that this technique is effective and accurate for rapid chemical identification of lichen substances and the compounds identified could serve as chemotaxonomic markers to differentiate these ruffle lichens.

  15. Sequences of a co-existing SXT element, a chromosomal integron (CI) and an IncA/C plasmid and their roles in multidrug resistance in a Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruibai; Li, Jie; Kan, Biao

    2016-09-01

    The ongoing seventh cholera pandemic is attributed to Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype strains. Although antibiotic therapy ameliorates symptoms in patients and reduces pathogen transfer to the environment, multidrug resistance remains a major clinical threat. An O1 El Tor strain isolated from a patient in 1998 was intermediate or resistant to 13 antibiotics and could potentially produce extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), which is very rare in O1 strains. Using genome sequencing, three relevant genetic elements were identified in this strain: a hybrid SXT element (ICEVchCHN1307); a new IncA/C plasmid (pVC1307); and a chromosomal integron. Twenty antibiotic resistance genes were located on them, including blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-14 and phenotypically silenced tetRA genes. These data elucidate the role of individual genetic components in antibiotic resistance and the accumulation of drug resistance genes in V. cholerae. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Study in crossed molecular beams of the state-to-state reactive collision: O("1D) + H_2(X "1Σ_g"+,v) → OH(X "2Π and A"2Σ"+,v',J') + H("2S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawin, Stefan

    1990-01-01

    Reactions between oxygen and hydrogen such as O + H_2 → OH + H play a significant role in combustion processes and in atmospheric and interstellar chemistry. But they are also examples of reactive collisions between atoms and molecules which can be addressed theoretically and experimentally for a better understanding of mechanisms present in a chemical reaction. This research thesis reports the experimental study of two reactive ways involving the metastable compound O("1D): O("1D) + H_2 → OH(X "2Π) + H O("1D) + H_2 → OH(A "2Σ"+) + H. The experiment is performed by using crossed molecular beams. Thus, the nature of reactants is well defined, and the interaction medium is rarefied. The first way is largely exothermic, whereas for the second one, endothermicity is overcome by H_2 vibrational excitation. A characterization of reactants is performed. Three methods of analysis of the OH product are used: time-of-flight measurement at different angles, laser induced fluorescence, and spontaneous fluorescence [fr

  17. Evidence of site-specific fragmentation on thioacetic acid, CH3C(O)SH, irradiated with synchrotron radiation around the S 2p and O 1s regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erben, Mauricio F; Geronés, Mariana; Romano, Rosana M; Della Védova, Carlos O

    2006-01-26

    Site-specific fragmentations following S 2p and O 1s photoexcitation of thioacetic acid, CH3C(O)SH, have been studied by means of synchrotron radiation. Total ion yield (TIY) spectra were measured and multicoincidence techniques, which include photoelectron-photoion coincidence (PEPICO) and photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence (PEPIPICO) time-of-flight mass spectrometry, were applied. The equivalent-core approximation was employed in order to estimate ionization transition values, and the observed peaks were tentatively assigned. A site-specific fragmentation is moderately observed by comparing the mass spectra collected at resonant energies around the inner and shallow inner shell S 2p and O 1s ionization edges. Beside H+ ion, the most abundant ions observed at the S 2p edge excitation were CH3CO+, SH+, S+, and CH3+. At the O 1s region the large CH3CO+ fragment was depressed, and small CHx+ (x = 0, 1, 2, 3), S+, and SH+ fragments were dominant. The dissociation dynamic for the main ion-pair production has been discussed. Two- and three-body dissociation channels have been observed in the PEPIPICO spectra, and the dissociation mechanisms were proposed.

  18. Detection of viable and viable nonculturable Vibrio cholerae O1 through cultures and immunofluorescence in the Tucumán rivers, Argentina Detecção de Vibrio cholerae O1 viável e viável não cultivável, através de técnicas de cultivo e imunofluorescência nos rios de Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aulet

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae has been sporadically isolated from rivers in Tucumán, Argentina, since the outbreak in 1991. The aim of this study was to determine the environmental reservoir of the bacterium in these rivers, assessing the presence of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 and O1 (the latter both in its viable culturable and non culturable state and its relationship to environmental physicochemical variables. 18 water samplings were collected in the Salí River (in Canal Norte and Banda and the Lules River between 2003 and 2005. Physical-chemical measurements (pH, water temperature, electrical conductivity and dissolved oxygen were examined. Vibrio cholerae was investigated with conventional culture methods and with Direct Immunofluorescence (DFA-VNC in order to detect viable non culturable organisms. All isolated microorganisms corresponded to Vibrio cholerae non-O1 and non-O139 (Lules 26%, Canal Norte 33% and Banda 41%. The majority was found during spring and summer and correlated with temperature and pH. Non culturable Vibrio cholerae O1 was detected year round in 38 of the 54 water samples analyzed. Application of the Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that there was no relationship between positive immunofluorescence results and environmental physicochemical parameters. Genes coding for somatic antigen O1 were confirmed in all DFA-VNC-positive samples, whereas the virulence-associated ctxA and tcpA genes were confirmed in 24 samples.Vibrio cholerae tem sido isolado esporadicamente nos rios da Província de Tucumán, Argentina, desde outubro de 1991. O objetivo deste estudo foi localizar os reservatórios nestes rios, identificar a presença de Vibrio cholerae O1 (em estado cultivável e não cultivável e relacionar a presença desta bactéria com as variações físico-químicos da água. Foram coletadas dezoito amostras de água do rio Salí (nas localidades de Canal Norte e Banda e do rio Lules, entre 2003 e 2005. Estas foram submetidas a an

  19. Phase Formation in the System ZrO2–LaO1.5–MnOx in Air and PO2B1 Pa After 500 h of Annealing at 12001 and 14001 deg.C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Chen, Ming; Bowen, Jacob R.

    2010-01-01

    The phase relation in the ZrO2–LaO1.5–MnOx system has been experimentally determined at 1200° and 1400°C in air and at 1200°C in N2 (∼100 Pa). Tie lines between LaMnO3 and t-ZrO2 and between LaMnO3 and La2Zr2O7 are observed at 1200°C in air. The geometry of the phase diagram changes at 1400°C in ...

  20. Development of a discharge model for the Bopp and Reuther Degasser/Condenser relief valves for heat sink assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnaoui, C. . chiheb@hasnaoui.net; Huynh, M.

    2004-01-01

    A total loss of all sustained engineering heat sinks is considered as a severe accident with low probability of occurrence. Following a total loss of all sustained engineering heat sinks, the Degasser/Condenser relief valves (3332-RV11 and RV21) would then become the sole means available for the depressurization of the primary heat transport system. Accurate estimation of the discharge through these valves is required to assess the impact of this kind of accident on fuel cooling and the primary circuit integrity. This paper describes a model used to estimate the Degasser/Condenser relief valve discharge capacity. This model is used to predict the flow discharge under a range of conditions upstream of the relief valves; from sub-cooled to saturated liquid and up to vapor conditions. The defined model is then used to estimate the relief valve discharge rates under various hypothetical conditions of the PHTS using the Cathena code. (author)

  1. The Use of C-MnO2 as Hybrid Precursor Support for a Pt/C-MnxO1+x Catalyst with Enhanced Activity for the Methanol Oxidation Reaction (MOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro H.A. Monteverde Videla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Platinum (Pt nanoparticles are deposited on a hybrid support (C-MnO2 according to a polyol method. The home-made catalyst, resulted as Pt/C-MnxO1+x, is compared with two different commercial platinum based materials (Pt/C and PtRu/C. The synthesized catalyst is characterized by means of FESEM, XRD, ICP-MS, XPS and μRS analyses. MnO2 is synthesized and deposited over a commercial grade of carbon (Vulcan XC72 by facile reduction of potassium permanganate in acidic solution. Pt nanoparticles are synthesized on the hybrid support by a polyol thermal assisted method (microwave irradiation, followed by an annealing at 600 °C. The obtained catalyst displays a support constituted by a mixture of manganese oxides (Mn2O3 and Mn3O4 with a Pt loading of 19 wt. %. The electro-catalytic activity towards MOR is assessed by RDE in acid conditions (0.5 M H2SO4, evaluating the ability to oxidize methanol in 1 M concentration. The synthesized Pt/C-MnxO1+x catalyst shows good activity as well as good stability compared to the commercial Pt/C based catalyst.

  2. Densification and grain growth during sintering of porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95tape cast layers: A comprehensive study on heuristic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, De Wei; Schmidt, Cristine Grings; Teocoli, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The sintering behavior of porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95(CGO10) tape cast layers was systematically investigated to establish fundamental kinetic parameters associated to densification and grain growth. Densification and grain growth were characterized by a set of different methods to determine the domin...... and grain boundary mobility in the porous body was estimated around 10−18–10−16m3N−1s−1 at the investigated temperature range.© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......The sintering behavior of porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95(CGO10) tape cast layers was systematically investigated to establish fundamental kinetic parameters associated to densification and grain growth. Densification and grain growth were characterized by a set of different methods to determine...... the dominant sintering mechanisms and kinetics, both in isothermal and at constant heating rate (iso-rate) conditions. Densification of porous CGO10 tape is thermally activated with typical activation energy which was estimated around 440–470 kJ mol−1. Grain growth showed similar thermal activation energy...

  3. IGF-II-mediated downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α in myoblast cells involves PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiaoyu; Qi, Weihong; Liu, Yunzhang; Zhou, Jianfeng; Li, Yun; Rong, Xiaozhi; Lu, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) can stimulate myogenesis and is critically involved in skeletal muscle differentiation. The presence of negative regulators of this process, however, is not well explored. Here, we showed that in myoblast cells, IGF-II negatively regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mRNA expression, while constitutive expression of PGC-1α induced myoblast differentiation. These results suggest that the negative regulation of PGC-1α by IGF-II may act as a negative feedback mechanism in IGF-II-induced myogenic differentiation. Reporter assays demonstrated that IGF-II suppresses the basal PGC-1α promoter activity. Blocking the IGF-II signaling pathway increased the endogenous PGC-1α levels. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of PI3 kinase activity prevented the downregulation of PGC-1α but the activation of mTOR was not required for this process. Importantly, further analysis showed that forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 contributes to mediating the effects of IGF-II on PGC-1 promoter activity. These findings indicate that IGF-II reduces PGC-1α expression in skeletal muscle cells through a mechanism involving PI3K-Akt-FoxO1 but not p38 MAPK or Erk1/2 MAPK pathways.

  4. Coherent intergrowth of simple cubic and quintuple tetragonal perovskites in the system Nd_2_−_εBa_3_+_ε(Fe_,Co)_5O_1_5_−_δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Asish K.; Yu Mychinko, Mikhail; Caignaert, Vincent; Lebedev, Oleg I.; Volkova, Nadezhda E.; Deryabina, Ksenia M.; Cherepanov, Vladimir A.; Raveau, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the Nd_2_−_εBa_3_+_ε(Fe,Co)_5O_1_5_−_δ system, combining X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy, has allowed a tetragonal quintuple ordered perovskite “a_p×a_p×5a_p” phasoid inter-grown within a single cubic perovskite matrix to be evidenced for ε=0. This nanoscale chemically twinned perovskite is compared with other members, Ln=Sm, Eu, Pr. The unusual long range ordering of the layers develops strains due to size mismatch between Ba"2"+ and Ln"3"+ cations. Importantly, two factors allow the strains to be decreased: (i) special intergrowths of double (LnBaFe_2O_6_−_δ) and triple (LnBa_2Fe_3O_9_−_δ) perovskite ribbons/layers oriented at 90°, (ii) nanoscale chemical twinning. The spin locking effect of the nano-domain boundaries upon the magnetic properties of these perovskites is discussed. - Graphical abstract: Nd_2Ba_3Fe_5O_1_4_._5_4 is a tetragonal quintuple perovskite phasoid embedded in a simple cubic perovskite matrix, which shows collinear antiferromagnetic behavior.

  5. Buffer-layer enhanced crystal growth of BaB6 (1 0 0) thin films on MgO (1 0 0) substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yushi; Yamauchi, Ryosuke; Arai, Hideki; Tan, Geng; Tsuchimine, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Susumu; Saeki, Kazuhiko; Takezawa, Nobutaka; Mitsuhashi, Masahiko; Kaneko, Satoru; Yoshimoto, Mamoru

    2012-01-01

    Crystalline BaB 6 (1 0 0) thin films can be fabricated on MgO (1 0 0) substrates by inserting a 2-3 nm-thick epitaxial SrB 6 (1 0 0) buffer layer by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in ultra-high vacuum (i.e., laser molecular beam epitaxy). Reflection high-energy electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction measurements indicated the heteroepitaxial structure of BaB 6 (1 0 0)/SrB 6 (1 0 0)/MgO (1 0 0) with the single domain of the epitaxial relationship. Conversely, BaB 6 thin films without the buffer layer were not epitaxial instead they developed as polycrystalline films with a random in-plane configuration and some impurity phases. As a result, the buffer layer is considered to greatly affect the initial growth of epitaxial BaB 6 thin films; therefore, in this study, buffering effects have been discussed. From the conventional four-probe measurement, it was observed that BaB 6 epitaxial thin films exhibit n-type semiconducting behavior with a resistivity of 2.90 × 10 -1 Ω cm at room temperature.

  6. Pele, Hale-ma'u-ma'u og de forbandede turister

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothstein, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    En præsentation og analyse af et gammelt, men stadig levende, kultsted for vulkangudinden Pele på Hawai'i......En præsentation og analyse af et gammelt, men stadig levende, kultsted for vulkangudinden Pele på Hawai'i...

  7. ‘De duivel hale dat door en door in weelde en luiheid opgegroeide volk’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen van ’t Veer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ‘The devil taketh those people who grew up in wealth and sloth’: Indianised Europeans, a danger to the colonial system From contemporary fiction on sea voyage appears a striking image. The ships that sailed between The Netherlands and Dutch East Indies, amidst 1850 and 1890, formed a micro colony: a compressed version of a colonial society. Practically, all components of a colonial community are represented on board. That includes the so-called backsliders: the Indianised Europeans. Analysis of eight novels on the sea voyages round Cape of Good Hope shows that Europeans that went native were represented in colonial discourse as a fundamental threat to colonial society, as they proved that the alleged superior Western civilization could be affected by supposed inferior Eastern cultures. For that encroaches upon the legitimacy of the colonial hegemony.

  8. Flare activity, sunspot motions, and the evolution of vector magnetic fields in Hale region 17244

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidig, Donald F.; Hagyard, Mona J.; Machado, Marcos E.; Smith, Jesse B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic and dynamical circumstances leading to the 1B/M4 flare of November 5, 1980 are studied, and a strong association is found between the buildup of magnetic shear and the onset of flare activity within the active region. The development of shear, as observed directly in vector magnetograms, is consistent in detail with the dynamical history of the active region and identifies the precise location of the optical and hard-X-ray kernels of the flare emission.

  9. A review of the genus Bulbothrix Hale: the species with medullary salazinic acid lacking vegetative propagules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Benatti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions are presented for the seven known Bulbothrix (Parmeliaceae, Lichenized Fungi species with salazinic acid in the medulla and without vegetative propagules. Bulbothrix continua, previously considered as a synonym of B. hypocraea, is recognized as independent species. The current delimitations are confirmed for B. enormis, B. hypocraea, B. meizospora, B. linteolocarpa, B. sensibilis, and B. setschwanensis. New characteriscs and range extensions are provided.

  10. Simulace ventilace v hale pro výkrm brojlerů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajíček, Milan; Kic, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2013), s. 32-37 ISSN 1211-3174 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : poultry * building * tunnel ventilation Subject RIV: GB - Machines ; Buildings for Agriculture http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/VS/zajicek-0392364.pdf

  11. Nonlinear Aerodynamics-Structure Time Simulation for HALE Aircraft Design/Analysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Time simulation of a nonlinear aerodynamics model (NA) developed at Virginia Tech coupled with a nonlinear structure model (NS) is proposed as a design/analysis...

  12. High contrast stellar observations within the diffraction limit at the Palomar Hale telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennesson, B.; Hanot, C.; Serabyn, E.; Martin, S. R.; Liewer, K.; Loya, F.; Mawet, D.

    2010-07-01

    We report on high-accuracy, high-resolution (statistical method, baptized "Null Self-Calibration" (NSC), which provides astrophysical null measurements at the 0.001 level, with 1 σ uncertainties as low as 0.0003. Such accuracy translates into a dynamic range greater than 1000:1 within the diffraction limit, demonstrating that the approach effectively bridges the traditional gap between regular coronagraphs, limited in angular resolution, and long baseline visibility interferometers, whose dynamic range is restricted to 100:1. As our measurements are extremely sensitive to the brightness distribution very close to the optical axis, we were able to constrain the stellar diameters and amounts of circumstellar emission for a sample of very bright stars. With the improvement expected when the PALM-3000 extreme AO system comes on-line at Palomar, the same instrument now equipped with a state of the art low noise fast read-out near IR camera, will yield 10-4 to 10-3 contrast as close as 30 mas for stars with K magnitude brighter than 6. Such a system will provide a unique and ideal tool for the detection of young (AUs) of nearby (< 50pc) stars.

  13. A review of the genus Bulbothrix Hale: the species with medullary norstictic or protocetraric acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Benatti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents data of eight Bulbothrix (Parmeliaceae, Lichenized Fungi species containing norstictic or protocetraric acid in the medulla. The current species delimitations were confirmed. New synonyms are proposed, new characteriscts are detailed and range extensions are added.

  14. Studies on Colombian Cryptogams. X. The genus Everniastrum Hale and related taxa (Lichenes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipman, H.J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Colombian representatives of the lichen family Parmeliaceae with linear lobes and marginal cilia have been revised. A key is given and morphology, chemistry and distribution are treated of 12 species in three genera: Cetrariastrum Sipm. gen. nov, with C. andense (Kärnef.) Sipm. comb. nov., C.

