WorldWideScience

Sample records for nz land transport

  1. Global Land Transport Infrastructure Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Over the next four decades, global passenger and freight travel is expected to double over 2010 levels. In order to accommodate this growth, it is expected that the world will need to add nearly 25 million paved road lane-kilometres and 335 000 rail track kilometres. In addition, it is expected that between 45 000 square kilometres and 77 000 square kilometres of new parking spaces will be added to accommodate vehicle stock growth. These land transport infrastructure additions, when combined with operations, maintenance and repairs, are expected to cost as much as USD 45 trillion by 2050. This publication reports on the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) analysis of infrastructure requirements to support projected road and rail travel through 2050, using the IEA Mobility Model. It considers land transport infrastructure additions to support travel growth to 2050. It also considers potential savings if countries pursue “avoid and shift” policies: in this scenario, cumulative global land transport infrastructure spending could decrease as much as USD 20 trillion by 2050 over baseline projections.

  2. Integration of Transport and Land Use Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Greiving, Stefan; Kemper, Raimund

    1999-01-01

    This report is a part of the results of the EU project TRANSLAND (see Berichte aus dem Institut für Raumplanung 46). The project investigated innovative approaches to the integration of land-use and transport planning in urban regions. In the report the potentials and problems of this integration in different national and regional contexts are presented under the assumption that sufficient information about the institutional framework (planning systems and planning cultures) are essential for...

  3. N/Z Dependence of Projectile Fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, W; Aumann, T; Bacri, C O; Barczyk, T; Bassini, R; Bianchin, S; Boiano, C; Botvina, A S; Boudard, A; Brzychczyk, J; Chbihi, A; Cibor, J; Czech, B; De Napoli, M; Ducret, J -E; Emling, H; Frankland, J D; Hellström, M; Henzlova, D; Imme, G; Iori, I; Johansson, H; Kezzar, K; Lafriakh, A; Le Fèvre, A; Gentil, E Le; Leifels, Y; Lühning, J; Lukasik, J; Lynch, W G; Lynen, U; Majka, Z; Mocko, M; Müller, W F J; Mykulyak, A; Orth, H; Otte, A N; Palit, R; Pawlowski, P; Pullia, A; Raciti, G; Rapisarda, E; Sann, H; Schwarz, C; Sfienti, C; Simon, H; Sümmerer, K; Tsang, M B; Verde, G; Volant, C; Wallace, M; Weick, H; Wiechula, J; Wieloch, A; Zwieglinski, B

    2007-01-01

    The N/Z dependence of projectile fragmentation at relativistic energies has been studied in a recent experiment at the GSI laboratory with the ALADiN forward spectrometer coupled to the LAND neutron detector. Besides a primary beam of 124Sn, also secondary beams of 124La and 107Sn delivered by the FRS fragment separator have been used in order to extend the range of isotopic compositions of the produced spectator sources. With the achieved mass resolution of \\Delta A/A \\approx 1.5%, lighter isotopes with atomic numbers Z \\le 10 are individually resolved. The presently ongoing analyses of the measured isotope yields focus on isoscaling and its relation to the properties of hot fragments at freeze-out and on the derivation of chemical freeze-out temperatures which are found to be independent of the isotopic composition of the studied systems. The latter result is at variance with the predictions for limiting temperatures as obtained with finite-temperature Hartree-Fock calculations.

  4. Dynamism of Transportation and Land Use Interaction in Urban Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Rajesh J.; Katti, B. K.

    2012-10-01

    Transportation in urban areas is highly complex and the urban transport system is intricately linked with urban form and spatial structure. Urban transit is an important dimension of mobility, notably in high density areas. The spatial separation of human activities which creates the need for travel and goods transport is the underlying principle of transport analysis and forecasting. To understand the complex relationships between transportation and land use and to help the urban planning process, several models have been developed. Many theories, models are developed by different authors on land use and transportation interaction, which clearly indicate that change in land use transformation have a greater impact on transportation. Similarly, introducing new transportation facility or strengthening of existing transport facility makes an impact on the abutting land. In cities like Delhi, Navi Mumbai, Ahmedabad, introducing of new mass transport system or strengthening of existing transportation system had given greater impact on surrounding development. In this Paper the major theoretical approaches to explain the two-way interaction of land use and transport in metropolitan areas are summarized. The paper also reviews research on the two-way interaction between urban land use and transport, i.e. the location and mobility responses of private actors (households and firms, travelers) to changes in the urban land use and transport system at the urban regional level.

  5. Impacts of rural land-use on overland flow and sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, S. L.; Jackson, B. M.; Norton, K. P.

    2013-12-01

    The loss of fertile topsoil over time, due to erosive processes, could have a major impact on New Zealand's economy as well as being devastating to individual land owners. Improved management of land use is needed to provide protection of soil from erosion by overland flow and aeolian processes. Effects of soil erosion and sedimentation result in an annual nationwide cost of NZ$123 million. Many previous New Zealand studies have focused on large scale soil movement from land sliding and gully erosion, including identifying risk areas. However, long term small scale erosion and degradation has been largely overlooked in the literature. Although small scale soil erosion is less apparent than mass movement, cumulative small scale soil loss over many years may have a significant impact for future land productivity. One approach to assessing the role of soil degradation is through the application of landscape models. Due to the time consuming collection of data and limited scales over which data can be collected, many models created are unique to a particular land type, land use or locality. Collection of additional datasets can broaden the use of such models by informing model representation and enhancing parameterisation. The Land Use Capability Index (LUCI), developed by Jackson et al (2013) is an example of a model that will benefit from additional data sets. LUCI is a multi-criteria GIS tool, designed to inform land management decisions by identifying areas of potential change, based on land characteristics and land use options. LUCI topographically routes overland flow and sediment using existing land characteristic maps and additionally incorporating sub-field scale data. The model then has the ability to utilise these data to enhance prediction at landscape scale. This study focuses on the influence of land use on small scale sediment transport and enhancing process representation and parameterisation to improve predictive ability of models, such as LUCI. Data

  6. Essence of smart growth : coordinated land use and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). National Center for Smart Growth Research and Education

    2004-04-07

    This presentation highlighted the principles of smart growth and what can be done to coordinate land use and transportation. Roadway congestion is increasing in urban areas, while walking is declining, rail lines have fewer riders, and more dollars are being invested into transportation than in shelter. The main objectives of smart growth are to: create a range of housing opportunities and choices; create walkable neighbourhoods; promote collaboration between communities and stakeholders; promote a strong sense of place; make predictable development decisions that are fair and cost effective; mix land uses; preserve open space and critical environmental areas; offer a variety of transportation choices; direct development towards existing communities; and, take advantage of compact building design. The presentation outlined the essentials of coordinated land use and transportation with reference to land oriented applications. Maryland's Smart Growth Program was presented as an example of one of the best state growth management initiatives. tabs., figs.

  7. Accessibility, land use and transport. Accessibility evaluation of land-use and transport developments and policy strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs, Karst Teunis

    2006-01-01

    How can accessibility be defined? How useful are different accessibility approaches in evaluating land-use and transport policy strategies? How can the economic benefits associated with accessibility changes be measured? What are the accessibility benefits of having a public transport service availa

  8. Modelling animal waste pathogen transport from agricultural land to streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pramod K.; Soupir, Michelle L.; Ikenberry, Charles

    2014-03-01

    The transport of animal waste pathogens from crop land to streams can potentially elevate pathogen levels in stream water. Applying animal manure into crop land as fertilizers is a common practice in developing as well as in developed countries. Manure application into the crop land, however, can cause potential human health. To control pathogen levels in ambient water bodies such as streams, improving our understanding of pathogen transport at farm scale as well as at watershed scale is required. To understand the impacts of crop land receiving animal waste as fertilizers on stream's pathogen levels, here we investigate pathogen indicator transport at watershed scale. We exploited watershed scale hydrological model to estimate the transport of pathogens from the crop land to streams. Pathogen indicator levels (i.e., E. coli levels) in the stream water were predicted. With certain assumptions, model results are reasonable. This study can be used as guidelines for developing the models for calculating the impacts of crop land's animal manure on stream water.

  9. Transport and land-use policies in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Geetam

    2003-01-01

    Current transportation policies in mega-cities worldwide lead to major threats to health through traffic injuries, air pollution, noise, reduction in physical activities, and adverse impact on urban quality of life. In addition, a large section of the population in cities in low-income countries has to live in informal-sector, substandard housing. Many transportation policies fail to take enough account of their impacts on poverty and social exclusion, and they neglect the access and transportation demands of the more economically disadvantaged groups of society, who rely mostly on public transportation, walking, and cycling. Delhi, the capital city of India, is an interesting case because failure to consider the broad spectrum of health effects that may result from transport and land-use policies and investments has resulted in decisions that penalize the least affluent groups of the population and make it more difficult for them to get to jobs, education, health care, amenities, and services.

  10. Forward on the N=Z line with GASP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marginean, N. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy)

    2004-04-01

    The experimental study of the proton-rich nuclei close to the N=Z line is a constant challenge for nuclear spectroscopy, mainly due to the difficulty to produce them with the currently available beam/target combinations. Significant advances on this direction were obtained from experiments performed with the GASP array during the last two years: the yrast line of {sup 84}Mo was extended up to 10{sup +}, {sup 88}Ru observed for the first time, and the N=Z+1 line was mapped from {sup 81}Zr to {sup 95}Ag. These new results allow us to have a more complete image of the transition from the well-deformed shell closure at N,Z=40 to the spherical-shell closure at N,Z=50, and highlights some particular effects that can be observed only in the vicinity of the N=Z line. (orig.)

  11. Land use impacts on transport : how land use factors affect travel behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litman, T.

    2005-11-16

    The relationship between land use patterns and travel behaviour was examined with reference to the ability of land use management strategies to achieve transportation planning objectives. The study examined how land use factors such as density, regional accessibility, roadway connectivity affect per capita motor vehicle ownership and use; mode split; non-motorized travel; and accessibility by people who are physically or economically disadvantaged. The social, economic and environmental impacts that result from higher travel were discussed with reference to the degree to which conventional planning accounts for this increased travel. Alternatives for improving mobility in urban and suburban areas were presented. It was concluded that travel behaviour can change by promoting more efficient use of existing roadway capacity, by improving travel options and providing incentives to use alternative transport modes. It was suggested that strategies such as Smart Growth and New Urbanism can be applied in a variety of land use scenarios, including urban, suburban and rural areas to help achieve transportation planning objectives. 122 refs., 16 tabs., 12 figs.

  12. Application of a LUTI model for the assessment of land use plans and public transport investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bok, Michiel; Geurs, Karst Teunis; Zondag, Barry; Viegas, J.M.; Macario, R.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated land-use and transport interaction models (LUTI) are praised for their ability to evaluate land-use and transport planning in an integrated and consistent modeling system. However, applications of empirically estimated land use models are rare. This paper will present the application of

  13. A cellular automata-based land use and transport interaction model applied to Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aljoufie, M.O.; Aljoufie, Mohammed; Zuidgeest, M.H.P.; Brussel, M.J.G.; van Vliet, Jasper; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between urban land-use change and transport is critical for urban planning as well as for transport planning, particularly in the case of rapidly growing and motorising cities, such as Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. Dynamic land use and transport interaction models provide a

  14. 78 FR 22026 - Alternative Transportation in Parks and Public Lands Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... authorized by Section 3021 of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act--A Legacy... lands. Federal land management agencies and State, tribal and local governments acting with the consent of a federal land management agency are eligible recipients. This program was not re-authorized...

  15. Collective excitations in the vicinity of N=Z

    CERN Document Server

    De Angelis, G; De Acuna, D; Napoli, D R; Martínez, T; De Poli, M; Spolaore, P; Prete, G; Fioretto, E; Bednarczyk, P; Gadea, A; Farnea, E; Ur, C A; Bazzacco, D; Lenzi, S M; Lunardi, S; Pavan, P; Alvarez, C R; Soramel, F; Bizzeti, P G; Bizzeti-Sona, A M; Grawe, H; Schubart, R; Johnson, A; Wyss, R; Xu, F; Blasi, N; Bianco, G L; Nyberg, J; Persson, J; Fahlander, C; Rudolph, D; Frauendorf, S

    1999-01-01

    In our contribution to the INPC98 conference we reported on the experimental investigation of high spin collective states in medium and heavy mass N approx Z nuclei at LNL. The main purpose is to set light on the role of the proton-neutron interaction in the collective behavior of the nucleus. In medium mass N=Z nuclei, in contrast with the stable nuclei, valence protons and neutrons occupy the same orbitals and one may expect a reinforcement of neutron-proton T=0 (np) pairing correlations. In this interesting subject, the medium mass N=Z=36 sup 7 sup 2 Kr has been studied and completely reported. In this proceedings we will concentrate in unpublished results concerning the onset of collectivity on nearly spherical nuclei in the sup 1 sup 0 sup 0 Sn region. In nuclei with Z=50 and Z=49 dipole bands have been found indicating the presence of 'Magnetic Rotation'.

  16. Solar geoengineering, atmospheric water vapor transport, and land plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Ken; Cao, Long

    2015-04-01

    This work, using the GeoMIP database supplemented by additional simulations, discusses how solar geoengineering, as projected by the climate models, affects temperature and the hydrological cycle, and how this in turn is related to projected changes in net primary productivity (NPP). Solar geoengineering simulations typically exhibit reduced precipitation. Solar geoengineering reduces precipitation because solar geoengineering reduces evaporation. Evaporation precedes precipitation, and, globally, evaporation equals precipitation. CO2 tends to reduce evaporation through two main mechanisms: (1) CO2 tends to stabilize the atmosphere especially over the ocean, leading to a moister atmospheric boundary layer over the ocean. This moistening of the boundary layer suppresses evaporation. (2) CO2 tends to diminish evapotranspiration, at least in most land-surface models, because higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations allow leaves to close their stomata and avoid water loss. In most high-CO2 simulations, these effects of CO2 which tend to suppress evaporation are masked by the tendency of CO2-warming effect to increase evaporation. In a geoengineering simulation, with the warming effect of CO2 largely offset by the solar geoengineering, the evaporation suppressing characteristics of CO2 are no longer masked and are clearly exhibited. Decreased precipitation in solar geoengineering simulations is a bit like ocean acidification - an effect of high CO2 concentrations that is not offset by solar geoengineering. Locally, precipitation ultimately either evaporates (much of that through the leaves of plants) or runs off through groundwater to streams and rivers. On long time scales, runoff equals precipitation minus evaporation, and thus, water runoff generated at a location is equal to the net atmospheric transport of water to that location. Runoff typically occurs where there is substantial soil moisture, at least seasonally. Locations where there is enough water to maintain

  17. Correlation between Land Use and Urban Public Transport: Case Study of Zagreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Investment in the transport system with the aim of fostering attractiveness and land use in urban structures is of great interest for planners and investors. Investment in urban public transport would especially contribute to revitalising distinct city areas. The samples of high population density and diversified area use are organised around accessible means of urban public transport.The main objective of this case study was to find an adequate model for the solution of urban public transport on the location Novi Jelkovec in Zagreb after the construction of a new urban settlement, with the aim to revitalise the peripheral parts of the city. The theoretical assumption on the influence of better organised transport on land use is hereby researched through the example of correction of timetables and reduction of travelling time between nodes on the line in the Novi Jelkovec settlement. In preparing this paper the following methods were used: analysis and synthesis, mathematical and statistical methods, methods of interviewing. The theory of correlation of land use and urban public transport is based on models that develop the “compact city”. The obtained research results confirm the significance of the correlation between urban land use and urban public transport. It can be concluded that this paper proves the influence of the correlation between land use and urban public transport on the concrete example of Novi Jelkovec. Its implementation could result in solving the concrete traffic problem and along with it a faster urbanisation of the new settlement.

  18. A transition towards sustainable strategy making: integrating land use and transport knowledge types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. te Brömmelstroet; L. Bertolini

    2011-01-01

    As extensively discussed by other scholars, there is a growing awareness that the integration of land use and transport (LUT) planning is a crucial prerequisite for the transition towards more sustainable transport patterns and urban development that foster interaction between people, support a sust

  19. 76 FR 77300 - Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... transportation planning in a manner that is consistent with metropolitan planning organizations and state... LRTP--This draft plan describes the benefits of and actions for coordinated planning and decision... transportation planning and decision-making processes. Such cooperation is accomplished through developing...

  20. Environmental analyses of land transportation systems in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Mirjan E.; Moll, Henri C.

    Environmental analyses of the impact of transportation systems on the environment from the cradle to the grave are rare. This article makes a comparison of various Dutch passenger transportation systems by studying their complete life-cycle energy use. Moreover, systems are compared according to

  1. Modelling land use changes according to transportation scenarios using raster based GIS indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Morten; Münier, Bernd; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2012-01-01

    The modelling of land use change is a way to analyse future scenarios by modelling different future pathways. This study demonstrates the potential to explore and test the understanding of land use change relations by applying spatial data of different scales, coupled with socio-economic data. In....... This will lead to less impact on climate from transportation based on a more optimal localization and transport infrastructure strategy........ In the EU-FP7 research project PASHMINA (Paradigm Shift modelling and innovative approaches), three storylines of future transportation paradigm shifts towards 2050 are created. These storylines are translated into spatial planning strategies and their implication on land use changes were modelled via...... the cellular automata model LUCIA. An Eastern Danish case area was selected, comprising the Copenhagen metropolitan area and its hinterland. The different scenarios are described using a range of different GIS datasets. These include mapping of accessibility based on public and private transportation, urban...

  2. Transport and land-use policies in Delhi.

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Current transportation policies in mega-cities worldwide lead to major threats to health through traffic injuries, air pollution, noise, reduction in physical activities, and adverse impact on urban quality of life. In addition, a large section of the population in cities in low-income countries has to live in informal-sector, substandard housing. Many transportation policies fail to take enough account of their impacts on poverty and social exclusion, and they neglect the access and transpor...

  3. Land use and transport relationships: A perspective from the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seskin, S.N.

    1995-12-31

    As transportation and land use planners and policy makers world wide grapple with the increasingly challenging consequences of automobile use, there is a growing need to communicate globally about both the knowledge of interactions between transport and land use and the ability to analyze these relationships in a systematic manner. As the world`s largest consumer of energy in general and petroleum in particular, the United States continues to conduct research and innovate in integrated transportation and land use policy issues. The need for improving the state of knowledge and practice, however, is more compelling in developing nations, such as Chile and Thailand, from which, despite their transportation and environmental problems, the United States in fact has much to learn. Nevertheless it is instructive to take a long and broad look at the way the United States is planning and building urban environments. This paper focuses on four aspects of that effort. The first is the state of knowledge on the relationships between land use and travel demand. The second is the analytic tools used to evaluate these relationships. Third is the array of approaches used by government to integrate transport and land use. The last is the ways in which individuals and organizations outside of the formal structure of government participate in metropolitan planning and development.

  4. Accessibility modeling and evaluation: the TIGRIS XL land-use and transport interaction model for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondag, B.; de Bok, M.; Geurs, Karst Teunis; Molenwijk, E.

    2015-01-01

    In current practice, transportation planning often ignores the effects of major transportation improvements on land use and the distribution of land use activities, which might affect the accessibility impacts and economic efficiency of the transportation investment strategies. In this paper, we

  5. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol in 2030 – Part 1: Land transport and shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Righi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry global climate-chemistry model coupled to the aerosol module MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications, we simulate the impact of land transport and shipping emissions on global atmospheric aerosol and climate in 2030. Future emissions of short-lived gas and aerosol species follow the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs designed in support of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We compare the resulting 2030 land-transport- and shipping-induced aerosol concentrations to the ones obtained for the year 2000 in a previous study with the same model configuration. The simulations suggest that black carbon and aerosol nitrate are the most relevant pollutants from land transport in 2000 and 2030 and their impacts are characterized by very strong regional variations during this time period. Europe and North America experience a decrease in the land-transport-induced particle pollution, although in these regions this sector remains a major source of surface-level pollution in 2030 under all RCPs. In Southeast Asia, however, a significant increase is simulated, but in this region the surface-level pollution is still controlled by other sources than land transport. Shipping-induced air pollution is mostly due to aerosol sulfate and nitrate, which show opposite trends towards 2030. Sulfate is strongly reduced as a consequence of sulfur reduction policies in ship fuels in force since 2010, while nitrate tends to increase due to the excess of ammonia following the reduction in ammonium sulfate. The aerosol-induced climate impact of both sectors is dominated by aerosol-cloud effects and is projected to decrease between 2000 and 2030, nevertheless still contributing a significant radiative forcing to Earth's radiation budget.

  6. Scenario Analysis of Alternative Land Development Patterns for the Leipzig-Halle Region: Implications for Transport-Land-Use Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Ustaoglu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present alternative land development scenarios for the sustainability impact assessment of transport-land-use relationship in the Leipzig-Halle Region. Using the MOLAND Model that was applied to a declining urban region for the first time, two different land-use scenarios were developed representing a baseline dispersed development and an alternative compact development case. The assessment of land-use-transport relationships is carried out incorporating the use of social, economic and environmental indicators. The impacts and indicators were specified and evaluated subject to a quantitative and qualitative assessment. The findings imply that a compact development scenario is preferable over dispersed development scenario in terms of potential quantitative data on the benefits to the environment and society. In contrast, dispersed development in the baseline case indicates the costs of such development exceed the benefits. The results of this type of scenario analysis provide an objective evidence basis in policy evaluation and decisions regarding future urban developments. This research was developed from several scenarios created with the key stakeholders of the Leipzig-Halle Region from research originally conducted as part of the PLUREL Project in 2012 and updated in 2016. It aims at contributing to literature by providing a sustainability assessment framework for rapid rail infrastructure provision that incorporates socio-economic and environmental impact assessment of alternative future urban form scenarios into the analysis. In addition, due to MOLAND features, it provides the opportunity for the sustainability impact assessment of different forms of urban development linked with transport infrastructure provision in the Region and compare the findings with other case study areas in Europe and internationally.

  7. Genome Sequences of Lactococcus lactis MG1363 (Revised) and NZ9000 and Comparative Physiological Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linares, D.M.; Kok, J.; Poolman, B.

    2010-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 and its parent MG1363 are the most commonly used lactic acid bacteria for expression and physiological studies. We noted unexpected but significant differences in the growth behaviors of both strains. We sequenced the entire genomes of the original NZ9000 and MG1363 strains

  8. Measuring the impact of urban policies on transportation energy saving using a land use-transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu Kii

    2014-03-01

    This study demonstrates the applicability of a land-use transport model to the assessment of urban policies for building smart communities. First, we outline a model that explicitly formulates the actors' location-related decisions and travel behavior. Second, we apply this model to two urban policies – road pricing and land-use regulation – to assess their long-term impact on energy saving and sustainability using the case of a simplified synthetic city. Our study verifies that, under assumed conditions, the model has the capacity to assess urban policies on energy use and sustainability in a consistent fashion.

  9. Evaluation of anti-podoplanin rat monoclonal antibody NZ-1 for targeting malignant gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yukinari, E-mail: yukinari-k@bea.hi-ho.ne.j [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Oncology Research Center, Advanced Molecular Epidemiology Research Institute, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Vaidyanathan, Ganesan [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Kaneko, Mika Kato [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Oncology Research Center, Advanced Molecular Epidemiology Research Institute, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Mishima, Kazuhiko [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center 1397-1 Yamane Hidaka-shi, Saitama 350-1298 (Japan); Srivastava, Nidhi; Chandramohan, Vidyalakshmi; Pegram, Charles [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Keir, Stephen T. [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Kuan, C.-T.; Bigner, Darell D. [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Zalutsky, Michael R. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Introduction: Podoplanin/aggrus is a mucin-like sialoglycoprotein that is highly expressed in malignant gliomas. Podoplanin has been reported to be a novel marker to enrich tumor-initiating cells, which are thought to resist conventional therapies and to be responsible for cancer relapse. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an anti-podoplanin antibody is suitable to target radionuclides to malignant gliomas. Methods: The binding affinity of an anti-podoplanin antibody, NZ-1 (rat IgG{sub 2a}), was determined by surface plasmon resonance and Scatchard analysis. NZ-1 was radioiodinated with {sup 125}I using Iodogen [{sup 125}I-NZ-1(Iodogen)] or N-succinimidyl 4-guanidinomethyl 3-[{sup 131}I]iodobenzoate ([{sup 131}I]SGMIB-NZ-1), and paired-label internalization assays of NZ-1 were performed. The tissue distribution of {sup 125}I-NZ-1(Iodogen) and that of [{sup 131}I]SGMIB-NZ-1 were then compared in athymic mice bearing glioblastoma xenografts. Results: The dissociation constant (K{sub D}) of NZ-1 was determined to be 1.2x10{sup -10} M by surface plasmon resonance and 9.8x10{sup -10} M for D397MG glioblastoma cells by Scatchard analysis. Paired-label internalization assays in LN319 glioblastoma cells indicated that [{sup 131}I]SGMIB-NZ-1 resulted in higher intracellular retention of radioactivity (26.3{+-}0.8% of initially bound radioactivity at 8 h) compared to that from the {sup 125}I-NZ-1(Iodogen) (10.0{+-}0.1% of initially bound radioactivity at 8 h). Likewise, tumor uptake of [{sup 131}I]SGMIB-NZ-1 (39.9{+-}8.8 %ID/g at 24 h) in athymic mice bearing D2159MG xenografts in vivo was significantly higher than that of {sup 125}I-NZ-1(Iodogen) (29.7{+-}6.1 %ID/g at 24 h). Conclusions: The overall results suggest that an anti-podoplanin antibody NZ-1 warrants further evaluation for antibody-based therapy against glioblastoma.

  10. Revisiting a programmatic planning approach: managing linkages between transport and land use planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Tim; Tillema, Taede; Arts, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The body of knowledge on transport and land use planning shows considerable overlap with management theories and practices. Notable examples can be found in project management and strategic management. Recently, in the field of management theory, the idea of programme management has gained

  11. Understanding transitions in the regional transport and land-use system: Munich 1945-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Switzer, A.; Bertolini, L.; Grin, J.

    2015-01-01

    The broadly advocated coordination between transport and land-use planning is being hindered by barriers nested in persistent societal structures and intertwined practices. In order to understand how such barriers can be overcome, we use insights from transition studies to develop hypotheses with

  12. Land use, transport, and population health: estimating the health benefits of compact cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Ewing, Reid; Mohan, Dinesh; McClure, Rod; Roberts, Ian; Tiwari, Geetam; Giles-Corti, Billie; Sun, Xiaoduan; Wallace, Mark; Woodcock, James

    2016-12-10

    Using a health impact assessment framework, we estimated the population health effects arising from alternative land-use and transport policy initiatives in six cities. Land-use changes were modelled to reflect a compact city in which land-use density and diversity were increased and distances to public transport were reduced to produce low motorised mobility, namely a modal shift from private motor vehicles to walking, cycling, and public transport. The modelled compact city scenario resulted in health gains for all cities (for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease) with overall health gains of 420-826 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) per 100 000 population. However, for moderate to highly motorised cities, such as Melbourne, London, and Boston, the compact city scenario predicted a small increase in road trauma for cyclists and pedestrians (health loss of between 34 and 41 DALYs per 100 000 population). The findings suggest that government policies need to actively pursue land-use elements-particularly a focus towards compact cities-that support a modal shift away from private motor vehicles towards walking, cycling, and low-emission public transport. At the same time, these policies need to ensure the provision of safe walking and cycling infrastructure. The findings highlight the opportunities for policy makers to positively influence the overall health of city populations.

  13. Revisiting a programmatic planning approach: managing linkages between transport and land use planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Tim; Tillema, Taede; Arts, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The body of knowledge on transport and land use planning shows considerable overlap with management theories and practices. Notable examples can be found in project management and strategic management. Recently, in the field of management theory, the idea of programme management has gained prominenc

  14. The Detection of Transport Land-Use Data Using Crowdsourcing Taxi Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, T.; Yang, W.

    2016-06-01

    This study tries to explore the question of transport land-use change detection by large volume of vehicle trajectory data, presenting a method based on Deluanay triangulation. The whole method includes three steps. The first one is to pre-process the vehicle trajectory data including the point anomaly removing and the conversion of trajectory point to track line. Secondly, construct Deluanay triangulation within the vehicle trajectory line to detect neighborhood relation. Considering the case that some of the trajectory segments are too long, we use a interpolation measure to add more points for the improved triangulation. Thirdly, extract the transport road by cutting short triangle edge and organizing the polygon topology. We have conducted the experiment of transport land-use change discovery using the data of taxi track in Beijing City. We extract not only the transport land-use area but also the semantic information such as the transformation speed, the traffic jam distribution, the main vehicle movement direction and others. Compared with the existed transport network data, such as OpenStreet Map, our method is proved to be quick and accurate.

  15. Effects of N/Z on survival probability of heavy nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Wei; YANG Hong-Wei

    2008-01-01

    The excitation functions of the evaporation residue formation probability of three heavy nuclei 194Pb, 200Pb and 206Pb are calculated by using a Langevin equation coupled with a statistical decay model.The results show that the neutron-to-proton ratio (N/Z) of a compound nucleus has an effect on survival probability and this effect becomes larger with increasing N/Z. This is because the fission barrier and the pre-saddle particle emission depend on the N/Z ratio of the system.

  16. Transport Disparities in a Crossborder Region. Case Study: The Land of Maramureş

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE BOAR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Land of Maramureş is one of the most representative natural regions. It has become a cross-border region on a segment of the Romanian-Ukrainian border because of the evolution of human society. The placement of the present border on the material and spiritual convergent axis represented by the Tisa Valley (in 1920 determined a reorientation of the transport systems of the two Maramureş components. The transition from the planned socialist economy to the market-oriented one in 1990/1991 produced rapid changes both in the structure of the transport systems and in the orientation of the transportation flow. The new conditions allowed the appearance of the first tendencies to restore the Maramureş transport system. Still, the different ways chosen by the two countries (Romania and Ukraine in their relation with the European power centres created new barriers for these new tendencies.

  17. From sea to land: assessment of the bio-transport of phosphorus by penguins in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xianyan; Sun, Liguang; Blais, Jules M.; Wang, Yuhong; Huang, Tao; Huang, Wen; Xie, Zhouqing

    2014-01-01

    In Antarctica, the marine ecosystem is dynamically interrelated with the terrestrial ecosystem. An example of the link between these two ecosystems is the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus. Biovectors, such as penguins, transport phosphorus from sea to land, play a key role in this cycle. In this paper, we selected three colonies of penguins, the most important seabirds in Antarctica, and computed the annual quantity of phosphorus transferred from sea to land by these birds. Our results show that adult penguins from colonies at Ardley Island, the Vestfold Hills, and Ross Island could transfer phosphorus in the form of guano at up to 12 349, 167 036, and 97 841 kg/a, respectively, over their breeding period. These quantities are equivalent to an annual input of 3.96×109-1.63×1010 kg of seawater to the land of Antarctica. Finally, we discuss the impact of phosphorus on the ice-free areas of the Antarctica.

  18. Can less sometimes be more? Integrating land use and transport planning on Merseyside (1965–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B. Fischer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of land use planning with other spatially significant policy sectors has been a longstanding aspiration and subject of debate in the planning profession and academia. The strategic planning of the 1960s and 1970s, for example, frequently aimed to promote a more ‘spatialised’ management of public policies and programmes. More recently, in the 1990s and 2000s the notion of ‘spatial planning’, popularised by international debates and new forms of governance and public management, has similarly placed an emphasis on the coherent management and coordination of policies and activities with a spatial impact. Achieving greater coordination between land use and transport policy has been a recurring theme in discussions on the integration of land use planning and other sectors. Informed by the context outlined above, this paper considers integration between land use and transport policies, plans, programmes and projects from both a conceptual and empirical perspective. It postulates the existence of a continuum model of integration between policy sectors ranging from ‘light’ to ‘deep’ integration and identifies barriers to and enablers of the achievement of effective integration. These elements are then used to frame and interpret evidence on the integration of land use and transport policies in Merseyside (UK between 1965 and 2008. The findings indicate that effective integration is more likely to happen at the centre of a continuum between light and deep integration, with the implication being that deeper integration between policy sectors does not necessarily result in more effective integration overall.

  19. Developing a Sustainability Assessment Model: The Sustainable Infrastructure, Land-Use, Environment and Transport Model

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Dur; Tan Yigitcanlar

    2010-01-01

    Measuring the comparative sustainability levels of cities, regions, institutions and projects is an essential procedure in creating sustainable urban futures. This paper introduces a new urban sustainability assessment model: “The Sustainable Infrastructure, Land-use, Environment and Transport Model (SILENT)”. The SILENT Model is an advanced geographic information system and indicator-based comparative urban sustainability indexing model. The model aims to assist planners and policy makers in...

  20. Modelling land use changes according to transportation scenarios using raster based GIS indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Morten; Münier, Bernd; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2012-01-01

    . In the EU-FP7 research project PASHMINA (Paradigm Shift modelling and innovative approaches), three storylines of future transportation paradigm shifts towards 2050 are created. These storylines are translated into spatial planning strategies and their implication on land use changes were modelled via...... the cellular automata model LUCIA. An Eastern Danish case area was selected, comprising the Copenhagen metropolitan area and its hinterland. The different scenarios are described using a range of different GIS datasets. These include mapping of accessibility based on public and private transportation, urban...... in urban distribution that different spatial planning strategies may initiate, and thus change the shape of the urban landscape. The scenarios outline different planning strategies, leading to a more homogenous urban structure, targeted at a reduction of transportation work and thus energy consumption...

  1. Aspectos psicosociales y accidentes en el transporte terrestre Psychosocial aspects and accidents in land transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Morales-Soto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes de tránsito son un problema de salud pública en el Perú, que entre 1998 y 2008 causaron 35 596 muertes, Lima es la región más afectada con 61,7% de los siniestros, su costo anual alcanzó los mil millones de dólares, equivalente a un tercio de la inversión en salud. Los estudios disponibles enfatizan en los protagonistas -conductores, peatones- o en equipos y vías; se han modificado normas e implementado planes de contención de la siniestralidad pero su incidencia persiste. Se plantea la posibilidad de explorar factores conductuales y sociales que podrían tener importancia en la génesis del problema revisando los relacionados con el desorden imperante en el transporte, los comportamientos de conductores y peatones y la permisividad de la sociedad en general, particularmente de la autoridad. Se propone la investigación e intervención multidisciplinaria e intersectorial.Road traffic accidents are a public health problem in Peru, having caused 35 596 deaths in Peru between 1998 and 2008. Lima is the most affected region, presenting 61.7% of the accidents, the annual cost reached one thousand million dollars, equivalent to a third part of the investment in health. Available studies give emphasis to the protagonists -the drivers, the pedestrians- or to equipment and roads; the laws have been modified and containment plans for accidents have been implemented, but the incidence remains the same. We raise the possibility of exploring behavioral and social factors that could be relevant in the genesis of the problem, revising those related to current disorder in transport, the behaviors of drivers and pedestrians and the permissiveness of society in general particularly of the authority. We propose research and a multidisciplinary and intersectoral intervention.

  2. Predicting pathogen transport and risk of infection from land-applied biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, M. S.; Teng, J.; Kumar, A.; Gurian, P.

    2011-12-01

    Biosolids have been recycled as fertilizer to sustainably improve and maintain productive soils and to stimulate plant growth for over forty years, but may contain low levels of microbial pathogens. The Spreadsheet Microbial Assessment of Risk: Tool for Biosolids ("SMART Biosolids") is an environmental transport, exposure and risk model that compiles knowledge on the occurrence, environmental dispersion and attenuation of biosolids-associated pathogens to estimate microbial risk from biosolids land application. The SMART Biosolids model calculates environmental pathogen concentrations and assesses risk associated with exposure to pathogens from land-applied biosolids through five pathways: 1) inhalation of aerosols from land application sites, 2) consumption of groundwater contaminated by land-applied biosolids, 3) direct ingestion of biosolids-amended soils, 4) ingestion of plants contaminated by land-applied biosolids, and 5) consumption of surface water contaminated by runoff from a land application site. The SMART Biosolids model can be applied under a variety of scenarios, thereby providing insight into effective management practices. This study presents example results of the SMART Biosolids model, focusing on the groundwater and surface water pathways, following biosolids application to a typical site in Michigan. Volumes of infiltration and surface water runoff are calculated following a 100-year storm event. Pathogen transport and attenuation through the subsurface and via surface runoff are modeled, and pathogen concentrations in a downstream well and an adjacent pond are calculated. Risks are calculated for residents of nearby properties. For a 100-year storm event occurring immediately after biosolids application, the surface water pathway produces risks that may be of some concern, but best estimates do not exceed the bounds of what has been considered acceptable risk for recreational water use (Table 1); groundwater risks are very uncertain and at the

  3. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 8. Land Transportation Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    f LAND TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES The polyesters considered here are the linear thermoplastics; polylethylene terephthalate ), ( PET ...Polyvinyl Chloride 4.5.4 Acrylics 4.5.5 Nylons 4.5.6 Cellulosics 4.5.7 Polyacetals 4.5.8 Polyesters 4.5.9 Polycarbonates 4.5.10 Chlorinated and...Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene 4.6 Thermosetting Resins 4.6.1 Phenolic Resins and Molding Compounds 4.6.1.1 Resoles 4.6.1.2 Novolaks 4.6.1.3 Fire Safety

  4. 76 FR 64376 - Long Range Transportation Plan for Fish and Wildlife Service Lands in Hawai`i, Idaho, Northern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... planning and decision-making. Establish a vision, mission, goals, and objectives for transportation...: http://www.fws.gov/pacific/planning/ . We also have a limited number of printed and CD-ROM copies of... Federal land management agencies to conduct long-range transportation planning in a manner that is...

  5. Effects of Aging Treatment on Laser-Welded Mg-Rare Earth Alloy NZ30K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Dai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium-rare earth alloys have received extensive attention due to their attractive mechanical properties resulting from high density of precipitation. The precipitation sequence in laser-welded Mg-3Nd-0.2Zn-0.4Zr (NZ30K alloy during aging treatment at 200°C and 225°C has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results indicate that the tensile strength of laser-welded NZ30K can be improved significantly after aging treatment at 200°C for 8 h. It is found that the precipitation in laser-welded NZ30K alloy follows the sequence of supersaturated solid solution → β′′(DO19 → β′(fcc.

  6. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees ( Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs ( Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  7. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees (Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs (Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  8. Integrating Building Energy Efficiency with Land Use and Transportation Planning in Jinan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Duduta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth occurring in the urban regions of China, it is critical to address issues of sustainability through practices that engender holistic energy efficient solutions. In this paper, we present results from a collaborative design project carried out with planning officials from the city of Jinan (population 3.4 million, for the Luokou district, a 3.1 km2 (1.2 mi2 area to the north of the CBD that is expected to house 100,000–130,000 people by 2020. By integrating sustainable building design, land use, urban design, and transportation, our proposal identified opportunities for improving energy efficiency that might have been overlooked by considering buildings and transportation separately. Mixed land uses and walkable neighborhoods were proposed along with highly differentiated street designs, intended to carry different traffic loads and prioritize diverse travel modes. Street widths and building heights were adjusted to maximize the potential for passive solar heating and daylight use within buildings. The district’s environmental performance, analyzed using building energy evaluation and traffic micro simulation models, showed that the design would reduce energy loads by over 25% compared to business as usual. While the proposal complied with national and local policies, and had far better energy performance than conventional designs, the proposal ultimately was not accepted by local officials because initial costs to the developers were higher than for conventional designs.

  9. Gamow-Teller and Fermi decay of N=Z nuclei above A=70

    CERN Document Server

    Dessagne, P; Axelsson, L; Blank, B; García-Borge, M J; Bruce, A M; Catford, W N; Chandler, C; Clark, R M; Cullen, D M; Czajkowski, S; Daugas, J M; Fleury, A; Frankland, J D; Garces-Narro, J; Gelletly, W; Giovinazzo, J; Greenhalgh, B J; Grzywacz, R; Harder, M K; Huck, A; Jokinen, A; Jones, K L; Kelsall, N; Knipper, A; Kszczot, T; Lewitowicz, M; Longour, C; Miehé, C; Page, R D; Pearson, C J; Piqueras, I; Ramdhane, M; Rauch, V; Reed, A T; Regan, P H; Sorlin, O; Tengblad, O; Wadsworth, R

    1999-01-01

    The study of the beta decay of some N=Z nuclei in the A=70 mass range have been performed using the GANIL and CERN/ISOLDE facilities. The fast decays of three T/sub x/=0 odd-odd nuclei have been measured for the first time which extend the number of superallowed transitions. Information has been obtained on the Gamow Teller strength distribution in the beta /sup +/-EC decay of two even-even N=Z isotopes /sup 76/Sr and /sup 72/Kr. Results are compared with theoretical predictions giving indication about the shape of the ground state of the parent nucleus. (17 refs).

  10. Gamow-Teller and Fermi Decay of N=Z Nuclei Above A=70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessagne, Ph.; Applebe, D.; Axelsson, L.; Blank, B.; Borge, M.J.G.; Bruce, A.M.; Catford, W.N.; Chandler, C.; Clark, R.M.; Cullen, D.M.; Czajkowski, S.; Daugas, J.M.; Fleury, A.; Frankland, L.; Garces Narro, J.; Gelletly, W.; Giovinazzo, J.; Greenhalgh, B.; Grzywacz, R.; Harder, M.; Huck, A.; Jokinen, A.; Jones, K.L.; Kelsall, N.; Knipper, A.; Kszczot, T.; Lewitowicz, M.; Longour, C.; Miehe, C.; Page, R.D.; Pearson, C.J.; Piqueras, I.; Ramdhane, M.; Rauch, V.; Reed, A.T.; Regan, P.H.; Sorlin, O.; Tengblad, O.; Wadsworth, R.

    1999-12-31

    The study of the {beta} decay of some N=Z nuclei in the A=70 mass range have been performed using the GANIL and CERN/ISOLDE facilities. The fast decays of three T{sub z}=0 odd-odd nuclei have been measured for the first time which extend the number of superallowed transitions. Information has been obtained on the Gamow Teller strength distribution in the {beta}+-EC decay of two even-even N=Z isotopes {sup 76}Sr and {sup 72}Kr. Results are compared with theoretical predictions giving indication about the shape of the ground state of the parent nucleus.

  11. Child- and youth-friendly land-use and transport planning guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R.; O' Brien, C. [Centre for Sustainable Transportation, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-04-27

    Increased automobile use has been associated with rising obesity, reduced academic performance and compromised emotional development in children and youths. This paper proposed a range of guidelines focused on the needs of children and young people. It is intended for use by municipalities or other agencies in transport and land-use planning. Recommendations included the appointment of a staff or council member responsible for bringing a children's perspective to transport and land use planning issues; an identification of the travel needs of young people; an exploration of pedestrian routes used by children to ensure their safety and useability; and the arrangement of walking buses and other means of supervision for very young children. The construction of separate sidewalks for children and youth on heavy traffic roads was recommended, as well as separate bicycle paths and provisions at intersections. It was suggested that planners should ensure that destinations needed by children are within walking or cycling distance. It was also suggested that the transit system should be made safer and introduce or maintain low fares. It was observed that school funding formulas encourage the construction and use of large schools that are more likely to have traffic congestion, and that parents often pressure school boards for more buses so that children will not have to walk or cycle to school. Reductions in road traffic and the enforcement of speed limits in urban areas were recommended, as well as the use of low emission or electric vehicles. It was suggested that there is a lack of parental awareness regarding the short- and long-term health impacts of driving their children rather than supporting active transport. 90 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  12. The Influence of Urban Land-Use and Public Transport Facilities on Active Commuting in Wellington, New Zealand: Active Transport Forecasting Using the WILUTE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joreintje Dingena Mackenbach

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has numerous physical and mental health benefits, and active commuting (walking or cycling to work can help meet physical activity recommendations. This study investigated socioeconomic differences in active commuting, and assessed the impact of urban land-use and public transport policies on active commuting in the Wellington region in New Zealand. We combined data from the New Zealand Household Travel Survey and GIS data on land-use and public transport facilities with the Wellington Integrated Land-Use, Transportation and Environment (WILUTE model, and forecasted changes in active commuter trips associated with changes in the built environment. Results indicated high income individuals were more likely to commute actively than individuals on low income. Several land-use and transportation factors were associated with active commuting and results from the modelling showed a potential increase in active commuting following an increase in bus frequency and parking fees. In conclusion, regional level policies stimulating environmental factors that directly or indirectly affect active commuting may be a promising strategy to increase population level physical activity. Access to, and frequency of, public transport in the neighbourhood can act as a facilitator for a more active lifestyle among its residents without negatively affecting disadvantaged groups.

  13. The potential for western Canada to become a leader in electrically powered land transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perl, A.; Gilbert, R. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Canada's western provinces are among the most oil-intensive jurisdictions in the world. Per capita consumption in 2007 was 70 percent higher than that of eastern Canada. While western Canada will be buffered as a producer of oil, predicted swings in oil prices may disrupt the fiscal capacity of producer provinces. The price of crude oil in western Canada is the same price established in world markets. This paper examined some of the opportunities available for western Canada to move away from oil consumption by becoming a leader in electric traction. Methods of replacing oil-based transportation with the use of electric vehicles were discussed. Western Canada's capacity to produce electricity from renewable resources was evaluated. Economic opportunities related to the electrification of land transport were also examined. The report concluded by stating that a clear vision and policy framework for supporting new technologies for surface transport across western Canada are needed. 72 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: urban land transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, James; Edwards, Phil; Tonne, Cathryn; Armstrong, Ben G; Ashiru, Olu; Banister, David; Beevers, Sean; Chalabi, Zaid; Chowdhury, Zohir; Cohen, Aaron; Franco, Oscar H; Haines, Andy; Hickman, Robin; Lindsay, Graeme; Mittal, Ishaan; Mohan, Dinesh; Tiwari, Geetam; Woodward, Alistair; Roberts, Ian

    2009-12-05

    We used Comparative Risk Assessment methods to estimate the health effects of alternative urban land transport scenarios for two settings-London, UK, and Delhi, India. For each setting, we compared a business-as-usual 2030 projection (without policies for reduction of greenhouse gases) with alternative scenarios-lower-carbon-emission motor vehicles, increased active travel, and a combination of the two. We developed separate models that linked transport scenarios with physical activity, air pollution, and risk of road traffic injury. In both cities, we noted that reduction in carbon dioxide emissions through an increase in active travel and less use of motor vehicles had larger health benefits per million population (7332 disability-adjusted life-years [DALYs] in London, and 12 516 in Delhi in 1 year) than from the increased use of lower-emission motor vehicles (160 DALYs in London, and 1696 in Delhi). However, combination of active travel and lower-emission motor vehicles would give the largest benefits (7439 DALYs in London, 12 995 in Delhi), notably from a reduction in the number of years of life lost from ischaemic heart disease (10-19% in London, 11-25% in Delhi). Although uncertainties remain, climate change mitigation in transport should benefit public health substantially. Policies to increase the acceptability, appeal, and safety of active urban travel, and discourage travel in private motor vehicles would provide larger health benefits than would policies that focus solely on lower-emission motor vehicles.