  15. Hale and Hearty Policies: How Psychological Science Can Create and Maintain Healthy Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Alexander J; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Grant, Adam M; Neal, David T; Sheeran, Paschal; Wood, Wendy

    2015-11-01

    Strategies are needed to ensure that the U.S. Government meets its goals for improving the health of the nation (e.g., Healthy People 2020). To date, progress toward these goals has been undermined by a set of discernible challenges: People lack sufficient motivation, they frequently fail to translate healthy intentions into action, their efforts are undermined by the persistence of prior unhealthy habits, and they have considerable difficulty maintaining new healthy patterns of behavior. Guided by advances in psychological science, we provide innovative, evidence-based policies that address each of these challenges and, if implemented, will enhance people's ability to create and maintain healthy behavioral practices. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. hale and hearty — the benefits of exercise in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    These have resulted in an understanding of the risks associated with ... vention and treatment of falls and the value of exercise therapy for mobility ... ly, and management practice for ..... Favours balance between lipid uptake and lipid oxidation.

  17. Sarah J. Hale High School Project SABER. ESEA Title VII. Final Evaluation Report, 1979-80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Educational Evaluation.

    This is an evaluation of a Title VII Bilingual Program conducted at a New York City High School in 1979-80. The report contains information on the program goals and objectives, the school site, and the student characteristics. Aspects of the instructional component discussed include programming, mainstreaming, and program funding.…

  18. X-HALE: The Development of a Research Platform for the Validation of Nonlinear Aeroelastic Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    general, whenever the number of plies or the laminate direction is specifically modified or selected for a composite aircraft, the aircraft’s design is...cm 35 X-HALE’s wings are composed primarily of Hexcel E-Glass 120/F155 prepreg fabric and Rohacell Foam. Hexcel E-Glass 120/F155 prepreg

  19. hale and hearty — the benefits of exercise in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Therapies designed to augment the quality of life of the elderly are a collective effort. ... care team for the older adult is full of opportunity. This article .... time since birth, whereas biological ageing, the ... Aerobic work capacity can be vari- ably reduced .... Favours balance between lipid uptake and lipid oxidation. Behavioural ...

  20. Transport and superconducting properties of Fe-based superconductors: a comparison between SmFeAsO1-xFx and Fe1+yTe1-xSex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropeano, M.; Pallecchi, I.; Cimberle, M. R.; Ferdeghini, C.; Lamura, G.; Vignolo, M.; Martinelli, A.; Palenzona, A.; Putti, M.

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we carry out a direct comparison between transport and superconducting properties—namely resistivity, magnetoresistivity, Hall effect, Seebeck effect, thermal conductivity, upper critical field—of two different families of Fe-based superconductors, which can be viewed in many respects as end members: SmFeAsO1 - xFx with the largest Tc and the largest anisotropy and Fe1 + yTe1 - xSex, with the largest Hc2, the lowest Tc and the lowest anisotropy. In the case of the SmFeAsO1 - xFx series, we find that a single-band description allows us to extract an approximate estimation of band parameters such as carrier density and mobility from experimental data, although the behaviour of the Seebeck effect as a function of doping demonstrates that a multiband description would be more appropriate. On the contrary, experimental data for the Fe1 + y(Te1 - x, Sex) series exhibit a strongly compensated behaviour, which can be described only within a multiband model. In the Fe1 + y(Te1 - x, Sex) series, the role of the excess Fe, tuned by Se stoichiometry, is found to be twofold: on one hand it dopes electrons in the system and on the other hand it introduces localized magnetic moments, responsible for Kondo like scattering and likely pairbreaking of Cooper pairs. Hence, Fe excess also plays a crucial role in determining superconducting properties such as the Tc and the upper critical field Hc2. The huge Hc2 values of the Fe1 + yTe1 - xSex samples are described by a dirty limit law, opposed to the clean limit behaviour of the SmFeAsO1 - xFx samples. Hence, magnetic scattering by excess Fe seems to drive the system in the dirty regime, but its detrimental pairbreaking role seems not to be as severe as predicted by theory. This issue has yet to be clarified, addressing the more fundamental issue of the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity.

  1. Studies on a novel serine protease of a ΔhapAΔprtV Vibrio cholerae O1 strain and its role in hemorrhagic response in the rabbit ileal loop model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Syngkon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two well-characterized proteases secreted by Vibrio cholerae O1 strains are hemagglutinin protease (HAP and V. cholerae protease (PrtV. The hapA and prtV knock out mutant, V. cholerae O1 strain CHA6.8ΔprtV, still retains residual protease activity. We initiated this study to characterize the protease present in CHA6.8ΔprtV strain and study its role in pathogenesis in rabbit ileal loop model (RIL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We partially purified the residual protease secreted by strain CHA6.8ΔprtV from culture supernatant by anion-exchange chromatography. The major protein band in native PAGE was identified by MS peptide mapping and sequence analysis showed homology with a 59-kDa trypsin-like serine protease encoded by VC1649. The protease activity was partially inhibited by 25 mM PMSF and 10 mM EDTA and completely inhibited by EDTA and PMSF together. RIL assay with culture supernatants of strains C6709 (FA ratio 1.1+/-0.3 n = 3, CHA6.8 (FA ratio 1.08+/-0.2 n = 3, CHA6.8ΔprtV (FA ratio 1.02+/-0.2 n = 3 and partially purified serine protease from CHA6.8ΔprtV (FA ratio 1.2+/-0.3 n = 3 induced fluid accumulation and histopathological studies on rabbit ileum showed destruction of the villus structure with hemorrhage in all layers of the mucosa. RIL assay with culture supernatant of CHA6.8ΔprtVΔVC1649 strain (FA ratio 0.11+/-0.005 n = 3 and with protease incubated with PMSF and EDTA (FA ratio 0.3+/-0.05 n = 3 induced a significantly reduced FA ratio with almost complete normal villus structure. CONCLUSION: Our results show the presence of a novel 59-kDa serine protease in a ΔhapAΔprtV V. cholerae O1 strain and its role in hemorrhagic response in RIL model.

  2. Efficacy of a high potency O1 Manisa monovalent vaccine against heterologous challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus of O/SEA/Mya-98 lineage in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singanallur, N B; Pacheco, J M; Arzt, J; Stenfeldt, C; Fosgate, G T; Rodriguez, L; Vosloo, W

    2017-09-01

    Potency tests for commercial oil-adjuvanted foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines are usually carried out in cattle, using a full dose (2 ml) of vaccine and homologous virus challenge. However, in sheep the recommended vaccine dose is half of the cattle dose (1 ml) and most vaccines have not been potency tested for this species, especially with heterologous viruses. To determine the efficacy of a high potency (>6PD 50 ) FMD virus (FMDV) O1Manisa vaccine in sheep, we carried out a study using a heterologous FMDV (FMDV O/SKR/2010 - Mya-98 strain) challenge. Groups of seven animals each were vaccinated with 2×, 1×, 1/2× or 1/4× dose (2 ml, 1 ml, 0.5 ml or 0.25 ml respectively) and challenged at 7 days post vaccination (dpv). Only 3 of the 7 sheep in the group vaccinated with 2 ml were protected. With 2 additional groups, receiving double or single doses and challenged at 14 dpv, 4 of 7 sheep were protected in each group. None of the sheep had measurable neutralising antibodies against the vaccine or challenge virus at 7 dpv. However, all vaccinated animals challenged at 14 dpv had a homologous neutralising response against FMDV O1 Manisa on the day of challenge and all but one animal also had a heterologous response to FMDV O/SKR/2010. Infectious FMDV and viral RNA could be found in nasal swabs between 1 and 6 days post challenge (dpc) in most vaccinated sheep, but those vaccinated with higher doses or challenged at 14 dpv showed significant decreases in the level of FMDV detection. Intermittent virus shedding was noticed between 1 and 35 dpc in all vaccinated groups, but persistent infection could be demonstrated only in 4 sheep (20%). This study showed that at the recommended dose, a high potency (>6 PD 50 ) FMDV O1Manisa vaccine does not protect sheep against a heterologous challenge at 7 dpv. However, partial protection was observed when a double dose was used at 7 dpv or when double or single dose vaccinated sheep were challenged at 14 dpv. Copyright

  3. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and binding energies of Be 1s and O 1s core levels in clinobarylite, BaBe2Si2O7, from Khibiny massif, Kola peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atuchin, V.V.; Kesler, V.G.; Sapozhnikov, V.K.; Yakovenchuk, V.N.

    2008-01-01

    The electronic structure of BaBe 2 Si 2 O 7 , clinobarylite, has been investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The valence band of the crystal is mainly formed by Ba 5p, Ba 3s and O 2s states. At higher binding energies the emission lines related to the Si 2p, Be 1s, Si 2s, O 1s and numerous Ba-related states were analyzed in the photoemission spectrum. The Si KLL Auger line has been measured under excitation by the bremsstrahlung X-rays from the Al anode. Chemical bonding effects for Be 1s core level have been considered by comparison with electronic parameters measured for other beryllium containing oxides

  4. La0.99Co0.4Ni0.6O3−δ–Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.95 as composite cathode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalmarsson, Per; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2011-01-01

    We have studied a new composite SOFC cathode consisting of LaCo0.4Ni0.6O3−δ (LCN60) and Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO). The polarisation resistance (RP) at 750°C and OCV was measured to 0.05±0.01Ωcm2 and the activation energy was determined to be about 1eV. The impedance spectra were modelled with an EQC......-infiltrated LCN60–CGO cathodes is substantially lower than that of LSM–YSZ and comparable with single phase LSC cathodes at low T due to its low EA. RP was also found to be stable at 750°C and OCV. The cathodes were integrated onto ScYSZ based anode supported cells which were measured to have an ASR of 0...

  5. La0.3Sr0.2Mn0.1Zn0.4 oxide-Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 (LSMZ-SDC) nanocomposite cathode for low temperature SOFCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Rizwan; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Liu, Qinghua; Patel, Imran; Zhu, Bin

    2012-06-01

    Nanocomposite based cathode materials compatible for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs) are being developed. In pursuit of compatible cathode, this research aims to synthesis and investigation nanocomposite La0.3Sr0.2Mn0.1Zn0.4 oxide-Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 (LSMZ-SDC) based system. The material was synthesized through wet chemical method and investigated for oxide-ceria composite based electrolyte LTSOFCs. Electrical property was studied by AC electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The microstructure, thermal properties, and elemental analysis of the samples were characterized by TGA/DSC, XRD, SEM, respectively. The AC conductivity of cathode was obtained for 2.4 Scm(-1) at 550 degrees C in air. This cathode is compatible with ceria-based composite electrolytes and has improved the stability of the material in SOFC cathode environment.

  6. Electrochemical characterization of La0.6Ca0.4Fe0.8Ni0.2O3 cathode on Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 electrolyte for IT-SOFC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz-Vitoriano, N.; Bernuy-Lopez, C.; Hauch, Anne

    2014-01-01

    For Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) to become an economically attractive energy conversion technology, suitable materials and structures which enable operation at lower temperatures, while retaining high cell performance, must be developed. Recently, the perovskitetype La0.6Ca0.4Fe0.8Ni0.2O3 oxide...... has shown potential as an intermediate temperature SOFC cathode. An equivalent circuit describing the cathode polarization resistances was constructed from analyzing impedance spectra recorded at different temperatures in oxygen. A competitive electrode polarization resistance is reported...... for this oxygen electrode using a Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 electrolyte, determined by impedance spectroscopy studies of symmetrical cells sintered at 800 _C and 1000 _C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies of the symmetrical cells revealed the absence of any reaction layer between cathode and electrolyte...

  7. O1, P1, N2 models of the global ocean tide on an elastic earth plus surface potential and spherical harmonic decompositions for M2, S2, and K1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    The models of M2, S2, and K1 presented in Parke and Hendershott (1980) are supplemented with models of O1, P1, and N2. The models satisfy specified elevation boundary conditions and are generated by fighting a small number of test functions to island data. Maps are presented of the geocentric tide, the induced free space potential, the induced vertical component of the solid earth tide, and the induced vertical component of the gravitational field for each new component. Maps of the tidal potential seen by an observer fixed to the surface of the solid earth are also presented for all six constituents. Spherical harmonic coefficients up to order four and the rms magnitude of the coefficients to order fifteen are presented for each constituent. The rms magnitudes of the P1 and K1 coefficients normalized by their respective equilibrium amplitudes are compared to determine the effect of the diurnal core resonance.

  8. Oxygen Exchange and Transport in (La0.6Sr0.4)0.98FeO3-d – Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 Dual-Phase Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovtar, Simona; Søgaard, Martin; Norrman, Kion

    2018-01-01

    The chemical diffusion coefficient and the effective surface exchange coefficient (kex) of dual-phase (La0.6Sr0.4)0.98FeO3-d (LSF) − Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) composites containing between 30 and 70 vol.% of CGO were determined by electrical conductivity relaxation (ECR) at high oxygen partial...... pressures (10−3 .../s for a 70 vol.% of CGO in the composite at 750°C for a pO2 change from 0.2 to 1.0 atm. The experiments demonstrate that the kex is enhanced due to a synergistic effect between the two phases, and suggest a direct involvement of CGO phase in the oxygen surface exchange reaction. Possible mechanisms...

  9. Neutron powder investigations of Zr0.85Ca0.15O1.85 sinter material at temperatures up to 1100 K and with a simultaneously applied electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlert, H.; Boysen, H.; Frey, F.

    1998-01-01

    In situ neutron powder investigations of cubic stabilized zirconia [Zr 0.85 Ca 0.15 O 1.85 (CSZ15)] sinter material were performed at room temperature without an applied direct-current electric field and at 1100 K with and without an applied field, i.e. lasting ionic current. Experimental conditions (temperature, oxidizing atmosphere etc.) were chosen as close as possible to 'working conditions' of zirconia oxygen sensoric devices. To learn about field-induced structural changes and most probable ionic pathways, atomic displacement parameters were derived in the frame of a non-Gaussian Debye-Waller factor formalism for the oxygens. Probability-density-function maps and pseudo-potential (V eff ) maps indicate curved diffusion pathways of the oxygens close to the left angle 100 right angle directions. The action of the applied field is to lower the effective potential barriers. (orig.)

  10. Ionic/Electronic Conductivity, Thermal/Chemical Expansion and Oxygen Permeation in Pr and Gd Co-Doped Ceria PrxGd0.1Ce0.9-xO1.95-δ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Shiyang; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Søgaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Pr. A series of compositions of PrxGd0.1Ce0.9-xO1.95-δ (x = 0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.08, 0.15, 0.25, 0.3 and 0.4) was prepared by solid state reaction. X-ray powder diffraction (XPD) indicates that Pr is completely dissolved in the fluorite structure up to 40 at.%. Pronounced nonlinear thermal expansion...... behavior was observed as a function of temperature, due to the simultaneous contributions of both thermal and chemical expansion. The electronic and ionic conductivities were measured as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. Within the range from 10 to 15 at.% Pr, a drastic drop...

  11. Formation of Ag2, Au2 and AgAu particles on MgO(1 0 0): DFT study on the role of support-induced charge transfer in metal-metal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuente, Silvia A.; Belelli, Patricia G.; Branda, Maria M.; Ferullo, Ricardo M.; Castellani, Norberto J.

    2009-01-01

    The formation of Ag 2 , Au 2 and AgAu particles oriented perpendicularly to the MgO(1 0 0) surface was studied using the density functional theory. While the support induces a slight enhancement of the Ag-Ag bond (by 0.3-0.4 eV), the Au-Au bond is strongly enhanced (by 0.8-1.1 eV). Concerning the bimetallic particle, the Ag-Au bond stabilization depends on the relative position of each atom. Thus, in general terms, the strength of the metal-metal bond is determined by the nature of the terminal atom; the bond is stronger in Au-terminal particles. The partial electronic charge transfer to the terminal Au atom and its ability to polarize this charge are responsible for this energetic stabilization.

  12. Electrochemical characterization of Pr2CuO4–Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 composite cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchina, L.M.; Lyskov, N.V.; Petukhov, D.I.; Mazo, G.N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PCO–GDC composites are studied as a cathode for SOFCs. • The rate-determined step of the overall electrode process vs. temperature was defined. • PCO–GDC33 composite gave the lowest area surface resistance of 0.41 Ω cm 2 at 700 °C. • PCO–GDC33 is preferred to use as a cathode material for IT-SOFCs. - Abstract: Pr 2 CuO 4 –Ce 0.9 Gd 0.1 O 1.95 (PCO–GDC) composites screen printed on Ce 0.9 Gd 0.1 O 1.95 (GDC) electrolyte were considered as a cathode material for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). Phase composition, microstructure and electrochemical properties were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and AC impedance spectroscopy, respectively. The oxygen reduction on porous PCO–GDC electrode applied on CGO electrolyte was studied in a symmetrical cell configuration by AC impedance spectroscopy at OCV conditions at 670–730 °C and p O 2 =10 -2 -0.21atm. The charge transfer process and the dissociation of adsorbed molecular oxygen were found to be rate-determining steps of the oxygen reduction reaction. Results reveal that both GDC addition and electrode morphology have strong influence on area specific resistance (ASR) of the electrode/electrolyte interface. The lowest ASR value of 0.41 Ω cm 2 was achieved for the composition containing 33 wt.% GDC at 700 °S in air. The data obtained allow to consider the PCO–GDC33 composite as a promising cathode material for IT-SOFCs

  13. Two-step processing for activation of the cytolysin/hemolysin of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor: nucleotide sequence of the structural gene (hlyA) and characterization of the processed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Ichinose, Y; Shinagawa, H; Makino, K; Nakata, A; Iwanaga, M; Honda, T; Miwatani, T

    1990-12-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor produces and secretes a 65-kDa cytolysin/hemolysin into the culture medium. We cloned the structural gene (hlyA) for the cytolysin from the total DNA of a V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain, N86. Nucleotide sequence analysis of hlyA revealed an open reading frame consisting of 2,223 bp which can code for a protein of 741 amino acids with a molecular weight of 81,961. Consistent with this, a 79-kDa protein was identified as the product of hlyA by maxicell analysis in Escherichia coli. N-terminal amino acids of this 79-kDa HlyA protein and those of a 65-kDa El Tor cytolysin purified from V. cholerae were Asn-26 and Asn-158, respectively. The 82- and 79-kDa precursors of the 65-kDa mature cytolysin were found in V. cholerae by pulse-chase labeling and Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of hlyA products. Hemolytic activity of the 79-kDa HlyA protein from E. coli was less than 5% that for the 65-kDa cytolysin from V. cholerae. Our results suggest that in V. cholerae, the 82-kDa preprotoxin synthesized in the cytoplasm is secreted through the membranes into the culture medium as the 79-kDa inactive protoxin after cleavage of the signal peptide and is then further processed into the 65-kDa active cytolysin by release of the N-terminal 15-kDa fragment.