  15. Land

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable agricultural practices have had a role to play in the degradation of land on which agriculture depends. South Africa has an international obligation to develop a National Action Programme (NAP), the purpose of which is to identify...

  16. Optimal Dispersion of NZ-DSF in 40 Gbit/s DWDM Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Tanaka; J. Kobayashi; T. Okuno; E. Sasaoka; Y. Araya; E. Tsumura; M. Shigematsu

    2003-01-01

    Numerical and experimental verification of optimal dispersion of NZ-DSF in 40Gb/s-based DWDM transmission are performed using 240km simple transmission line. The results show that dispersion of +8ps/nm/km is effective in 40Gb/s as well as 10Gb/s.

  17. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the lactococcal EPS plasmid pNZ4000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, van R.; Kleerebezem, M.; Vos, de W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The complete 42180-bp nucleotide sequence of the mobilization plasmid pNZ4000, coding for exopolysaccharide (EPS) production in Lactococcus lactis, was determined. This plasmid contains a region involved in EPS biosynthesis, four functional replicons, a region containing mobilization genes, and thre

  18. How Accurate is Land/Ocean Moisture Transport Variability in Reanalyses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, F. R.; Bosilovich, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the global hydrological cycle and its variability across various time scales remains a challenge to the climate community. Direct measurements of evaporation (E), evapotranspiration (ET), and precipitation (P) are not feasible on a global scale, nor is the transport of water vapor over the global oceans and sparsely populated land areas. Expanding satellite data streams have enabled development of various water (and energy) flux products, complementing reanalyses and facilitating observationally constrained modeling. But the evolution of the global observing system has produced additional complications--improvements in satellite sensor resolution and accuracy have resulted in "epochs" of observational quasi-uniformity that can adversely affect reanalysis trends. In this work we focus on vertically integrated moisture flux convergence (VMFC) variations within the period 1979 - present integrated over global land. We show that VMFC in recent reanalyses (e.g. ERA-I, NASA MERRA, NOAA CFSR and JRA55) suffers from observing system changes, though differently in each product. Land Surface Models (LSMs) forced with observations-based precipitation, radiation and near-surface meteorology share closely the interannual P-ET variations of the reanalyses associated with ENSO events. (VMFC over land and P-ET estimates are equivalent quantities since atmospheric storage changes are small on these scales.) But the long-term LSM trend over the period since 1979 is approximately one-fourth that of the reanalyses. Additional reduced observation reanalyses assimilating only surface pressure and /or specifying seasurface temperature also have a much smaller trend in P-ET like the LSMs. We explore the regional manifestation of the reanalysis P-ET / VMFC problems, particularly over land. Both principal component analysis and a simple time series changepoint analysis highlight problems associated with data poor regions such as Equatorial Africa and, for one reanalysis, the

  19. Equip the warrior instead of manning the equipment: land use and transport planning support in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. te Brömmelstroet

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the embedding of land use and transport instruments—Planning Support Systems (PSS), models and tools—in Dutch planning practice, in order to shed light on how planning practitioners perceive these instruments and to ascertain the reasons and manner of their (lack of) utilization.

  20. Joint accessibility design: framework developed with practitioners to integrate land use and transport planning in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatemeier, T.; Bertolini, L.

    2008-01-01

    In both the scientific and the professional communities, the need to integrate transport and land use policies to achieve more sustainable mobility patterns is widely recognized. Three challenges to attaining integrated strategies are identified. The first challenge is to find a common language and

  1. Hysteresis and parent-metabolite analyses unravel characteristic pesticide transport mechanisms in a mixed land use catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ting; Stamm, Christian; van Griensven, Ann; Seuntjens, Piet; Bronders, Jan

    2017-11-01

    To properly estimate and manage pesticide occurrence in urban rivers, it is essential, but often highly challenging, to identify the key pesticide transport pathways in association to the main sources. This study examined the concentration-discharge hysteresis behaviour (hysteresis analysis) for three pesticides and the parent-metabolite concentration dynamics for two metabolites at sites with different levels of urban influence in a mixed land use catchment (25 km(2)) within the Swiss Greifensee area, aiming to identify the dominant pesticide transport pathways. Combining an adapted hysteresis classification framework with prior knowledge of the field conditions and pesticide usage, we demonstrated the possibility of using hysteresis analysis to qualitatively infer the dominant pesticide transport pathway in mixed land-use catchments. The analysis showed that hysteresis types, and therefore the dominant transport pathway, vary among pesticides, sites and rainfall events. Hysteresis loops mostly correspond to dominant transport by flow components with intermediate response time, although pesticide sources indicate that fast transport pathways are responsible in most cases (e.g. urban runoff and combined sewer overflows). The discrepancy suggests the fast transport pathways can be slowed down due to catchment storages, such as topographic depressions in agricultural areas, a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and other artificial storage units (e.g. retention basins) in urban areas. Moreover, the WWTP was identified as an important factor modifying the parent-metabolite concentration dynamics during rainfall events. To properly predict and manage pesticide occurrence in catchments of mixed land uses, the hydrological delaying effect and chemical processes within the artificial structures need to be accounted for, in addition to the catchment hydrology and the diversity of pesticide sources. This study demonstrates that in catchments with diverse pesticide sources

  2. NZ-GMP Approved Serum Improve hDPSC Osteogenic Commitment and Increase Angiogenic Factor Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Anna; Montella, Roberta; Liccardo, Davide; De Rosa, Alfredo; Laino, Luigi; Mitsiadis, Thimios A.; La Noce, Marcella

    2016-01-01

    Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs), selected from the stromal-vascular fraction of dental pulp, are ecto-mesenchymal stem cells deriving from neural crests, successfully used in human bone tissue engineering. For their use in human therapy GMP procedures are required. For instance, the use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) is strongly discouraged in clinical practice due to its high risk of prions and other infections for human health. Alternatively, clinical grade sera have been suggested, including the New Zealand FBS (NZ-FBS). Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of hDPSCs expanded in culture medium containing NZ-FBS. Since it was widely demonstrated hDPSCs display relevant capabilities to differentiate into osteogenic and angiogenic lineages, we performed a comparative study to assess if these features are also retained by cultivating the cells with a safer serum never tested on this cell line. hDPSCs were grown using NZ-FBS and conventional (C-FBS) for 7, 14, and 21 days, in both 2D and 3D cultures. Growth curves, expression of bone-related markers, calcification and angiogenesis were evaluated. NZ-FBS induced significant cell growth with respect to C-FBS and promoted an earlier increase expression of osteogenic markers, in particular of those involved in the formation of mineralized matrix (BSP and OPN) within 14 days. In addition, hDPSCs cultured in presence of NZ-FBS were found to produce higher mRNA levels of the angiogenic factors, such as VEGF and PDGFA. Taken together, our results highlight that hDPSCs proliferate, enhance their osteogenic commitment and increase angiogenic factors in NZ-FBS containing medium. These features have also been found when hDPSC were seeded on the clinical-grade collagen I scaffold (Bio-Gide®), leading to the conclusion that for human therapy some procedures and above all the use of GMP-approved materials have no negative impact. PMID:27594842

  3. Modelling the future impacts of climate and land-use change on suspended sediment transport in the River Thames (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussi, Gianbattista; Dadson, Simon J.; Prudhomme, Christel; Whitehead, Paul G.

    2016-11-01

    The effects of climate change and variability on river flows have been widely studied. However the impacts of such changes on sediment transport have received comparatively little attention. In part this is because modelling sediment production and transport processes introduces additional uncertainty, but it also results from the fact that, alongside the climate change signal, there have been and are projected to be significant changes in land cover which strongly affect sediment-related processes. Here we assess the impact of a range of climatic variations and land covers on the River Thames catchment (UK). We first calculate a response of the system to climatic stressors (average precipitation, average temperature and increase in extreme precipitation) and land-cover stressors (change in the extent of arable land). To do this we use an ensemble of INCA hydrological and sediment behavioural models. The resulting system response, which reveals the nature of interactions between the driving factors, is then compared with climate projections originating from the UKCP09 assessment (UK Climate Projections 2009) to evaluate the likelihood of the range of projected outcomes. The results show that climate and land cover each exert an individual control on sediment transport. Their effects vary depending on the land use and on the level of projected climate change. The suspended sediment yield of the River Thames in its lowermost reach is expected to change by -4% (-16% to +13%, confidence interval, p = 0.95) under the A1FI emission scenario for the 2030s, although these figures could be substantially altered by an increase in extreme precipitation, which could raise the suspended sediment yield up to an additional +10%. A 70% increase in the extension of the arable land is projected to increase sediment yield by around 12% in the lowland reaches. A 50% reduction is projected to decrease sediment yield by around 13%.

  4. Modelling the impacts of climate and land-use change on the sediment transport of the River Thames (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussi, Gianbattista; Dadson, Simon; Whitehead, Paul

    2016-04-01

    In this study we assessed the impact of a range of climatic variations and land-cover scenarios on the sediment transport of the River Thames (UK). We evaluated the response of the system to changes in some climatic stressors (average precipitation, average temperature and increase in extreme precipitation) and to changes in land-cover stressors (change in the extent of arable land and a soil erosion mitigation strategy, consisting in the implementation of better agricultural practices, riparian buffer strips and afforestation of some grassland areas), using a scenario-neutral framework. To do this we used the INCA hydrological and sediment model. The resulting response surfaces allowed assessing the system sensitivity to the considered driving stressors, and the effect of the interactions between them (e.g. the joint effect of climate and land-use changes). Climate projections originating from the UKCP09 assessment (UK Climate Projections 2009) were used to evaluate the likelihood of the range of projected outcomes. The results showed that climate and land cover each exerts an individual control on sediment transport. Their effects are comparable in magnitude but vary depending on the fraction of arable land in the catchment and the magnitude of climate change. The suspended sediment yield of the River Thames just upstream the city of London is expected to decrease by 9% (-24% - +7% confidence interval, p=0.95) under the A1FI emission scenario for the 2030s, although these figures could be substantially altered by an increase in extreme precipitation, which could raise the suspended sediment yield up to an additional 8%. An increase in the fraction of agricultural land is projected to increase sediment yield by around 25% in the lowland reaches. A soil erosion mitigation scenario consisting in afforestation and the implementation of optimal agricultural practices and riparian buffer strips could be a robust adaptation strategy to climate change, as it was found to

  5. Kohlschütter-Tönz Syndrome – Report of an additional case

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Arriagada, Wilfredo A.; Carlos-Bregni, Román; Contreras, Elisa; Almeida, Oslei P.

    2013-01-01

    Kohlschütter-Tönz Syndrome is a rare disorder clinically characterized by amelogenesis imperfecta, epilepsy and progressive mental deterioration. We present an additional case of this syndrome of a nine year-old boy who was referred by pigmented teeth. The mental deterioration was associated with speech delay, impulsive behavior, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and learning problems. The physical examination revealed a reduction of lower third, slightly palpebral fissures, low ear and hair implantation, coarse hair and hypertrichosis. The intraoral examination showed alteration in teeth pigmentation diagnosed as amelogenesis imperfecta. Although rare, the present case report illustrates a syndrome that has dental anomalies and systemic alterations. It is important to recognize this syndrome as early as possible and paediatric dentist may contribute to the diagnosis and consequently to better manage the patients. Key words:Kohlschütter-Tönz syndrome, amelogenesis imperfecta, seizures, mental deterioration. PMID:24455057

  6. Epileptic encephalopathy and amelogenesis imperfecta: Kohlschütter-Tönz syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schossig, Anna; Wolf, Nicole I; Kapferer, Ines; Kohlschütter, Alfried; Zschocke, Johannes

    2012-05-01

    Kohlschütter-Tönz syndrome is a rare genetic disorder with epilepsy, psychomotor regression, and a severe enamel defect with yellow or brownish discoloration of the teeth. The first affected family was described in 1974, and 25 patients in 11 families have been reported until now. Inheritance is autosomal recessive. Epilepsy usually starts within the first or second year of life. All affected individuals show a psychomotor regression after onset of epilepsy or a developmental delay from birth on. Clinical course and disease severity are variable even within families. There are no known biochemical or other diagnostic markers of the condition. Very recently it has been shown that the condition is caused by mutations in the gene ROGDI but molecular data have only been reported for three families. It remains to be seen whether Kohlschütter-Tönz syndrome has the same molecular basis in all affected individuals.

  7. Consuming calories and creating cavities: beverages NZ children associate with sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Moira; Jenkin, Gabrielle; Signal, Louise; McLean, Rachael

    2014-10-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are widely available, discounted and promoted, and despite recommendations to the contrary, frequently consumed by children. They provide few nutritional benefits, and their consumption is implicated in a number of poor health outcomes. This study examined the nature of the beverages that sport-playing New Zealand (NZ) children associate with sport. It assessed how well the beverages aligned with nutrition guidelines and relevant regulations, and their likely impacts on health. Eighty-two children (38 girls and 44 boys) aged 10-12 years were purposively selected from netball, rugby and football clubs in low and high socioeconomic neighbourhoods, in Wellington, New Zealand (NZ). Children photographed beverages they associated with sport. The beverages were then purchased and analysed in accordance with NZ nutrition guidelines, and relevant content and labelling regulations, by: package and serving size; energy, sugar, sodium and caffeine content; pH; and advisory statements. The beverages the children associated with sport overwhelmingly had characteristics which do not support children in adhering to NZ nutrition guidelines. Implementing public health mechanisms, such as healthy food and beverage policies, widely promoting water as the beverage of choice in sport, and implementing healthy eating and drinking campaigns in sports clubs, would assist children who play organised sport to select beverages that are in keeping with children's nutrition guidelines. As part of a comprehensive public health approach they would also reduce the substantial, unnecessary and potentially harmful contribution sugar-sweetened beverages make to their diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. NZ Ser: the results of the analysis of the 25 years photometric activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsunova, O.; Mel'nikov, S.; Grinin, V.; Katysheva, N.; Shugarov, S.

    2014-03-01

    We present the analysis of the long-term photometric variability of NZ Ser. The object shows both large-scale cyclic variability and low-amplitude Algol-like, fading typical for UX Ori stars. The variations of the stellar brightness are accompanied by variations of the B-V and V-R colors: when the brightness decreases, B-V decreases, while V-R increases.

  9. Isospin effects in N~Z nuclei in extended Density Functional Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Satula, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    This paper overviews various phenomena related to the concept of isospin symmetry. The focus is on N~Z nuclei, which are excellent laboratories of isospin physics. The theoretical framework applied is nuclear Density Functional Theory and its isospin- and angular-momentum projected extensions, as well as symmetry-projected multi-reference models. The topics covered include: isospin impurities, superallowed beta decays, beta-transitions in mirror nuclei, isospin breaking hadronic interactions, mirror and triplet binding energy differences, and isoscalar pairing.

  10. Integrating transportation and land use planning at the metropolitan level in North America: multilevel governance in Toronto and Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny R. Tremblay-Racicot

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the policies and processes by which transportation and land use planning are integra¬ted in metropolitan Toronto, Canada, and Chicago, in the United States. Using twenty-four semi-structured interviews with key informants, it describes the array of interventions undertaken by governmental and non-governmental actors in their respective domains to shed light on how the challenge of integrating trans¬portation and land use planning is addressed on both sides of the border. Evidence concerning the political dynamics in Toronto and Chicago demonstrates that the capacity of metropolitan institutions to adopt and implement plans that integrate transportation with land use fundamentally depends on the leadership of the province or the state government. Although the federal government of each nation can bypass the sub-national level and intervene in local affairs by funding transportation projects that include land use components, its capacity to promote a coherent metropolitan vision is inherently limited. In the absence of leadership at the provincial or state level, the presence of a policy entrepreneur or a strong civic capacity at the regional level can be a key factor in the adoption and implementation of innovative reforms.

  11. Building a sustainable land public transportation at Ayer Keroh, Malacca: Perspective view from hang tuah jaya municipal council (HTJMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukri, Fatin Hafizah; Chew, Boon Cheong; Hamid, Syaiful Rizal; Loo, Heoy Shin

    2017-03-01

    Sustainable land public transportation (SLPT) aims to promote a better and healthier ways of meeting individual and community needs. Even though sufficient land public transportation have been provided at Ayer Keroh, Malacca but the level of usage among the community is still low as there is the growth in traffic. Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council (HTJMC) is responsible to identify the most appropriate strategies to manage the issues regarding SLPT in order to support of the Malacca state vision becoming Green Technology State in the year 2020. Therefore, this paper attempts to examine the strategies involve in building a SLPT, which may enhance the community's welfare. Thus, the proposed theoretical framework is to demonstrate the strategies towards building a SLPT, which can cater issues within the municipal council area. In this qualitative research, an in-depth focus group have been conducted to obtain the primary data. Thirteen (13) executives from HTJMC involved. This study brings a new paradigm in transforming land public transportation at Ayer Keroh to enhance the community welfare. The result found that land use development as the most significant strategy in SLPT, meanwhile the implementation program is the least strategy involved in building a SLPT at Ayer Keroh. Future research requires more information on the factors of implementing of SLPT so that HTJMC can plan an effective SLPT thorough the demand as the data may indicate numbers of passengers who really support to the implementation of SLPT.

  12. Properties and structure of N=Z nuclei within relativistic mean field theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yuan; DONG Jian-Min; ZHANG Hong-Fei; ZUO Wei; LI Jun-Qing

    2009-01-01

    The axially deformed relativistic mean field theory with the force NLSH has been performed in the blocked BCS approximation to investigate the properties and structure of N=Z nuclei from Z=20 to Z=48.Some ground state quantities such as binding energies, quadrupole deformations, one/two-nucleon separation energies, root-mean-square (rms) radii of charge and neutron, and shell gaps have been calculated.The results suggest that large deformations can be found in medium-heavy nuclei with N=Z=38-42.The charge and neutron rms radii increase rapidly beyond the magic number N=Z=28 until Z=42 with increasing nucleon number, which is similar to isotope shift, yet beyond Z=42, they decrease dramatically as the structure changes greatly from Z=42 to Z=43.The evolution of shell gaps with proton number Z can be clearly observed.Besides the appearance of possible new shell closures, some conventional shell closures have been found to disappear in some region.In addition, we found that the Coulomb interaction is not strong enough to breakdown the shell structure of protons in the current region.

  13. Transport Characteristics of Soil Salinity in Saline-alkali Land under Water Storage and Drainage Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan; LI; Jichang; HAN

    2015-01-01

    To test the variation and transport of soil salinity in saline- alkali land under water storage and drainage treatments,an experimental model was established in Fuping,Shaanxi Province,2009. The variation of soil salinity during 0- 160 cm soil depth under the two treatments was determined and analyzed. Results showed that the average soil water content under water storage treatment was 4. 47% higher than that under drainage treatment,which means that the water storage treatment could help to improve soil moisture to satisfy the crop’s growth needs. The profile distribution of soil soluble solids( TDS),anion( Cl-,HCO3-,SO2-4) and cation( Ca2 +,Na+,K+) content and the variation of soil p H were also measured and analyzed. PCA( Principal Component Analysis) was used to explore the relationship between the soil salinity and its ions,which showed that the water storage treatment could significantly decrease the surface salinity of soil and accelerate the desalination of topsoils,and finally,the soil quality was improved significantly,demonstrating that the water storage treatment has a remarkable effect on soil salinity management.

  14. Liability of land transportation of fuels from the perspective of Brazilian legal system; Responsabilidade civil dos transportadores terrestres de combustiveis a luz do ordenamento juridico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Gabrielle Trindade Moreira de; Soares, Pedro Lucas de Moura [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos em Direito do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis

    2010-01-15

    The article explains about the assumptions of liability - injury, illicit act and the causation between them - and the strands that give ground, namely the subjective and objective liability. Finally, we examine the legal framework on land transportation of fuels, applying to it device relating to civil liability, determining the ways to responsibility the transportation company, in each of the modality of land transportation, which are the road, railway and by using pipes.

  15. Watershed Analysis of Nitrate Transport as a Result of Agricultural Inputs for Varying Land Use/Land Cover and Soil Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M. E.; Sykes, J. F.

    2006-12-01

    The Grand River Watershed is one of the largest watersheds in southwestern Ontario with an area of approximately 7000 square kilometers. Ninety percent of the watershed is classified as rural, and 80 percent of the watershed population relies on groundwater as their source of drinking water. Management of the watershed requires the determination of the effect of agricultural practices on long-term groundwater quality and to identify locations within the watershed that are at a higher risk of contamination. The study focuses on the transport of nitrate through the root zone as a result of agricultural inputs with attenuation due to biodegradation. The driving force for transport is spatially and temporally varying groundwater recharge that is a function of land use/land cover, soil and meteorological inputs that yields 47,229 unique soil columns within the watershed. Fertilizer sources are determined from Statistics Canada's Agricultural Census and include livestock manure and a popular commercial fertilizer, urea. Accounting for different application rates yields 60,066 unique land parcels of which 22,809 are classified as croplands where manure and inorganic fertilizes are directly applied. The transport for the croplands is simulated over a 14-year period to investigate the impact of seasonal applications of nitrate fertilizers on the concentration leaching from the root zone to the water table. Based on land use/land cover maps, ArcView GIS is used to define the location of fertilizer applications within the watershed and to spatially visualize data and analyze results. The large quantity of input data is stored and managed using MS-Access and a relational database management system. Nitrogen transformations and ammonium and nitrate uptake by plants and transport through the soil column are simulated on a daily basis using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) within MS-Access modules. Nitrogen transformations within the soil column were simplified using

  16. Transportation Secure Data Center: Real-World Data for Transportation Planning and Land Use Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) have launched the free, web-based Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC). The TSDC (www.nrel.gov/tsdc) preserves respondent anonymity while making vital transportation data available to a broad group of users through secure, online access. The TSDC database provides free-of-charge web-based access to valuable transportation data that can be used for: Transit planning, Travel demand modeling, Homeland Security evacuation planning, Alternative fuel station planning, and Validating transportation data from other sources. The TSDC's two levels of access make composite data available with simple online registration, and allow researchers to use detailed spatial data after completing a straight forward application process.

  17. Nisin inducible production of listeriolysin O in Lactococcus lactis NZ9000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffin Brendan T

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Listeria monocytogenes is a well-characterized food-borne pathogen that infects pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals. Listeriolysin O (LLO is the major virulence factor of the pathogen and is often used as a diagnostic marker for detection of L. monocytogenes. In addition, LLO represents a potent antigen driving T cell-mediated immunity during infection. In the present work, Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 was used as an expression host to hyper-produce LLO under inducible conditions using the NICE (NIsin Controlled Expression system. We created a modified pNZ8048 vector encoding a six-His-tagged LLO downstream of the strong inducible PnisA promoter. Results The constructed vector (pNZPnisA:CYTO-LLO was expressed in L. lactis NZ9000 and was best induced at mid-log phase with 0.2% v/v nisin for 4 h statically at 30°C. Purification of the His-tagged LLO was accomplished by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and functionality was confirmed through haemolytic assays. Total LLO yield (measured as total protein content was 4.43–5.9 mg per litre culture and the haemolytic activity was still detectable after 8 months of storage at 4°C. Conclusion The LLO production method described in this work provides an approach to efficient LLO production in the Gram-positive Lactococcus bacterium to yield a significant source of the protein for research and diagnostic applications. Expression of LLO in L. lactis has a number of benefits over E. coli which may facilitate both in vivo and in vitro applications of this system.

  18. Isospin mixing in the N=Z nucleus {sup 64}Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnea, E.; De Angelis, G.; Gadea, A.; Bizzeti, P.G.; Dewald, A.; Eberth, J.; Algora, A.; Axiotis, M.; Bazzacco, D.; Bizzeti-Sona, A.M.; Brandolini, F.; Colo, G.; Gelletly, W.; Kaci, M.A.; Kintz, N.; Klug, T.; Kroell, Th.; Lenzi, S.M.; Lunardi, S.; Marginean, N.; Martinez, T.; Menegazzo, R.; Napoli, D.R.; Nyberg, J.; Pavan, P.; Podolyak, Zs.; Petrache, C.M.; Quintana, B.; Rubio, B.; Spolaore, P.; Steinhardt, Th.; Tain, J.L.; Thelen, O.; Ur, C.A.; Venturelli, R.; Weiszflog, M

    2003-01-02

    The N=Z nucleus {sup 64}Ge has been investigated in two experiments using the EUROBALL III and EUROBALL IV spectrometers coupled to ancillary devices. Multipole mixing ratios, linear polarization and picosecond lifetimes for various transitions have been measured. The linear polarization results determine unambiguously the multipole character of the 5{sup -}{yields}4{sup +} 1665 keV transition, allowing to extract the electric dipole strength and to investigate for the first time the amount of isospin mixing implied by the presence of a forbidden E1 transition.

  19. The Lotka-Volterra equation over a finite ring Z/p{sup N}Z

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsutani, Shigeki E-mail: RXB01142@nifty.ne.jp

    2001-12-07

    The discrete Lotka-Volterra equation over p-adic space was constructed since p-adic space is a prototype of spaces with non-Archimedean valuations and the space given by taking the ultra-discrete limit studied in soliton theory should be regarded as a space with the non-Archimedean valuations given in my previous paper (Matsutani S 2001 Int. J. Math. Math. Sci.). In this paper, using the natural projection from a p-adic integer to a ring Z/p{sup n}Z, a soliton equation is defined over the ring. Numerical computations show that it behaves regularly. (author)

  20. WET-NZ Multi-Mode Wave Energy Converter Advancement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopf, Steven

    2013-10-15

    The overall objective of the project was to verify the ocean wavelength functionality of the WET-NZ through targeted hydrodynamic testing at wave tank scale and controlled open sea deployment of a 1/2 scale (1:2) experimental device. This objective was accomplished through a series of tasks designed to achieve four specific goals: Wave Tank Testing to Characterize Hydrodynamic Characteristics;  Open-Sea Testing of a New 1:2 Scale Experimental Model;  Synthesis and Analysis to Demonstrate and Confirm TRL5/6 Status;  Market Impact & Competitor Analysis, Business Plan and Commercialization Strategy.

  1. Integrated land-use and transport modelling using OTP to determine lowest cost trips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, Q

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation discusses the link between economic infrastructure, that includes transport, and social infrastructure that includes social well-being and the basic necessities of people. It shows how transport models and urban models influence...

  2. Bioaerosol release, transport, and fate during land application of manure and biosolid residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioaerosols (biological aerosols) are environmentally ubiquitous, both in rural and urban settings. Aerosol transport is a critical, mostly un-accounted for, and unseen mechanism of microbial environmental dispersal. Agriculture and other anthropogenic activities contribute to this transport system,...

  3. A technical review of urban land use - transportation models as tools for evaluating vehicle travel reduction strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, F.

    1995-07-01

    The continued growth of highway traffic in the United States has led to unwanted urban traffic congestion as well as to noticeable urban air quality problems. These problems include emissions covered by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), as well as carbon dioxide and related {open_quotes}greenhouse gas{close_quotes} emissions. Urban travel also creates a major demand for imported oil. Therefore, for economic as well as environmental reasons, transportation planning agencies at both the state and metropolitan area level are focussing a good deal of attention on urban travel reduction policies. Much discussed policy instruments include those that encourage fewer trip starts, shorter trip distances, shifts to higher-occupancy vehicles or to nonvehicular modes, and shifts in the timing of trips from the more to the less congested periods of the day or week. Some analysts have concluded that in order to bring about sustainable reductions in urban traffic volumes, significant changes will be necessary in the way our households and businesses engage in daily travel. Such changes are likely to involve changes in the ways we organize and use traffic-generating and-attracting land within our urban areas. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the ability of current analytic methods and models to support both the evaluation and possibly the design of such vehicle travel reduction strategies, including those strategies involving the reorganization and use of urban land. The review is organized into three sections. Section 1 describes the nature of the problem we are trying to model, Section 2 reviews the state of the art in operational urban land use-transportation simulation models, and Section 3 provides a critical assessment of such models as useful urban transportation planning tools. A number of areas are identified where further model development or testing is required.

  4. 5 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C to... - Daily Transportation Allowance Schedule, Commuting Over Land by Private Motor Vehicle to Remote...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Commuting Over Land by Private Motor Vehicle to Remote Duty Posts A Appendix A to Subpart C to Part 591... Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites Pt. 591, Subpt. C, App. A Appendix A to Subpart C to Part 591—Daily Transportation Allowance Schedule, Commuting Over Land by Private Motor Vehicle to Remote...

  5. Sensitivity of N/Z ratio in projectile break-up of isobaric systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Filippo E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The binary break-up of projectile-like fragments in non central heavy-ion collisions follows different decay patterns, from equilibrated emission towards dynamical (prompt fission. Recently, comparing two systems with different N/Z in the entrance channel, it has been shown that the dynamical emission cross-section is enhanced for the most neutron rich system while the statistical emission cross-section is independent from the isotopic composition. In order to understand this dependence and disentangle it from the initial size of the nuclei, we have studied the two isobaric systems 124Xe+64 Zn and 124Xe+64 Ni at 35 A MeV (InKiIsSy experiment, in comparison with the previous studied reactions (124Sn +64 Ni and 112Sn +58 Ni at the same bombarding energy. We present the first results evidencing a striking similar effect in the dynamical decay as a function of the N/Z of the target for equal size systems.

  6. Shape study of the N=Z waiting-point nucleus 72Kr via beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Briz Monago, Jose Antonio; Nácher González, Enrique

    The Ph.D. thesis entitled “Shape study of the N=Z waiting-point nucleus 72Kr via beta decay” is devoted to the study of the shape of the ground state of the 72Kr nucleus. It is an N=Z nucleus in the mass region A~70-80 where shape transitions and the shape coexistence phenomena have been identified. Furthermore, this nucleus participates in the rp-process as a waiting point due to the slowdown of the process taking place at the arrival to this nucleus. The study of the properties of this nucleus is interesting from the Nuclear Structure point of view, for the phenomena occurring in its mass region and have been predicted for it, and from the Nuclear Astrophysics for the accurate performance of astrophysical calculations. The β+/EC decay of the 72Kr nucleus has been studied through two complementary experiments at the ISOLDE facility at CERN in Geneva (Switzerland). In one of them, the low-spin structure of the daughter nucleus, 72Br, has been revised via conversion electron spectroscopy where the convers...

  7. Comparison of leaf proteomes of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei An

    Full Text Available Cassava polyploid breeding has drastically improved our knowledge on increasing root yield and its significant tolerance to stresses. In polyploid cassava plants, increases in DNA content highly affect cell volumes and anatomical structures. However, the mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare and validate the changes between cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid at proteomic levels. The results showed that leaf proteome of cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid was clearly differentiated from its autotetraploid genotype using 2-DE combined MS technique. Sixty-five differential protein spots were seen in 2-DE image of autotetraploid genotype in comparison with that of diploid. Fifty-two proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, of which 47 were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in autotetraploid genotype compared with diploid genotype. The classified functions of 32 up-regulated proteins were associated with photosynthesis, defense system, hydrocyanic acid (HCN metabolism, protein biosynthesis, chaperones, amino acid metabolism and signal transduction. The remarkable variation in photosynthetic activity, HCN content and resistance to salt stress between diploid and autotetraploid genotypes is closely linked with expression levels of proteomic profiles. The analysis of protein interaction networks indicated there are direct interactions between the 15 up-regulation proteins involved in the pathways described above. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of cassava polyploid genotype, and gives a clue to improve cassava polyploidy breeding in increasing photosynthesis and resistance efficiencies.

  8. Comparison of leaf proteomes of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Feifei; Fan, Jie; Li, Jun; Li, Qing X; Li, Kaimian; Zhu, Wenli; Wen, Feng; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Chen, Songbi

    2014-01-01

    Cassava polyploid breeding has drastically improved our knowledge on increasing root yield and its significant tolerance to stresses. In polyploid cassava plants, increases in DNA content highly affect cell volumes and anatomical structures. However, the mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare and validate the changes between cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid at proteomic levels. The results showed that leaf proteome of cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid was clearly differentiated from its autotetraploid genotype using 2-DE combined MS technique. Sixty-five differential protein spots were seen in 2-DE image of autotetraploid genotype in comparison with that of diploid. Fifty-two proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, of which 47 were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in autotetraploid genotype compared with diploid genotype. The classified functions of 32 up-regulated proteins were associated with photosynthesis, defense system, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) metabolism, protein biosynthesis, chaperones, amino acid metabolism and signal transduction. The remarkable variation in photosynthetic activity, HCN content and resistance to salt stress between diploid and autotetraploid genotypes is closely linked with expression levels of proteomic profiles. The analysis of protein interaction networks indicated there are direct interactions between the 15 up-regulation proteins involved in the pathways described above. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of cassava polyploid genotype, and gives a clue to improve cassava polyploidy breeding in increasing photosynthesis and resistance efficiencies.

  9. Coupled Soil Water and Heat Transport Near the Land Surface in Arid and Semiarid Regions - Multi-Domain Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Binayak; Yang, Zhenlei

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and simulating coupled water and heat transfer appropriately in the shallow subsurface is of vital significance for accurate prediction of soil evaporation that would improve the coupling between land surface and atmosphere, which consequently could enhance the reliability of weather as well as climate forecast. The theory of Philip and de Vries (1957), accounting for water vapor diffusion only, was considered physically incomplete and consequently extended and improved by several researchers by explicitly taking water vapor convection, dispersion or air flow into account. It is generally believed that the soil moisture is usually low in the near surface layer under highly transient field conditions, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, and that accurate characterization of water vapor transport is critical when modeling simultaneous water and heat transport in the shallow field soils. The first objective of this study is thus mainly to test existing coupled water and heat transport theories and to develop reasonable and simplified numerical models using field experimental data collected under semi-arid and arid hydro-climatic conditions. In addition, more complex multi-domain models are developed for ubiquitous heterogeneous terrestrial surfaces such as horizontal textural contrasts or structured heterogeneity including macropores (fractures, cracks, root channels, etc.). This would make coupled water and heat transfer models applicable in such non-homogeneous soils more meaningful and enhance the skill of land-atmosphere interaction models at a larger context.

  10. Low-lying T=0 states in the odd–odd N=Z nucleus {sup 62}Ga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, H.M., E-mail: hdavid@anl.gov [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Woods, P.J.; Lotay, G. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Seweryniak, D.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Carpenter, M.P. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Chiara, C.J. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Davinson, T.; Doherty, D.T. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Hoffman, C.R.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Lauritsen, T.; Rogers, A.M.; Zhu, S. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-11-04

    New, low-lying levels in the odd–odd, N=Z nucleus {sup 62}Ga have been identified using a sensitive technique, where in-beam γ rays from short-lived nuclei are tagged with β decays following recoil mass identification. A comparison of the results with shell-model and IBM-4 calculations demonstrates good agreement between theory and experiment, with the majority of predicted low-lying, low-spin T=0 states now identified. There is a dramatic change in the level density at low excitation energies for the N=Z nucleus {sup 62}Ga when compared with neighbouring odd–odd Ga isotopes where, in contrast, the low-lying level structure is dominated by configurations with T=1 pairing interactions between excess neutrons. This illustrates the distinctively different aspects of nuclear structure exhibited by nuclei with N=Z.

  11. Energy efficiency of engines and appliances for transport on land, water, and in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfari, Samuele

    2016-01-01

    The transport sector is fundamental for the economy but also for personal life. With a growing population and the globalization process, it is not surprising that the demand of transport is set to grow in the near future and certainly until 2050. This paper focuses on the huge potential of progress in the sector of technology for transport. As the principal sector for transport will remain on roads, the paper emphasizes the progress in the automotive sector. Since car manufacturers are investing massively into research and technology development to offer ever more efficient cars--not only energy efficient but also efficient in terms of safety and comfort--the car of tomorrow will be very different from the present one. The increasing role of electronics in cars will synergistically cooperate with that of so-called smart cities. The potential development of methane in the transport sector, mainly used for heavy transportation is discussed.

  12. Weathering on land and transport of chromium to the ocean in a subtropical region (Misiones, NW Argentina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Robert; Poiré, Daniel G.; Frei, Karin Margarita

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the pathway of chromium from its mobilization on land and along its riverine transport in a subtropical region of South America (Misiones Province, Argentina), in an attempt to link Cr stable isotope compositions recently measured in seawater with signals prevailing in rivers.......4‰, balancing the negatively fractionated weathering products. The isotope composition and concentration of dissolved Cr in the ca. 1200 km long Paraná River from Misiones to its estuary and discharge area into the South Atlantic Ocean remains relatively constant with an average Cr concentration around 2.4 ppb...

  13. Spatial variability of soil structure and its impact on transport processes and some associated land qualities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finke, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis treats the impact of soil spatial variability on spatial variability of simulated land qualities. A sequence of procedures that were done to determine this impact is described in chapters 2 and 3. The subchapters correspond to seven manuscripts that either have appeared in or have been s

  14. Potential role of biotic transport models in low-level-waste management. [Shallow land burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.; Cadwell, L.L.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1982-06-15

    This paper is a summary of the initial results of a study being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to determine the relevance of biotic pathways to the regulation of nuclear waste disposal. Biotic transport is defined as the actions of plants and animals that result in the transport of radioactive materials from a LLW burial ground to a location where they can enter exposure pathways to man. A critical review of the role of modeling in evaluating biotic transport is given. Both current applications and the need for future modeling development are discussed.

  15. The riboflavin transporter RibU in Lactococcus lactis : Molecular characterization of gene expression and the transport mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgess, CM; Slotboom, DJ; Geertsma, ER; Duurkens, Hinderika; Poolman, B; van Sinderen, D

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the characterization of the riboflavin transport protein RibU in the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NZ9000. RibU is predicted to contain five membrane-spanning segments and is a member of a novel transport protein family, not described in the Transport

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the laser-welded Mg-3Nd-0.2Zn-0.4Zr (NZ30K) magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Keng; Su, Jinsong; Zhao, Yong

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties of the laser-welded Mg-3Nd-0.2Zn-0.4Zr (NZ30K) magnesium alloy. A fiber optic laser was used to weld 4-mm-thick Mg-3Nd-0.2Zn-0.4Zr (NZ30K) and AZ31 magnesium alloy plates. The microstructures of NZ30K and AZ31 joints were compared, and the distribution of Nd in NZ30K was emphatically investigated. Besides, microhardness distributions and tensile properties of NZ30K and AZ31 joints at room temperature and high temperature (200 °C) were tested, and fracture features were observed and analyzed. The results indicated that the NZ30K rare-earth magnesium alloy showed better properties especially at a high temperature (200 °C), benefiting from the strengthening phase, compared with the AZ31 joint, such as high-temperature tensile strength, creep resistance at high temperature, and corrosion resistance. The microhardness in the fusion zone of NZ30K changed a little compared with that in base metal, while the microhardness in the fusion zone of AZ31 decreased significantly. The grain of NZ30K in the fusion zone was significantly refined with strengthening-phase distribution on the grain boundary. The tensile strength of NZ30K laser beam-welded joints at a high temperature (200 °C) decreased by 29% compared with that at room temperature, while the tensile strength of AZ31 joint at a high temperature (200 °C) decreased by 53% compared with that at room temperature, which was mainly because of the stable existence of the strengthening-phase Mg12Nd in the NZ30K rare-earth magnesium alloy while the strengthening-phase Mg17Al12 in AZ31 would soften and coarsen with the rise in temperature.

  17. Shape coexistence and center-of-mass effects in N=Z medium mass nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Petrovici, A; Faessler, A

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented concerning shape coexistence and shape transition at low and intermediate spins in the N=Z nuclei sup 7 sup 2 Kr, sup 7 sup 6 Sr and sup 8 sup 0 Zr obtained within the complex version of the Excited Vampir variational approach. The effects of possible contaminations due to the center-of-mass motion are discussed using a rough method to eliminate them at least approximately. The results indicate maximum influence on the observables depending on band mixing. Detailed illustration of the effects on the oblate-prolate mixing and the electromagnetic properties, as well as the alignments and particle occupations of the 0g sub 9 sub / sub 2 spherical orbital is presented for the sup 7 sup 2 Kr nucleus.

  18. High spin spectroscopy near the N=Z line: Channel selection and excitation energy systematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, C.E.; Cameron, J.A.; Flibotte, S. [McMaster Univ., Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The total {gamma}-ray and charged-particle energies emitted in fusion-evaporation reactions leading to N=Z compound systems in the A = 50-70 mass region have been measured with the 8{pi} {gamma}-ray spectrometer and the miniball charged-particle detector array. A new method of channel selection has been developed which combines particle identification with these total energy measurements and greatly improves upon the selectivity possible with particle detection alone. In addition, the event by event measurement of total {gamma}-ray energies using the BGO ball of the 8{pi} spectrometer has allowed a determination of excitation energies following particle evaporation for a large number of channels in several different reactions. The new channel selection procedure and excitation energy systematics are illustrated with data from the reaction of {sup 24}Mg on {sup 40}Ca at E{sub lab} = 80MeV.

  19. Kohlschütter–Tönz Syndrome: Mutations in ROGDI and Evidence of Genetic Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Arianna; Kara, Eleanna; Schossig, Anna; Wolf, Nicole I.; Plagnol, Vincent; Fawcett, Katherine; Paisán-Ruiz, Coro; Moore, Matthew; Hernandez, Dena; Musumeci, Sebastiano; Tennison, Michael; Hennekam, Raoul; Palmeri, Silvia; Malandrini, Alessandro; Raskin, Salmo; Donnai, Dian; Hennig, Corina; Tzschach, Andreas; Hordijk, Roel; Bast, Thomas; Wimmer, Katharina; Lo, Chien-Ning; Shorvon, Simon; Mefford, Heather; Eichler, Evan E.; Hall, Roger; Hayes, Ian; Hardy, John; Singleton, Andrew; Zschocke, Johannes; Houlden, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Kohlschütter–Tönz syndrome (KTS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by amelogenesis imperfecta, psychomotor delay or regression and seizures starting early in childhood. KTS was established as a distinct clinical entity after the first report by Kohlschütter in 1974, and to date, only a total of 20 pedigrees have been reported. The genetic etiology of KTS remained elusive until recently when mutations in ROGDI were independently identified in three unrelated families and in five likely related Druze families. Herein, we report a clinical and genetic study of 10 KTS families. By using a combination of whole exome sequencing, linkage analysis, and Sanger sequencing, we identify novel homozygous or compound heterozygous ROGDI mutations in five families, all presenting with a typical KTS phenotype. The other families, mostly presenting with additional atypical features, were negative for ROGDI mutations, suggesting genetic heterogeneity of atypical forms of the disease. PMID:23086778

  20. Ternary particles with extreme N/Z ratios from neutron-induced fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koster, U.; Faust, H.; Friedrichs, T.; Oberstedt, S.; Fioni, G.; Grob, M.; Ahmad, I. J.; Devlin, M.; Heinz, A.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Sarantites, D. G.; Siem, S.; Sobotka, L. G.; Sonzogni, A.

    2000-05-16

    The existing ternary fission models can well reproduce the yields of the most abundant light charged particles. However, these models tend to significantly overestimate the yields of ternary particles with an extreme N/Z ratio: {sup 3}He, {sup 11}Li, {sup 14}Be, etc. The experimental yields of these isotopes were investigated with the recoil separator LOHENGRIN down to a level of 10{sup {minus}10} per fission. Results from the fissioning systems {sup 233}U (n{sub th}, f), {sup 235}U(n{sub th},f), {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th},f) {sup 241}Pu(n{sub th},f) and {sup 245}Cm(n{sub th},f) are presented and the implications for the ternary fission models are discussed.

  1. Origins and transport of aquatic dioxins in the Japanese watershed: soil contamination, land use, and soil runoff events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Masakazu; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Sato, Keisuke; Kim, Suejin; Suzuki, Tasuma; Park, Baeksoo; Saino, Reiko; Nakamura, Masafumi

    2009-06-15

    Significant dioxins accumulations in Japanese forests and paddy fields have been observed, and surface soil runoff caused by rainfall and irrigation (i.e., soil puddling in paddy fields) results in dioxins input into the aquatic environment. An extensive investigation into the origins and transport of aquatic dioxins in the Yasu watershed, Japan was conducted considering surface soil contamination level, land use, and type of soil runoff event (i.e., irrigation runoff [IR], rainfall runoff [RR], and base flow [BF]). Combined use of the chemically activated luciferase expression (CALUX) assay together with high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) efficiently enabled this study, so that origins, transport, and dynamic movement of aquatic dioxins in the watershed were revealed. The particulate organic carbon normalized particulate-dioxins WHO-toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration predicted by the CALUX assay (Spar) was found to be a convenient molecular marker to indicate origins of aquatic dioxins and clearly reflect surface soil contamination level, land use, and soil runoff events. Using experimental results and theoretical modeling, the annual loading amount of dioxins at the middle reach of the river was estimated to be 0.458 mg WHO-TEQ in 2004. More than 96.6% of the annual loading amount was attributed to RR and derived almost evenly from forest and paddy fields at the study location. Because the annual loading amount at the middle reach is less than 0.5% of the total dioxins accumulated in the upper basin, dioxins runoff from the Japanese watershed will continue. This study shows that the combined use of the bioassay with HRGC/HRMS can provide new insights into dioxins transport and fate in the environment.

  2. COMPOSITE MODELING APPROACH AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY FOR SUBSURFACE TRANSPORT OF CONTAMINANTS FROM LAND-DISPOSAL SITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chao; Wang Pei-fang; Li Yong

    2003-01-01

    A composite modeling approach was presented for simulating the three-dimensional (3-D) subsurface transport of dissolved contaminants with transformation products. The approach was based on vertical infiltration and contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone and 3-D groundwater flow and contaminant migration in the saturated zone. Moisture movement and groundwater flow were considered to be steady, but contaminant transport was treated as continuous and transient. The transformed unsaturated zone and saturated zone transport equations were solved numerically with different techniques. The model contains a 3-D solution to flow and transport in the saturated zone, as well as two-dimensional solutions to vertical cross-sectional and areal scenarios. In order to verify the composite modeling, extensive experiments were conducted in two large-scale variable-slope soil tanks of 1200cm in length, 150cm in width and 150cm in height. Sand soil was filled in the tank as the porous media. The solutions of KBr or NH4C1 were introduced into each soil tank from 80×37cm2 area sources located on the top of the porous medium. Results from numerical simulations were compared with the data from tests. Predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  3. 77 FR 5617 - Alternative Transportation in Parks and Public Lands Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... activities and funds returned from previously awarded projects. The total amount available for FY 2011 is $27... $26,985 in funds returned from previously awarded projects, a total of $13,465,420 is available for... purchases to installation of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), and are listed in Table 1. Applying...

  4. Simulating the Interactions Among Land Use, Transportation, and Economy to Inform Light Rail Transit Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most transportation studies, computer models that forecast travel behavior statistics for a future year use static projections of the spatial distribution of future population and employment growth as inputs. As a result, they are unable to account for the temporally dynamic a...

  5. Acoustic Measurements of a Large Civil Transport Main Landing Gear Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravetta, Patricio A.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Wisda, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Microphone phased array acoustic measurements of a 26 percent-scale, Boeing 777-200 main landing gear model with and without noise reduction fairings installed were obtained in the anechoic configuration of the Virginia Tech Stability Tunnel. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0.12, 0.15, and 0.17 with the latter speed used as the nominal test condition. The fully and partially dressed gear with the truck angle set at 13 degrees toe-up landing configuration were the two most extensively tested configurations, serving as the baselines for comparison purposes. Acoustic measurements were also acquired for the same two baseline configurations with the truck angle set at 0 degrees. In addition, a previously tested noise reducing, toboggan-shaped fairing was re-evaluated extensively to address some of the lingering questions regarding the extent of acoustic benefit achievable with this device. The integrated spectra generated from the acoustic source maps reconfirm, in general terms, the previously reported noise reduction performance of the toboggan fairing as installed on an isolated gear. With the recent improvements to the Virginia Tech tunnel acoustic quality and microphone array capabilities, the present measurements provide an additional, higher quality database to the acoustic information available for this gear model.

  6. Logistics real estate markets: indicators of structural change, linking land use and freight transport

    OpenAIRE

    Hesse, Markus

    2002-01-01

    The system of physical distribution that comprises transport and logistics, warehousing and wholesale, is an ideal indicator of structural change. Distribution and logistics have developed dynamically, with respect to new technologies, corporate restructuring, and a changing market environment. Whereas traditional logistics were characterized primarily by the demand of manufacturing customers for the shipment of bulk-commodities, modern production and service systems require frequent deliveri...

  7. NZ51, a ring-expanded nucleoside analog, inhibits motility and viability of breast cancer cells by targeting the RNA helicase DDX3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Vesuna, Farhad; Botlagunta, Mahendran; Bol, Guus Martinus; Irving, Ashley; Bergman, Yehudit; Hosmane, Ramachandra S; Kato, Yoshinori; Winnard, Paul T; Raman, Venu

    2015-10-06

    DDX3X (DDX3), a human RNA helicase, is over expressed in multiple breast cancer cell lines and its expression levels are directly correlated to cellular aggressiveness. NZ51, a ring-expanded nucleoside analogue (REN) has been reported to inhibit the ATP dependent helicase activity of DDX3. Molecular modeling of NZ51 binding to DDX3 indicated that the 5:7-fused imidazodiazepine ring of NZ51 was incorporated into the ATP binding pocket of DDX3. In this study, we investigated the anticancer properties of NZ51 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. NZ51 treatment decreased cellular motility and cell viability of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. Biological knockdown of DDX3 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in decreased proliferation rates and reduced clonogenicity. In addition, NZ51 was effective in killing breast cancer cells under hypoxic conditions with the same potency as observed during normoxia. Mechanistic studies indicated that NZ51 did not cause DDX3 degradation, but greatly diminished its functionality. Moreover, in vivo experiments demonstrated that DDX3 knockdown by shRNA resulted in reduced tumor volume and metastasis without altering tumor vascular volume or permeability-surface area. In initial in vivo experiments, NZ51 treatment did not significantly reduce tumor volume. Further studies are needed to optimize drug formulation, dose and delivery. Continuing work will determine the in vitro-in vivo correlation of NZ51 activity and its utility in a clinical setting.

  8. Enhance the sustainability of private land transport system at Ayer Keroh, Melaka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Heoy Shin; Chew, Boon Cheong; Hamid, Syaiful Rizal; Yang, Yu Xin Ou

    2017-03-01

    Ayer Keroh Toll that under the administration of Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council (HTJMC) is the main entrance for the people to enter to the city from North-South Expressway. This situation causes congestion to happen in this area especially during weekend and holiday and lead to air pollution. Hence, it is important to solve this problem beginning with the transport system and brings the city toward the sustainable way by learning the foreign city experience. In this research, the researchers start to revise the case study from foreign city councils on what and how they improve their cities transport system in term of sustainability. There are total of 17 case studies been studied including the cities that recognize with Sustainable Transport Award (STA) and other special activity and event that held worldwide. These cases studied are merged with the behavioral modification. There are four methods of changing behavior: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction. Besides, the data from the administrative staff (HTJMC's officer) also important to success the planning. There are 16 officers that involved in this research and the data that obtained is used as the primary data resources. By knowing the behavioral modification and suggestion that brought by each case studies, the researchers will conclude whether the solution practicable in Ayer Keroh, Melaka or not. Throughout the research, the researchers can conclude that the not all the foreign experience is practical in Ayer, Keroh, Melaka due to the problem of weather, culture and technology that available in the city. The experience from foreign city cannot be exactly to implement in the city but need to redesign to match culture in the city.

  9. Temporal variation of nitrate and phosphate transport in headwater catchments: the hydrological controls and land use alteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-Y. Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Oceania rivers are hotspots of DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen and DIP (dissolved inorganic phosphorus transport due to humid/warm climate, typhoon-induced episodic rainfall and high tectonic activity that create an environment favorable for high/rapid runoff and soil erosion. In spite of its uniqueness, effects of hydrologic controls and land use on the transport behaviors of DIN and DIP are rarely documented. A 2 yr monitoring study for DIN and DIP from three headwater catchments with different cultivation gradient (0 To 8.9% was implemented during a ~ 3 day interval with an additional monitoring campaign at a 3 h interval during typhoon periods. Results showed the DIN yields in the pristine, moderately cultivated (2.7%, and intensively cultivated (8.9% watersheds were 8.3, 26, and 37 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively. For the DIP yields, they were 0.36, 0.35, and 0.56 kg P ha−1 yr−1, respectively. Higher year-round DIN concentrations and five times larger in DIN yields in intensively cultivated watersheds indicate DIN is more sensitive to land use changes. The high background DIN yield from the relatively pristine watershed was likely due to high atmospheric nitrogen deposition and large subterranean N pool. The correlations between runoff and concentration reveals that typhoon floods purge out more DIN from the subterranean reservoir, i.e., soil, by contrast, runoff washes off surface soil resulting in higher suspended sediment with higher DIP. Collectively, typhoon runoff contributes 20–70% and 47–80%, respectively, to the annual DIN and DIP exports. The DIN yield to DIP yield ratio varied from 97 to 410, which is higher than the global mean of ~ 18. Such a high ratio indicates a P-limiting condition in stream and the downstream aquatic environment. Based on our field observation, we constructed a conceptual model illustrating different remobilization mechanisms for DIN and DIP from headwaters in a mountainous river, which is

  10. Modelling Land Use and Transport Policies to Measure Their Contribution to Urban Challenges: The Case of Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Alonso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas play a key role in the development of European territories, and it is essential for them to be sustainable and efficient. However, the European cities are facing some challenges related to certain trends that are threatening their sustainable development and operational efficiency. In this paper, we compare the contribution of three policy measures—cordon toll accompanied by public transport improvements, teleworking and re-densification—to address different city challenges. The policy assessment requires a long term simulation tool, i.e., the MARS (Metropolitan Activity Relocation Simulator model, which is able to consider interactions between land use and transport systems. The simulations of the different policy scenarios were carried out for the case of Madrid in the period 2012–2031. The contribution of the policy measures to address the city challenges was measured through different indicators. The results indicated that the three policy measures contributed to the time efficiency challenge, by saving time for the commute, reducing congestion and improving the traffic flows at peak hours. The most effective policy in this regard is the teleworking measure. Another challenge addressed by the three policies was the accessibility to PT. The three policy scenarios, when simulated, showed higher PT use, especially the cordon toll scenario. However, the only policy that really contributed to the energy, emissions and pollution city challenges was the re-densification measure, which reduced travel distances and encouraged a mobility that relies more on PT and slow modes.

  11. Effects of N/Z on Spin Distribution of Evaporation Residue Cross Section as a Probe of Nuclear Dissipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Wei; YANG Hong-Wei; CHEN Na

    2008-01-01

    The spin distribution of the evaporation residue cross section of nuclei 194Pb,200Pb,206Pb,and 200Os are calculated via a Langevin equation coupled with a statistical decay model.It is shown that with increasing the neutron-to-proton ratio (N/Z) of the system,the sensitivity of the spin distribution to the nuclear dissipation is decreased significantly.Moreover,for 200Os this spin distribution is no longer sensitive to the nuclear dissipation.These results suggest that to obtain a more accurate pre-saddle viscosity coefficient through the measurement of the evaporation residue spin distribution,it is best to yield those compound systems with low N/Z.

  12. PPP investment in land passenger transportation infrastructure: exploratory comments regarding its effects on competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Aragão

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente artigo visa a propor um quadro analítico para estudar os diferentes momentos de competição e suas características específicas em empreendimentos de infra-estrutura de transporte terrestre de passageiros. Como é argüido, os processos competitivos emergem bem antes do estágio licitatório, o qual é considerado a principal instância de competição nesse tipo de empreendimento. O estabelecimento de políticas de investimento e a escolha de projetos específicos já estão sujeitas a pressões políticas que refletem processos competitivos entre atores interessados, entre os quais alguns potenciais participantes da futura licitação. E, mesmo depois desse estágio, a competição não cessa, uma vez que serviços competitivos de transporte irão desafiar permanentemente o empreendimento. Também, benefícios externos do investimento dão origem à competição entre diferentes interessados, por exemplo, no mercado imobiliário. O artigo examina os diferentes estágios de competição e ilustra os resultados por meio de um estudo de caso selecionado.

  13. Mutations in ROGDI Cause Kohlschütter-Tönz Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schossig, Anna; Wolf, Nicole I; Fischer, Christine; Fischer, Maria; Stocker, Gernot; Pabinger, Stephan; Dander, Andreas; Steiner, Bernhard; Tönz, Otmar; Kotzot, Dieter; Haberlandt, Edda; Amberger, Albert; Burwinkel, Barbara; Wimmer, Katharina; Fauth, Christine; Grond-Ginsbach, Caspar; Koch, Martin J; Deichmann, Annette; von Kalle, Christof; Bartram, Claus R; Kohlschütter, Alfried; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Zschocke, Johannes

    2012-04-06

    Kohlschütter-Tönz syndrome (KTS) is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by the combination of epilepsy, psychomotor regression, and amelogenesis imperfecta. The molecular basis has not yet been elucidated. Here, we report that KTS is caused by mutations in ROGDI. Using a combination of autozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous frameshift deletion, c.229_230del (p.Leu77Alafs(∗)64), in ROGDI in two affected individuals from a consanguineous family. Molecular studies in two additional KTS-affected individuals from two unrelated Austrian and Swiss families revealed homozygosity for nonsense mutation c.286C>T (p.Gln96(∗)) and compound heterozygosity for the splice-site mutations c.531+5G>C and c.532-2A>T in ROGDI, respectively. The latter mutation was also found to be heterozygous in the mother of the Swiss affected individual in whom KTS was reported for the first time in 1974. ROGDI is highly expressed throughout the brain and other organs, but its function is largely unknown. Possible interactions with DISC1, a protein involved in diverse cytoskeletal functions, have been suggested. Our finding that ROGDI mutations cause KTS indicates that the protein product of this gene plays an important role in neuronal development as well as amelogenesis. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Deformed shell model study of heavy N=Z nuclei and dark matter detection

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, R

    2016-01-01

    Deformed shell model (DSM) based on Hartree-Fock intrinsic states is applied to address two current problems of interest. Firstly, in the $f_{5/2}pg_{9/2}$ model space with jj44b effective interaction along with isospin projection, DSM is used to describe the structure of the recently observed low-lying $T=0$ and $T=1$ bands in the heavy odd-odd N=Z nucleus $^{66}$As. DSM results are close to the data and also to the shell model results. For the $T=1$ band, DSM predicts structural change at $8^+$ just as in the shell model. In addition, the lowest two $T=0$ bands are found to have quasi-deuteron structure above a $^{64}$Ge core and the $5^+$ and $9^+$ levels of the third $T=0$ band are found to be isomeric states. Secondly, in a first application of DSM to dark matter, detection rates for the lightest supersymmetric particle (a dark matter candidate) are calculated with $^{73}$Ge as the detector.

  15. Mutations in ROGDI Cause Kohlschütter-Tönz Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schossig, Anna; Wolf, Nicole I.; Fischer, Christine; Fischer, Maria; Stocker, Gernot; Pabinger, Stephan; Dander, Andreas; Steiner, Bernhard; Tönz, Otmar; Kotzot, Dieter; Haberlandt, Edda; Amberger, Albert; Burwinkel, Barbara; Wimmer, Katharina; Fauth, Christine; Grond-Ginsbach, Caspar; Koch, Martin J.; Deichmann, Annette; von Kalle, Christof; Bartram, Claus R.; Kohlschütter, Alfried; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Zschocke, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Kohlschütter-Tönz syndrome (KTS) is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by the combination of epilepsy, psychomotor regression, and amelogenesis imperfecta. The molecular basis has not yet been elucidated. Here, we report that KTS is caused by mutations in ROGDI. Using a combination of autozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous frameshift deletion, c.229_230del (p.Leu77Alafs∗64), in ROGDI in two affected individuals from a consanguineous family. Molecular studies in two additional KTS-affected individuals from two unrelated Austrian and Swiss families revealed homozygosity for nonsense mutation c.286C>T (p.Gln96∗) and compound heterozygosity for the splice-site mutations c.531+5G>C and c.532-2A>T in ROGDI, respectively. The latter mutation was also found to be heterozygous in the mother of the Swiss affected individual in whom KTS was reported for the first time in 1974. ROGDI is highly expressed throughout the brain and other organs, but its function is largely unknown. Possible interactions with DISC1, a protein involved in diverse cytoskeletal functions, have been suggested. Our finding that ROGDI mutations cause KTS indicates that the protein product of this gene plays an important role in neuronal development as well as amelogenesis. PMID:22424600

  16. Dynamical Dipole and Equation of State in N/Z Asymmetric Fusion Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giaz Agnese

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In heavy ion reactions, in the case of N/Z asymmetry between projectile and target, the process leading to complete fusion is expected to produce pre-equilibrium dipole γ-ray emission. It is generated during the charge equilibration process and it is known as Dynamical Dipole. A new measurement of the dynamical dipole emission was performed by studying 16O + 116Sn at 12 MeV/u. These data, together with those measured at 8.1 MeV/u and 15.6 MeV/u for the same reaction, provide the dependence on the Dynamical Dipole total emission yield with beam energy and they can be compared with theoretical expectations. The experimental results show a weak increase of the Dynamical Dipole total yield with beam energies and are in agreement with the prediction of a theoretical model based on the Boltzmann–Nordheim–Vlasov (BNV approach. The measured trend with beam energy does not confirm the rise and fall behavior previously reported for the same fused compound but with a much higher dipole moment.

  17. The relativistic consistent angular-momentum projected shell model study of the N=Z nucleus 52Fe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YanSong; LONG GuiLu

    2009-01-01

    The relativistic consistent angular-momentum projected shell model (RECAPS) is used in the study of the structure and electromagnetic transitions of the low-lying states in the N=Z nucleus 52Fe.The model calculations show a reasonably good agreement with the data.The backbending at 12+ is reproduced and the energy level structure suggests that neutron-proton interactions play important roles.

  18. The relativistic consistent angular-momentum projected shell model study of the N=Z nucleus 52Fe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The relativistic consistent angular-momentum projected shell model(ReCAPS) is used in the study of the structure and electromagnetic transitions of the low-lying states in the N=Z nucleus 52Fe.The model calculations show a reasonably good agreement with the data.The backbending at 12+ is reproduced and the energy level structure suggests that neutron-proton interactions play important roles.

  19. Role of Micro RNA-205 in Promoting Visceral Adiposity of NZ10 Mice with Polygenic Susceptibility for Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi, Nikhil; Adi, Jennipher; Cesar, Liliana; Kurlansky, Paul; Agatston, Arthur; Webster, Keith A

    2015-07-01

    To characterize diet-dependent miRNA profiles and their targets in the visceral adipose of mice with polygenic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. Six-week NONcNZO10/LtJ (NZ10) and control SWR/J mice were subjected to high protein-fish oil or control diets for 19 weeks and micro-RNA microarray analyses were implemented on visceral adipose RNA. We found that 27 miRNAs were significantly induced and 10 significantly repressed in the VA of obese NZ10 mice compared with controls. 12 selected regulated miRNAs were confirmed by RT-PCR based on the microarray data and we demonstrated that the expression of these miRNAs remained unaltered in the VA of control SWR mice. To assess the possible functional roles of miRNAs in adipogenesis, we also analyzed their expression in 3T3-L1 cells during growth and differentiation. This revealed that suppression of miRNA-205 alone correlated selectively with increased cell proliferation and lipid formation of adipocytes. Diet and genetics control the expression of obesity-regulated miRNAs in the visceral adipose of NZ10 mice.

  20. Intracellular activity of the peptide antibiotic NZ2114: studies with Staphylococcus aureus and human THP-1 monocytes, and comparison with daptomycin and vancomycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Karoline Sidelmann; Tulkens, Paul M; Van Bambeke, Francoise;

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus survives inside eukaryotic cells. Our objective was to assess the activity of NZ2114, a novel peptidic antibiotic, against intracellular S. aureus in comparison with established antistaphylococcal agents acting on the bacterial envelope with a distinct mechanism.......Staphylococcus aureus survives inside eukaryotic cells. Our objective was to assess the activity of NZ2114, a novel peptidic antibiotic, against intracellular S. aureus in comparison with established antistaphylococcal agents acting on the bacterial envelope with a distinct mechanism....

  1. Simulating Transport and Land Use Interdependencies for Strategic Urban Planning—An Agent Based Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Huynh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Agent based modelling has been widely accepted as a promising tool for urban planning purposes thanks to its capability to provide sophisticated insights into the social behaviours and the interdependencies that characterise urban systems. In this paper, we report on an agent based model, called TransMob, which explicitly simulates the mutual dynamics between demographic evolution, transport demands, housing needs and the eventual change in the average satisfaction of the residents of an urban area. The ability to reproduce such dynamics is a unique feature that has not been found in many of the like agent based models in the literature. TransMob, is constituted by six major modules: synthetic population, perceived liveability, travel diary assignment, traffic micro-simulator, residential location choice, and travel mode choice. TransMob is used to simulate the dynamics of a metropolitan area in South East of Sydney, Australia, in 2006 and 2011, with demographic evolution. The results are favourably compared against survey data for the area in 2011, therefore validating the capability of TransMob to reproduce the observed complexity of an urban area. We also report on the application of TransMob to simulate various hypothetical scenarios of urban planning policies. We conclude with discussions on current limitations of TransMob, which serve as suggestions for future developments.

  2. Mathematical model of sediment and solute transport along slope land in different rainfall pattern conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wanghai; Wu, Junhu; Wang, Quanjiu

    2017-03-01

    Rainfall erosion is a major cause of inducing soil degradation, and rainfall patterns have a significant influence on the process of sediment yield and nutrient loss. The mathematical models developed in this study were used to simulate the sediment and nutrient loss in surface runoff. Four rainfall patterns, each with a different rainfall intensity variation, were applied during the simulated rainfall experiments. These patterns were designated as: uniform-type, increasing-type, increasing- decreasing -type and decreasing-type. The results revealed that changes in the rainfall intensity can have an appreciable impact on the process of runoff generation, but only a slight effect on the total amount of runoff generated. Variations in the rainfall intensity in a rainfall event not only had a significant effect on the process of sediment yield and nutrient loss, but also the total amount of sediment and nutrient produced, and early high rainfall intensity may lead to the most severe erosion and nutrient loss. In this study, the calculated data concur with the measured values. The model can be used to predict the process of surface runoff, sediment transport and nutrient loss associated with different rainfall patterns.

  3. Effects of Atmospheric Conditions and the Land/Atmospheric Interface on Transport of Chemical Vapors from Subsurface Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. K.; Smits, K. M.; Cihan, A.; Howington, S. E.; Illangasekare, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the movement of chemical vapors and gas through variably saturated soil subjected to atmospheric thermal and mass flux boundary conditions at the land/atmospheric interface is important to many applications, including landmine detection, methane leakage during natural gas production from shale and CO2 leakage from deep geologic storage. New, advanced technologies exist to sense chemical signatures and gas leakage at the land/atmosphere interface, but interpretation of sensor signals remains a challenge. Chemical vapors are subject to numerous interactions while migrating through the soil environment, masking source conditions. The process governing movement of gases through porous media is often assumed to be Fickian diffusion through the air phase with minimal quantification of other processes, such as convective gas flow and temporal or spatial variation in soil moisture. Vapor migration is affected by atmospheric conditions (e.g. humidity, temperature, wind velocity), soil thermal and hydraulic properties and contaminant properties, all of which are physically and thermodynamically coupled. The complex coupling of two drastically different flow regimes in the subsurface and atmosphere is commonly ignored in modeling efforts, or simplifying assumptions are made to treat the systems as de-coupled. Experimental data under controlled laboratory settings are lacking to refine the theory for proper coupling and complex treatment of vapor migration through porous media in conversation with atmospheric flow and climate variations. Improving fundamental understanding and accurate quantification of these processes is not feasible in field settings due to lack of controlled initial and boundary conditions and inability to fully characterize the subsurface at all relevant scales. The goal of this work is to understand the influence of changes in atmospheric conditions to transport of vapors through variably saturated soil. We have developed a tank apparatus

  4. Lateral transport of soil carbon and land-atmosphere CO2 flux induced by water erosion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yao; Ni, Jinren; Ciais, Philippe; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Tao; Huang, Mengtian; Borthwick, Alistair G L; Li, Tianhong; Wang, Yichu; Chappell, Adrian; Van Oost, Kristof

    2016-06-14

    Soil erosion by water impacts soil organic carbon stocks and alters CO2 fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere. The role of erosion as a net sink or source of atmospheric CO2 remains highly debated, and little information is available at scales larger than small catchments or regions. This study attempts to quantify the lateral transport of soil carbon and consequent land-atmosphere CO2 fluxes at the scale of China, where severe erosion has occurred for several decades. Based on the distribution of soil erosion rates derived from detailed national surveys and soil carbon inventories, here we show that water erosion in China displaced 180 ± 80 Mt C⋅y(-1) of soil organic carbon during the last two decades, and this resulted a net land sink for atmospheric CO2 of 45 ± 25 Mt C⋅y(-1), equivalent to 8-37% of the terrestrial carbon sink previously assessed in China. Interestingly, the "hotspots," largely distributed in mountainous regions in the most intensive sink areas (>40 g C⋅m(-2)⋅y(-1)), occupy only 1.5% of the total area suffering water erosion, but contribute 19.3% to the national erosion-induced CO2 sink. The erosion-induced CO2 sink underwent a remarkable reduction of about 16% from the middle 1990s to the early 2010s, due to diminishing erosion after the implementation of large-scale soil conservation programs. These findings demonstrate the necessity of including erosion-induced CO2 in the terrestrial budget, hence reducing the level of uncertainty.

  5. Lateral transport of soil carbon and land-atmosphere CO2 flux induced by water erosion in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yao; Ni, Jinren; Ciais, Philippe; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Tao; Huang, Mengtian; Borthwick, Alistair G. L.; Li, Tianhong; Wang, Yichu; Chappell, Adrian; Van Oost, Kristof

    2016-06-01

    Soil erosion by water impacts soil organic carbon stocks and alters CO2 fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere. The role of erosion as a net sink or source of atmospheric CO2 remains highly debated, and little information is available at scales larger than small catchments or regions. This study attempts to quantify the lateral transport of soil carbon and consequent land-atmosphere CO2 fluxes at the scale of China, where severe erosion has occurred for several decades. Based on the distribution of soil erosion rates derived from detailed national surveys and soil carbon inventories, here we show that water erosion in China displaced 180 ± 80 Mt Cṡy-1 of soil organic carbon during the last two decades, and this resulted a net land sink for atmospheric CO2 of 45 ± 25 Mt Cṡy-1, equivalent to 8-37% of the terrestrial carbon sink previously assessed in China. Interestingly, the “hotspots,” largely distributed in mountainous regions in the most intensive sink areas (>40 g Cṡm-2ṡy-1), occupy only 1.5% of the total area suffering water erosion, but contribute 19.3% to the national erosion-induced CO2 sink. The erosion-induced CO2 sink underwent a remarkable reduction of about 16% from the middle 1990s to the early 2010s, due to diminishing erosion after the implementation of large-scale soil conservation programs. These findings demonstrate the necessity of including erosion-induced CO2 in the terrestrial budget, hence reducing the level of uncertainty.

  6. Travel and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Roesdahl, Else

    2007-01-01

    On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments......On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments...

  7. The Accidental Spokesperson - Science Communication during the 2010-2011 Christchurch, NZ Earthquake Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, K. P.

    2015-12-01

    Beginning September 4, 2010, with a Mw 7.1 earthquake, a multi-year earthquake sequence changed life in Canterbury NZ. Information communicated by a core group of university-based earthquake scientists provided accessible information to the general public, the press, and policy makers. Although at the start of this prolonged sequence, no one anticipated its longevity nor its impact, this initial (and largest) event did catalyze a demand from the public and policy makers for information and led to some important lessons in how to communicate science to a broad audience as an event unfolds and when it is personally important to the general public. Earthquakes are neither new nor rare to New Zealand, but the Christchurch area was seen as likely suffering only from the far-field effects of a major earthquake on the Alpine Fault or Marlborough fault system. Policy makers had planned and expected that another city such as Wellington would be where they would need to respond. As a visiting faculty at the University of Canterbury, with expertise in earthquake science, I was entrained and engaged in the response - both the scientific and communication aspects. It soon became clear that formal press releases and statements from government ministries and agencies did little to address the questions and uncertainties that the public, the press, and even the policy makers had. Rather, a series of public lectures, broad ranging discussions with the media (both print and radio/television), and OpEd pieces provided by this small group of earthquake focused faculty at the University of Canterbury provided the background information, best estimates of what could occur in the future, and why Earth was acting as it was. This filled a critical gap in science information going to the public, and helped build a level of trust in the public that became critically needed after the situation escalated with subsequent damaging events through early-mid 2011, and onward.

  8. Large scale air pollution estimation method combining land use regression and chemical transport modeling in a geostatistical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, Yasuyuki; Baldasano, Jose M; Beelen, Rob; Cirach, Marta; de Hoogh, Kees; Hoek, Gerard; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Serre, Marc L; de Nazelle, Audrey

    2014-04-15

    In recognition that intraurban exposure gradients may be as large as between-city variations, recent air pollution epidemiologic studies have become increasingly interested in capturing within-city exposure gradients. In addition, because of the rapidly accumulating health data, recent studies also need to handle large study populations distributed over large geographic domains. Even though several modeling approaches have been introduced, a consistent modeling framework capturing within-city exposure variability and applicable to large geographic domains is still missing. To address these needs, we proposed a modeling framework based on the Bayesian Maximum Entropy method that integrates monitoring data and outputs from existing air quality models based on Land Use Regression (LUR) and Chemical Transport Models (CTM). The framework was applied to estimate the yearly average NO2 concentrations over the region of Catalunya in Spain. By jointly accounting for the global scale variability in the concentration from the output of CTM and the intraurban scale variability through LUR model output, the proposed framework outperformed more conventional approaches.

  9. Using reactive transport codes to provide mechanistic biogeochemistry representations in global land surface models: CLM-PFLOTRAN 1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore coupling to a configurable subsurface reactive transport code as a flexible and extensible approach to biogeochemistry in land surface models; our goal is to facilitate testing of alternative models and incorporation of new understanding. A reaction network with the CLM-CN decomposition, nitrification, denitrification, and plant uptake is used as an example. We implement the reactions in the open-source PFLOTRAN code, coupled with the Community Land Model (CLM, and test at Arctic, temperate, and tropical sites. To make the reaction network designed for use in explicit time stepping in CLM compatible with the implicit time stepping used in PFLOTRAN, the Monod substrate rate-limiting function with a residual concentration is used to represent the limitation of nitrogen availability on plant uptake and immobilization. To achieve accurate, efficient, and robust numerical solutions, care needs to be taken to use scaling, clipping, or log transformation to avoid negative concentrations during the Newton iterations. With a tight relative update tolerance to avoid false convergence, an accurate solution can be achieved with about 50 % more computing time than CLM in point mode site simulations using either the scaling or clipping methods. The log transformation method takes 60–100 % more computing time than CLM. The computing time increases slightly for clipping and scaling; it increases substantially for log transformation for half saturation decrease from 10−3 to 10−9 mol m−3, which normally results in decreasing nitrogen concentrations. The frequent occurrence of very low concentrations (e.g. below nanomolar can increase the computing time for clipping or scaling by about 20 %; computing time can be doubled for log transformation. Caution needs to be taken in choosing the appropriate scaling factor because a small value caused by a negative update to a small concentration may diminish the update and result in false convergence even

  10. How planners' use and non-use of expert knowledge in land use and transport planning affect the goal achievement potential of plans? Experiences from three Scandinavian cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tennøy, Aud; Hansson, Lisa; Lissandrello, Enza;

    2016-01-01

    the plans (if implemented) contribute to achieve defined objectives, which in this paper concern transition toward more sustainable mobility patterns and reduction of traffic volumes. The expert knowledge in question concerns how land use and transport systems developments influence traffic volumes in urban......Changing urban development in more sustainable directions poses numerous challenges for planning practitioners. Expert knowledge could be helpful for planners aiming at facing up to these challenges by developing innovative ways of meeting seemingly contradictive objectives and solving planning...... their planning problems. Instead, they rely on their embedded professional knowledge, which is sometimes outdated or misleading. It is found that changing towards land use and transport systems developments contributing to more sustainable mobility patterns requires considerable efforts from planning...

  11. Active Forearc Response to CO-NZ-CA Triple Junction Migration, Southern Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, K.; Fisher, D.; Gardner, T. W.

    2007-12-01

    Southeast migration of the CO-NZ-CA triple junction at a rate of ~55 mm/yr results in an abrupt increase in convergence rate, slab thickness and subduction direction within the upper plate of the Central American convergent margin. At the triple junction, an active transform fault (the dextral Panama Fracture Zone) subducts beneath the Caribbean plate at the Middle America Trench, and juxtaposes the thick, orthogonal and shallow subduction of the Cocos plate against the thin, oblique and steeper subduction of the Nazca plate. New bedrock geology, Quaternary mapping and Ar/Ar dates of fluvial and volcanic deposits inboard of the triple junction provide evidence that both the outer and inner forearc of this system is actively responding to the dynamic changes presented by triple junction migration. Our results confirm that the Fila Costeña, a thin-skinned inner forearc thrust belt, is active and likely propagating in concert with triple junction migration. Mapping within the area overriding the Panama Fracture Zone indicates that thrusting develops only in those areas experiencing Cocos subduction; the thrust belt dies out coincident with the on-shore projection of the Panama Fracture Zone, and balanced cross-sections indicate a lateral gradient in the amount of shortening near the termination of the thrust belt. Along-strike variations in drainage basin morphometry suggest that drainage divides of the Fila Costeña are propagating to the southeast with the triple junction, resulting in hook-shaped drainage patterns and asymmetric basin shapes. A survey of a flight of 3-4 fluvial terraces along the Río Chiriquí Viejo indicates recent thrusting along a prominent thrust fault of the Fila Costeña. These terraces are also inset into multiple lahar flows with an upper surface tentatively constrained at ~507 ka based on an Ar/Ar hornblende plateau age. Recent work indicates that this thrust fault displaces surficial lahar deposits, suggesting that it must have become

  12. Isomer and β-decay spectroscopy of Tz=1 isotopes below the N=Z=50 shell gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutachkov, P.; Braun, N.; Brock, T.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Blazhev, A.; Liu, Z.; Wadsworth, R.; Górska, M.; Grawe, H.; Pietri, S.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Faestermann, T.; Farinon, F.; Grebosz, J.; Kojuharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Nociforo, C.; Podolyák, Zs; Prochazka, A.; Steer, S.; Cáceres, L.; Engert, T.; Gerl, J.; Goel, N.; Hoischen, R.; Schaffner, H.; Weick, H.; Wollersheim, H.-J.; Bettermann, L.; Finke, F.; Geibel, K.; Ilie, G.; Iwasaki, H.; Jolie, J.; Nyberg, J.; Reiter, P.; Scholl, C.; Söderström, P.-A.; Warr, N.; Eppinger, K.; Gottardo, A.; Hinke, C.; Krücken, R.; Pfützner, M.; Regan, P.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rudolph, D.; Woods, P.; Ataç, A.; Merchán, E.

    2011-09-01

    The RISING setup at the GSI-FRS facility was used to investigate the isomer and beta decays in N~Z~50 Cd, Ag and Pd isotopes. A preliminary analysis of the data has revealed new results on the Tz=1, 94Pd, 96Ag and 98Cd isotopes. In 94Pd a new high-spin isomer was observed, whilst in 96Ag 3 new isomeric states were identified, including core-excited states. In 98Cd a new high-energy isomeric γ-ray transition is observed, thus enabling us to confirm the previous spin assignment for the core-excited 12+ isomer.

  13. Controlled Release of Plectasin NZ2114 from a Hybrid Silicone-Hydrogel Material for Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Kasper; Grønnemose, Rasmus Birkholm; Alm, Martin

    2017-01-01

    this system with plectasin derivate NZ2114 in an attempt to design an S. aureus biofilm-resistant catheter. The material demonstrated promising antibiofilm properties, including properties against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, thus suggesting a novel application of this antimicrobial peptide.......Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen in catheter-related infections. Modifying catheter material with interpenetrating polymer networks is a novel material technology that allows for impregnation with drugs and subsequent controlled release. Here, we evaluated the potential for combining...

  14. Energy transport corridors: the potential role of Federal lands in states identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 368(b).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Kuiper, J.; Kolpa, R.; Moore, R.; May, J.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; McLamore, M.R.; Shamsuddin, S. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS)

    2011-09-01

    On August 8, 2005, the President signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) into law. In Subtitle F of EPAct, Congress set forth various provisions that would change the way certain federal agencies (Agencies) coordinate to authorize the use of land for a variety of energy-related purposes. As part of Subtitle F of EPAct, Section 368 addresses the issue of energy transportation corridors on federal land for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines, as well as electricity transmission and distribution facilities. Because of the critical importance of improving the nation's electrical transmission grid, Congress recognized that electricity transmission issues should receive added attention when the Agencies address corridor location and analysis issues. In Section 368, Congress specifically directed the Agencies to consider the need for upgraded and new facilities to deliver electricity: In carrying out [Section 368], the Secretaries shall take into account the need for upgraded and new electricity transmission and distribution facilities to (1) improve reliability; (2) relieve congestion; and (3) enhance capability of the national grid to deliver electricity. Section 368 does not require the Agencies to consider or approve specific projects, applications for rights-of-way (ROWs), or other permits within designated energy corridors. Importantly, Section 368 does not direct, license, or otherwise permit any on-the-ground activity of any sort. If an applicant is interested in obtaining an authorization to develop a project within any corridor designated under Section 368, the applicant would have to apply for a ROW authorization and applicable permits. The Agencies would consider each application by applying appropriate project-specific reviews under requirements of laws and related regulations, including, but not limited to, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and Section

  15. $\\beta$- decay of the N=Z, rp-process waiting points: $^{64}$Ge, $^{68}$Se and the N=Z+2: $^{66}$Ge, $^{70}$Se for accurate stellar weak-decay rates

    CERN Multimedia

    The contribution of electron capture to weak-decay rates has been neglected in model calculations of Type I X-ray bursts so far. Nucleosynthesis in these astrophysical events eventually proceeds through the rp-process near the proton drip-line. In particular, several N=Z nuclei such as $^{64}$Ge and $^{68}$Se act as waiting points in the nuclear flow due to the low S${_P}$ values of their Z+1 neighbours. Recent theoretical calculations have shown that, in these high density ($\\thicksim10^{6}$ g/cm$^3$) and high temperature (1 - 2 GK) scenarios, continuum electron capture rates might play an important role, in particular for species at and around these waiting point nuclei. This proposal is aimed at the study of the $\\beta^{+}$/EC-decay of the waiting point nuclei $^{64}$Ge, $^{68}$Se and their N=Z+2 second neighbours $^{66}$Ge and $^{70}$Se with the Total Absorption Spectroscopy method. This will allow for a detailed analysis of their contribution to the EC-decay rates in X-Ray burst explosions. The proposed ...

  16. Preparation and Photocatalytic Properties of Sr2−xBaxTa3O10−yNz Nanosheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsumi Ishihara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sr2−xBaxTa3O10−yNz (x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 nanosheets were prepared by exfoliating layered perovskite compounds (CsSr2−xBaxTa3O10−yNz. The Sr1.5Ba0.5Ta3O9.7N0.2 nanosheet showed the highest photocatalytic activity for H2 production from the water/methanol system among the Sr2−xBaxTa3O9.7N0.2 nanosheets prepared. In addition, Rh-loaded Sr1.5Ba0.5Ta3O9.6N0.3 nanosheet showed the photocatalytic activity for oxygen and hydrogen production from water. The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen evolved was around two. These results indicate that the Rh-loaded Sr1.5Ba0.5Ta3O9.6N0.3 nanosheet is a potential catalyst for photocatalytic water splitting.

  17. Galaxy N-z Relation and CMB Spectrum Based on Cosmological Model with Scalar Field Having Modified Potential Form

    CERN Document Server

    Hirano, Koichi; Komiya, Zen; Bunya, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    We have succeeded in establishing a cosmological model with a non-minimally coupled scalar field $\\phi$ that can account not only for the spatial periodicity or the picket-fence structure exhibited by the galaxy $N$-$z$ relation of the 2dF survey, but also for the spatial power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) temperature anisotropy observed by the WMAP satellite. The scalar field of our model universe starts from an extremely small value at around the nucleosynthesis epoch, remains in that state for sufficiently long periods, allowing sufficient time for the CMB temperature anisotropy to form, and then starts to grow in magnitude at the redshift $z$ of $\\sim 1$, followed by a damping oscillation which is required to reproduce the observed picket-fence structure of the $N$-$z$ relation. To realize such behavior of the scalar field, we have found it necessary to introduce a new form of potential $V(\\phi)\\propto \\phi^2\\exp(-q\\phi^2)$, with $q$ being a constant. Through this parameter ...

  18. N-z Relation and CMB Anisotropies in the Universe with an Oscillating Scalar Field Having a Null Field State

    CERN Document Server

    Hirano, Koichi; Komiya, Zen; Bunya, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    We investigate whether or nor it is possible to find a scalar field model or models that are capable of explaining simultaneously the observed $N$-$z$ relation given by the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, which still seems to exhibit a spatial periodicity of the galaxy distribution(the 'picket-fence structure'), and the CMB spectrum obtained by the WMAP experiments. It is found that both the observed size of the spatial periodicity and the amplitude of the 2dF $N$-$z$ relation can be fairly well fitted by the theoretical computations based on the scalar field models with $-20\\le \\xi\\le -10$, and $140\\le m_{\\rm s} \\le 160$, where $\\xi$ is the gravitational coupling parameter, and $m_{\\rm s}$ the normalized mass of the scalar field, respectively. To reproduce the CMB spectrum of the WMAP, we find that it is very crucial to have a null state of the scalar field in the early epochs of evolution of the universe.

  19. Ground-based and in-flight simulator studies of flight characteristics of a twin-fuselage passenger transport airplane during approach and landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, W. D.; Smith, P. M.; Neely, W. R., Jr.; Deal, P. L.; Yenni, K. R.

    1985-01-01

    Six-degree-of-freedom ground-based and in-flight simulator studies were conducted to evaluate the low-speed flight characteristics of a twin-fuselage passenger transport airplane and to compare these characteristics with those of a large, single-fuselage (reference) transport configuration similar to the Lockheed C-5A airplane. The primary piloting task was the approach and landing task. The results of this study indicated that the twin-fuselage transport concept had acceptable but unsatisfactory longitudinal and lateral-directional low-speed flight characteristics, and that stability and control augmentation would be required in order to improve the handling qualities. Through the use of rate-command/attitude-hold augmentation in the pitch and roll axes, and the use of several turn coordination features, the handling qualities of the simulated transport were improved appreciably. The in-flight test results showed excellent agreement with those of the six-degree-of-freedom ground-based simulator handling qualities tests. As a result of the in-flight simulation study, a roll-control-induced normal-acceleration criterion was developed. The handling qualities of the augmented twin-fuselage passenger transport airplane exhibited an improvement over the handling characteristics of the reference (single-fuselage) transport.

  20. Energy transport corridors: the potential role of Federal lands in states identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 368(b).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Kuiper, J.; Kolpa, R.; Moore, R.; May, J.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; McLamore, M.R.; Shamsuddin, S. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS)

    2011-09-01

    On August 8, 2005, the President signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) into law. In Subtitle F of EPAct, Congress set forth various provisions that would change the way certain federal agencies (Agencies) coordinate to authorize the use of land for a variety of energy-related purposes. As part of Subtitle F of EPAct, Section 368 addresses the issue of energy transportation corridors on federal land for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines, as well as electricity transmission and distribution facilities. Because of the critical importance of improving the nation's electrical transmission grid, Congress recognized that electricity transmission issues should receive added attention when the Agencies address corridor location and analysis issues. In Section 368, Congress specifically directed the Agencies to consider the need for upgraded and new facilities to deliver electricity: In carrying out [Section 368], the Secretaries shall take into account the need for upgraded and new electricity transmission and distribution facilities to (1) improve reliability; (2) relieve congestion; and (3) enhance capability of the national grid to deliver electricity. Section 368 does not require the Agencies to consider or approve specific projects, applications for rights-of-way (ROWs), or other permits within designated energy corridors. Importantly, Section 368 does not direct, license, or otherwise permit any on-the-ground activity of any sort. If an applicant is interested in obtaining an authorization to develop a project within any corridor designated under Section 368, the applicant would have to apply for a ROW authorization and applicable permits. The Agencies would consider each application by applying appropriate project-specific reviews under requirements of laws and related regulations, including, but not limited to, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and Section

  1. Study on the Biological Characteristics of Astaxanthin from Rhodozyma NZ-01%红酵母NZ-01虾青素生物学特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琇; 武宏洋

    2011-01-01

    对红酵母虾NZ-01青素(以下简称虾青素)的生物学特性进行研究.分别利用硫氰酸铁法及邻二氮菲Fe氧化法检测虾青素的抗氧化性,并从光、温度、pH值和金属离子方面检测其稳定性.结果表明,虾青素有较强的抗氧化性,自然光照、高温、强酸、强碱会对虾青素的稳定性造成不同程度的破坏,Na+、K+、Ca2+、Li2+对虾青素略有增色效应,Mg2+、Zn2+、Co2+对虾青素无明显影响,Ba2+、Mn2+、Fe2+、Cu2+对虾青素破坏作用较为明显,该虾青素具有较好的应用前景.%The biological characteristics of astaxanthin from Rhodozyma NZ-01 was studied. The antioxidant activity of astaxanthin were measured by ferric thiocyanate-nitric acid catalytic kinetic and o-phenanthroline -Fe2+ oxidation method. Its stability was examined based on light,temperatrue,pH value and several metal ions. The results showed that the astaxanthin had strong antioxidant activity and visible light, high temperature, strong acid or alkali had different damaging effects on its stability. Mg2+, 2n2+ and Co2+ had little hyperchromic effect on it, while Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Li2+ had no effect, Ba2+. Mn2+, Fe2+and Cu2+ could destroy the astaxanthin obviously. These indicated that this kind of astaxanthin had good application prospects.

  2. From superdeformation to extreme deformation and clusterization in the N~Z nuclei of the A~40 mass region

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, D

    2016-01-01

    A systematic search for extremely deformed structures in the N~Z nuclei of the A~40 mass region has been performed for the first time in the framework of covariant density functional theory. At spin zero such structures are located at high excitation energies which prevents their experimental observation. The rotation acts as a tool to bring these exotic shapes to the yrast line or its vicinity so that their observation could become possible with future generation of $\\gamma-$tracking (or similar) detectors such as GRETA and AGATA. The major physical observables of such structures (such as transition quadrupole moments as well as kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia), the underlying single-particle structure and the spins at which they become yrast or near yrast are defined. The search for the fingerprints of clusterization and molecular structures is performed and the configurations with such features are discussed. The best candidates for observation of extremely deformed structures are identified. For ...