  14. Characterization and study of the electrical and dielectric properties of SrBi_4Ti_4O_1_5 (SBTi) added PbO and V_2O_5 for radio frequency (RF) applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Junior, C.A.; Freitas, D.B.; Fernandes, T.S.M.; Sombra, A.S.B.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the dielectric and electric properties in radio frequency (RF) of the compound SrBi_4Ti_4O_1_5 (SBTi) added with PbO and V_2O_5. The SBT ceramic, perovskite with cation deficiency A_5B_4O_1_5, was prepared by the solid state reaction method and then added with PbO (0, 2, 5, 10 and 15% by weight) and with V_2O_3 (in the range of 0.2 %, 5%, 10% and 15% by weight). The samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A study based on Impedance Spectroscopy was also performed. X-ray analysis indicates that all samples have orthorhombic crystalline system and spatial group A21am. The quantitative phase analysis performed by the Rietveld refinement confirmed the crystal structure with net parameter a = 5.4400 Å, b = 5.4326 Å and c = 41.2169 Å. Scanning electron microscopy shows globular and crystal shaped grains, with a certain uniformity in the grain size that is very small, between 1 and 2 μm approximately. Dielectric properties: dielectric constant (K ') and dielectric loss (tang δ) were measured at room temperature in the 40 Hz - 110 MHz frequency range, as well as the a.c. conductivity and have very relevant properties, such as dielectric constant above 50, for the production of possible capacitive devices. All samples were investigated for possible applications in electronic circuits

  15. Synthesis and structural characterization of Al4SiC4-homeotypic aluminum silicon oxycarbide, [Al4.4Si0.6][O1.0C2.0]C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaga, Motoaki; Iwata, Tomoyuki; Nakano, Hiromi; Fukuda, Koichiro

    2010-01-01

    A new quaternary layered oxycarbide, [Al 4.39(5) Si 0.61(5) ] Σ5 [O 1.00(2) C 2.00(2) ] Σ3 C, has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The title compound was found to be hexagonal with space group P6 3 /mmc, Z=2, and unit-cell dimensions a=0.32783(1) nm, c=2.16674(7) nm and V=0.20167(1) nm 3 . The atom ratios Al:Si were determined by EDX, and the initial structural model was derived by the direct methods. The final structural model showed the positional disordering of one of the three types of Al/Si sites. The maximum-entropy methods-based pattern fitting (MPF) method was used to confirm the validity of the split-atom model, in which conventional structure bias caused by assuming intensity partitioning was minimized. The reliability indices calculated from the MPF were R wp =3.73% (S=1.20), R p =2.94%, R B =1.04% and R F =0.81%. The crystal was an inversion twin. Each twin-related individual was isostructural with Al 4 SiC 4 (space group P6 3 mc, Z=2). - Graphical abstract: A new oxycarbide discovered in the Al-Si-O-C system, Al 4 SiC 4 -homeotypic [Al 4.4 Si 0.6 ][O 1.0 C 2.0 ]C. The crystal is an inversion twin, and hence the structure is represented by a split-atom model. The three-dimensional electron density distributions are determined by the maximum-entropy methods-based pattern fitting, being consistent with the disordered structural model.

  16. Praeceptum | Año 1, Nº 1

    OpenAIRE

    Instituto Nacional de Defensa de la Competencia y de la Protección de la Propiedad Intelectual, INDECOPI; Instituto Nacional de Defensa de la Competencia y de la Protección de la Propiedad Intelectual, INDECOPI

    2014-01-01

    Reflexiones y propuestas que, sobre bases doctrinarias, aportan insumos para el debate y contribuyen al mayor conocimiento de diversas temáticas de la agenda de trabajo del INDECOPI. Presentación - Compatibilidad de las instituciones del proceso civil en el procedimiento administrativo sancionador de protección al consumidor a cargo del INDECOPI, Luis Alberto Liñán Arana. - El rol del denunciante en el marco de los procedimientos administrativos sancionadores, Richard James Martin Tirado...

  17. IncA/C Conjugative Plasmids Mobilize a New Family of Multidrug Resistance Islands in Clinical Vibrio cholerae Non-O1/Non-O139 Isolates from Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Nicolas; Rivard, Nicolas; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Colwell, Rita R; Burrus, Vincent

    2016-07-19

    Mobile genetic elements play a pivotal role in the adaptation of bacterial populations, allowing them to rapidly cope with hostile conditions, including the presence of antimicrobial compounds. IncA/C conjugative plasmids (ACPs) are efficient vehicles for dissemination of multidrug resistance genes in a broad range of pathogenic species of Enterobacteriaceae ACPs have sporadically been reported in Vibrio cholerae, the infectious agent of the diarrheal disease cholera. The regulatory network that controls ACP mobility ultimately depends on the transcriptional activation of multiple ACP-borne operons by the master activator AcaCD. Beyond ACP conjugation, AcaCD has also recently been shown to activate the expression of genes located in the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). Here, we describe MGIVchHai6, a novel and unrelated mobilizable genomic island (MGI) integrated into the 3' end of trmE in chromosome I of V. cholerae HC-36A1, a non-O1/non-O139 multidrug-resistant clinical isolate recovered from Haiti in 2010. MGIVchHai6 contains a mercury resistance transposon and an integron In104-like multidrug resistance element similar to the one of SGI1. We show that MGIVchHai6 excises from the chromosome in an AcaCD-dependent manner and is mobilized by ACPs. Acquisition of MGIVchHai6 confers resistance to β-lactams, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, and streptomycin/spectinomycin. In silico analyses revealed that MGIVchHai6-like elements are carried by several environmental and clinical V. cholerae strains recovered from the Indian subcontinent, as well as from North and South America, including all non-O1/non-O139 clinical isolates from Haiti. Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, remains a global public health threat. Seventh-pandemic V. cholerae acquired multidrug resistance genes primarily through circulation of SXT/R391 integrative and conjugative elements. IncA/C conjugative plasmids have sporadically been reported to

  18. Redox-sensitive up-regulation of eNOS by purple grape juice in endothelial cells: role of PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK, JNK, FoxO1 and FoxO3a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Alhosin

    Full Text Available The vascular protective effect of grape-derived polyphenols has been attributable, in part, to their direct action on blood vessels by stimulating the endothelial formation of nitric oxide (NO. The aim of the present study was to determine whether Concord grape juice (CGJ, which contains high levels of polyphenols, stimulates the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS in porcine coronary artery endothelial cells and, if so, to determine the signaling pathway involved. CGJ dose- and time-dependently increased eNOS mRNA and protein levels and this effect is associated with an increased formation of NO in endothelial cells. The stimulatory effect of CGJ on eNOS mRNA is not associated with an increased eNOS mRNA stability and inhibited by antioxidants such as MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, and catalase, and by wortmannin (an inhibitor of PI3-kinase, SB 203580 (an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, and SP 600125 (an inhibitor of JNK. Moreover, CGJ induced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in endothelial cells and this effect is inhibited by MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, and catalase. The CGJ-induced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK kinases is abolished by MnTMPyP. CGJ induced phosphorylation of transcription factors FoxO1 and FoxO3a, which regulate negatively eNOS expression, and this effect is prevented by MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, wortmannin, SB203580 and SP600125. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that the FoxO3a protein is associated with the eNOS promoter in control cells and that CGJ induced its dissociation. Thus, the present study indicates that CGJ up-regulates the expression of eNOS mRNA and protein leading to an increased formation of NO in endothelial cells. The stimulatory effect of CGJ is a redox-sensitive event involving PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK and JNK pathways, and the inactivation of the FoxO transcription factors, FoxO1 and FoxO3a, thereby preventing their repression of the eNOS gene.

  19. Progress in Metal-Supported Axial-Injection Plasma Sprayed Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Using Nanostructured NiO-Y0.15Zr0.85O1.925 Dry Powder Anode Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, C.; Harris, J.; Kuhn, J.; Marr, M.; Kesler, O.

    2013-06-01

    A composite NiO-Y0.15Zr0.85O1.925 (YSZ) agglomerated feedstock having nanoscale NiO and YSZ primary particles was used to fabricate anodes having sub-micrometer structure. These anodes were incorporated into two different metal-supported SOFC architectures, which differ in the order of electrode deposition. The composition of the composite Ni-YSZ anodes is controllable by selection of the agglomerate size fraction and standoff distance, while the porosity is controllable by selection of agglomerate size fraction and addition of a sacrificial pore-forming material. A bi-layer anode was fabricated having a total porosity of 33% for the diffusion layer and 23% porosity for the functional layer. A power density of 630 mW/cm2 was obtained at 750 °C in humidified H2 with cells having the bi-layer anode deposited on the metal support. Cells having the cathode deposited on the metal support showed poor performance due to a significant number of vertical cracks through the electrolyte, allowing excessive gas cross-over between the anode and the cathode compartments.

  20. Electrochemical performance of Ni0.8Cu0.2/Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 cermet anodes with functionally graded structures for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell fueled with syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Michihiro; Iwami, Makoto; Takeuchi, Mizue; Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Kameshima, Yoshikazu

    2018-06-01

    The electrochemical performance of layered Ni0.8Cu0.2/Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 (GDC) cermet anodes is investigated for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) at 600 °C using humidified (3% H2O) model syngas with a molar ratio of H2/CO = 3/2 as the fuel. From the results obtained, the electrochemical performance of the functionally graded multi-layered anodes is found to be superior to the mono-layered anodes. The test cell with a bi-layered anode consisting of 100 mass% Ni0.8Cu0.2/0 mass% GDC (10M/0E) and 70 mass% Ni0.8Cu0.2/30 mass% GDC (7M/3E) exhibits high power density. The test cell with a tri-layered anode consisting of 10M/0E, 7M/3E, and 50 mass% Ni0.8Cu0.2/50 mass% GDC (5M/5E) exhibits an even higher power density, suggesting that 10M/0E and 5M/5E layers contribute to the current collecting part and active part, respectively.

  1. Enhanced Electrochemical Activity and Chromium Tolerance of the Nucleation-Agent-Free La2Ni0.9Fe0.1O4+δ Cathode by Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 Incorporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yihan; Xie, Huixin; Liu, Zijing; Du, Xiaoni; Chen, Hui; Ou, Xuemei; Zhao, Ling; Budiman, Riyan Achmad

    2018-03-01

    For the sake of improving the electrochemical activity and chromium tolerance of the K2NiF4-type oxide, La2NiO4+δ (LNO), with nonnucleation agents like Mn and Sr elements, the electrochemical performance and degradation were comparatively studied at two cathodes La2Ni0.9Fe0.1O4+δ (LNF) and LNF-40wt%Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 (LNF-GDC) on the GDC electrolyte, where 5wt%Cr2O3 incorporation provides Cr-containing atmosphere. Compared with non-doped LNO, LNF shows a higher interstitial oxygen concentration (δ = 0.298) and a lower electrical conductivity, where bivalent Ni ion, {Ni}_{Ni}^{ × } , and trivalent Ni ion, {Ni}_{Ni}^{ \\cdot } , and trivalent Fe ion on Ni-site, {Fe}_{Ni}^{ \\cdot } , were observed from the XPS measurements. LNF-GDC shows greatly reduced interfacial polarization resistances (Rp), which are only half of those of LNF, indicating a better electrochemical performance. More importantly, no significant degradation of LNF-GDC in performance has been observed under exposure of Cr-containing atmosphere at 700 °C for 350 h, while Rp of LNF increased by nearly 20%, suggesting LNF by GDC incorporation can enhance the electrochemical performance as well as chromium tolerance for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs).

  2. The increased severity in patients presenting to hospital with diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh since the emergence of the hybrid strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 is not unique to cholera patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Fahima; Kuchta, Alison; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Faruque, A S G; Calderwood, Stephen B; Ryan, Edward T; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-11-01

    A hybrid strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor that expresses a classical cholera toxin (CT) emerged in 2001. This hybrid variant rapidly replaced the previous El Tor strain around the world. The global emergence of this variant coincided with anecdotal reports that cholera patients were presenting with more severe dehydration and disease in many locations. A comparison was made of the severity of disease before and after the emergence of the hybrid strain in cholera patients attending an icddr,b hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It was found that cholera patients presented with more severe dehydration and severe disease in the later period. However, this was also true for all non-cholera patients as well. In addition, in sub-analyses of patients who presented with rotavirus and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), similar results were found. Comparing the two periods for differences in patient characteristics, nutritional status, vaccination status, and income, no plausible cause for patients presenting with more severe disease was identified in the later period. As a shift in severity for both cholera and non-cholera was observed, these results indicate that the altered El Tor strain cannot fully explain the difference in cholera severity before and after 2001. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. 3-(2-amino-ethyl)-5-[3-(4-butoxyl-phenyl)-propylidene]-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (K145) ameliorated dexamethasone induced hepatic gluconeogenesis through activation of Akt/FoxO1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanan; Qiao, Jiayun; Mu, Biao; Zuo, Bingfeng; Yuan, Jihong

    2017-11-04

    3-(2-amino-ethyl)-5-[3-(4-butoxyl-phenyl)-propylidene]-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (K145) is identified as a selective SphK2 inhibitor. It was previously reported as an anti-tumor agent, in this study we demonstrated that K145 was able to regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis and improve glucose intolerance in mice. C57BL/6 mice treated with dexamethasone injection were used as experimental animals, which exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and increased gluconeogenetic enzymes. After K145 treatment, we found that the impairment of glucose tolerance and gluconeogenetic genes mRNA expression were improved. Besides, both in vivo and in votro studies suggested that K145 stimulated insulin dependent Akt phosphorylation and subsequently activates FoxO1 phosphorylation therefore inhibited gluconeogenetic genes expression including PEPCK and G6pase. Our study figures out a potential extent increase the value of developing K145 as therapeutic candidate for diabetes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Positronium formation and hydrated positron reactions in H2O, D2O, 1.74 M PPS/H2O and 1.74 M PPS/D2O solutions of Cl−, Br− and I−

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.; Pedersen, Niels Jørgen

    1986-01-01

    Angular correlation of annihilation photons were measured for H2O, D2O, 1.74 M PPS/H2O and 1.74 M PPS/D2O solutions of Cl−, Br− and I−. The three components of the angular correlation spectra for D2O and H2O were nearly identical in shape. The positronium (Ps) yields for the H2O and D2O solutions...... before annihilation (lifetime 400 ps) was determined for the three halides in the four solvents. Simple kinetic equations (“trapping model”) with time dependent rate constant, solved analytically, could explain the [X−, e+] formation in H2O fairly well for concentrations below 0.03 M X−, if a diffusion...... controlled reaction with positron diffusion constant D = 5 × 10−5 cm2/s and reaction radius R = 1 nm were assumed. The three halides gave roughly identical [X−, e+] formation below 0.03 M X−. The difference between the four solutions could be explained partly only in terms of viscosity change for the model...

  5. Revealing the glycation sites in synthetic neoglycoconjugates formed by conjugation of the antigenic monosaccharide hapten of Vibrio cholerae O1, serotype Ogawa with the BSA protein carrier using LC-ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahouh, Farid; Saksena, Rina; Kováč, Pavol; Banoub, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we present the determination of glycation sites in synthetic neoglycoconjugates formed by conjugation of the antigenic monosaccharide hapten of Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa to BSA using nano- liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS). The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-TOF/TOF-MS/MS analyses of the tryptic digests of the glycoconjugates having a hapten:BSA ratio of 4.3:1, 6.6:1 and 13.2:1 revealed only three glycation sites, on the following lysine residues: Lys 235, Lys 437 and Lys 455. Digestion of the neoglycoconjugates with the proteases trypsin and GluC V8 gave complementary structural information and was shown to maximize the number of recognized glycation sites. Here, we report identification of 20, 27 and 33 glycation sites using LC-ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS analysis of a series of synthetic neoglycoconjugates with a hapten:BSA ratio of, respectively, 4.3:1, 6.6:1 and 13.2:1. We also tentatively propose that all the glycated lysine residues are located mainly near the outer surface of the protein. PMID:22791257

  6. Tratamento de Classe II, Divisão 1, com ausência congênita de incisivo lateral superior Treatment of Class II Division 1 with congenitally absent maxillary lateral incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto M. A. Lima Filho

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Este relato mostra tratamento Ortodôntico efetuado em paciente portador de Classe II, Divisão 1, de Angle, com sobremordida profunda e agenesia do incisivo lateral superior esquerdo, em que o espaço foi fechado ortodonticamente e o canino ocupou o lugar do incisivo lateral. Os procedimentos adotados possibilitaram a obtenção de estética agradável e relação oclusal normal. A linha mediana não apresentou desvio ao término do tratamento e a discrepância vertical foi devidamente corrigida.This case report demonstrates the orthodontic treatment of a patient who presented a Class II Division 1 malocclusion, deep overbite and congenitally absent maxillary left lateral incisor. The space was closed orthodontically and maxillary cuspid was positioned in the place of the maxillary lateral incisor. The treatment applied resulted in a pleasant esthetics and normal occlusal relationship. The midline was coincident at the end of treatment and vertical discrepancy was properly corrected.

  7. Inactivation of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor inoculated into Peruvian ''choro'' mussels (Aulacomya ater) and two species of clams (Argopecten purpuratus and Gari solida) using medium-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Z.; Bernuy, B.; Kahn, G.; Zapata, G.; Vivanco, M.; Guzman, E.; Leon, R.

    2001-01-01

    The radiation decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) for Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor inoculated through the natural feeding system into three species of bivalve mollusks from the Peruvian Pacific coast: ''choro'' mussels (Aulacome ater), ''abanico'' clams (Argopecten purpuratus), and common clams (Gari solida), was determined in vivo. The D 10 value obtained in vivo was 0.14 kGy in all mollusks tested. Concurrent studies conducted to determine the potential use of irradiation to extend the microbiological shelf-life of the mollusks during post-irradiation storage at 0-1 deg. C indicated that a dose of 1.0 kGy was optimal for choro mussels and abanico clams, whereas 2.0 kGy produced the best results when treating common clams. Shelf-life extension thus achieved was 31 days for choro mussels, 16 days for abanico clams, and 21 days for common clams. Non-irradiated control samples of all mollusks spoiled after 17 days of refrigerated storage. There were no significant (p<.05) adverse effects from the application of the optimal radiation treatments on the sensory characteristics (i.e. appearance, odor, flavor, and texture) of the mollusks. Total volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and pH values were examined for use as indexes of seafood freshness. (author)

  8. Shelf-life extension and decontamination of fish fillets (Trachurus picturatus murphyi and Mugil cephalus) and shrimp tails (Penaeus vannamei) inoculated with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Z.; Kahn, G.; Vivanco, M.; Guzman, E.; Bernuy, B.

    2001-01-01

    The radiation decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, Inaba was determined in vitro (0.13 kGy) and in inoculated fresh fillets of saurel (Trachurus picturatus murphyi) (0.12 kGy) and another Pacific fish species known in Peru as ''lisa'', Mugil cephalus (0.13 kGy), both of which are frequently consumed raw in ''ceviche''. The D 10 value was similarly determined in tails of the shrimp species Penaeus vannamei (0.13 kGy). In a second phase of the study, radiation doses in the range 1.0-4.0 kGy were evaluated for use in microbiological shelf-life extension of the selected seafood, and for adverse effects on various sensory attributes (appearance, odor, flavor, and texture). A dose of 1.0 kGy doubled the microbiological shelf-life of fish fillets during post-irradiation storage at 0-1 deg. C to approximately 30 days. This dose was deemed optimal also for preserving all sensory characteristics evaluated except appearance, due to a darkening of fillets. Best results in shrimp tails were obtained using 2.0 kGy, which doubled their microbiological shelf-life to 20 days at 0-1 deg. C. Dipping the fillets in a 10% solution of sodium tripolyphosphate before irradiation prevented radiation-induced drip losses. (author)

  9. New insights into microstructural evolution of epitaxial Ni-Mn-Ga films on MgO (1 0 0) substrate by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and orientation imaging investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit; Mohan, Sangeneni; Suwas, Satyam

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a detailed investigation has been performed on hetero-epitaxial growth and microstructural evolution in highly oriented Ni-Mn-Ga (1 0 0) films grown on MgO (1 0 0) substrate using high-resolution X-ray diffraction and orientation imaging microscopy. Mosaicity of the films has been analysed in terms of tilt angle, twist angle, lateral and vertical coherence length and threading dislocation densities by performing rocking curve measurements and reciprocal space mapping. Density of edge dislocations is found to be an order of magnitude higher than the density of screw dislocations, irrespective of film thickness. X-ray pole figure measurements have revealed an orientation relationship of ? || (1 0 0)MgO; ? || [0 0 1]MgO between the film and substrate. Microstructure predicted by X-ray diffraction is in agreement with that obtained from electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The evolution of microstructure in the film with increasing thickness has been explained vis-à-vis dislocation generation and growth mechanisms. Orientation imaging microscopy observations indicate evolutionary growth of film by overgrowth mechanism. Decrease in coercivity with film thickness has been explained as an interplay between stress field developed due to crystal defects and magnetic domain pinning due to surface roughness.

  10. THERMAL EXPANSION BEHAVIOR OF THE Ba0.2Sr0.8Co0.8Fe0.2O3−δ (BSCF WITH Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AHMADREZAEI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured perovskite oxides of Ba0.2Sr0.8Co0.8Fe0.2O3−δ (BSCF were synthesized through the co-precipitation method. The thermal decomposition, phase formation and thermal expansion behavior of BSCF were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and dilatometry, respectively. XRD peaks were indexed to a cubic perovskite structure with a Pm3m (221 space group. All the combined oxides produced the desired perovskite-phase BSCF. The microstructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The TEM analysis showed that BSCF powders had uniform nanoparticle sizes and high homogeneity. The cross-sectional SEM micrograph of BSCF exhibited a continuous and no delaminated layer from the electrolyte-supported cell. The thermal expansion coefficient (TEC of BSCF was 16.2×10-6 K-1 at a temperature range of 600°C to 800°C. Additional experiments showed that the TEC of BSCF is comparable to that of Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 (SDC within the same temperature range. The results demonstrate that BSFC is a promising cathode material for intermediate-temperature solid-oxide fuel cells.

  11. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and photoemission measurement of O2: Direct evidence for dependence of Rydberg-valence mixing on vibrational states in O 1s → Rydberg states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gejo, T.; Oura, M.; Tokushima, T.; Horikawa, Y.; Arai, H.; Shin, S.; Kimberg, V.; Kosugi, N.

    2017-07-01

    High-resolution resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) and low-energy photoemission spectra of oxygen molecules have been measured for investigating the electronic structure of Rydberg states in the O 1s → σ* energy region. The electronic characteristics of each Rydberg state have been successfully observed, and new assignments are made for several states. The RIXS spectra clearly show that vibrational excitation is very sensitive to the electronic characteristics because of Rydberg-valence mixing and vibronic coupling in O2. This observation constitutes direct experimental evidence that the Rydberg-valence mixing characteristic depends on the vibrational excitation near the avoided crossing of potential surfaces. We also measured the photoemission spectra of metastable oxygen atoms (O*) from O2 excited to 1s → Rydberg states. The broadening of the 4p Rydberg states of O* has been found with isotropic behavior, implying that excited oxygen molecules undergo dissociation with a lifetime of the order of 10 fs in 1s → Rydberg states.

  12. Investigations on the local structures of Cu2+ at various BaO concentrations in 59B2O3-10K2O-(30-x)ZnO-xBaO-1CuO glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia-Rui; Wu, Shao-Yi; Hong, Jian; Liu, Shi-Nan; Song, Min-Xian; Teng, Bao-Hua; Wu, Ming-He

    2017-11-01

    The local structures and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) parameters for Cu2+ in 59B2O3-10K2O-(30-x)ZnO-xBaO-1CuO (BKZBC) glasses are theoretically investigated with distinct modifier BaO concentrations x (= 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 mol %). The ? clusters are found to undergo the relative tetragonal elongations of about 13.5 and 5.0% at zero and higher BaO concentrations. The concentration dependences of the measured d-d transition bands, g factors and A// are suitably reproduced from the Fourier type functions or sign functions of the relevant quantities with x by using only six adjustable parameters. The features of the EPR parameters and the local structures of Cu2+ are analysed in a consistent way by considering the differences in the local ligand field strength and electronic cloud admixtures around Cu2+ under addition of Ba2+ with the highest ionicity and polarisability. The present theoretical studies would be helpful to the researches on the structures, optical and EPR properties for the similar potassium barium zinc borate glasses containing copper with variation concentration of modifier BaO.

  13. Combustion synthesis of NiO–Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 nanocomposite anode and its electrical characteristics of semi-cell configured SOFC assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari-Fakhrabadi, A.; Avila, Ricardo E.; Carrasco, Hector E.; Ananthakumar, S.; Mangalaraja, R.V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Combustion synthesis was followed to prepare NiO–GDC nanocomposite. ► NiO–GDC anode was applied over GDC electrolyte to fabricate a semi-cell. ► Electrical conductivity of the semi-cell was characterized. ► Structure, composition, particle size and morphology of NiO–GDC were studied. - Abstract: NiO–Ce 0.9 Gd 0.1 O 1.95 (NiO–10GDC) nanocomposite anode material was synthesized through combustion technique for possible low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT–SOFCs). A low weight loss is seen in the TG/DTA thermogram that indicates the complete combustion of the reactant mixtures. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the presence of NiO, GDC and Ni crystallite phases in the as combusted product. Upon calcination at 600 °C, the metallic Ni oxidized to NiO. TEM images showed a wide size distribution of fine spherical GDC and large irregularly shaped NiO particles. This NiO–10GDC anode material was applied over GDC electrolyte as a porous thin layer. Using this surface engineered GDC electrolyte a semi-cell (electrode/electrolyte structure) was fabricated. The electrical conductivity of the semi-cell was characterized with respect to temperature.

  14. Orientation and magnetic properties of FePt and CoPt films grown on MgO(1 1 0) single-crystal substrate by electron-beam coevaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Minghui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)], E-mail: myu1@uno.edu; Ohguchi, H.; Zambano, A.; Takeuchi, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Liu, J.P. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Josell, D.; Bendersky, L.A. [Metallurgy Division, Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2007-09-25

    We have studied the orientation and magnetic properties of FePt and CoPt films deposited by electron-beam co-evaporation on MgO(1 1 0) single-crystal substrates at substrate temperatures from 500 to 700 deg. C. We observed that long-range chemical ordering of the L1{sub 0} structure occurred over the entire range of substrate temperatures in FePt films and at 600 deg. C and up in CoPt films. Growth of FePt and CoPt yielded epitaxial films with cube-on-cube orientation of the pseudo-cubic L1{sub 0} lattice with respect to the cubic MgO. X-ray diffraction patterns and magnetization loops of the FePt and CoPt films revealed the existence of L1{sub 0} domains with the tetragonal c axis inclined at 45 deg. to the film plane, orientations (0 h h) and (h 0 h), as well as L1{sub 0} domains with the tetragonal c axis in the plane of the film, orientation (h h 0). The FePt and CoPt films for which X-ray diffraction indicated tetragonal phase was present all exhibited hard magnetic properties with easy axis along the [0 0 1] substrate direction as well as large in-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  15. Structural change of NaO1/2-WO3-NbO5/2-LaO3/2-PO5/2 glass induced by electrochemical substitution of sodium ions with protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Tomohiro; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Nishii, Junji; Yamashita, Toshiharu; Kawazoe, Hiroshi; Kuwata, Naoaki; Kawamura, Junichi; Omata, Takahisa

    2015-05-28

    Structural changes of 35NaO1/2-1WO3-8NbO5/2-5LaO3/2-51PO5/2 glass (1W-glass) before and after the electrochemical substitution of sodium ions with protons by alkali-proton substitution (APS) are studied by Raman and (31)P magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopies. The glass before APS consists of (PO3(-))8.6(P2O7(4-)) chains on average and the terminal Q(1) units (-O-PO3(3-)) are bound to MO6 octahedra (M denotes niobium or tungsten) through P-O-M bonds. Some non-bridging oxygens (NBOs) in the MO6 octahedra are present in addition to the bridging oxygens (BOs) in P-O-M bonds. APS induces fragmentation of the phosphate chains because the average chain length decreases to (PO3(-))3.7(P2O7(4-)) after APS, despite the total number of modifier cations of sodium and lanthanum ions and protons being unaffected by APS. This fragmentation is induced by some of the NBOs in the MO6 octahedra before APS, changing to BOs of the newly formed M-O-P bonds after APS, because of the preferential formation of P-OH bonds over M-OH ones in the present glass. We show that APS under the conditions used here is not a simple substitution of sodium ions with protons, but it is accompanied by the structural relaxation of the glass to stabilize the injected protons.

  16. Craniofacial analysis of the Tweed Foundation in Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion Análise craniofacial da Fundação Tweed na maloclusão Classe II, divisão 1 de Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Tukasan

    2005-03-01

    a 15 anos, as quais foram divididas em dois grupos: o Grupo Classe II, com 168 telerradiografias registradas em norma lateral de indivíduos leucodermas, maloclusão Classe II, divisão 1 de Angle, de ambos os gêneros (82 do gênero masculino e 86 do feminino; e o Grupo Controle, com 43 telerradiografias registradas em norma lateral de indivíduos com oclusão clinicamente excelente, também de ambos os gêneros (21 do gênero masculino e 22 do feminino. As telerradiografias foram selecionadas no arquivo da Disciplina de Ortodontia da Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Os resultados demonstraram não existir dimorfismo sexual dentro de cada grupo, comprovado pelo Teste t de Student. A análise exploratória (± 0,5 desvio padrão tornou possível a determinação dos limites de tolerância e a elaboração de uma Tabela da Análise Craniofacial com os respectivos intervalos cefalométricos. Observou-se que não houve diferença significativa na posição de maxila entre os grupos estudados, ou seja, a maxila apresentou-se bem posicionada em relação à base do crânio. Por outro lado, a mandíbula apresentou-se retruída em relação à base do crânio nos casos de Classe II. O padrão esquelético não ficou definido, pois somente o IAF apresentou um padrão vertical na Classe II, enquanto os valores de Eixo Y, SN.PlO, SN.GoMe e FMA não apresentaram diferença significativa entre os grupos estudados. A Classe II divisão 1ª apresentou os incisivos inferiores mais inclinados para vestibular e o perfil facial convexo.

  17. Poly[di-μ-aqua-diaquabis(μ7-oxalato-κ9O1:O1:O1,O2:O2:O2′:O2′,O1′:O1′calciumdicaesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Kherfi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [CaCs2(C2O42(H2O4]n, the Ca2+ ion, lying on a twofold rotation axis, is coordinated by four O atoms from two oxalate ligands and two bridging water molecules in an octahedral geometry. The Cs+ ion is coordinated by seven O atoms from six oxalate ligands, one bridging water and one terminal water molecule. The oxalate ligand displays a scarce high denticity. The structure contains parallel chain units runnig along [10-1], formed by two edge-sharing Cs polyhedra connected by CsO9 polyhedra connected by a face-sharing CaO6 octahedron. These chains are further linked by the oxalate ligands to build up a three-dimensional framework. O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the water molecules and the carboxylate O atoms enhance the extended structure.

  18. Comparative genomic analysis shows that avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolate IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; ST complex 95, ST140 shares close relationship with ST95 APEC O1:K1 and human ExPEC O18:K1 strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangkai Zhu Ge

    Full Text Available Avian pathogenic E. coli and human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli serotypes O1, O2 and O18 strains isolated from different hosts are generally located in phylogroup B2 and ST complex 95, and they share similar genetic characteristics and pathogenicity, with no or minimal host specificity. They are popular objects for the study of ExPEC genetic characteristics and pathogenesis in recent years. Here, we investigated the evolution and genetic blueprint of APEC pathotype by performing phylogenetic and comparative genome analysis of avian pathogenic E. coli strain IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; ST complex 95, ST140 with other E. coli pathotypes. Phylogeny analyses indicated that IMT5155 has closest evolutionary relationship with APEC O1, IHE3034, and UTI89. Comparative genomic analysis showed that IMT5155 and APEC O1 shared significant genetic overlap/similarities with human ExPEC dominant O18:K1 strains (IHE3034 and UTI89. Furthermore, the unique PAI I5155 (GI-12 was identified and found to be conserved in APEC O2 serotype isolates. GI-7 and GI-16 encoding two typical T6SSs in IMT5155 might be useful markers for the identification of ExPEC dominant serotypes (O1, O2, and O18 strains. IMT5155 contained a ColV plasmid p1ColV5155, which defined the APEC pathotype. The distribution analysis of 10 sequenced ExPEC pan-genome virulence factors among 47 sequenced E. coli strains provided meaningful information for B2 APEC/ExPEC-specific virulence factors, including several adhesins, invasins, toxins, iron acquisition systems, and so on. The pathogenicity tests of IMT5155 and other APEC O1:K1 and O2:K1 serotypes strains (isolated in China through four animal models showed that they were highly virulent for avian colisepticemia and able to cause septicemia and meningitis in neonatal rats, suggesting zoonotic potential of these APEC O1:K1 and O2:K1 isolates.

  19. Comet C2012 S1 (ISON)s Carbon-rich and Micron-size-dominated Coma Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, D.; De Buizer, J.; Kelley, M.; Sitko, M.; Woodward, C.; Harker, D.; Reach, W.; Russell, R.; Kim, D.; Yanamadra-Fisher, P.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) was unique in that it was a dynamically new comet derived from the Nearly Isotropic Oort cloud reservoir of comets with a sun-grazing orbit. We present thermal models for comet ISON (rh approx.1.15 AU, 2013-Oct-25 11:30 UT) that reveal comet ISON's dust was carbon-rich and dominated by a narrow size distribution dominated by approx. micron-sized grains. We constrained the models by our SOFIA FORCAST photometry at 11.1, 19.7 and 31.5 microns and by a silicate feature strength of approx.1.1 and an 8-13microns continuum greybody color temperature of approx. 275-280 K (using Tbb ? r-0.5 h and Tbb approx. 260-265 K from Subaru COMICS, 2013-Oct-19 UT)[1,2]. N-band spectra of comet ISON with the BASS instrument on the NASA IRTF (2013-Nov-11-12 UT) show a silicate feature strength of approx. 1.1 and an 11.2microns forsterite peak.[3] Our thermal models yield constraints the dust composition as well as grain size distribution parameters: slope, peak grain size, porosity. Specifically, ISON's dust has a low silicate-to- amorphous carbon ratio (approx. 1:9), and the coma size distribution has a steep slope (N4.5) such that the coma is dominated by micron-sized, moderately porous, carbon-rich dust grains. The N-band continuum color temperature implies submicronto micron-size grains and the steep fall off of the SOFIA far-IR photometry requires the size distribution to have fewer relative numbers of larger and cooler grains compared to smaller and hotter grains. A proxy for the dust production rate is f? approx.1500 cm, akin to Af?. ISON has a moderate-to-low dust-to-gas ratio. Comet ISON's dust grain size distribution does not appear similar to the few well-studied long-period Nearly Isotropic Comets (NICs), namely C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) that had smaller and/or more highly porous grains and larger sizes, or C/2007 N4 (Lulin) and C/2006 P1 (McNaught) that had large and/or compact grains. Radial transport to comet-forming disk distances

  20. Oxygen transport properties of tubular Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95-La0.6Sr0.4FeO3−d composite asymmetric oxygen permeation membranes supported on magnesium oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovtar, Simona; Gurauskis, Jonas; Bjørnetun Haugen, Astri

    2017-01-01

    The oxygen permeation through dense Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95-La0.6Sr0.4FeO3−d  dual-phase composite asymmetric membranes supported on a porous MgO tube was studied. The membranes were prepared by thermoplastic extrusion, dip coating, co-sintering and infiltration of a catalyst. Oxygen permeation measureme...

  1. Study on Dy0.45Ba0.05Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ-Ce0.85Gd0.15O1.95 composite cathode material for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautkar, Pranay R.; Acharya, Smita A.