  3. Consequences of neutron-proton pairing correlations for the rotational motion of the N=Z nucleus 72Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, N. S.; Wadsworth, R.; Wilson, A. N.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Clark, R. M.; Sarantites, D. G.; Seweryniak, D.; Svensson, C. E.; Vincent, S. M. (and others)

    2001-08-01

    High-spin states in the N=Z nucleus {sup 72}Kr were populated using the {sup 40}Ca({sup 36}Ar,2p2n) reaction at a beam energy of 145 MeV. The yrast band has been observed up to a tentative spin of 20{Dirac_h}. Nonyrast rotational structures have also been observed for the first time. The alignment of g{sub 9/2} protons and neutrons in the yrast band is observed to be significantly delayed relative to the heavier even-even Kr isotopes. Exact deformed cranked shell model calculations suggest that this could be due to the combined effect of isovector (T=1) and isoscalar (T=0) neutron-proton pairing correlations.

  4. Onset of T=0 Pairing and Deformations in High Spin States of the N=Z Nucleus $^{48}Cr$

    CERN Document Server

    Terasaki, J; Heenen, P H

    1998-01-01

    The yrast line of the N=Z nucleus 48Cr is studied up to high spins by means of the cranked Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method including the T=0 and T=1 isospin pairing channels. A Skyrme force is used in the mean-field channel together with a zero-range density-dependent interaction in the pairing channels. The extensions of the method needed to incorporate the neutron-proton pairing are summarized. The T=0 pairing correlations are found to play a decisive role for deformation properties and excitation energies above 16hbar which is the maximum spin that can be obtained in the f7/2 subshell.

  5. Modeling hydrology and in-stream transport on drained forested lands in coastal Carolinas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra Amatya

    2005-01-01

    This study summarizes the successional development and testing of forest hydrologic models based on DRAINMOD that predicts the hydrology of low-gradient poorly drained watersheds as affected by land management and climatic variation. The field scale (DRAINLOB) and watershed-scale in-stream routing (DRAINWAT) models were successfully tested with water table and outflow...

  6. Sediment and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Loading in a Mixed Land Use Watershed: Contributions from Suspended and Bed Load Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality studies that quantify sediment and fecal bacteria loading commonly focus on suspended contaminants transported during high flows. Fecal contaminants in bed sediments are typically ignored and need to be considered because of their potential to increase pathogen load...

  7. Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência: um observatório dos acidentes de transportes terrestre em nível local Mobile Emergency Care Service: a survey of local land transportation accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Priscila de Santana Cabral

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Conhecer a epidemiologia dos acidentes de transportes terrestres é fundamental para definir políticas de prevenção desse agravo e das mortes por ele causados. Objetivou-se caracterizar o perfil epidemiológico das vítimas do trânsito e a distribuição dos atendimentos por acidentes de transporte a partir de técnica de análise espacial. Estudo descritivo, utilizou como fonte de dados o banco de atendimentos do Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência do município de Olinda, Pernambuco, entre julho de 2006 a junho de 2007. A distribuição geográfica das ocorrências foi analisada por meio do Índice de Moran. Pedestres, ocupantes de motocicleta e ciclistas concentraram 78% dos atendimentos; houve predomínio do sexo masculino (79% e da faixa etária 20-39 anos (65%. Os finais de semana concentraram a maioria dos atendimentos (56,1%; χ² = 123,7; p Understanding the occurrence of land transportation accidents and describing the victims is fundamental for the definition of prevention and control policies regarding these events and the deaths they cause. The aim of the present study was to characterize the epidemiological profile of land transportation victims and the distribution of emergency care for land transportation accidents using spatial analysis. A descriptive study was carried out using the Mobile Emergency Care Service database of the city of Olinda (Pernambuco, Brazil for occurrences between July 2006 and June 2007. The geographic distribution was analyzed using the Moran Index. Pedestrians, motorcyclists and bicyclists concentrated 78% of the emergency care; there was a predominance of male victims (79% and victims between 20 and 39 years of age (65%. A greater concentration of occurrences was found on weekends (56%; χ² = 123.7; p < 0.001. Between Monday and Thursday, 52% of occurrences were concentrated between 6 am and 5:59 pm; on weekends, 57% of the occurrences were concentrated between 6 pm and 5:59 am. Motorcycles

  8. Preliminary Analysis on Urban Land Use Change Driven by Terrestrial Transportation%陆地交通驱动下城市土地利用变化初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯锐鹏; 张宇; 章文

    2011-01-01

    研究目的:探讨城市陆地交通系统对土地利用的时空影响,并提出协调交通发展与土地利用的一些建议。研究方法:以广州番禺地区为例,利用GIS和RS技术,重点剖析城市陆地交通对城市扩张、城市土地价格、城市土地开发强度以及城市土地利用空间格局的变化驱动作用。研究结果:城市陆地交通的发展能造成土地利用的快速变化,能够加快沿线土地的开发利用,改变沿线土地的利用状况,使沿线土地价格升高,并改变用地结构,最终导致城市沿着主要交通干道向郊区蔓延。研究结论:陆地交通是城市土地利用变化的一个重要驱动因素。%The purpose of this paper is to probe into the impact of terrestrial transportation system on land use and propose some measures to coordinate land use with transportation. GIS and RS technologies were used and Panyu Area in Southern Guangzhou was chosen as an example. We especially focused on how the transportation affect the urban expanding, urban land price, urban land development intensity and land use spatial structure. Our study showed that terrestrial transportation system could boost land utility. It could accelerate land development, change land use condition, enhance land price, improve land use structure, and result in urban expanding towards suburb. It is concluded that terrestrial transportation becomes one of the most important facts on urban land use.

  9. Over-expressed CmbT multidrug resistance transporter improves the fitness of Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipić Brankica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the over-expression of CmbT multidrug resistance transporter on the growth rate of Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 was studied. L. lactis is a lactic acid bacteria (LAB widely used as a starter culture in dairy industry. Recently characterized CmbT MDR transporter in L. lactis confers resistance to a wide variety of toxic compounds as well as to some clinically relevant antibiotics. In this study, the cmbT gene was over-expressed in the strain L. lactis NZ9000 in the presence of nisin inducer. Over-expression of the cmbT gene in L. lactis NZ9000 was followed by RT-PCR. The obtained results showed that the cmbT gene was successfully over-expressed by addition of sub-inhibitory amounts of nisin. Growth curves of L. lactis NZ9000/pCT50 over-expressing the cmbT gene and L. lactis NZ9000 control strain were followed in the rich medium as well as in the chemically defined medium in the presence solely of methionine (0.084 mM or mix of methionine and cysteine (8.4 mM and 8.2 mM, respectively. Resulting doubling times revealed that L. lactis NZ9000/pCT50 had higher growth rate comparing to the control strain. This could be a consequence of the CmbT efflux activity, which improves the fitness of the host bacterium through the elimination of toxic compounds from the cell.

  10. Using Remote Sensing to Identify Changes in Land Use and Sources of Fecal Bacteria to Support a Watershed Transport Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Butler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of shellfish harvesting areas by fecal bacteria in the Annapolis Basin of Nova Scotia, Canada, is a recurring problem which has consequences for industry, government, and local communities. This study contributes to the development of an integrated water quality forecasting system to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of industry management. The proposed integrated forecasting framework is composed of a database containing contamination sources, hydrodynamics of the Annapolis Basin, Escherichia coli (E. coli loadings and watershed hydrology scenarios, coupled with environmental conditions of the region (e.g., temperature, precipitation, evaporation, and ultraviolet light. For integration into this framework, this study presents a viable methodology for assessing the contribution of fecal bacteria originating from a watershed. The proposed methodology investigated the application of high resolution remote sensing, coupled with the commercially available product, MIKE 11, to monitor watershed land use and its impact on water quality. Remote sensing proved to be an extremely useful tool in the identification of sources of fecal bacteria contamination, as well as the detection of land use change over time. Validation of the MIKE 11 model produced very good agreement (R2 = 0.88, E = 0.85 between predicted and observed river flows, while model calibration of E. coli concentrations showed fair agreement (R2 = 0.51 and E = 0.38 between predicted and observed values. A proper evaluation of the MIKE 11 model was constrained due to limited water sampling. However, the model was very effective in predicting times of high contamination for use in the integrated forecasting framework, especially during substantial precipitation events.

  11. Focus on land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Various aspects of land reclamation, i.e. returning disturbed land to a state where, at minimum, it is at least capable of supporting the same kinds of land uses as before the disturbance, are discussed. Activities which disturb the land such as surface mining of coal, surface mining and extraction of oil sands, drilling for oil and natural gas, waste disposal sites, including sanitary landfills, clearing timber for forestry, excavating for pipelines and transportation are described, along with land reclamation legislation in Alberta, and indications of future developments in land reclamation research, legislation and regulation. Practical guidelines for individuals are provided on how they might contribute to land reclamation through judicious and informed consumerism, and through practicing good land management, inclusive of reduced use of herbicides, composting of household wastes, and planting of native species or ground cover in place of traditional lawns.

  12. Flight Characteristics Analysis Based on QAR Data of a Jet Transport During Landing at a High-altitude Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. Edward Lan; WU Kaiyuan; YU Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Flight data of a twin-jet transport aircraft in revenue flight are analyzed for potential safety problems.Data from the quick access recorder (QAR) are first filtered through the kinematic compatibility analysis.The filtered data are then organized into longitudinal- and lateral-directional aerodynamic model data with dynamic ground effect.The dynamic ground effect requires the radio height and sink rate in the models.The model data ere then refined into numerical models through a funzzy logic algorithm without data smoothing in advance.These numerical models describe nonlinear and unsteady aerodynamics and are used in nonlinear flight dynamics simulation.For the jet transport under study,it is found that the effect of crosswind is significant enough to excite the Dutch roll motion.Through a linearized analysis in flight dynamics at every instant of time,the Dutch roll motion is found to be in nonlinear oscillation without clear damping of the amplitude.In the analysis,all stability derivatives vary with time and hence are nonlinear functions of state variables.Since the Dutch roll motion is not damped despite the fact that a full-time yaw damper is engaged,it is concluded that the design data for the yaw damper is not sufficiendy realistic and the contribution of time derivative of sideslip angle to damping should be considered.As a result of nonlinear flight simulation,the vertical wind acting on the aircrafl is estimated to be mostly updraft which varies along the flight path before touchdown.Varying updraft appears to make the descent rate more difficult to control to result in a higher g-load at touchdown.

  13. Hydrogeologic controls on chemical transport at Malibu Lagoon, CA: Implications for land to sea exchange in coastal lagoon systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dimova

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Nearshore lagoons that are seasonally disconnected from the coastal ocean occupy about 10% of coastal areas worldwide. Lagoon systems often are poorly flushed and thus sensitive to nutrient over-enrichment that can lead to eutrophication, oxygen depletion, and/or pervasive algal blooms. This sensitivity is exacerbated in lagoons that are intermittently closed to surface water exchange with the sea and occur in populous coastal areas. Such estuarine systems are disconnected from the sea during most of the year by wave-built barriers, but during the rainy season these berms can breach, enabling direct water exchange. Using naturally-occurring 222Rn as groundwater tracer, we estimate that groundwater discharge to Malibu Lagoon during open berm conditions was one order of magnitude higher (21 ± 17 cm/day than during closed berm conditions (1.8 ± 1.4 cm/day. The SGD (submarine groundwater discharge into nearshore coastal waters at the SurferRider and Colony Malibu was 4.2 cm/day on average. The exported total dissolved nitrogen (TDN through the berm during closed berm was 1.6 × 10−3 mol/day, whereas during open berm (exported by the Creek was 3.5 × 103 mol/day. Although these evaluations are specific to the collection campaigns the 2009 and 2010 hydro years, these two distinct hydrologic scenarios play an important role in the seasonality and geochemical impact of land/sea exchange, and highlight the sensitivity of such systems to future impacts such as sea level rise and increasing coastal populations.

  14. The Impacts of Urban Land Use on Urban Transport System in High-Densely Developed City- a Case Study of Guangzhou%高密度开发城市土地利用对交通系统的影响作用研究--以广州为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛蒋兴

    2005-01-01

    Recently the study on the mutual relationship between urban transport and land use has been one of the hot subjects in the fields of urban geography, urban transport planning and urban planning. This paper tires to carry out some methods, such as multi-analysis statistics method to specify the impacts of urban land use on urban transport system. Firstly,the choice of urban transport road network affected by the characters of urban land use layout is discussed. Secondly, the promotion of urban public transportation affected by high-density concentrated land use pattern is demonstrated Thirdly, the impacts of urban city-size on transport system structure characters are expatiated. Finally, the impacts of urban master planning in Guangzhou on the layout of transport system are illustrated.

  15. Interplay of climate and land-use change on transport dynamics of intensively managed landscapes: a catchment travel time distribution analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesh Yazdi, M.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Karwan, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Climatic trends and extensive implementation of drainage tiles in poorly drained agricultural lands have left significant fingerprints on the hydrology and water quality of the receiving streams. Tiles were initially designed to increase the crop productivity by removing excess soil moisture and improving field conditions. However, their hydro-ecological consequences have gradually emerged through observations of enhanced rates of nitrate and phosphorus delivered to the streams, as well as altered runoff volumes and timing. The Redwood River Basin (a 1,800 km2 basin located in southwest Minnesota) is an example of such a system where a considerable switch from small grains to row crops has taken place since 1970's, driving intensive tile installation culminating in a doubling of tiled length in the past two decades. Long-term hydrologic analysis of this basin shows that the daily streamflow has increased in all months after the land-use change period, and rising limbs of daily hydrographs exhibit increased dependence on precipitation during May-June. In this study we employ the recently developed theory of time-variant travel time distributions within the storage selection function framework to examine the interplay of climate and land-use change on transport dynamics. Comparison of two periods representing the tiled and untiled conditions demonstrates 18-38 days decrease in the mean travel time due to tile drainage during spring-summer, while almost no change is observed during winter showing an overall cyclic behavior over a year. Statistics of the marginal distributions also show less variability in the mean travel time for the tiled period, probably revealing the response of the more constrained engineered system. Furthermore, the relative impact of the climate and the spatial heterogeneity of the soil properties on the travel times are investigated via numerical experiments performed on nested sub-basins under untiled condition. The simulations suggest that

  16. Arctic Sediment Transport from Land to Sea - An Integrated Study of Coastal - Marine Processes and Deposits in Dicksonfjorden, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M.; Choi, K.; Forwick, M.; Howe, J. A.; Husum, K.; Korsun, S.; Maat, D.; Nam, S. I.

    2016-12-01

    Valleys and fjords are the key transport and storage systems for sediments and biogeochemical elements from high arctic landscapes to the ocean. Sediment and nutrient fluxes are important for the biochemical cycle in the fjords and eventually in the ocean, and are important input data to earth system models. At present, high latitude systems are underrepresented in such models (Russell, 2014). Dicksonfjorden is a fjord in the larger Isfjorden system, Central Spitsbergen, Svalbard. It has no direct glacial input, in contrast to fjords affected by tidewater glaciers. The sediment supply is very high and the inner fjord receives sediment from a tide-influenced delta. This study is part of a multidisciplinary project aiming at mapping and quantifying sediment types and dispersal patterns in present Arctic valley - fjord systems and is the first comprehensive study of the depositional system in Dicksonfjorden. The first field campaign took place in summer 2016, when detailed mapping of the tidal delta and the sea floor in the inner fjord, coring onshore and offshore and sampling for foraminifera, nutrients and microbial abundances were performed. The surface mapping is based on high-resolution drone images, which will be processed to a high-resolution digital elevation model, and the bathymetry and sediment distribution data from the sea floor has been collected with a Gavia Offshore Surveyor AUV, providing high-resolution bathymetry and backscatter data of the seabed. Core transects from the delta surface will be described and compared to marine cores from the fjord basin retrieved from R/V Helmer Hanssen. Sediment accumulation rates will be assessed from 210Pb and 137Cs radionuclides. Preliminary results on the physical and chemical characteristics of the sedimentation system in inner Dicksonfjorden will be presented and implications for the fjord ecosystem will be discussed. References Russell , J.L., 2014. Control on the Latitudinal distribution of climate processes

  17. 合理确定城市轨道交通枢纽用地综合开发强度%Rational Intensity of Comprehensive Land Use at Rail Transport Hub

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘勇华; 邓兴栋

    2012-01-01

    城市轨道交通枢纽具有交通可达性高和土地价值昂贵的特点,这决定了其用地应进行高强度综合开发,枢纽用地综合开发强度受到投资收益经济平衡、交通预留容量和用地规划控制技术要求的制约.根据经济平衡原理提出城市轨道交通枢纽用地综合开发最小容积率的计算方法,基于交通容量限制提出了枢纽用地综合开发最大容积率的计算方法,参考城市规划管理要求提出了枢纽用地综合开发容积率的规划控制范围,并按照以上方法总结出广州市各类轨道交通枢纽用地综合开发强度推荐值.%Land use at rail transport hubs should be comprehensively developed with high intensity, due to their high traffic accessibility and land value. It's necessary to develop guidance measures for the rail transport hub land use compatible with the nature of the residential, office and commercial construction, to absorb funds in the construction of rail transport integration facility. The comprehensive intensity of land use at rail transport hubs is constrained by economic balance of investment income, traffic reserve capacity, and technical requirements for land use control. According to the economic balance principle, a calculation method of the minimum floor area ratio about comprehensive rail transport hub land development and a calculation method of the maximum floor area ratio based on transport capacity constraints are proposed. By referring to urban planning and management requirements, the control range of the floor area ratio is discussed. At last, the recommended value of comprehensive development intensity of various types of rail transport hub in Guangzhou is summarized.

  18. Neutron-proton pairing competition in N=Z nuclei: Metastable state decays in the proton dripline nuclei {sup 82}{sub 41}Nb and {sup 86}{sub 43}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnsworthy, A.B. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); WNSL, Yale University, 272 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)], E-mail: a.garnsworthy@surrey.ac.uk; Regan, P.H. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Caceres, L. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Departmento di Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Pietri, S. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Sun, Y. [Department of Physics and Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Rudolph, D. [Department of Physics, Lund University, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Gorska, M. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Podolyak, Zs.; Steer, S.J. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Hoischen, R. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Department of Physics, Lund University, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Heinz, A. [WNSL, Yale University, 272 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Becker, F. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bednarczyk, P. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); The Institute of Nuclear Physics, PL-31-342 Krakow (Poland); Doornenbal, P.; Geissel, H.; Gerl, J.; Grawe, H. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Grebosz, J. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institute of Nuclear Physics, PL-31-342 Cracow (Poland); Kelic, A.; Kojouharov, I. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)] (and others)

    2008-02-28

    The low-lying structures of the self-conjugate (N=Z) nuclei {sup 82}{sub 41}Nb{sub 41} and {sup 86}{sub 43}Tc{sub 43} have been investigated using isomeric-decay spectroscopy following the projectile fragmentation of a {sup 107}Ag beam. These represent the heaviest odd-odd N=Z nuclei in which internal decays have been identified to date. The resulting level schemes shed light on the shape evolution along the N=Z line between the doubly-magic systems {sup 56}{sub 28}Ni and {sup 100}{sub 50}Sn and support a preference for T=1 states in T{sub z}=0 odd-odd nuclei at low excitation energies associated with a T=1 neutron-proton pairing gap. Comparison with Projected Shell Model calculations suggests that the decay in {sup 82}Nb may be interpreted as an isospin-changing K isomer.

  19. The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey: the redshift distribution N(z) of magnitude-limited samples down to iAB=24.75 and KsAB=22

    CERN Document Server

    Fevre, O Le; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; Garilli, B; Ilbert, O; Brun, V Le; Maccagni, D; Tresse, L; Zamorani, G; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Contini, T; Iovino, A; Lopez-Sanjuan, C; McCracken, H J; Pollo, A; Pozzetti, L; Scodeggio, M; Tasca, L; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Zucca, E

    2013-01-01

    We measure and analyse the redshift distribution N(z) of magnitude-selected samples using spectroscopic redshift measurement from the magnitude-selected VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) with 172. Down to iAB2 than in colour-colour selected samples, and we use the magnitude-selected VVDS to emphasize the large uncertainties associated to other surveys using colour or colour-colour selected samples. Our results further demonstrate that semi-analytical models on dark matter simulations have yet to find the right balance of physical processes and time-scales to properly reproduce a fundamental galaxy population property like the observed N(z).

  20. Spatial distribution and transport of heavy metals in soil, ponded-surface water and grass in a pb-contaminated watershed as related to land-use practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichayapichet, P; Nitisoravut, S; Simachaya, W

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution of heavy metal in soil and evaluate the dissolution of metal from soil to ponded-surface water, leaching through soil profiles and metal uptake in grass as related to different land-use practices. The data provided a scientific basis for best-management practices for land use in Khli Ti watershed. The watershed has a Pb-contamination problem from the previous operation of a Pb-ore concentrator and abandoned Zn-Pb mine. Sampling sites were selected from a land-use map, with land-use types falling into the following four categories: forest, agricultural land, residential area and road. Soil, ponded-surface water, grass samples and soil profiles were collected. The study related soil characteristics from different land-use practices and locations with observed metal concentrations in ponded-surface water and soil. High enrichment factors of Pb and As in soil were found. Partitioning coefficient, K(d) values were in the order: Cr > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cd > Zn. Soil disturbance from land-use activities including tillage and traffic increased leaching of trace metal from soils. Pb in soil was significantly taken up by grass even though the Transfer Factor, TF values were rather low. Agricultural activities in the watershed must be limited. Moreover, land encroachments in the upper and middle part of the watershed which have high potential of Pb must be strictly controlled in order to reduce the Pb contamination from non-point sources.

  1. Indication for superallowed Fermi decay from the N=Z nuclei {sup 78}Y,{sup 82}Nb,{sup 86}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessagne, P.; Longour, C.; Miehe, C. [IReS Strasbourg, UMR7500, CNRS-IN2P3 et Universite Louis Pasteur, BP28, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Garces Narro, J.; Catford, W.N.; Chandler, C.; Gelletly, W.; Jones, K.L.; Pearson, C.J.; Regan, P.H. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 5XH (United Kingdom); Applebe, D.; Cullen, D.; Page, R.D.; Reed, A.T. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Axelsson, L. [Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Blank, B.; Czajkowski, S.; Fleury, A.; Giovinazzo, J. [CEN Bordeaux-Gradignan, Le Haut-Vigneau F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Bruce, A.M.; Frankland, L.; Harder, M. [Cockcroft Building, University of Brighton, Brighton, BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Clark, R. [Nuclear Science Division, LBNL, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Daugas, J.M.; Lewitowicz, M. [GANIL, BP 5027, F-14021, Caen Cedex (France); Greenhalgh, B.; Kelsall, N.; Wadsworth, R. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York, Y01 4DD (United States); Grzywacz, R.; Kszczot, T. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, Pl-00681, Warsaw (Poland); Sorlin, O. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91406 Orsay (France)

    1998-12-01

    The heavy odd-odd N=Z nuclei {sup 78}Y,{sup 82}Nb,{sup 86}Tc have been produced at GANIL by fragmentation of a 60 MeV/u {sup 92}Mo beam on a natural nickel target. Their lifetime have been measured for the first time, using the identification-implantation and subsequent time correlated {beta} counting technique at the LISE spectrometer. The obtained half-lives for {sup 78}Y,{sup 82}Nb,{sup 86}Tc are consistent with the microscopic predictions. These nuclei are good candidates to extend the mass range for the V{sub ud} matrix element evaluation and our experimental results highlight the interest of further investigation of their excited states and {beta} decay schemes as a function of isospin. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Shape and structure of N=Z 64Ge; Electromagnetic transition rates from the application of the Recoil Distance Method to knock-out reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Starosta, K; Dunomes, A; Adrich, P; Amthor, A M; Baumann, T; Bazin, D; Bowen, M; Brown, B A; Chester, A; Gade, A; Galaviz, D; Glasmacher, T; Ginter, T; Hausmann, M; Horoi, M; Jolie, J; Melon, B; Miller, D; Moeller, V; Norris, R P; Pissulla, T; Portillo, M; Rother, W; Shimbara, Y; Stolz, A; Vaman, C; Voss, P; Weisshaar, D; Zelevinsky, V

    2007-01-01

    Transition rate measurements are reported for the first and the second 2+ states in N=Z 64Ge. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with large-scale Shell Model calculations applying the recently developed GXPF1A interactions. Theoretical analysis suggests that 64Ge is a collective gamma-soft anharmonic vibrator. The measurement was done using the Recoil Distance Method (RDM) and a unique combination of state-of-the-art instruments at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). States of interest were populated via an intermediate-energy single-neutron knock-out reaction. RDM studies of knock-out and fragmentation reaction products hold the promise of reaching far from stability and providing lifetime information for excited states in a wide range of nuclei.

  3. Cranked Skyrme-Hartree-Fock calculation for superdeformed and hyperdeformed rotational bands in N=Z nuclei from {sup 32}S to {sup 48}Cr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inakura, T.; Mizutori, S.; Yamagami, M.; Matsuyanagi, K. E-mail: ken@ruby.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2002-11-18

    With the use of the symmetry-unrestricted cranked Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method in the three-dimensional coordinate-mesh representation, we have carried out a systematic theoretical search for the superdeformed and hyperdeformed rotational bands in the mass A=30-50 region. Along the N=Z line, we have found superdeformed solutions in {sup 32}S, {sup 36}Ar, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 44}Ti, and hyperdeformed solutions in {sup 36}Ar, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 44}Ti, {sup 48}Cr. The superdeformed band in {sup 40}Ca is found to be extremely soft against both the axially symmetric (Y{sub 30}) and asymmetric (Y{sub 31}) octupole deformations. An interesting role of symmetry breaking in the mean field is pointed out.

  4. Cranked Skyrme-Hartree-Fock calculation for superdeformed and hyperdeformed rotational bands in N=Z nuclei from {sup 32}S to {sup 48}Cr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inakura, T.; Yamagami, M.; Matsuyanagi, K. [Kyoto Univ., Dept. of Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Mizutori, S. [Kansai Women' s College, Dept. of Human Science, Kashiwara, Osaka (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    With the use of the symmetry-unrestricted cranked Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method in the three-dimensional coordinate-mesh representation, we have carried out a systematic theoretical search for the superdeformed and hyperdeformed rotational bands in the mass A=30-50 region. Along the N=Z line, we have found superdeformed solutions in {sup 32}S, {sup 36}Ar, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 44}Ti, and hyperdeformed solutions in {sup 36}Ar, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 44}Ti, {sup 48}Cr. The superdeformed band in {sup 40}Ca is found to be extremely soft against both the axially symmetric (Y{sub 30}) and asymmetric (Y{sub 31}) octupole deformations. An interesting role of symmetry breaking in the mean field is pointed out. (author)

  5. Can land use changes alter carbon, nitrogen and major ion transport in subtropical brazilian streams? Modificações no uso da terra podem alterar o transporte fluvial de carbono, nitrogênio e íons maiores?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mariano Lopes da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies in tropical watersheds have evaluated the impact of urbanization and agricultural practices on water quality. In Brazil, savannas (known regionally as Cerrados represent 23% of the country's surface, representing an important share to the national primary growth product, especially due to intense agriculture. The purpose of this study is to present a comprehensive evaluation, on a yearly basis, of carbon, nitrogen and major ion fluxes in streams crossing areas under different land use (natural vegetation, sugar cane and eucalyptus in a savanna region of SE Brazil. Eucalyptus and sugar cane alter the transport of the investigated elements in small watersheds. The highest concentration of all parameters (abiotic parameters, ions, dissolved organic carbon DOC - and dissolved inorganic carbon - DIC were found in Sugar Cane Watersheds (SCW. The observed concentrations of major cations in Eucalyptus Watersheds (EW (Mg, Ca, K, Na, as well as DIN and DOC, were found frequently to be intermediate values between those of Savanna Watersheds (SW and SCW, suggesting a moderate impact of eucalyptus plantations on the streamwater. Same trends were found in relation to ion and nutrient fluxes, where the higher values corresponded to SCW. It is suggested that sugar cane plantations might be playing an important role in altering the chemistry of water bodies.Diversos estudos têm sido desenvolvidos em bacias de drenagem tropicais no intuito de avaliar o impacto da urbanização e das práticas agrícolas na qualidade dos corpos d'água. No Brasil, as savanas (conhecidas regionalmente como Cerrado representam 23% do território brasileiro, sendo uma região importante no crescimento nacional, especialmente devido às intensas atividades agrícolas. A finalidade deste trabalho é apresentar uma avaliação dos fluxos de carbono, nitrogênio e principais íons em córregos com diferentes usos do solo (vegetação, cana de açúcar e eucalipto em uma

  6. 78 FR 69123 - Draft Long Range Transportation Plan for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lands in the Midwest Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... address shared transportation issues that impact Service goals. Sustainability: Adopt and promote.... Objective 3: Reduce fossil fuel energy consumption. Next Steps After this comment period ends, we...

  7. Quantification of changes in water balance and sediment transport due to recent and future land use change in the Xiangxi Catchment (Three Gorges Region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieger, K.; Schmalz, B.; Hörmann, G.; Fohrer, N.

    2012-04-01

    The construction of the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River induced a large-scale land use change in the Three Gorges Region in Central China. The relocation of towns, villages and agricultural areas is assumed to impact the water balance and increase erosion rates as well as sediment yields in the affected catchments. At the same time, an increasing risk of reservoir eutrophication can be expected because of higher inputs of nutrients, especially phosphorus, adsorbed to sediment and due to reduced flow velocities and prolonged residence times of water in the reservoir. As field experiments are often labor- and time-intensive and do not provide the possibility to analyze the effect of management decisions prior to their implementation, hydrologic and water quality models are frequently used to assess the impact of land use changes on water resources. In this study, the eco-hydrological model SWAT was applied to the Xiangxi Catchment in the Three Gorges Region in order to simulate stream flow and sediment loads at Xingshan gauging station under changing land use conditions. For the baseline scenario, a land use map for the year 1987 was used. The calibration of stream flow resulted in a good fit of simulated and observed data, which is indicated by NSE values of 0.69 and 0.67 for the calibration and validation periods, respectively. In contrast, the model was not able to simulate the monthly average sediment loads correctly as indicated by very low NSE values of 0.42 (calibration) and 0.07 (validation). This is mainly due to insufficient input data because of a very low density of rain gauges in the Xiangxi Catchment. Also, there is very high uncertainty in the observed sediment data. Nevertheless, the modeling results prove the general applicability of SWAT to the Xiangxi Catchment and provide a sufficient basis for the simulation of land use scenarios. Land use maps for the years 1999 and 2007 were used to quantify the changes in water balance and sediment

  8. The alignment between spatial planning, transportation planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    engagement processes, support, ... Carel Schoeman • The alignment between spatial planning, transportation planning and environmental ..... NDOT: Public Transport Strategy (2007) .... Community Land Reform Act 28 of 1996 (CLARA).

  9. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  10. Land acquisition

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of lands acquired by Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1991 and 2009. Lists of acres and locations of land acquired are provided for...

  11. Mulighedernes land?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2001-01-01

    Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark.......Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark....

  12. Phase II Nuclide Partition Laboratory Study Influence of Cellulose Degradation Products on the Transport of Nuclides from SRS Shallow Land Burial Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-10-04

    Degradation products of cellulosic materials (e.g., paper and wood products) can significantly influence the subsurface transport of metals and radionuclides. Codisposal of radionuclides with cellulosic materials in the E-Area slit trenches at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is, therefore, expected to influence nuclide fate and transport in the subsurface. Due to the complexities of these systems and the scarcity of site-specific data, the effects of cellulose waste loading and its subsequent influence on nuclide transport are not well established.

  13. 用地驱动发展模式与城市交通共性问题--以杭州市为例%Land-Use Driven Development and Common Problems on Urban Transportation:A Case Study in Hangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭永朝; 过文魁

    2016-01-01

    Many cities in China currently experience similar transportation problems even though those cit-ies have a very different characteristic, which critically reveals the common deficiencies of urban land use development. To address the problem, this paper reviews the evolution of land use development in urban ar-ea since 1990s through a case study of Hangzhou. The paper points out that while the widely adopted land-use driven development in Chinese cities has laid an economic foundation for urban development, it is also responsible for unregulated expansion of urban space and related problems. To effectively alleviate these urban transportation problems, the paper urges to change the land-use driven development mode, empha-size TOD and particularly public transit-oriented development, and optimize the investment in transporta-tion infrastructure.%现阶段,基本情况差异较大的许多城市集中显现交通共性问题,反映出当前中国城市用地发展模式可能存在非常关键的共性不足。针对上述问题,以杭州市为研究案例,探讨自20世纪90年代以来市区用地空间发展的演变。指出中国城市正广泛采用的用地驱动发展模式,既是城市发展的经济基础,同时也是导致城市空间形态无规则扩张,进而产生相关问题的根源。最后指出,只有转变以土地开发为导向的发展模式,坚持以交通尤其是以公共交通为导向的空间发展,并优化交通基础设施的投资结构,才能有效缓解城市交通共性问题。

  14. Gambia Land Use Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  15. Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI.nz) study: a randomised controlled trial of sleep, food and activity interventions for preventing overweight from birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Barry J; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Galland, Barbara C; Gray, Andrew R; Lawrence, Julie A; Sayers, Rachel M; Dale, Kelly; Coppell, Kirsten J; Taylor, Rachael W

    2011-12-19

    Rapid weight gain during the first three years of life predicts child and adult obesity, and also later cardiovascular and other morbidities. Cross-sectional studies suggest that infant diet, activity and sleep are linked to excessive weight gain. As intervention for overweight children is difficult, the aim of the Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI.nz) study is to evaluate two primary prevention strategies during late pregnancy and early childhood that could be delivered separately or together as part of normal health care. This four-arm randomised controlled trial is being conducted with 800 families recruited at booking in the only maternity unit in the city of Dunedin, New Zealand. Mothers are randomised during pregnancy to either a usual care group (7 core contacts with a provider of government funded "Well Child" care over 2 years) or to one of three intervention groups given education and support in addition to "Well Child" care: the Food, Activity and Breastfeeding group which receives 8 extra parent contacts over the first 2 years of life; the Sleep group which receives at least 3 extra parent contacts over the first 6 months of life with a focus on prevention of sleep problems and then active intervention if there is a sleep problem from 6 months to 2 years; or the Combination group which receives all extra contacts. The main outcome measures are conditional weight velocity (0-6, 6-12, 12-24 months) and body mass index z-score at 24 months, with secondary outcomes including sleep and physical activity (parent report, accelerometry), duration of breastfeeding, timing of introduction of solids, diet quality, and measures of family function and wellbeing (parental depression, child mindedness, discipline practices, family quality of life and health care use). This study will contribute to a prospective meta-analysis of early life obesity prevention studies in Australasia. Infancy is likely to be the most effective time to establish patterns of

  16. Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI.nz study: a randomised controlled trial of sleep, food and activity interventions for preventing overweight from birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Barry J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid weight gain during the first three years of life predicts child and adult obesity, and also later cardiovascular and other morbidities. Cross-sectional studies suggest that infant diet, activity and sleep are linked to excessive weight gain. As intervention for overweight children is difficult, the aim of the Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI.nz study is to evaluate two primary prevention strategies during late pregnancy and early childhood that could be delivered separately or together as part of normal health care. Methods/Design This four-arm randomised controlled trial is being conducted with 800 families recruited at booking in the only maternity unit in the city of Dunedin, New Zealand. Mothers are randomised during pregnancy to either a usual care group (7 core contacts with a provider of government funded "Well Child" care over 2 years or to one of three intervention groups given education and support in addition to "Well Child" care: the Food, Activity and Breastfeeding group which receives 8 extra parent contacts over the first 2 years of life; the Sleep group which receives at least 3 extra parent contacts over the first 6 months of life with a focus on prevention of sleep problems and then active intervention if there is a sleep problem from 6 months to 2 years; or the Combination group which receives all extra contacts. The main outcome measures are conditional weight velocity (0-6, 6-12, 12-24 months and body mass index z-score at 24 months, with secondary outcomes including sleep and physical activity (parent report, accelerometry, duration of breastfeeding, timing of introduction of solids, diet quality, and measures of family function and wellbeing (parental depression, child mindedness, discipline practices, family quality of life and health care use. This study will contribute to a prospective meta-analysis of early life obesity prevention studies in Australasia. Discussion Infancy is likely to

  17. THE LONG-TERM FORECAST OF LAND PASSENGER TRANSPORT RELATED CO2 EMISSION AND ENERGY USE IN HUNGARY10.7708/ijtte.2014.4(4.03

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Andrejszki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hungary as the part of the European Union has to deal with the reduction of CO2 level. Reaching the 2050 target requires to examine and develop every sector of the emission. Transport has a dynamic and significant part in CO2 emission but generally policymakers do not have the courage to change significantly the modal shift by political decisions because of their popularity. Transport investments are generally long-term investments that show a return in around 30 years. ForFITS is a software tool for policymakers to simulate the effects of different transport scenarios and gives outputs about the transport activity, energy consumption and emission of the next 30 years. Hungary take its’ part of the UNDA project as being one of the pilot countries of using ForFITS. After the collection of data different scenarios were made. The aim of this study is to present the most realistic scenario for Hungary especially in the case of passenger transport.

  18. Effects of process parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir lap linear welded 6061 aluminum alloy to NZ30K magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Tan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The microstructures and lap-shear behaviors of friction stir lap linear welded as-extruded 6061 Al alloy to as-cast Mg–3.0Nd–0.2Zn–0.7Zr (wt.% (NZ30K alloy joints were examined. Various tool rotation and travel speeds were adopted to prepare the joints. The analysis of temperature field indicates that the peak temperature for each sample can reach 450 °C, which exceeds the eutectic reaction temperatures of 437 °C and 450 °C according to the binary phase diagram of Al–Mg system. The fierce intermixing can be found at the interface between Al and Mg alloys, forming the intermetallic of Al3Mg2. Welds with the rotation speed of 900 rpm and travel speed of 120 mm/min display the highest tensile shear failure load of about 2.24 kN. The value was increased by 13% after the sample was heat treated at 400 °C for 0.5 h.

  19. Biodecolorization of recalcitrant dye as the sole sourceof nutrition using Curvularia clavata NZ2 and decolorization ability of its crude enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neoh, Chin Hong; Lam, Chi Yong; Lim, Chi Kim; Yahya, Adibah; Bay, Hui Han; Ibrahim, Zaharah; Noor, Zainura Zainon

    2015-08-01

    Extensive use of recalcitrant azo dyes in textile and paper industries poses a direct threat to the environment due to the carcinogenicity of their degradation products. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of Curvularia clavata NZ2 in decolorization of azo dyes. The ability of the fungus to decolorize azo dyes can be evaluated as an important outcome as existing effluent treatment is unable to remove the dyes effectively. C. clavata has the ability to decolorize Reactive Black 5 (RB5), Acid Orange 7 (AO7), and Congo Red azo dyes, utilizing these as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the extracted RB5's metabolites along with desorption tests confirmed that the decolorization process occurred due to degradation and not merely by adsorption. Enzyme activities of extracellular enzymes such as carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), xylanase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase (MnP) were also detected during the decolorization process. Toxicity expressed as inhibition of germination was reduced significantly in fungal-treated azo dye solution when compared with the control. The cultivation of C. clavata under sequential batch system also recorded a decolorization efficiency of above 90%. The crude enzyme secreted by C. clavata also showed excellent ability to decolorize RB5 solutions with concentrations of 100 ppm (88-92%) and 1000 ppm (70-77%) without redox mediator. This proved that extracellular enzymes produced by C. clavata played a major role in decolorization of RB5.

  20. Hindered Gamow-Teller decay to the odd-odd N=Z (62)Ga: absence of proton-neutron T=0 condensate in A=62.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodner, E; Gadea, A; Sarriguren, P; Lenzi, S M; Grebosz, J; Valiente-Dobón, J J; Algora, A; Górska, M; Regan, P H; Rudolph, D; de Angelis, G; Agramunt, J; Alkhomashi, N; Amon Susam, L; Bazzacco, D; Benlliure, J; Benzoni, G; Boutachkov, P; Bracco, A; Caceres, L; Cakirli, R B; Crespi, F C L; Domingo-Pardo, C; Doncel, M; Dombrádi, Zs; Doornenbal, P; Farnea, E; Ganioğlu, E; Gelletly, W; Gerl, J; Gottardo, A; Hüyük, T; Kurz, N; Leoni, S; Mengoni, D; Molina, F; Morales, A I; Orlandi, R; Oktem, Y; Page, R D; Perez, D; Pietri, S; Podolyák, Zs; Poves, A; Quintana, B; Rinta-Antila, S; Rubio, B; Nara Singh, B S; Steer, A N; Verma, S; Wadsworth, R; Wieland, O; Wollersheim, H J

    2014-08-29

    Search for a new kind of superfluidity built on collective proton-neutron pairs with aligned spin is performed studying the Gamow-Teller decay of the T=1, J(π)=0+ ground state of (62)Ge into excited states of the odd-odd N=Z nucleus (62)Ga. The experiment is performed at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Shwerionenforshung with the (62)Ge ions selected by the fragment separator and implanted in a stack of Si-strip detectors, surrounded by the RISING Ge array. A half-life of T1/2=82.9(14)  ms is measured for the (62)Ge ground state. Six excited states of (62)Ga, populated below 2.5 MeV through Gamow-Teller transitions, are identified. Individual Gamow-Teller transition strengths agree well with theoretical predictions of the interacting shell model and the quasiparticle random phase approximation. The absence of any sizable low-lying Gamow-Teller strength in the reported beta-decay experiment supports the hypothesis of a negligible role of coherent T=0 proton-neutron correlations in (62)Ga.

  1. UvrA expression of Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 improve multiple stresses tolerance and fermentation of lactic acid against salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Taher Khakpour; Zhang, Juan; Du, Guocheng

    2017-03-01

    Lactococcus lactis is subjected to several stressful conditions during industrial fermentation including oxidation, heating and cooling, acid, high osmolarity/dehydration and starvation. DNA lesion is a major cause of genetic instability in L. lactis that usually occurs at a low frequency, but it is greatly enhanced by environmental stresses. DNA damages produced by these environmental stresses are thought to induce DNA double-strand breaks, leading to illegitimate recombination. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) protein UvrA suppresses multiple stresses-induced illegitimate recombination. UvrA protein can survive a coincident condition of environmental harsh conditions, multiple stress factors supposedly encountered in the host and inducing UvrA in L. lactis. In this study the expression of UvrA and growth performance and viability of control strain L. lactisVector and recombinant strain L. lactisUvrA under multiple stress conditions were determined. The recombinants strain had 30.70 and 52.67% higher growth performances when subjected to acidic and osmotic stresses conditions. In addition, the L. lactisUvrA strain showed 1.85-, 1.65-, and 2.40-fold higher biomass, lactate production, and lactate productivity, compared with the corresponding values for L. lactisVector strain during the osmotic stress. Results demonstrated NER system is involved in adaptation to various stress conditions and suggested that cells with a compromised UvrA as DNA repair system have an enhanced protection behavior in L. lactis NZ9000 against DNA damage.

  2. Map of Federal Lands Highway American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Projects -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The map depicts Federal Lands Highway (FLH) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) projects, which are administered through the Federal Lands Divisions (FLD)....

  3. Urban regeneration and transportation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The built environment is the stage upon which we live out our daily lives: the built environment comprises urban design, land use, and the transportation system, and the patterns of human activity within this physical environment. Unfortunately...

  4. 用试验方法分析轿车后桥在运输过程中的损伤%Analysis of the Damage of Rear Axle of a Car during Its Land Transportation by Using Test Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鋐; 冯展辉; 周炜

    2001-01-01

    In accordance with the phenomena that the bolts connecting the rear axle and the break back plate of a car become loose or broken during its transportation by a land vehicle, a static test of a car-transport vehicle system is made to study the influence of the tied conditions between the car and the transport vehicle and the up and down motion of the car on the forces exerted on the bolts. Combined with the results of the static test, a dynamic test of the car is also made on an indoor road simulate rig to analyze the possible factors effecting the damage of the bolts. Some workable suggestions as to avoid the damage of the bolts during transportation are offered.%针对轿车在运输过程中出现后桥与制动器底板联接螺栓松动与断裂的损伤现象,通过静态试验了解捆绑安装情况以及车身运动对联接螺栓受力的影响,并采用室内道路模拟设备,通过动态试验在室内台架上模拟该轿车的运输工况,同时结合静态试验来分析产生这种损伤现象的可能因素,为避免这种情况的发生提出合理的建议。

  5. Evaluation of UC Davis Long-Range Transportation, Land-Use, And Housing Plans: Examining the Potential for Innovative Mobility Pilot Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan

    2004-01-01

    At present, the City of Davis, surrounding communities, and the UC Davis campus are struggling with many of the same transportation problems that plague larger urban centers including increasing traffic, limited parking, and challenges to effective operation of the public transit system. The campus is expecting to grow by 6,000 students in the next ten years (plus approximately 3,000 faculty and staff) and is developing a Long-Range Development Plan (LRDP) that will serve to guide this growth...

  6. Quantifying the Indirect Benefits of Transport Infrastructures and Value Capture Ways in Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Urban transportation is closely related to land use. The changes of transportation cost and accessibility have a direct impact on land use and land prices. Land exploitation and land use play a role of redistributing traffic flow in the urban districts. ]Real property values are regarded as a sole comprehensive index representing all the benefits generated by transport investment. We have applied the theory of time value on transportation to land price model to evaluate the increased value of real estate resulting from improved accessibility. Agency responsible for the development of urban transport infrastructure can capture part of the financial benefit gained by real estate development through a variety of value capture. This enables us to transfer indirect benefit of transport infrastructure construction to transport enterprise and achieve a benign cycle between urban transport investment and land exploitation.