    2018-05-01

    xDy0.45Ba0.05Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ - xCe0.85Gd0.15O1.95 (x = 50 %) composite cathode supported on Ce0.85Gd0.15O1.95 (GDC15) electrolyte are studied for applications in IT-SOFCs. Results attribute that Dy0.45Ba0.05Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ material is chemically compatible with Ce0.85Gd0.15O1.95 (GDC15). Rietveld refined X-ray diffraction patterns notify orthorhombic (space group:Pbnm) symmetry for Dy0.45 Ba0.05Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ and fluorite type structure (space group: Fm-3m) symmetry for GDC15. The polarization resistance (Rp) of composite cathode reduces to the minimum value of 1.35 Ω cm2 at 650 °C in air. Area specific resistance (ASR) of composite cathode has found 0.67 Ω.cm2 at 650°C respectively. Result shows that the surface diffusion of the dissociative adsorbed oxygen at electrode/electrolyte interface on the composite cathode.

  2. Process for Refining and Validating a Finite Element Model of an Experimental High-Altitude, Long-Endurance (HALE) Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    7 Figure 4. Helios flying near the Hawaiian islands of Niihau and Lehua [15] ................... 8 Figure 5. Plan view of ERAST Program aircraft...Figure 4. Helios flying near the Hawaiian islands of Niihau and Lehua [15] 9 Figure 5. Plan view of ERAST Program aircraft

  3. Arhitektuur ja keha : materiaalsus, liikumine, tähendus = Architecture and the Body : Materiality, Movement and Meaning / Jonathan A. Hale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hale, Jonathan A.

    2006-01-01

    Hoone seosest looja ja kasutajaga, arhitektuuri kogemise kehalisest aspektist. Praktilise näitena analüüsitakse Nottinghami ülikooli viienda ja kuuenda kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste projekti, mille eesmärgiks oli leida uusi arhitektuuri eksponeerimise viise, lähtudes eeldusest, et inimkeha ja ümbritsevat maailma seob olemuslik jätkuvus. Bibl. lk. 27

  4. Demonstration of Advanced Geophysics and Classification Methods on Munitions Response Sites - East Fork Valley Range Complex, Former Camp Hale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    47 8.2 COST BENEFIT ................................................................................................... 47 9.0...Campground (west of the ESTCP study area). The MRA is accessible to the public and used for recreation, including hiking and snowmobiling. The Colorado...reduction in number of anomalies requiring intrusive investigation (primarily labor, per diem, and equipment rental). 8.2 COST BENEFIT The primary

  5. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Slope, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Little Hales- (2003), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the slope (in degrees) of themultibeam bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the...

  6. Airborne trace elements near a petrochemical industrial complex in Thailand assessed by the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Despr. ex Nyl.) Hale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonpeng, Chaiwat; Polyiam, Wetchasart; Sriviboon, Chutima; Sangiamdee, Duangkamon; Watthana, Santi; Nimis, Pier Luigi; Boonpragob, Kansri

    2017-05-01

    Several trace elements discharged by the petrochemical industry are toxic to humans and the ecosystem. In this study, we assessed airborne trace elements in the vicinity of the Map Ta Phut petrochemical industrial complex in Thailand by transplanting the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum to eight industrial, two rural, and one clean air sites between October 2013 and June 2014. After 242 days, the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V, and Zn in lichens at most industrial sites were higher than those at the rural and the control sites; in particular, As, Cu, Mo, Sb, V, and Zn were significantly higher than at the control site (p industrial sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that most elements were associated with industry, with lesser contributions from traffic and agriculture. Based on the pollution load indexes (PLIs), two industrial sites were highly polluted, five were moderately polluted, and one had a low pollution level, whereas the pollution load at the rural sites was comparable to background levels. This study reinforces the utility of lichens as cost-effective biomonitors of airborne elements, suitable for use in developing countries, where adequate numbers of air monitoring instruments are unavailable due to financial, technical, and policy constraints.

  7. Phase-inversion tape-casting preparation and significant performance enhancement of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95- La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ dual-phase asymmetric membrane for oxygen separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Hua; Cheng, Shiyang; Gao, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    The dual-phase Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95–La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ asymmetric membrane was prepared via a phase-inversion tape-casting method. The membrane consisted of a thicker porous support layer and a thinner dense layer. When the dense side of the membrane was coated with a La0.6Sr0.4CoO3−δ catalytic...

  8. Morphologically well-defined Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 embedded Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ nanofiber with an enhanced triple phase boundary as cathode for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chanho; Park, Hyunjung; Jang, Inyoung; Kim, Sungmin; Kim, Kijung; Yoon, Heesung; Paik, Ungyu

    2018-02-01

    Controlling triple phase boundary (TPB), an intersection of the ionic conductor, electronic conductor and gas phase as a major reaction site, is a key to improve cell performances for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells. We report a synthesis of morphologically well-defined Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 (GDC) embedded Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) nanofibers and their electrochemical performances as a cathode. Electrospun fibers prepared with a polymeric solution that contains crystalline Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ particles in ∼200 nm size and Gd(NO3)3/Ce(NO3)3 precursors in an optimized weight ratio of 3 to 2 result in one dimensional structure without severe agglomeration and morphological collapse even after a high calcination at 1000 °C. As-prepared nanofibers have fast electron pathways along the axial direction of fibers, a higher surface area of 7.5 m2 g-1, and more oxygen reaction sites at TPBs than those of GDC/BSCF composite particles and core-shell nanofibers. As a result, the Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 embedded Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ nanofiber cell shows excellent performances of the maximum power density of 0.65 W cm-2 at 550 °C and 1.02 W cm-2 at 600 °C, respectively.

  9. Observations of Comet 2P/Encke During the Fall 2013 Apparition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Woodney, L.; Fernandez, Yanga R.; Mueller, Beatrice E.; Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Chi, Brian; Farr, Cynthia; Redinger, Haley; Schlueter, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    We will present preliminary results from our observational campaign of Comet 2P/Encke during its 2013 perihelion passage. At optical wavelengths Encke is an extremely dust poor comet that has in past perihelion passages emitted a gas jet in the form a sunward fan. We expect to characterize both the morphology and lightcurve of the comet. The low optical dust means that even near perihelion the nuclear signature can be obtained in lightcurve data taken with narrowband continuum filters which cut out the gas emission. The campaign will consist of both narrowband and broadband imaging as well as infrared spectroscopy. Imaging will be obtained from 8 nights on the KPNO 2.1m between Sept. 7 and 14 UT. Additionally, the Murillo Family Observatory, a 0.5m telescope on the CSUSB campus which is equipped with both broadband filters and a narrowband Hale-Bopp set of filters will be used to observe the comet every clear night the moon allows between late August and early October to obtain extensive lightcurve data. These data will overlap both the Kitt Peak observations and the infrared spectroscopy which will be obtained with the SpeX instrument at the IRTF on four nights between September 26 UT and October 2 UT.

  10. ISO Science Legacy A Compact Review of ISO Major Achievements

    CERN Document Server

    Cesarsky, Catherine J

    2006-01-01

    Stars are born and die in clouds of gas and dust, opaque to most types of radiation, but transparent in the infrared. Requiring complex detectors, space missions and cooled telescopes, infrared astronomy is the last branch of this discipline to come of age. After a very successful sky survey performed in the eighties by the IRAS satellite, the Infrared Space Observatory, in the nineties, brought spectacular advances in the understanding of the processes giving rise to powerful infrared emission by a great variety of celestial sources. Outstanding results have been obtained on the bright comet Hale-Bopp, and in particular of its water spectrum, as well as on the formation, chemistry and dynamics of planetary objects in the solar system. Ideas on the early stages of stellar formation and on the stellar initial mass function have been clarified. ISO is the first facility in space able to provide a systematic diagnosis of the physical phenomena and the chemistry in the close environment of pre-main sequence stars...

  11. DETECTION OF FORMAMIDE, THE SIMPLEST BUT CRUCIAL AMIDE, IN A SOLAR-TYPE PROTOSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahane, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Faure, A.; Caux, E.

    2013-01-01

    Formamide (NH 2 CHO), the simplest possible amide, has recently been suggested to be a central species in the synthesis of metabolic and genetic molecules, the chemical basis of life. In this Letter, we report the first detection of formamide in a protostar, IRAS 16293–2422, which may be similar to the Sun and solar system progenitor. The data combine spectra from the millimeter and submillimeter TIMASSS survey with recent, more sensitive observations at the IRAM 30 m telescope. With an abundance relative to H 2 of ∼10 –10 , formamide appears as abundant in this solar-type protostar as in the two high-mass star-forming regions, Orion-KL and SgrB2, where this species has previously been detected. Given the largely different UV-illuminated environments of the three sources, the relevance of UV photolysis of interstellar ices in the synthesis of formamide is therefore questionable. Assuming that this species is formed in the gas phase via the neutral-neutral reaction between the radical NH 2 and H 2 CO, we predict an abundance in good agreement with the value derived from our observations. The comparison of the relative abundance [NH 2 CHO]/[H 2 O] in IRAS 16293–2422 and in the coma of the comet Hale-Bopp supports the similarity between interstellar and cometary chemistry. Our results thus suggest that the abundance of some cometary organic volatiles could reflect gas phase rather than grain-surface interstellar chemistry.

  12. ZnO 1-D nanostructures: Low temperature synthesis and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM;. JEOL 2010). ... low magnification image of the ZnO nanorod arrays show- ing uniformity of the .... in inverted nail like shape. .... where E (local) is the local electric field at the emitting.

  13. Detection and confirmation of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-20

    Aug 20, 2013 ... mental water samples, as well as for confirmation of clinical isolates. Keywords: ... Monitoring the presence of V. cholerae in drinking water sources ... have several advantages: they are rapid, sensitive, highly selective and do ...

  14. Mild hydrolysis of nitriles by Fusarium solani strain O1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejvoda, Vojtěch; Kaplan, Ondřej; Klozová, Jana; Masák, J.; Čejková, A.; Jirků, V.; Stloukal, R.; Martínková, Ludmila

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2006), s. 251-256 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4020213; GA ČR GA203/05/2267; GA MŠk LC06010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : fusarium solani Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2006

  15. Low temperature magnetic characterization of EuO1-x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimal, Gaurab; Tang, Jinke

    EuO is a widely studied magnetic semiconductor. It is an ideal case of a Heisenberg ferromagnet as well as a model magnetic polaron system. The interesting aspect of this material is the existance of magnetic polarons in the low temperature region. We study the properties of oxygen deficient EuO prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Besides normal ferromagnetic transitions near 70K and 140K, we observe a different transition at 16K. We also observe a shift in the coercivity for field cooling versus zero field cooling. Possible mechanisms driving these behaviors will be discussed. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DEFG02-10ER46728) and by the School of Energy Resources of the University of Wyoming.

  16. Reactions of O/1D/ with methane and ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C.-L.; Demore, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    Mixtures of nitrous oxide and methane and mixtures of nitrous oxide and ethane were photolyzed with 1849-A light. The reaction products were analyzed chromatographically. It was found that the reaction of the excited atomic oxygen with methane gives mainly CH3 and OH radicals as initial products, along with about 9% of formaldehyde and molecular hydrogen. The reaction of the excited atomic oxygen with ethane gives C2H5, OH, CH3 and CH2OH as major initial products, with only a few per cent of molecular hydrogen.

  17. Classe II divisão 1 associada à deficiência transversal maxilar. Tratamento com disjuntor tipo Hyrax e aparelho de Herbst: relato de caso clínico Class II division 1 associated with maxillary transverse deficiency treated by Hyrax expander and Herbst appliance: clinical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Leite Quaglio

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A má oclusão de Classe II divisão 1 de Angle é, frequentemente, acompanhada da atresia maxilar. Esse problema transversal da maxila deve ser corrigido, sempre que possível, antes da correção anteroposterior, sendo que os aparelhos de expansão rápida são os mais utilizados para isso. Para a correção da Classe II, atualmente, os aparelhos funcionais fixos são os mais estudados e empregados, por serem aparelhos intrabucais e necessitarem de menor colaboração do paciente. O objetivo deste estudo é demonstrar a estabilidade dos resultados obtidos após seis anos de tratamento com expansor tipo Hyrax, seguido do aparelho funcional fixo de Herbst e aparelho fixo. Após uma revisão da literatura, será apresentado um caso clínico, com atresia maxilar e má oclusão de Classe II divisão 1, tratado com essa terapia. O tratamento foi realizado em um curto período de tempo, com resultados funcionais e estéticos satisfatórios e mantidos ao longo dos anos.The Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion is often accompanied by maxillary transverse deficiency. When ever is possible, this maxillary transverse problem must be corrected before the anteroposterior correction. The rapid maxillary expanders is the appliance more used to correct the transverse deficiency. For the Class II malocclusion correction the fixed functional appliances are more studied and used. They are a kind of intraoral appliance that almost don't need patient's collaboration. The aim of this study is to show the results' stability after six years of the orthodontic treatment with Hyrax expander, followed by Herbst and straight wire appliances. After a literature review, a clinical case with maxillary transverse deficiency and Class II division 1 malocclusion treated with this therapy is reported. The treatment duration was very brief and the results were functionally and esthetically satisfactory with a long-term stability.

  18. Interactions of a La{sub O.9}Sr{sub O.1}Ga{sub O.8}Mg{sub O.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} electrolyte with Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Co{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiO anode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Ohara, S.; Okawa, H.; Maric, R.; Fukui, T. [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuo, Atsuta-ku, 456-8587 Nagoya (Japan)

    2001-01-02

    In this study, the interactions of a Sr- and Mg-doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM with composition La{sub O.9}Sr{sub O.1}Ga{sub O.8}Mg{sub O.2}O{sub 3-{delta}}) electrolyte with Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Co{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiO as the anode starting materials were investigated. It was found that the order of reactivity of the LSGM with the three oxides was Co{sub 2}O{sub 3}>NiO>Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and La-containing oxides were detected in these binary powder mixtures after firing. The anode performance was greatly influenced by the interaction. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-LSGM anode, mixed with 40 vol.% LSGM powder and sintered at 1150C, exhibited the highest initial performance in comparison with NiO-LSGM and Co{sub 2}O{sub 3}-LSGM anodes. It seems that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a possible anode starting material for a LSGM-based solid oxide fuel cell.

  19. A screen-printed Ce 0.8Sm 0.2O 1.9 film solid oxide fuel cell with a Ba 0.5Sr 0.5Co 0.8Fe 0.2O 3- δ cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaohui; Huang, Xiqiang; Lu, Zhe; Liu, Zhiguo; Ge, Xiaodong; Xu, Jiahuan; Xin, Xianshuang; Sha, Xueqing; Su, Wenhui

    Screen-printing technology was developed to fabricate Ce 0.8Sm 0.2O 1.9 (SDC) electrolyte films onto porous NiO-SDC green anode substrates. After sintering at 1400 °C for 4 h, a gas-tight SDC film with a thickness of 12 μm was obtained. A novel cathode material of Ba 0.5Sr 0.5Co 0.8Fe 0.2O 3- δ was subsequently applied onto the sintered SDC electrolyte film also by screen-printing and sintered at 970 °C for 3 h to get a single cell. A fuel cell of Ni-SDC/SDC (12 μm)/Ba 0.5Sr 0.5Co 0.8Fe 0.2O 3- δ provides the maximum power densities of 1280, 1080, 670, 370, 180 and 73 mW cm -2 at 650, 600, 555, 505, 455 and 405 °C, respectively, using hydrogen as fuel and stationary air as oxidant. When dry methane was used as fuel, the maximum power densities are 876, 568, 346 and 114 mW cm -2 at 650, 600, 555 and 505 °C, respectively. The present fuel cell shows excellent performance at lowered temperatures.

  20. A Cholera Conjugate Vaccine Containing O-specific Polysaccharide (OSP of V. cholerae O1 Inaba and Recombinant Fragment of Tetanus Toxin Heavy Chain (OSP:rTTHc Induces Serum, Memory and Lamina Proprial Responses against OSP and Is Protective in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Sayeed

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae is the cause of cholera, a severe watery diarrhea. Protection against cholera is serogroup specific. Serogroup specificity is defined by the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS.Here we describe a conjugate vaccine for cholera prepared via squaric acid chemistry from the OSP of V. cholerae O1 Inaba strain PIC018 and a recombinant heavy chain fragment of tetanus toxin (OSP:rTTHc. We assessed a range of vaccine doses based on the OSP content of the vaccine (10-50 μg, vaccine compositions varying by molar loading ratio of OSP to rTTHc (3:1, 5:1, 10:1, effect of an adjuvant, and route of immunization.Immunized mice developed prominent anti-OSP and anti-TT serum IgG responses, as well as vibriocidal antibody and memory B cell responses following intramuscular or intradermal vaccination. Mice did not develop anti-squarate responses. Intestinal lamina proprial IgA responses targeting OSP occurred following intradermal vaccination. In general, we found comparable immune responses in mice immunized with these variations, although memory B cell and vibriocidal responses were blunted in mice receiving the highest dose of vaccine (50 μg. We found no appreciable change in immune responses when the conjugate vaccine was administered in the presence or absence of immunoadjuvant alum. Administration of OSP:rTTHc resulted in 55% protective efficacy in a mouse survival cholera challenge model.We report development of an Inaba OSP:rTTHc conjugate vaccine that induces memory responses and protection against cholera in mice. Development of an effective cholera conjugate vaccine that induces high level and long-term immune responses against OSP would be beneficial, especially in young children who respond poorly to polysaccharide antigens.

  1. Tratamento da má oclusão de Classe II, divisão 1 de Angle, com protrusão maxilar utilizando-se recursos ortopédicos Class II, division 1, with maxillar protrusion's treatment employing orthopedic approachs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Melleiro Gimenez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o presente trabalho tem o propósito de apresentar uma revisão da literatura acerca do tratamento da má oclusão de Classe II, divisão 1 de Angle, tendo a protrusão maxilar como o principal componente dessa má oclusão, durante a fase de crescimento e desenvolvimento craniofacial. Serão apresentadas as características de cada um desses aparelhos, os seus componentes, a forma adequada de utilização, os seus mecanismos de ação e, principalmente, os seus efeitos em todo o complexo dentofacial. CONCLUSÃO: nos casos em que se verifica apenas a protrusão maxilar, sem envolvimento mandibular, e se faz necessário o controle vertical, pode ser indicado o AEB, conjugado ao aparelho removível derivado do aparelho preconizado por Thurow. Já nas situações de combinação da protrusão maxilar com a retrusão mandibular, uma opção de tratamento é o ativador combinado à ancoragem extrabucal.AIM: The purpose of this research is to review the literature about the treatment of Class II, division 1 malocclusion with maxillary protrusion, during the growth and development period. This review addresses the characteristics of these appliances, their components, correct use, action mechanisms, and mainly their consequences in dentofacial complex. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with maxillary protrusion and with no mandibular component, it may be indicated the use of a maxillary splint similar to the one suggested by Thurow. However, in patients with maxillary protrusion and mandibular retrusion, it may be indicated an activator associated with extra oral anchorage.

  2. Estudo da curva de crescimento de animais da raça Guzerá e seus cruzamentos alimentados a pasto, com e sem suplementação: 1. Análise e seleção das funções não-lineares Growth curve analysis of Guzera and their crossbreds fed under grazing with or without supplementation: 1. Analysis and selection of nonlinear functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Orlindo Tedeschi

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar sete funções não-lineares para descrever o crescimento de machos e fêmeas da raça Guzerá e seus cruzamentos (3/4Guzerá-1/4Pardo Suíço, 1/2Nelore-1/4Pardo Suíço-1/4Guzerá, 1/2Pardo Suíço-1/2Guzerá, 1/2Chianina-1/4Pardo Suíço-1/4Guzerá, 1/2Caracú-1/2Guzerá, 1/2Caracu-1/4Pardo Suíço-1/4Guzerá submetidos a três níveis de suplementação (sem, durante o período seco e o ano todo, a fim de analisar e selecionar uma função que apresentasse menores desvios de regressão, menor variação residual, maior coeficiente de determinação, menor variação entre os parâmetros dos animais, maior convergência e valor assintótico compatível com o peso adulto observado. A função que melhor se enquadrou nesses parâmetros de seleção foi a função de Gompertz, seguida da função de Von Bertalanffy. A função de Richards apresentou grande dificuldade computacional para o ajuste, resultando em baixa convergência. As funções de Brody apresentaram as maiores estimativas de peso adulto e a função de Gompertz modificada e Logística, as menores.ABSTRACT - The objective of this work was to evaluate seven non linear functions to describe Guzera male and female growth curves, and their crossbreds (3/4Guzera-1/4Brown Swiss, 1/2Nellore-1/4Brown Swiss-1/4Guzera, 1/2Guzera-1/2Brown Swiss, 1/2Chianina- 1/4Brown Swiss-1/4Guzera, 1/2Caracu-1/2Guzera, 1/2Caracu-1/4Brown Swiss-1/4Guzera submitted to three levels of supplementation (without, during the dry period and the whole year, to analize and to select one function which presented lower regression deviation, lower residual sum of squares, higher coefficient of determination, lower variation among animal parameters, higher convergence and assintotic compatible value with the observed mature weight. The function that best express these parameters of selection was the Gompertz, followed by the Von Bertalanffy function. The Richards function

  3. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Christopher J L; Barber, Ryan M.; Foreman, Kyle J.

    2015-01-01

    the same period. From 2005 to 2013, the number of DALYs increased for most specific non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, in addition to dengue, food-borne trematodes, and leishmaniasis; DALYs decreased for nearly all other causes. By 2013, the five leading causes...

  4. NOAA TIFF Image - 50m Multibeam Bathymetry, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Little Hales - (2003), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight, derived from...

  5. Efeitos do tratamento da Classe II divisão 1 em pacientes dolicofaciais tratados segundo a Terapia Bioprogressiva (AEB cervical e arco base inferior, com ênfase no controle vertical Treatment effects on Class II division 1 high angle patients treated according to the Bioprogressive therapy (cervical headgear and lower utility arch, with emphasis on vertical control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Santini Tamburús

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o presente estudo investigou o controle vertical e os efeitos do tratamento ortodôntico em pacientes dolicofaciais, empregando o AEB cervical e o arco base inferior. MÉTODOS: foi realizada a avaliação cefalométrica de 26 pacientes dolicofaciais com Classe II, divisão 1, idade média de 114 meses. O tratamento ortodôntico envolveu a utilização do AEB cervical na arcada superior e arco base na arcada inferior, até a obtenção da chave de oclusão normal dos molares, e finalizado segundo a Terapia Bioprogressiva, com duração média de 56 meses. Foram avaliados os valores de FMA, SN.GoGn, ANB, Fg-S, S-FPm, comprimento maxilar, comprimento mandibular, AFP (altura facial posterior, AFA (altura facial anterior, IAF (índice de altura facial, ângulo do plano oclusal, ângulo do plano palatino, QT (queixo total, LS (lábio superior e ângulo Z. RESULTADOS: o tratamento promoveu estabilidade dos planos mandibular, oclusal e palatino. Ocorreu a correção anteroposterior das bases apicais, verificada pela redução significativa da grandeza ANB. A maxila apresentou um suave deslocamento anterior,com um suave aumento da dimensão anteroposterior.A mandíbula apresentou melhora de seu posicionamento em relação à base do crânio e sua dimensão anteroposterior aumentou significativamente. As alturas faciais posterior e anterior permaneceram em equilíbrio, não alterando significativamente o IAF. O perfil tegumentar apresentou melhora significativa. CONCLUSÃO: o tratamento realizado promoveu a correção das bases apicais, com controle dos planos horizontais e das alturas faciais, sendo efetivo no controle vertical.OBJECTIVE: This study investigated vertical control and the effects of orthodontic treatment on dolichofacial patients, using cervical headgear (CHG and lower utility arch. METHODS: Cephalometric assessment of 26 dolichofacial patients with Class II, division 1, and mean age of 114 months. Orthodontic treatment involved

  6. Optical Detection of Anomalous Nitrogen in Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    VLT Opens New Window towards Our Origins Summary A team of European astronomers [1] has used the UVES spectrograph on the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope to perform a uniquely detailed study of Comet LINEAR (C/2000 WM1) . This is the first time that this powerful instrument has been employed to obtain high-resolution spectra of a comet. At the time of the observations in mid-March 2002, Comet LINEAR was about 180 million km from the Sun, moving outwards after its perihelion passage in January. As comets are believed to carry "pristine" material - left-overs from the formation of the solar system, about 4,600 million years ago - studies of these objects are important to obtain clues about the origins of the solar system and the Earth in particular. The high quality of the data obtained of this moving 9th-magnitude object has permitted a determination of the cometary abundance of various elements and their isotopes [2]. Of particular interest is the unambiguous detection and measurement of the nitrogen-15 isotope. The only other comet in which this isotope has been observed is famous Comet Hale-Bopp - this was during the passage in 1997, when it was much brighter than Comet LINEAR. Most interestingly, Comet LINEAR and Comet Hale-Bopp display the same isotopic abundance ratio, about 1 nitrogen-15 atom for each 140 nitrogen-14 atoms ( 14 N/ 15 N = 140 ± 30) . That is about half of the terrestrial value (272). It is also very different from the result obtained by means of radio measurements of Comet Hale-Bopp ( 14 N/ 15 N = 330 ± 75). Optical and radio measurements concern different molecules (CN and HCN, respectively), and this isotopic anomaly must be explained by some differentiation mechanism. The astronomers conclude that part of the cometary nitrogen is trapped in macromolecules attached to dust particles . The successful entry of UVES into cometary research now opens eagerly awaited opportunities for similiar observations in other, comparatively faint comets. These

  7. Estudo cefalométrico comparativo dos espaços naso e bucofaríngeo nas más oclusões Classe I e Classe II, Divisão 1, sem tratamento ortodôntico, com diferentes padrões de crescimento A Comparative cephalometric study of the naso and oropharyngeal space in malocclusions Class I and Class II Division 1, without orthodontic treatment with different growth patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadyr M. Penteado Virmond Alcazar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A finalidade deste estudo foi comparar os espaços aéreos naso e bucofaríngeo em indivíduos com má oclusão Classe I e Classe II, divisão 1, segundo Angle, do gênero masculino e feminino, com idade média de 11 anos e 6 meses, com padrão de crescimento normal e vertical, não tratados ortodonticamente. A amostra desse estudo foi dividida em dois grupos: 40 pacientes apresentando Classe I e 40 pacientes com Classe II, divisão 1, cada grupo subdividido de acordo com o padrão de crescimento facial: normal e vertical. Os espaços aéreos naso e bucofaríngeo foram avaliados segundo a análise de McNamara Jr., pelas medidas NFa-NFp e BFa-BFp. A análise dos resultados obtidos revelou que, a medida do espaço bucofaríngeo para Classe I com padrão de crescimento vertical e para o espaço nasofaríngeo para Classe II com padrão normal de crescimento apresentaram-se semelhantes à medida padrão da amostra de McNamara Jr.. As outras medidas apresentaram-se estatisticamente menores. Na comparação entre os grupos, o espaço nasofaríngeo no grupo Classe I com padrão de crescimento vertical, apresentou-se menor do que nos grupos Classe I e grupo Classe II divisão 1, ambos com padrão de crescimento normal. O espaço bucofaríngeo não sofreu alteração significante de um grupo para outro. Em relação à hipertrofia da tonsila faringeana, apenas o grupo Classe I com padrão de crescimento vertical apresentou obstrução; para hipertrofia das tonsilas palatinas, apenas o grupo Classe I com padrão de crescimento vertical e Classe II com padrão de crescimento normal apresentou hipertrofia das tonsilas palatinas.The aim of this study is to compare the naso and oropharyngeal air space in people with malocclusion class I and class II division 1, according to Angle, with mean age from 8 to 15 years old with normal and vertical growth pattern not treated orthodontically. This study was divided into two groups: 40 patients with class I, and 40

  8. Solar system objects in the ISOPHOT 170 mu m serendipity survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, T. G.; Hotzel, S.; Stickel, M.

    2002-07-01

    The ISOPHOT Serendipity Survey (ISOSS) covered approximately 15% of the sky at a wavelength of 170 mu m while the ISO satellite was slewing from one target to the next. By chance, ISOSS slews went over many solar system objects (SSOs). We identified the comets, asteroids and planets in the slews through a fast and effective search procedure based on N-body ephemeris and flux estimates. The detections were analysed from a calibration and scientific point of view. Through the measurements of the well-known asteroids Ceres, Pallas, Juno and Vesta and the planets Uranus and Neptune it was possible to improve the photometric calibration of ISOSS and to extend it to higher flux regimes. We were also able to establish calibration schemes for the important slew end data. For the other asteroids we derived radiometric diameters and albedos through a recent thermophysical model. The scientific results are discussed in the context of our current knowledge of size, shape and albedos, derived from IRAS observations, occultation measurements and lightcurve inversion techniques. In all cases where IRAS observations were available we confirm the derived diameters and albedos. For the five asteroids without IRAS detections only one was clearly detected and the radiometric results agreed with sizes given by occultation and HST observations. Four different comets have clearly been detected at 170 mu m and two have marginal detections. The observational results are presented to be used by thermal comet models in the future. The nine ISOSS slews over Hale-Bopp revealed extended and asymmetric structures related to the dust tail. We attribute the enhanced emission in post-perihelion observations to large particles around the nucleus. The signal patterns are indicative of a concentration of the particles in the trail direction. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the

  9. DYNAMICS OF DUST PARTICLES RELEASED FROM OORT CLOUD COMETS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO RADAR METEORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Pokorný, Petr; Janches, Diego

    2011-01-01

    The Oort Cloud Comets (OCCs), exemplified by the Great Comet of 1997 (Hale-Bopp), are occasional visitors from the heatless periphery of the solar system. Previous works hypothesized that a great majority of OCCs must physically disrupt after one or two passages through the inner solar system, where strong thermal gradients can cause phase transitions or volatile pressure buildup. Here we study the fate of small debris particles produced by OCC disruptions to determine whether the imprints of a hypothetical population of OCC meteoroids can be found in the existing meteor radar data. We find that OCC particles with diameters D ∼ 1 mm have a very low Earth-impact probability. The intermediate particle sizes, D ∼ 100 μm, represent a sweet spot. About 1% of these particles orbitally evolve by Poynting-Robertson drag to reach orbits with semimajor axis a ∼ 1 AU. They are expected to produce meteors with radiants near the apex of Earth's orbital motion. We find that the model distributions of their impact speeds and orbits provide a good match to radar observations of apex meteors, except for the eccentricity distribution, which is more skewed toward e ∼ 1 in our model. Finally, we propose an explanation for the long-standing problem in meteor science related to the relative strength of apex and helion/antihelion sources. As we show in detail, the observed trend, with the apex meteors being more prominent in observations of highly sensitive radars, can be related to orbital dynamics of particles released on the long-period orbits.

  10. The LCO/Gemini-South campaign for Deep Impact target Comet 9P/Tempel 1: Temporally resolved wide-field narrowband imaging results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, S. M.; Osip, D. J.; Thomas-Osip, J. E.; DeBuizer, J. M.; Mondragon, L. A.; Schweiger, D. L.; Viehweg, J.; SB Collaboration

    2005-08-01

    An extensive observing campaign to monitor Comet 9P/Tempel 1 will be conducted from 20 June to 19 July, 2005 at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. These observations will precede and follow the impact of the Deep Impact projectile, which is likely to create a crater on the nucleus that will act as a fresh active area on the surface of the comet. Discreet nucleus active areas, believed to be the source of coma gas and dust jets, will likely result in changing morphology in the coma. We present the initial results of the wide-field narrowband visible imaging of the comet. Data will be taken with the 2.5m DuPont telescope from 27 June - 9 July, following the comet from 4 rotations prior to impact, to 4 rotations after impact using the narrowband Hale-Bopp filters, including CN, C2, and two continuum filters. These data will allow an accurate determination of the rotation state of the embedded nucleus immediately preceding the impact event as well as a measure of any changes to the rotation state due to the impact. In addition, modeling of these data will provide the total dust and gas production rates from the unaltered nucleus compared to the enhanced dust and gas emission from the newly created active region and freely sublimating pieces of mantle material ejected into the coma by the impactor. We will monitor temporal changes (on hours and days time-scales) in the morphology of both the gas and refractory components. We will use coma morphology studies to estimate the dust and gas outflow velocities and infer the presence of discreet nucleus source regions (pre- and post-impact). Of particular interest is the study of the gas-to-dust ratio and the ratio of the minor carbon species emitted from the newly created active region relative to the pre-impact coma environment.

  11. Observations of Interstellar Formamide: Availability of a Prebiotic Precursor in the Galactic Habitable Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adande, Gilles R.; Woolf, Neville J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We conducted a study on interstellar formamide, NH2CHO, toward star-forming regions of dense molecular clouds, using the telescopes of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). The Kitt Peak 12 m antenna and the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) were used to measure multiple rotational transitions of this molecule between 100 and 250 GHz. Four new sources of formamide were found [W51M, M17 SW, G34.3, and DR21(OH)], and complementary data were obtained toward Orion-KL, W3(OH), and NGC 7538. From these observations, column densities for formamide were determined to be in the range of 1.1×1012 to 9.1×1013 cm−2, with rotational temperatures of 70–177 K. The molecule is thus present in warm gas, with abundances relative to H2 of 1×10−11 to 1×10−10. It appears to be a common constituent of star-forming regions that foster planetary systems within the galactic habitable zone, with abundances comparable to that found in comet Hale-Bopp. Formamide's presence in comets and molecular clouds suggests that the compound could have been brought to Earth by exogenous delivery, perhaps with an infall flux as high as ∼0.1 mol/km2/yr or 0.18 mmol/m2 in a single impact. Formamide has recently been proposed as a single-carbon, prebiotic source of nucleobases and nucleic acids. This study suggests that a sufficient amount of NH2CHO could have been available for such chemistry. Key Words: Formamide—Astrobiology—Radioastronomy—ISM—Comets—Meteorites. Astrobiology 13, 439–453. PMID:23654214

  12. Poly[[diaquabis(2,2′-bipyridine-κ2N,N′(μ3-5-hydroxyisophthalato-κ5O1,O1′:O3,O3′:O3′(μ3-5-hydroxyisophthalato-κ4O1,O1′:O3:O3′(μ2-5-hydroxyisophthalato-κ3O1,O1′:O3didysprosium(III] dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lin Zhang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The polymeric title compound, {[Dy2(C8H4O53(C10H8N22(H2O2]·2H2O}n, contains two independent DyIII ions, both of which are nine-coordinated in a distorted tricapped trigonal–prismatic geometry. One DyIII ion is coordinated by five 5-hydroxyisophthalate (hip ligands and one 2,2′-bipyridine (bpy ligand and the other by three hip ligands, one bpy ligand and two water molecules. The DyIII ions are bridged by the carboxylate groups of the hip ligands, forming a three-dimensional framework. O—H...O hydrogen bonds are present in the crystal structure.

  13. The cocrystal μ-oxalato-κ4O1,O2:O1′,O2′-bis(aqua(nitrato-κO{[1-(2-pyridyl-κNethylidene]hydrazine-κN}copper(II μ-oxalato-κ4O1,O2:O1′,O2′-bis((methanol-κO(nitrato-κO{[1-(2-pyridyl-κNethylidene]hydrazine-κN}copper(II (1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssouph Bah

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The title cocrystal, [Cu2(C2O4(NO32(C7H9N32(H2O2][Cu2(C2O4(NO32(C7H9N32(CH4O2], is a 1:1 cocrystal of two centrosymmetric CuII complexes with oxalate dianions and Schiff base ligands. In each molecule, the CuII centre is in a distorted octahedral cis-CuN2O4 environment, the donor atoms of the N,N′-bidentate Schiff base ligand and the bridging O,O′-bidentate oxalate group lying in the equatorial plane. In one molecule, a monodentate nitrate anion and a water molecule occupy the axial sites, and in the other, a monodentate nitrate anion and a methanol molecule occupy these sites. In the crystal structure, intermolecular N—H...O, O—H...O and N—H...N hydrogen bonds link the molecules into a network. Weak intramolecular N—H...O interactions are also observed.

  14. catena-Poly[[bis(pyridine-κNnickel(II]-μ-oxalato-κ4O1,O2:O1′,O2′

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Yu Xuan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Ni(C2O4(C5H5N2]n, was synthesized under hydro(solvothermal conditions. The NiII atom, lying on a twofold rotation axis, has an octahedral coordination geometry involving two N atoms from two pyridine ligands and four O atoms from two oxalate ligands. The Ni atoms are connected by the tetradentate bridging oxalate ligands into a one-dimensional zigzag chain.