  7. Permeability Reduction in Passively Degassing Seawater-dominated Volcanic-hydrothermal systems: Processes and Perils on Raoul Island, Kermadecs (NZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, B. W.; Reyes, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    The 2006 eruption from Raoul Island occurred apparently in response to local tectonic swarm activity, but without any precursory indication of volcanic unrest within the hydrothermal system on the island. The eruption released some 200 T of SO2, implicating the involvement of a deep magmatic vapor input into the system during/prior to the event. In the absence of any recognized juvenile material in the eruption products, previous explanations for this eruptive event focused on this vapor being a driving force for the eruption. In 2004, at least 80 T/d of CO2 was escaping from the hydrothermal system, but mainly through areas that did not correspond to the 2006 eruption vents. The lack of a pre-eruptive hydrothermal system response related to the seismic event in 2006 can be explained by the presence of a hydrothermal mineralogic seal in the vent area of the volcano. Evidence for the existence of such a seal was found in eruption deposits in the form of massive fracture fillings of aragonite, calcite and anhydrite. Fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures in these phases range from ca. 140 °C to 220 °C which, for pure water indicate boiling point depths of between 40 and 230 m assuming a cold hydrostatic pressure constraint. Elevated pressures behind this seal are consistent with the occurrence of CO2 clathrates in some inclusion fluids, indicating CO2 concentrations approaching 1 molal in the parent fluids. Reactive transport modeling of magmatic volatile inputs into what is effectively a seawater-dominated hydrothermal system provide valuable insights into seal formation. Carbonate mineral phases ultimately come to saturation along this flow path, but we suggest that focused deposition of the observed massive carbonate seal is facilitated by near-surface boiling of these CO2-enriched altered seawaters, leading to large degrees of supersaturation which are required for the formation of aragonite. As the seal grew and permeability declined, pore pressures

  8. Disaggregate land uses and walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Megan E; Rodríguez, Daniel A; Clifton, Kelly; Cho, Gihyoug; Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Although researchers have explored associations between mixed-use development and physical activity, few have examined the influence of specific land uses. This study analyzes how the accessibility, intensity, and diversity of nonresidential land uses are related to walking for transportation. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate associations between walking for transportation and neighborhood land uses in a choice-based sample of individuals (n=260) in Montgomery County MD. Land uses examined included banks, bus stops, fast-food restaurants, grocery stores, libraries, rail stations, offices, parks, recreation centers, non-fast-food restaurants, retail, schools, sports facilities, night uses, physical activity uses, and social uses. Exposure to these uses was measured as the street distance from participants' homes to the closest instance of each land use (accessibility); the number of instances of each land use (intensity); and the number of different land uses (diversity). Data were collected from 2004-2006 and analyzed in 2009-2010. After adjusting for individual-level characteristics, the distances to banks, bus stops, fast-food restaurants, grocery stores, rail stations, physical activity uses, recreational facilities, restaurants, social uses and sports facilities were associated negatively with transportation walking (ORs [95% CI] range from 0.01 [0.001, 0.11] to 0.91 [0.85, 0.97]). The intensities of bus stops, grocery stores, offices, and retail stores in participants' neighborhoods were associated positively with transportation walking (ORs [95% CI] range from 1.05 [1.01, 1.08] to 5.42 [1.73, 17.01]). Land-use diversity also was associated positively with walking for transportation (ORs [95% CI] range from 1.39 [1.20, 1.59] to 1.69 [1.30, 2.20]). The accessibility and intensity of certain nonresidential land uses, along with land-use diversity, are positively associated with walking for transportation. A careful mix of land uses in a

  9. Destruction of the recreational, asthetic, agricultural, wildlife conservation and preservation, and residential uses of the land as a result of the abuses of the manufacturing, commercial, extractive, construction, and transportation industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Explicit concern over land use and abuse stems from the recognition of the negative impacts of unrestrained and unregulated economic, industrial, and population growth upon finite land resources. Only one quarter of the total surface area of the earth is land, and of that a large portion is uninhabitable. The present stresses upon the land include urbanization, urban sprawl and urban congestion; electrical, nuclear industrial park siting requirements; land degradation through stripping surface minerals; land degradation through disposal of radioactive wastes, sewage sludge, solid waste and other industrial wastes; rising demand for agricultural land; and the erosion and destruction of land through elimination of protective coverings such as forests, grasslands, and wetlands.

  10. Probing the rate-limiting step for intramolecular transfer of a transcription factor between specific sites on the same DNA molecule by (15)Nz-exchange NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kyoung-Seok; Tugarinov, Vitali; Clore, G Marius

    2014-10-15

    The kinetics of translocation of the homeodomain transcription factor HoxD9 between specific sites of the same or opposite polarities on the same DNA molecule have been studied by (15)Nz-exchange NMR spectroscopy. We show that exchange occurs by two facilitated diffusion mechanisms: a second-order intermolecular exchange reaction between specific sites located on different DNA molecules without the protein dissociating into free solution that predominates at high concentrations of free DNA, and a first-order intramolecular process involving direct transfer between specific sites located on the same DNA molecule. Control experiments using a mixture of two DNA molecules, each possessing only a single specific site, indicate that transfer between specific sites by full dissociation of HoxD9 into solution followed by reassociation is too slow to measure by z-exchange spectroscopy. Intramolecular transfer with comparable rate constants occurs between sites of the same and opposing polarity, indicating that both rotation-coupled sliding and hopping/flipping (analogous to geminate recombination) occur. The half-life for intramolecular transfer (0.5-1 s) is many orders of magnitude larger than the calculated transfer time (1-100 μs) by sliding, leading us to conclude that the intramolecular transfer rates measured by z-exchange spectroscopy represent the rate-limiting step for a one-base-pair shift from the specific site to the immediately adjacent nonspecific site. At zero concentration of added salt, the intramolecular transfer rate constants between sites of opposing polarity are smaller than those between sites of the same polarity, suggesting that hopping/flipping may become rate-limiting at very low salt concentrations.

  11. Land-cover effects on the fate and transport of surface-applied antibiotics and 17-beta-estradiol on a sandy outwash plain, Anoka County, Minnesota, 2008–09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Jared J.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Rose, Peter J.; Elliott, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    A plot-scale field experiment on a sandy outwash plain in Anoka County in east-central Minnesota was used to investigate the fate and transport of two antibiotics, sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and a hormone, 17-beta-estradiol (17BE), in four land-cover types: bare soil, corn, hay, and prairie. The SMZ, SMX, and 17BE were applied to the surface of five plots of each land-cover type in May 2008 and again in April 2009. The cumulative application rate was 16.8 milligrams per square meter (mg/m2) for each antibiotic and 0.6 mg/m2 for 17BE. Concentrations of each chemical in plant-tissue, soil, soil-water, and groundwater samples were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Soil-water and groundwater sampling events were scheduled to capture the transport of SMZ, SMX, and 17BE during two growing seasons. Soil and plant-tissue sampling events were scheduled to identify the fate of the parent chemicals of SMZ, SMX, and 17BE in these matrices after two chemical applications. Areal concentrations (mg/m2) of SMZ and SMX in soil tended to decrease in prairie plots in the 8 weeks after the second chemical application, from April 2009 to June 2009, but not in other land-cover types. During these same 8 weeks, prairie plots produced more aboveground biomass and had extracted more water from the upper 125 centimeters of the soil profile compared to all other land-cover types. Areal concentrations of SMZ and SMX in prairie plant tissue did not explain the temporal changes in areal concentrations of these chemicals in soil. The areal concentrations of SMZ and SMX in the aboveground plant tissues in June 2009 and August 2009 were much lower, generally two to three orders of magnitude, than the areal concentrations of these chemicals in soil. Pooling all treatment plot data, the median areal concentration of SMZ and SMX in plant tissues was 0.01 and 0.10 percent of the applied chemical mass compared to 22 and 12 percent in soil

  12. Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of theUnited States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  13. Land Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anthony

    1998-08-01

    Unless action is taken, the developing world will face recurrent problems of food security and conflict. This volume provides a summary and perspective of the field of land resources and suggests improvements needed to conserve resources for future generations. Coverage provides an authoritative review of the resources of soils, water, climate, forests and pastures on which agriculture depends. It assesses the interactions between land resources and wider aspects of development, including population and poverty. It provides a strong critique of current methods of assessing land degradation and placing an economic value on land. It should be read by all involved in rural development, including scientists, economists, geographers, sociologists, planners, and students of development studies.

  14. Climate and land use changes as origin of the Water Cycle variations and sediment transport in Pesaro Urbino Province, Central and Eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Farina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study shows a significant net precipitation and surficial runoff decrease in the Province of Pesaro-Urbino during the 1950-2010 period, especially affecting mountain areas and the water-surplus winter season. Runoff variation is also related to a significant land use change, due to a progressive natural reafforestation process that has taken place in the mountain area. Candigliano river’s base-flow, fed by carbonate aquifers’ groundwater discharge, was found more stable over time, due to an aquifers’ capacity largely exceeding that of existing surface reservoirs. The latter have been affected by a significant silting process, which is still active, as suggested by specific erosion rates of watersheds, particularly in the Foglia basin. Important implications both on sediment mobility, surface water-supply reliability, minimum flow constraints and effectiveness of volume-recovery projects of reservoirs were preliminarly evaluated. In the perspective of a necessary adaptation process to the climate change, the study suggests a gradual transition from the present prevailing use of surface water, to an integrated management of the carbonate aquifers’ dynamic resources, on a seasonal base, as a sustainable strategy for the next future.

  15. Magnetization and transport properties of single crystalline RPd2P2 (R=Y, La-Nd, Sm-Ho, Yb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachuck, Gil; Böhmer, Anna E.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2016-11-01

    Single crystals of RPd2P2 (R=Y, La-Nd, Sm-Ho, Yb) were grown out of a high temperature solution rich in Pd and P and characterized by room-temperature powder X-ray diffraction, anisotropic temperature- and field-dependent magnetization and temperature-dependent in-plane resistivity measurements. In this series, YPd2P2 and LaPd2P2 YbPd2P2 (with Yb2+) are non-local-moment bearing. Furthermore, YPd2P2 and LaPd2P2 are found to be superconducting with Tc ≃ 0.75 and 0.96 K respectively. CePd2P2 and PrPd2P2 magnetically order at low temperature with a ferromagnetic component along the crystallographic c-axis. The rest of the series manifest low temperature antiferromagnetic ordering. EuPd2P2 has Eu2+ ions and both EuPd2P2 and GdPd2P2 have isotropic paramagnetic susceptibilities consistent with L=0 and J = S = 7/2 and exhibit multiple magnetic transitions. For R=Eu-Dy, there are multiple, T > 1.8 K transitions in zero applied magnetic field and for R=Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, and Dy there are clear metamagnetic transitions at T=2.0 K for H < 55 kOe. Strong anisotropies arising mostly from crystal electric field (CEF) effects were observed for most magnetic rare earths with L ≠ 0. The experimentally estimated CEF parameters B20 were calculated from the anisotropic paramagnetic θab and θc values and compared to theoretical trends across the rare earth series. The ordering temperatures as well as the polycrystalline averaged paramagnetic Curie-Weiss temperature, θave, were extracted from magnetization and resistivity measurements, and compared to the de-Gennes factor.

  16. How Are Feedbacks Represented in Land Models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Land systems are characterised by many feedbacks that can result in complex system behaviour. We defined feedbacks as the two-way influences between the land use system and a related system (e.g., climate, soils and markets, both of which are encompassed by the land system. Land models that include feedbacks thus probably more accurately mimic how land systems respond to, e.g., policy or climate change. However, representing feedbacks in land models is a challenge. We reviewed articles incorporating feedbacks into land models and analysed each with predefined indicators. We found that (1 most modelled feedbacks couple land use systems with transport, soil and market systems, while only a few include feedbacks between land use and social systems or climate systems; (2 equation-based land use models that follow a top-down approach prevail; and (3 feedbacks’ effects on system behaviour remain relatively unexplored. We recommend that land system modellers (1 consider feedbacks between land use systems and social systems; (2 adopt (bottom-up approaches suited to incorporating spatial heterogeneity and better representing land use decision-making; and (3 pay more attention to nonlinear system behaviour and its implications for land system management and policy.

  17. Perfil dos atendimentos a acidentes de transporte terrestre por serviços de emergência em São Paulo, 2005 Perfil de las atenciones a accidentes de transporte terrestre por servicios de emergencia en São Paulo, 2005 Land transport injuries among emergency department visits in the state of São Paulo, in 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Pinheiro Gawryszewski

    2009-04-01

    : Entre las prioridades para la reducción de las lesiones relacionadas al transporte terrestre deben figurar medidas dirigidas para la protección de los usuarios vulnerables del sistema.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of visits resulting from land transport injuries. METHODS: A total of 5,934 visits in four hospital emergency departments (ED were analyzed, in the state of São Paulo, in 2005. A questionnaire based on the following three models was used to collect data: World Health Organization (WHO, Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, and Pan American Health Organization (PAHO. Variables analyzed were as follows: type of road user (vehicle occupant, pedestrian, motorcyclist, and cyclist, sex, age group, and type of injury suffered. Logistic regression analysis was employed to test associations between variables. Odds ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: The majority of victims were males (74.2% in the 20-to-29-year age group (35.0%. Vulnerable road users totaled 72.4% of all cases (29.8% were motorcyclists, 24.1% pedestrians, and 18.5% cyclists. Victims aged between zero and 14 years who had suffered injuries were mostly pedestrians and cyclists; motorcyclists predominated among those aged between 15 and 39 years; and pedestrians among those aged over 50 years. About half of the cases suffered minor injuries (strains, dislocations, contusions and cuts, while the other half was comprised by fractures, traumatic brain injuries and internal injuries. Extremities were the most affected body parts, particularly among motorcyclists. The majority of victims were discharged at triage (87.6%. Compared to women, men were 1.5 times more likely to be admitted or transferred, or to die. Pedestrians, vehicle occupants and motorcyclists were, respectively, 2.7, 2.4 and 1.9 times more likely to be admitted or transferred, or to die than cyclists. CONCLUSIONS: Measures aimed to protect vulnerable road users should be

  18. 3D Reconstruction of a Fluvial Sediment Slug from Source to Sink: reach-scale modeling of the Dart River, NZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasington, J.; Cook, S.; Cox, S.; James, J.; Lehane, N.; McColl, S. T.; Quincey, D. J.; Williams, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Following heavy rainfall on 4/1/14, a debris flow at Slip Stream (44.59 S 168.34 E) introduced >106 m3 of sediment to the Dart River valley floor in NZ Southern Alps. Runout over an existing fan dammed the Dart River causing a sudden drop in discharge downstream. This broad dam was breached quickly; however the temporary loss of conveyance impounded a 3 km lake with a volume of 6 x 106 m3 and depths that exceed 10 m. Quantifying the impact of this large sediment pulse on the Dart River is urgently needed to assess potential sedimentation downstream and will also provide an ideal vehicle to test theories of bed wave migration in large, extensively braided rivers. Recent advances in geomatics offer the opportunity to study these impacts directly through the production of high-resolution DEMs. These 3D snapshots can then be compared through time to quantify the morphodynamic response of the channel as it adjusts to the change in sediment supply. In this study we describe the methods and results of a novel survey strategy designed to capture of the complex morphology of the Dart River along a remote 40 km reach, from the upstream landslide source to its distal sediment sink in Lake Wakatipu. The scale of this system presents major logistical and methodological challenges, and hitherto would have conventionally be addressed with airborne laser scanning, bringing with it significant deployment constraints and costs. By contrast, we present sub-metre 3D reconstructions of the system (Figure 1), derived from highly redundant aerial photography shot with a non-metric camera from a helicopter survey that extended over an 80 km2 area. Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry was used to solve simultaneously camera position, pose and derive a 3D point cloud based on over 4000 images. Reconstructions were found to exhibit significant systematic error resulting from the implicit estimation of the internal camera orientation parameters, and we show how these effects can be minimized

  19. Upscaling NZ-DNDC using a regression based meta-model to estimate direct N2O emissions from New Zealand grazed pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltrap, Donna L; Ausseil, Anne-Gaëlle E

    2016-01-01

    The availability of detailed input data frequently limits the application of process-based models at large scale. In this study, we produced simplified meta-models of the simulated nitrous oxide (N2O) emission factors (EF) using NZ-DNDC. Monte Carlo simulations were performed and the results investigated using multiple regression analysis to produce simplified meta-models of EF. These meta-models were then used to estimate direct N2O emissions from grazed pastures in New Zealand. New Zealand EF maps were generated using the meta-models with data from national scale soil maps. Direct emissions of N2O from grazed pasture were calculated by multiplying the EF map with a nitrogen (N) input map. Three meta-models were considered. Model 1 included only the soil organic carbon in the top 30cm (SOC30), Model 2 also included a clay content factor, and Model 3 added the interaction between SOC30 and clay. The median annual national direct N2O emissions from grazed pastures estimated using each model (assuming model errors were purely random) were: 9.6GgN (Model 1), 13.6GgN (Model 2), and 11.9GgN (Model 3). These values corresponded to an average EF of 0.53%, 0.75% and 0.63% respectively, while the corresponding average EF using New Zealand national inventory values was 0.67%. If the model error can be assumed to be independent for each pixel then the 95% confidence interval for the N2O emissions was of the order of ±0.4-0.7%, which is much lower than existing methods. However, spatial correlations in the model errors could invalidate this assumption. Under the extreme assumption that the model error for each pixel was identical the 95% confidence interval was approximately ±100-200%. Therefore further work is needed to assess the degree of spatial correlation in the model errors.

  20. Conceptual modelling of the interaction between transportation, land use and the environment as a tool for selecting sustainability indicators of urban mobility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Fusco

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an internationally shared agreement on the use of indicators for evaluating the sustainability of the observed patterns of urban development. The most commonly used framework to organise and select such indicators is the Pressures-State-Responses scheme. First proposed by the OECD to organise environmental indicators, its inadequacy is increasingly evident. The weaknesses of the conceptual frameworks currently used in urban sustainability analysis induced us to develop a more coherent theoretical framework in the form of a systemic scheme. The new scheme combines the causal approach of the Pressures-State-Responses model and the focus on urban sustainability issues of the extended urban metabolism model by Newman and Kenworthy. In this paper, the new scheme was used to derive a systemic framework for the assessment of the sustainability of urban mobility. First, we adapted the general scheme to the analysis of urban mobility. Successively, using the cognitive mapping software Decision Explorer, we further developed this scheme to obtain a more disaggregated conceptual model. A selection table could be derived for every element of the model to guide the selection of pertinent indicators based on the systemic links of the element. We could thus define a set of some sixty system indicators to be used in the assessment of the sustainability of urban mobility. The selected set of indicators reflects the causal links between phenomena and can monitor the attainment of sustainability objectives for the urban mobility system. All indicators allow geographical comparison and integrate the role played by different urban actors and modes of transportation. This work has been carried out within the first year of a joint PhD research program at the University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis and at the Polytechnic of Milan.

  1. On the Diophantine equation (12n)x+(35n)y=(37n)z%关于丢番图方程(12n)x(35n)y=(37n)z

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志娟; 翁建欣

    2012-01-01

      Using the properties of congruences and the order of elements, we show that, for any positive integer n, the Diophantine equation (12n)x+(35n)y =(37n)z has no solution other than (x, y, z)=(2, 2, 2) in positive integers.%  运用同余及元素阶的性质,证明对任意正整数n,丢番图方程(12n)x+(35n)y=(37n)z仅有正整数解(x, y, z)=(2,2,2)。

  2. 关于丢番图方程(195n)x+(28n)y=(197n)z%On the Diophantine equation (195n)x+(28n)y=(197n)z

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌灯荣; 翁建欣

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, using the properties of congruences and the order of elements, we show that for any positive integer n, the Diophantine equation (195n)x+(28n)y =(197n)z has no solution other than (x, y, z)=(2, 2, 2) in positive integers.%  运用同余及元素阶的性质,证明了对任意的正整数n,丢番图方程(195n)x+(28n)y=(197n)z仅有正整数解(x, y, z)=(2,2,2)。

  3. Anisotropic magnetization and transport properties of RAgSb{sub 2} (R=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Kenneth D.

    1999-11-08

    This study of the RAgSb{sub 2} series of compounds arose as part of an investigation of rare earth intermetallic compounds containing antimony with the rare earth in a position with tetragonal point symmetry. Materials with the rare earth in a position with tetragonal point symmetry frequently manifest strong anisotropies and rich complexity in the magnetic properties, and yet are simple enough to analyze. Antimony containing intermetallic compounds commonly possess low carrier densities and have only recently been the subject of study. Large single grain crystals were grown of the RAgSb{sub 2} (R=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm) series of compounds out of a high temperature solution. This method of crystal growth, commonly known as flux growth is a versatile method which takes advantage of the decreasing solubility of the target compound with decreasing temperature. Overall, the results of the crystal growth were impressive with the synthesis of single crystals of LaAgSb{sub 2} approaching one gram. However, the sample yield diminishes as the rare earth elements become smaller and heavier. Consequently, no crystals could be grown with R=Yb or Lu. Furthermore, EuAgSb{sub 2} could not be synthesized, likely due to the divalency of the Eu ion. For most of the RAgSb{sub 2} compounds, strong magnetic anisotropies are created by the crystal electric field splitting of the Hund's rule ground state. This splitting confines the local moments to lie in the basal plane (easy plane) for the majority of the members of the series. Exceptions to this include ErAgSb{sub 2} and TmAgSb{sub 2}, which have moments along the c-axis (easy axis) and CeAgSb{sub 2}, which at intermediate temperatures has an easy plane, but exchange coupling at low temperatures is anisotropic with an easy axis. Additional anisotropy is also observed within the basal plane of DyAgSb{sub 2}, where the moments are restricted to align along one of the {l_angle}110{r_angle} axes. Most of the RAgSb{sub 2} compounds

  4. Energy use of integral refrigerated containers in maritime transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, Warren B.; Howitt, Oliver J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Smith, Inga J., E-mail: inga@physics.otago.ac.n [Department of Physics, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Hume, Anthony [Landcare Research, P.O. Box 40, Lincoln 7640 (New Zealand)

    2011-04-15

    The global trading of perishable goods is possible through the application of product refrigeration and atmospheric control during transportation. A mean energy consumption rate of 2.7 kW/TEU was assumed in this study, but was found to have potential variations of around {+-}60%. New Zealand's maritime trade was considered as a case study for the year 2007 to place the effect of refrigerated transport in context. For individual refrigerated containers, approximately 19% of the energy use related to its journey is used for refrigeration purposes. In 2007, approximately 18% and 61% of New Zealand's imported and exported food products by mass, respectively, required some form of refrigeration during transportation. Maintaining the refrigerated state of imports and exports to and from New Zealand during maritime transportation consumed approximately 280 GWh of electricity. Assuming all this electricity was generated onboard vessels using auxiliary engines, approximately 61 kt of fuel was consumed and 190 kt of CO{sub 2} produced. Refrigeration is of particular importance to the many greenhouse gas or carbon footprinting studies conducted around the world. Implications are discussed in the context of greenhouse gas emissions from the transport of apples from NZ to the UK and long-term storage of UK apples. - Research highlights: {yields} Energy use was assessed for New Zealand's international maritime transport of refrigerated goods. {yields} Cargo-based analysis was used to obtain energy use and GHG emissions. {yields} 2.7 kW/TEU mean energy consumption rate was assumed, but data indicated potential variations of around {+-}60%. {yields} Refrigeration accounts for approximately 19% of a refrigerated container's energy use on a journey. {yields} Approximately 280 GWh of electricity is used (190 kt of CO{sub 2}) for refrigeration of NZ's 2007 imports and exports.

  5. JIANGSU URBAN ACCESSIBILITY IN TERMS OF LAND TRANSPORT%江苏省城镇间可达性及其格局演变研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟业喜; 陆玉麒; 卢晓旭

    2011-01-01

    The evaluations of accessibility generally include network analysis and raster analysis. With the spatial analysis function of ArcGIS and the VB programming language, by the method of grid analysis, to regard the 65 administrative center of counties or cities in Jiangsu Province as the nodes, under the help of traffic network data of Jiangsu Province in the year of 1990, 1996, 2002 and 2008, straight-line distance and accessibility data are extracted between each of the 65 cities in Jiangsu Province. Based on the accessibility data, the paper analyzed the accessibility ot Jiangsu Province for four study years and discussed the evolution characteristics. The conclusions show: The accessibility between each of urban in Jiangsu Province is improved significantly, and the structure is evolved from "spindle type" to "down payments type", the gap of accessibility continued to narrow, the urban contact each other more strongly. Natural conditions and regional conditions are the factors of the accessibility's improvement. Differences in the development of transport infrastructure, lead to the changes of urban accessibility and regional advantages.%可达性评价一般包括网络分析和栅格分析.借助AmGIS的空间分析功能,采用栅格分析方法,以江苏省65个县(市)行政中心(城镇)为研究节点,利用1990、1996、2002和2008年的交通路网数据,对江苏省4个研究年度城镇间两两可达性进行了分析,探讨了其格局演变特征.结果表明:江苏省城镇间可达性改善明显;城镇间可达性结构由"纺缍型"向"倒金定塔型"转变;城镇间可达性总体差距在不断缩小,城镇间联系更加紧密;城镇间可达性改善并不均衡;交通建设的不均衡发展,导致城镇可达性和区位优势的改变.

  6. Harvesting, loading and transportation of wood (willow) chips, from agricultural land. Systems and costs. Final report; Skoerd, lastning och transport av traeflis (Salix) fraan jordbruksmark. System och kostnader. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadders, G. [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    In the report, available equipment for harvesting, loading and transportation of willow chips is described. Advantages and disadvantages are highlighted. Further, the practical experiences gathered within the project are presented, as well as results from new calculations of the costs for harvesting willow chips with varying equipment. All of the studied methods including dumping the chips on the ground for short time storage are, according to the calculations, more expensive than the original method handling the chips in containers through out the handling chain. However, this is true only as long as there are no costs for waiting between the links in the chain. As some waiting is impossible to avoid, practical experiences has led to the conclusion that the original system is not sufficient by it self. How it can be replaced by and combined with other techniques is discussed. Presented data and analysis are based on the information gathered at visits with harvest contractors and road carriers during the late winter of 2001, and at meetings following up the experiences during the harvest season of 2000/2001. At the end of the report, the found conditions and some suggestions for actions are listed to serve for further discussion among the parties within the business.

  7. Physical safety and multiple land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suddle, S.I.

    2006-01-01

    Multiple land use brings with it several safety risks when buildings are developed above or nearby transport routes of hazardous materials. To reduce these risks several measures can be implemented in multiple land-use projects for both the construction and the exploitation stage. These measures wil

  8. Research on transport system of vertical compression type “land saving type” lifing waste%垂直式压缩“节地型”生活垃圾转运系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建平

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problem of location for Solid Waste Transfer Station, study the vertical compression “Flat in and Flat out” technology, propose to use mechanical devices to replace the traditional collection vehicles or transport vehicle ramp, reach the effects of saving land, reduc-ing energy consumption and pollutant emissions, reducing the height and massing of the building, provide a way of location for medium and small Solid Waste Transfer Station.%从破解生活垃圾转运站选址困境入手,进行了垂直式压缩工艺“平进平出”工艺技术的研究,提出了采用机械设备代替传统的收集车或转运车坡道的方法,达到了节约用地、降低能耗、减排污染物、降低建筑高度和减少建筑体量的效果,为中、小型垃圾转运站选址提供了一条出路。

  9. Influence of the Change of Land Use/Land Cover and Precipitation Variation on Runoff and Sediment Transport in Lüergou River Watershed on the Loess Plateau%黄土高原吕二沟流域土地利用/覆被和气候变化对径流泥沙的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文平; 李海光; 余新晓; 赵阳; 王贺年; 徐峰

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the coupling effects of land use/land cover and climate variability on runoff and sediment transport,Lüergou watershed was taken as an example and the trend of annual streamflow and sediment transport in period of 1982-2010 were examined.By using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and the change of annual streamflow and sediment discharge in different period were analyzed.In addition,the contributions of landuse and climate variability period to runoff and sediment yield were assessed.The results showed that:(1)The reduction of streamflow and sediment transport in unremarkable variation period was less than in remarkable period;(2)In unremarkable variation period,the estimated streamflow reduction from 1987-1991 was attributable to landuse change(59.01%) and climate change(40.98%),so,the streamflow reduction was mainly due to the change of landuse;the reduction of mean annual sediment yield by 13.80 thousand ton,the climate variability caused the reduction of mean annual sediment yield by 8.10 thousand ton;(3)In remarkable variation period,we estimated that streamflow reduction from 1991-2010 was attributable to landuse change(34.43%) and climate change(65.57%),the landuse caused the reduction of mean annual sediment yield by 48.00 thousand ton,the climate variability caused the reduction of mean annual sediment yield by 43.70 thousand ton;(4)The effects of landuse on runoff and sediment transport gradually decreased,while the effects of climate variability gradually increased.%为了研究气候变化和土地利用/覆被变化对流域生态水文的影响,以吕二沟流域为研究对象,采用非参数统计秩检验法的分析方法,根据研究区1982-2010年的气象数据,对其中的径流量和输沙量进行了突变点检验,分析了不同时期的径流量和输沙量的变化,以及不同时期土地利用和气候变化对流域径流泥沙的贡献。结果表明:(1)径流泥沙在非

  10. Living Lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Suna Møller

    2014-01-01

    , hunters attended to questions like safe-journeying on ice or the role of natural surroundings in children’s education, in ways revealing a relational perception of ‘nature’ and dissolving culture-nature dualisms. Hunters’ experiences in living the land afforded children a dwelling position from which...... of the social world pushes questions about education and life, disregarding being educated as human control of nature....

  11. Innovations for sustainable public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrelja, Robert; Hansson, Lisa; Richardson, Tim

    is to contribute effectively to the development of an efficient and sustainable transport system (for example, forms for the coordination of public transport, land use, and infrastructure planning); (ii) public transport must not be seen as an end in itself, or as merely a technical transport system; (iii...... qualitative case- studies of public transport in Skåne, Aarhus, and Trondheim, and uses an empirical material consisting of written material and interviews. It concludes that: (i) new forms of coordination between organizations and policy areas are called for in a number of critical areas, if public transport......- system developments that undermine the long-term competitiveness of public transport....

  12. 关于Diophantine方程(44n)x+(117n)y=(125n)z 的整数解%On the integral solutions of Diophantine equation (44n)x+(117n)y=(125n)z

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁伟阳; 高丽; 郝虹斐

    2014-01-01

    在 Je´smanow´ıcz 猜想的基础上,利用初等方法证明了对任意的正整数 n, Diophantine方程(44n)x+(117n)y=(125n)z 仅有正整数解(x, y, z)=(2,2,2)。%In this paper, basing on Je´smanow´ıcz′ conjecture, it is proved that for any positive integral n the Diophantine equation (44n)x+(117n)y = (125n)z has only integral solution (x, y, z) = (2, 2, 2) by elementary method.

  13. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23.1383 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a) No...

  14. The cmbT gene encodes a novel major facilitator multidrug resistance transporter in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipic, Brankica; Golic, Natasa; Jovcic, Branko; Tolinacki, Maja; Bay, Denice C; Turner, Raymond J; Antic-Stankovic, Jelena; Kojic, Milan; Topisirovic, Ljubisa

    2013-01-01

    Functional characterization of the multidrug resistance CmbT transporter was performed in Lactococcus lactis. The cmbT gene is predicted to encode an efflux protein homologous to the multidrug resistance major facilitator superfamily. The cmbT gene (1377 bp) was cloned and overexpressed in L. lactis NZ9000. Results from cell growth studies revealed that the CmbT protein has an effect on host cell resistance to lincomycin, cholate, sulbactam, ethidium bromide, Hoechst 33342, sulfadiazine, streptomycin, rifampicin, puromycin and sulfametoxazole. Moreover, in vivo transport assays showed that overexpressed CmbT-mediated extrusion of ethidium bromide and Hoechst 33342 was higher than in the control L. lactis NZ9000 strain. CmbT-mediated extrusion of Hoechst 33342 was inhibited by the ionophores nigericin and valinomycin known to dissipate proton motive force. This indicates that CmbT-mediated extrusion is based on a drug-proton antiport mechanism. Taking together results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that CmbT is a novel major facilitator multidrug resistance transporter candidate in L. lactis, with a possible signaling role in sulfur metabolism.

  15. Land Use and Land Cover - Montana Land Cover Framework 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This statewide land cover theme is a baseline digital map of Montana's natural and human land cover. The baseline map is adapted from the Northwest ReGAP project...

  16. Energy and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, James; Banister, David; Edwards, Phil; Prentice, Andrew M; Roberts, Ian

    2007-09-22

    We examine the links between fossil-fuel-based transportation, greenhouse-gas emissions, and health. Transport-related carbon emissions are rising and there is increasing consensus that the growth in motorised land vehicles and aviation is incompatible with averting serious climate change. The energy intensity of land transport correlates with its adverse health effects. Adverse health effects occur through climate change, road-traffic injuries, physical inactivity, urban air pollution, energy-related conflict, and environmental degradation. For the world's poor people, walking is the main mode of transport, but such populations often experience the most from the harms of energy-intensive transport. New energy sources and improvements in vehicle design and in information technology are necessary but not sufficient to reduce transport-related carbon emissions without accompanying behavioural change. By contrast, active transport has the potential to improve health and equity, and reduce emissions. Cities require safe and pleasant environments for active transport with destinations in easy reach and, for longer journeys, public transport that is powered by renewable energy, thus providing high levels of accessibility without car use. Much investment in major road projects does not meet the transport needs of poor people, especially women whose trips are primarily local and off road. Sustainable development is better promoted through improving walking and cycling infrastructures, increasing access to cycles, and investment in transport services for essential needs. Our model of London shows how increased active transport could help achieve substantial reductions in emissions by 2030 while improving population health. There exists the potential for a global contraction and convergence in use of fossil-fuel energy for transport to benefit health and achieve sustainability.

  17. Land management and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction....

  18. Cranked Skyrme-Hartree-Fock calculation for superdeformed and hyperdeformed rotational bands in N=Z nuclei from sup 3 sup 2 S to sup 4 sup 8 Cr

    CERN Document Server

    Inakura, T; Yamagami, M; Matsuyanagi, K

    2002-01-01

    With the use of the symmetry-unrestricted cranked Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method in the three-dimensional coordinate-mesh representation, we have carried out a systematic theoretical search for the superdeformed and hyperdeformed rotational bands in the mass A=30-50 region. Along the N=Z line, we have found superdeformed solutions in sup 3 sup 2 S, sup 3 sup 6 Ar, sup 4 sup 0 Ca, sup 4 sup 4 Ti, and hyperdeformed solutions in sup 3 sup 6 Ar, sup 4 sup 0 Ca, sup 4 sup 4 Ti, sup 4 sup 8 Cr. The superdeformed band in sup 4 sup 0 Ca is found to be extremely soft against both the axially symmetric (Y sub 3 sub 0) and asymmetric (Y sub 3 sub 1) octupole deformations. An interesting role of symmetry breaking in the mean field is pointed out.

  19. Integrated Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    for integrated land management includes some educational and professional challenges to be met at the threshold of the third millennium.    In short, it is critical that we prepare the profession as well the educational system to meet the challenges of tomorrow in achieving sustainable urban and rural......This paper aims to build a general understanding and conceptual approach to integrated land management. The conceptual understanding may take the form of a hierarchy of levels. The foundation stone is an overall national land policy. Appropriate cadastral systems support land policies by providing...... identification of the land parcels and a framework for security of tenure, land value and land use. Appropriate cadastral systems support a wider land administration infrastructure within the areas of land tenure, land value and land use. Appropriate land administration systems then form the basic for sound land...

  20. How Do Differences in Land Ownership Types in China Affect Land Development? A Case from Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daquan Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available China has a unique land use system in which there are two types of land ownership, namely, state-owned urban land and farmer collective-owned rural land. Despite strict restrictions on the use rights of farmer collective-owned land, rural land is, in fact, developed along two pathways: it is formally acquired by the state and transferred into state ownership, or it is informally developed while remaining in collective ownership. Taking Beijing, the capital, as an example, and using data from land use surveys in the Changping district of the city, this paper examines the spatial patterns and characteristics of land development along these two pathways, and sets up a multinomial logit model to test whether land development with and without ownership change was affected by the same factors. The findings suggest that: (1 development on collective-owned land is more spatially scattered, and its links to public infrastructure are weaker; (2 transportation infrastructure, farmer income, spatial location, and previous land usage are the major factors that affect land development; nevertheless, the influences of the factors are different for the two pathways.

  1. Database Development of Land Use Characteristics along Major U.S. Highways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, D

    2000-06-06

    The major objective of the effort reported here is to develop methods to measure transportation land use at the national level (i.e., how much land and what types of lands are used by transportation systems) and to track changes over time. Data for transportation-related land use are important for environmental analysis, climate change studies, transportation-land use interaction research, policy decisions related to urban sprawl, and more. Transportation systems have direct effects on the environment through modification of vegetation, impacts on wildlife habitats, changes in local climate and alternation of drainage patterns (U.S. DOT/BTS, 1996; U.S. DOT/BTS, 1998; U.S. EPA, 1999; Maggi, 1994; Verhoef, 1994). However, without accurate and complete land use data, it is extremely difficult to study and evaluate these effects. Transportation systems also induce land use changes. Such indirect effects, while not the subject of this study, may be more significant than the direct land-use impacts of transportation infrastructure. Establishing an inventory of transportation infrastructure and adjacent land use and maintaining the inventory over time is an important first step towards understanding the full range of interactions between transportation and land use. While current and historic land use data are essential for investigating the relationships between transportation and land use, so far, no technological or institutional mechanisms have been established to systematically collect such data at the national level. The lack of long-term planning in land use data acquisition can be a major setback for future research in transportation land use studies. Land use data also play a key role in the understanding of problems related to urban sprawl and in policy decisions in dealing with these problems.

  2. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  3. Land Competition and Land-Use Change:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    are affecting livelihoods in northern Laos. The research engages a range of approaches, theories and concepts, including political ecology, polycentric resource governance, land-change science, regime shifts in land systems, land sparing versus land sharing, and the sustainable livelihood framework. During...... software. Quantitative data was compiled in a Microsoft Access database and analyzed in Excel. Land-use and livelihood changes are taking place rapidly in the study sites. Overall, land-use change underwent transformation away from subsistence shifting cultivation to cash crops, intensive agriculture......, and industrial tree plantations but shifting cultivation still remains an important land-use system. Land conversion from shifting cultivation for subsistence to commercial crops is most clearly seen in areas with good infrastructure (e.g. road network). This conversion is partly in response to market demands...

  4. 漫灌方式下幼龄枣树林地土壤水分的运移特征%Characteristics of soil water transportation in young Ziziphus jujuba forest land under flood irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾瑞琪; 刘华; 李宏; 李丕军

    2013-01-01

    In order to know the characteristics of soil water transportation in young Ziziphus jujuba forest land in Akesu area, south of Xinjiang area under flood irrigation, infiltration rate, moisture interval of soil, and irrigation cycle were measured by EM50 soil temperature and humidity meter . The results were as follows: (1) The maximum soil water content was 36.8 %, 38.7%, and 39.0% in -20 cm, -60 cm, and -60 cm soil layers when the quantity of water supply was 80 m3, 120 m3, and 160 m3 per acreage, respectively. (2) During the irrigation, the mean transportation rate of soil water was 3.74 min per cm. (3) The moisture interval of soil was increased with a great quantity of water supply, while it was low with a small quantity of water supply. The moisture interval was 0-60 cm, 0-80 cm, and 0-100 cm when the quantity of water supply was 80 m3, 120 m3, and 160 m3 per acreage, respectively. (4) In the process of irrigation, the relationship among the moisture interval of soil (Y), quantity of water supply(X1), and irrigation time(X2) was fitted for y=0.347X1+0.364X2 - 65.538. (5) When the quantity of water supply increased 40 m3 per acreage, the irrigation cycle would increase 2-4 d, correspondingly.%以枣树林中空地为对照,研究漫灌条件下新疆阿克苏地区幼龄枣树林地土壤水分的运移规律,并用EM50测定土壤含水量的变化,以确定不同灌水量下的枣树林地土壤水分的下渗速率、土壤湿润区间、灌溉周期,为枣树的精准灌溉提供科学依据.结果表明:(1)灌水量为80、120和160 m3·亩-1时,枣树林地土壤最大含水量分别为36.8%、38.7%和39.0%,含水量最高的土层分别在-20 cm、-60 cm和-60 cm范围处.(2)在灌溉过程中,土壤水分的运移速率平均为3.74 min·cm-1.(3)随灌水量的增加,幼龄枣树林地土壤湿润区间也在增大,灌水量为80、120和160 m3·亩-1的土壤湿润区间分别为0~-60 cm、0~-80 cm和0~-100 cm. (4)土壤水分湿润区间

  5. Isospin transport and reaction mechanism in nuclear reactions in the range 20–40 MeV/n

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlini, S., E-mail: barlini@fi.infn.it; Piantelli, S.; Casini, G.; Olmi, A.; Bini, M.; Pasquali, G.; Poggi, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Valdré, S.; Pastore, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell’Università and INFN Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Bougault, R.; Lopez, O.; Le Neindre, N.; Parlog, M.; Vient, E. [LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ENSICAEN et Université de Caen, F-14050 Caen-Cedex (France); Bonnet, E.; Chibhi, A.; Frankland, J. D. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P.5027, F-14076 Caen cedex (France); Borderie, B.; Rivet, M. F. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); and others

    2015-10-15

    In recent years, many efforts have been devoted to the investigation of the isospin degree of freedom in nuclear reactions. Comparing systems involving partners with different N/Z, it has been possible to investigate the isospin transport process and its influence on the final products population. This can be then related to the symmetry energy term of the nuclear EOS. From the experimental point of view, this task requires detectors able to measure both charge and mass of the emitted products, in the widest possible range of energy and size of the fragments. With this objective, the FAZIA and GARFIELD+RCo apparatus have been used with success in some recent experiments.

  6. Isospin transport and reaction mechanism in nuclear reactions in the range 20-40 MeV/n

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlini, S.; Piantelli, S.; Casini, G.; Olmi, A.; Bini, M.; Pasquali, G.; Poggi, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Bougault, R.; Bonnet, E.; Borderie, B.; Chibhi, A.; Frankland, J. D.; Gruyer, D.; Lopez, O.; Le Neindre, N.; Parlog, M.; Rivet, M. F.; Vient, E.; Rosato, E.; Vigilante, M.; Bruno, M.; Marchi, T.; Morelli, L.; Cinausero, M.; Degerlier, M.; Gramegna, F.; Kozik, T.; Twarog, T.; Fabris, D.; Valdré, S.; Pastore, G.

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, many efforts have been devoted to the investigation of the isospin degree of freedom in nuclear reactions. Comparing systems involving partners with different N/Z, it has been possible to investigate the isospin transport process and its influence on the final products population. This can be then related to the symmetry energy term of the nuclear EOS. From the experimental point of view, this task requires detectors able to measure both charge and mass of the emitted products, in the widest possible range of energy and size of the fragments. With this objective, the FAZIA and GARFIELD+RCo apparatus have been used with success in some recent experiments.

  7. Dynamic Evaluation of Rationality of Land Use Structure in the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinning XIE; Jianhua GUO; Kaiguo YUAN; Bin QUAN

    2015-01-01

    The rationality of land use structure was evaluated with dynamic TOPSIS method based on changing data of land use from 2008 to 2011 in the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan area. The results showed that during 2008- 2011,the rationality of land use structure was totally high,the dynamic value hi of Changsha,Zhuzhou,Xiangtan and the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan area was 0. 7954,0. 7821,0. 8245 and0. 8186,respectively; the value Ci( tk) reflecting the rationality of land use structure at different time points was rapidly increased,and the gap between regions was not big and shrinking. According to the grey relational analysis,the change of different land use types had different effects on the rationality of land use structure: transportation land,the land for cities,towns and villages and the land for mining and industry are most highly correlated with the rationality of land use structure,while arable land,woodland,water area and water conservancy facility land have also an important impact on the rationality of land use structure; controlling the excessive growth of transportation land,the land for cities,towns and villages and the land for mining and industry,protecting arable land,forest land,water area and water conservancy facility land,and moderately increasing the garden plot,plays a decisive role in optimizing the land use structure in the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan area.

  8. Capo Verde, Land Use Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  9. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properties. Every transportation system has advantages and disadvantages over each other. Therefore, comprehensive plans for future periods have to be prepared and how the sources of the country should be reasonably distributed among transportation systems must be investigated. Also, transportation plans have to be prepared to get coordinated operations among transportation systems while great investments are instituted in the entire country. There is no doubt that it is possible with combined transportation instead of concentration on one transportation system. Transportation policies in Turkey should be questioned since the level of highway transportation usage reaches to 95 % and level of sea transportation usage drops to less than 1 % in spite of being surrounded with sea in three sides of our land. In this paper, transportation systems and transportation policies in Turkey are evaluated in general and problems are analysed. Proposals are presented for the solutions of these problems.

  10. Land Competition and Land-Use Change:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    software. Quantitative data was compiled in a Microsoft Access database and analyzed in Excel. Land-use and livelihood changes are taking place rapidly in the study sites. Overall, land-use change underwent transformation away from subsistence shifting cultivation to cash crops, intensive agriculture......Land competition and land-use changes are taking place in many developing countries as the demand for land increases. These changes are leading to changes in the livelihood conditions of rural people. The Government of Laos (GoL), on the one hand, aims to increase forest protection. On the other......, and industrial tree plantations but shifting cultivation still remains an important land-use system. Land conversion from shifting cultivation for subsistence to commercial crops is most clearly seen in areas with good infrastructure (e.g. road network). This conversion is partly in response to market demands...