  15. Gamma-point lattice free energy estimates from O(1) force calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Johannes; Vegge, Tejs

    2008-01-01

    We present a new method for estimating the vibrational free energy of crystal (and molecular) structures employing only a single force calculation, for a particularly displaced configuration, in addition to the calculation of the ground state configuration. This displacement vector is the sum...

  16. Thermodynamic assessment of the CoOx-CrO1.5 system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östby, Jonas Allan; Chen, Ming

    2009-01-01

    By application of the CALPHAD method, a consistent set of thermodynamic model parameters is optimized for the oxide phases in the Co–Cr–O system. Cobalt chromium spinel is described as a normal spinel at room temperature and with cation redistribution at high temperature. All the solid oxide...... solution phases are described using the compound energy model, and the liquid phase is described using the two-sublattice model for ionic liquids. Calculated phase diagrams are presented, and values for the thermodynamic properties are compared with experimental data....

  17. Restriction of complementary series representations of O(1,N) to symmetric subgroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, Jan; Oshima, Yoshiki

    by a direct integral of principal series representations whereas the discrete part consists of finitely many complementary series representations. The explicit Plancherel formula is computed on the Fourier transformed side of the non-compact realization of the complementary series by using the spectral...

  18. Restriction of complementary series representations of $O(1,N)$ to symmetric subgroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, Jan; Oshima, Yoshiki

    2012-01-01

    is given by a direct integral of principal series representations whereas the discrete part consists of finitely many complementary series representations. The explicit Plancherel formula is computed on the Fourier transformed side of the non-compact realization of the complementary series by using...

  19. Genome Sequence of Vibrio cholerae Strain O1 Ogawa El Tor, Isolated in Mexico, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Quiñonez, José Alberto; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; López-Martínez, Irma; Ortiz-Alcántara, Joanna; González-Durán, Elizabeth; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo; Ramírez-González, José Ernesto

    2014-10-30

    We present the draft genome sequence of Vibrio cholerae InDRE 3140 recovered in 2013 during a cholera outbreak in Mexico. The genome showed the Vibrio 7th pandemic islands VSP1 and VSP2, the pathogenic islands VPI-1 and VPI-2, the integrative and conjugative element SXT/R391 (ICE-SXT), and both prophages CTXφ and RS1φ. Copyright © 2014 Díaz-Quiñonez et al.

  20. Genome Sequence of Vibrio cholerae Strain O1 Ogawa El Tor, Isolated in Mexico, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Quiñonez, José Alberto; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; López-Martínez, Irma; Ortiz-Alcántara, Joanna; González-Durán, Elizabeth; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo; Ramírez-González, José Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    We present the draft genome sequence of Vibrio cholerae InDRE 3140 recovered in 2013 during a cholera outbreak in Mexico. The genome showed the Vibrio 7th pandemic islands VSP1 and VSP2, the pathogenic islands VPI-1 and VPI-2, the integrative and conjugative element SXT/R391 (ICE-SXT), and both prophages CTXφ and RS1φ.

  1. Diaquabis(5-fluoro-2-hydroxybenzoato-κO1zinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Zn(C7H4FO32(H2O2], is a monomeric ZnII complex. The ZnII atom, which lies on a twofold rotation axis, is situated in a distorted tetrahedral environment composed of two monodentate carboxlyate O atoms and two water O atoms. O—H...O hydrogen bonds link these units, forming sheets that are stacked along the c axis.

  2. An Oblivious O(1)-Approximation for Single Source Buy-at-Bulk

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish; Post, Ian

    2009-01-01

    We consider the single-source (or single-sink) buy-at-bulk problem with an unknown concave cost function. We want to route a set of demands along a graph to or from a designated root node, and the cost of routing x units of flow along an edge

  3. Encapsulation Strategies of Bacteriophage (Felix O1) for Oral Therapeutic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Golam S; Wang, Qi; Sabour, Parviz M

    2018-01-01

    Due to emerging antibiotic-resistant strains among the pathogens, a variety of strategies, including therapeutic application of bacteriophages, have been suggested as a possible alternative to antibiotics in food animal production. As pathogen-specific biocontrol agents, bacteriophages are being studied intensively. Primarily their applications in the food industry and animal production have been recognized in the USA and Europe, for pathogens including Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, and Listeria. However, the viability of orally administered phage may rapidly reduce under the harsh acidic conditions of the stomach, presence of enzymes and bile. It is evident that bacteriophages, intended for phage therapy by oral administration, require efficient protection from the acidic environment of the stomach and should remain active in the animal's gastrointestinal tract where pathogen colonizes. Encapsulation of phages by spray drying or extrusion methods can protect phages from the simulated hostile gut conditions and help controlled release of phages to the digestive system when appropriate formulation strategy is implemented.

  4. Biocatalytic application of nitrilases from Fusarium solani O1 and Aspergillus niger K10

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Winkler, M.; Kaplan, Ondřej; Vejvoda, Vojtěch; Klempier, N.; Martínková, Ludmila

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2009), s. 243-247 ISSN 1381-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200708; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Amino nitriles * Nitrilase * Substrate specificity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.400, year: 2009

  5. Purification and characterization of a nitrilase from Fusarium solani O1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejvoda, Vojtěch; Kaplan, Ondřej; Bezouška, Karel; Pompach, Petr; Šulc, Miroslav; Cantarella, M.; Benada, Oldřich; Uhnáková, Bronislava; Rinágelová, Anna; Lutz-Wahl, S.; Fischer, L.; Křen, Vladimír; Martínková, Ludmila

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 50, 2-4 (2008), s. 99-106 ISSN 1381-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200708; GA ČR GA203/05/2267; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010; GA MŠk OC D25.002 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) D10-CZ25/06-07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : nitrilase * fusarium solani * nitrile hydrolysis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.015, year: 2008

  6. Hydrocarbons. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on hydrocarbons is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit is divided into sections dealing with alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, arenes, and several aspects of the petroleum industry. Two experiments, exercises (with answers), and pre- and post-tests are included.…

  7. Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae O1 serogroup in Assam, India: A hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajanta Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Emergence of resistance amongst V. cholerae towards many antibiotics is a matter of concern. Hence, continuous surveillance for diarrhoeal disorders is necessary to control the future outbreaks of cholera in this region.

  8. Numerical simulation of solar cells besed CZTS buffer layer (ZnO 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cds buffer layer has many advantages such as large bandgap, and the carrier density. Otherwise, the presence of cadmium is an inconvenient. Research work, are shifted on the possibility of replacing CdS by a buffer layer devoid of cadmium. This manuscript presents the numerical study, using SCAPS-1D program, the ...

  9. Comparative Genomics of Vibrio cholerae O1 Isolated from Cholera Patients in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Dalsgaard, Anders

    patients was co-infected with two V. cholerae strains (VC-1 and VC-3). Major virulence factors, biotype and antimicrobial resistance genes were identified by WGS. A global phylogenetic tree was inferred using genome wide SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) analysis. RESULTS: All the V. cholerae strains...

  10. [Microbiological characterization of non-O1 Vibrio cholerae isolated in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo Fariñas, Laura; Fernández, Anabel; Ramírez, María M; Llop, Alina; Martínez, Gerardo; Hernández, Raquel I; Cabrera, Luis E; Morier, Luis; Fraga, Jorge; Núñez, Fidel A; Aguila, Adalberto

    2007-01-01

    The study of 422 non-01 Vibrio cholerae strains from nine provinces, 9 of them isolated from a water-borne disease outbreak, was performed. All the strains exhibited antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence factors. The nine strains from the outbreak were subjected to a DNA macrorestriction study based on the pulsed field electrophoresis technique. For the first time in Cuba and the Caribbean. The circulation of atypical non-01 V cholerae strains (resistent to vibriostatic compound 0129 and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole). The behavior of antimicrobial susceptibility evinced for the first time the circulation of two different resistence patterns in Cuba (ampicilline, trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, sulfonamide and tetracycline, trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, sulfonamide). The frequency of trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole-resistent strains was similar during the whole period of study. However, resistance to ampicilline decreased whereas resistance to tetracycline increased. The main found virulence factors were gelatinase, hemolysine, elastase and adherence to Hep-2 cells. On the other hand, the outbreak strains showed higher percentages than the others due to the presence of heat-liable toxin and fimbriae. The results of the molecular and epidemiological studies allowed giving a speedy and accurate response that explained the etiology of the first food-borne disease outbreak.

  11. Structural characterization of the extracellular polysaccharide from Vibrio cholerae O1 El-Tor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitnat Yildiz

    Full Text Available The ability to form biofilms is important for environmental survival, transmission, and infectivity of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera in humans. To form biofilms, V. cholerae produces an extracellular matrix composed of proteins, nucleic acids and a glycoconjugate, termed Vibrio exopolysaccharide (VPS. Here, we present the data on isolation and characterization of the polysaccharide part of the VPS (VPS-PS, which has the following structure: -4-α-GulpNAcAGly3OAc-(1-4-β-D-Glcp-(1-4-α-Glcp-(1-4-α-D-Galp-(1- where α-D-Glc is partially (∼20% replaced with α-D-GlcNAc. α-GulNAcAGly is an amide between 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-guluronic acid and glycine. Apparently, the polysaccharide is bound to a yet unidentified component, which gives it high viscosity and completely suppresses any NMR signals belonging to the sugar chains of the VPS. The only reliable method to remove this component at present is a treatment of the whole glycoconjugate with concentrated hydrochloric acid.

  12. Haplotypes of bovine FoxO1 gene sequence variants and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    both winged loops also make important interactions with. DNA (Clark et al. 1993 ... stress response, and some shared downstream transcriptional targets have been ... tant role in integration of hormone-activated signalling path- ways with the ...

  13. Optimally setting up directed searches for continuous gravitational waves in Advanced LIGO O1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jing; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Krishnan, Badri; Prix, Reinhard; Beer, Christian; Zhu, Sylvia J.; Eggenstein, Heinz-Bernd; Bock, Oliver; Machenschalk, Bernd

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we design a search for continuous gravitational waves from three supernova remnants: Vela Jr., Cassiopeia A (Cas A) and G347.3. These systems might harbor rapidly rotating neutron stars emitting quasiperiodic gravitational radiation detectable by the advanced LIGO detectors. Our search is designed to use the volunteer computing project Einstein@Home for a few months and assumes the sensitivity and duty cycles of the advanced LIGO detectors during their first science run. For all three supernova remnants, the sky positions of their central compact objects are well known but the frequency and spin-down rates of the neutron stars are unknown which makes the searches computationally limited. In a previous paper we have proposed a general framework for deciding on what target we should spend computational resources and in what proportion, what frequency and spin-down ranges we should search for every target, and with what search setup. Here we further expand this framework and apply it to design a search directed at detecting continuous gravitational wave signals from the most promising three supernova remnants identified as such in the previous work. Our optimization procedure yields broad frequency and spin-down searches for all three objects, at an unprecedented level of sensitivity: The smallest detectable gravitational wave strain h0 for Cas A is expected to be 2 times smaller than the most sensitive upper limits published to date, and our proposed search, which was set up and ran on the volunteer computing project Einstein@Home, covers a much larger frequency range.

  14. 76 FR 38414 - James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Draft Comprehensive Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... Ellis, Project Leader, O`ahu National Wildlife Refuge Complex, 66-590 Kamehameha Highway, Room 2C, Hale...`ahu National Wildlife Refuge Complex, 66-590 Kamehameha Highway, Room 2C, Hale`iwa, HI 96712. The...

  15. Phentermine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... paternal- exposures- pregnancy/ pdf/ . References: Aronne LJ. 1998. Obesity. Womens Health Issues 82(1):161- 181. Hale TW. 2008. Medications and Mothers’ Milk, 13th ed. Amarillo, TX: Hale Publishing. Johnson KA, ...

  16. The species of Canomaculina, Myelochroa, Parmeunella, and Parmeunopsis (Parmeliaceae, Lichenized Ascomycotina from the "segundo planalto" in the state of Paraná, Brazil Espécies de Canomaculina, Myelochroa, Parmelinella e Parmelinopsis (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycotina Liquenizados do segundo planalto do Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sionara Eliasaro

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the species of Canomaculina Elix & Hale, Myelochroa (Asahina Elix & Hale, Parmelinella Elix & Hale and Parmelinopsis Elix & Hale occuring in the "Segundo Planalto" in the State of Paraná. Keys Identification are given. Six species are reported for the first time for Paraná. Parmelinella wallichiana is cited for the first time for the American continent.Este estudo descreve as espécies de Canomaculina Elix & Hale, Myelochroa (Asahina Elix & Hale, Parmelinella Elix & Hale e Parmelinopsis Elix & Hale ocorrentes no Segundo Planalto do Estado do Paraná. São apresentadas chaves para a identificação das espécies. Seis espécies são citadas pela primeira vez para o Estado do Paraná. Parmelinella wallichiana é citada pela primeira vez para o Continente Americano.

  17. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Simon I; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M; Abebo, Teshome Abuka; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Ackerman, Ilana N; Adedeji, Isaac A; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Afshin, Ashkan

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expec...

  18. Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) in Iran and its neighboring countries, 1990–2015 : Findings from global burden of disease study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G. Sepanlou (Sadaf G); Parsaeian, M. (Mahboubeh); Krohn, K.J. (Kristopher J.); Afshin, A. (Ashkan); Farzadfar, F. (Farshad); Roshandel, G. (Gholamreza); C. Karimkhani (Chante); Bazargan-Hejazi, S. (Sharzad); Kiadaliri, A.A. (Aliasghar Ahmad); H. Ahmadieh (Hamid); Djalalinia, S. (Shirin); Ebrahimi, H. (Hedyeh); Eshrati, B. (Babak); A. Esteghamati (Alireza); Farvid, M.S. (Maryam S.); S.-M. Fereshtehnejad (Seyed-Mohammad); Hafezi-Nejad, N. (Nima); Hassanvand, M.S. (Mohammad Sadegh); Heydarpour, P. (Pouria); Islami, F. (Farhad); Karimi, S.M. (Seyed M.); Katibeh, M. (Marzieh); Khosravi, A. (Ardeshir); Khubchandani, J. (Jagdish); Mahdavi, M. (Mahdi); Pishgar, F. (Farhad); Qorbani, M. (Mostafa); V. Rahimi-Movaghar (Vafa); Safi, S. (Sare); Ali Sahraian, M. (Mohammad); S. Shahraz (Saeid); Sheikhbahaei, S. (Sara); Mohammadi, A. (Alireza); A.H. Mokdad (Ali H); T. Vos (Theo); C.J.L. Murray (Christopher); Moradi-Lakeh, M. (Maziar); R. Malekzadeh (Reza)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Summary measures of health are essential in making estimates of health status that are comparable across time and place. They can be used for assessing the performance of health systems, informing effective policy making, and monitoring the progress of nations toward

  19. ÖZEL SEKTÖR ŞİRKETLERİ İÇİN YİD İHALE PROBLEMİNİN ÇOK AMAÇLI OPTİMİZASYONU

    OpenAIRE

    ACAR, Elif; DURUCASU, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Today, around the world, Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) project finance model is used frequently in numerous projects. One key aspect to the success of project company who wishing to gain BOT tender is to prepare a financial package consistent with the expectations of the related participants in accordance with BOT contract. The debt to equity ratio, the concession length and the unit prices are the important financial decision variables to be determined by the project company. The objective of...

  20. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013 : quantifying the epidemiological transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murray, Christopher J. L.; Barber, Ryan M.; Foreman, Kyle J.; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw F.; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Jerry P.; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Achoki, Tom; Ackerman, Ilana N.; Ademi, Zanfina; Adou, Arsene K.; Adsuar, Jose C.; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie E.; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I.; Alegretti, Miguel A.; Alemu, Zewdie A.; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Almazroa, Mohammad A.; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Ameh, Emmanuel A.; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, H. Ross; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Arnlov, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asghar, Rana J.; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S.; Avila, Marco A.; Awuah, Baffour; Hoek, Hans W.; Singh, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex

  1. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990–2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murray, C.J.; Barber, R.M.; Foreman, K.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age–sex

  2. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hay, Simon I.; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abebo, Teshome Abuka; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Ackerman, Ilana N.; Adedeji, Isaac A.; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Afshin, Ashkan; Aggarwal, Rakesh; Agrawal, Sutapa; Agrawal, Anurag; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Aiyar, Sneha; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Akseer, Nadia; Al Lami, Faris Hasan; Alahdab, Fares; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore; Alam, Tahiya; Alasfoor, Deena; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Ali, Raghib; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Alkaabi, Juma M.; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Christine; Al-Maskari, Fatma; AlMazroa, Mohammad AbdulAziz; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alsharif, Ubai; Alsowaidi, Shirina; Althouse, Benjamin M.; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amini, Erfan; Ammar, Walid; Ampem, Yaw Amoako; Ansha, Mustafa Geleto; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Arnlov, Johan; Arora, Megha; Al Artaman, Ali; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Asgedom, Solomon W.; Atey, Tesfay Mehari; Atnafu, Niguse Tadele; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Awasthi, Shally; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Azzopardi, Peter; Babalola, Tesleem Kayode; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Bannick, Marlena S.; Barac, Aleksandra; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barnighausen, Till; Barquera, Simon; Barrero, Lope H.; Basu, Sanjay; Battista, Robert; Battle, Katherine E.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Bejot, Yannick; Bekele, Bayu Begashaw; Bell, Michelle L.; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bennett, James R.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Benson, Jennifer; Berhane, Adugnaw; Berhe, Derbew Fikadu; Bernabe, Eduardo; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Beuran, Mircea; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Bhansali, Anil; Bhatt, Samir; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bienhoff, Kelly; Bikbov, Boris; Birungi, Charles; Biryukov, Stan; Bisanzio, Donal; Bizuayehu, Habtamu Mellie; Blyth, Fiona M.; Boneya, Dube Jara; Bose, Dipan; Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R.; Bourne, Rupert R. A.; Brainin, Michael; Brayne, Carol E. G.; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Briant, Paul S.; Britton, Gabrielle; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Bulto, Lemma Negesa Bulto; Bumgarner, Blair; Butt, Zahid A.; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero; Cameron, Ewan; Ricardo Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Carabin, Helene; Cardenas, Rosario; Carpenter, David O.; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Carter, Austin; Carvalho, Felix; Casey, Daniel; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo; Castle, Chris D.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Chen, Honglei; Chibalabala, Mirriam; Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe; Chitheer, Abdulaal A.; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Cirillo, Massimo; Colombara, Danny; Cooper, Leslie Trumbull; Cooper, Cyrus; Cortesi, Paolo Angelo; Cortinovis, Monica; Criqui, Michael H.; Cromwell, Elizabeth A.; Cross, Marita; Crump, John A.; Dadi, Abel Fekadu; Dalal, Koustuv; Damasceno, Albertino; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; das Neves, Jose; Davitoiu, Dragos V.; Davletov, Kairat; de Courten, Barbora; de Leo, Diego; De Steur, Hans; Degenhardt, Louisa; Deiparine, Selina; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Deribew, Amare; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Dey, Subhojit; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dhillon, Preet K.; Dicker, Daniel; Djalalinia, Shirin; Huyen Phuc Do,; Dokova, Klara; Doku, David Teye; Dorsey, E. Ray; Bender dos Santos, Kadine Priscila; Driscoll, Tim R.; Dubey, Manisha; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Ebel, Beth E.; Echko, Michelle; El-Khatib, Ziad Ziad; Enayati, Ahmadali; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Erskine, Holly E.; Eshetie, Setegn; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Fanuel, Fanuel Belayneh Bekele; Farag, Tamer; Sofia, Carla; Farinha, Sa; Faro, Andre; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fazeli, Mir Sohail; Feigin, Valery L.; Feigl, Andrea B.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Joao C.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Filip, Irina; Fischer, Florian; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle J.; Franklin, Richard C.; Frostad, Joseph J.; Fullman, Nancy; Furst, Thomas; Furtado, Joao M.; Futran, Neal D.; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L.; Gebre, Teshome; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Geleto, Ayele; Gemechu, Bikila Lencha; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Gething, Peter W.; Ghajar, Alireza; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gillum, Richard F.; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Giussani, Giorgia; Godwin, William W.; Goel, Kashish; Goenka, Shifalika; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Gona, Philimon N.; Goodridge, Amador; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Gosselin, Richard A.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Graetz, Nicholas; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Prakash C.; Gupta, Tanush; Gupta, Vipin; Gupta, Rahul; Gutierrez, Reyna A.; Hachinski, Vladimir; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hailu, Alemayehu Desalegne; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Hammami, Mouhanad; Handal, Alexis J.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Hareri, Habtamu Abera; Haro, Josep Maria; Harun, Kimani M.; Harvey, James; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Roderick J.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Hendrie, Delia; Henry, Nathaniel J.; Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Horino, Masako; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hostiuc, Sorin; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian G.; Htet, Aung Soe; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, John J.; Huynh, Chantal; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Igumbor, Ehimario Uche; Ikeda, Chad; Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; James, Peter; Jassal, Simerjot K.; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jayaraman, Sudha P.; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; John, Denny; Johnson, Catherine O.; Johnson, Sarah Charlotte; Jonas, Jost B.; Jurisson, Mikk; Kabir, Zubair; Kadel, Rajendra; Kahsay, Amaha; Kamal, Ritul; Kar, Chittaranjan; Karam, Nadim E.; Karch, Andre; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Karimi, Seyed M.; Karimkhani, Chante; Kasaeian, Amir; Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Kassaw, Nigussie Assefa; Kastor, Anshul; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kemmer, Laura; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khang, Young-Ho; Khoja, Abdullah T.; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Yun Jin; Kim, Daniel; Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kisa, Adnan; Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna A.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Kivimaki, Mika; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kolte, Dhaval; Kopec, Jacek A.; Kosen, Soewarta; Kotsakis, Georgios A.; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Kravchenko, Michael; Krohn, Kristopher J.; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kumar, G. Anil; Kumar, Pushpendra; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Lager, Anton Carl Jonas; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lambert, Nkurunziza; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C.; Larsson, Anders; Leasher, Janet L.; Lee, Paul H.; Leigh, James; Leshargie, Cheru Tesema; Leung, Janni; Leung, Ricky; Levi, Miriam; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liang, Xiaofeng; Liben, Misgan Legesse; Lim, Stephen S.; Linn, Shai; Liu, Angela; Liu, Patrick Y.; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lodha, Rakesh; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Looker, Katharine J.; Lopez, Alan D.; Lorkowski, Stefan; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lozano, Rafael; Lucas, Timothy C. D.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan A.; Macarayan, Erlyn Rachelle King; Maddison, Emilie R.; Abd el Razek, Hassan Magdy; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mahdavi, Mahdi; Majdan, Marek; Majdzadeh, Reza; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malhotra, Rajesh; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Manguerra, Helena; Manhertz, Treh; Mantovani, Lorenzo G.; Mapoma, Chabila C.; March, Lyn M.; Marczak, Laurie B.; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Henrique, Paulo; Martins, Viegas; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlndio; Martopullo, Ira; Marz, Winfried; Mathur, Manu Raj; Mazidi, Mohsen; McAlinden, Colm; McGaughey, Madeline; McGrath, John J.; Mckee, Martin; Mehata, Suresh; Meier, Toni; Meles, Kidanu Gebremariam; Memiah, Peter; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mengesha, Melkamu Merid; Mengistie, Mubarek Abera; Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese; Mensah, George A.; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane; Micha, Renata; Millear, Anoushka; Miller, Ted R.; Minnig, Shawn; Mirarefin, Mojde; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mohammed, Kedir Endris; Mohammed, Muktar Sano Kedir; Mohan, Murali B. V.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mollenkopf, Sarah K.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montanez Hernandez, Julio Cesar; Montico, Marcella; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moraga, Paula; Morawska, Lidia; Mori, Rintaro; Morrison, Shane D.; Moses, Mark; Mountjoy-Venning, Cliff; Mruts, Kalayu Birhane; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Muller, Kate; Mudoch, Michele E.; Murthy, Srinivas; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Nachega, Jean B.; Nagel, Gabriele; Naghavi, Mohsen; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Nangia, Vinay; Nasher, Jamal T.; Natarajan, Gopalakrishnan; Negasa, Dumessa Edessa; Negoi, Ionut; Negoi, Ruxandra Irina; Newton, Charles R.; Ngunjiri, Josephine Wanjiku; Cuong Tat Nguyen,; Quyen Le Nguyen, [Unknown; Grant Nguyen,; Trang Huyen Nguyen,; Minh Nguyen, [No Value; Nichols, Emma; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Vuong Minh Nong,; Norheim, Ole F.; Norrving, Bo; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.; Nyandwi, Alypio; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; O'Donnell, Martin J.; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Okoro, Anselm; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Olagunju, Andrew Toyin; Olagunju, Tinuke Oluwasefunmi; Olsen, Helen E.; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Ong, Kanyin; Opio, John Nelson; Oren, Eyal; Ortiz, Alberto; Osborne, Richard H.; Osgood-Zimmerman, Aaron; Osman, Majdi; Ota, Erika; Owolabi, Mayowa O.; Pa, Mahesh; Pacella, Rosana E.; Panda, Basant Kumar; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D.; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Patil, Snehal T.; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Paudel, Deepak; Paulson, Katherine; Pearce, Neil; Pereira, David M.; Perez, Krystle Marie; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie Beth; Petri, William Arthur; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Phipps, Geoffrey; Pigott, David M.; Pillay, Julian David; Pinho, Christine; Piradov, Michael A.; Plass, Dietrich; Pletcher, Martin A.; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Narayan; Purcell, Carrie; Purwar, Manorama; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rabiee, Rynaz H. S.; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rajsic, Sasa; Ram, Usha; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Rangaswamy, Thara; Rankin, Zane; Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya; Rao, Puja C.; Rawaf, Salman; Ray, Sarah E.; Reiner, Robert C.; Reinig, Nikolas; Reitsma, Marissa; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Resnikoff, Serge; Rezaei, Satar; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Roba, Hirbo Shore; Robinson, Stephen R.; Rojas-Rueda, David; Rokni, Mohammad Bagher; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Roth, Gregory A.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Roy, Ambuj; Rubagotti, Enrico; Ruhago, George Mugambage; Saadat, Soheil; Safdarian, Mahdi; Safiri, Saeid; Sagar, Rajesh; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Salama, Joseph; Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad; Salomon, Joshua A.; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Samy, Abdallah M.; Sanabria, Juan Ramon; Dolores Sanchez-Nino, Maria; Santomauro, Damian; Santos, Joao Vasco; Santos, Itamar S.; Milicevic, Milena M. Santric; Sartorius, Benn; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Saxena, Sonia; Schelonka, Kathryn; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Ben Schottker,; Schutte, Aletta E.; Schwebel, David C.; Schwendicke, Falk; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shaheen, Amira; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shamsipour, Mansour; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Sharma, Rajesh; Sharma, Jayendra; She, Jun; Shi, Peilin; Shibuya, Kenji; Shields, Chloe; Shiferaw, Mekonnen Sisay; Shigematsu, Mika; Shiri, Rahman; Shirkoohi, Reza; Shirude, Shreya; Shishani, Kawkab; Shoman, Haitham; Siabani, Soraya; Sibai, Abla Mehio; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silberberg, Donald H.; Silva, Joao Pedro; Santos Silva, Diego Augusto; Alves Silveira, Dayane Gabriele; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Virendra; Singh, Om Prakash; Singh, Narinder Pal; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Skiadaresi, Eirini; Skirbekk, Vegard; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Smith, David L.; Smith, Mari; Sobaih, Badr H. A.; Sobngwi, Eugene; Soljak, Michael; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Moraes Sousa, Tatiane Cristina; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah Babale; Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Sur, Patrick J.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L.; Sylte, Dillon; Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tadakamadla, Santosh Kumar; Taffere, Getachew Redae; Takala, Jukka S.; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tarekegn, Yihunie L.; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taveira, Nuno; Taylor, Hugh R.; Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash; Tekelab, Tesfalidet; Shifa, Girma Temam; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Tesfaye, Dawit Jember; Tesssema, Belay; Thakur, J. S.; Thamsuwan, Ornwipa; Theadom, Alice M.; Theis, Andrew M.; Thomas, Katie E.; Thomas, Nihal; Thompson, Robert; Thrift, Amanda G.; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Tobollik, Myriam; Tonelli, Marcello; Topor-Madry, Roman; Tortajada, Miguel; Touvier, Mathilde; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach Xuan; Troeger, Christopher; Truelsen, Thomas; Tsoi, Derrick; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Tymeson, Hayley; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Updike, Rachel; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S. Chudi; van Boven, Job F. M.; Varughese, Santosh; Vasankari, Tommi; Veerman, Lennert J.; Venkatesh, S.; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Vidavalur, Ramesh; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Violante, Francesco S.; Vishnu, Abhishek; Vladimirov, Sergey K.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Vos, Theo; Wadilo, Fiseha; Wakayo, Tolassa; Wallin, Mitchell T.; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Werdecker, Andrea; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wijeratne, Tissa; Williams, Hywel C.; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Woldeyes, Belete Getahun; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Woodbrook, Rachel; Woolf, Anthony D.; Workicho, Abdulhalik; Xavier, Denis; Xu, Gelin; Yadgir, Simon; Yaghoubi, Mohsen; Yakob, Bereket; Yan, Lijing L.; Yano, Yuichiro; Ye, Pengpeng; Yihdego, Mahari Gidey; Yimam, Hassen Hamid; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Yotebieng, Marcel; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zegeye, Elias Asfaw; Zenebe, Zerihun Menlkalew; Zhang, Xueying; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zipkin, Ben; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zoeckler, Leo; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global

  3. Contribution to the knowledge of the lichen biota of Bolivia. 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flakus Adam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new records of 135 lichen taxa in Bolivia. Two species, Myriotrema laeviusculum (Nyl. Hale and Graphis tenoriensis Chaves & Lücking, are new for the Southern Hemisphere; two, Cladonia uncialis (L. Weber ex F. H. Wigg. and Thelocarpon laureri (Flot. Nyl., are new for South America; and 27 species are new for Bolivia: Acanthotrema brasilianum (Hale Frisch, Bulbothrix laevigatula (Nyl. Hale, B. leprieurii Aubel, Canoparmelia salacinifera (Hale Hale, Catolechia wahlenbergii (Flot. ex Ach. Körb., Chapsa alborosella (Nyl. Frisch, Coccocarpia dissecta Swinscow & Krog, Graphis apertoinspersa Rivas Plata & Lücking, G. cinerea Fée, G. globosa (Fée Spreng., G. haleana R. C. Harris, G. marginata Raddi, G. pilarensis Cáceres & Lücking, G. striatula (Ach. Spreng., Hemithecium oryzaeforme (Fée Staiger, Hypotrachyna protochlorina Sipman, Elix & T. H. Nash, H. sinuosella Elix, T. H. Nash & Sipman, H. tariensis Elix, Parmeliella isidiopannosa Jørg., Parmotrema conferendum Hale, P. enteroxanthum Hale, P. laciniellum (Ferraro & Elix Blanco et al., P. pilosum (Stizenb. Krog & Swinscow, P. recipiendum (Nyl. Hale, P. ruptum (Lynge Hale ex DePriest & Hale, Pyxine pungens Zahlbr. and Xanthoparmelia substenophylloides Hale. Notes on distribution are provided for the species. Bulbothrix goebelii (Zenker Hale is excluded from the list of Bolivian lichens; the record is referred to B. laevigatula.

  4. Synthesis of Large Molecules in Cometary Ice Analogs: Physical Properties Related to Self-Assembly Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Jason P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Deamer, David W.; Gillette, J. Seb; Zare, Richard N.; Allamandola, Louis J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The combination of realistic laboratory simulations and infrared observations have revolutionized our understanding of interstellar dust and ice-the main component of comets. Since comets and carbonaceous micrometeorites may have been important sources of volatiles and carbon compounds on the early Earth, their organic composition may be related to the origin of life. Ices on grains in molecular clouds contain a variety of simple molecules. The D/H ratios of the comets Hale-Bopp and Hyakutake are consistent with a primarily interstellar ice mixture. Within the cloud and especially in the presolar nebula through the early solar system, these icy grains would have been photoprocessed by the ultraviolet producing more complex species such as hexamethylenetetramine, polyoxymethylenes, and simple keones. We reported at the 1999 Bioastronomy meeting laboratory simulations studied to identify the types of molecules which could have been generated in pre-cometary ices. Experiments were conducted by forming a realistic interstellar mixed-molecular ice (H2O, CH3OH, NH3 and CO) at approximately 10 K under high vacuum irradiated with UV light from a hydrogen plasma lamp. The gas mixture was typically 100:50:1:1, however when different ratios were used material with similar characteristics was still produced. The residue that remained after warming to room temperature was analyzed by HPLC, and by several mass spectrometric methods. This material contains a rich mixture of complex compounds with mass spectral profiles resembling those found in IDPs and meteorites. Surface tension measurements show that an amphiphilic component is also present. These species do not appear in various controls or in unphotolyzed samples. Residues from the simulations were also dispersed in aqueous media for microscopy. The organic material forms 10-40 gm diameter droplets that fluoresce at 300-450 nm under UV excitation. These droplets have a morphology and internal structure which appear

  5. Mid-infrared interferometric variability of DG Tauri: Implications for the inner-disk structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, J.; Gabányi, K. É.; Ábrahám, P.; Chen, L.; Kóspál, Á.; Menu, J.; Ratzka, Th.; van Boekel, R.; Dullemond, C. P.; Henning, Th.; Jaffe, W.; Juhász, A.; Moór, A.; Mosoni, L.; Sipos, N.

    2017-08-01

    Context. DG Tau is a low-mass pre-main sequence star, whose strongly accreting protoplanetary disk exhibits a so-far enigmatic behavior: its mid-infrared thermal emission is strongly time-variable, even turning the 10 μm silicate feature from emission to absorption temporarily. Aims: We look for the reason for the spectral variability at high spatial resolution and at multiple epochs. Methods: Infrared interferometry can spatially resolve the thermal emission of the circumstellar disk, also giving information about dust processing. We study the temporal variability of the mid-infrared interferometric signal, observed with the VLTI/MIDI instrument at six epochs between 2011 and 2014. We fit a geometric disk model to the observed interferometric signal to obtain spatial information about the disk. We also model the mid-infrared spectra by template fitting to characterize the profile and time dependence of the silicate emission. We use physically motivated radiative transfer modeling to interpret the mid-infrared interferometric spectra. Results: The inner disk (r 1-3 au) spectra show a crystalline silicate feature in emission, similar to the spectra of comet Hale-Bopp. The striking difference between the inner and outer disk spectral feature is highly unusual among T Tauri stars. The mid-infrared variability is dominated by the outer disk. The strength of the silicate feature changed by more than a factor of two. Between 2011 and 2014 the half-light radius of the mid-infrared-emitting region decreased from 1.15 to 0.7 au. Conclusions: For the origin of the absorption we discuss four possible explanations: a cold obscuring envelope, an accretion heated inner disk, a temperature inversion on the disk surface and a misaligned inner geometry. The silicate emission in the outer disk can be explained by dusty material high above the disk plane, whose mass can change with time, possibly due to turbulence in the disk. Based on observations made with the ESO Very Large

  6. Space Science Reference Guide, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Renee (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This Edition contains the following reports: GRACE: Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment; Impact Craters in the Solar System; 1997 Apparition of Comet Hale-Bopp Historical Comet Observations; Baby Stars in Orion Solve Solar System Mystery; The Center of the Galaxy; The First Rock in the Solar System; Fun Times with Cosmic Rays; The Gamma-Ray Burst Next Door; The Genesis Mission: An Overview; The Genesis Solar Wind Sample Return Mission; How to Build a Supermassive Black Hole; Journey to the Center of a Neutron Star; Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion; The Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud ; Mapping the Baby Universe; More Hidden Black Hole Dangers; A Polarized Universe; Presolar Grains of Star Dust: Astronomy Studied with Microscopes; Ring Around the Black Hole; Searching Antarctic Ice for Meteorites; The Sun; Astrobiology: The Search for Life in the Universe; Europa and Titan: Oceans in the Outer Solar System?; Rules for Identifying Ancient Life; Inspire ; Remote Sensing; What is the Electromagnetic Spectrum? What is Infrared? How was the Infrared Discovered?; Brief History of Gyroscopes ; Genesis Discovery Mission: Science Canister Processing at JSC; Genesis Solar-Wind Sample Return Mission: The Materials ; ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and Land; Elevation Satellite ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite Measuring T