  11. Evolution of chloroplast vesicle transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Sabine; Soll, Jürgen; Vothknecht, Ute C

    2003-02-01

    Vesicle traffic plays a central role in eukaryotic transport. The presence of a vesicle transport system inside chloroplasts of spermatophytes raises the question of its phylogenetic origin. To elucidate the evolution of this transport system we analyzed organisms belonging to different lineages that arose from the first photosynthetic eukaryote, i.e. glaucocystophytes, chlorophytes, rhodophytes, and charophytes/embryophytes. Intriguingly, vesicle transport is not apparent in any group other than embryophytes. The transfer of this eukaryotic-type vesicle transport system from the cytosol into the chloroplast thus seems a late evolutionary development that was acquired by land plants in order to adapt to new environmental challenges.

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from the international maritime transport of New Zealand's imports and exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, Warren B.; Howitt, Oliver J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Smith, Inga J., E-mail: inga@physics.otago.ac.n [Department of Physics, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2011-03-15

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international maritime transport are exempt from liabilities under the Kyoto Protocol. Research into quantifying these emissions is ongoing, and influences policy proposals to reduce emissions. This paper presents a cargo-based analysis of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from New Zealand's international maritime transport of goods. Maritime transport moves 99.5% (by mass) of New Zealand's internationally traded products. It is estimated that 73% of visiting vessels' activity can be directly attributed to the movement of goods in and out of New Zealand. A cargo-based methodology was used to estimate that the international maritime transport of New Zealand's imports and exports consumed 2.5 million tonnes (Mt; 2.6 billion litres) of fuel during the year 2007, which generated 7.7 Mt of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. Double-counting of emissions would occur if a similar method was applied to all New Zealand's trading partners. In contrast, since few large vessels refuel in New Zealand, the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory listed 2007 international maritime transportation emissions as 0.98 Mt of CO{sub 2}, calculated from fuel bunkered for international transport. The results, therefore, show a significant difference between activity-based and bunker-fuel methodologies in quantifying New Zealand's emissions. International policy implications are discussed. - Research highlights: {yields} Cargo-based analysis of GHG emissions from New Zealand's international maritime transport of goods. {yields} 7.7 Mt of CO{sub 2} estimated from international maritime transport of NZ's 2007 imports and exports. {yields} 73% of visiting vessels' 2007 activity attributed to the movement of goods in and out of NZ. {yields} The results were significantly different from NZ's GHG Inventory bunker-fuel derived emissions figure. {yields} Detailed approach for international transport emissions

  13. Prioritizing Residential Land Value Determinants in Onitsha, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelis Ifeanyi Emoh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to analyze the various determinants of residential land values and the strength of the different factors contributing to land value variations in Onitsha, Nigeria. The factor analysis and the principal component techniques were applied in the analysis of spatial variations and the relationship between 31 identifiable factors influencing residential land values in Onitsha, Anambra State of Nigeria. By using regression analysis, the 13 main factors shaping land values in Onitsha were established, prioritized and ranked as accessibility, neighborhood quality, land title, zoning regulations, transportation, rent, improvement tax, environmental quality, view of amenities, travel time to the city centre and irrevocable power of attorney.

  14. Building Land Information Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a conceptual understanding in the areas of Cadastre, Land Administration, and Land Management as a basis for building adequate land information policies. To develop this understanding the paper looks at each area as a system or an infrastructure designed for handling specific...... tasks and serving specific needs in society. The paper analyzes the function and the basic elements of the systems and looks at the interaction between the four key areas: land tenure, land value, land-use, and land development. Basically such systems are embedded in the historical, cultural...... of measurement science, spatial information, management, and land management. (2) To establish national professional associations which accommodate a modern interdisciplinary profile. (3) To assess the capacity needs in land administration and to develop the capacity needed at societal, institutional...

  15. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...... part focuses on the changing  role of ownership and the role of land markets, and a land management vision will be published in November issue of Coordinates. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober......This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...

  16. Flight investigation of piloting techniques and crosswind limitations using a research type crosswind landing gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, B. D.; Deal, P. L.; Champine, R. A.; Patton, J. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A research-type crosswind landing gear was tested in a flight program which used a light STOL transport in strong crosswind conditions. The research-type crosswind landing gear used enabled the airplane to land to crosswinds up to a magnitude of 25 to 30 knots. Three modes of landing-gear operation were investigated: preset, automatic, and castor (passive self-alignment). Actual test data and histograms are given for the 195 'visual flight rules' crosswind landings made.

  17. Plasma Fairings for Quieting Aircraft Landing Gear Noise Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A major component of airframe noise for commercial transport aircraft is the deployed landing gear. The noise from the gear originates due to complex, unsteady bluff...

  18. Cultural and social factors and quality of life of Maori in advanced age. Te puawaitanga o nga tapuwae kia ora tonu - Life and living in advanced age: a cohort study in New Zealand (LiLACS NZ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Lorna; Kepa, Mere; Teh, Ruth; Mules, Rangimarie; Moyes, Simon A; Wham, Carol; Hayman, Karen; Connolly, Martin; Wilkinson, Tim; Keeling, Sally; Loughlin, Hine; Jatrana, Santosh; Kerse, Ngaire

    2014-05-02

    To establish 1) the socioeconomic and cultural profile and 2) correlates of quality of life (QOL) of Maori in advanced age. A cross sectional survey of a population based cohort of Maori aged 80-90 years, participants in LiLACS NZ, in the Rotorua and Bay of Plenty region of New Zealand. Socioeconomic and cultural engagement characteristics were established by personal interview and QOL was assessed by the SF-12. In total 421 (56%) participated and 267 (63%) completed the comprehensive interview. Maori lived with high deprivation areas and had received a poor education in the public system. Home ownership was high (81%), 64% had more than 3 children still living and social support was present for practical tasks and emotional support in 82%. A need for more practical help was reported by 21%. Fifty-two percent of the participants used te reo Maori me nga tikanga (Maori language and culture) daily. One in five had experienced discrimination and one in five reported colonisation affecting their life today. Greater frequency of visits to marae/sacred gathering places was associated with higher physical health-related QOL. Unmet need for practical help was associated with lower physical health-related QOL. Lower mental health-related QOL was associated with having experienced discrimination. Greater language and cultural engagement is associated with higher QOL for older Maori and unmet social needs and discrimination are associated with lower QOL.

  19. Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eendebak, P.T.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Hollander, R.J.M. den

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the

  20. Aligning land use with land potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current agricultural land use is dominated by an emphasis on provisioning services by applying energy-intensive inputs through relatively uniform production systems across variable landscapes. This approach to agricultural land use is not sustainable. Integrated agricultural systems (IAS) are uphe...

  1. Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eendebak, P.T.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Hollander, R.J.M. den

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the

  2. Jatropha potential on marginal land in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa

    Rising oil prices, concerns about climate change, and future energy supplies have contributed to growing interest in the use of liquid biofuels in the transport sector which, in turn, has driven large-scale land acquisitions in developing countries for biofuel feedstock production, mainly jatroph...

  3. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Raster)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Raster-based land cover data set derived from 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with source imagery...

  4. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Vector)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Vector-based land cover data set derived from classified 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with source...

  5. Transport Research Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortúzar, Juan de Dios; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Rizzi, Luis

    2014-01-01

    of supply and demand in strategic planning contexts; the latter involving large zoning systems, huge multimodal networks and highly complex dynamic modelling approaches (Mahmassani, 2001). But questions also arise at a more macro level (and in a different time span) regarding the interaction of transport...... and land use, and also at the more micro level with the dynamics of road traffic and public transport modelling, an area which is particularly interesting due to its high complexity in less developed nations (de Cea et al., 2005). We do not have the expertise or the space to dwell on all these issues...

  6. 中国黑龙江省与俄罗斯滨海边疆区陆海联运合作的现状及障碍因素分析%An Analysis of Present Situation and Obstacles of Land-sea Coordinated Transport Cooperation between Heilongjiang Province of China and Primorskiy Kray of Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱永浩

    2012-01-01

      陆海联运是中国黑龙江省与俄罗斯滨海边疆区之间开展经贸合作的重要领域之一,对形成有竞争力的东北亚地区综合运输和物流网络具有重要意义。目前黑龙江省与滨海边疆区陆海联运合作已经启动,但发展缓慢,在中俄之间各种合作机制和框架、运营服务主体、出入境手续、口岸基础设施等方面存在障碍因素。为促进双方在该领域的更深层次合作应进一步改善中俄间国际运输和国际物流发展的政策法律环境,加强口岸交通运输基础设施建设,培养专业人才并开展相关领域的科研合作。%  The land-sea transport is one of the important fields in which Heilongjiang province and Russian Primorskiy Kray carry out economic and trade cooperation. The coordinated transport is of importance to the comprehensive transport and logistics networks which have a competitive edge in Northeast Asia. At present, the land-water transport cooperation between Heilongjiang and Primorskiy Kray has started, but developed slowly, because there exist some obstacles in their cooperative mechanisms and frameworks, operation service bodies, exit and enter formalities and port infrastructure. For promoting a deep-level cooperation between them, it is necessary to further improve their policy and legal environments of the transport and logistics between them, to strengthen the construction of the port transport infrastructure, to foster personnel in a specific field and to carry out scientific and research cooperation in some relevant areas.

  7. 14 CFR 29.505 - Ski landing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ski landing conditions. 29.505 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 29.505 Ski landing conditions. If certification for ski operation is requested, the rotorcraft, with skis, must be designed...

  8. Random Walks Estimate Land Value

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, Ph

    2010-01-01

    Expected urban population doubling calls for a compelling theory of the city. Random walks and diffusions defined on spatial city graphs spot hidden areas of geographical isolation in the urban landscape going downhill. First--passage time to a place correlates with assessed value of land in that. The method accounting the average number of random turns at junctions on the way to reach any particular place in the city from various starting points could be used to identify isolated neighborhoods in big cities with a complex web of roads, walkways and public transport systems.

  9. The role of public transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayliss, D. [London Transport, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-01

    This paper considers the types and scale of the contributions that public transport can make to sustainable personal mobility. It recognises that public transport actions must be part of a wider concerted effort if real progress is to be made in promoting sustainable mobility. Parallel actions will be needed in the areas of land use patterns, technology and activity patterns as well as other elements of transport planning and management. The energy efficiency, environmental impacts, space effects and mobility characteristics of the main forms of public transport are examined and related, where appropriate, to those of cars. (author) 1 fig., 11 tabs., refs.

  10. US State Submerged Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submerged Lands Act (43 U.S.C. Section 1301 et seq.) grants coastal states title to natural resources located within their coastal submerged lands and navigable...

  11. Land Type Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an inventory of the number of acres of various land types found at Kenai National Moose Range. Forestlands are the predominant land type, followed by tundra,...

  12. The land management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    paradigm. In many countries, and especially developing countries and countries in transition, the national capacity to manage land rights, restrictions and responsibilities is not well developed in terms of mature institutions and the necessary human resources and skills. In this regard, the capacity......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  13. Land management and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management......, responsibilities, restrictions and risks in relation to land in support of sustainable development. The model is designed for developed economies but allows incremental adoption of the model by countries at transitional stages of economic development. The model reflects drivers of globalisation and technology...

  14. Land Cover Characterization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long heritage of leadership and innovation in land use and land cover mapping. The USGS Anderson system defined the principles for land use and land cover mapping that have been the model both nationally and internationally for more than 20 years. The Land Cover Characterization Program (LCCP) is founded on the premise that the Nation's needs for land cover and land use data are diverse and increasingly sophisticated. The range of projects, programs, and organizations that use land cover data to meet their planning, management, development, and assessment objectives has expanded significantly. The reasons for this are numerous, and include the improved capabilities provided by geographic information systems, better and more data-intensive analytic models, and increasing requirements for improved information for decision making. The overall goals of the LCCP are to:

  15. Agriculture: Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  16. The land management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...... paradigm. In many countries, and especially developing countries and countries in transition, the national capacity to manage land rights, restrictions and responsibilities is not well developed in terms of mature institutions and the necessary human resources and skills. In this regard, the capacity...

  17. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  18. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  19. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  20. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  1. Bureau of Land Management Land Grant Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data has been collected by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in New Mexico at the New Mexico State Office. The initial data source is the statewide...

  2. International Coalition Land Use/Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a product of an effort to update Minnesota's 1969 land use inventory. The project was funded in 1989 by the State Legislature per recommendation...

  3. Sensing land pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  4. Changing local land systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Cecilie; Reenberg, Anette; Heinimann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the direct and cascading land system consequences of a Chinese company's land acquisition for rubber cultivation in northern Laos. Transnational land acquisitions are increasingly acknowledged as an important driver of direct land use conversion with implications for local....... Combining the conceptual lenses of land systems and livelihood approaches, this paper demonstrates how the land use system has changed substantially because of the establishment of the rubber plantation by the company, notably in the linkages between livestock rearing, upland shifting cultivation...... and lowland paddy rice cultivation. The changes go beyond the immediate competition for land caused by the rubber plantation: a penalty scheme introduced by the rubber company for damage to rubber trees caused by browsing animals has led the villagers to abandon livestock rearing, causing a cascade...

  5. Modeling flow and sediment transport dynamics in the lowermost Mississippi River, Louisiana, USA, with an upstream alluvial-bedrock transition and a downstream bedrock-alluvial transition: Implications for land building using engineered diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viparelli, Enrica; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A.; Parker, Gary

    2015-03-01

    The lowermost Mississippi River, defined herein as the river segment downstream of the Old River Control Structure and hydrodynamically influenced by the Gulf of Mexico, extends for approximately 500 km. This segment includes a bedrock (or more precisely, mixed bedrock-alluvial) reach that is bounded by an upstream alluvial-bedrock transition and a downstream bedrock-alluvial transition. Here we present a one-dimensional mathematical formulation for the long-term evolution of lowland rivers that is able to reproduce the morphodynamics of both the alluvial-bedrock and the bedrock-alluvial transitions. Model results show that the magnitude of the alluvial equilibrium bed slope relative to the bedrock surface slope and the depth of bedrock surface relative to the water surface base level strongly influence the mobile bed equilibrium of low-sloping river channels. Using data from the lowermost Mississippi River, the model is zeroed and validated at field scale by comparing the numerical results with field measurements. The model is then applied to predict the influence on the stability of channel bed elevation in response to delta restoration projects. In particular, the response of the river bed to the implementation of two examples of land-building diversions to extract water and sediment from the main channel is studied. In this regard, our model results show that engineered land-building diversions along the lowermost Mississippi River are capable of producing equilibrated bed profiles with only modest shoaling or erosion, and therefore, such diversions are a sustainable strategy for mitigating land loss within the Mississippi River Delta.

  6. Chamber transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OLSON,CRAIG L.

    2000-05-17

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system.

  7. Forage Harvest and Transport Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.; Downing, M.; Turhollow, A.

    1998-12-01

    An engineering-economic approach is used to calculate harvest, in-field transport, and over-the-road transport costs for hay as bales and modules, silage, and crop residues as bales and modules. Costs included are equipment depreciation interest; fuel, lube, and oil; repairs; insurance, housing, and taxes; and labor. Field preparation, pest control, fertilizer, land, and overhead are excluded from the costs calculated Equipment is constrained by power available, throughput or carrying capacity, and field speed.

  8. Urban Transport and Sustainable Transport Strategies:A Case Study of Karachi, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Intikhab Ahmed Qureshi; LU Huapu

    2007-01-01

    The uncontrolled growth in urbanization and motorization generally contributes to an urban land use and transportation system that is socially, economically, and environmentally unsustainable. This paper uses Karachi as a case study, which is the largest urban and economic centre of Pakistan, passing through an uncontrolled phase of rapid urbanization and motorization. The paper first reviews research related to sustainable transportation systems to comprehend the concept of sustainable development and transportation. The paper then evaluates the existing transportation and infrastructure system, national transportation policies, and urban transportation projects to determine if the current paradigm is moving toward or away from sustainable transportation. Furthermore, the principles for sustainable urban transportation are developed to see what significance national transportation policies have given to urban transportation from a sustainable transportation point of view. Finally some strategies are suggested, adoption of which may lead to a sustainable urban development and transportation system in Karachi.

  9. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxi, takeoff and landing roll. 25.491 Section 25.491 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.491 Taxi...

  10. 23 CFR 971.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 971.210 Section 971.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS... lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...

  11. 23 CFR 972.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 972.210 Section 972.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS....210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...

  12. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 970.210 Section 970.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS... Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...

  13. 23 CFR 973.210 - Indian lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). 973.210 Section 973.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS... PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.210 Indian lands bridge management system...

  14. 14 CFR 25.119 - Landing climb: All-engines-operating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing climb: All-engines-operating. 25... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.119 Landing climb: All-engines-operating. In the landing configuration, the steady gradient of climb may not be less...

  15. Impacts of changes in climate, land use and land cover on atmospheric mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Holmes, C. D.; Wu, S.

    2016-09-01

    Mercury is an important pollutant that can be transported globally due to its long lifetime in the atmosphere. Atmosphere-surface exchange is a major process affecting the cycling of mercury in the global environment and its impacts on food webs. We investigate the sensitivities of the air-surface exchange, atmospheric transport, and budget of mercury to projected 2000-2050 changes in climate and land use/land cover with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). We find that annual mean Hg(0) dry deposition flux over land could increase by up to 20% in northern mid-latitudes by 2050 due to increased vegetation and foliage density. Climate change can significantly affect both the wet deposition and atmospheric chemistry of mercury. In response to the projected climate change, the annual mean wet deposition flux increases over most continental regions and decreases over most of the mid-latitude and tropical oceans. The annual mean mercury wet deposition flux over northern and southern high latitudes increases by 7% and 8% respectively, largely driven by increases in precipitation there. Surface Hg(0) is predicted to increase generally, because high temperatures decrease Hg(0) oxidation by bromine and high moisture increases aqueous Hg(II) photo reduction. The combined effects of projected changes in climate, land use and land cover increase mercury deposition to the continental biosphere and decrease mercury deposition to the marine biosphere.

  16. Land Use Change and Driving Forces in Guangzhou City during 1996- 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiying; YAO; Dafang; WU; Yanyan; LIU; Yihua; LIU; Qixian; CHEN; Haolong; CHEN; Jiaxin; WU; Jialiang; ZHONG

    2015-01-01

    Based on the statistical data of land use change,from the perspective of sustainable use,we use literature inquiry,statistical analysis,GIS spatial analysis and dynamic degree model of land use,to analyze the land use change characteristics,land use amount and spatial distribution characteristics in Guangzhou City during 1996- 2012,and further elaborate the driving forces of land use change to get the basic law of land use change in Guangzhou City. The results show that the construction land was rapidly expanded,causing a significant reduction in arable land( from 129286 ha in 1996 to 84567 ha in 2012); in construction land,the land for residential,industrial and mining use and transportation land dramatically increased,and the single dynamic degree of transportation land was close to 7. 1%. In comparison with other developed cities,it is found that economic factors and policy factors are important factors affecting land use change in Guangzhou City,and the growth rate of economic density of land was high in Tianhe District and Yuexiu District. From the perspective of sustainable use,the future land use in Guangzhou City needs to better coordinate the relationship between various types of land,between socio-economic development and coordinated land use development,between environmental protection and land development and utilization. Through a series of land consolidation activities,it is necessary to strengthen the protection of farmland,improve the intensive and economical use of construction land,improve the ecological environment,and coordinate development of urban and rural areas,to ultimately achieve sustainable land use in Guangzhou City.

  17. Biofuel on contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Blom, Sonja; Bardos, Paul; Polland, Marcel; Track, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Desktop studies of two Swedish contaminated sites has indicated that growing biofuel crops on these sites may be more environmentally beneficial than alternative risk management approaches such as excavation / removal or containment The demand for biofuel increases pressure on the cultivatable soil of the world. While contaminated land is not very suitable for food production, cultivation of low and medium contaminated soil may remove some pressure from agricultural soils. For larger sites, biofuel cultivation may be economically viable without a remediation bonus. Suitable sites have topographic conditions that allow agricultural machinery, are not in urgent need of remediation, and contamination levels are not plant toxic. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was done for two cases. The (desk top) case studies were - Case K, a 5000 m2 site where salix (willow) was cultivated with hand-held machinery and the biofuel harvest was left on site, and - Case F, a 12 ha site were on site ensuring was being considered, and were salix might have rented an economic profit if the remediation had not been urgent due to exploitation pressure. Some selected results for biofuel K; biofuel F; excavation K; and on site ensuring F respectively: Energy: 0,05; 1,4; 3,5; 19 TJ Waste: 1; 9; 1200; 340 ton Land use off-site: 190; 3 500; 200 000; 1 400 000 m² a Global warming: 3; 86; 230; 1 200 ton CO2 eq Acidification: 25; 1 000; 2 600; 14 000 kg SO2 eq Photochemical smog: 10; 180; 410; 2 300 kg ethene eq Human health: 2; 51; 150; 620 index The environmental impact of the traditional remediation methods of excavation and on-site ensuring was mainly due to the transport of contaminated soil and replacement soil, and landfilling of the contaminated soil. Biofuel cultivation avoids these impacts, while fertiliser production and agricultural machinery would have a lower environmental impact than moving large volumes of soil around. Journeys of a controller to check on the groundwater quality also

  18. Building Land Information Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a conceptual understanding in the areas of Cadastre, Land Administration, and Land Management as a basis for building adequate land information policies. To develop this understanding the paper looks at each area as a system or an infrastructure designed for handling specific...... and judicial setting of the individual country. However, in spite of the different origins, the systems seem to merge into a global model serving some basic societal needs. The paper presents an outline of this development towards a global model for sustainable land administration infrastructures...... of measurement science, spatial information, management, and land management. (2) To establish national professional associations which accommodate a modern interdisciplinary profile. (3) To assess the capacity needs in land administration and to develop the capacity needed at societal, institutional...

  19. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  20. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  1. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  2. Lesotho - Land Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Michigan State University was assigned to design the impact evaluation (IE) of the Land Administration Reform Project (LARP) funded under the Millennium Challenge...

  3. Attachment to land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a first study on attachment to national and sacred land and land as a protected value. A measure of attachment to the land of Israel is developed and administered to two groups, Jewish college students in Israel and the United States. Levels of land attachment are high and not significantly different in the two groups, with a great deal of variation. Land may become more important through being inhabited by a group over centuries. This is a positive contagion effect, and is opposed in some cases by negative contagion produced when the ``enemies'' live on the land for some period of time. We demonstrate a significant correlation of positive contagion sensitivity with attachment to the land of Israel. Unlike many other cases of the interaction of positive and negative contagion, negative contagion does not overwhelm positive contagion in the domain of land attachment. We also present evidence for linkages between political positions, religiosity, importance of Israel, Arab aversion, and vulnerability of Israel with attachment to land, but these do not fully account for the contagion effects. A number of significant differences between Israelis and Americans are described.

  4. Land use--energy simulation model: a computer-based model for exploring land use and energy relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, T.O.; Kydes, A.S.; Sanborn, J.

    1977-06-01

    There is no doubt that major conservation of future regional energy expenditures can be achieved through the propitious allocation and configuring of land-use activities. The task of searching for and selecting strategies and measures which will bring about energy conservation vis-a-vis land use becomes that of understanding and defining relationships between sets of possible land use activities in a given region and the resultant energy end use demand. The outcome of the search is the determination of the relative impact of the strategies and measures upon both the regional and national energy system. The Land Use-Energy Simulation Model with integrated capability for generating energy demand is an extension of the classic Lowry model. Such a model framework captures two essential features of the land use-energy utilization interaction; first, the spatial location of land use activity is implicit, and second, transportation energy demand is determined as an integral part of the spatial configuration. The model is divided both conceptually and computationally into three parts; the land use model, a submodel for transportation which provides the work and shop trip distributions for spatial allocation of activities within the land use submodel, and an energy submodel which determines the energy demand from the land use configuration. Two specific types of applications of thecomputer model are described. The model was utilized to assess the energy demand of the Long Island region in New York. Second, the model was applied to study the generic relationships between energy utilization and urban form.

  5. Allocation of New Construction Land Based on Land Competitiveness Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Connotation of land competitiveness is expatiated from both the narrow sense and broad sense. Evaluation index system of land competitiveness is established according to the 2008 China Statistical Yearbook and 2008 China Land Resources Statistical Yearbook. Efficiency Coefficient Method and Principal Component Analysis Method are used to evaluate the land competitiveness of 31 provincial units in China. Result shows that in the year 2007, land competitiveness gradually decreases from southeast to northwest. The land competitiveness and GDP per unit land have significant negative correlation. The rank of approved new construction land has low positive correlation with the rank of land competitiveness in China. This indicates that there is little correlation between the allocation of regional new construction land and the land use efficiency. Therefore, it is suggested that regional allocation of new construction land should be treated differently based on the evaluation result of land competitiveness.

  6. West Africa land use and land cover time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.

    2017-02-16

    Started in 1999, the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project represents an effort to map land use and land cover, characterize the trends in time and space, and understand their effects on the environment across West Africa. The outcome of the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project is the production of a three-time period (1975, 2000, and 2013) land use and land cover dataset for the Sub-Saharan region of West Africa, including the Cabo Verde archipelago. The West Africa Land Use Land Cover Time Series dataset offers a unique basis for characterizing and analyzing land changes across the region, systematically and at an unprecedented level of detail.

  7. Land Rights at Last!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Norman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1978 the Wran Government announced an Inquiry to investigate a range of issues including Aboriginal land rights recognition, the causes of Aboriginal social and economic disadvantage, heritage protection and commonwealth and state relations. The Select Committee, chaired by state member Maurie Keane, in its ‘First Report’ that focused on land rights, not only fundamentally changed the way Government’s liaise and consult with Aboriginal people, the Committee unanimously endorsed far-reaching recommendations including the ability to recover land, compensation for cultural loss and three-tier community driven administrative structure. All of this was set in the context of Aboriginal rights to self-determination and fundamental attachment to land as a cultural relationship and historical reality. The movement for land rights was the culmination of many years of land justice activism, shifting policy at the Commonwealth level and wider international movements contesting colonial rule and racism. More specifically the land rights movement in NSW was galvanised in response to the previous Government’s renewed efforts to assimilate Aboriginal people and revoke reserve lands and the limited land rights recognition made possible through the Aboriginal Lands Trust (herein ‘the Trust’. This paper argues a more focused and pronounced campaign emerged in the mid 1970s whereby land rights ‘time had come’ as a result of Aboriginal political activism and the alliances formed with and among left social movements. This movement created the political climate for the Wran Government’s announcement of the Select Committee Inquiry in 1978.

  8. Bolsa Bay, California, Proposed Ocean Entrance System Study. Report 3. Tidal Circulation and Transport Computer Simulation and Water Quality Assessment. Section 1. California Coastal Commission’s 1986 Certified Land Use Plan and Secondary Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    necessarily an adverse impact. 114. Design criteria pertaining to velocity are also pertinent from the standpoint of swimmer safety in Huntington Harbour...velocities 268. Maximum channel velocities are important from the standpoint of navigation, swimmer safety, transport and flushing for satisfactory...A1.0 106.0 12’.0 16.0 1;S.0 2d.O i.0 A.0 .0 IMtE , HRS Figure B21. Average channel velocities in Huntington Harbour POSTDFG LINK 32 m EXISTING CONDITIONS

  9. Evaluation of Operational Risks in Construction of the Great Channel of Land-sea Ro-ro Drop-and-pull Freight Transportation between Shandong and Liaoning%鲁辽陆海货滚甩挂运输大通道建设运营风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远; 李海波; 安伟; 兰天雨

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, in view of the problems in the construction and operation of the great channel of the land-sea ro-ro drop-and-pull freight transportation between Shandong and Liaoning, we used the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation process to analyze the risks in the operation of the channel from the aspects of transportation organization, freight terminal, informatization, and policy, etc., and then further proposed the risk prevention measures.%针对鲁辽陆海货滚甩挂运输大通道项目建设与运营过程中可能遇到的问题,运用模糊综合评价法,从运输组织、货运场站、信息化、政策措施等方面,对鲁辽陆海货滚甩挂运输大通道建设运营的风险进行分析与评价,进而提出风险防范措施,以保证鲁辽陆海货滚甩挂运输大通道建设项目的顺利实施,促进交通运输和区域经济综合、低碳、平安、持续发展。

  10. Land reclamation in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2009-01-01

    For decades, Egypt has tried to increase its agricultural area through reclamation of desert land. The significance of land reclamation goes beyond the size of the reclaimed area and number of new settlers and has been important to Egyptian agricultural policies since the 1952-revolution. This pa...

  11. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...

  12. Coming into Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Experts say economic restructuring is essential to avoid a possible hard landing IN economic terms,the "lost decade" refers to Japan’s economic stagnation throughout the 1990s after its strong growth in the 1980s. Against the backdrop of a shaky global recovery, concerns have recently grown over a possible hard landing for the Chinese economy,caused by monetary tightening

  13. “Looking back, looking forward": urban development and transport infrastructure in Gauteng Province

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mubiwa, B

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that land-use and transportation systems have a two-way dependency. On one hand, the existing land-use structures influence trip distances and transport mode choice, while on the other hand transport infrastructure and systems...

  14. Neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Ulrik; Andersen, Peter H; Larsson, Orla M

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space is tightly controlled by distinct classes of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the molecular function of two major classes of neurotransmitter transporter that are present in the cell membrane of neurons and....../or glial cells: the solute carrier (SLC)1 transporter family, which includes the transporters that mediate the Na(+)-dependent uptake of glutamate, and the SLC6 transporter family, which includes the transporters that mediate the Na(+)-dependent uptake of dopamine, 5-HT, norepinephrine, glycine and GABA....... Recent research has provided substantial insight into the structure and function of these transporters. In particular, the recent crystallizations of bacterial homologs are of the utmost importance, enabling the first reliable structural models of the mammalian neurotransmitter transporters...

  15. BX CY NZ nanotubes and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marvin Lou; Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter

    2001-01-01

    The invention provides crystalline nanoscale particles and tubes made from a variety of stoichiometries of B.sub.x C.sub.y N.sub.z where x, y, and z indicate a relative amount of each element compared to the others and where no more than one of x, y, or z are zero for a single stoichiometry. The nanotubes and nanoparticles are useful as miniature electronic components, such as wires, coils, schotky barriers, diodes, etc. The nanotubes and nanoparticles are also useful as coating that will protect an item from detection by electromagnetic monitoring techniques like radar. The nanotubes and nanoparticles are additionally useful for their mechanical properties, being comparable in strength and stiffness to the best graphite fibers or carbon nanotubes. The inventive nanoparticles are useful in lubricants and composites.

  16. Management models in the NZ software industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Spill

    Full Text Available This research interviewed eight innovative New Zealand software companies to find out how they manage new product development. It looked at how management used standard techniques of software development to manage product uncertainty through the theoretical lens of the Cyclic Innovation Model. The study found that while there is considerable variation, the management of innovation was largely determined by the level of complexity. Organizations with complex innovative software products had a more iterative software development style, more flexible internal processes and swifter decision-making. Organizations with less complexity in their products tended to use more formal structured approaches. Overall complexity could be inferred with reference to four key factors within the development environment.

  17. Spatially enabled land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    . In other words: Good governance and sustainable development is not attainable without sound land administration or - more broadly – sound land management. The paper presents a land management vision that incorporates the benefits of ICT enabled land administration functions. The idea is that spatial...... enabling of land administration systems managing tenure, valuation, planning, and development will allow the information generated by these activities to be much more useful. Also, the services available to private and public sectors and to community organisations should commensurably improve. Knowledge...... the communication between administrative systems and also establish more reliable data due to the use the original data instead of copies. In Denmark, such governmental guidelines for a service-oriented ITarchitecture in support of e-government are recently adopted. Finally, the paper presents the role of FIG...

  18. Land Cover Trends Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  19. 浙江省陆路交通可达性与经济社会协调性研究%ANALYZING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACCESSIBILITY OF LAND TRANSPORT AND SOCIAL ECONOMY IN ZHEJIANG PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一曼; 修春亮

    2014-01-01

    Coordination means relationship of elements within and outside the system.Since German physicist Hermann Hake raised Synergetic in 1971,coordination has gradually become an important research content of disciplines at home and abroad,such as economic geography,urban and rural planning,transportation geography,and so on.Transportation facilities as the link to contact geospatial and economic and social activities,change travel time,transportation distance and transportation costs,and cause change of the relative distance between each other,which provide protection of material,personnel,technology,information,capital and other elements of resources for the city,so the coordination of economic and social largely affect the potential for sustainable development of the city.How to evaluate the regional transportation infrastructure advantages and disadvantages,as well as the economic and social effects are always the main contents and hotspot issues of many disciplines.Sixty-nine spatial units of Zhejiang Province are the research object in this paper.Based on the road network and the economic and social data of 1996,2004,2012,we used weighted average travel time indicators,principal component analysis and coupling coordination degree model,to explore the coordinated relationship of the city comprehensive accessibility and socioeconomic conditions.The study results showed as follows.(1) The accessibility of a comprehensive transportation network to node cities and urban economic and social development level was improved to various degrees from 1996 to 2012,and caused both coupling coordination relationship gradually shift from low level to high level.(2) Coordination presented spatial differentiation,coordination of city in Hangzhou Bay,Jin-Li-Qu plains and Wen-Tai plains were significantly higher than that of the hilly areas of the western city,and coordination of prefecture-level city area was generally higher than county-level cities.(3) Spatial pattern of

  20. Bureau of Land Management, General Land Office Records System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — The General Land Office Records System (GLO) encompasses the automation and retrieval of eastern and western land title information images which includes patent...

  1. LandingNav: Terrain Guided Automated Precision Landing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the proposed effort is to provide a novel and innovative precision landing sensor (LandingNav) for Mars. LandingNav supports space exploration by...

  2. School Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Educator, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This special section on student transportation offers a case study of a school system that recycles buses for safety drills; articles on fuel-saving strategies, the pros and cons of contracting for transportation services or operating a publicly owned bus fleet, and advice on full cost accounting for transportation costs; and a transportation…

  3. From land cover change to land function dynamics: A major challenge to improve land characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Steeg, van de J.; Veldkamp, A.; Willemen, L.

    2009-01-01

    Land cover change has always had a central role in land change science. This central role is largely the result of the possibilities to map and characterize land cover based on observations and remote sensing. This paper argues that more attention should be given to land use and land functions and l

  4. Major Land Resource Areas (MLRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of the Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the conterminous United States. Land resource regions are geographic areas...

  5. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  6. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  7. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  8. Understanding decreases in land relative humidity with global warming: conceptual model and GCM simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Climate models simulate a strong land-ocean contrast in the response of near-surface relative humidity to global warming: relative humidity tends to increase slightly over oceans but decrease substantially over land. Surface energy balance arguments have been used to understand the response over ocean but are difficult to apply over more complex land surfaces. Here, a conceptual box model is introduced, involving moisture transport between the land and ocean boundary layers and evapotranspiration, to investigate the decreases in land relative humidity as the climate warms. The box model is applied to idealized and full-complexity (CMIP5) general circulation model simulations, and it is found to capture many of the features of the simulated changes in land relative humidity. The box model suggests there is a strong link between fractional changes in specific humidity over land and ocean, and the greater warming over land than ocean then implies a decrease in land relative humidity. Evapotranspiration is of sec...

  9. Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    are the rights inherent to all human beings without discrimination. The “constitution” of human rights is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN, 1948) stating the universal rights of human beings based on the principle of respect for the individual – rights that can be enjoyed by everyone simple because...... and that every country and jurisdiction needs to ensure that efficient and effective land administration mechanisms are in place to pursue this interaction. Land administration systems should embed a human rights perspective when managing rights, restrictions and responsibilities in land. This, in turn, imposes...

  10. LandIT Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    and reporting purposes. This paper presents the LandIT database; which is result of the LandIT project, which refers to an industrial collaboration project that developed technologies for communication and data integration between farming devices and systems. The LandIT database in principal is based...... on the ISOBUS standard; however the standard is extended with additional requirements, such as gradual data aggregation and flexible exchange of farming data. This paper describes the conceptual and logical schemas of the proposed database based on a real-life farming case study....

  11. Saving Our Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    If the amount of cultivated land continues to shrink, food security and social stability may be at stake, experts say Latest statistics released by the Ministry of Land and Resources show that in the last five years, due to rapid economic development and the frequent adjustment of the agricultural structure, cultivated land declined by 6 million hectares on the Chinese mainland, from 128.27 million hectares in October 2000 to 122.08 million hectares in October 2005, a net annual decrease of 1.23 million ...

  12. LandIT Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    and reporting purposes. This paper presents the LandIT database; which is result of the LandIT project, which refers to an industrial collaboration project that developed technologies for communication and data integration between farming devices and systems. The LandIT database in principal is based...... on the ISOBUS standard; however the standard is extended with additional requirements, such as gradual data aggregation and flexible exchange of farming data. This paper describes the conceptual and logical schemas of the proposed database based on a real-life farming case study....

  13. Land reform and land fragmentation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    It has often been stated that land fragmentation and farm structures characterized by small agricultural holdings and farms divided in a large number of parcels have been the side-effect of land reform in Central and Eastern Europe. This article reports the findings of a study of land reform in 25...... countries in the region from 1989 and onwards and provides an overview of applied land reform approaches. With a basis in theory on land fragmentation, the linkage between land reform approaches and land fragmentation is explored. It is discussed in which situations land fragmentation is a barrier...... for the development of the agricultural and rural sector. The main finding is that land fragmentation is often hampering agricultural and rural development when both land ownership and land use is highly fragmented....

  14. 2014 land cover land use horseshoe bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jenny L.; Hoy, Erin E.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2016-01-01

    This collection of conservation areas consists of the floodplain of the combined streams of the Iowa River and the Cedar River. The study area begins just southeast of Wapello, IA, and continues southeast until the Horseshoe Bend Division, Port Louisa NWR. The area is currently managed to maintain meadow or grassland habitat which requires intensive management due to vegetative succession. In addition, this floodplain area contains a high proportion of managed lands and private lands in the Wetland Reserve Program and is a high priority area for cooperative conservation actions. This project provides a late-summer baseline vegetation inventory to assess future management actions in an adaptive process. Changes in levees, in addition to increased water flows and flood events due to climate change and land use practices, make restoration of floodplain processes more complex. Predictive models could help determine more efficient and effective restoration and management techniques. Successful GIS tools developed for this project would be applicable to other floodplain refuges and conservation areas.

  15. Implementing land use change models in the developing world

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Alize

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available in the developing world -Reshaping cities through urban land use modeling- Alize le Roux 2013 Esri International User Conference July 8–12, 2013 | San Diego, California Presentation outline 1. Urban land use change models 2. Value of these models 3... are data hungry 5. Massive potential for municipal consumption projections • Water, energy, waste water, solid waste, public transport, libraries, revenue, … Q & A ___________________________ Alize le Roux ALeroux1@csir.co.za ...

  16. Land Use Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan discusses the main types of land use at Parker River National Wildlife Refuge. Information about geology and water, groundwater, climatic conditions,...

  17. Land value 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Cardillo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The research aim to test the information collected through the Italian FADN survey to analyze the characteristics of Italian land market and was referred to accounting year 2009. The value of land is estimated according to the criterion of the most probable market value and is related to an administrative area and a quality culture. Given the similarity of information obtained, the results have been compared with data of  the INEA survey on Land Market published on the website Institute. The data recorded by the FADN are therefore suitable for the analysis of the characteristics of the Italian agricultural land market and the good quality of the information collected, regardless of the checks carried out, is also an evidence of the rigor with which FADN data collections are performed.

  18. Mozambique - Urban Land Regularization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This baseline survey was developed for the impact evaluation of activities related to 'improving land access in urban hotspot areas.' The site-specific interventions...

  19. Public Land Survey filled

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The 'PLSFILL' layer is a polygon coverage depicting the township, range and sections contained in the Public Land Survey System grid for the State of California....

  20. Landings_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Landings data found in this data set are broken into four regions of the Northeast US Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem: Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank,...

  1. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  2. Projected 2020 Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Projected 2020 land cover was developed to provide one scenario of development in the year 2020. It was used to generate several metrics to compare to 1992 metrics...

  3. Global Land Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Global Land Survey (GLS) datasets are a collection of orthorectified, cloud-minimized Landsat-type satellite images, providing near complete coverage of the...

  4. Land Management Research Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002, Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge became one of the first Land Management and Research Demonstration (LMRD) sites. These sites are intended to serve as...

  5. Land evaluation methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Lustig, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews non-computerised and computerised land evaluation methods or methodologies, and realises the difficulties to incorporate biophysical and socioeconomic factors from different levels. Therefore, this paper theorises an alternative land evaluation approach, which is tested and elaborated in an agricultural community in the North of Chile. The basis of the approach relies on holistic thinking and attempts to evaluate the potential for improving assumed unsustainable goat manage...

  6. Managed Clearings: an Unaccounted Land-cover in Urbanizing Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. K.; Madden, M.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2016-12-01

    Managed clearings (MC), such as lawns, public parks and grassy transportation medians, are a common and ecologically important land cover type in urbanizing regions, especially those characterized by sprawl. We hypothesize that MC is underrepresented in land cover classification schemes and data products such as NLCD (National Land Cover Database) data, which may impact environmental assessments and models of urban ecosystems. We visually interpreted and mapped fine scale land cover with special attention to MC using 2012 NAIP (National Agriculture Imagery Program) images and compared the output with NLCD data. Areas sampled were 50 randomly distributed 1*1km blocks of land in three cities of the Char-lanta mega-region (Atlanta, Charlotte, and Raleigh). We estimated the abundance of MC relative to other land cover types, and the proportion of land-cover types in NLCD data that are similar to MC. We also assessed if the designations of recreation, transportation, and utility in MC inform the problem differently than simply tallying MC as a whole. 610 ground points, collected using the Google Earth, were used to evaluate accuracy of NLCD data and visual interpretation for consistency. Overall accuracy of visual interpretation and NLCD data was 78% and 58%, respectively. NLCD data underestimated forest and MC by 14.4km2 and 6.4km2, respectively, while overestimated impervious surfaces by 10.2km2 compared to visual interpretation. MC was the second most dominant land cover after forest (40.5%) as it covered about 28% of the total area and about 13% higher than impervious surfaces. Results also suggested that recreation in MC constitutes up to 90% of area followed by transportation and utility. Due to the prevalence of MC in urbanizing regions, the addition of MC to the synthesis of land-cover data can help delineate realistic cover types and area proportions that could inform ecologic/hydrologic models, and allow for accurate prediction of ecological phenomena.

  7. Aircraft landing using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  8. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts ...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  9. A lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Due to large amounts of oxygen required for space travel, a method of mining, transporting, and storing this oxygen in space would facilitate further space exploration. The following project deals specifically with the methods for transporting liquid oxygen from the lunar surface to the Lunar Orbit (LO) space station, and then to the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) space station. Two vehicles were designed for operation between the LEO and LO space stations. The first of these vehicles is an aerobraked design vehicle. The Aerobrake Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) is capable of transporting 5000 lbm of payload to LO while returning to LEO with 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen, and thus meet mission requirements. The second vehicle can deliver 18,000 lbm of payload to LO and is capable of bringing 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen back to LEO. A lunar landing vehicle was also designed for operation between LO and the established moon base. The use of an electromagnetic railgun as a method for launching the lunar lander was also investigated. The feasibility of the railgun is doubtful at this time. A system of spheres was also designed for proper storing and transporting of the liquid oxygen. The system assumes a safe means for transferring the liquid oxygen from tank to tank is operational. A sophisticated life support system was developed for both the OTV and the lunar lander. This system focuses on such factors as the vehicle environment, waste management, water requirements, food requirements, and oxygen requirements.

  10. ANALYSIS OF OPERATING INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM ACCURACY UNDER SIMULATED CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy MERKISZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The instrument landing system (ILS is the most popular landing aid in the world. It is a distance-angled support system for landing in reduced visibility, while its task is the safe conduct of the aircraft from the prescribed course landing on the approach path. The aim of this study is to analyse the correctness of the ILS in simulated conditions. The study was conducted using a CKAS MotionSim5 flight simulator in the Simulation Research Laboratory of the Institute of Combustion Engines and Transport at Poznan University of Technology. With the advancement of technical equipment, it was possible to check the operation of the system in various weather conditions. Studies have shown that the impact of fog, rain and snow on the correct operation of the system is marginal. Significant influence has been observed, however, during landing in strong winds.

  11. STS-49 Landing at Edwards with First Drag Chute Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavour concludes mission STS-49 at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, with a 1:57 p.m. (PDT) landing 16 May on Edward's concrete runway 22. The planned 7-day mission, which began with a launch from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 4:41 p.m. (PFT), 7 May, was extended two days to allow extra time to rescue the Intelsat VI satellite and complete Space Station assembly techniques originally planned. After a perfect rendezvous in orbit and numerous attempts to grab the satellite, space walking astronauts Pierre Thuot, Rick Hieb and Tom Akers successfully rescued it by hand on the third space walk with the support of mission specialists Kathy Thornton and Bruce Melnick. The three astronauts, on a record space walk, took hold of the satellite and directed it to the shuttle where a booster motor was attached to launch it to its proper orbit. Commander Dan Brandenstein and Pilot Kevin Chilton brought Endeavours's record setting maiden voyage to a perfect landing at Edwards AFB with the first deployment of a drag chute on a shuttle mission. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their

  12. Quantifying uncertainty in morphologically-derived bedload transport rates for large braided rivers: insights from high-resolution, high-frequency digital elevation model differencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasington, J.; Hicks, M.; Wheaton, J. M.; Williams, R. D.; Vericat, D.

    2013-12-01

    Repeat surveys of channel morphology provide a means to quantify fluvial sediment storage and enable inferences about changes in long-term sediment supply, watershed delivery and bed level adjustment; information vital to support effective river and land management. Over shorter time-scales, direct differencing of fluvial terrain models may also offer a route to predict reach-averaged sediment transport rates and quantify the patterns of channel morphodynamics and the processes that force them. Recent and rapid advances in geomatics have facilitated these goals by enabling the acquisition of topographic data at spatial resolutions and precisions suitable for characterising river morphology at the scale of individual grains over multi-kilometre reaches. Despite improvements in topographic surveying, inverting the terms of the sediment budget to derive estimates of sediment transport and link these to morphodynamic processes is, nonetheless, often confounded by limited knowledge of either the sediment supply or efflux across a boundary of the control volume, or unobserved cut-and-fill taking place between surveys. This latter problem is particularly poorly constrained, as field logistics frequently preclude surveys at a temporal frequency sufficient to capture changes in sediment storage associated with each competent event, let alone changes during individual floods. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the principal sources of uncertainty in morphologically-derived bedload transport rates for the large, labile, gravel-bed braided Rees River which drains the Southern Alps of NZ. During the austral summer of 2009-10, a unique timeseries of 10 high quality DEMs was derived for a 3 x 0.7 km reach of the Rees, using a combination of mobile terrestrial laser scanning, aDcp soundings and aerial image analysis. Complementary measurements of the forcing flood discharges and estimates of event-based particle step lengths were also acquired during the field campaign

  13. 78 FR 32688 - Notice of Realty Action, Segregation Terminated, Direct Sale of Public Land in San Bernardino...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action, Segregation Terminated, Direct Sale of Public Land in...: The following public land is proposed for direct sale in accordance with Sections 203 and 209 of the... interest would best be served by a direct sale to the California Department of Transportation. A portion...

  14. Land use land cover change detection using remote sensing application for land sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakeristanan, Maha Letchumy; Md Said, Md Azlin

    2012-09-01

    Land falls into the category of prime resources. Land use and land cover changes are identified as the prime issue in global environmental changes. Thus, it is necessary to initiate the land change detection process for land sustainability as well as to develop a competent land use planning. Tropical country like Malaysia has been experiencing land use and land cover changes rapidly for the past few decades. Thus, an attempt was made to detect the land use and land cover changes in the capital of the Selangor, Malaysia, Shah Alam over 20 years period (1990 - 2010). The study has been done through remote sensing approach using Earth Sat imagery of December 1990 and SPOT satellite imageries of March 2000 and December 2010. The current study resulted that the study area experienced land cover changes rapidly where the forest area occupied about 24.4% of Shah Alam in 1990 has decreased to 13.6% in 2010. Built up land have increased to 29.18% in 2010 from 12.47% in 1990. Other land cover classes such as wet land, wasteland and agricultural land also have undergone changes. Efficient land management and planning is necessary for land sustainability in Shah Alam.

  15. Scaling the land use system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, K.

    2001-01-01

    IntroductionThere is a growing demand for quantitative information on actual land use/land cover and their future changes in space and time. Particularly during the last decade, land use and land cover change have become important issues. Besides local and direct effects like loss of biodiversity th

  16. Transport Phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCready, Mark J.; Leighton, David T.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the problems created in graduate chemical engineering programs when students enter with a wide diversity of understandings of transport phenomena. Describes a two-semester graduate transport course sequence at the University of Notre Dame which focuses on fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer. (TW)

  17. Shuttle Discovery Landing at Edwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The STS-29 Space Shuttle Discovery mission lands at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards AFB, California, early Saturday morning, 18 March 1989. Touchdown was at 6:35:49 a.m. PST and wheel stop was at 6:36:40 a.m. on runway 22. Controllers chose the concrete runway for the landing in order to make tests of braking and nosewheel steering. The STS-29 mission was very successful, completing the launch of a Tracking and Data Relay communications satellite, as well as a range of scientific experiments. Discovery's five-man crew was led by Commander Michael L. Coats, and included pilot John E. Blaha and mission specialists James P. Bagian, Robert C. Springer, and James F. Buchli. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout

  18. Energy and land use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

  19. Future land use plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  20. Land-use Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

  1. Land reclamation program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Land Reclamation Program will address the need for coordinated applied and basic research into the physical and ecological problems of land reclamation, and advance the development of cost-effective techniques for reclaiming and rehabilitating mined coal land to productive end uses. The purpose of this new program is to conduct integrated research and development projects focused on near- and long-term reclamation problems in all major U.S. coal resource regions including Alaska and to coordinate, evaluate, and disseminate the results of related studies conducted at other research institutions. The activities of the Land Reclamation Laboratory program will involve close cooperation with industry and focus on establishing a comprehensive field and laboratory effort. Research demonstration sites will be established throughout the United States to address regional and site-specific problems. Close cooperation with related efforts at academic institutions and other agencies, to transfer pertinent information and avoid duplication of effort, will be a primary goal of the program. The major effort will focus on the complete coal extraction/reclamation cycle where necessary to develop solutions to ameliorating the environmental impacts of coal development. A long-range comprehensive national reclamation program will be established that can schedule and prioritize research activities in all of the major coal regions. A fully integrated data management system will be developed to store and manage relevant environmental and land use data. Nine research demonstration sites have been identified.

  2. Research on driving forces for rural settlement land changes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chun; FENG Chang-chun

    2010-01-01

    During the rapid urbanization period, the contradiction between demand for the construction land and the preservation of cultivated land for food security is getting more and more serious in China. With the urbanization the rural settlement land is increasing instead of decreasing. This paper aims at finding the driving forces for rural settlement land expansion. Based on land use change survey data (1996-2006) by the Ministry. of Land and Resources P. R. C., this paper finds that per capita area for rural settlement land is more than per capita area for city township and industrial land in each province except Tibet. Besides, rural settlement land area and per capita rural settlement land area are increasing while the rural population is decreasing in most provinces. The main problems of rural settlement land use are low efficiency, high vacancy rate, chaotic layout and illegal occupancy. Then the driving forces for rural settlement land expansion, including economic development family income, family scale, psychological factors, urbanization, transportation, lack of planning, limited circulation of dwelling-house land and imperfect social security, are explored based on above analysts. Finally, policy recommendations, in view of different influencing factors, are put forward to control the disorder expansion of rural settlement land.

  3. Urban Land Uses and Smart Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Francini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The object of this work consists of the will to define a renewed relationship between spatial planning and transport systems, which focuses attention on road safety, whereas to date the studies on this relationship have mainly examined the transport impacts on land use. Therefore, in addition to the analysis of the physical characteristics of road infrastructure, there is a need to examine which urban land uses can generate points of risk, both in terms of attraction of vehicles and pedestrian flows as well as in terms of concentration of vulnerable road users, in order to organize a complete information and telecommunication system for road safety. In short, considering a specific testing ground, some urban land uses have been located, with relative dimensional analysis and characterization of access conditions in typological-functional terms: services (schools, healthcare structures, sports facilities; tertiary/production industry (wholesale, shopping centres, industrial sites; tourism sector (hotels, resorts, historical and cultural heritage. The collection of information, corresponding to mapping of prospective risk factors, represented the basis for the entry of specific data within a wider reference database.

  4. Mastering the land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    The environmental history of New Zealand is one of the clearest and most recent examples of the way humans make a home for themselves in newly explored territory. New Zealand was the last major land area in the world to be colonised by people and, given its extraordinary natural history, the first...... settlers could hardly have been more surprised when they arrived in the thirteenth century. At the time of this first Polynesian settlement, New Zealand was a land not only without humans, but without any terrestrial mammals except for a few species of bats. In their absence the avifauna had proliferated......, and in ecosystems developed with birds as the only large grazers, the flora had developed in ways not seen anywhere else, leaving only limited plant foods available for humans. This must have made New Zealand not only a challenging but also an initially incomprehensible land for newly arrived Polynesians as well...

  5. Mastering the land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    The environmental history of New Zealand is one of the clearest and most recent examples of the way humans make a home for themselves in newly explored territory. New Zealand was the last major land area in the world to be colonised by people and, given its extraordinary natural history, the first...... as Europeans. This fact makes their success in forging cultural landscapes from the new land all the more interesting for students of environmental history. As an example of such processes, New Zealand illustrates the way human newcomers learn to master an environment, change the land and its resources...... resources which change as the society itself changes. Newcomers to any environment meet it with a set of technologies and a culture which they bring with them and which changes continuously, as it aligns with experience gathered in that environment. The environmental histories told from a multiplicity...

  6. 覆膜方式对旱地糜子生育后期干物质积累与转运的影响%Effects of Film Mulching Modes on Dry Matter Accumulation and Transportation Characteristics of Broomcorn Millet at Later Growing Stage in Arid Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张盼盼; 冯乃杰; 郑殿峰; 柯希望; 金喜军; 殷丽华; 刘洋; 刘涛; 石英; 张洪鹏; 马爽

    2015-01-01

    The variety of Jinshu 7 was used as material to study the effects of film mulching modes on dry matter accumulation and transportation characteristics of broomcorn millet at later growing stage in arid land. The results showed that it compared with traditional planting,and the above-ground dry matter accumulation of film side dibble and flat film dibble increased by 55.56%, 27.88%,and seed dry matter increased by 9.25%,24.90% in the whole grain filling periods. Film mulching can contributed to the transportation of dry matter of vegetative organs to grains. The contribution to grain yield of stem was bigger than those of leaf and sheath,which was as high as 55.31%-56.08%. Film mulching had the obvious role in promoting grain number per plant and 1000-grain weight. Compared with traditional planting,the yield of film side dibble and flat film dibble increased by 40.52%and 51.2%, respectively,Which indicated that the effect of film side dibble to dry matter accumulation and transportation was better than film dibbling so as to increas grain yield in broomcorn millet.%以晋黍7号为材料,研究旱地不同覆膜方式对糜子生育后期干物质积累与转运的影响。试验结果表明,整个籽粒灌浆期,与露地条播相比,膜侧穴播、平膜穴播地上干物质的积累量分别增加55.56%、27.88%,籽粒干重分别提高9.25%、24.90%。覆膜能够促进花后营养器官干物质向籽粒中转运,茎干物质对籽粒的贡献率高于叶、鞘,其贡献率高达55.31%~56.08%。覆膜处理对糜子单株粒数、千粒重有明显的促进作用;膜侧穴播、平膜穴播分别比露地条播增产40.52%、51.2%,说明膜侧穴播对糜子干物质积累与转运的促进效果优于平膜穴播,有利于糜子产量的提高。

  7. Land use and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

  8. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  9. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda STEG

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses possible contributions of psychologists to sustainable transportation. It is argued that in order to reach sustainable transportation, among others, behaviour changes of individual car users are needed. As transport policies will be more effective if they target important antecedents of travel behaviour, first, factors influencing such behaviour are discussed. It is argued that car use is very attractive and sometimes even necessary for many different reasons. This implies that a combination of policies is called for, each targeting different factors that support car use and hinder the use of more sustainable modes of transport. Next, the paper elaborates on policy strategies that may be employed to achieve sustainable transportation by changing car use. Increasing the attractiveness of sustainable transport modes by means of pull measures seems not sufficient to reduce the level of car use. Besides, car use should be made less attractive by means of push measures to force drivers to reconsider their travel behaviour. The acceptability of such policies may be increased by clearly communicating the aim of these policies, and the expected positive consequences (e.g., less congestion, improved environmental quality. Moreover, possible negative effects for individual freedom may be compensated by implementing additional policies aimed at facilitating the use of sustainable transport modes.

  10. Namibian women and land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andima, J J

    1994-03-01

    More than 50% of Namibia's 1.5 million inhabitants live in reserved communal areas; most of these are women who make up a third of the country's total population. Women are the main food producers, but access to land, livestock, water, and fuelwood is determined for women by marriage arrangements and settlements. In some parts of the country, women can obtain land in their own right, but they suffer from such subtle discouragements as receiving inferior land or having their stock mysteriously disappear. In some villages, a fee must be paid to a village head upon the allocation of land. This fee guarantees land tenure until the death or eviction of the person who paid the fee. In some areas, only men or widows (and sometimes divorced women) are eligible, and widows must reapply for permission to stay on their husband's land. Women also have a heavy labor burden. Since most of the men migrate to the urban areas for wage employment, the women must tend livestock and harvest and store the grain as well as run their households. Woman also may be evicted from commercial farms if their husbands die. In some areas, all property reverts to a husband's family upon his death, and the wife must return to her own relative. In some tribes, widows must leave their houses empty-handed; their sisters-in-law inherit any stored grain or clothing available. Other tribes are more liberal, and property remains with the widow. In this case, a male relative will be assigned to help the widow manage the property. Reform efforts which attempt to end such abuses by bringing common and customary law in compliance with the Namibian constitution are having an effect. The Women and Law Committee of the Law Reform and the Development Commission is working with the Customary Law Commission to involve traditional leaders in the adaptation of customary law to modern requirements which make discrimination against women unlawful. Until woman have security of land tenure, they are unwilling to invest

  11. Land Use and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    The overall purpose of this training session is to familiarize Central American project cooperators with the remote sensing and image processing research that is being conducted by the NASA research team and to acquaint them with the data products being produced in the areas of Land Cover and Land Use Change and carbon modeling under the NASA SERVIR project. The training session, therefore, will be both informative and practical in nature. Specifically, the course will focus on the physics of remote sensing, various satellite and airborne sensors (Landsat, MODIS, IKONOS, Star-3i), processing techniques, and commercial off the shelf image processing software.

  12. Lunar Polar Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Flahaut, Jessica

    2016-07-01

    An important step for a scientific mission is to assess on where the mission should be conducted. This study on landing site selection focuses on a mission to the poles of the Moon where an in-situ mission should be conducted to answer the questions with respect to volatiles and ices. The European interest for a mission to the poles of the Moon is presented in the mission concept called Heracles. This mission would be a tele-operated, sample return mission where astronauts will controlling a rover from an Orion capsule in cislunar orbit. The primary selection of landing sites was based on the scientific interest of areas near the poles. The maximum temperature map from Diviner was used to select sites where CO^2¬ should always be stable. This means that the maximum temperature is lower than 54K which is the sublimation temperature for CO^2¬ in lunar atmospheric pressure. Around these areas 14 potential regions of interest were selected. Further selection was based on the epoch of the surface in these regions of interest. It was thought that it would be of high scientific value if sites are sampled which have another epoch than already sampled by one of the Apollo or Luna missions. Only 6 sites on both North as South Pole could contain stable CO^2 ¬and were older than (Pre-)Necterian. Before a landing site and rover traverse was planned these six sites were compared on their accessibility of the areas which could contain stable CO^2. It was assumed that slope lower than 20^o is doable to rove. Eventually Amundsen and Rozhdestvenskiy West were selected as regions of interest. Assumptions for selecting landing sites was that area should have a slope lower than 5^o, a diameter of 1km, in partial illuminated area, and should not be isolated but inside an area which is in previous steps marked as accessible area to rove. By using multiple tools in ArcGIS it is possible to present the area's which were marked as potential landing sites. The closest potential landing

  13. Sustainability of land application of class B biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Ian L; Zerzghi, Huruy; Brooks, John P; Gerba, Charles P

    2008-01-01

    Land application of Class B biosolids is routinely undertaken in the United States. However, due to public concern over potential hazards, the long-term sustainability of land application has been questioned. Thus, the objective of this review article was to evaluate the sustainability of land application of Class B biosolids. To do this we evaluated (i) the fate and transport of potential biological and chemical hazards within biosolids, and (ii) the influence of long-term land application on the microbial and chemical properties of the soil. Direct risks to human health posed by pathogens in biosolids have been shown to be low. Risks from indirect exposure such as aerosolized pathogens or microbially contaminated ground water are also low. A long-term land application study showed enhanced microbial activity and no adverse toxicity effects on the soil microbial community. Long-term land application also increased soil macronutrients including C, N, and, in particular, P. In fact, care should be taken to avoid contamination of surface waters with high phosphate soils. Available soil metal concentrations remained low over the 20-yr land application period due to the low metal content of the biosolids and a high soil pH. Soil salinity increases were not detected due to the low salt content of biosolids and irrigation rates in excess of consumptive use rates for cotton. Our conclusion, based on these studies, is that long-term land application of Class B biosolids is sustainable.

  14. Urban land teleconnections and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Karen C; Reenberg, Anette; Boone, Christopher G; Fragkias, Michail; Haase, Dagmar; Langanke, Tobias; Marcotullio, Peter; Munroe, Darla K; Olah, Branislav; Simon, David

    2012-05-15

    This paper introduces urban land teleconnections as a conceptual framework that explicitly links land changes to underlying urbanization dynamics. We illustrate how three key themes that are currently addressed separately in the urban sustainability and land change literatures can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading results when they are not examined jointly: the traditional system of land classification that is based on discrete categories and reinforces the false idea of a rural-urban dichotomy; the spatial quantification of land change that is based on place-based relationships, ignoring the connections between distant places, especially between urban functions and rural land uses; and the implicit assumptions about path dependency and sequential land changes that underlie current conceptualizations of land transitions. We then examine several environmental "grand challenges" and discuss how urban land teleconnections could help research communities frame scientific inquiries. Finally, we point to existing analytical approaches that can be used to advance development and application of the concept.

  15. Sustainable Land Use in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Džatko

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Present land use planning level in Slovakia is resulting from the gradual knowledge evolution from soil survey and land evaluation to the sustainable land resources exploitation modelling. Particular attention is concentrated to the quantification of sustainable land use system parameters in different pedo-ecological conditions. The fundamental basis for the solution of these questions is detailed database not only about soils and land components properties, but about both, real and potential crop yields on representative set of fields, including basic economic soil management data as well. The specific aims of land use efficiency modelling are expressed in the synthesis of both the ecological and economic assessment of soil and land productivity potential. Sustainable land use and farming system models with the economic efficiency calculations are the final results. The set of presented models and maps including economic efficiency calculation enables to apply new concepts of sustainable land use in wider rate as well in agrarian landscape managing.

  16. Land cover change or land-use intensification: simulating land system change with a global-scale land change model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H

    2013-12-01

    Land-use change is both a cause and consequence of many biophysical and socioeconomic changes. The CLUMondo model provides an innovative approach for global land-use change modeling to support integrated assessments. Demands for goods and services are, in the model, supplied by a variety of land systems that are characterized by their land cover mosaic, the agricultural management intensity, and livestock. Land system changes are simulated by the model, driven by regional demand for goods and influenced by local factors that either constrain or promote land system conversion. A characteristic of the new model is the endogenous simulation of intensification of agricultural management versus expansion of arable land, and urban versus rural settlements expansion based on land availability in the neighborhood of the location. Model results for the OECD Environmental Outlook scenario show that allocation of increased agricultural production by either management intensification or area expansion varies both among and within world regions, providing useful insight into the land sparing versus land sharing debate. The land system approach allows the inclusion of different types of demand for goods and services from the land system as a driving factor of land system change. Simulation results are compared to observed changes over the 1970-2000 period and projections of other global and regional land change models.

  17. A meta-analysis of global urban land expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen C Seto

    Full Text Available The conversion of Earth's land surface to urban uses is one of the most irreversible human impacts on the global biosphere. It drives the loss of farmland, affects local climate, fragments habitats, and threatens biodiversity. Here we present a meta-analysis of 326 studies that have used remotely sensed images to map urban land conversion. We report a worldwide observed increase in urban land area of 58,000 km(2 from 1970 to 2000. India, China, and Africa have experienced the highest rates of urban land expansion, and the largest change in total urban extent has occurred in North America. Across all regions and for all three decades, urban land expansion rates are higher than or equal to urban population growth rates, suggesting that urban growth is becoming more expansive than compact. Annual growth in GDP per capita drives approximately half of the observed urban land expansion in China but only moderately affects urban expansion in India and Africa, where urban land expansion is driven more by urban population growth. In high income countries, rates of urban land expansion are slower and increasingly related to GDP growth. However, in North America, population growth contributes more to urban expansion than it does in Europe. Much of the observed variation in urban expansion was not captured by either population, GDP, or other variables in the model. This suggests that contemporary urban expansion is related to a variety of factors difficult to observe comprehensively at the global level, including international capital flows, the informal economy, land use policy, and generalized transport costs. Using the results from the global model, we develop forecasts for new urban land cover using SRES Scenarios. Our results show that by 2030, global urban land cover will increase between 430,000 km(2 and 12,568,000 km(2, with an estimate of 1,527,000 km(2 more likely.

  18. A meta-analysis of global urban land expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Karen C; Fragkias, Michail; Güneralp, Burak; Reilly, Michael K

    2011-01-01

    The conversion of Earth's land surface to urban uses is one of the most irreversible human impacts on the global biosphere. It drives the loss of farmland, affects local climate, fragments habitats, and threatens biodiversity. Here we present a meta-analysis of 326 studies that have used remotely sensed images to map urban land conversion. We report a worldwide observed increase in urban land area of 58,000 km(2) from 1970 to 2000. India, China, and Africa have experienced the highest rates of urban land expansion, and the largest change in total urban extent has occurred in North America. Across all regions and for all three decades, urban land expansion rates are higher than or equal to urban population growth rates, suggesting that urban growth is becoming more expansive than compact. Annual growth in GDP per capita drives approximately half of the observed urban land expansion in China but only moderately affects urban expansion in India and Africa, where urban land expansion is driven more by urban population growth. In high income countries, rates of urban land expansion are slower and increasingly related to GDP growth. However, in North America, population growth contributes more to urban expansion than it does in Europe. Much of the observed variation in urban expansion was not captured by either population, GDP, or other variables in the model. This suggests that contemporary urban expansion is related to a variety of factors difficult to observe comprehensively at the global level, including international capital flows, the informal economy, land use policy, and generalized transport costs. Using the results from the global model, we develop forecasts for new urban land cover using SRES Scenarios. Our results show that by 2030, global urban land cover will increase between 430,000 km(2) and 12,568,000 km(2), with an estimate of 1,527,000 km(2) more likely.

  19. Transport policy and health inequalities: a health impact assessment of Edinburgh's transport policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, D; Douglas, M J; Conway, L; Noble, P; Hanlon, P

    2003-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) can be used to examine the relationships between inequalities and health. This HIA of Edinburgh's transport policy demonstrates how HIA can examine how different transport policies can affect different population groupings to varying degrees. In this case, Edinburgh's economy is based on tourism, financial services and Government bodies. These need a good transport infrastructure, which maintains a vibrant city centre. A transport policy that promotes walking, cycling and public transport supports this and is also good for health. The HIA suggested that greater spend on public transport and supporting sustainable modes of transport was beneficial to health, and offered scope to reduce inequalities. This message was understood by the City Council and influenced the development of the city's transport and land-use strategies. The paper discusses how HIA can influence public policy.

  20. Land use/land cover change geo-informative Tupu of Nujiang River in Northwest Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-liang; Yang, Yue-yuan; Huang, You-ju; Fu, Lei; Rao, Qing

    2008-10-01

    Land Use/Land Cover Change (LUCC) is the core components of global change researches. It is significant for understanding regional ecological environment and LUCC mechanism of large scale to develop the study of LUCC of regional level. Nujiang River is the upper reaches of a big river in the South Asia--Salween River. Nujiang River is a typical mountainous river which is 3200 kilometer long and its basin area is 32.5 × 105 square kilometer. It locates in the core of "Three Parallel Rivers" World Natural Heritage. It is one of international biodiversity conservation center of the world, the ecological fragile zone and key ecological construction area, as well as a remote undeveloped area with high diversity ethnic. With the rapidly development of society and economy, the land use and land cover changed in a great degree. The function of ecosystem has being degraded in some areas which will not only impact on the ecological construction of local area, but also on the ecological safety of lower reaches -- Salween River. Therefore it is necessary to carry out the research of LUCC of Nujiang River. Based on the theory and methods of geo-information Tupu, the "Spatial Pattern" and "Change Process" of land use of middle reach in Nujiang River from 1974 to 2004 had been studied in quantification and integration, so as to provide a case study in local area and mesoscale in time. Supported by the remote sensing and GIS technology, LUCC Tupu of 1974-2004 had been built and the characteristics of LUCC have been analyzed quantificationally. The results showed that the built-up land (Included in this category are cities, towns, villages, strip developments along highways, transportation, power, and communications facilities, and areas such as those occupied by mills, shopping centers, industrial and commercial complexes, and institutions that may, in some instances, be isolated from urban areas), agriculture land, shrubbery land, meadow & grassland, difficultly/unused land

  1. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2......, 4 and 5, respectively. It is not the intention of the book to give a broad review of the literature on this very wide topic. The book tries to pick up information which is of engineering importance. An obstacle to the study of sedimentation is the scale effect in model tests. Whenever small...

  2. Transport Phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a course designed to achieve a balance between exposing students to (1) advanced topics in transport phenomena, pointing out similarities and differences between three transfer processes and (2) common methods of solving differential equations. (JN)

  3. Nicaragua - Transportation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation examines impacts of the Transportation Project in three ways. First, we calculate economic rates of return associated with reduced user costs for each...

  4. Transport service

    CERN Document Server

    C. Cerruti / FI

    2006-01-01

    A large number of pallet-crates (panières grillagées), which are used for transporting equipment and for removals, have been dispatched to various locations around the CERN site. We kindly request all users who may have such crates in their possession and no longer need them to make the necessary arrangements (EDH request to the Transport Group) to return them to Building 133, as we currently have no more in stock. Claude CERRUTI / FI-PI

  5. Understanding Our Environment: Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; Crampton, Janet Wert

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit introduces students to the idea of natural resources and focuses on resources found on land: minerals such as hematite and gypsum; rocks such as granite…

  6. Geodiversity and land form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Murray

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's surface has a dynamic and topographically varied natural landscape. In some cases the resulting landforms are given generic names reflecting their form and/or origin, (e.g. sand dunes, eskers, ox-bow lakes) but in many cases the land surface has a more amorphous form and is less easily categorized other than at a landscape scale (e.g. dissected plateau, Chalk downland). Across much of Europe, while the natural vegetation has been removed or radically modified, the natural land form/topography remains in tact. In this context and in terms of geoconservation we ought to be: • allowing the dynamic natural processes that create, carve and modify landscapes to continue to operate; and • retaining natural topographic character and geomorphological authenticity in the face of human actions seeking to remodel the land surface. In this presentation examples of this approach to geoconservation of land form will be given from the UK and other parts of the world. This will include examples of both appropriate and inappropriate topographic modifications.

  7. Land, Structure & Depreciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Francke; A. van de Minne

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a hedonic price model which enables us to disentangle the value of a residential property into the value of land and the value of structure, while controlling for depreciation and vintage effects. For given reconstruction costs we are able to estimate the impact of physical depreciation

  8. CORINE Land Cover 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael

    "CORINE land cover" er en fælleseuropæisk kortlægning af arealanvendelse/arealdække. Arealanvendelse/arealdække er i Danmark kortlagt efter CORINE metode og klasseopdeling med satellitbilleder fra 3 forskellige tidsperioder, fra begyndelsen af 1990'erne (CLC90), fra år 2000 (CLC2000) og fra år 2006...

  9. Expecting a Soft Landing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Amid the uncertainties of the global economy,China's economic slowdown this year has triggered worries that the country's growth engine is losing steam.Some even anticipate a hard landing.Lu Zhongyuan,Vice President of the Development Research Center of the State Council,dismissed the worries at a recent briefing in Beijing.Edited excerpts of his views follow:

  10. Understanding Our Environment: Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; Crampton, Janet Wert

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit introduces students to the idea of natural resources and focuses on resources found on land: minerals such as hematite and gypsum; rocks such as granite…

  11. CORINE Land Cover 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael

    "CORINE land cover" er en fælleseuropæisk kortlægning af arealanvendelse/arealdække. Arealanvendelse/arealdække er i Danmark kortlagt efter CORINE metode og klasseopdeling med satellitbilleder fra 3 forskellige tidsperioder, fra begyndelsen af 1990'erne (CLC90), fra år 2000 (CLC2000) og fra år 2006...

  12. Air Land Sea Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Air Land Organization, Hurricane Block, Headquarters Air Command, Royal Air Force High Wycombe, Wal- ters Ash, Buckinghamshire, UK. The reset to con...MAJ James Edwards, USA Air LTC Brian Gross, USAF LTC Blake Keil, USA Maj William Harvey , USMC MAJ Jeffrey Hazard, USA Maj Darin Lupini, USAF ALSA

  13. Underpinning Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Further, the paper presents the role of FIG with regard to building the capacity in this area and responding...

  14. Soil features in rookeries of Antarctic penguins reveal sea to land biotransport of chemical pollutants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anna C Santamans; Rafael Boluda; Antonio Picazo; Carlos Gil; Joaquín Ramos-Miras; Pablo Tejedo; Luis R Pertierra; Javier Benayas; Antonio Camacho

    2017-01-01

    ... of pollutants, especially heavy metals, in Antarctic soils, and alters its microbiota. Our results show that penguins do transport certain chemical elements and thus cause accumulation in land areas through their excreta...

  15. Biogas as a fuel source for the transport sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ; and there is an urgent need to develop clean, low-carbon mass transport options that are accessible and affordable A legacy of mining has resulted in mine-dumps, with air-, water- and soil- contamination and degraded land. These lands are unutilised or underutilised...

  16. Public Land Survey System - Sections on USDA Forest Service Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This feature class depicts the boundaries of Land Survey features called sections, defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a...

  17. PRINCIPLE "EARLY MATCHING" AERODYNAMIC DESIGN AIRCRAFT WITH LANDING GEAR HOVERCRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Morozov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of "early matching" aircraft aerohydrodynamic layouts with air cushion landing gear is suggested. Application of this principle is considered as an example of adaptation to the ball screw base circuit of light transport aircraft. The principle, other than weight, aerodynamic, technological and operational requirements includes additional project activities related to the installation of ball screws.

  18. The formalization fix? Land titling and land concessions in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Dwyer, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Issuing land titles to smallholder farmers has long been embraced as a way to promote lending and land markets, but is increasingly being reframed as a way to protect smallholders from irresponsible agricultural investment. This brief examines the case of Cambodia, where over the last decade extensive land titling efforts have occurred alongside a wave of large-scale land concessions. The problem, however, is that titling has failed to live up to the rhetoric of systematic coverage, and has o...

  19. 78 FR 10248 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance AGENCY... be published in the Federal Register 30 days before modifying the land-use assurance that...

  20. 78 FR 73919 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance AGENCY... 30 days before modifying the land-use assurance that requires the property to be used for...

  1. 78 FR 63279 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance AGENCY... before modifying the land-use assurance that requires the property to be used for an aeronautical...

  2. 78 FR 59753 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance AGENCY... land-use assurance that requires the property to be used for an aeronautical purpose. The property...

  3. 78 FR 22595 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance AGENCY... land-use assurance that requires the property to be used for an aeronautical purpose. The subject...

  4. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 971... Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion means the level at which transportation system performance is no longer acceptable due to traffic...

  5. 23 CFR 970.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 970....214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion...) Develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a specific transportation system; and...

  6. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 972... § 972.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion... interference. For those FWS transportation systems that require a CMS, in both metropolitan and...

  7. West Africa Land Use Land Cover Time Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  8. Land concentration and land grabbing in Europe: a preliminary analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der J.D.; Franco, J.; Saturnino, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers three insights. First, the renewed global land rush is indeed global: it occurs in the Global North too. Second, the ongoing trend of (generic) land concentration is just as problematic as land grabbing. Third, political processes involving actors at various sites and levels of t

  9. Oligarchs, megafarms and land reserves: understanding land grabbing in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Visser (Oane); N.V. Mamonova (Natalia); M.N. Spoor (Max)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper seeks to unravel the political economy of large-scale land acquisitions in post-Soviet Russia. Russia falls neither in the normal category of ‘investor’ countries, nor in the category of ‘target’ countries. Russia has large ‘land reserves’, since in the 1990s much fertile land

  10. Simulating feedbacks in land use and land cover change models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the many advances in land use and land cover change modelling over the past decade many challenges remain. One of these challenges relates to the explicit treatment of feedback mechanisms in descriptive models of the land use system. This paper argues for model-based analysis to explore

  11. Shuttle Atlantis Landing at Edwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    NASA's Space Shuttle Atlantis touched down on the lakebed runway at Edwards Air Force Base in California's Mojave Desert Tuesday, 3 December 1985 at 1:33:49 p.m. Pacific Standard Time, concluding the STS 61-B international mission. The eight-day mission successfully deployed three communications satellites including the Mexican Morelos B, the Australian Aussat 2 and an RCA Satcom K-2 satellite. In addition, two spacewalks were performed to experiment with construction of structures in space. Crew of the 61-B mission included Commander Brewster H. Shaw, Jr.; Pilot Bryan D. O'Connor; Mission Specialists Mary L. Cleave, Sherwood C. Spring and Jerry L. Ross; and Payload Specialists Rudolfo Neri Vela of Mexico and Charles Walker of McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories

  12. Global Land Data Assimilation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The goal of the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is to ingest satellite- and ground-based observational data products, using advanced land surface...

  13. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  14. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description...

  15. Optical Landing Hazard Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Visidyne proposes to investigate an active optical 3D imaging LADAR as the sensor for an automated Landing Hazard Avoidance system for spacecraft landing on the Moon...

  16. Protected Areas - Protected Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Federal Lands data consists of land areas that are run and maintained by U.S. Governmental authorities and are considered protected.The Department of Natural...

  17. Benin - Access to Land - Rural

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This evaluation presents evidence from the first large-scale randomized controlled trial of a land formalization program. This study examines the links between land...

  18. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  19. LandLandcov_LCLU2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The National Land Cover Database products are created through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The...

  20. LandLandcov_LULCLCB01

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Circa 2001 land use / land cover (LULC) for the Lake Champlain Basin. The goal in creating this layer was to generate an "improved" version of NLCD 2001 using...

  1. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration/cadastre/land r......There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration....../cadastre/land registration function with topographic mapping. The author seeks to awaken more awareness of global trends in this area, recognising that the systems design involved is always unique....

  2. LandLandcov_IMPERV2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The LandLandcov_IMPERV2001 layer available from VCGI is a subset of the the National Land Cover Database 2001 for mapping zone 65 was produced through a cooperative...

  3. Land, Waste, and Cleanup Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    After reducing waste as much as possible through recycling and sustainability, managing waste protects land quality. EPA is also involved in cleaning up and restoring contaminated land, through brownfield and superfund programs.

  4. LandLandcov_LCLULCB92

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Circa 1992 land use - land cover (LULC) for the Lake Champlain Basin. This layer was created by performing a retrospective change detection on the 2001 LCB LULC...

  5. Spatial data management for sustainable land-use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten

    2006-01-01

    of its policies on multifunctional and sustainable land-use. Access to reliable and harmonised data across Europe is a fundamental precondition for realisation of the SENSOR project. Interoperability and open architectures are core requirements for state of the art implementations of IT solutions......Land is essential for the provision of food, water and energy for many living systems, and is critical to human activity. However, in rapidly growing urban areas, access to land is restricted by the competing demands of housing, industry, commerce, infrastructure, transport, agriculture as well...... as the need for open spaces and green areas, and the protection of sensitive ecosystems. With on average 117.5 people per square kilometre in Europe, it is easy to see why land use planning and management is such an important environmental issue for the EU. SENSOR (http://www.sensor-ip.org/) is funded under...

  6. Land Governance as Grey Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    Weak state capacity has often been in focus when explaining why land reform in sub-Saharan Africa is not implemented. However, an analysis of the deeper politics of land reform brings our attention to a set of incentives which allow rules governing land to be open to interpretation. This article ...

  7. Realization of Aesthetics Values of Land use%土地利用审美价值的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑

    2012-01-01

    基于土地利用美学的视角,分别对耕地、林地、草地、居住用地、商业用地、工业用地、交通用地7种主要的土地利用类型审美价值的实现进行探索,以期为土地利用决策和管理提供美学意义的借鉴.%Based on the perspective of land use aesthetics, the study probed into the realization of aesthetics values of main land use types, including farmland, forest land, grass land, residential land, commercial land, industrial land, transportation land, so as to provide reference for land use decision-making and management.

  8. Puente Öland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skanska Cementgjüteriet, Empresa

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available The Öland bridge spans across the Kalmar strait, reaching from Möllstorpslage, on the island of Öland, to the island of N. Skallö; from here to the island of Svinö and then to Jutnabben, on the Swedish peninsula. It has 155 spans out of which 147 are small spans, two medium and six central, each one of them 130 m, with a total length of 6.070 m. The high arches have been constructed by the system of successive corbels and the low ones with a launching of big beams of reinforced concrete. Foundations on columns or poured on site in pneumatic emptied boxes, depending on the cases and piers of reinforced concrete, constructed by means of sliding formwork. The Construction Firm has been Skanska Cementgjuteriet, on account of the Government Administration.El puente de Öland salva el estrecho de Kalmar, partiendo de Möllstorpslage, en la isla de Öland, hasta la isla de N. Skallö; de aquí a la de Svinö y desde ésta hasta Jutnabben, en la península sueca. Tiene 155 vanos: 147 de luces pequeñas, 2 de luces medianas y 6 centrales, de 130 m cada una, con una longitud total de 6.070 m. Los arcos denominados altos se han realizado por el sistema de voladizos sucesivos, y los bajos, mediante lanzamiento de grandes vigas de hormigón armado. Cimientos sobre pilotes o vertidos in situ, en cajones vaciados neumáticamente, según los casos, y pilas de hormigón armado, construidas con auxilio de encofrados deslizantes. La Empresa constructora ha sido Skanska Cementgjuteriet, por cuenta de la Administración del Estado.

  9. Environmentally sustainable transport in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verron, H.; Friedrich, A. [Federal Environmental Agency, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The study reported in this paper is part of an OECD project with several case studies in different countries. The purpose of the project was to look for possible ways to reduce the environmental impact of transport to a level which is compatible with sustainability. The participants in the case studies agreed upon quantifying criteria for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, which should describe environmentally sustainable transport (EST), and each case study constructed a business-as-usual scenario and three EST scenarios, considering the period from 1990 to 2030. Each EST scenario should meet the criteria in a backcasting effort, EST1 looking for solely technical solutions, EST2 restricting and shifting transport volumes while ignoring technological progress, and EST3 combining components of both strategies. In the German case study criteria were additionally quantified for particulate matter, noise and land-take for transport purposes. The German EST1 scenario is based on hybrid electric hypercars, hydrogen for public transport, freight and aviation, and electricity from renewable sources. In the EST2 scenario total transport activity for passenger and freight transport had to be reduced by 40% and 25% respectively, compared to 1990 in order to meet the criteria. In the EST3 scenario, while highly energy efficient conventional propulsion systems and engines were used, total passenger transport decreased only slightly and freight transport even increased. Implementation measures were then defined on the basis of the EST3 scenario. Emission regulation, fuel tax, and road pricing for heavy duty vehicles were the key features in order to achieve EST in this case study. They were complemented by additional sets of measures, designed to prevent urban sprawl, diminish freight traffic growth, increase liveability of towns, improve the infrastructure and service conditions of alternative modes as well as provide energy supply by regenerative

  10. Land Use and Land Cover - Volusia County Land Use 2000 (Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Land cover and land use in the St. Johns River Water Management District based on 1999 and 2000 color infrared aerial photography. * Data in this layer may change...

  11. The Land Surface Temperature Impact to Land Cover Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, I.; Abu Samah, A.; Fauzi, R.; Noor, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land cover type is an important signature that is usually used to understand the interaction between the ground surfaces with the local temperature. Various land cover types such as high density built up areas, vegetation, bare land and water bodies are areas where heat signature are measured using remote sensing image. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of land surface temperature on land cover types. The objectives are 1) to analyse the mean temperature for each land cover types and 2) to analyse the relationship of temperature variation within land cover types: built up area, green area, forest, water bodies and bare land. The method used in this research was supervised classification for land cover map and mono window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) extraction. The statistical analysis of post hoc Tukey test was used on an image captured on five available images. A pixel-based change detection was applied to the temperature and land cover images. The result of post hoc Tukey test for the images showed that these land cover types: built up-green, built up-forest, built up-water bodies have caused significant difference in the temperature variation. However, built up-bare land did not show significant impact at p<0.05. These findings show that green areas appears to have a lower temperature difference, which is between 2° to 3° Celsius compared to urban areas. The findings also show that the average temperature and the built up percentage has a moderate correlation with R2 = 0.53. The environmental implications of these interactions can provide some insights for future land use planning in the region.

  12. This Land is Your Land: Property rights and land use in Mexico and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Kutzman, Daley Catherine

    2016-01-01

    When 70 percent of the world’s poor are rural with agriculture as their main source of income, the intersection between land rights and land use becomes increasingly important to global poverty reduction. I explore the ways by which dimensions of land rights shape and distort land use away from its optimal allocation. Using a wide range of data, including satellite imagery, censuses, and household surveys, I present empirical evidence that demonstrates the effect of ill-defined and limited pr...

  13. Optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Eckmann, B

    2008-01-01

    At the close of the 1980s, the independent contributions of Yann Brenier, Mike Cullen and John Mather launched a revolution in the venerable field of optimal transport founded by G Monge in the 18th century, which has made breathtaking forays into various other domains of mathematics ever since. The author presents a broad overview of this area.

  14. Transport modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.E. Waltz

    2007-01-01

    @@ There has been remarkable progress during the past decade in understanding and modeling turbulent transport in tokamaks. With some exceptions the progress is derived from the huge increases in computational power and the ability to simulate tokamak turbulence with ever more fundamental and physically realistic dynamical equations, e.g.

  15. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  16. Anomalous transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheverry, Christophe

    2017-02-01

    This article is concerned with the relativistic Vlasov equation, for collisionless axisymmetric plasmas immersed in a strong magnetic field, like in tokamaks. It provides a consistent kinetic treatment of the microscopic particle phase-space dynamics. It shows that the turbulent transport can be completely described through WKB expansions.

  17. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  18. An econometric analysis of changes in arable land utilization using multinomial logit model in Pinggu district, Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yueqing; McNamara, Paul; Wu, Yanfang; Dong, Yue

    2013-10-15

    Arable land in China has been decreasing as a result of rapid population growth and economic development as well as urban expansion, especially in developed regions around cities where quality farmland quickly disappears. This paper analyzed changes in arable land utilization during 1993-2008 in the Pinggu district, Beijing, China, developed a multinomial logit (MNL) model to determine spatial driving factors influencing arable land-use change, and simulated arable land transition probabilities. Land-use maps, as well as social-economic and geographical data were used in the study. The results indicated that arable land decreased significantly between 1993 and 2008. Lost arable land shifted into orchard, forestland, settlement, and transportation land. Significant differences existed for arable land transitions among different landform areas. Slope, elevation, population density, urbanization rate, distance to settlements, and distance to roadways were strong drivers influencing arable land transition to other uses. The MNL model was proved effective for predicting transition probabilities in land use from arable land to other land-use types, thus can be used for scenario analysis to develop land-use policies and land-management measures in this metropolitan area.

  19. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    structures by identifying an ideal and historically neutral LAS model for: servicing the needs of governments, business and the public; utilising the latest technologies; servicing rights, responsibilities, restrictions and risks in relation to land; and delivering much broader information about sustainable......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...... frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management paradigm. This paper assists sharing LAS among countries with diverse legal systems and institutional...

  20. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...... frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management paradigm. This paper assists sharing LAS among countries with diverse legal systems and institutional...... structures by identifying an ideal and historically neutral LAS model for: servicing the needs of governments, business and the public; utilising the latest technologies; servicing rights, responsibilities, restrictions and risks in relation to land; and delivering much broader information about sustainable...

  1. PLUS: 'Planning Land Use with Students' is a Local Land Use Policy That Showcase the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.

    2014-12-01

    Land Use decisions in the local community are well represented in geoscience topics and issues, and provide an excellent opportunity to showcase a wide range of geoscience careers to high school students. In PLUS (Planning Land Use with Students) we work with youth corps, volunteer agencies and the County Departments of Planning, Transportation, Public Health, Water Resources to run a program for high school seniors to engage the students in the complex layers of decision making connected with land use as we showcase geoscience careers (http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/edu/plus/index.html). How development occurs, what resources are in use and who makes these decisions is both interesting and relevant for students. We develop case studies around current, active, local land use issues large enough in scale to have a formal environmental review at the County and/or the State level. Sections of each case study are dedicated to addressing the range of environmental issues that are central to each land use decision. Water, its availability, planned use and treatment on the site, brings in both a review of local hydrology and a discussion of storm water management. Air quality and the impact of the proposed project's density, transportation plans, and commercial and industrial uses brings in air quality issues like air quality ratings, existing pollution, and local air monitoring. A review of the site plans brings in grading plans for the project area, which highlights issues of drainage, soil stability, and exposure to toxins or pollutants depending on the historic use of the site. Brownfield redevelopments are especially challenging with various monitoring, clean up and usage restrictions that are extremely interesting to the students. Students' work with mentors from the community who represent various roles in the planning process including a range of geosciences, community business members and other players in the planning process. This interplay of individuals provides

  2. 25 CFR 170.800 - Who owns IRR transportation facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who owns IRR transportation facilities? 170.800 Section 170.800 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.800 Who owns IRR transportation facilities? Public...

  3. Arid Lands Biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    Dependence on imported petroleum, as well as consequences from burning fossil fuels, has increased the demand for biofuel sources in the United States. Competition between food crops and biofuel crops has been an increasing concern, however, since it has the potential to raise prices for US beef and grain products due to land and resource competition. Biofuel crops that can be grown on land not suitable for food crops are thus attractive, but also need to produce biofuels in a financially sustainable manner. In the intermountain west of Nevada, biofuel crops need to survive on low-organic soils with limited precipitation when grown in areas that are not competing with food and feed. The plants must also yield an oil content sufficiently high to allow economically viable fuel production, including growing and harvesting the crop as well as converting the hydrocarbons into a liquid fuel. Gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa) currently appears to satisfy all of these requirements and is commonly observed throughout the west. The plant favors dry, sandy soils and is most commonly found on roadsides and other freshly disturbed land. A warm season biennial, the gumweed plant is part of the sunflower family and normally grows 2-4 feet high with numerous yellow flowers and curly leaves. The gumweed plant contains a large store of diterpene resins—most abundantly grindelic acid— similar to the saps found on pine trees that are used to make inks and adhesives. The dry weight harvest on the experimental field is 5130 lbs/acre. Whole plant biomass yields between 11-15% (average 13%) biocrude when subjected to acetone extraction whereas the buds alone contains up to a maximum of 35% biocrude when harvested in 'white milky' stage. The extract is then converted to basic form (sodium grindelate) followed by extraction of nonpolar constituents (mostly terpenes) with hexane and extracted back to ethyl acetate in acidified condition. Ethyl acetate is removed under vacuum to leave a dark

  4. Expecting a Soft Landing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Amid the uncertainties of the global economy, China’s e conomic slowdown this year has triggered worries that the country’s growth engine is losing steam. Some even anticipate a hard landing. Lu Zhongyuan, Vice President of the Development Research Center of the State Council, dismissed the worries at a recent briefing in Beijing,saying the slowdown is the result of the government’s macro-control and is still within the normal fluctuation range. Edited excerpts of his views follow:

  5. Atmospheric Pressure During Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This figure shows the variation with time of pressure (dots) measured by the Pathfinder MET instrument during the landing period shown in image PIA00797. The two diamonds indicate the times of bridal cutting and 1st impact. The overall trend in the data is of pressure increasing with time. This is almost certainly due to the lander rolling downhill by roughly 10 m. The spacing of the horizontal dotted lines indicates the pressure change expected from 10 m changes in altitude. Bounces may also be visible in the data.

  6. Consequential life cycle inventory modelling of land use induced by crop consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Jesper Hedal

    -replacement mechanisms are governed by the availability of suitable agricultural land and several economic conditions, such as transport and trade costs. To estimate the land use response to an increase in crop demand, economic modelling can be used. In this project, the economic equilibrium model GTAP (Global Trade......The purpose of the present PhD project was to identify the mechanisms governing global land use consequences of increased crop demand in a given location and, based on this conceptual analysis, to present and demonstrate a method proposal for construction of land use data that can be used in life...

  7. Pollen transport in the Shiyang River drainage, arid China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; XIE Yaowen; CHENG Bo; CHEN Fahu; ZHANG Jiawu

    2003-01-01

    In order to assess the contribution of the pollen transported by wind and fluvial flows to the pollen spectra in Shiyang River drainage, a typical small endorheic drainage in arid lands of northwest China, preliminary studies on modern pollen rain along two transects with 91 surface soil samples, 8 atmospheric samples, 30 modern fluvial flow samples and 50 riverbed mud samples, were carried out. Results show that dispersal agents (air, flowing water) have dissimilareffects on transport of pollen and the structure of pollen spectra. Fluvial flow has a stronger capacity than wind to transport large quantities of pollen overlong distances. Pollen transported by fluvial flow makes a large contribution to the pollen spectra of riverbed alluvial sediments. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions undertaken using pollen spectra from fluvial sediments in arid lands arestrongly influenced by pollen transport. Therefore, the sources, the transportation agents and the depositional condition of pollen should be systematically investigated before pollen assemblages are used to derive the environmental significance in such settings.

  8. Copper transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N

    1998-05-01

    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats.

  9. Future fire emissions associated with projected land use change in Sumatra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, Miriam E; DeFries, Ruth; Pennington, Derric; Nelson, Erik; Ordway, Elsa M; Lewis, Jeremy; Koplitz, Shannon N; Mickley, Loretta J

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia has experienced rapid land use change over the last few decades as forests and peatswamps have been cleared for more intensively managed land uses, including oil palm and timber plantations. Fires are the predominant method of clearing and managing land for more intensive uses, and the related emissions affect public health by contributing to regional particulate matter and ozone concentrations and adding to global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Here, we examine emissions from fires associated with land use clearing and land management on the Indonesian island of Sumatra and the sensitivity of this fire activity to interannual meteorological variability. We find ~80% of 2005-2009 Sumatra emissions are associated with degradation or land use maintenance instead of immediate land use conversion, especially in dry years. We estimate Sumatra fire emissions from land use change and maintenance for the next two decades with five scenarios of land use change, the Global Fire Emissions Database Version 3, detailed 1-km2 land use change maps, and MODIS fire radiative power observations. Despite comprising only 16% of the original study area, we predict that 37-48% of future Sumatra emissions from land use change will occur in fuel-rich peatswamps unless this land cover type is protected effectively. This result means that the impact of fires on future air quality and climate in Equatorial Asia will be decided in part by the conservation status given to the remaining peatswamps on Sumatra. Results from this article will be implemented in an atmospheric transport model to quantify the public health impacts from the transport of fire emissions associated with future land use scenarios in Sumatra. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Act No. 88-1091 modifying Act No. 66-420 of 18 June 1966 on chartering and maritime transport contracts, 1 December 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This Law provides that international transportation carriers may refuse the boarding or landing of a passenger who does not present a document authorizing landing at the point of arrival and at anticipated ports in France. full text

  11. Study of no-man's land physics in the total-f gyrokinetic code XGC1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Seung Hoe; Chang, C. S.; Lang, J.

    2014-10-01

    While the ``transport shortfall'' in the ``no-man's land'' has been observed often in delta-f codes, it has not yet been observed in the global total-f gyrokinetic particle code XGC1. Since understanding the interaction between the edge and core transport appears to be a critical element in the prediction for ITER performance, understanding the no-man's land issue is an important physics research topic. Simulation results using the Holland case will be presented and the physics causing the shortfall phenomenon will be discussed. Nonlinear nonlocal interaction of turbulence, secondary flows, and transport appears to be the key.

  12. Capacity Building in Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...... building in land management is not only a question of establishing a sufficient technological level or sufficient economic resources. It is mainly a question of understanding the interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral nature of land administration systems, and understanding the need for human resource...... development in this area. Furthermore, capacity building should ensure that the focus is on building sound institutions and governance rather than just high-level IT-infrastructures.    This overall approach to capacity building in land management is used for implementing a new land policy reform in Malawi...

  13. Finite land resources and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberl, Helmut; Mbow, Cheikh; Deng, Xiangzheng

    2014-01-01

    Rising demand for land-based products (food, feed, fi ber, and bioenergy) as well as conservation of forests and carbon sinks create increasing competition for land. Landuse competition has many drivers, takes different forms, and can have many significant implications for ecosystems as well as s...... and energy systems, “ land architecture” (i.e., the significance of spatial confi gurations), and multiscale models to assess local-global connections and impacts.......Rising demand for land-based products (food, feed, fi ber, and bioenergy) as well as conservation of forests and carbon sinks create increasing competition for land. Landuse competition has many drivers, takes different forms, and can have many significant implications for ecosystems as well...... as societal well-being. This chapter discusses several emerging issues, including the effect of increased demand for nonprovisioning ecosystem services ( biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration), urbanization, bioenergy, and teleconnections. Three major types of land-use competition are discerned...

  14. Land cover change impacts on surface ozone: an observation-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Lin, Jintai

    2016-04-01

    Ozone air quality is a critical global environmental issue. Although it is clear that industrialization and urbanization has increased surface ozone through enhanced emissions of its precursors, much less is known about the role of changes in land cover and land use. Human activities have substantially altered the global land cover and land use through agriculture, urbanization, deforestation, and afforestation. Changes in Land cover and land use affect the ozone levels by altering soil emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and dry deposition of ozone itself. This study performs a series of experiments with a chemical transport model based on satellite observation of land types to analyze the influences of changes in land cover/land use and their impact on surface ozone concentration. Our results indicate that land cover change explains 1-2 ppbv of summertime surface ozone increase in the Western United States and 1-6 ppbv of increase in Southern China between 2001 and 2012. This is largely driven by enhanced isoprene emissions and soil NOx emissions. It is also found that land cover change itself elevates summertime surface zone in Canadian coniferous forests by up to 4 ppbv mainly through substantial decreases in ozone dry deposition associated with increased vegetation density in a warmer climate.

  15. Analysis on mechanism of land resource security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper probes into the relationship among individual benefits, benefits of the country, common benefits of all humans in land use and land resource security. The following balanced land use model is proposed: the harmonious and interactive relationship between man and nature, two main bodies of land ecological system, constitutes the mechanism of land resources security. The feedback relationship between man and nature is the basis for the land resources security and the core is the relationship among people established for the benefit equilibrium in land use. The conflicts, in land use stem from the rarity of land resource and the solution to those conflicts in harmony helps land resource security.

  16. Biogeochemical Cycles in Degraded Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; ReisdeCarvalho, Claudio Jose; DeanedeAbreuSa, Tatiana; deSouzaMoutinho, Paulo R.; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.; Stone, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to define and describe the types of landscapes that fall under the broad category of "degraded lands" and to study biogeochemical cycles across this range of degradation found in secondary forests. We define degraded land as that which has lost part of its capacity of renovation of a productive ecosystem, either in the context of agroecosystems or as native communities of vegetation. This definition of degradation permits evaluation of biogeochemical constraints to future land uses.

  17. Biofuels, land, and water: a systems approach to sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Gayathri; Negri, M Cristina; Wang, Michael; Wu, May; Snyder, Seth W; Lafreniere, Lorraine

    2009-08-01

    There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the sustainability of biofuels, especially because of the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Sustainability will be a strong factor in the regulatory environment and investments in biofuels. Biomass feedstock production is an important contributor to environmental, social, and economic impacts from biofuels. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy, and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and environmental liabilities are used as recoverable resources for biomass feedstock production. We focus on efficient use of land and water resources. We conducted a spatial analysis evaluating marginal land and degraded water resources to improve feedstock productivity with concomitant environmental restoration for the state of Nebraska. Results indicate that utilizing marginal land resources such as riparian and roadway buffer strips, brownfield sites, and marginal agricultural land could produce enough feedstocks to meet a maximum of 22% of the energy requirements of the state compared to the current supply of 2%. Degraded water resources such as nitrate-contaminated groundwater and wastewater were evaluated as sources of nutrients and water to improve feedstock productivity. Spatial overlap between degraded water and marginal land resources was found to be as high as 96% and could maintain sustainable feedstock production on marginal lands. Other benefits of implementing this strategy include feedstock intensification to decrease biomass transportation costs, restoration of contaminated water resources, and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  19. Land of Bicycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangHua; LuRucai

    2004-01-01

    There are currently more than 500 million cyclists in China,10million of them in Bejing.Despite efficient bus networks,legions of taxis and surging private car ownership,the bicycle remains a firm fixture in Chinese daily life.But it is much more than just a means of transport to cyclists today,who demand a afr greater chioce of design and function than ever before.

  20. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  1. LDAS Land Data Assimilation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Mocko, David; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato

    2014-01-01

    The land-surface component of the hydrological cycle is fundamental to the overall functioning of the atmospheric and climate processes. The characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of water and energy cycles is critical to improve our understanding of the land-surface-atmosphere interaction and the impact of land-surface processes on climate extremes. Because the accurate knowledge of these processes and their variability is important for climate predictions, most Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) centers have incorporated land-surface schemes in their models. However, errors in the NWP forcing accumulate in the surface and energy stores, leading to incorrect surface water and energy partitioning and related processes.

  2. Urban land teleconnections and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Karen C.; Reenberg, Anette; Boone, Christopher G.; Fragkias, Michail; Haase, Dagmar; Langanke, Tobias; Marcotullio, Peter; Munroe, Darla K.; Olah, Branislav; Simon, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces urban land teleconnections as a conceptual framework that explicitly links land changes to underlying urbanization dynamics. We illustrate how three key themes that are currently addressed separately in the urban sustainability and land change literatures can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading results when they are not examined jointly: the traditional system of land classification that is based on discrete categories and reinforces the false idea of a rural–urban dichotomy; the spatial quantification of land change that is based on place-based relationships, ignoring the connections between distant places, especially between urban functions and rural land uses; and the implicit assumptions about path dependency and sequential land changes that underlie current conceptualizations of land transitions. We then examine several environmental “grand challenges” and discuss how urban land teleconnections could help research communities frame scientific inquiries. Finally, we point to existing analytical approaches that can be used to advance development and application of the concept. PMID:22550174

  3. Capacity Building in Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...... development in this area. Furthermore, capacity building should ensure that the focus is on building sound institutions and governance rather than just high-level IT-infrastructures.    This overall approach to capacity building in land management is used for implementing a new land policy reform in Malawi...

  4. Protecting women's rights to land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoko, J

    2000-07-01

    This article examines the efficacy of the 1998 Land Act in protecting women's right to land in Uganda. The Land Act introduced individual ownership to encourage a more productive use of land, based on the principles of economic liberalization. It converted customary ownership through the creation of written deeds. Traditionally, women's land use was protected under customary law, in which elders assumed the role of protectors, however, the passage of the Land Act changed this. It did not recognize the role of elders as protectors. To this effect, men automatically assumed that role because of the presumption that women did not own the land making them individual owners of the land. Therefore, because of the law's limitations, women have lost ownership, and are more disadvantaged by the higher incidences of divorce and the fact that wives rarely inherit. It is for this reason that the Oxfam worked with the Uganda Land Alliance to lobby the government to ensure that the Act protected women's right as much as possible.

  5. Aerosol Transport Over Equatorial Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kinyua, A. M.; Piketh, S.; King, M.; Helas, G.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range and inter-hemispheric transport of atmospheric aerosols over equatorial Africa has received little attention so far. Most aerosol studies in the region have focussed on emissions from rain forest and savanna (both natural and biomass burning) and were carried out in the framework of programs such as DECAFE (Dynamique et Chimie Atmospherique en Foret Equatoriale) and FOS (Fires of Savanna). Considering the importance of this topic, aerosols samples were measured in different seasons at 4420 meters on Mt Kenya and on the equator. The study is based on continuous aerosol sampling on a two stage (fine and coarse) streaker sampler and elemental analysis by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Continuous samples were collected for two seasons coinciding with late austral winter and early austral spring of 1997 and austral summer of 1998. Source area identification is by trajectory analysis and sources types by statistical techniques. Major meridional transports of material are observed with fine-fraction silicon (31 to 68 %) in aeolian dust and anthropogenic sulfur (9 to 18 %) being the major constituents of the total aerosol loading for the two seasons. Marine aerosol chlorine (4 to 6 %), potassium (3 to 5 %) and iron (1 to 2 %) make up the important components of the total material transport over Kenya. Minimum sulfur fluxes are associated with recirculation of sulfur-free air over equatorial Africa, while maximum sulfur concentrations are observed following passage over the industrial heartland of South Africa or transport over the Zambian/Congo Copperbelt. Chlorine is advected from the ocean and is accompanied by aeolian dust recirculating back to land from mid-oceanic regions. Biomass burning products are transported from the horn of Africa. Mineral dust from the Sahara is transported towards the Far East and then transported back within equatorial easterlies to Mt Kenya. This was observed during austral summer and coincided with the dying phase of 1997/98 El

  6. 49 CFR 1572.203 - Transportation of explosives from Canada to the United States via railroad carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY CREDENTIALING AND SECURITY THREAT ASSESSMENTS Transportation of... crew member who is not a U.S. citizen or lawful permanent resident alien of the United States....

  7. Land tenure security and land investments in Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma Xian lei, Xianlei; Heerink, N.; Ierland, van E.C.; Berg, van den M.; Shi, X.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of perceived land tenure security in China on farmers' decisions to invest in relatively long-term land quality improvement measures, taking into account the potential endogeneity of tenure security. Design/methodology/approach – Data from

  8. 1997 Land Cover/Land Use Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The land cover/land use database was developed from color infrared aerial photography flown on August 26, 1997 at a scale of 1:15,840. Photographs were flown with...

  9. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amount must be charged to the appropriate tax account. (c) The net profit from the sale of timber, cord wood, sand, gravel, other resources or other property acquired with the rights-of-way or other lands... considerable period of time and timber and other natural resources on the land at the time of...

  10. Land degradation, monitoring, and adapting land management for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land degradation impacts on agricultural production and other ecosystem services often far exceed those of climate change, yet these impacts are largely ignored. In September, the United Nations adopted a “land degradation neutrality” target as part of its Sustainable Development Agenda. This paper ...

  11. The land-cover cascade: relationships coupling land and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.L. Burcher; H.M. Valett; E.F. Benfield

    2007-01-01

    We introduce the land-cover cascade (LCC) as a conceptual framework to quantify the transfer of land-cover-disturbance effects to stream biota. We hypothesize that disturbance is propagated through multivariate systems through key variables that transform a disturbance and pass a reorganized disturbance effect to the next hierarchical level where the process repeats...

  12. Impact of Land Tenure Change on Land Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LITiehua; XIANGWenhua; XUGuozhen; ZENGGuangzheng

    2005-01-01

    In order to understand the impact of land tenure change on the land use after the Responsibility System was carried out after the 3rd Plenary Session of the 11 th CPC Central Committee, 147 households in 6 villages, belonging Xiangtan County and Zhuzhou County in Hunan Province, were selected as research samples, and the methods of interviewing and questionnaire surveying and secondary data analyzing were used. The results show that after having got the tenure of paddies, the farmers could determine the management projects according to the market demands, which caused the diversity of cultivated crop species and improved the efficient of land use. For the forestland, after having gotten the tenure of forestland, the farmers could adjust the structure of forest types and managed bamboo and orchards to get more earnings or they gave up managing forests and changed them into other projects. But that made the stability of agricultural ecological system unsteady because the forests were damaged seriously. After the tenure of land was separated from the ownership of land, the farmers who had the tenure of land could deal with the tenure of land according to laws and policies, and that caused the tenure of land to be rented-in and rented-out.

  13. Hydrological land surface modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridler, Marc-Etienne Francois

    to imperfect model forecasts. It remains a crucial challenge to account for system uncertainty, so as to provide model outputs accompanied by a quantified confidence interval. Properly characterizing and reducing uncertainty opens-up the opportunity for risk-based decision-making and more effective emergency...... and disaster management. The objective of this study is to develop and investigate methods to reduce hydrological model uncertainty by using supplementary data sources. The data is used either for model calibration or for model updating using data assimilation. Satellite estimates of soil moisture and surface...... temperature are explored in a multi-objective calibration experiment to optimize the parameters in a SVAT model in the Sahel. The two satellite derived variables were effective at constraining most land-surface and soil parameters. A data assimilation framework is developed and implemented with an integrated...

  14. Orion Crew Member Injury Predictions during Land and Water Landings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Charles; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Tabiei, Ala

    2008-01-01

    A review of astronaut whole body impact tolerance is discussed for land or water landings of the next generation manned space capsule named Orion. LS-DYNA simulations of Orion capsule landings are performed to produce a low, moderate, and high probability of injury. The paper evaluates finite element (FE) seat and occupant simulations for assessing injury risk for the Orion crew and compares these simulations to whole body injury models commonly referred to as the Brinkley criteria. The FE seat and crash dummy models allow for varying the occupant restraint systems, cushion materials, side constraints, flailing of limbs, and detailed seat/occupant interactions to minimize landing injuries to the crew. The FE crash test dummies used in conjunction with the Brinkley criteria provides a useful set of tools for predicting potential crew injuries during vehicle landings.

  15. Mobile Transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis, STS-110 mission, deployed this railcar, called the Mobile Transporter, and an initial 43-foot section of track, the S0 (S-zero) truss, preparing the International Space Station (ISS) for future spacewalks. The first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The 27,000-pound S0 truss is the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002. STS-110's Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station.

  16. Land Grabbing and the Commodification of Agricultural Land in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; Rulli, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing global demand for farmland products is placing unprecedented pressure on the global agricultural system. The increasing demand can be met through either the intensification or the expansion of agricultural production at the expenses of other ecosystems. The ongoing escalation of large scale land acquisitions in the developing world may contribute to both of these two processes. Investments in agriculture have become a priority for a number of governments and corporations that are trying to expand their agricultural production while securing good profits. It is unclear however to what extent these investments are driving the intensification or the expansion of agriculture. In the last decade large scale land acquisitions by external investors have increased at unprecedented rates. This global land rush was likely enhanced by recent food crises, when prices skyrocketed in response to crop failure, new bioenergy policies, and the increasing demand for agricultural products by a growing and increasingly affluent human population. Corporations recognized the potential for high return investments in agricultural land, while governments started to enhance their food security by purchasing large tracts of land in foreign countries. It has been estimated that, to date, about 35.6 million ha of cropland - more than twice the agricultural land of Germany - have been acquired by foreign investors worldwide. As an effect of these land deals the local communities lose legal access to the land and its products. Here we investigate the effect of large scale land acquisition on agricultural intensification or expansion in African countries. We discuss the extent to which these investments in agriculture may increase crop production and stress how this phenomenon can greatly affect the local communities, their food security, economic stability and the long term resilience of their livelihoods, regardless of whether the transfer of property rights is the result of an

  17. Hydrologic modeling of pathogen fate and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, Sarah M; Anderson, William B; Slawson, Robin M; Kouwen, Nicholas; Huck, Peter M

    2006-08-01

    A watershed-scale fate and transport model has been developed for Escherichia coli and several waterborne pathogens: Cryptosporidiumspp., Giardiaspp., Campylobacter spp, and E. coli O157:H7. The objectives were to determine the primary sources of pathogenic contamination in a watershed used for drinking water supply and to gain a greater understanding of the factors that most influence their survival and transport. To predict the levels of indicator bacteria and pathogens in surface water, an existing hydrologic model, WATFLOOD, was augmented for pathogen transport and tested on a watershed in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. The pathogen model considered transport as a result of overland flow, subsurface flow to tile drainage systems, and in-stream routing. The model predicted that most microorganisms entering the stream from land-based sources enter the stream from tile drainage systems rather than overland transport. Although the model predicted overland transport to be rare, when it occurred, it corresponded to the highest observed and modeled microbial concentrations. Furthermore, rapid increases in measured E. coli concentrations during storm events suggested that the resuspension of microorganisms from stream sediments may be of equal or greater importance than land-based sources of pathogens.

  18. Spatial assessment of land surface temperature and land use/land cover in Langkawi Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Suzana Binti; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Salihu Lay, Usman; Abdullahi, Saleh

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the relationship between Land Surface Temperature and Land Use/Land Cover in Langkawi Island by using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Build-Up Index (NDBI) and Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) qualitatively by using Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 (OLI/TIRS) over the period 2002 and 2015. Pixel-based classifiers Maximum Likelihood (MLC) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), has been performed to prepare the Land Use/ Land Cover map (LU/LC) and the result shows that Support Vector Machine (SVM) achieved maximum accuracy with 90% and 90.46% compared to Maximum Likelihood (MLC) classifier with 86.62% and 86.98% respectively. The result revealed that as the impervious surface (built-up /roads) increases, the surface temperature of the area increased. However, land surface temperature decreased in the vegetated areas. Based from the linear regression between LST and NDVI, NDBI and MNDWI, these indices can be used as an indicator to monitor the impact of Land Use/Land Cover on Land Surface Temperature.

  19. LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Tilp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (χ²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

  20. Land Paddling: Making Fitness Fun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretzing, Robyn; Barney, David

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that secondary physical education (6-12) is full of team sport activities (football, basketball, volleyball, etc.). These activities are not bad, yet secondary-age students want a greater variety of activities to participate in. One activity that secondary physical educators can implement is Land paddling. Land paddling is…

  1. The emerging land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    for comprehensive information about environmental conditions in combination with other land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction. Finally, the paper...

  2. Global land and water grabbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; Saviori, Antonio; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-15

    Societal pressure on the global land and freshwater resources is increasing as a result of the rising food demand by the growing human population, dietary changes, and the enhancement of biofuel production induced by the rising oil prices and recent changes in United States and European Union bioethanol policies. Many countries and corporations have started to acquire relatively inexpensive and productive agricultural land located in foreign countries, as evidenced by the dramatic increase in the number of transnational land deals between 2005 and 2009. Often known as "land grabbing," this phenomenon is associated with an appropriation of freshwater resources that has never been assessed before. Here we gather land-grabbing data from multiple sources and use a hydrological model to determine the associated rates of freshwater grabbing. We find that land and water grabbing are occurring at alarming rates in all continents except Antarctica. The per capita volume of grabbed water often exceeds the water requirements for a balanced diet and would be sufficient to improve food security and abate malnourishment in the grabbed countries. It is found that about 0.31 × 10(12) m(3) · y(-1) of green water (i.e., rainwater) and up to 0.14 × 10(12) m(3) · y(-1) of blue water (i.e., irrigation water) are appropriated globally for crop and livestock production in 47 × 10(6) ha of grabbed land worldwide (i.e., in 90% of the reported global grabbed land).

  3. Air Quality and Land Use in Urban Region of Petaling Jaya, Shah Alam and Klang, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Ling Hoon Leh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the global trend of urbanisation, large population are staying in urban areas as compared to rural. However, urban area /region is always related to higher air pollution level as compared to less developed area/region. The major contributors of air pollution are mobile sources (transportation and stationary sources (e.g. industry and power plant. Thus, the issue of air pollution is potentially caused by human choices and activities, and potentially affecting the human health. Therefore, the relationship between the urban activities (land use coverage/distribution and air quality level should be well understood. It helps the urban managers, planners and all parties in constructing healthier urban policies. A study of air quality and the relationship with urban land uses was carried out in Malaysia�s urban growth region of Klang-Shah Alam-Petaling Jaya. Air quality data was analysed in Air Pollution Index (API with the classification of good, moderate, unhealthy, very unhealthy and hazardous levels. The urban land uses were mainly divided into two categories, i.e. pollution-prone land uses (transportation, industrial, and infrastructure, and green land uses. This study found that urban area with higher coverage of transportation, industrial and infrastructure land uses are potentially unhealthier in term of the air quality than the area with less coverage of these land uses. Strategic proposal was discussed in line with the findings.

  4. 30 years of experience in safe transportation of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, K. [Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    In April 2003, Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd. (NFT) marked the 30{sup th} anniversary of its founding. NFT was established in 1973 and in 1978, commenced SF transport to the reprocessing plant in Tokai-mura. And then, after making preparations to transport nuclear materials to the various facilities at the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Center in Rokkasho-mura, NFT successfully started transportation of LLW (low level waste) to Rokksho-mura's LLW disposal center in 1992, domestic land transportation of HLW returned from overseas to the HLW storage center in 1995, domestic land transportation of natural hexafluoride delivered from overseas to the uranium enrichment plant in 1996, and transportation of SF to the reprocessing plant in 2000. NFT has realized an annual SF transportation capacity of 300 MTU and is currently making great company wide efforts to meet the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant's future SF annual reprocessing capacity of 800MTU. At the end of FY2003, NFT had successfully transported 560 casks (about 1,730 MTU) of SF in more than 200 voyages in total, about 160,000 drums of LLW in around 100 voyages in total. This paper introduces the record of safe transport and its experience over the past 30 years and prospect for future transport business.

  5. Carbon cycling along the land to ocean continuum (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciais, P.; Regnier, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Mackenzie, F. T.; Gruber, N.; Raymond, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    A fraction of atmospheric CO2 taken up on land through photosynthesis and chemical weathering is transported laterally from upland terrestrial ecosystems into the ocean. Global carbon budget estimates have assumed that the lateral transport and sources / sinks along this aquatic continuum have remained unchanged. Based upon the recent review of Regnier et al., the main flux components of carbon fluxes along the land to ocean continuum will be presented, together with more recent estimates of CO2 outgassing fluxes from rivers and lakes. The potential origin of carbon delivered to rivers will be discussed, as well as missing components in the system such as wetlands and flooded regions. How these processes could be incorporated in Earth System Models will be presented.

  6. New Frontiers of Land Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee Peluso, Nancy; Lund, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Land questions have invigorated agrarian studies and economic history, with particular emphases on its control, since Marx. Words such as ‘exclusion’, ‘alienation’, ‘expropriation’, ‘dispossession’, and ‘violence’ describe processes that animate land histories and those of resources, property...... rights, and territories created, extracted, produced, or protected on land. Primitive and on-going forms of accumulation, frontiers, enclosures, territories, grabs, and racializations have all been associated with mechanisms for land control. Agrarian environments have been transformed by processes of de......-agrarianization, protected area establishment, urbanization, migration, land reform, resettlement, and re-peasantization. Even the classic agrarian question of how agriculture is influenced by capitalism has been reformulated multiple times at transformative conjunctures in the historical trajectories of these processes...

  7. Synthesis in land change science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Rudel, Thomas K.; Verburg, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Global and regional economic and environmental changes are increasingly influencing local land-use, livelihoods, and ecosystems. At the same time, cumulative local land changes are driving global and regional changes in biodiversity and the environment. To understand the causes and consequences...... of these changes, land change science (LCS) draws on a wide array synthetic and meta-study techniques to generate global and regional knowledge from local case studies of land change. Here, we review the characteristics and applications of synthesis methods in LCS and assess the current state of synthetic research...... based on a meta-analysis of synthesis studies from 1995 to 2012. Publication of synthesis research is accelerating, with a clear trend toward increasingly sophisticated and quantitative methods, including meta-analysis. Detailed trends in synthesis objectives, methods, and land change phenomena...

  8. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I

    2004-01-01

    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....

  9. The National Land Cover Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  10. A domain model for land administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, C.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    75% or the “people to land relationships” worldwide are not documented. This concerns about 4.5 billion cases. With a growing population this situation results in land disputes, land grabbing and neglecting of rights of local people. Land Administration provides documentation on people to land relat

  11. Land use in the karstic lands in the Mediterranean region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalay Ibrahim

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Karstic lands have special importance in terms of soil formation and land-use. Soil appears only on the flat and slightly undulating karstic lands, while soils are found along the cracks and bedding surfaces between the layers on the hilly karst areas although these lands are rocky in appearance. Karstic lands in the hilly area are not conducive to cultivation. But rocky areas create a favourable habitat for the growth of forests except in an arid climate. Because the tree roots easily follow and develop along the cracks in the limestone. As a general rule soil erosion does not occur on sub-horizontal karst surfaces due to the fact that atmospheric waters easily infiltrate along the cracks. Natural generation of vegetation like the maquis-type occurs via the root suckers, but coniferous trees such as cedar, fir, pine through seed dispersal. The clearance of natural vegetation on the karstic lands leads to the formation of bare lands. That is why the slopes of the limestone hillsides have been converted into bare and/or rocky terrains in places where natural vegetation has been completely destroyed.

  12. Understanding Decreases in Land Relative Humidity with Global Warming: Conceptual Model and GCM Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael P.; O'Gorman, Paul A.

    2016-12-01

    Climate models simulate a strong land-ocean contrast in the response of near-surface relative humidity to global warming: relative humidity tends to increase slightly over oceans but decrease substantially over land. Surface energy balance arguments have been used to understand the response over ocean but are difficult to apply over more complex land surfaces. Here, a conceptual box model is introduced, involving moisture transport between the land and ocean boundary layers and evapotranspiration, to investigate the decreases in land relative humidity as the climate warms. The box model is applied to idealized and full-complexity (CMIP5) general circulation model simulations, and it is found to capture many of the features of the simulated changes in land relative humidity. The box model suggests there is a strong link between fractional changes in specific humidity over land and ocean, and the greater warming over land than ocean then implies a decrease in land relative humidity. Evapotranspiration is of secondary importance for the increase in specific humidity over land, but it matters more for the decrease in relative humidity. Further analysis shows there is a strong feedback between changes in surface-air temperature and relative humidity, and this can amplify the influence on relative humidity of factors such as stomatal conductance and soil moisture.

  13. A path analysis of the cultivated land change in Hubei Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hubei Province is one of the critical grain production regions in China with the quantitative cultivated land and good natural condition; it plays an important role in grain security in China. However, owing to rapid economic growth, population pressures, anthropogenic activities, and natural disasters, the quality of the cultivated land has significantly decreased in recent years and environmental resources are under increasing stress. In order to research on the mechanism of the change of the cultivated land, this paper analyzes qualitatively the influencing factors of the cultivated land change in Hubei Province from 1978 to 2004, and distinguishes the direct factors from indirect influent ones by means of the approach of the path analysis. The result shows that the area of the rent land in the total nonagricultural land, the total population growth and the fixed asset investment are the main factors deciding the change of the cultivated land. Meanwhile, the density of the transportation network, the proportion of per capita income of rural citizens to that of urban citizens, non-agricultural gross domestic production's share of the total GDP has a less direct effect but a more indirect influence on the decrease of the cultivated land in Hubei Province. The result means that while some factors have less direct influence on the change of the cultivated land, its indirect influence are significant, wce versa. Thus it's necessary to adopt a comprehensive measurement to protect the cultivated land.

  14. Impacts of Current and Previous Land Use on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes for Biofuel Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grosso, S.; Parton, W.; Adler, P.; Ogle, S.; West, T.

    2008-12-01

    Biofuel cropping systems are both a source and sink of greenhouse gases (GHG). Fertilizer and pesticide manufacture and transport, farm machinery operation, and processing of biomass into fuel all lead to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but the largest GHG sources for biofuel systems are often soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and loss of organic carbon as a result of land use change. However, improved land management can increase soil carbon levels and decrease N2O emissions, thus complementing the CO2 sink from displaced fossil fuel combustion. Previously cropped land, grazed land, and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land is being converted to biofuel cropping. We report results for the central US because most of the land used for biofuel cropping is in the central region of the country (corn/soy belt). The primary tool for this analysis is the DAYCENT ecosystem model. The ability of the model to simulate soil GHG fluxes and crop yields is demonstrated and results from simulations of different land management scenarios are presented. Our analyses suggest that conversion of CRP or grazed land to corn ethanol cropping under conventional management leads to a net source of GHG, but that converting these lands to perennial cellulosic biofuel cropping results in a GHG sink. Previously cropped land converted to corn ethanol under conventional management is a small GHG sink, but improved management and conversion to cellulosic based crops can greatly increase this sink strength.

  15. THEORY AND PRACTICE OF DEGRADED LAND UTILIZATION AS FODDER LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Voloshuk

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider theoretical and practical prospects of creating biofitocenozes on degraded lands. The problems of soil erosion in Ukraine are discussed. The division of lands into 5 groups is given in view of a degree eroded of a soil cover, exposing by their erosion, the parameters of a relief, etc. Show prospect of creation biofitocenozes on these lands, to select the greatest productive grass associations. The technological operations before crop and entering of various dozes of organic and mineral fertilizers are specified.

  16. Soil physical land degradation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    According to the European Soil Framework Directive (2006) soil compaction is besides water and wind erosion one of the main physical reasons and threats of soil degradation. It is estimated, that 32% of the subsoils in Europe are highly degraded and 18% moderately vulnerable to compaction. The problem is not limited to crop land or forest areas (especially because of non-site adjusted harvesting machines) but is also prevalent in rangelands and grassland, and even in so called natural non-disturbed systems. The main reasons for an intense increase in compacted agricultural or forested regions are the still increasing masses of the machines as well the increased frequency of wheeling under non favorable site conditions. Shear and vibration induced soil deformation enhances the deterioration of soil properties especially if the soil water content is very high and the internal soil strength very low. The same is true for animal trampling in combination with overgrazing of moist to wet pastures which subsequently causes a denser (i.e. reduced proportion of coarse pores with smaller continuity) but still structured soil horizons and will finally end in a compacted platy structure. In combination with high water content and shearing due to trampling therefore results in a complete muddy homogeneous soil with no structure at all. (Krümmelbein et al. 2013) Site managements of arable, forestry or horticulture soils requires a sufficiently rigid pore system which guarantees water, gas and heat exchange, nutrient transport and adsorption as well as an optimal rootability in order to avoid subsoil compaction. Such pore system also guarantees a sufficient microbial activity and composition in order to also decompose the plant etc. debris. It is therefore essential that well structured horizons dominate in soils with at best subangular blocky structure or in the top A- horizons a crumbly structure due to biological activity. In contrast defines the formation of a platy

  17. Land change monitoring, assessment, and projection (LCMAP) revolutionizes land cover and land change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steven

    2017-05-02

    When nature and humanity change Earth’s landscapes - through flood or fire, public policy, natural resources management, or economic development - the results are often dramatic and lasting.Wildfires can reshape ecosystems. Hurricanes with names like Sandy or Katrina will howl for days while altering the landscape for years. One growing season in the evolution of drought-resistant genetics can transform semiarid landscapes into farm fields.In the past, valuable land cover maps created for understanding the effects of those events - whether changes in wildlife habitat, water-quality impacts, or the role land use and land cover play in affecting weather and climate - came out at best every 5 to 7 years. Those high quality, high resolution maps were good, but users always craved more: even higher quality data, additional land cover and land change variables, more detailed legends, and most importantly, more frequent land change information.Now a bold new initiative called Land Change Monitoring, Assessment, and Projection (LCMAP) promises to fulfill that demand.Developed at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, LCMAP provides definitive, timely information on how, why, and where the planet is changing. LCMAP’s continuous monitoring process can detect changes as they happen every day that Landsat satellites acquire clear observations. The result will be to place near real-time information in the hands of land and resource managers who need to understand the effects these changes have on landscapes.

  18. Water en Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.E.M. van Dam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water and Dry LandWater management has always been a major concern. Dutch pragmatism certainly has roots in water management, but it is also rooted in the culture of meetings of the Dutch cities and in the attitude of the peasant who produced for the market very early on. Water control reached its height when we introduced reinforced concrete for hydraulic engineering. Around 1970, the ecological turning point caused a change in focus. Water managers became concerned about the quality of water, the creation of ‘new nature’ and the adaptation to water. In this way, we did not discard the assets of the Industrial Revolution, but rather put them into a new framework: more green in the blue. Water is by definition international. The Netherlands co-parented the international cooperation of the Rhine countries. Is this history part of our national consciousness? Can the water history of the South- and Eastern Netherlands also join in the national water history of the twentieth century?

  19. Moon Landing Trajectory Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mustafa MEHEDI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trajectory optimization is a crucial process during the planning phase of a spacecraft landing mission. Once a trajectory is determined, guidance algorithms are created to guide the vehicle along the given trajectory. Because fuel mass is a major driver of the total vehicle mass, and thus mission cost, the objective of most guidance algorithms is to minimize the required fuel consumption. Most of the existing algorithms are termed as “near-optimal” regarding fuel expenditure. The question arises as to how close to optimal are these guidance algorithms. To answer this question, numerical trajectory optimization techniques are often required. With the emergence of improved processing power and the application of new methods, more direct approaches may be employed to achieve high accuracy without the associated difficulties in computation or pre-existing knowledge of the solution. An example of such an approach is DIDO optimization. This technique is applied in the current research to find these minimum fuel optimal trajectories.

  20. Water en Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.E.M. van Dam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water and Dry LandWater management has always been a major concern. Dutch pragmatism certainly has roots in water management, but it is also rooted in the culture of meetings of the Dutch cities and in the attitude of the peasant who produced for the market very early on. Water control reached its height when we introduced reinforced concrete for hydraulic engineering. Around 1970, the ecological turning point caused a change in focus. Water managers became concerned about the quality of water, the creation of ‘new nature’ and the adaptation to water. In this way, we did not discard the assets of the Industrial Revolution, but rather put them into a new framework: more green in the blue. Water is by definition international. The Netherlands co-parented the international cooperation of the Rhine countries. Is this history part of our national consciousness? Can the water history of the South- and Eastern Netherlands also join in the national water history of the twentieth century?

  1. Molecular evolution of plant AAP and LHT amino acid transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechthild eTegeder

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is an essential mineral nutrient and it is often transported within living organisms in its reduced form, as amino acids. Transport of amino acids across cellular membranes requires proteins, and here we report the phylogenetic analysis across taxa of two amino acid transporter families, the Amino Acid Permeases (AAPs and the Lysine-Histidine-like Transporters (LHTs. We found that the two transporter families form two distinct groups in plants supporting the concept that both are essential. AAP transporters seem to be restricted to land plants. They were found in Selaginella moellindorffii and Physcomitrella patens but not in Chlorophyte, Charophyte or Rhodophyte algae. AAPs were strongly represented in vascular plants, consistent with their major function in phloem (vascular tissue loading of amino acids for sink nitrogen supply. LHTs on the other hand appeared prior to land plants. LHTs were not found in chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean alga Klebsormidium flaccidum encodes KfLHT13 and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is basal to land plant LHTs. This is consistent with the hypothesis that characean algae are ancestral to land plants. LHTs were also found in both Selaginella moellindorffii and Physcomitrella patens as well as in monocots and eudicots. To date, AAPs and LHTs have mainly been characterized in Arabidopsis (eudicots and these studies provide clues to the functions of the newly identified homologs.

  2. LandSense: A Citizen Observatory and Innovation Marketplace for Land Use and Land Cover Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Inian; Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; McCallum, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Currently within the EU's Earth Observation (EO) monitoring framework, there is a need for low-cost methods for acquiring high quality in-situ data to create accurate and well-validated environmental monitoring products. To help address this need, a new four year Horizon 2020 project entitled LandSense will link remote sensing data with modern participatory data collection methods that involve citizen scientists. This paper will describe the citizen science activities within the LandSense Observatory that aim to deliver concrete, measurable and quality-assured ground-based data that will complement existing satellite monitoring systems. LandSense will deploy advanced tools, services and resources to mobilize and engage citizens to collect in-situ observations (i.e. ground-based data and visual interpretations of EO imagery). Integrating these citizen-driven in-situ data collections with established authoritative and open access data sources will help reduce costs, extend GEOSS and Copernicus capacities, and support comprehensive environmental monitoring systems. Policy-relevant campaigns will be implemented in close collaboration with multiple stakeholders to ensure that citizen observations address user requirements and contribute to EU-wide environmental governance and decision-making. Campaigns for addressing local and regional Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) issues are planned for select areas in Austria, France, Germany, Spain, Slovenia and Serbia. Novel LandSense services (LandSense Campaigner, FarmLand Support, Change Detector and Quality Assurance & Control) will be deployed and tested in these areas to address critical LULC issues (i.e. urbanization, agricultural land use and forest/habitat monitoring). For example, local residents in the cities of Vienna, Tulln, and Heidelberg will help cooperatively detect and map changes in land cover and green space to address key issues of urban sprawl, land take and flooding. Such campaigns are facilitated through

  3. Quantifying the spatial implications of future land use policies in South Africa: Reshaping a city through land use modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Alize

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available and strategies that will restrict growth, densify transport corridors and invest in low cost housing in accessible locations. The results of these two scenarios are evaluated based on a set of indicators to test which scenario produces the best outcome given... ............................................................ 20 3.2.2. Various types of residential housing and land use ............................................................. 21 3.3 Johannesburg’s future trends and proposed spatial scenarios .................................................. 24 3...

  4. Analysis on Farmers’ Land Right Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Land is the fundamental income sources of farmers. However, farmers stay at disadvantaged statge in the political, economic and social aspects. Their land is exploited and occupied, which facilitates the rapid development of economy, as well as brings the gap between the poor and the rich and the inharmonious disputes. The necessity for protecting the land right of farmers under the new situation is expounded, covering the necessity of carrying out the relevant agricultural policies; the necessity of improving rural economic status and narrowing the gap between urban and rural areas; the necessity of reducing land disputes and constructing harmonious society. The violation of farmers’ land rights is analyzed from two aspects. The first one is the violation of farmers’ land right in land tenure section, which includes the lack of ecological compensation system the lack of contract operation right; the second one is the violation of farmers’ land right in land transfer section, including the absence of land requisition system, substandard land contract and land transfer and the limitation of house stead circulation; the third one is the vacant of land development right affects farmers’ share of enjoying the added value of land. The countermeasures for protecting farmers’ land rights are put forward. The first one is clarify land property; the second one is normalize and perfect land requisition system; the third one is appropriately loosen rural land transfer policies; the fourth one is establish ecological compensation and land development right compensation system.

  5. Inquiry, Land Snails, and Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Krantz, Patrick D.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces land snails for use in inquiry-based science activities. Describes common characteristics and safety considerations while introducing students to land snails. Explains procedures for inquiry-based use of land snails in classrooms. (YDS)

  6. Land-use change arising from rural land exchange : an agent-based simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Martha M.; Alam, Shah Jamal; van Dijk, Jerry; Rounsevell, Mark D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Land exchange can be a major factor driving land-use change in regions with high pressure on land, but is generally not incorporated in land-use change models. Here we present an agent-based model to simulate land-use change arising from land exchange between multiple agent types representing farmer

  7. Large Eddy Simulation Using a Transport Equation for the Subgrid-Scale Stress Tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-22

    1,O:NZ+l) Integer ::num, tagl ,tag2, cpul,cpu2 Real ::tmpl,tmp2 num (NY+2)*(NZ+2) cpul =CPU -info(l) cpu2 =CPU -info(2) tagi tag+1 tag2 =tag+2...Sending right y-z plane sbuffx-r(O:NY+l,O:NZ+1) = var(NX,O:NY+1,O:NZ+l) 39 call mpi~isend (sbuffx -r,num,datasize,cpul, tagl ,MPI_COMMWORLD, handle-sx(1...mpi_irecv (rbuffx -l,num,datasize,cpu2, tagl ,MPI COMM WORLD, handle-rx(2) ,ierr) End Subroutine SendBCX Nonblocking MPI recieve - x Subroutine RecvBCX

  8. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 11

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper...

  9. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 22

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper...

  10. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper...

  11. 1994 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for selected areas in the Upper...

  12. 1994 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 26

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for selected areas in the Upper...

  13. 1994 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 8

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for selected areas in the Upper...

  14. Bureau of Land Management Surface Land Ownership (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — These data were collected by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in New Mexico at both the New Mexico State Office and at the various field offices. This...

  15. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 8

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the...

  16. land registration and land investment: the case of tigray region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    registration and tilting as the cost of land registration is quite high, and the ..... a vector of household characteristics and resource endowments,, whether the ...... and farm productivity in Thailand, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore,. MD.

  17. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Open River 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper...

  18. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Open River 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper...

  19. On pilgrimage with biblical women in their land(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Wainwright

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent sociological and anthropological studies have provided models for examining pilgrimage both in its ancient and contemporary manifestations. Such models can facilitate an examination of the phenomenon of study tours to biblical lands and the multivalence of the discourses associated with such tours. The first part of the article engaged critically with the literature in order to open up some frameworks for examining the study tour to biblical lands. Feminist critical biblical scholarship with its potential for a feminist hermeneutic of creative imagination contributes to the multivalence around the study tour. Therefore, the second part of the article engaged this scholarship in relation to an imagined tour with women of the biblical lands. The article highlighted significant issues for consideration for those planning a study tour of biblical lands, especially in terms of the consideration that ought to be paid to gender.

  20. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper...