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Sample records for nwp models produce

  1. Probing NWP model deficiencies by statistical postprocessing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Martin Haubjerg; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben S.

    2016-01-01

    The objective in this article is twofold. On one hand, a Model Output Statistics (MOS) framework for improved wind speed forecast accuracy is described and evaluated. On the other hand, the approach explored identifies unintuitive explanatory value from a diagnostic variable in an operational....... Based on the statistical model candidates inferred from the data, the lifted index NWP model diagnostic is consistently found among the NWP model predictors of the best performing statistical models across sites....

  2. Prediction of Fog/Visibility over India using NWP Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    54

    fog which is driven by NWP model forecast of surface relative humidity and wind speed. The performance of NWP model forecast of visibility is found comparable to that from simple fog model driven by NWP forecast of relative humidity and wind speed. Keywords: Visibility, Fog, Insat-3D, METARS, NCUM, North India.

  3. Prediction of fog/visibility over India using NWP Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditi; George, John P.; Iyengar, Gopal Raman

    2018-03-01

    Frequent occurrence of fog in different parts of northern India is common during the winter months of December and January. Low visibility conditions due to fog disrupt normal public life. Visibility conditions heavily affect both surface and air transport. A number of flights are either diverted or cancelled every year during the winter season due to low visibility conditions, experienced at different airports of north India. Thus, fog and visibility forecasts over plains of north India become very important during winter months. This study aims to understand the ability of a NWP model (NCMRWF, Unified Model, NCUM) with a diagnostic visibility scheme to forecast visibility over plains of north India. The present study verifies visibility forecasts obtained from NCUM against the INSAT-3D fog images and visibility observations from the METAR reports of different stations in the plains of north India. The study shows that the visibility forecast obtained from NCUM can provide reasonably good indication of the spatial extent of fog in advance of one day. The fog intensity is also predicted fairly well. The study also verifies the simple diagnostic model for fog which is driven by NWP model forecast of surface relative humidity and wind speed. The performance of NWP model forecast of visibility is found comparable to that from simple fog model driven by NWP forecast of relative humidity and wind speed.

  4. Assimilation of radar-based nowcast into HIRLAM NWP model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, David Getreuer; Petersen, Claus; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study introduces a nowcast scheme that assimilates radar extrapolation data (RED) into a nowcasting version of the high resolution limited area model (HIRLAM) numerical weather prediction (NWP) model covering the area of Denmark. The RED are based on the Co-TREC (tracking radar echoes...... by correlation) methodology and are generated from cleaned radar mosaics from the Danish weather radar network. The assimilation technique is a newly developed method that increases model precipitation by increasing low-level convergence and decreasing convergence aloft in order to increase the vertical velocity....... The level of improved predictability relies on the RED quality, which again relies on the type of event....

  5. Comparison of radiation parametrizations within the HARMONIE-AROME NWP model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontu, Laura; Lindfors, Anders V.

    2018-05-01

    Downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface (SWDS, global solar radiation flux), given by three different parametrization schemes, was compared to observations in the HARMONIE-AROME numerical weather prediction (NWP) model experiments over Finland in spring 2017. Simulated fluxes agreed well with each other and with the observations in the clear-sky cases. In the cloudy-sky conditions, all schemes tended to underestimate SWDS at the daily level, as compared to the measurements. Large local and temporal differences between the model results and observations were seen, related to the variations and uncertainty of the predicted cloud properties. The results suggest a possibility to benefit from the use of different radiative transfer parametrizations in a NWP model to obtain perturbations for the fine-resolution ensemble prediction systems. In addition, we recommend usage of the global radiation observations for the standard validation of the NWP models.

  6. Mixing height derived from the DMI-HIRLAM NWP model, and used for ETEX dispersion modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, J.H.; Rasmussen, A. [Danish Meteorological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    For atmospheric dispersion modelling it is of great significance to estimate the mixing height well. Mesoscale and long-range diffusion models using output from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models may well use NWP model profiles of wind, temperature and humidity in computation of the mixing height. This is dynamically consistent, and enables calculation of the mixing height for predicted states of the atmosphere. In autumn 1994, the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX) was carried out with the objective to validate atmospheric dispersion models. The Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) participates in the model evaluations with the Danish Emergency Response Model of the Atmosphere (DERMA) using NWP model data from the DMI version of the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) as well as from the global model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). In DERMA, calculation of mixing heights are performed based on a bulk Richardson number approach. Comparing with tracer gas measurements for the first ETEX experiment, a sensitivity study is performed for DERMA. Using DMI-HIRLAM data, the study shows that optimum values of the critical bulk Richardson number in the range 0.15-0.35 are adequate. These results are in agreement with recent mixing height verification studies against radiosonde data. The fairly large range of adequate critical values is a signature of the robustness of the method. Direct verification results against observed missing heights from operational radio-sondes released under the ETEX plume are presented. (au) 10 refs.

  7. On the impact of NWP model resolution and power source disaggregation on photovoltaic power prediction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eben, Kryštof; Juruš, Pavel; Resler, Jaroslav; Pelikán, Emil; Krč, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2011), EMS2011-667-4 [EMS Annual Meeting /11./ and European Conference on Applications of Meteorology /10./. 12.09.2011-16.09.2011, Berlin] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : photovoltaic power prediction * NWP * numerical model parameterization Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  8. Analyses of gust fronts by means of limited area NWP model outputs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašpar, Marek

    67-68, - (2003), s. 559-572 ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/00/1451 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : gust front * limited area NWP model * output Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.012, year: 2003

  9. Synergizing two NWP models to improve hub-height wind speed forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H. [Ortech International, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Taylor, P. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed some of the methods used to optimize hub-height wind speed forecasts. Statistical and physical forecast paradigms were considered. Forecast errors are often dictated by phase error, while refined NWP modelling is limited by data availability. A nested meso-scale NWP model was combined with a physical model to predict wind and power forecasts. Maps of data sources were included as well as equations used to derive predictions. Data from meteorological masts located near the Great Lakes were used to demonstrate the model. The results were compared with other modelling prediction methods. Forecasts obtained using the modelling approach can help operators in scheduling and trading procedures. Further research is being conducted to determine if the model can be used to improve ramp forecasts. tabs., figs.

  10. Simulations of the influence of lake area on local temperature with the COSMO NWP model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartůňková, Kristýna; Sokol, Zbyněk; Pop, Lukáš

    147-148, 1-15 Oct (2014), s. 51-67 ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S; GA TA ČR TA01020592 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ALAKE * COSMO NWP model * modeling * microclimate * lake Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.844, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169809514002038

  11. Validation of mixing heights derived from the operational NWP models at the German weather service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fay, B.; Schrodin, R.; Jacobsen, I. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach (Germany); Engelbart, D. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Meteorol. Observ. Lindenberg (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    NWP models incorporate an ever-increasing number of observations via four-dimensional data assimilation and are capable of providing comprehensive information about the atmosphere both in space and time. They describe not only near surface parameters but also the vertical structure of the atmosphere. They operate daily, are well verified and successfully used as meteorological pre-processors in large-scale dispersion modelling. Applications like ozone forecasts, emission or power plant control calculations require highly resolved, reliable, and routine values of the temporal evolution of the mixing height (MH) which is a critical parameter in determining the mixing and transformation of substances and the resulting pollution levels near the ground. The purpose of development at the German Weather Service is a straightforward mixing height scheme that uses only parameters derived from NWP model variables and thus automatically provides spatial and temporal fields of mixing heights on an operational basis. An universal parameter to describe stability is the Richardson number Ri. Compared to the usual diagnostic or rate equations, the Ri number concept of determining mixing heights has the advantage of using not only surface layer parameters but also regarding the vertical structure of the boundary layer resolved in the NWP models. (au)

  12. Nowcasting of deep convective clouds and heavy precipitation: Comparison study between NWP model simulation and extrapolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bližňák, Vojtěch; Sokol, Zbyněk; Zacharov, Petr, jr.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 184, February (2017), s. 24-34 ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP209/12/P701; GA ČR GA13-34856S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : meteorological satellite * convective storm * NWP model * verification * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 3.778, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169809516304288

  13. Simulation of the storm on 15 August, 2010, using a high resolution COSMO NWP model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Zacharov, Petr, jr.; Skripniková, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 137, FEB (2014), s. 100-111 ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S; GA MŠk LD11044 Grant - others:COST Activity(XE) ES0905 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : hail * NWP model * radar reflectivity * data assimilation * hail nowcasting Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.844, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169809513002676

  14. Towards more accurate wind and solar power prediction by improving NWP model physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Andrea; Köhler, Carmen; von Schumann, Jonas; Ritter, Bodo

    2014-05-01

    The growing importance and successive expansion of renewable energies raise new challenges for decision makers, economists, transmission system operators, scientists and many more. In this interdisciplinary field, the role of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) is to reduce the errors and provide an a priori estimate of remaining uncertainties associated with the large share of weather-dependent power sources. For this purpose it is essential to optimize NWP model forecasts with respect to those prognostic variables which are relevant for wind and solar power plants. An improved weather forecast serves as the basis for a sophisticated power forecasts. Consequently, a well-timed energy trading on the stock market, and electrical grid stability can be maintained. The German Weather Service (DWD) currently is involved with two projects concerning research in the field of renewable energy, namely ORKA*) and EWeLiNE**). Whereas the latter is in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institute (IWES), the project ORKA is led by energy & meteo systems (emsys). Both cooperate with German transmission system operators. The goal of the projects is to improve wind and photovoltaic (PV) power forecasts by combining optimized NWP and enhanced power forecast models. In this context, the German Weather Service aims to improve its model system, including the ensemble forecasting system, by working on data assimilation, model physics and statistical post processing. This presentation is focused on the identification of critical weather situations and the associated errors in the German regional NWP model COSMO-DE. First steps leading to improved physical parameterization schemes within the NWP-model are presented. Wind mast measurements reaching up to 200 m height above ground are used for the estimation of the (NWP) wind forecast error at heights relevant for wind energy plants. One particular problem is the daily cycle in wind speed. The transition from stable stratification during

  15. Prediction of fog/visibility over India using NWP Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aditi Singh

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, Earth System Science Organization, Ministry of Earth. Sciences, Noida ..... ing water. For a given relative humidity, the aerosol content fixed according to cleaner conditions in the model gives higher values of visibility as com- pared to the polluted ...

  16. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) and hybrid ARMA/ANN model to predict global radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voyant, Cyril; Muselli, Marc; Paoli, Christophe; Nivet, Marie-Laure

    2012-01-01

    We propose in this paper an original technique to predict global radiation using a hybrid ARMA/ANN model and data issued from a numerical weather prediction model (NWP). We particularly look at the multi-layer perceptron (MLP). After optimizing our architecture with NWP and endogenous data previously made stationary and using an innovative pre-input layer selection method, we combined it to an ARMA model from a rule based on the analysis of hourly data series. This model has been used to forecast the hourly global radiation for five places in Mediterranean area. Our technique outperforms classical models for all the places. The nRMSE for our hybrid model MLP/ARMA is 14.9% compared to 26.2% for the naïve persistence predictor. Note that in the standalone ANN case the nRMSE is 18.4%. Finally, in order to discuss the reliability of the forecaster outputs, a complementary study concerning the confidence interval of each prediction is proposed. -- Highlights: ► Time series forecasting with hybrid method based on the use of ALADIN numerical weather model, ANN and ARMA. ► Innovative pre-input layer selection method. ► Combination of optimized MLP and ARMA model obtained from a rule based on the analysis of hourly data series. ► Stationarity process (method and control) for the global radiation time series.

  17. AROME-Arctic: New operational NWP model for the Arctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süld, Jakob; Dale, Knut S.; Myrland, Espen; Batrak, Yurii; Homleid, Mariken; Valkonen, Teresa; Seierstad, Ivar A.; Randriamampianina, Roger

    2016-04-01

    In the frame of the EU-funded project ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society), MET Norway aimed 1) to describe the present monitoring and forecasting capabilities in the Arctic; and 2) to identify the key factors limiting the forecasting capabilities and to give recommendations on key areas to improve the forecasting capabilities in the Arctic. We have observed that the NWP forecast quality is lower in the Arctic than in the regions further south. Earlier research indicated that one of the factors behind this is the composition of the observing system in the Arctic, in particular the scarceness of conventional observations. To further assess possible strategies for alleviating the situation and propose scenarios for a future Arctic observing system, we have performed a set of experiments to gain a more detailed insight in the contribution of the components of the present observing system in a regional state-of-the-art non-hydrostatic NWP model using the AROME physics (Seity et al, 2011) at 2.5 km horizontal resolution - AROME-Arctic. Our observing system experiment studies showed that conventional observations (Synop, Buoys) can play an important role in correcting the surface state of the model, but prove that the present upper-air conventional (Radiosondes, Aircraft) observations in the area are too scarce to have a significant effect on forecasts. We demonstrate that satellite sounding data play an important role in improving forecast quality. This is the case with satellite temperature sounding data (AMSU-A, IASI), as well as with the satellite moisture sounding data (AMSU-B/MHS, IASI). With these sets of observations, the AROME-Arctic clearly performs better in forecasting extreme events, like for example polar lows. For more details see presentation by Randriamampianina et al. in this session. The encouraging performance of AROME-Arctic lead us to implement it with more observations and improved settings into daily runs with the objective to

  18. An online-coupled NWP/ACT model with conserved Lagrangian levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, B.; Kaas, E.; Lauritzen, P. H.

    2012-04-01

    Numerical weather and climate modelling is under constant development. Semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian (SISL) models have proven to be numerically efficient in both short-range weather forecasts and climate models, due to the ability to use long time steps. Chemical/aerosol feedback mechanism are becoming more and more relevant in NWP as well as climate models, since the biogenic and anthropogenic emissions can have a direct effect on the dynamics and radiative properties of the atmosphere. To include chemical feedback mechanisms in the NWP models, on-line coupling is crucial. In 3D semi-Lagrangian schemes with quasi-Lagrangian vertical coordinates the Lagrangian levels are remapped to Eulerian model levels each time step. This remapping introduces an undesirable tendency to smooth sharp gradients and creates unphysical numerical diffusion in the vertical distribution. A semi-Lagrangian advection method is introduced, it combines an inherently mass conserving 2D semi-Lagrangian scheme, with a SISL scheme employing both hybrid vertical coordinates and a fully Lagrangian vertical coordinate. This minimizes the vertical diffusion and thus potentially improves the simulation of the vertical profiles of moisture, clouds, and chemical constituents. Since the Lagrangian levels suffer from traditional Lagrangian limitations caused by the convergence and divergence of the flow, remappings to the Eulerian model levels are generally still required - but this need only be applied after a number of time steps - unless dynamic remapping methods are used. For this several different remapping methods has been implemented. The combined scheme is mass conserving, consistent, and multi-tracer efficient.

  19. Can limited area NWP and/or RCM models improve on large scales inside their domain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesinger, Fedor; Veljovic, Katarina

    2017-04-01

    In a paper in press in Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics at the time this abstract is being written, Mesinger and Veljovic point out four requirements that need to be fulfilled by a limited area model (LAM), be it in NWP or RCM environment, to improve on large scales inside its domain. First, NWP/RCM model needs to be run on a relatively large domain. Note that domain size in quite inexpensive compared to resolution. Second, NWP/RCM model should not use more forcing at its boundaries than required by the mathematics of the problem. That means prescribing lateral boundary conditions only at its outside boundary, with one less prognostic variable prescribed at the outflow than at the inflow parts of the boundary. Next, nudging towards the large scales of the driver model must not be used, as it would obviously be nudging in the wrong direction if the nested model can improve on large scales inside its domain. And finally, the NWP/RCM model must have features that enable development of large scales improved compared to those of the driver model. This would typically include higher resolution, but obviously does not have to. Integrations showing improvements in large scales by LAM ensemble members are summarized in the mentioned paper in press. Ensemble members referred to are run using the Eta model, and are driven by ECMWF 32-day ensemble members, initialized 0000 UTC 4 October 2012. The Eta model used is the so-called "upgraded Eta," or "sloping steps Eta," which is free of the Gallus-Klemp problem of weak flow in the lee of the bell-shaped topography, seemed to many as suggesting the eta coordinate to be ill suited for high resolution models. The "sloping steps" in fact represent a simple version of the cut cell scheme. Accuracy of forecasting the position of jet stream winds, chosen to be those of speeds greater than 45 m/s at 250 hPa, expressed by Equitable Threat (or Gilbert) skill scores adjusted to unit bias (ETSa) was taken to show the skill at large scales

  20. CAUSES: Attribution of Surface Radiation Biases in NWP and Climate Models near the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Weverberg, K.; Morcrette, C. J.; Petch, J.; Klein, S. A.; Ma, H.-Y.; Zhang, C.; Xie, S.; Tang, Q.; Gustafson, W. I.; Qian, Y.; Berg, L. K.; Liu, Y.; Huang, M.; Ahlgrimm, M.; Forbes, R.; Bazile, E.; Roehrig, R.; Cole, J.; Merryfield, W.; Lee, W.-S.; Cheruy, F.; Mellul, L.; Wang, Y.-C.; Johnson, K.; Thieman, M. M.

    2018-04-01

    Many Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and climate models exhibit too warm lower tropospheres near the midlatitude continents. The warm bias has been shown to coincide with important surface radiation biases that likely play a critical role in the inception or the growth of the warm bias. This paper presents an attribution study on the net radiation biases in nine model simulations, performed in the framework of the CAUSES project (Clouds Above the United States and Errors at the Surface). Contributions from deficiencies in the surface properties, clouds, water vapor, and aerosols are quantified, using an array of radiation measurement stations near the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site. Furthermore, an in-depth analysis is shown to attribute the radiation errors to specific cloud regimes. The net surface shortwave radiation is overestimated in all models throughout most of the simulation period. Cloud errors are shown to contribute most to this overestimation, although nonnegligible contributions from the surface albedo exist in most models. Missing deep cloud events and/or simulating deep clouds with too weak cloud radiative effects dominate in the cloud-related radiation errors. Some models have compensating errors between excessive occurrence of deep cloud but largely underestimating their radiative effect, while other models miss deep cloud events altogether. Surprisingly, even the latter models tend to produce too much and too frequent afternoon surface precipitation. This suggests that rather than issues with the triggering of deep convection, cloud radiative deficiencies are related to too weak convective cloud detrainment and too large precipitation efficiencies.

  1. CHEM2D-OPP: A new linearized gas-phase ozone photochemistry parameterization for high-altitude NWP and climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. McCormack

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The new CHEM2D-Ozone Photochemistry Parameterization (CHEM2D-OPP for high-altitude numerical weather prediction (NWP systems and climate models specifies the net ozone photochemical tendency and its sensitivity to changes in ozone mixing ratio, temperature and overhead ozone column based on calculations from the CHEM2D interactive middle atmospheric photochemical transport model. We evaluate CHEM2D-OPP performance using both short-term (6-day and long-term (1-year stratospheric ozone simulations with the prototype high-altitude NOGAPS-ALPHA forecast model. An inter-comparison of NOGAPS-ALPHA 6-day ozone hindcasts for 7 February 2005 with ozone photochemistry parameterizations currently used in operational NWP systems shows that CHEM2D-OPP yields the best overall agreement with both individual Aura Microwave Limb Sounder ozone profile measurements and independent hemispheric (10°–90° N ozone analysis fields. A 1-year free-running NOGAPS-ALPHA simulation using CHEM2D-OPP produces a realistic seasonal cycle in zonal mean ozone throughout the stratosphere. We find that the combination of a model cold temperature bias at high latitudes in winter and a warm bias in the CHEM2D-OPP temperature climatology can degrade the performance of the linearized ozone photochemistry parameterization over seasonal time scales despite the fact that the parameterized temperature dependence is weak in these regions.

  2. A new approach for assimilation of 2D radar precipitation in a high-resolution NWP model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Ulrik Smith; Petersen, Claus; Sass, Bent Hansen

    2015-01-01

    of precipitation, the strength of the nudging is proportional to the offset between observed and modelled precipitation, leading to increased moisture convergence. If the model over-predicts precipitation, the low level moisture source is reduced, and in-cloud moisture is nudged towards environmental values......A new approach for assimilation of 2D precipitation in numerical weather prediction models is presented and tested in a case with convective, heavy precipitation. In the scheme a nudging term is added to the horizontal velocity divergence tendency equation. In case of underproduction....... The method was implemented in the Danish Meteorological Institute numerical weather prediction (DMI NWP) nowcasting system, running with hourly cycles, performing a surface analysis and 3D variational analysis for upper air assimilation at each cycle restart, followed by nudging assimilation of precipitation...

  3. Vertical Wave Coupling associated with Stratospheric Sudden Warming Events analyzed in an Isentropic-Coordinate NWP Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleck, R.; Sun, S.; Benjamin, S.; Brown, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Two- to four-week predictions of stratospheric sudden warming events during the winter seasons of 1999-2014, carried out with a high-resolution icosahedral NWP model using potential temperature as vertical coordinate, are inspected for commonalities in the evolution of both minor and major warmings. Emphasis is on the evolution of the potential vorticity field at different levels in the stratosphere, as well as on the sign and magnitude of the vertical component of the Eliassen-Palm flux vector suggestive of wave forcing in either direction. Material is presented shedding light on the skill of the model (FIM, developed at NOAA/ESRL) in predicting stratospheric warmings generally 2 weeks in advance. With an icosahedral grid ideally suited for studying polar processes, and a vertical coordinate faithfully reproducing details in the evolution of the potential vorticity and EP flux vector fields, FIM is found to be a good tool for investigating the SSW mechanism.

  4. Development of a Three-Dimensional Spectral Element Model for NWP: Idealized Simulations on the Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, K.; Reinecke, P. A.; Gabersek, S.; Flagg, D. D.; Doyle, J. D.; Martini, M.; Ryglicki, D.; Michalakes, J.; Giraldo, F.

    2016-12-01

    NEPTUNE: the Navy Environmental Prediction sysTem Using the NUMA*corE, is a 3D spectral element atmospheric model composed of a full suite of physics parameterizations and pre- and post-processing infrastructure with plans for data assimilation and coupling components to a variety of Earth-system models. This talk will focus on the initial struggles and solutions in adapting NUMA for stable and accurate integration on the sphere using both the deep atmosphere equations and a newly developed shallow-atmosphere approximation, as demonstrated through idealized test cases. In addition, details of the physics-dynamics coupling methodology will be discussed. NEPTUNE results for test cases from the 2016 Dynamical Core Model Intercomparison Project (DCMIP-2016) will be shown and discussed. *NUMA: Nonhydrostatic Unified Model of the Atmosphere; Kelly and Giraldo 2012, JCP

  5. Multiscale Analysis of the Water Content Output the NWP Model COSMO Over Switzerland and Comparison With Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfensberger, D.; Gires, A.; Berne, A.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The resolution of operational numerical prediction models is typically of the order of a few kilometres meaning that small-scale features of precipitation can not be resolved explicitly. This creates the need for representative parametrizations of microphysical processes whose properties should be carefully analysed. In this study we will focus on the COSMO model which is a non-hydrostatic limited-area model, initially developed as the Lokal Model and used operationally in Switzerland and Germany. In its operational version, cloud microphysical processes are simulated with a one-moment bulk scheme where five hydrometeor classes are considered: cloud droplets, rain, ice crystals, snow, and graupel. A more sophisticated two-moment scheme is also available. The study will focus on two case studies: one in Payerne in western Switzerland in a relatively flat region and one in Davos in the eastern Swiss Alps in a more complex terrain.The objective of this work is to characterize the ability of the COSMO NWP model to reproduce the microphysics of precipitation across temporal and spatial scales as well as scaling variability. The characterization of COSMO outputs will rely on the Universal Multifractals framework, which allows to analyse and simulate geophysical fields extremely variabile over a wide range of scales with the help of a reduced number of parameters. First COSMO outputs are analysed; spatial multifractal analysis of 2D maps at various altitudes for each time steps are carried out for simulated solid, liquid, vapour and total water content. In general the fields exhibit a good quality of scaling on the whole range of available scales (2 km - 250 km), but some loss of scaling quality corresponding to the emergence of a scaling break are sometimes visible. This behaviour is not found at the same time or at the same altitude according to the water state and does not necessarily spread to the total water content. It is interpreted with the help of the underlying

  6. Processing of 3D Weather Radar Data with Application for Assimilation in the NWP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ośródka Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the processing of 3D weather radar data to minimize the impact of a number of errors from different sources, both meteorological and non-meteorological. The data is also quantitatively characterized in terms of its quality. A set of dedicated algorithms based on analysis of the reflectivity field pattern is described. All the developed algorithms were tested on data from the Polish radar network POLRAD. Quality control plays a key role in avoiding the introduction of incorrect information into applications using radar data. One of the quality control methods is radar data assimilation in numerical weather prediction models to estimate initial conditions of the atmosphere. The study shows an experiment with quality controlled radar data assimilation in the COAMPS model using the ensemble Kalman filter technique. The analysis proved the potential of radar data for such applications; however, further investigations will be indispensable.

  7. Evaluation of NWP-based Satellite Precipitation Error Correction with Near-Real-Time Model Products and Flood-inducing Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Schwartz, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite precipitation products tend to have significant biases over complex terrain. Our research investigates a statistical approach for satellite precipitation adjustment based solely on numerical weather simulations. This approach has been evaluated in two mid-latitude (Zhang et al. 2013*1, Zhang et al. 2016*2) and three topical mountainous regions by using the WRF model to adjust two high-resolution satellite products i) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH) and ii) Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP). Results show the adjustment effectively reduces the satellite underestimation of high rain rates, which provides a solid proof-of-concept for continuing research of NWP-based satellite correction. In this study we investigate the feasibility of using NCAR Real-time Ensemble Forecasts*3 for adjusting near-real-time satellite precipitation datasets over complex terrain areas in the Continental United States (CONUS) such as Olympic Peninsula, California coastal mountain ranges, Rocky Mountains and South Appalachians. The research will focus on flood-inducing storms occurred from May 2015 to December 2016 and four satellite precipitation products (CMORPH, GSMaP, PERSIANN-CCS and IMERG). The error correction performance evaluation will be based on comparisons against the gauge-adjusted Stage IV precipitation data. *1 Zhang, Xinxuan, et al. "Using NWP simulations in satellite rainfall estimation of heavy precipitation events over mountainous areas." Journal of Hydrometeorology 14.6 (2013): 1844-1858. *2 Zhang, Xinxuan, et al. "Hydrologic Evaluation of NWP-Adjusted CMORPH Estimates of Hurricane-Induced Precipitation in the Southern Appalachians." Journal of Hydrometeorology 17.4 (2016): 1087-1099. *3 Schwartz, Craig S., et al. "NCAR's experimental real-time convection-allowing ensemble prediction system." Weather and Forecasting 30.6 (2015): 1645-1654.

  8. Hindcast experiments of the derecho in Estonia on 08 August, 2010: Modelling derecho with NWP model HARMONIE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Velle; Männik, Aarne; Luhamaa, Andres; Rõõm, Rein

    2015-05-01

    On August 8, 2010, a derecho swept over Northern Europe, causing widespread wind damage and more than 2 million Euros in economic loss in Estonia during its most destructive stage. This paper presents a modelling study of the derecho-producing storm utilising the Hirlam Aladin Research for Mesoscale Operational Numerical Weather Prediction in Europe (HARMONIE) model. The model setup is chosen to mimic near-future, nearly kilometre-scale, operational environments in European national weather services. The model simulations are compared to remote sensing and in situ observations. The HARMONIE model is capable of reproducing the wind gust severity and precipitation intensity. Moreover, 2.5-km grid spacing is shown to be sufficient for producing a reliable signal of the severe convective storm. Storm dynamics are well simulated, including the rear inflow jet. Although the model performance is promising, a strong dependence on the initial data, a weak trailing stratiform precipitation region and an incorrect timing of the storm are identified.

  9. Modelling derecho dynamics and the direct radiative effect of wildfire smoke upon it with NWP model HARMONIE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Velle; Männik, Aarne

    2014-05-01

    Convection permitting numerical weather prediction model HARMONIE was used to simulate the dynamics of the derecho that swept over Eastern Europe on August 8, 2010. The storm moved over Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland and the strongest wind gusts (up to 36.5 m/s) were measured in Estonia. The storm path is recorded on the radar images where characteristic bow echo was observed. The model setup was similar to near-future operational, nearly kilometre-scale environments in European national weather services. Hindcast experiments show the ability of the HARMONIE model to predict the severe convective storm and forecast concurrent strong wind gusts. Wind gusts with very similar intensity to observed ones were simulated by the HARMONIE model and 2.5-km horizontal resolution appears sufficient for reliable forecast of the derecho event. The timing of the modelled storm was in good agreement with the observations. The simulated average storm propagation speed was 25 m/s, similar to the radar observations. Hindcast experiments suggest that more precise warning for the storm could have been issued if the HARMONIE model would have been utilised. The derecho event was accompanied by the remarkable smoke aerosol concentrations (maximum total aerosol optical depth more than 4 at 550 nm) originating from the wildfires from Russia. Smoke plume travelled clockwise around Moscow from August 5 to 9. On August 8, 2010, smoke plume was situated on the Eastern border of Estonia. The derecho occurred on the western side of the smoke plume path. HARMONIE experiments were performed to study the direct radiative effect of wildfire smoke on a severe convective storm. The impact of smoke aerosol on the derecho dynamics was investigated. Reduction in the shortwave radiation flux at the surface resulting from aerosol influence simulated by the HARMONIE model is up to 200 W/m2 in the area with the highest aerosol concentrations. This causes near surface cooling of up to 3 º

  10. Evaluation of the performance of a meso-scale NWP model to forecast solar irradiance on Reunion Island for photovoltaic power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalecinski, Natacha; Haeffelin, Martial; Badosa, Jordi; Periard, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    Solar photovoltaic power is a predominant source of electrical power on Reunion Island, regularly providing near 30% of electrical power demand for a few hours per day. However solar power on Reunion Island is strongly modulated by clouds in small temporal and spatial scales. Today regional regulations require that new solar photovoltaic plants be combined with storage systems to reduce electrical power fluctuations on the grid. Hence cloud and solar irradiance forecasting becomes an important tool to help optimize the operation of new solar photovoltaic plants on Reunion Island. Reunion Island, located in the South West of the Indian Ocean, is exposed to persistent trade winds, most of all in winter. In summer, the southward motion of the ITCZ brings atmospheric instabilities on the island and weakens trade winds. This context together with the complex topography of Reunion Island, which is about 60 km wide, with two high summits (3070 and 2512 m) connected by a 1500 m plateau, makes cloudiness very heterogeneous. High cloudiness variability is found between mountain and coastal areas and between the windward, leeward and lateral regions defined with respect to the synoptic wind direction. A detailed study of local dynamics variability is necessary to better understand cloud life cycles around the island. In the presented work, our approach to explore the short-term solar irradiance forecast at local scales is to use the deterministic output from a meso-scale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model, AROME, developed by Meteo France. To start we evaluate the performance of the deterministic forecast from AROME by using meteorological measurements from 21 meteorological ground stations widely spread around the island (and with altitudes from 8 to 2245 m). Ground measurements include solar irradiation, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, air temperature, precipitation and pressure. Secondly we study in the model the local dynamics and thermodynamics that

  11. A new approach for assimilation of two-dimensional radar precipitation in a high resolution NWP model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsholm, Ulrik; Petersen, Claus; Hansen Sass, Bent; Woetman, Niels; Getreuer Jensen, David; Olsen, Bjarke Tobias; GIll, Rasphal; Vedel, Henrik

    2014-05-01

    The DMI nowcasting system has been running in a pre-operational state for the past year. The system consists of hourly simulations with the High Resolution Limited Area weather model combined with surface and three-dimensional variational assimilation at each restart and nudging of satellite cloud products and radar precipitation. Nudging of a two-dimensional radar reflectivity CAPPI product is achieved using a new method where low level horizontal divergence is nudged towards pseudo observations. Pseudo observations are calculated based on an assumed relation between divergence and precipitation rate and the strength of the nudging is proportional to the offset between observed and modelled precipitation leading to increased moisture convergence below cloud base if there is an under-production of precipitation relative to the CAPPI product. If the model over-predicts precipitation, the low level moisture source is reduced, and in-cloud moisture is nudged towards environmental values. In this talk results will be discussed based on calculation of the fractions skill score in cases with heavy precipitation over Denmark. Furthermore, results from simulations combining reflectivity nudging and extrapolation of reflectivity will be shown. Results indicate that the new method leads to fast adjustment of the dynamical state of the model to facilitate precipitation release when the model precipitation intensity is too low. Removal of precipitation is also shown to be of importance and strong improvements were found in the position of the precipitation systems. Bias is reduced for low and extreme precipitation rates.

  12. Improving the accuracy of flood forecasting with transpositions of ensemble NWP rainfall fields considering orographic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wansik; Nakakita, Eiichi; Kim, Sunmin; Yamaguchi, Kosei

    2016-08-01

    The use of meteorological ensembles to produce sets of hydrological predictions increased the capability to issue flood warnings. However, space scale of the hydrological domain is still much finer than meteorological model, and NWP models have challenges with displacement. The main objective of this study to enhance the transposition method proposed in Yu et al. (2014) and to suggest the post-processing ensemble flood forecasting method for the real-time updating and the accuracy improvement of flood forecasts that considers the separation of the orographic rainfall and the correction of misplaced rain distributions using additional ensemble information through the transposition of rain distributions. In the first step of the proposed method, ensemble forecast rainfalls from a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model are separated into orographic and non-orographic rainfall fields using atmospheric variables and the extraction of topographic effect. Then the non-orographic rainfall fields are examined by the transposition scheme to produce additional ensemble information and new ensemble NWP rainfall fields are calculated by recombining the transposition results of non-orographic rain fields with separated orographic rainfall fields for a generation of place-corrected ensemble information. Then, the additional ensemble information is applied into a hydrologic model for post-flood forecasting with a 6-h interval. The newly proposed method has a clear advantage to improve the accuracy of mean value of ensemble flood forecasting. Our study is carried out and verified using the largest flood event by typhoon 'Talas' of 2011 over the two catchments, which are Futatsuno (356.1 km2) and Nanairo (182.1 km2) dam catchments of Shingu river basin (2360 km2), which is located in the Kii peninsula, Japan.

  13. A Comparison of the Performance of Advanced Statistical Techniques for the Refinement of Day-ahead and Longer NWP-based Wind Power Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Predictions from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models are the foundation for wind power forecasts for day-ahead and longer forecast horizons. The NWP models directly produce three-dimensional wind forecasts on their respective computational grids. These can be interpolated to the location and time of interest. However, these direct predictions typically contain significant systematic errors ("biases"). This is due to a variety of factors including the limited space-time resolution of the NWP models and shortcomings in the model's representation of physical processes. It has become common practice to attempt to improve the raw NWP forecasts by statistically adjusting them through a procedure that is widely known as Model Output Statistics (MOS). The challenge is to identify complex patterns of systematic errors and then use this knowledge to adjust the NWP predictions. The MOS-based improvements are the basis for much of the value added by commercial wind power forecast providers. There are an enormous number of statistical approaches that can be used to generate the MOS adjustments to the raw NWP forecasts. In order to obtain insight into the potential value of some of the newer and more sophisticated statistical techniques often referred to as "machine learning methods" a MOS-method comparison experiment has been performed for wind power generation facilities in 6 wind resource areas of California. The underlying NWP models that provided the raw forecasts were the two primary operational models of the US National Weather Service: the GFS and NAM models. The focus was on 1- and 2-day ahead forecasts of the hourly wind-based generation. The statistical methods evaluated included: (1) screening multiple linear regression, which served as a baseline method, (2) artificial neural networks, (3) a decision-tree approach called random forests, (4) gradient boosted regression based upon an decision-tree algorithm, (5) support vector regression and (6) analog ensemble

  14. Benchmarking NWP Kernels on Multi- and Many-core Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakes, J.; Vachharajani, M.

    2008-12-01

    Increased computing power for weather, climate, and atmospheric science has provided direct benefits for defense, agriculture, the economy, the environment, and public welfare and convenience. Today, very large clusters with many thousands of processors are allowing scientists to move forward with simulations of unprecedented size. But time-critical applications such as real-time forecasting or climate prediction need strong scaling: faster nodes and processors, not more of them. Moreover, the need for good cost- performance has never been greater, both in terms of performance per watt and per dollar. For these reasons, the new generations of multi- and many-core processors being mass produced for commercial IT and "graphical computing" (video games) are being scrutinized for their ability to exploit the abundant fine- grain parallelism in atmospheric models. We present results of our work to date identifying key computational kernels within the dynamics and physics of a large community NWP model, the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. We benchmark and optimize these kernels on several different multi- and many-core processors. The goals are to (1) characterize and model performance of the kernels in terms of computational intensity, data parallelism, memory bandwidth pressure, memory footprint, etc. (2) enumerate and classify effective strategies for coding and optimizing for these new processors, (3) assess difficulties and opportunities for tool or higher-level language support, and (4) establish a continuing set of kernel benchmarks that can be used to measure and compare effectiveness of current and future designs of multi- and many-core processors for weather and climate applications.

  15. Validation of mixing height determined from vertical profiles of wind and temperature from the DMI-HIRLAM NWP model in comparison with readiosoundings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, A.; Soerensen, J.H.; Nielsen, N.W. [Danish Meteorological Inst., DMI, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    A sensitivity study is performed of vertical profiles from the numerical weather prediction model DMI-HIRLAM (DMI-HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model). The study involves profiles of horizontal wind, temperature and humidity in the lower troposphere up to 2500 meter. Detailed comparisons of analysed as well as forecast profiles are made with measured data from several radio-sonde stations throughout Europe. Methods for estimating the Mixing Height (MH) based on a bulk Richardson number method, the Vogelezang and Holtslag method and parcel methods are also studied. The methods are inter-compared, and MH based on data from DMI-HIRLAM are compared with the corresponding MH based on radiosonde data. For convective conditions the MH estimates are also compared with subjective estimates of the MH. In this paper preliminary results mainly based on data from Jaegersborg (Copenhagen) are presented. Results based on data from 1994-95 show that the resemblance between measured profiles and the DMI-HIRLAM profiles is fairly good in general. Also the estimates of the MH based on DMI-HIRLAM data is in general of nearly the same quality as estimations based on observed data. However, especially in convective conditions there is a tendency by DMI-HIRLAM to underestimate the strength of the mixing and thereby relatively large errors in the estimates of the MH can occur. (au)

  16. Comparison of NWP prognosis and local monitoring data from NPPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Poul; Mikkelsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    For four German nuclear power plant sites and for Risø, the site of the Danish nuclear research reactors now being decommissioned, Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP) of wind speed and direction have been compared to 10 minute averaged local measurements. For the German sites the comparison covers...

  17. The use of satellite data assimilation methods in regional NWP for solar irradiance forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzrock, Frederik; Cros, Sylvain; Chane-Ming, Fabrice; Potthast, Roland; Linguet, Laurent; Sébastien, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    As an intermittent energy source, the injection of solar power into electricity grids requires irradiance forecasting in order to ensure grid stability. On time scales of more than six hours ahead, numerical weather prediction (NWP) is recognized as the most appropriate solution. However, the current representation of clouds in NWP models is not sufficiently precise for an accurate forecast of solar irradiance at ground level. Dynamical downscaling does not necessarily increase the quality of irradiance forecasts. Furthermore, incorrectly simulated cloud evolution is often the cause of inaccurate atmospheric analyses. In non-interconnected tropical areas, the large amplitudes of solar irradiance variability provide abundant solar yield but present significant problems for grid safety. Irradiance forecasting is particularly important for solar power stakeholders in these regions where PV electricity penetration is increasing. At the same time, NWP is markedly more challenging in tropic areas than in mid-latitudes due to the special characteristics of tropical homogeneous convective air masses. Numerous data assimilation methods and strategies have evolved and been applied to a large variety of global and regional NWP models in the recent decades. Assimilating data from geostationary meteorological satellites is an appropriate approach. Indeed, models converting radiances measured by satellites into cloud properties already exist. Moreover, data are available at high temporal frequencies, which enable a pertinent cloud cover evolution modelling for solar energy forecasts. In this work, we present a survey of different approaches which aim at improving cloud cover forecasts using the assimilation of geostationary meteorological satellite data into regional NWP models. Various approaches have been applied to a variety of models and satellites and in different regions of the world. Current methods focus on the assimilation of cloud-top information, derived from infrared

  18. Simulation and Prediction of Weather Radar Clutter Using a Wave Propagator on High Resolution NWP Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Bovith, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    for prediction of this type of weather radar clutter is presented. The method uses a wave propagator to identify areas of potential non-standard propagation. The wave propagator uses a three dimensional refractivity field derived from the geophysical parameters: temperature, humidity, and pressure obtained from......Weather radars are essential sensors for observation of precipitation in the troposphere and play a major part in weather forecasting and hydrological modelling. Clutter caused by non-standard wave propagation is a common problem in weather radar applications, and in this paper a method...... a high-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model. The wave propagator is based on the parabolic equation approximation to the electromagnetic wave equation. The parabolic equation is solved using the well-known Fourier split-step method. Finally, the radar clutter prediction technique is used...

  19. Monetary Shocks in Models with Inattentive Producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Fernando E; Lippi, Francesco; Paciello, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    We study models where prices respond slowly to shocks because firms are rationally inattentive. Producers must pay a cost to observe the determinants of the current profit maximizing price, and hence observe them infrequently. To generate large real effects of monetary shocks in such a model the time between observations must be long and/or highly volatile. Previous work on rational inattentiveness has allowed for observation intervals that are either constant-but-long ( e.g . Caballero, 1989 or Reis, 2006) or volatile-but-short ( e.g . Reis's, 2006 example where observation costs are negligible), but not both. In these models, the real effects of monetary policy are small for realistic values of the duration between observations. We show that non-negligible observation costs produce both of these effects: intervals between observations are infrequent and volatile. This generates large real effects of monetary policy for realistic values of the average time between observations.

  20. Microphysical Parameterizations for NWP: It's All About the Sizes and Production Pathways of Hydrometeors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Sara A.; Bao, Jian-Wen; Grell, Evelyn D.

    2017-04-01

    Bulk microphysical parameterization schemes are popularly used in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models to simulate clouds and precpitation. These schemes are based on assumed number distribution functions for individual hydrometeor species, which are integratable over size distributions of diameters from zero to infinity. Typically, hydrometeor mass and number mixing ratios are predicted in these schemes. Some schemes also predict a third parameter of hydrometeor distribution characteristics. In this study, four commonly-used microphysics schemes of various complexity that are available in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) are investigated and compared using numerical model simulations of an idealized 2-D squall line and microphysics budget analysis. Diagnoses of the parameterized pathways for hydrometeor production reveal that the differences related to the assumptions of hydrometeor size distributions between the schemes lead to the differences in the simulations due to the net effect of various microphysical processes on the interaction between latent heating/evaporative cooling and flow dynamics as the squall line develops. Results from this study also highlight the possibility that the advantage of double-moment formulations can be overshadowed by the uncertainties in the spectral definition of individual hydrometeor categories and spectrum-dependent microphysical processes. It is concluded that the major differences between the schemes investigated here are in the assumed hydrometeor size distributions and pathways for their production.

  1. NWP-Based Adjustment of IMERG Precipitation for Flood-Inducing Complex Terrain Storms: Evaluation over CONUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxuan Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the use of precipitation forecasts from a numerical weather prediction (NWP model for near-real-time satellite precipitation adjustment based on 81 flood-inducing heavy precipitation events in seven mountainous regions over the conterminous United States. The study is facilitated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR real-time ensemble forecasts (called model, the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG near-real-time precipitation product (called raw IMERG and the Stage IV multi-radar/multi-sensor precipitation product (called Stage IV used as a reference. We evaluated four precipitation datasets (the model forecasts, raw IMERG, gauge-adjusted IMERG and model-adjusted IMERG through comparisons against Stage IV at six-hourly and event length scales. The raw IMERG product consistently underestimated heavy precipitation in all study regions, while the domain average rainfall magnitudes exhibited by the model were fairly accurate. The model exhibited error in the locations of intense precipitation over inland regions, however, while the IMERG product generally showed correct spatial precipitation patterns. Overall, the model-adjusted IMERG product performed best over inland regions by taking advantage of the more accurate rainfall magnitude from NWP and the spatial distribution from IMERG. In coastal regions, although model-based adjustment effectively improved the performance of the raw IMERG product, the model forecast performed even better. The IMERG product could benefit from gauge-based adjustment, as well, but the improvement from model-based adjustment was consistently more significant.

  2. Sensitivity of Satellite-Based Skin Temperature to Different Surface Emissivity and NWP Reanalysis Sources Demonstrated Using a Single-Channel, Viewing-Angle-Corrected Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarino, B. R.; Minnis, P.; Yost, C. R.; Chee, T.; Palikonda, R.

    2015-12-01

    Single-channel algorithms for satellite thermal-infrared- (TIR-) derived land and sea surface skin temperature (LST and SST) are advantageous in that they can be easily applied to a variety of satellite sensors. They can also accommodate decade-spanning instrument series, particularly for periods when split-window capabilities are not available. However, the benefit of one unified retrieval methodology for all sensors comes at the cost of critical sensitivity to surface emissivity (ɛs) and atmospheric transmittance estimation. It has been demonstrated that as little as 0.01 variance in ɛs can amount to more than a 0.5-K adjustment in retrieved LST values. Atmospheric transmittance requires calculations that employ vertical profiles of temperature and humidity from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Selection of a given NWP model can significantly affect LST and SST agreement relative to their respective validation sources. Thus, it is necessary to understand the accuracies of the retrievals for various NWP models to ensure the best LST/SST retrievals. The sensitivities of the single-channel retrievals to surface emittance and NWP profiles are investigated using NASA Langley historic land and ocean clear-sky skin temperature (Ts) values derived from high-resolution 11-μm TIR brightness temperature measured from geostationary satellites (GEOSat) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR). It is shown that mean GEOSat-derived, anisotropy-corrected LST can vary by up to ±0.8 K depending on whether CERES or MODIS ɛs sources are used. Furthermore, the use of either NOAA Global Forecast System (GFS) or NASA Goddard Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for the radiative transfer model initial atmospheric state can account for more than 0.5-K variation in mean Ts. The results are compared to measurements from the Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD), an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program ground

  3. Comparison of NWP wind speeds and directions to measured wind speeds and directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Poul; Mikkelsen, Torben

    Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP) of wind speed and direction has been compared to measurements for seven German sites for nuclear power plants, and for Risø, the site of the Danish nuclear research reactors now being decommissioned . For the German sites the data cover approximately three month...

  4. A Simple Technique for Creating Regional Composites of Sea Surface Temperature from MODIS for Use in Operational Mesoscale NWP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knievel, Jason C.; Rife, Daran L.; Grim, Joseph A.; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hacker, Joshua P.; Ge, Ming; Fisher, Henry H.

    2010-01-01

    phenomenon was chosen for demonstrating the use of the MODIS-based composite in an NWP model. A simulated sea breeze in the vicinity of New York City and Long Island shows a small, net, but far from universal improvement when MODIS-based composites are used in place of RTG analyses. The timing of the sea breeze s arrival is more accurate at some stations, and the near-surface temperature, wind, and humidity within the breeze are more realistic.

  5. A New Integrated Weighted Model in SNOW-V10: Verification of Categorical Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Laura X.; Isaac, George A.; Sheng, Grant

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the verification results for nowcasts of seven categorical variables from an integrated weighted model (INTW) and the underlying numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Nowcasting, or short range forecasting (0-6 h), over complex terrain with sufficient accuracy is highly desirable but a very challenging task. A weighting, evaluation, bias correction and integration system (WEBIS) for generating nowcasts by integrating NWP forecasts and high frequency observations was used during the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games as part of the Science of Nowcasting Olympic Weather for Vancouver 2010 (SNOW-V10) project. Forecast data from Canadian high-resolution deterministic NWP system with three nested grids (at 15-, 2.5- and 1-km horizontal grid-spacing) were selected as background gridded data for generating the integrated nowcasts. Seven forecast variables of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind gust, visibility, ceiling and precipitation rate are treated as categorical variables for verifying the integrated weighted forecasts. By analyzing the verification of forecasts from INTW and the NWP models among 15 sites, the integrated weighted model was found to produce more accurate forecasts for the 7 selected forecast variables, regardless of location. This is based on the multi-categorical Heidke skill scores for the test period 12 February to 21 March 2010.

  6. Current status of multimodel superensemble and operational NWP ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    global climate and weather modeling branch for. January 2006. .... homogeneity of land surface, orography, water bod- ..... batic and the cloud-environment sounding intersect). ..... the influence of cumulus convection on large-scale flow;.

  7. Nowcasting of 1-h precipitation using radar and NWP data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Zbyněk

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 328, 1-2 (2006), s. 200-211 ISSN 0022-1694 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/0114; GA AV ČR IBS3042101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Precipitation forecast * Regression models * Nowcasting * Radar Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.117, year: 2006

  8. Temporal variatiions of Sea ice cover in the Baltic Sea derived from operational sea ice products used in NWP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Martin; Paul, Gerhard; Potthast, Roland

    2014-05-01

    Sea ice cover is a crucial parameter for surface fluxes of heat and moisture over water areas. The isolating effect and the much higher albedo strongly reduces the turbulent exchange of heat and moisture from the surface to the atmosphere and allows for cold and dry air mass flow with strong impact on the stability of the whole boundary layer and consequently cloud formation as well as precipitation in the downstream regions. Numerical weather centers as, ECMWF, MetoFrance or DWD use external products to initialize SST and sea ice cover in their NWP models. To the knowledge of the author there are mainly two global sea ice products well established with operational availability, one from NOAA NCEP that combines measurements with satellite data, and the other from OSI-SAF derived from SSMI/S sensors. The latter one is used in the Ostia product. DWD additionally uses a regional product for the Baltic Sea provided by the national center for shipping and hydrografie which combines observations from ships (and icebreakers) for the German part of the Baltic Sea and model analysis from the hydrodynamic HIROMB model of the Swedish meteorological service for the rest of the domain. The temporal evolution of the three different products are compared for a cold period in Februar 2012. Goods and bads will be presented and suggestions for a harmonization of strong day to day jumps over large areas are suggested.

  9. Emissions Models and Other Methods to Produce Emission Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    An emissions inventory is a summary or forecast of the emissions produced by a group of sources in a given time period. Inventories of air pollution from mobile sources are often produced by models such as the MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES).

  10. Can producer currency pricing models generate volatile real exchange rates?

    OpenAIRE

    Povoledo, L.

    2012-01-01

    If the elasticities of substitution between traded and nontraded and between Home and Foreign traded goods are sufficiently low, then the real exchange rate generated by a model with full producer currency pricing is as volatile as in the data.

  11. Employing Tropospheric Numerical Weather Prediction Model for High-Precision GNSS Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Daniele; Gouveia, Tayna; Abreu, Pedro; Magário, Jackes

    2014-05-01

    In the past few years is increasing the necessity of realizing high accuracy positioning. In this sense, the spatial technologies have being widely used. The GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) has revolutionized the geodetic positioning activities. Among the existent methods one can emphasize the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and network-based positioning. But, to get high accuracy employing these methods, mainly in real time, is indispensable to realize the atmospheric modeling (ionosphere and troposphere) accordingly. Related to troposphere, there are the empirical models (for example Saastamoinen and Hopfield). But when highly accuracy results (error of few centimeters) are desired, maybe these models are not appropriated to the Brazilian reality. In order to minimize this limitation arises the NWP (Numerical Weather Prediction) models. In Brazil the CPTEC/INPE (Center for Weather Prediction and Climate Studies / Brazilian Institute for Spatial Researches) provides a regional NWP model, currently used to produce Zenithal Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) predictions (http://satelite.cptec.inpe.br/zenital/). The actual version, called eta15km model, has a spatial resolution of 15 km and temporal resolution of 3 hours. In this paper the main goal is to accomplish experiments and analysis concerning the use of troposphere NWP model (eta15km model) in PPP and network-based positioning. Concerning PPP it was used data from dozens of stations over the Brazilian territory, including Amazon forest. The results obtained with NWP model were compared with Hopfield one. NWP model presented the best results in all experiments. Related to network-based positioning it was used data from GNSS/SP Network in São Paulo State, Brazil. This network presents the best configuration in the country to realize this kind of positioning. Actually the network is composed by twenty stations (http://www.fct.unesp.br/#!/pesquisa/grupos-de-estudo-e-pesquisa/gege//gnss-sp-network2789/). The

  12. Test of models for electron transport in laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombant, D.G.; Manheimer, W.M.; Busquet, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines five different models of electron thermal transport in laser produced spherical implosions. These are classical, classical with a flux limit f, delocalization, beam deposition model, and Fokker-Planck solutions. In small targets, the results are strongly dependent on f for flux limit models, with small f's generating very steep temperature gradients. Delocalization models are characterized by large preheat in the center of the target. The beam deposition model agrees reasonably well with the Fokker-Planck simulation results. For large, high gain fusion targets, the delocalization model shows the gain substantially reduced by the preheat. However, flux limitation models show gain largely independent of f, with the beam deposition model also showing the same high gain

  13. On the performance of the new NWP nowcasting system at the Danish Meteorological Institute during a heavy rain period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bjarke Tobias; Smith Korsholm, Ulrik; Petersen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    At the Danish Meteorological Institute, the NWP nowcasting system has been enhanced to include assimilation of 2D precipitation rates derived from weather radar observations. The assimilation is performed using a nudging-based technique. Here the rain rates are used to estimate the changes in the...

  14. Meteorological uncertainty of atmospheric dispersion model results (MUD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havskov Soerensen, J.; Amstrup, B.; Feddersen, H. [Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-08-15

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario. However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for long-range atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent uncertainties of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological observations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing e.g. the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observational data, an ensemble of meteorological forecasts is produced from which uncertainties in the various meteorological parameters are estimated, e.g. probabilities for rain. Corresponding ensembles of atmospheric dispersion can now be computed from which uncertainties of predicted radionuclide concentration and deposition patterns can be derived. (Author)

  15. Meteorological uncertainty of atmospheric dispersion model results (MUD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havskov Soerensen, J.; Amstrup, B.; Feddersen, H.

    2013-08-01

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario. However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for long-range atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent uncertainties of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological observations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing e.g. the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observational data, an ensemble of meteorological forecasts is produced from which uncertainties in the various meteorological parameters are estimated, e.g. probabilities for rain. Corresponding ensembles of atmospheric dispersion can now be computed from which uncertainties of predicted radionuclide concentration and deposition patterns can be derived. (Author)

  16. Interactions in heated milk model systems with different ratios of nanoparticulated whey protein at varying pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Guanchen; Jæger, Tanja C.; Nielsen, Søren B.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the interactions between nanoparticulated whey protein (NWP) and other milk proteins during acidification, milk model systems were diluted to 0.5% protein concentration and adjusted to pH of 6.0-4.5 following homogenisation and heat treatment. The diluted systems with different...... concentrations of NWP (0-0.5%) were characterised in terms of particle size, viscosity, surface charge and hydrophobicity. When pH was adjusted to 5.5, aggregation was initiated at levels of NWP (0.25-0.5%) leading to significant increase in particle size and viscosity. Pure NWP (0.5%) showed largest initial...

  17. Aviation Model: A Fine-Scale Numerical Weather Prediction System for Aviation Applications at the Hong Kong International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Kin Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hong Kong Observatory (HKO is planning to implement a fine-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP model for supporting the aviation weather applications at the Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA. This new NWP model system, called Aviation Model (AVM, is configured at a horizontal grid spacing of 600 m and 200 m. It is based on the WRF-ARW (Advance Research WRF model that can have sufficient computation efficiency in order to produce hourly updated forecasts up to 9 hours ahead on a future high performance computer system with theoretical peak performance of around 10 TFLOPS. AVM will be nested inside the operational mesoscale NWP model of HKO with horizontal resolution of 2 km. In this paper, initial numerical experiment results in forecast of windshear events due to seabreeze and terrain effect are discussed. The simulation of sea-breeze-related windshear is quite successful, and the headwind change observed from flight data could be reproduced in the model forecast. Some impacts of physical processes on generating the fine-scale wind circulation and development of significant convection are illustrated. The paper also discusses the limitations in the current model setup and proposes methods for the future development of AVM.

  18. Next generation sequencing yields the complete mitochondrial genome of the flathead mullet, Mugil cephalus cryptic species NWP2 (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kang-Ning; Yen, Ta-Chi; Chen, Ching-Hung; Li, Huei-Ying; Chen, Pei-Lung; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of Northwestern Pacific 2 (NWP2) cryptic species of flathead mullet, Mugil cephalus (Teleostei: Mugilidae) has been amplified by long-range PCR and sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome, consisting of 16,686 bp, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes and a non-coding control region of D-loop. D-loop was 909 bp length and was located between tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe. The overall base composition of NWP2 M. cephalus was 28.4% for A, 29.8% for C, 26.5% for T and 15.3% for G. The complete mitogenome may provide essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis for flathead mullet species complex.

  19. High-resolution numerical modeling of mesoscale island wakes and sensitivity to static topographic relief data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Nunalee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have witnessed a drastic increase in the fidelity of numerical weather prediction (NWP modeling. Currently, both research-grade and operational NWP models regularly perform simulations with horizontal grid spacings as fine as 1 km. This migration towards higher resolution potentially improves NWP model solutions by increasing the resolvability of mesoscale processes and reducing dependency on empirical physics parameterizations. However, at the same time, the accuracy of high-resolution simulations, particularly in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL, is also sensitive to orographic forcing which can have significant variability on the same spatial scale as, or smaller than, NWP model grids. Despite this sensitivity, many high-resolution atmospheric simulations do not consider uncertainty with respect to selection of static terrain height data set. In this paper, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model to simulate realistic cases of lower tropospheric flow over and downstream of mountainous islands using the default global 30 s United States Geographic Survey terrain height data set (GTOPO30, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, and the Global Multi-resolution Terrain Elevation Data set (GMTED2010 terrain height data sets. While the differences between the SRTM-based and GMTED2010-based simulations are extremely small, the GTOPO30-based simulations differ significantly. Our results demonstrate cases where the differences between the source terrain data sets are significant enough to produce entirely different orographic wake mechanics, such as vortex shedding vs. no vortex shedding. These results are also compared to MODIS visible satellite imagery and ASCAT near-surface wind retrievals. Collectively, these results highlight the importance of utilizing accurate static orographic boundary conditions when running high-resolution mesoscale models.

  20. Modeling terrestrial gamma ray flashes produced by relativistic feedback discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ningyu; Dwyer, Joseph R.

    2013-05-01

    This paper reports a modeling study of terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) produced by relativistic feedback discharges. Terrestrial gamma ray flashes are intense energetic radiation originating from the Earth's atmosphere that has been observed by spacecraft. They are produced by bremsstrahlung interactions of energetic electrons, known as runaway electrons, with air atoms. An efficient physical mechanism for producing large fluxes of the runaway electrons to make the TGFs is the relativistic feedback discharge, where seed runaway electrons are generated by positrons and X-rays, products of the discharge itself. Once the relativistic feedback discharge becomes self-sustaining, an exponentially increasing number of relativistic electron avalanches propagate through the same high-field region inside the thundercloud until the electric field is partially discharged by the ionization created by the discharge. The modeling results indicate that the durations of the TGF pulses produced by the relativistic feedback discharge vary from tens of microseconds to several milliseconds, encompassing all durations of the TGFs observed so far. In addition, when a sufficiently large potential difference is available in thunderclouds, a self-propagating discharge known as the relativistic feedback streamer can be formed, which propagates like a conventional positive streamer. For the relativistic feedback streamer, the positive feedback mechanism of runaway electron production by the positrons and X-rays plays a similar role as the photoionization for the conventional positive streamer. The simulation results of the relativistic feedback streamer show that a sequence of TGF pulses with varying durations can be produced by the streamer. The relativistic streamer may initially propagate with a pulsed manner and turn into a continuous propagation mode at a later stage. Milliseconds long TGF pulses can be produced by the feedback streamer during its continuous propagation. However

  1. Toward seamless high-resolution flash flood forecasting over Europe based on radar nowcasting and NWP: An evaluation with case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shinju; Berenguer, Marc; Sempere-Torres, Daniel; Baugh, Calum; Smith, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Flash floods induced by heavy rain are one of the hazardous natural events that significantly affect human lives. Because flash floods are characterized by their rapid onset, forecasting flash flood to lead an effective response requires accurate rainfall predictions with high spatial and temporal resolution and adequate representation of the hydrologic and hydraulic processes within a catchment that determine rainfall-runoff accumulations. We present extreme flash flood cases which occurred throughout Europe in 2015-2016 that were identified and forecasted by two real-time approaches: 1) the European Rainfall-Induced Hazard Assessment System (ERICHA) and 2) the European Runoff Index based on Climatology (ERIC). ERICHA is based on the nowcasts of accumulated precipitation generated from the pan-European radar composites produced by the EUMETNET project OPERA. It has the advantage of high-resolution precipitation inputs and rapidly updated forecasts (every 15 minutes), but limited forecast lead time (up to 8 hours). ERIC, on the other hand, provides 5-day forecasts based on the COSMO-LEPS NWP simulations updated 2 times a day but is only produced at a 7 km resolution. We compare the products from both systems and focus on showing the advantages, limitations and complementarities of ERICHA and ERIC for seamless high-resolution flash flood forecasting.

  2. Is the Merchant Power Producer a broken model?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, James; Simshauser, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Deregulated energy markets were founded on the Merchant Power Producer, a stand-alone generator that sold its production to the spot and short-term forward markets, underpinned by long-dated project finance. The initial enthusiasm that existed for investment in existing and new merchant power plant capacity shortly after power system deregulation has progressively dissipated, following an excess entry result. In this article, we demonstrate why this has become a global trend. Using debt-sizing parameters typically used by project banks, we model a benchmark plant, then re-simulate its performance using live energy market price data and find that such financings are no longer feasible in the absence of long-term Power Purchase Agreements. - Highlights: ► We model a hypothetical CCGT plant in QLD under project financing constraints typical of the industry. ► We simulate plant operations with live market data to analyse the results. ► We find that a plant which should represent the industry's long-run marginal cost is not a feasible investment.

  3. Modelling the oil producers: Capturing oil industry knowledge in a behavioural simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morecroft, J.D.W.; Van der Heijden, K.A.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    A group of senior managers and planners from a major oil company met to discuss the changing structure of the oil industry with the purpose of improving group understanding of oil market behaviour for use in global scenarios. This broad ranging discussion led to a system dynamics simulation model of the oil producers. The model produced new insights into the power and stability of OPEC (the major oil producers' organization), the dynamic of oil prices, and the investment opportunities of non-OPEC producers. The paper traces the model development process, starting from group discussions and leading to working simulation models. Particular attention is paid to the methods used to capture team knowledge and to ensure that the computer models reflected opinions and ideas from the meetings. The paper describes how flip-chart diagrams were used to collect ideas about the logic of the principal producers' production decisions. A sub-group of the project team developed and tested an algebraic model. The paper shows partial model simulations used to build confidence and a sense of ownership in the algebraic formulations. Further simulations show how the full model can stimulate thinking about producers' behaviour and oil prices. The paper concludes with comments on the model building process. 11 figs., 37 refs

  4. Impact of profile observations on the German Weather Service's NWP system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Cress

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In preparation for a study on the potential impact of a space-borne Doppler wind lidar on the quality of NWP products, a series of assimilations and forecasts were conducted to estimate the potential benefit of conventional wind and temperature profile measurements over North America to numerical weather forecasts for the Northern Hemisphere and specifically, Europe. A comparison of the forecast quality of a control run, using all available observations, to experiments omitting wind and temperature data from specific instruments (radiosondes, pilot stations and aircraft makes it possible to estimate the importance of the omitted data, and clarify whether winds derived from the geostrophic relation are sufficient or whether observed wind profiles result in a more realistic definition of the initial state for numerical weather prediction systems in the extra-tropic regions. Very little impact on forecast quality was noted when wind or temperature observations from radiosondes and pilots were excluded from the assimilation process. However, a clear deterioration in forecast quality was observed when additionally all available wind or temperature measurements from aircraft were also withheld. Comparisons of the relative utility of wind and temperature observations over North America show that assimilations and forecasts derive more benefit from wind data than from temperature data. The greatest deterioration could be observed if both wind and temperature observations were omitted from the assimilation cycle. By tracing the differences between the control forecasts and the experimental forecasts to their initial difference, the regions around Hudson Bay, Novia Scotia, Buffin Bay and Northern Canada could be identified as sensitive areas, i.e. those where a missing observation could have a substantial effect on the forecast for the Northern Hemisphere and Europe. Comparisons of the relative utility of radiosonde wind and temperature observations over

  5. Computational Modeling of Large Wildfires: A Roadmap

    KAUST Repository

    Coen, Janice L.; Douglas, Craig C.

    2010-01-01

    Wildland fire behavior, particularly that of large, uncontrolled wildfires, has not been well understood or predicted. Our methodology to simulate this phenomenon uses high-resolution dynamic models made of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models

  6. Verification of cloud field simulated by the NWP model with MSG-SEVIRI data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bližňák, Vojtěch; Sokol, Zbyněk; Zacharov, Petr, jr.

    -, - (2014) [EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite Conference. 22.09.2014–26.09.2014, Ženeva] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology https://events.kuoni-dmc.com/ei3/images/EUMETSAT14/Abstract/PDF/All_abstracts.pdf

  7. Nowcasting of precipitation by an NWP model using assimilation of extrapolated radar reflectivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Zacharov, Petr, jr.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 665 (2012), s. 1072-1082 ISSN 0035-9009 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : precipitation forecast * radar extrapolation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.327, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/qj.970/abstract

  8. Nowcasting of hailstorms simulated by the NWP model COSMO for the area of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Bližňák, Vojtěch; Zacharov, Petr, jr.; Skripniková, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 171, 1 May (2016), s. 66-76 ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S; GA ČR(CZ) GPP209/12/P701 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : hail * numerical weather prediction * COSMO * nowcasting Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.778, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169809515003968

  9. A radiation dependent ionization model for laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquet, M.

    1996-01-01

    RADIOM is a non-Local Thermodynamical Equilibrium Atomic Physics model, accounting for x-ray reabsorption. We present shortly the model, its introduction in hydrodynamic codes and a few application. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. The Whole Shebang: How Science Produced the Big Bang Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    Offers an account of the accumulation of evidence that has led scientists to have confidence in the big bang theory of the creation of the universe. Discusses the early work of Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton, noting the rise of astrophysics, and highlighting the birth of the big bang model (the cosmic microwave background theory…

  11. In Vitro-Produced Pancreas Organogenesis Models In Three Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggio, Chiara; De Franceschi, Filippo; Grapin-Botton, Anne

    2015-01-01

    of miniature organs in a dish and are emerging for the pancreas, starting from embryonic progenitors and adult cells. This review focusses on the currently available systems and how these allow new types of questions to be addressed. We discuss the expected advancements including their potential to study human...... pancreas development and function as well as to develop diabetes models and therapeutic cells. Stem Cells 2014....

  12. Modeling nitrogen plasmas produced by intense electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, J. R.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Schumer, J. W.; Hinshelwood, D. D. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Mosher, D.; Ottinger, P. F. [Independent contractors for NRL through Engility, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia 22314 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    A new gas–chemistry model is presented to treat the breakdown of a nitrogen gas with pressures on the order of 1 Torr from intense electron beams with current densities on the order of 10 kA/cm{sup 2} and pulse durations on the order of 100 ns. For these parameter regimes, the gas transitions from a weakly ionized molecular state to a strongly ionized atomic state on the time scale of the beam pulse. The model is coupled to a 0D–circuit model using the rigid–beam approximation that can be driven by specifying the time and spatial profiles of the beam pulse. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the line–integrated electron density from experiments done using the Gamble II generator at the Naval Research Laboratory. It is found that the species are mostly in the ground and metastable states during the atomic phase, but that ionization proceeds predominantly through thermal ionization of optically allowed states with excitation energies close to the ionization limit.

  13. 3D Modelling and Printing Technology to Produce Patient-Specific 3D Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbara, Nicolette S; Otton, James M; Pather, Nalini

    2017-11-10

    A comprehensive knowledge of mitral valve (MV) anatomy is crucial in the assessment of MV disease. While the use of three-dimensional (3D) modelling and printing in MV assessment has undergone early clinical evaluation, the precision and usefulness of this technology requires further investigation. This study aimed to assess and validate 3D modelling and printing technology to produce patient-specific 3D MV models. A prototype method for MV 3D modelling and printing was developed from computed tomography (CT) scans of a plastinated human heart. Mitral valve models were printed using four 3D printing methods and validated to assess precision. Cardiac CT and 3D echocardiography imaging data of four MV disease patients was used to produce patient-specific 3D printed models, and 40 cardiac health professionals (CHPs) were surveyed on the perceived value and potential uses of 3D models in a clinical setting. The prototype method demonstrated submillimetre precision for all four 3D printing methods used, and statistical analysis showed a significant difference (p3D printed models, particularly using multiple print materials, were considered useful by CHPs for preoperative planning, as well as other applications such as teaching and training. This study suggests that, with further advances in 3D modelling and printing technology, patient-specific 3D MV models could serve as a useful clinical tool. The findings also highlight the potential of this technology to be applied in a variety of medical areas within both clinical and educational settings. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Business Models and Producer-Owned Ventures: Choices, Challenges, and Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Kenkel, Philip L.; Park, John L.

    2007-01-01

    Producer-owned business models are rapidly evolving. Producer-owned, value-added ventures face a number of organizational challenges, including capital acquisition, security exchange registration, antitrust exemption, borrowing eligibility, and operational flexibility. This paper examines the success of evolving producer-owned business models in addressing these challenges. The need for uniform criteria to distinguish producer-owned business from other business forms throughout the complex st...

  15. Modelling and optimisation of fs laser-produced Kα sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbon, P.; Masek, M.; Teubner, U.; Lu, W.; Nicoul, M.; Shymanovich, U.; Tarasevitch, A.; Zhou, P.; Sokolowski-Tinten, K.; Linde, D. von der

    2009-01-01

    Recent theoretical and numerical studies of laser-driven femtosecond K α sources are presented, aimed at understanding a recent experimental campaign to optimize emission from thin coating targets. Particular attention is given to control over the laser-plasma interaction conditions defined by the interplay between a controlled prepulse and the angle of incidence. It is found that the x-ray efficiency for poor-contrast laser systems in which a large preplasma is suspected can be enhanced by using a near-normal incidence geometry even at high laser intensities. With high laser contrast, similar efficiencies can be achieved by going to larger incidence angles, but only at the expense of larger X-ray spot size. New developments in three-dimensional modelling are also reported with the goal of handling interactions with geometrically complex targets and finite resistivity. (orig.)

  16. Prior and posterior probabilistic models of uncertainties in a model for producing voice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, Edson; Sampaio, Rubens; Soize, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to use Bayesian statistics to update a probability density function related to the tension parameter, which is one of the main parameters responsible for the changing of the fundamental frequency of a voice signal, generated by a mechanical/mathematical model for producing voiced sounds. We follow a parametric approach for stochastic modeling, which requires the adoption of random variables to represent the uncertain parameters present in the cited model. For each random variable, a probability density function is constructed using the Maximum Entropy Principle and the Monte Carlo method is used to generate voice signals as the output of the model. Then, a probability density function of the voice fundamental frequency is constructed. The random variables are fit to experimental data so that the probability density function of the fundamental frequency obtained by the model can be as near as possible of a probability density function obtained from experimental data. New values are obtained experimentally for the fundamental frequency and they are used to update the probability density function of the tension parameter, via Bayes's Theorem.

  17. Conditional Stochastic Models in Reduced Space: Towards Efficient Simulation of Tropical Cyclone Precipitation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodov, B.

    2017-12-01

    Stochastic simulation of realistic and statistically robust patterns of Tropical Cyclone (TC) induced precipitation is a challenging task. It is even more challenging in a catastrophe modeling context, where tens of thousands of typhoon seasons need to be simulated in order to provide a complete view of flood risk. Ultimately, one could run a coupled global climate model and regional Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model, but this approach is not feasible in the catastrophe modeling context and, most importantly, may not provide TC track patterns consistent with observations. Rather, we propose to leverage NWP output for the observed TC precipitation patterns (in terms of downscaled reanalysis 1979-2015) collected on a Lagrangian frame along the historical TC tracks and reduced to the leading spatial principal components of the data. The reduced data from all TCs is then grouped according to timing, storm evolution stage (developing, mature, dissipating, ETC transitioning) and central pressure and used to build a dictionary of stationary (within a group) and non-stationary (for transitions between groups) covariance models. Provided that the stochastic storm tracks with all the parameters describing the TC evolution are already simulated, a sequence of conditional samples from the covariance models chosen according to the TC characteristics at a given moment in time are concatenated, producing a continuous non-stationary precipitation pattern in a Lagrangian framework. The simulated precipitation for each event is finally distributed along the stochastic TC track and blended with a non-TC background precipitation using a data assimilation technique. The proposed framework provides means of efficient simulation (10000 seasons simulated in a couple of days) and robust typhoon precipitation patterns consistent with observed regional climate and visually undistinguishable from high resolution NWP output. The framework is used to simulate a catalog of 10000 typhoon

  18. A Monte Carlo model to produce baryons in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, T.

    1981-08-01

    A simple model is described extending the Field-Feynman model to baryon production in quark fragmentation. The model predicts baryon baryon correlations within jets and in opposite jets produced in electron-positron annihilation. Existing data is well described by the model. (orig.)

  19. Simulation of infiltration and redistribution of intense rainfall using Land Surface Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Anna; Verhoef, Anne; Cloke, Hannah

    2016-04-01

    Flooding from intense rainfall (FFIR) can cause widespread damage and disruption. Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models provide distributed information about atmospheric conditions, such as precipitation, that can lead to a flooding event. Short duration, high intensity rainfall events are generally poorly predicted by NWP models, because of the high spatiotemporal resolution required and because of the way the convective rainfall is described in the model. The resolution of NWP models is ever increasing. Better understanding of complex hydrological processes and the effect of scale is important in order to improve the prediction of magnitude and duration of such events, in the context of disaster management. Working as part of the NERC SINATRA project, we evaluated how the Land Surface Model (LSM) components of NWP models cope with high intensity rainfall input and subsequent infiltration problems. Both in terms of the amount of water infiltrated in the soil store, as well as the timing and the amount of surface and subsurface runoff generated. The models investigated are SWAP (Soil Water Air Plant, Alterra, the Netherlands, van Dam 1997), JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator a component of Unified Model in UK Met Office, Best et al. 2011) and CHTESSEL (Carbon and Hydrology- Tiled ECMWF Scheme for Surface Exchanges over Land, Balsamo et al. 2009) We analysed the numerical aspects arising from discontinuities (or sharp gradients) in forcing and/or the model solution. These types of infiltration configurations were tested in the laboratory (Vachaud 1971), for some there are semi-analytical solutions (Philip 1957, Parlange 1972, Vanderborght 2005) or reference numerical solutions (Haverkamp 1977, van Dam 2000, Vanderborght 2005). The maximum infiltration by the surface, Imax, is in general dependent on atmospheric conditions, surface type, soil type, soil moisture content θ, and surface orographic factor σ. The models used differ in their approach to

  20. Exploring oil market dynamics: a system dynamics model and microworld of the oil producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morecroft, J.D.W. [London Business School (United Kingdom); Marsh, B. [St Andrews Management Institute, Fife (United Kingdom)

    1997-11-01

    This chapter focuses on the development of a simulation model of global oil markets by Royal Dutch/Shell Planners in order to explore the implications of different scenarios. The model development process, mapping the decision making logic of the oil producers, the swing producer making enough to defend the intended price, the independents, quota setting, the opportunists, and market oil price and demand are examined. Use of the model to generate scenarios development of the model as a gaming simulator for training, design of the user interface, and the value of the model are considered in detail. (UK)

  1. A seasonal model of contracts between a monopsonistic processor and smallholder pepper producers in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sáenz Segura, F.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Schipper, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    We model the contractual arrangements between smallholder pepper (Piper nigrum L.) producers and a single processor in Costa Rica. Producers in the El Roble settlement sell their pepper to only one processing firm, which exerts its monopsonistic bargaining power by setting the purchase price of

  2. FOOTPRINT: A Screening Model for Estimating the Area of a Plume Produced From Gasoline Containing Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOOTPRINT is a screening model used to estimate the length and surface area of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) plumes in groundwater, produced from a gasoline spill that contains ethanol.

  3. Modeling of the structure in aqueous solution of the exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus helveticus 766

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Faber, E.J.; Kuik, J.A. van; Kamerling, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    A method is described for constructing a conformational model in water of a heteropolysaccharide built up from repeating units, and is applied to the exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus helveticus 766. The molecular modeling method is based on energy minima, obtained from molecular mechanics

  4. A physical model to predict climate dynamics in ventilated bulk-storage of agricultural produce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukasse, L.J.S.; Kramer-Cuppen, de J.E.; Voort, van der A.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a physical model for predicting climate dynamics in ventilated bulk-storage of agricultural produce. A well-ordered model presentation was obtained by combining an object-oriented zonal decomposition with a process-oriented decomposition through matrix¿vector notation. The

  5. A COMPARISON OF THE TENSILE STRENGTH OF PLASTIC PARTS PRODUCED BY A FUSED DEPOSITION MODELING DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Beniak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Prototyping systems are nowadays increasingly used in many areas of industry, not only for producing design models but also for producing parts for final use. We need to know the properties of these parts. When we talk about the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM technique and FDM devices, there are many possible settings for devices and models which could influence the properties of a final part. In addition, devices based on the same principle may use different operational software for calculating the tool path, and this may have a major impact. The aim of this paper is to show the tensile strength value for parts produced from different materials on the Fused Deposition Modeling device when the horizontal orientation of the specimens is changed.

  6. A novel methodology to model the cooling processes of packed horticultural produce using 3D shape models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruyters, Willem; Verboven, Pieter; Rogge, Seppe; Vanmaercke, Simon; Ramon, Herman; Nicolai, Bart

    2017-10-01

    Freshly harvested horticultural produce require a proper temperature management to maintain their high economic value. Towards this end, low temperature storage is of crucial importance to maintain a high product quality. Optimizing both the package design of packed produce and the different steps in the postharvest cold chain can be achieved by numerical modelling of the relevant transport phenomena. This work presents a novel methodology to accurately model both the random filling of produce in a package and the subsequent cooling process. First, a cultivar-specific database of more than 100 realistic CAD models of apple and pear fruit is built with a validated geometrical 3D shape model generator. To have an accurate representation of a realistic picking season, the model generator also takes into account the biological variability of the produce shape. Next, a discrete element model (DEM) randomly chooses surface meshed bodies from the database to simulate the gravitational filling process of produce in a box or bin, using actual mechanical properties of the fruit. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is then developed with the final stacking arrangement of the produce to study the cooling efficiency of packages under several conditions and configurations. Here, a typical precooling operation is simulated to demonstrate the large differences between using actual 3D shapes of the fruit and an equivalent spheres approach that simplifies the problem drastically. From this study, it is concluded that using a simplified representation of the actual fruit shape may lead to a severe overestimation of the cooling behaviour.

  7. A MODEL FOR PRODUCING STABLE, BROADBAND TERAHERTZ COHERENT SYNCHROTRON RADIATION IN STORAGE RINGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, Fernando; Byrd, John M.; Loftsdottir, Agusta; Martin, MichaelC.; Venturini, Marco

    2003-01-01

    We present a model for producing stable broadband coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency region in an electron storage ring. The model includes distortion of bunch shape from the synchrotron radiation (SR), enhancing higher frequency coherent emission and limits to stable emission due to a microbunching instability excited by the SR. We use this model to optimize the performance of a source for CSR emission

  8. The HTA core model: a novel method for producing and reporting health technology assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe, Kristian; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Garrido, Marcial Velasco

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop and test a generic framework to enable international collaboration for producing and sharing results of health technology assessments (HTAs). METHODS: Ten international teams constructed the HTA Core Model, dividing information contained...... for diagnostic technologies. Two Core HTAs were produced in parallel with developing the model, providing the first real-life testing of the Model and input for further development. The results of formal validation and public feedback were primarily positive. Development needs were also identified and considered....... An online Handbook is available. CONCLUSIONS: The HTA Core Model is a novel approach to HTA. It enables effective international production and sharing of HTA results in a structured format. The face validity of the Model was confirmed during the project, but further testing and refining are needed to ensure...

  9. Comparison of dimensional accuracy of digital dental models produced from scanned impressions and scanned stone casts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subeihi, Haitham

    Introduction: Digital models of dental arches play a more and more important role in dentistry. A digital dental model can be generated by directly scanning intraoral structures, by scanning a conventional impression of oral structures or by scanning a stone cast poured from the conventional impression. An accurate digital scan model is a fundamental part for the fabrication of dental restorations. Aims: 1. To compare the dimensional accuracy of digital dental models produced by scanning of impressions versus scanning of stone casts. 2. To compare the dimensional accuracy of digital dental models produced by scanning of impressions made of three different materials (polyvinyl siloxane, polyether or vinyl polyether silicone). Methods and Materials: This laboratory study included taking addition silicone, polyether and vinyl polyether silicone impressions from an epoxy reference model that was created from an original typodont. Teeth number 28 and 30 on the typodont with a missing tooth number 29 were prepared for a metal-ceramic three-unit fixed dental prosthesis with tooth #29 being a pontic. After tooth preparation, an epoxy resin reference model was fabricated by duplicating the typodont quadrant that included the tooth preparations. From this reference model 12 polyvinyl siloxane impressions, 12 polyether impressions and 12 vinyl polyether silicone impressions were made. All 36 impressions were scanned before pouring them with dental stone. The 36 dental stone casts were, in turn, scanned to produce digital models. A reference digital model was made by scanning the reference model. Six groups of digital models were produced. Three groups were made by scanning of the impressions obtained with the three different materials, the other three groups involved the scanning of the dental casts that resulted from pouring the impressions made with the three different materials. Groups of digital models were compared using Root Mean Squares (RMS) in terms of their

  10. Footprint (A Screening Model for Estimating the Area of a Plume Produced from Gasoline Containing Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOOTPRINT is a simple and user-friendly screening model to estimate the length and surface area of BTEX plumes in ground water produced from a spill of gasoline that contains ethanol. Ethanol has a potential negative impact on the natural biodegradation of BTEX compounds in groun...

  11. Rapid Prototyping — A Tool for Presenting 3-Dimensional Digital Models Produced by Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho-Pekka Virtanen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping has received considerable interest with the introduction of affordable rapid prototyping machines. These machines can be used to manufacture physical models from three-dimensional digital mesh models. In this paper, we compare the results obtained with a new, affordable, rapid prototyping machine, and a traditional professional machine. Two separate data sets are used for this, both of which were acquired using terrestrial laser scanning. Both of the machines were able to produce complex and highly detailed geometries in plastic material from models based on terrestrial laser scanning. The dimensional accuracies and detail levels of the machines were comparable, and the physical artifacts caused by the fused deposition modeling (FDM technique used in the rapid prototyping machines could be found in both models. The accuracy of terrestrial laser scanning exceeded the requirements for manufacturing physical models of large statues and building segments at a 1:40 scale.

  12. Modeling of phosphorus fluxes produced by wild fires at watershed scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyjasik, M.; Hernandez, M.; Shaw, N.; Baker, M.; Fowles, M. T.; Cisney, T. A.; Jex, A. P.; Moisen, G.

    2017-12-01

    River runoff is one of the controlling processes in the terrestrial phosphorus cycle. Phosphorus is often a limiting factor in fresh water. One of the factors that has not been studied and modeled in detail is phosporus flux produced from forest wild fires. Phosphate released by weathering is quickly absorbed in soils. Forest wild fires expose barren soils to intensive erosion, thus releasing relatively large fluxes of phosphorus. Measurements from three control burn sites were used to correlate erosion with phosphorus fluxes. These results were used to model phosphorus fluxes from burned watersheds during a five year long period after fires occurred. Erosion in our model is simulated using a combination of two models: the WEPP (USDA Water Erosion Prediction Project) and the GeoWEPP (GIS-based Water Erosion Prediction Project). Erosion produced from forest disturbances is predicted for any watershed using hydrologic, soil, and meteorological data unique to the individual watersheds or individual slopes. The erosion results are modified for different textural soil classes and slope angles to model fluxes of phosphorus. The results of these models are calibrated using measured concentrations of phosphorus for three watersheds located in the Interior Western United States. The results will help the United States Forest Service manage phosporus fluxes in national forests.

  13. MATHEMATICAL MODEL DESIGNATED FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL LOAD PRODUCED BY A BUILDING PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Lapidus Azariy Abramovich; Berezhnyy Aleksandr Yurevich

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, the author proposes a mathematical model designated for the assessment of the ecological impact produced on the environment within the territory of the construction site. Integrated index EI (Environmental Index) is introduced as a vehicle designated for the evaluation of the ecological load. EI represents the intensity of the ecological load, or a generalized and optimized parameter reflecting the intensity of the anthropogenic impact of the construction site onto the natural e...

  14. Assimilation of extrapolated radar reflectivity into a NWP model and its impact on a precipitation forecast at high resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Zbyněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 100, 2-3 (2011), s. 201-212 ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/0905; GA MŠk ME09033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Precipitation forecast * Nowcasting * Assimilation of radar reflectivity * Numerical weather prediction * Convective storms Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.911, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169809510002462

  15. Modeling the competition between PHA-producing and non-PHA-producing bacteria in feast-famine SBR and staged CSTR systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marang, Leonie; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2015-12-01

    Although the enrichment of specialized microbial cultures for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) is generally performed in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), the required feast-famine conditions can also be established using two or more continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs) in series with partial biomass recirculation. The use of CSTRs offers several advantages, but will result in distributed residence times and a less strict separation between feast and famine conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the reactor configuration, and various process and biomass-specific parameters, on the enrichment of PHA-producing bacteria. A set of mathematical models was developed to predict the growth of Plasticicumulans acidivorans-as a model PHA producer-in competition with a non-storing heterotroph. A macroscopic model considering lumped biomass and an agent-based model considering individual cells were created to study the effect of residence time distribution and the resulting distributed bacterial states. The simulations showed that in the 2-stage CSTR system the selective pressure for PHA-producing bacteria is significantly lower than in the SBR, and strongly affected by the chosen feast-famine ratio. This is the result of substrate competition based on both the maximum specific substrate uptake rate and substrate affinity. Although the macroscopic model overestimates the selective pressure in the 2-stage CSTR system, it provides a quick and fairly good impression of the reactor performance and the impact of process and biomass-specific parameters. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Modeling of wear behavior of Al/B_4C composites produced by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Ismail; Bektas, Asli; Guel, Ferhat; Cinci, Hanifi

    2017-01-01

    Wear characteristics of composites, Al matrix reinforced with B_4C particles percentages of 5, 10,15 and 20 produced by the powder metallurgy method were studied in this study. For this purpose, a mixture of Al and B_4C powders were pressed under 650 MPa pressure and then sintered at 635 C. The analysis of hardness, density and microstructure was performed. The produced samples were worn using a pin-on-disk abrasion device under 10, 20 and 30 N load through 500, 800 and 1200 mesh SiC abrasive papers. The obtained wear values were implemented in an artificial neural network (ANN) model having three inputs and one output using feed forward backpropagation Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Thus, the optimum wear conditions and hardness values were determined.

  17. Modeling of wear behavior of Al/B{sub 4}C composites produced by powder metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Ismail; Bektas, Asli [Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Industrial Design Engineering; Guel, Ferhat; Cinci, Hanifi [Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgy Engineering

    2017-06-01

    Wear characteristics of composites, Al matrix reinforced with B{sub 4}C particles percentages of 5, 10,15 and 20 produced by the powder metallurgy method were studied in this study. For this purpose, a mixture of Al and B{sub 4}C powders were pressed under 650 MPa pressure and then sintered at 635 C. The analysis of hardness, density and microstructure was performed. The produced samples were worn using a pin-on-disk abrasion device under 10, 20 and 30 N load through 500, 800 and 1200 mesh SiC abrasive papers. The obtained wear values were implemented in an artificial neural network (ANN) model having three inputs and one output using feed forward backpropagation Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Thus, the optimum wear conditions and hardness values were determined.

  18. A supply function model for representing the strategic bidding of the producers in constrained electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bompard, Ettore; Napoli, Roberto; Lu, Wene; Jiang, Xiuchen

    2010-01-01

    The modeling of the bidding behaviour of the producer is a key-point in the modeling and simulation of the competitive electricity markets. In our paper, the linear supply function model is applied so as to find the Supply Function Equilibrium analytically. It also proposed a new and efficient approach to find SFEs for the network constrained electricity markets by finding the best slope of the supply function with the help of changing the intercept, and the method can be applied on the large systems. The approach proposed is applied to study IEEE-118 bus test systems and the comparison between bidding slope and bidding intercept is presented, as well, with reference to the test system. (author)

  19. A Modeling Framework for Predicting the Size of Sediments Produced on Hillslopes and Supplied to Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, L. S.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2016-12-01

    Landscape evolution models rarely represent sediment size explicitly, despite the importance of sediment size in regulating rates of bedload sediment transport, river incision into bedrock, and many other processes in channels and on hillslopes. A key limitation has been the lack of a general model for predicting the size of sediments produced on hillslopes and supplied to channels. Here we present a framework for such a model, as a first step toward building a `geomorphic transport law' that balances mechanistic realism with computational simplicity and is widely applicable across diverse landscapes. The goal is to take as inputs landscape-scale boundary conditions such as lithology, climate and tectonics, and predict the spatial variation in the size distribution of sediments supplied to channels across catchments. The model framework has two components. The first predicts the initial size distribution of particles produced by erosion of bedrock underlying hillslopes, while the second accounts for the effects of physical and chemical weathering during transport down slopes and delivery to channels. The initial size distribution can be related to the spacing and orientation of fractures within bedrock, which depend on the stresses and deformation experienced during exhumation and on rock resistance to fracture propagation. Other controls on initial size include the sizes of mineral grains in crystalline rocks, the sizes of cemented particles in clastic sedimentary rocks, and the potential for characteristic size distributions produced by tree throw, frost cracking, and other erosional processes. To model how weathering processes transform the initial size distribution we consider the effects of erosion rate and the thickness of soil and weathered bedrock on hillslope residence time. Residence time determines the extent of size reduction, for given values of model terms that represent the potential for chemical and physical weathering. Chemical weathering potential

  20. Can single classifiers be as useful as model ensembles to produce benthic seabed substratum maps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Joseph A.; Babcock, Russell C.; Hovey, Renae; Kendrick, Gary A.

    2018-05-01

    Numerous machine-learning classifiers are available for benthic habitat map production, which can lead to different results. This study highlights the performance of the Random Forest (RF) classifier, which was significantly better than Classification Trees (CT), Naïve Bayes (NB), and a multi-model ensemble in terms of overall accuracy, Balanced Error Rate (BER), Kappa, and area under the curve (AUC) values. RF accuracy was often higher than 90% for each substratum class, even at the most detailed level of the substratum classification and AUC values also indicated excellent performance (0.8-1). Total agreement between classifiers was high at the broadest level of classification (75-80%) when differentiating between hard and soft substratum. However, this sharply declined as the number of substratum categories increased (19-45%) including a mix of rock, gravel, pebbles, and sand. The model ensemble, produced from the results of all three classifiers by majority voting, did not show any increase in predictive performance when compared to the single RF classifier. This study shows how a single classifier may be sufficient to produce benthic seabed maps and model ensembles of multiple classifiers.

  1. Comparison of prosthetic models produced by traditional and additive manufacturing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Woong-Chul

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the clinical-feasibility of additive manufacturing by comparing the accuracy of four different manufacturing methods for metal coping: the conventional lost wax technique (CLWT); subtractive methods with wax blank milling (WBM); and two additive methods, multi jet modeling (MJM), and micro-stereolithography (Micro-SLA). Thirty study models were created using an acrylic model with the maxillary upper right canine, first premolar, and first molar teeth. Based on the scan files from a non-contact blue light scanner (Identica; Medit Co. Ltd., Seoul, Korea), thirty cores were produced using the WBM, MJM, and Micro-SLA methods, respectively, and another thirty frameworks were produced using the CLWT method. To measure the marginal and internal gap, the silicone replica method was adopted, and the silicone images obtained were evaluated using a digital microscope (KH-7700; Hirox, Tokyo, Japan) at 140X magnification. Analyses were performed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc test (α=.05). The mean marginal gaps and internal gaps showed significant differences according to tooth type (Pmanufacturing method (Pmanufacturing methods were within a clinically allowable range, and, thus, the clinical use of additive manufacturing methods is acceptable as an alternative to the traditional lost wax-technique and subtractive manufacturing.

  2. Semi-empirical model for the generation of dose distributions produced by a scanning electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, R.; Gignac, C.E.; Agostinelli, A.G.; Rothberg, S.; Schulz, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    There are linear accelerators (Sagittaire and Saturne accelerators produced by Compagnie Generale de Radiologie (CGR/MeV) Corporation) which produce broad, flat electron fields by magnetically scanning the relatively narrow electron beam as it emerges from the accelerator vacuum system. A semi-empirical model, which mimics the scanning action of this type of accelerator, was developed for the generation of dose distributions in homogeneous media. The model employs the dose distributions of the scanning electron beams. These were measured with photographic film in a polystyrene phantom by turning off the magnetic scanning system. The mean deviation calculated from measured dose distributions is about 0.2%; a few points have deviations as large as 2 to 4% inside of the 50% isodose curve, but less than 8% outside of the 50% isodose curve. The model has been used to generate the electron beam library required by a modified version of a commercially-available computerized treatment-planning system. (The RAD-8 treatment planning system was purchased from the Digital Equipment Corporation. It is currently available from Electronic Music Industries

  3. Atlas : A library for numerical weather prediction and climate modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, Willem; Bauer, Peter; Diamantakis, Michail; Hamrud, Mats; Kühnlein, Christian; Maciel, Pedro; Mengaldo, Gianmarco; Quintino, Tiago; Raoult, Baudouin; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.; Wedi, Nils P.

    2017-11-01

    The algorithms underlying numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models that have been developed in the past few decades face an increasing challenge caused by the paradigm shift imposed by hardware vendors towards more energy-efficient devices. In order to provide a sustainable path to exascale High Performance Computing (HPC), applications become increasingly restricted by energy consumption. As a result, the emerging diverse and complex hardware solutions have a large impact on the programming models traditionally used in NWP software, triggering a rethink of design choices for future massively parallel software frameworks. In this paper, we present Atlas, a new software library that is currently being developed at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), with the scope of handling data structures required for NWP applications in a flexible and massively parallel way. Atlas provides a versatile framework for the future development of efficient NWP and climate applications on emerging HPC architectures. The applications range from full Earth system models, to specific tools required for post-processing weather forecast products. The Atlas library thus constitutes a step towards affordable exascale high-performance simulations by providing the necessary abstractions that facilitate the application in heterogeneous HPC environments by promoting the co-design of NWP algorithms with the underlying hardware.

  4. Integrating statistical and process-based models to produce probabilistic landslide hazard at regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, R. L.; Istanbulluoglu, E.

    2017-12-01

    We develop a landslide hazard modeling approach that integrates a data-driven statistical model and a probabilistic process-based shallow landslide model for mapping probability of landslide initiation, transport, and deposition at regional scales. The empirical model integrates the influence of seven site attribute (SA) classes: elevation, slope, curvature, aspect, land use-land cover, lithology, and topographic wetness index, on over 1,600 observed landslides using a frequency ratio (FR) approach. A susceptibility index is calculated by adding FRs for each SA on a grid-cell basis. Using landslide observations we relate susceptibility index to an empirically-derived probability of landslide impact. This probability is combined with results from a physically-based model to produce an integrated probabilistic map. Slope was key in landslide initiation while deposition was linked to lithology and elevation. Vegetation transition from forest to alpine vegetation and barren land cover with lower root cohesion leads to higher frequency of initiation. Aspect effects are likely linked to differences in root cohesion and moisture controlled by solar insulation and snow. We demonstrate the model in the North Cascades of Washington, USA and identify locations of high and low probability of landslide impacts that can be used by land managers in their design, planning, and maintenance.

  5. Co-producing simulation models to inform resource management: a case study from southwest South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W.; Symstad, Amy J.; Frid, Leonardo; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Schuurman, Gregor W.

    2017-01-01

    Simulation models can represent complexities of the real world and serve as virtual laboratories for asking “what if…?” questions about how systems might respond to different scenarios. However, simulation models have limited relevance to real-world applications when designed without input from people who could use the simulated scenarios to inform their decisions. Here, we report on a state-and-transition simulation model of vegetation dynamics that was coupled to a scenario planning process and co-produced by researchers, resource managers, local subject-matter experts, and climate change adaptation specialists to explore potential effects of climate scenarios and management alternatives on key resources in southwest South Dakota. Input from management partners and local experts was critical for representing key vegetation types, bison and cattle grazing, exotic plants, fire, and the effects of climate change and management on rangeland productivity and composition given the paucity of published data on many of these topics. By simulating multiple land management jurisdictions, climate scenarios, and management alternatives, the model highlighted important tradeoffs between grazer density and vegetation composition, as well as between the short- and long-term costs of invasive species management. It also pointed to impactful uncertainties related to the effects of fire and grazing on vegetation. More broadly, a scenario-based approach to model co-production bracketed the uncertainty associated with climate change and ensured that the most important (and impactful) uncertainties related to resource management were addressed. This cooperative study demonstrates six opportunities for scientists to engage users throughout the modeling process to improve model utility and relevance: (1) identifying focal dynamics and variables, (2) developing conceptual model(s), (3) parameterizing the simulation, (4) identifying relevant climate scenarios and management

  6. MATHEMATICAL MODEL DESIGNATED FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL LOAD PRODUCED BY A BUILDING PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapidus Azariy Abramovich

    2012-10-01

    The theoretical background of the proposed approach consists in an integrated methodology implemented in the system engineering of construction projects. A building system may be represented as the aggregate of all stages of construction works and participants involved in them. The building system is object-oriented, and it is implemented under the impact of pre-determined environmental factors. The core constituent of the building system represents a Production Technology Module (PTM, or summarized groups of processes. The model formula designated for the assessment of the intensity of the ecological load produced by the construction project onto the environment may be represented as follows:

  7. Modeling of a Reaction-Distillation-Recycle System to Produce Dimethyl Ether through Methanol Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharam, Y.; Zulkarnain, L. M.; Wirya, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The increase in the dimethyl ether yield through methanol dehydration due to a recycle integration to a reaction-distillation system was studied in this research. A one-dimensional phenomenological model of a methanol dehydration reactor and a shortcut model of distillation columns were used to achieve the aim. Simulation results show that 10.7 moles/s of dimethyl ether is produced in a reaction-distillation system with the reactor length being 4 m, the reactor inlet pressure being 18 atm, the reactor inlet temperature being 533 K, the reactor inlet velocity being 0.408 m/s, and the distillation pressure being 8 atm. The methanol conversion is 90% and the dimethyl ether yield is 48%. The integration of the recycle stream to the system increases the dimethyl ether yield by 8%.

  8. Comparison of QuadrapolarTM radiofrequency lesions produced by standard versus modified technique: an experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safakish R

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ramin Safakish Allevio Pain Management Clinic, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Lower back pain (LBP is a global public health issue and is associated with substantial financial costs and loss of quality of life. Over the years, different literature has provided different statistics regarding the causes of the back pain. The following statistic is the closest estimation regarding our patient population. The sacroiliac (SI joint pain is responsible for LBP in 18%–30% of individuals with LBP. Quadrapolar™ radiofrequency ablation, which involves ablation of the nerves of the SI joint using heat, is a commonly used treatment for SI joint pain. However, the standard Quadrapolar radiofrequency procedure is not always effective at ablating all the sensory nerves that cause the pain in the SI joint. One of the major limitations of the standard Quadrapolar radiofrequency procedure is that it produces small lesions of ~4 mm in diameter. Smaller lesions increase the likelihood of failure to ablate all nociceptive input. In this study, we compare the standard Quadrapolar radiofrequency ablation technique to a modified Quadrapolar ablation technique that has produced improved patient outcomes in our clinic. The methodology of the two techniques are compared. In addition, we compare results from an experimental model comparing the lesion sizes produced by the two techniques. Taken together, the findings from this study suggest that the modified Quadrapolar technique provides longer lasting relief for the back pain that is caused by SI joint dysfunction. A randomized controlled clinical trial is the next step required to quantify the difference in symptom relief and quality of life produced by the two techniques. Keywords: lower back pain, radiofrequency ablation, sacroiliac joint, Quadrapolar radiofrequency ablation

  9. Functional copmponents produced by multi-jet modelling combined with electroforming and machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baier, Oliver

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In fuel cell technology, certain components are used that are responsible for guiding liquid media. When these components are produced by conventional manufacturing, there are often sealing issues, and trouble- and maintenance-free deployment cannot be ensured. Against this background, a new process combination has been developed in a joint project between the University of Duisburg-Essen, the Center for Fuel Cell Technology (ZBT, and the company Galvano-T electroplating forming GmbH. The approach is to combine multi-jet modelling (MJM, electroforming and milling in order to produce a defined external geometry. The wax models are generated on copper base plates and copper-coated to a desirable thickness. Following this, the undefined electroplated surfaces are machined to achieve the desired measurement, and the wax is melted out. This paper presents, first, how this process is technically feasible, then describes how the MJM on a 3-D Systems ThermoJet was adapted to stabilise the process.In the AiF-sponsored ZIM project, existing limits and possibilities are shown and different approaches of electroplating are investigated. This paper explores whether or not activation of the wax structure by a conductive initial layer is required. Using the described process chain, different parts were built: a heat exchanger, a vaporiser, and a reformer (in which pellets were integrated in an intermediate step. In addition, multiple-layer parts with different functions were built by repeating the process combination several times.

  10. One-dimensional modeling of thermal energy produced in a seismic fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konga, Guy Pascal; Koumetio, Fidèle; Yemele, David; Olivier Djiogang, Francis

    2017-12-01

    Generally, one observes an anomaly of temperature before a big earthquake. In this paper, we established the expression of thermal energy produced by friction forces between the walls of a seismic fault while considering the dynamic of a one-dimensional spring-block model. It is noted that, before the rupture of a seismic fault, displacements are caused by microseisms. The curves of variation of this thermal energy with time show that, for oscillatory and aperiodic displacement, the thermal energy is accumulated in the same way. The study reveals that thermal energy as well as temperature increases abruptly after a certain amount of time. We suggest that the corresponding time is the start of the anomaly of temperature observed which can be considered as precursory effect of a big seism. We suggest that the thermal energy can heat gases and dilate rocks until they crack. The warm gases can then pass through the cracks towards the surface. The cracks created by thermal energy can also contribute to the rupture of the seismic fault. We also suggest that the theoretical model of thermal energy, produced in seismic fault, associated with a large quantity of experimental data may help in the prediction of earthquakes.

  11. Confirmation and calibration of computer modeling of tsunamis produced by Augustine volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beget, James E.; Kowalik, Zygmunt

    2006-01-01

    Numerical modeling has been used to calculate the characteristics of a tsunami generated by a landslide into Cook Inlet from Augustine Volcano. The modeling predicts travel times of ca. 50-75 minutes to the nearest populated areas, and indicates that significant wave amplification occurs near Mt. Iliamna on the western side of Cook Inlet, and near the Nanwelak and the Homer-Anchor Point areas on the east side of Cook Inlet. Augustine volcano last produced a tsunami during an eruption in 1883, and field evidence of the extent and height of the 1883 tsunamis can be used to test and constrain the results of the computer modeling. Tsunami deposits on Augustine Island indicate waves near the landslide source were more than 19 m high, while 1883 tsunami deposits in distal sites record waves 6-8 m high. Paleotsunami deposits were found at sites along the coast near Mt. Iliamna, Nanwelak, and Homer, consistent with numerical modeling indicating significant tsunami wave amplification occurs in these areas. 

  12. A semi-empirical model for mesospheric and stratospheric NOy produced by energetic particle precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Funke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The MIPAS Fourier transform spectrometer on board Envisat has measured global distributions of the six principal reactive nitrogen (NOy compounds (HNO3, NO2, NO, N2O5, ClONO2, and HNO4 during 2002–2012. These observations were used previously to detect regular polar winter descent of reactive nitrogen produced by energetic particle precipitation (EPP down to the lower stratosphere, often called the EPP indirect effect. It has further been shown that the observed fraction of NOy produced by EPP (EPP-NOy has a nearly linear relationship with the geomagnetic Ap index when taking into account the time lag introduced by transport. Here we exploit these results in a semi-empirical model for computation of EPP-modulated NOy densities and wintertime downward fluxes through stratospheric and mesospheric pressure levels. Since the Ap dependence of EPP-NOy is distorted during episodes of strong descent in Arctic winters associated with elevated stratopause events, a specific parameterization has been developed for these episodes. This model accurately reproduces the observations from MIPAS and is also consistent with estimates from other satellite instruments. Since stratospheric EPP-NOy depositions lead to changes in stratospheric ozone with possible implications for climate, the model presented here can be utilized in climate simulations without the need to incorporate many thermospheric and upper mesospheric processes. By employing historical geomagnetic indices, the model also allows for reconstruction of the EPP indirect effect since 1850. We found secular variations of solar cycle-averaged stratospheric EPP-NOy depositions on the order of 1 GM. In particular, we model a reduction of the EPP-NOy deposition rate during the last 3 decades, related to the coincident decline of geomagnetic activity that corresponds to 1.8 % of the NOy production rate by N2O oxidation. As the decline of the geomagnetic activity level is expected to continue in the

  13. Modeling of X-ray Images and Energy Spectra Produced by Stepping Lightning Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Marshall, Robert A.; Celestin, Sebastien; Pasko, Victor P.

    2017-11-01

    Recent ground-based measurements at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) have greatly improved our knowledge of the energetics, fluence, and evolution of X-ray emissions during natural cloud-to-ground (CG) and rocket-triggered lightning flashes. In this paper, using Monte Carlo simulations and the response matrix of unshielded detectors in the Thunderstorm Energetic Radiation Array (TERA), we calculate the energy spectra of X-rays as would be detected by TERA and directly compare with the observational data during event MSE 10-01. The good agreement obtained between TERA measurements and theoretical calculations supports the mechanism of X-ray production by thermal runaway electrons during the negative corona flash stage of stepping lightning leaders. Modeling results also suggest that measurements of X-ray bursts can be used to estimate the approximate range of potential drop of lightning leaders. Moreover, the X-ray images produced during the leader stepping process in natural negative CG discharges, including both the evolution and morphological features, are theoretically quantified. We show that the compact emission pattern as recently observed in X-ray images is likely produced by X-rays originating from the source region, and the diffuse emission pattern can be explained by the Compton scattering effects.

  14. Inability to produce a model of dialysis encephalopathy in the rat by aluminum administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, T L; Yong, V W; Godolphin, W J; Sutter, M; Hansen, S; Kish, S J; Foulks, J G; Ito, M

    1987-04-01

    We attempted to produce a rat model of brain aluminum toxicity in order to explore whether or not aluminum accumulation produces the neurochemical changes observed in brains of patients who die with dialysis encephalopathy. Daily subcutaneous injection of Al(OH)3 caused marked elevation of serum aluminum concentrations, but did not increase brain aluminum contents, either in rats with normal renal function, or in rats with unilateral or 5/6 nephrectomies. LiCl pretreatment, which has been reported to cause irreversible renal failure, did not impair renal function nor aid in achieving elevated brain aluminum contents. No reductions in brain contents of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or in glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD, E.C.4.1.1.15) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, E.C.2.3.1.6) activities were observed in aluminum-treated rats. We conclude that the rat is not a suitable laboratory animal to explore the role of aluminum toxicity in causing the GABA and ChAT deficits present in brains of hemodialyzed human patients.

  15. Cost modelling of electricity producing hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal systems in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, P.S.

    1992-03-01

    A detailed and comprehensive cost model for Hot Dry Rock (HDR) electricity producing systems has been developed in this study. The model takes account of the major aspects of the HDR system, parameterized in terms of the main physical and cost parameters of the resource and the utilization system. A doublet configuration is assumed, and the conceptual HDR system which is defined in the study is based upon the UK Department of Energy (DEn) HDR geothermal R and D programme. The model has been used to calculate the costs of HDR electricity for a UK defined base case which represents a consensus view of what might be achieved in Cornwall in the long term. At 14.2 p/kWh (1988 costs) this cost appears to be unacceptably high. A wide-ranging sensitivity study has also been carried out on the main resource, geometrical, and operational parameters of the HDR system centred around the UK base case. The sensitivity study shows the most important parameters to be thermal gradient and depth. (Author)

  16. Mechanistic modeling of biocorrosion caused by biofilms of sulfate reducing bacteria and acid producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dake; Li, Yingchao; Gu, Tingyue

    2016-08-01

    Biocorrosion is also known as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Most anaerobic MIC cases can be classified into two major types. Type I MIC involves non-oxygen oxidants such as sulfate and nitrate that require biocatalysis for their reduction in the cytoplasm of microbes such as sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB). This means that the extracellular electrons from the oxidation of metal such as iron must be transported across cell walls into the cytoplasm. Type II MIC involves oxidants such as protons that are secreted by microbes such as acid producing bacteria (APB). The biofilms in this case supply the locally high concentrations of oxidants that are corrosive without biocatalysis. This work describes a mechanistic model that is based on the biocatalytic cathodic sulfate reduction (BCSR) theory. The model utilizes charge transfer and mass transfer concepts to describe the SRB biocorrosion process. The model also includes a mechanism to describe APB attack based on the local acidic pH at a pit bottom. A pitting prediction software package has been created based on the mechanisms. It predicts long-term pitting rates and worst-case scenarios after calibration using SRB short-term pit depth data. Various parameters can be investigated through computer simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Performance evaluation of paper embossing tools produced by fused deposition modelling additive manufacturing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Delić

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available From its beginnings, up to a few years ago, additive manufacturing technology was able to produce models or prototypes which have limited use, because of materials mechanical properties. With advancement and invention of new materials, this is changing. Now, it is possible to create 3D prints that can be used as final products or functional tools, using technology and materials with low environmental impact. The goal of this study was to examine opportunities for production of paper embossing tools by fused deposition modelling (FDM 3D printing. This study emphasises the use of environmentally friendly poly-lactic acid (PLA materials in FDM technology, contrary to the conventional method using metal alloys and acids. Embossing of line elements and letters using 3D printed embossing tools was done on six different types of paper. Embossing force was applied using SHIMADZU EZ-LX Compact Tabletop Testing Machine. Each type of paper was repeatedly embossed using different values of embossing force (in 250 N increments, starting at 1000 N to determine the optimal embossing force for each specific paper type. When determined, the optimal embossing force was used on ten samples for each paper type. Results of embossing were analysed and evaluated. The analysis consisted of investigating the effects of the applied embossing force and characteristics such as paper basis weight, paper structure, surface characteristic and fibre direction of the paper. Results show that paper characteristics determine the embossing force required for achieving a good embossing result. This means that with the right amount of embossing force, letters and borderlines can be equally well formed by the embossing process regardless of paper weight, surface characteristics, etc. Embossing tools produced in this manner can be used in case of the embossing elements that are not complex. The reason for this is the limitation of FDM technology and lack of precision needed for fine

  18. Comparison of reconstructed rapid prototyping models produced by 3-dimensional printing and conventional stone models with different degrees of crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Hassan, Wan Nurazreena; Yusoff, Yusnilawati; Mardi, Noor Azizi

    2017-01-01

    Rapid prototyping models can be reconstructed from stereolithographic digital study model data to produce hard-copy casts. In this study, we aimed to compare agreement and accuracy of measurements made with rapid prototyping and stone models for different degrees of crowding. The Z Printer 450 (3D Systems, Rock Hill, SC) reprinted 10 sets of models for each category of crowding (mild, moderate, and severe) scanned using a structured-light scanner (Maestro 3D, AGE Solutions, Pisa, Italy). Stone and RP models were measured using digital calipers for tooth sizes in the mesiodistal, buccolingual, and crown height planes and for arch dimension measurements. Bland-Altman and paired t test analyses were used to assess agreement and accuracy. Clinical significance was set at ±0.50 mm. Bland-Altman analysis showed the mean bias of measurements between the models to be within ±0.15 mm (SD, ±0.40 mm), but the 95% limits of agreement exceeded the cutoff point of ±0.50 mm (lower range, -0.81 to -0.41 mm; upper range, 0.34 to 0.76 mm). Paired t tests showed statistically significant differences for all planes in all categories of crowding except for crown height in the moderate crowding group and arch dimensions in the mild and moderate crowding groups. The rapid prototyping models were not clinically comparable with conventional stone models regardless of the degree of crowding. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of medium-range numerical weather prediction model output to produce forecasts of streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M.P.; Hay, L.E.

    2004-01-01

    he accuracy of precipitation forecasts over the northeastern United States, but overall, the accuracy of MOS-based precipitation forecasts is slightly lower than the raw NCEP forecasts. Four basins in the United States were chosen as case studies to evaluate the value of MRF output for predictions of streamflow. Streamflow forecasts using MRF output were generated for one rainfall-dominated basin (Alapaha River at Statenville, Georgia) and three snowmelt-dominated basins (Animas River at Durango, Colorado: East Fork of the Carson River near Gardnerville, Nevada: and Cle Elum River near Roslyn, Washington). Hydrologic model output forced with measured-station data were used as "truth" to focus attention on the hydrologic effects of errors in the MRF forecasts. Eight-day streamflow forecasts produced using the MOS-corrected MRF output as input (MOS) were compared with those produced using the climatic Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) technique. MOS-based streamflow forecasts showed increased skill in the snowmelt-dominated river basins, where daily variations in streamflow are strongly forced by temperature. In contrast, the skill of MOS forecasts in the rainfall-dominated basin (the Alapaha River) were equivalent to the skill of the ESP forecasts. Further improvements in streamflow forecasts require more accurate local-scale forecasts of precipitation and temperature, more accurate specification of basin initial conditions, and more accurate model simulations of streamflow. ?? 2004 American Meteorological Society.

  20. Effects of build parameters on linear wear loss in plastic part produced by fused deposition modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Omar Ahmed; Masood, Syed Hasan; Bhowmik, Jahar Lal

    2017-07-01

    Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is one of the prominent additive manufacturing technologies for producing polymer products. FDM is a complex additive manufacturing process that can be influenced by many process conditions. The industrial demands required from the FDM process are increasing with higher level product functionality and properties. The functionality and performance of FDM manufactured parts are greatly influenced by the combination of many various FDM process parameters. Designers and researchers always pay attention to study the effects of FDM process parameters on different product functionalities and properties such as mechanical strength, surface quality, dimensional accuracy, build time and material consumption. However, very limited studies have been carried out to investigate and optimize the effect of FDM build parameters on wear performance. This study focuses on the effect of different build parameters on micro-structural and wear performance of FDM specimens using definitive screening design based quadratic model. This would reduce the cost and effort of additive manufacturing engineer to have a systematic approachto make decision among the manufacturing parameters to achieve the desired product quality.

  1. Theoretical thermal dosimetry produced by an annular phased array system in CT-based patient models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsen, K.D.; Strohbehn, J.W.; Lynch, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical calculations for the specific absorption rate (SAR) and the resulting temperature distributions produced by an annular phased array (APA) type system are made. The finite element numerical method is used in the formulation of both the electromagnetic (EM) and the thermal boundary value problems. A number of detailed patient models based on CT-scan data from the pelvic, visceral, and thoracic regions are generated to stimulate a variety of tumor locations and surrounding normal tissues. The SAR values from the EM solution are input into the bioheat transfer equation, and steady-rate temperature distributions are calculated for a wide variety of blood flow rates. Based on theoretical modeling, the APA shows no preferential heating of superficial over deep-seated tumors. However, in most cases satisfactory thermal profiles (therapeutic volume near 60%) are obtained in all three regions of the human trunk only for tumors with little or no blood flow. Unsatisfactory temperature patterns (therapeutic volume <50%) are found for tumors with moderate to high perfusion rates. These theoretical calculations should aid the clinician in the evaluation of the effectiveness of APA type devices in heating tumors located in the trunk region

  2. Opioid Mechanism Involvement in the Synergism Produced by the Combination of Diclofenac and Caffeine in the Formalin Model

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Ramos, Jos? Mar?a; D?az-Reval, M. Irene

    2013-01-01

    Analgesics can be administered in combination with caffeine for improved analgesic effectiveness in a process known as synergism. The mechanisms by which these combinations produce synergism are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the administration of diclofenac combined with caffeine produced antinociceptive synergism and whether opioid mechanisms played a role in this event. The formalin model was used to evaluate the antinociception produced by the oral ...

  3. Experimental and mathematical model of the interactions in the mixed culture of links in the "producer-consumer" cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisman, T. I.; Galayda, Ya. V.

    The paper presents experimental and mathematical model of interactions between invertebrates the ciliates Paramecium caudatum and the rotifers Brachionus plicatilis and algae Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus quadricauda in the producer -- consumer aquatic biotic cycle with spatially separated components The model describes the dynamics of the mixed culture of ciliates and rotifers in the consumer component feeding on the mixed algal culture of the producer component It has been found that metabolites of the algae Scenedesmus produce an adverse effect on the reproduction of the ciliates P caudatum Taking into account this effect the results of investigation of the mathematical model were in qualitative agreement with the experimental results In the producer -- consumer biotic cycle it was shown that coexistence is impossible in the mixed algal culture of the producer component and in the mixed culture of invertebrates of the consumer component The ciliates P caudatum are driven out by the rotifers Brachionus plicatilis

  4. Cost modelling of electricity-producing hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal systems in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, P.; Harrison, R.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive cost model for Hot Dry Rock (HDR) electricity producing systems has been developed in this study. The model takes account of the major aspects of the HDR system, parameterized in terms of the main physical and cost parameters of the resource and the utilization system. A doublet configuration is assumed, and the conceptual HDR system which is defined in the study is based upon the UK Department of Energy (DEn) HDR geothermal R and D programme. The model has been used to calculate the costs of HDR electricity for a UK defined base case which represents a consensus view of what might be achieved in Cornwall in the long term. At 14.2 p/kWh (1988 costs) this cost appears to be unacceptably high. A wide-ranging sensitivity study has also been carried out on the main resource, geometrical, and operational parameters of the HDR system centred around the UK base case. The sensitivity study shows the most important parameters to be thermal gradient and depth. The geometrical arrangement and the shape of the reservoir constitute major uncertainties in HDR systems. Their effect on temperature has a major influence on system performance, and therefore a range of theoretically possible geometries have been studied and the importance of geometrical effects on HDR electricity costs assessed. The most cost effective HDR arrangement in terms of optimized volumes and flow rates has been investigated for a world-wide range of thermal settings. The main conclusions from this study suggests that for HDR electricity to be economic, thermal gradients of 55 o C/km and above, well depths of 5 km or less, and production fluid temperatures of 210 o C and above are required. (UK)

  5. Investigation of radiopharmaceuticals from cyclotron produced radionuclides and development of mathematical models. Part of a coordinated programme on production of radiopharmaceuticals from accelerator-produced isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaus, I.

    1983-04-01

    Several radioisotopes for diagnostic uses in nuclear medicine studies are produced using the internal 15 MeV (30 MeV alphas) deuteron beam of the ''Ruder Boskovic'' Institute in Zagreb, Yugoslavia. Some of the most important radioisotopes produced during the last few years are: Gallium-67 (d, xn reaction on a Cu/Ni/Zn target) with yield of 7.6 MBq/uAh, 81 Rb-sup(81m)Kr generator (α, 2n reaction on a Cu/Cu 2 Br 2 target) with a yield of 99 MBq/uAh, Iodine-123 (α, 2n reaction on a Cu/Ag/Sb target) with a yield of 6.3 MBq/uAh, and Indium-111 (α, 2n reaction on a Cu/Cu/Ag target) with a yield of 7.2 MBq/uAh. In addition, a simple mathematical lung model for regional ventilation measurements was developed and used for ventilation studies on normal subjects and subjects with various lung diseases. Based on these studies, a more sophisticated and quantitative lung ventilation model for radioactive tracer tidal breathing was further developed. In this new model, the periodicity of breathing is completely taken into account, and it makes possible to actually determine lung ventilation and volume parameters. The model is experimentally verified on healthy subjects, and the value of the effective specific ventilation obtained is in agreement with comparable parameters in the literature. sup(81m)Kr from a generator was used to perform these experimental studies

  6. Selecting elephant grass families and progenies to produce bioenergy through mixed models (REML/BLUP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, E V; Daher, R F; Dos Santos, A; Vivas, M; Machado, J C; Gravina, G do A; de Souza, Y P; Vidal, A K; Rocha, A Dos S; Freitas, R S

    2017-05-18

    Brazil has great potential to produce bioenergy since it is located in a tropical region that receives high incidence of solar energy and presents favorable climatic conditions for such purpose. However, the use of bioenergy in the country is below its productivity potential. The aim of the current study was to select full-sib progenies and families of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum S.) to optimize phenotypes relevant to bioenergy production through mixed models (REML/BLUP). The circulating diallel-based crossing of ten elephant grass genotypes was performed. An experimental design using the randomized block methodology, with three repetitions, was set to assess both the hybrids and the parents. Each plot comprised 14-m rows, 1.40 m spacing between rows, and 1.40 m spacing between plants. The number of tillers, plant height, culm diameter, fresh biomass production, dry biomass rate, and the dry biomass production were assessed. Genetic-statistical analyses were performed through mixed models (REML/BLUP). The genetic variance in the assessed families was explained through additive genetic effects and dominance genetic effects; the dominance variance was prevalent. Families such as Capim Cana D'África x Guaçu/I.Z.2, Cameroon x Cuba-115, CPAC x Cuba-115, Cameroon x Guaçu/I.Z.2, and IAC-Campinas x CPAC showed the highest dry biomass production. The family derived from the crossing between Cana D'África and Guaçu/I.Z.2 showed the largest number of potential individuals for traits such as plant height, culm diameter, fresh biomass production, dry biomass production, and dry biomass rate. The individual 5 in the family Cana D'África x Guaçu/I.Z.2, planted in blocks 1 and 2, showed the highest dry biomass production.

  7. Modeling and investigation of submerged fermentation process to produce extracellular polysaccharide using Lactobacillus confusus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J

    2014-12-19

    The main objective of the present study is to investigate and optimize the Submerged fermentation (SMF) process parameters such as addition of coconut water, NaCl dose, incubation time and temperature on the production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and biomass production using Lactobacillus confuses. Response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with four factors three level Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to model the SMF process. RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. Three dimentional (3D) response surface plots were used to study the interactive effects of process variables on SMF process. The optimum process conditions for the maximum production of EPS and biomass were found to be as follows; addition of coconut water of 40%, NaCl dose of 15%, incubation time of 24h and temperature of 35°C. Under these conditions, 10.57 g/L of EPS and 3.9 g/L of biomass were produced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Search for standard model Higgs bosons produced in association with W bosons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; González, B Alvarez; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Almenar, C Cuenca; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giakoumopolou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Fernandez, P Movilla; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Griso, S Pagan; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyria, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Siegrist, J; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wagner, W; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S; Group, R C

    2008-02-01

    We report on the results of a search for standard model Higgs bosons produced in association with W bosons from pp[over] collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV. The search uses a data sample corresponding to approximately 1 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity. Events consistent with the W-->lnu and H-->bb[over] signature are selected by triggering on a high-p(T) electron or muon candidate and tagging one or two of the jet candidates as having originated from b quarks. A neural network filter rejects a fraction of tagged charm and light-flavor jets, increasing the b-jet purity in the sample. We observe no excess lnubb[over] production beyond the background expectation, and we set 95% confidence level upper limits on the production cross section times branching fraction sigma(pp[over]-->WH)Br(H-->bb[over]) ranging from 3.9 to 1.3 pb, for specific Higgs boson mass hypotheses in the range 110 to 150 GeV/c2, respectively.

  9. Experimental and mathematical model of the interactions in the mixed culture of links in the “producer-consumer” cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisman, T. I.

    2009-07-01

    The paper presents a experimental and mathematical model of interactions between invertebrates (the ciliates Paramecium caudatum and the rotifers Brachionus plicatilis) in the "producer-consumer" aquatic biotic cycle with spatially separated components. The model describes the dynamics of the mixed culture of ciliates and rotifers in the "consumer" component, feeding on the mixed algal culture of the "producer" component. It has been found that metabolites of the algae Scenedesmus produce an adverse effect on the reproduction of the ciliates P. caudatum. Taking into account this effect, the results of investigation of the mathematical model were in qualitative agreement with the experimental results. In the "producer-consumer" biotic cycle it was shown that coexistence is impossible in the mixed culture of invertebrates of the "consumer" component. The ciliates P. caudatum are driven out by the rotifers B. plicatilis.

  10. Modeling Approach for Estimating Co-Produced Water Volumes and Saltwater Disposal Volumes in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    Management of produced fluids has become an important issue in Oklahoma because large volumes of saltwater are co-produced with oil and gas, and disposed into saltwater disposal wells at high rates. Petroleum production increased from 2009-2015, especially in central and north-central Oklahoma where the Mississippian and Hunton zones were redeveloped using horizontal wells and dewatering techniques that have led to a disproportional increase in produced water volumes. Improved management of co-produced water, including desalination for beneficial reuse and decreased saltwater disposal volumes, is only possible if spatial and temporal trends can be defined and related to the producing zones. It is challenging to quantify the volumes of co-produced water by region or production zone because co-produced water volumes are generally not reported. Therefore, the goal of this research is to estimate co-produced water volumes for 2008-present with an approach that can be replicated as petroleum production shifts to other regions. Oil and gas production rates from subsurface zones were multiplied by ratios of H2O:oil and H2O:gas for the respective zones. Initial H2O:oil and H2O:gas ratios were adjusted/calibrated, by zone, to maximize correlation of county-scale produced H2O estimates versus saltwater disposal volumes from 2013-2015. These calibrated ratios were then used to compute saltwater disposal volumes from 2008-2012 because of apparent data gaps in reported saltwater disposal volumes during that timeframe. This research can be used to identify regions that have the greatest need for produced water treatment systems. The next step in management of produced fluids is to explore optimal energy-efficient strategies that reduce deleterious effects.

  11. Modeling transient luminous events produced by cloud to ground lightning and narrow bipolar pulses: detailed spectra and chemical impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Invernon, F. J.; Luque, A.; Gordillo-Vazquez, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    The electromagnetic field generated by lightning discharges can produce Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) in the lower ionosphere, as previously investigated by many authors. Some recent studies suggest that narrow bipolar pulses (NBP), an impulsive and not well-established type of atmospheric electrical discharge, could also produce TLEs. The characterization and observation of such TLEs could be a source of information about the physics underlying NBP. In this work, we develop two different electrodynamical models to study the impact of lightning-driven electromagnetic fields in the lower ionosphere. The first model calculates the quasi-electrostatic field produced by a single cloud to ground lightning in the terrestrial atmosphere and its influence in the electron transport. This scheme allows us to study halos, a relatively frequent type of TLE. The second model solves the Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic field produced by a lightning discharge coupled with the Langevin's equation for the induced currents in the ionosphere. This model is useful to investigate elves, a fast TLE produced by lightning or by NBP. In addition, both models are coupled with a detailed chemistry of the electronically and vibrationally excited states of molecular nitrogen, allowing us to calculate synthetic spectra of both halos and elves. The models also include a detailed set of kinetic reactions to calculate the temporal evolution of other species. Our results suggest an important enhancement of some molecular species produced by halos, as NOx , N2 O and other metastable species. The quantification of their production could be useful to understand the role of thunderstorms in the climate of our planet. In the case of TLEs produced by NBP, our model confirms the appearance of double elves and allows us to compute their spectral characteristics.

  12. Application of radiosurgical techniques to produce a primate model of brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eKunimatsu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral analysis of subjects with discrete brain lesions provides important information about the mechanisms of various brain functions. However, it is generally difficult to experimentally produce discrete lesions in deep brain structures. Here we show that a radiosurgical technique, which is used as an alternative treatment for brain tumors and vascular malformations, is applicable to create non-invasive lesions in experimental animals for the research in systems neuroscience. We delivered highly focused radiation (130–150 Gy at ISO center to the frontal eye field of macaque monkeys using a clinical linear accelerator (LINAC. The effects of irradiation were assessed by analyzing oculomotor performance along with magnetic resonance (MR images before and up to 8 months following irradiation. In parallel with tissue edema indicated by MR images, deficits in saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements were observed during several days following irradiation. Although initial signs of oculomotor deficits disappeared within a month, damage to the tissue and impaired eye movements gradually developed during the course of the subsequent 6 months. Postmortem histological examinations showed necrosis and hemorrhages within a large area of the white matter and, to a lesser extent, in the adjacent gray matter, which was centered at the irradiated target. These results indicated that the LINAC system was useful for making brain lesions in experimental animals, while the suitable radiation parameters to generate more focused lesions need to be further explored. We propose the use of a radiosurgical technique for establishing animal models of brain lesions, and discuss the possible uses of this technique for functional neurosurgical treatments in humans.

  13. Use of data assimilation procedures in the meteorological pre-processors of decision support systems to improve the meteorological input of atmospheric dispersion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalets, I.; Andronopoulos, S.; Bartzis, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    ) and the variant of method of successive corrections called 'Iteration to optimal solution' (IOS). Though these methods are famous and were previously widely used in the meteorological synoptic- and meso-scale prognostic and diagnostic models, they were modified for the needs of the MPP of the RODOS system that acts as local (micro)-scale diagnostic model. The central point in that modification was the combination of approaches encountered in the literature for determination of the 'weighting coefficient' with the above-mentioned methods. Special attention was given at the adequate use of both observed and prognostic data (cloud cover, net radiation, sensible heat flux, mixing height) to calculate the parameters required by the ADMs of the RODOS system, such as stability category, net radiation, Monin-Obukhov length, friction velocity, mixing height. As the MPP is in fact a diagnostic model, the developed methodological approach is a 3-dimensional data assimilation (3DDA), i.e., observations are used only on the same time level as the NWP data to produce the state of the meteorological fields at that time moment. The European Tracer Experiment (ETEX) meteorological database has been used for evaluation of the developed methodology and software. The model results agree well with the measurements and the calculated values of the meteorological variables exhibit realistic behaviour, always lying in physically allowable bounds. IOS procedure can be effectively used for the local-scale calculations (domain size =∼ 100 km), while 0I method is better for larger scale calculations (domain size > 300 km). fig. 1 (author)

  14. Modeling of X-ray emissions produced by stepping lightning leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Xu , Wei; Celestin , Sebastien; Pasko , Victor P.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Intense and brief bursts of X-ray emissions have been measured during the stepping processof both natural cloud-to-ground (CG) and rocket-triggered lightning flashes. In this paper, we investigatetheoretically the energy spectra of X-rays produced by the bremsstrahlung emission of thermal runawayelectrons accelerated in the inhomogeneous electric field produced around lightning leader tips. The X-rayenergy spectrum depends on the physical properties of the associated l...

  15. Resonantly produced 7 keV sterile neutrino dark matter models and the properties of Milky Way satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazajian, Kevork N

    2014-04-25

    Sterile neutrinos produced through a resonant Shi-Fuller mechanism are arguably the simplest model for a dark matter interpretation of the origin of the recent unidentified x-ray line seen toward a number of objects harboring dark matter. Here, I calculate the exact parameters required in this mechanism to produce the signal. The suppression of small-scale structure predicted by these models is consistent with Local Group and high-z galaxy count constraints. Very significantly, the parameters necessary in these models to produce the full dark matter density fulfill previously determined requirements to successfully match the Milky Way Galaxy's total satellite abundance, the satellites' radial distribution, and their mass density profile, or the "too-big-to-fail problem." I also discuss how further precision determinations of the detailed properties of the candidate sterile neutrino dark matter can probe the nature of the quark-hadron transition, which takes place during the dark matter production.

  16. Experimental Model of Cerebral Hypoperfusion Produced Memory-learning Deficits, and Modifications in Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rilda LEÓN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemia is a major cause of death, for this reason animal models of cerebral ischemia are widely used to study both the pathophysiology of ischemic phenomenon and the evaluation of possible therapeutic agents with protective or regenerative properties. The objectives of this study were to examine the presence of neuronal damage in different brain areas following the ischemic event, and assess consequences of such activities on the processes of memory and learning. The study group included an experimental group ischemic animals (30 rats with permanent bilateral occlusion of the carotids, and a control group. Was evaluated gene expression and inflammatory ischemic by qPCR techniques 24h post injury, brain tissue morphology in areas of cortex, striatum and hippocampus seven days post injury and processes of memory and learning, 12 days post injury. The morphological studies showed that the procedure induces death of cell populations in cortex, striatum and hippocampus, ischemia modified gfap gene expression and ho, il-6, il-17 and ifn-γ, which can be used as a marker of early ischemic process. Additionally, the ischemic injury caused spatial memory decline. This characterization gives us an experimental model to develop future studies on the pathophysiology of ischemic events and assessing therapeutic strategies. MODELO EXPERIMENTAL DE HIPOPERFUSIÓN CEREBRAL PRODUCE DÉFICIT DE LA MEMORIA Y APRENDIZAJE Y MODIFICACIONES EN LA EXPRESIÓN DE GENES. A escala mundial, la isquemia cerebral constituye una de las principales causas de muerte, por lo que los modelos animales de isquemia cerebral son extensamente usados tanto en el estudio de la pato-fisiología del fenómeno isquémico; como en la evaluación de agentes terapéuticos con posible efecto protector o regenerador.  Los objetivos de este estudio fueron examinar la presencia de daño neuronal en diferentes áreas cerebrales como consecuencia del evento isquémico; así como evaluar

  17. Integrated fate modeling for exposure assessment of produced water on the Sable Island Bank (Scotian shelf, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jody A; Wells, Peter G

    2004-10-01

    Produced water is the largest waste discharge from the production phase of oil and gas wells. Produced water is a mixture of reservoir formation water and production chemicals from the separation process. This creates a chemical mixture that has several components of toxic concern, ranging from heavy metals to soluble hydrocarbons. Analysis of potential environmental effects from produced water in the Sable Island Bank region (NS, Canada) was conducted using an integrated modeling approach according to the ecological risk assessment framework. A hydrodynamic dispersion model was used to describe the wastewater plume. A second fugacity-based model was used to describe the likely plume partitioning in the local environmental media of water, suspended sediment, biota, and sediment. Results from the integrated modeling showed that the soluble benzene and naphthalene components reach chronic no-effect concentration levels at a distance of 1.0 m from the discharge point. The partition modeling indicated that low persistence was expected because of advection forces caused by tidal currents for the Sable Island Bank system. The exposure assessment for the two soluble hydrocarbon components suggests that the risks of adverse environmental effects from produced water on Sable Island Bank are low.

  18. Modeling and Forecasting the Onset and Duration of Severe Radiation Fog under Frost Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, I. R.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Schreur, B. G. J. Wichers; Holtslag, A. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    A case of a severe radiation fog during frost conditions is analyzed as a benchmark for the development of a very high-resolution NWP model Results by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the High Resolution Limited Area Model (H I RLAM) are evaluated against detailed observations to

  19. Modeling and Forecasting the Onset and Duration of Severe Radiation Fog under Frost Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der I.R.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Wichers Schreur, B.G.J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    A case of a severe radiation fog during frost conditions is analyzed as a benchmark for the development of a very high resolution NWP model. Results by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the High resolution limited area model (HIRLAM) are evaluated against detailed observations to

  20. Validation of a Previously Developed Geospatial Model That Predicts the Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in New York State Produce Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Shiwakoti, Suvash; Bergholz, Peter; Grohn, Yrjo; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2016-02-01

    Technological advancements, particularly in the field of geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to predict the likelihood of foodborne pathogen contamination in produce production environments using geospatial models. Yet, few studies have examined the validity and robustness of such models. This study was performed to test and refine the rules associated with a previously developed geospatial model that predicts the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in produce farms in New York State (NYS). Produce fields for each of four enrolled produce farms were categorized into areas of high or low predicted L. monocytogenes prevalence using rules based on a field's available water storage (AWS) and its proximity to water, impervious cover, and pastures. Drag swabs (n = 1,056) were collected from plots assigned to each risk category. Logistic regression, which tested the ability of each rule to accurately predict the prevalence of L. monocytogenes, validated the rules based on water and pasture. Samples collected near water (odds ratio [OR], 3.0) and pasture (OR, 2.9) showed a significantly increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation compared to that for samples collected far from water and pasture. Generalized linear mixed models identified additional land cover factors associated with an increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation, such as proximity to wetlands. These findings validated a subset of previously developed rules that predict L. monocytogenes prevalence in produce production environments. This suggests that GIS and geospatial models can be used to accurately predict L. monocytogenes prevalence on farms and can be used prospectively to minimize the risk of preharvest contamination of produce. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Validation of a Previously Developed Geospatial Model That Predicts the Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in New York State Produce Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Shiwakoti, Suvash; Bergholz, Peter; Grohn, Yrjo; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Technological advancements, particularly in the field of geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to predict the likelihood of foodborne pathogen contamination in produce production environments using geospatial models. Yet, few studies have examined the validity and robustness of such models. This study was performed to test and refine the rules associated with a previously developed geospatial model that predicts the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in produce farms in New York State (NYS). Produce fields for each of four enrolled produce farms were categorized into areas of high or low predicted L. monocytogenes prevalence using rules based on a field's available water storage (AWS) and its proximity to water, impervious cover, and pastures. Drag swabs (n = 1,056) were collected from plots assigned to each risk category. Logistic regression, which tested the ability of each rule to accurately predict the prevalence of L. monocytogenes, validated the rules based on water and pasture. Samples collected near water (odds ratio [OR], 3.0) and pasture (OR, 2.9) showed a significantly increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation compared to that for samples collected far from water and pasture. Generalized linear mixed models identified additional land cover factors associated with an increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation, such as proximity to wetlands. These findings validated a subset of previously developed rules that predict L. monocytogenes prevalence in produce production environments. This suggests that GIS and geospatial models can be used to accurately predict L. monocytogenes prevalence on farms and can be used prospectively to minimize the risk of preharvest contamination of produce. PMID:26590280

  2. Modeling the Propagation of Atmospheric Gravity Waves Produced by an Underground Nuclear Explosion using the Transfer Function Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruntz, R. J.; Mayr, H. G.; Paxton, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    We will present results from the Transfer Function Model (TFM), which simulates the neutral atmosphere, from 0 to 700 km, across the entire globe (pole to pole). The TFM is able to rapidly calculate the density and temperature perturbations created by a localized impulse. We have used TFM to simulate a ground-level explosion (equivalent to an underground nuclear explosion (UNE)) and its effects on the neutral atmosphere, including the propagation of gravity waves up to ionospheric heights. At ionospheric altitudes ion-neutral interactions are expected to lead to perturbations in the electron density. These perturbations can be observed as changes in the total electron content (TEC), a feature readily observed by the globally distributed network of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) sensors. We will discuss the time and location of the maximum atmospheric disturbances at a number of altitudes, including the peaks of several ionospheric layers, including the F2 layer, which is often treated as the major driver of changes in GNSS-TEC observations. We will also examine the drop-off of atmospheric disturbances at those altitudes, both with increasing time and distance. The 6 known underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) by North Korea in the 21st century have sparked increased interest in UNE detection through atmospheric and ionospheric observations. The latest test by North Korea (3 Sept. 2017) was the largest UNE in over 2 decades. We will compare TFM results to the analysis of previous UNEs, including some tests by North Korea, and discuss possible confounding factors in predicting the time, location, and amplitude of atmospheric and ionospheric disturbances produced by a UNE.

  3. Fuzzy rule-based modelling for human health risk from naturally occurring radioactive materials in produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhawat, Chowdhury; Tahir, Husain; Neil, Bose

    2006-01-01

    Produced water, discharged from offshore oil and gas operations, contains chemicals from formation water, condensed water, and any chemical added down hole or during the oil/water separation process. Although, most of the contaminants fall below the detection limits within a short distance from the discharge port, a few of the remaining contaminants including naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are of concern due to their bioavailability in the media and bioaccumulation characteristics in finfish and shellfish species used for human consumption. In the past, several initiatives have been taken to model human health risk from NORM in produced water. The parameters of the available risk assessment models are imprecise and sparse in nature. In this study, a fuzzy possibilistic evaluation using fuzzy rule based modeling has been presented. Being conservative in nature, the possibilistic approach considers possible input parameter values; thus provides better environmental prediction than the Monte Carlo (MC) calculation. The uncertainties of the input parameters were captured with fuzzy triangular membership functions (TFNs). Fuzzy if-then rules were applied for input concentrations of two isotopes of radium, namely 226 Ra, and 228 Ra, available in produced water and bulk dilution to evaluate the radium concentration in fish tissue used for human consumption. The bulk dilution was predicted using four input parameters: produced water discharge rate, ambient seawater velocity, depth of discharge port and density gradient. The evaluated cancer risk shows compliance with the regulatory guidelines; thus minimum risk to human health is expected from NORM components in produced water

  4. A mathematical model for surface roughness of fluidic channels produced by grinding aided electrochemical discharge machining (G-ECDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladeesh V. G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grinding aided electrochemical discharge machining is a hybrid technique, which combines the grinding action of an abrasive tool and thermal effects of electrochemical discharges to remove material from the workpiece for producing complex contours. The present study focuses on developing fluidic channels on borosilicate glass using G-ECDM and attempts to develop a mathematical model for surface roughness of the machined channel. Preliminary experiments are conducted to study the effect of machining parameters on surface roughness. Voltage, duty factor, frequency and tool feed rate are identified as the significant factors for controlling surface roughness of the channels produced by G-ECDM. A mathematical model was developed for surface roughness by considering the grinding action and thermal effects of electrochemical discharges in material removal. Experiments are conducted to validate the model and the results obtained are in good agreement with that predicted by the model.

  5. Simulations of radiocarbon in a coarse-resolution world ocean model 2. Distributions of bomb-produced Carbon 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toggweiler, J.R.; Dixon, K.; Bryan, K.

    1989-01-01

    Part 1 of this study examined the ability of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) primitive equation ocean general circulation model to simulate the steady state distribution of naturally produced 14 C in the ocean prior to the nuclear bomb tests of the 1950's and early 1960's. In part 2 begin with the steady state distributions of part 1 and subject the model to the pulse of elevated atmospheric 14 C concentrations observed since the 1950's

  6. Mathematical modeling of growth of non-O157 Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC, including serogroups O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in raw ground beef and to develop mathematical models to describe the bacterial growth under different temperature conditions. Three prima...

  7. Simulation of Flash-Flood-Producing Storm Events in Saudi Arabia Using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Liping; McCabe, Matthew; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Evans, Jason P.; Kucera, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The challenges of monitoring and forecasting flash-flood-producing storm events in data-sparse and arid regions are explored using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model (version 3.5) in conjunction with a range of available satellite

  8. Characterization of volatile compounds produced by Lactobacillus helveticus strains in a hard cheese model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffia, Facundo; Bergamini, Carina V; Wolf, Irma V; Hynes, Erica R; Perotti, María C

    2018-01-01

    Starter cultures of Lactobacillus helveticus used in hard cooked cheeses play an important role in flavor development. In this work, we studied the capacity of three strains of L. helveticus, two autochthonous (Lh138 and Lh209) and one commercial (LhB02), to grow and to produce volatile compounds in a hard cheese extract. Bacterial counts, pH, profiles of organic acids, carbohydrates, and volatile compounds were analyzed during incubation of extracts for 14 days at 37 ℃. Lactobacilli populations were maintained at 10 6 CFU ml -1 for Lh138, while decreases of approx. 2 log orders were found for LhB02 and Lh209. Both Lh209 and LhB02 slightly increased the acetic acid content whereas mild increase in lactic acid was produced by Lh138. The patterns of volatiles were dependent on the strain which reflect their distinct enzymatic machineries: LhB02 and Lh209 produced a greater diversity of compounds, while Lh138 was the least producer strain. Extracts inoculated with LhB02 and Lh 209 were characterized by ketones, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, and acids, whereas in the extracts with Lh138 the main compounds belonged to aromatic, aldehydes, and ketones groups. Therefore, Lh209 and LhB02 could represent the best cheese starters to improve and intensify the flavor, and even a starter composed by combinations of LhB02 or Lh209 with Lh138 could also be a strategy to diversify cheese flavor.

  9. Modeling the Aerodynamic Lift Produced by Oscillating Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Muhammad Saif Ullah; Akhtar, Imran

    2014-01-01

    For present study, setting Strouhal Number (St) as control parameter, numerical simulations for flow past oscillating NACA-0012 airfoil at 1,000 Reynolds Numbers (Re) are performed. Temporal profiles of unsteady forces; lift and thrust, and their spectral analysis clearly indicate the solution to be a period-1 attractor for low Strouhal numbers. This study reveals that aerodynamic forces produced by plunging airfoil are independent of initial kinematic conditions of airfoil that proves the ex...

  10. Application of radiosurgical techniques to produce a primate model of brain lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Kunimatsu, Jun; Miyamoto, Naoki; Ishikawa, Masayori; Shirato, Hiroki; Tanaka, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral analysis of subjects with discrete brain lesions provides important information about the mechanisms of various brain functions. However, it is generally difficult to experimentally produce discrete lesions in deep brain structures. Here we show that a radiosurgical technique, which is used as an alternative treatment for brain tumors and vascular malformations, is applicable to create non-invasive lesions in experimental animals for the research in systems neuroscience. We deliver...

  11. Implementation of a Model Output Statistics based on meteorological variable screening for short‐term wind power forecast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranaboldo, Matteo; Giebel, Gregor; Codina, Bernat

    2013-01-01

    A combination of physical and statistical treatments to post‐process numerical weather predictions (NWP) outputs is needed for successful short‐term wind power forecasts. One of the most promising and effective approaches for statistical treatment is the Model Output Statistics (MOS) technique....... The proposed MOS performed well in both wind farms, and its forecasts compare positively with an actual operative model in use at Risø DTU and other MOS types, showing minimum BIAS and improving NWP power forecast of around 15% in terms of root mean square error. Further improvements could be obtained...

  12. Modelling gas migration in compacted bentonite. A report produced for the GAMBIT club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, P.J.; Swift, B.T.; Goodfield, M.; Rodwell, W.R.

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the first phase of a programme of work that has as its overall objective the development of a computational model that can simulate the results of experiments on gas migration through highly compacted bentonite, and will provide the basis of a model suitable to assess the effects of bentonite barriers on the build-up of pressure and the escape of hydrogen gas from disposal canisters in a radioactive waste repository. In this first phase of the project, the possible mechanisms and controlling features of gas migration through compacted bentonite have been reviewed, and a preliminary computational model of the process has been implemented and evaluated. In the model it is assumed that gas invasion of the clay occurs by induced microfissuring, and that the permeability of the pathways thus created depends on the gas pressure (or the effective stress). Experimental data on gas migration in compacted bentonite that was collected under well controlled conditions by Horseman and Harrington was used in a preliminary evaluation of the new model. The model was able to reproduce qualitatively all the features seen in the subset of the experimental data used in the evaluation, and to provide quantitative agreement to substantial sections of the results of test sequences, but quantitative agreement between simulation and experimental results over a whole test sequence was not obtained. As part of the model evaluation, the dependence of the results obtained on key model parameters is reported. Outline plans for a further phase of work are suggested. (orig.)

  13. Statistical modeling in phenomenological description of electromagnetic cascade processes produced by high-energy gamma quanta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slowinski, B.

    1987-01-01

    A description of a simple phenomenological model of electromagnetic cascade process (ECP) initiated by high-energy gamma quanta in heavy absorbents is given. Within this model spatial structure and fluctuations of ionization losses of shower electrons and positrons are described. Concrete formulae have been obtained as a result of statistical analysis of experimental data from the xenon bubble chamber of ITEP (Moscow)

  14. Using 3D Printing (Additive Manufacturing) to Produce Low-Cost Simulation Models for Medical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, John P; Tatum, Peter S; Gada, Satyen; Wyn, Mark; Ho, Vincent B; Liacouras, Peter

    2018-03-01

    This work describes customized, task-specific simulation models derived from 3D printing in clinical settings and medical professional training programs. Simulation models/task trainers have an array of purposes and desired achievements for the trainee, defining that these are the first step in the production process. After this purpose is defined, computer-aided design and 3D printing (additive manufacturing) are used to create a customized anatomical model. Simulation models then undergo initial in-house testing by medical specialists followed by a larger scale beta testing. Feedback is acquired, via surveys, to validate effectiveness and to guide or determine if any future modifications and/or improvements are necessary. Numerous custom simulation models have been successfully completed with resulting task trainers designed for procedures, including removal of ocular foreign bodies, ultrasound-guided joint injections, nerve block injections, and various suturing and reconstruction procedures. These task trainers have been frequently utilized in the delivery of simulation-based training with increasing demand. 3D printing has been integral to the production of limited-quantity, low-cost simulation models across a variety of medical specialties. In general, production cost is a small fraction of a commercial, generic simulation model, if available. These simulation and training models are customized to the educational need and serve an integral role in the education of our military health professionals.

  15. Modelling gas migration in compacted bentonite. A report produced for the GAMBIT club

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, P.J.; Swift, B.T.; Goodfield, M.; Rodwell, W.R. [AEA Technology plc, Dorchester (United Kingdom)

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the first phase of a programme of work that has as its overall objective the development of a computational model that can simulate the results of experiments on gas migration through highly compacted bentonite, and will provide the basis of a model suitable to assess the effects of bentonite barriers on the build-up of pressure and the escape of hydrogen gas from disposal canisters in a radioactive waste repository. In this first phase of the project, the possible mechanisms and controlling features of gas migration through compacted bentonite have been reviewed, and a preliminary computational model of the process has been implemented and evaluated. In the model it is assumed that gas invasion of the clay occurs by induced microfissuring, and that the permeability of the pathways thus created depends on the gas pressure (or the effective stress). Experimental data on gas migration in compacted bentonite that was collected under well controlled conditions by Horseman and Harrington was used in a preliminary evaluation of the new model. The model was able to reproduce qualitatively all the features seen in the subset of the experimental data used in the evaluation, and to provide quantitative agreement to substantial sections of the results of test sequences, but quantitative agreement between simulation and experimental results over a whole test sequence was not obtained. As part of the model evaluation, the dependence of the results obtained on key model parameters is reported. Outline plans for a further phase of work are suggested. (orig.) 32 refs.

  16. Search for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced in the decay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... s = 7 TeV. No evidence is found for a significant deviation from Standard Model expectations anywhere in the ZZ mass range considered in this analysis. An upper limit at 95% CL is placed on the product of the cross-section and decay branching ratio for the Higgs boson decaying with Standard Model-like ...

  17. Interaction among competitive producers in the electricity market: An iterative market model for the strategic management of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraretto, Cristian; Zigante, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The liberalization of the electricity sector requires utilities to develop sound operation strategies for their power plants. In this paper, attention is focused on the problem of optimizing the management of the thermal power plants belonging to a strategic producer that competes with other strategic companies and a set of smaller non-strategic ones in the day-ahead market. The market model suggested here determines an equilibrium condition over the selected period of analysis, in which no producer can increase profits by changing its supply offers given all rivals' bids. Power plants technical and operating constraints are considered. An iterative procedure, based on the dynamic programming, is used to find the optimum production plans of each producer. Some combinations of power plants and number of producers are analyzed, to simulate for instance the decommissioning of old expensive power plants, the installation of new more efficient capacity, the severance of large dominant producers into smaller utilities, the access of new producers to the market. Their effect on power plants management, market equilibrium, electricity quantities traded and prices is discussed. (author)

  18. Enhanced intracellular delivery of a model drug using microbubbles produced by a microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Adam J; Dhanaliwala, Ali H; Chen, Johnny L; Hossack, John A

    2013-07-01

    Focal drug delivery to a vessel wall facilitated by intravascular ultrasound and microbubbles holds promise as a potential therapy for atherosclerosis. Conventional methods of microbubble administration result in rapid clearance from the bloodstream and significant drug loss. To address these limitations, we evaluated whether drug delivery could be achieved with transiently stable microbubbles produced in real time and in close proximity to the therapeutic site. Rat aortic smooth muscle cells were placed in a flow chamber designed to simulate physiological flow conditions. A flow-focusing microfluidic device produced 8 μm diameter monodisperse microbubbles within the flow chamber, and ultrasound was applied to enhance uptake of a surrogate drug (calcein). Acoustic pressures up to 300 kPa and flow rates up to 18 mL/s were investigated. Microbubbles generated by the flow-focusing microfluidic device were stabilized with a polyethylene glycol-40 stearate shell and had either a perfluorobutane (PFB) or nitrogen gas core. The gas core composition affected stability, with PFB and nitrogen microbubbles exhibiting half-lives of 40.7 and 18.2 s, respectively. Calcein uptake was observed at lower acoustic pressures with nitrogen microbubbles (100 kPa) than with PFB microbubbles (200 kPa) (p 3). In addition, delivery was observed at all flow rates, with maximal delivery (>70% of cells) occurring at a flow rate of 9 mL/s. These results demonstrate the potential of transiently stable microbubbles produced in real time and in close proximity to the intended therapeutic site for enhancing localized drug delivery. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A new dry eye mouse model produced by exorbital and intraorbital lacrimal gland excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, Katsuhiko; Ueta, Mayumi; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2018-01-24

    Chronic dry eye is an increasingly prevalent condition worldwide, with resulting loss of visual function and quality of life. Relevant, repeatable, and stable animal models of dry eye are still needed. We have developed an improved surgical mouse model for dry eye based on severe aqueous fluid deficiency, by excising both the exorbital and intraorbital lacrimal glands (ELG and ILG, respectively) of mice. After ELG plus ILG excision, dry eye symptoms were evaluated using fluorescein infiltration observation, tear production measurement, and histological evaluation of ocular surface. Tear production in the model mice was significantly decreased compared with the controls. The corneal fluorescein infiltration score of the model mice was also significantly increased compared with the controls. Histological examination revealed significant severe inflammatory changes in the cornea, conjunctiva or meibomian glands of the model mice after surgery. In the observation of LysM-eGFP (+/-) mice tissues, postsurgical infiltration of green fluorescent neutrophils was observed in the ocular surface tissues. We theorize that the inflammatory changes on the ocular surface of this model were induced secondarily by persistent severe tear reduction. The mouse model will be useful for investigations of both pathophysiology as well as new therapies for tear-volume-reduction type dry eye.

  20. Thermodynamic modelling of an onsite methanation reactor for upgrading producer gas from commercial small scale biomass gasifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Malamis, D; Moustakas, K

    2018-06-15

    Small scale biomass gasifiers have the advantage of having higher electrical efficiency in comparison to other conventional small scale energy systems. Nonetheless, a major drawback of small scale biomass gasifiers is the relatively poor quality of the producer gas. In addition, several EU Member States are seeking ways to store the excess energy that is produced from renewables like wind power and hydropower. A recent development is the storage of energy by electrolysis of water and the production of hydrogen in a process that is commonly known as "power-to-gas". The present manuscript proposes an onsite secondary reactor for upgrading producer gas by mixing it with hydrogen in order to initiate methanation reactions. A thermodynamic model has been developed for assessing the potential of the proposed methanation process. The model utilized input parameters from a representative small scale biomass gasifier and molar ratios of hydrogen from 1:0 to 1:4.1. The Villar-Cruise-Smith algorithm was used for minimizing the Gibbs free energy. The model returned the molar fractions of the permanent gases, the heating values and the Wobbe Index. For mixtures of hydrogen and producer gas on a 1:0.9 ratio the increase of the heating value is maximized with an increase of 78%. For ratios higher than 1:3, the Wobbe index increases significantly and surpasses the value of 30 MJ/Nm 3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Do regional weather models contribute to better wind power forecasts? A few Norwegian case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremnes, John Bjørnar; Giebel, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    resolution of this grid determines how accurate meteorological processes can be modeled and thereby also limits forecast quality. In this study, two global and four regional operational NWP models with spatial horizontal resolutions ranging from 1 to 32 km were applied to make wind power forecasts up to 66...

  2. Modeling Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Composite Produced Using Stir Casting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hayat Jokhio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ANN (Artificial Neural Networks modeling methodology was adopted for predicting mechanical properties of aluminum cast composite materials. For this purpose aluminum alloy were developed using conventional foundry method. The composite materials have complex nature which posses the nonlinear relationship among heat treatment, processing parameters, and composition and affects their mechanical properties. These nonlinear relation ships with properties can more efficiently be modeled by ANNs. Neural networks modeling needs sufficient data base consisting of mechanical properties, chemical composition and processing parameters. Such data base is not available for modeling. Therefore, a large range of experimental work was carried out for the development of aluminum composite materials. Alloys containing Cu, Mg and Zn as matrix were reinforced with 1- 15% Al2O3 particles using stir casting method. Alloys composites were cast in a metal mold. More than eighty standard samples were prepared for tensile tests. Sixty samples were given solution treatments at 580oC for half an hour and tempered at 120oC for 24 hours. The samples were characterized to investigate mechanical properties using Scanning Electron Microscope, X-Ray Spectrometer, Optical Metallurgical Microscope, Vickers Hardness, Universal Testing Machine and Abrasive Wear Testing Machine. A MLP (Multilayer Perceptron feedforward was developed and used for modeling purpose. Training, testing and validation of the model were carried out using back propagation learning algorithm. The modeling results show that an architecture of 14 inputs with 9 hidden neurons and 4 outputs which includes the tensile strength, elongation, hardness and abrasive wear resistance gives reasonably accurate results with an error within the range of 2-7 % in training, testing and validation.

  3. Modeling mechanical properties of aluminum composite produced using stir casting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokhio, M.H.; Panhwar, M.I.; Unar, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) modeling methodology was adopted for predicting mechanical properties of aluminum cast composite materials. For this purpose aluminum alloy were developed using conventional foundry method. The composite materials have complex nature which posses the nonlinear relationship among heat treatment, processing parameters, and composition and affects their mechanical properties. These nonlinear relation ships with properties can more efficiently be modeled by ANNs. Neural networks modeling needs sufficient data base consisting of mechanical properties, chemical composition and processing parameters. Such data base is not available for modeling. Therefore, a large range of experimental work was carried out for the development of aluminum composite materials. Alloys containing Cu, Mg and Zn as matrix were reinforced with 1- 15% AI/sub 2/O/sub 3/ particles using stir casting method. Alloys composites were cast in a metal mold. More than eighty standard samples were prepared for tensile tests. Sixty samples were given solution treatments at 580 deg. C for half an hour and tempered at 120 deg. C for 24 hours. The samples were characterized to investigate mechanical properties using Scanning Electron Microscope, X-Ray Spectrometer, Optical Metallurgical Microscope, Vickers Hardness, Universal Testing Machine and Abrasive Wear Testing Machine. A MLP (Multilayer Perceptron) feed forward was developed and used for modeling purpose. Training, testing and validation of the model were carried out using back propagation learning algorithm. The modeling results show that an architecture of 14 inputs with 9 hidden neurons and 4 outputs which includes the tensile strength, elongation, hardness and abrasive wear resistance gives reasonably accurate results with an error within the range of 2-7 % in training, testing and validation. (author)

  4. A new Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer channel selection and assessment of its impact on Met Office NWP forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Young-Chan; Sohn, Byung-Ju; Kim, Yoonjae; Joo, Sangwon; Bell, William; Saunders, Roger

    2017-11-01

    A new set of Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) channels was re-selected from 314 EUMETSAT channels. In selecting channels, we calculated the impact of the individually added channel on the improvement in the analysis outputs from a one-dimensional variational analysis (1D-Var) for the Unified Model (UM) data assimilation system at the Met Office, using the channel score index (CSI) as a figure of merit. Then, 200 channels were selected in order by counting each individual channel's CSI contribution. Compared with the operationally used 183 channels for the UM at the Met Office, the new set shares 149 channels, while the other 51 channels are new. Also examined is the selection from the entropy reduction method with the same 1D-Var approach. Results suggest that channel selection can be made in a more objective fashion using the proposed CSI method. This is because the most important channels can be selected across the whole IASI observation spectrum. In the experimental trial runs using the UM global assimilation system, the new channels had an overall neutral impact in terms of improvement in forecasts, as compared with results from the operational channels. However, upper-tropospheric moist biases shown in the control run with operational channels were significantly reduced in the experimental trial with the newly selected channels. The reduction of moist biases was mainly due to the additional water vapor channels, which are sensitive to the upper-tropospheric water vapor.

  5. Using modeling and vicarious reinforcement to produce more positive attitudes toward mental health treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Gary I; Malouff, John M

    2005-05-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of a video, developed for this study and using principles of cognitive learning theory, to produce positive attitudinal change toward mental health treatment. The participants were 35 men and 45 women who were randomly assigned to watch either an experimental video, which included 3 positive 1st-person accounts of psychotherapy or a control video that focused on the psychological construct of self. Pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 2-week follow-up levels of attitude toward mental health treatment were measured using the Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Help Scale (E. H. Fischer & J. L. Turner, 1970). The experimental video group showed a significantly greater increase in positive attitude than did the control group. These results support the effectiveness of using the vicarious reinforcement elements of cognitive learning theory as a basis for changing attitudes toward mental health treatment.

  6. The Impact of Weights on the Quality of Agricultural Producers' Multicriteria Decision Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Sielska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decisions regarding agricultural production involve multiple goals. A multicriteria approach allows decision makers to consider more aspects of the decision scenario, although it also leads to other problems, such as difficulties with the selection of goals or criteria, as well as assigning them appropriate weights. It is argued that not only do goals vary depending on the decision-makers' socioeconomic features, but their relative importance changes as well. A simulation study has been conducted based on the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN database. We use the distance-to-the-negative-solution maximization model. Seven sets of criteria and different sets of weights are considered. The main purpose of the study is to determine the impact of weights on the quality of the model. Quality is assessed by comparing the optimal and observed values of the decision variables. The results lead to the conclusion that the differences between the quality of various models are small. (original abstract

  7. Distribution and Orientation of Carbon Fibers in Polylactic Acid Parts Produced by Fused Deposition Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; W. Gutmann, Ingomar; Koch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the understanding of the fiber orientation by investigations in respect to the inner configuration of a polylactic acid matrix reinforced with short carbon fibers after a fused deposition modeling extrusion process. The final parts were analyzed by X-ray, tomography......, and magnetic resonance imaging allowing a resolved orientation of the fibers and distribution within the part. The research contributes to the understanding of the fiber orientation and fiber reinforcement of fused deposition modeling parts in additive manufacturing....

  8. Study on isotopic distribution produced by nucleus-nucleus collisions with modified SAA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Chen; Fang Deqing; Cai Xiangzhou; Shen Wenqing; Zhang Huyong; Wei Yibin; Ma Yugang

    2003-01-01

    Base on Brohm's Statistic-Ablation-Abrasion (SAA) model, the modified SAA model was developed via introducing the isospin dependence of nucleon distribution in nucleus and parameterized formulas for nucleon-nucleon cross section in nuclear matter. It can simulate well the isotopic distribution at both high and intermediate energies. By the improvement of computational method, the range of calculation of isotopic distribution can be increased from three order magnitude to eight order magnitude (even higher). It can reproduce experimental data and predict the isotopic distribution for very far from stability line which is very important from experimental viewpoint

  9. Model of depositing layer on cylindrical surface produced by induction-assisted laser cladding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotlan Václav

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A model of hybrid cladding on a cylindrical surface is built and numerically solved. Heating of both substrate and the powder material to be deposited on its surface is realized by laser beam and preheating inductor. The task represents a hard-coupled electromagnetic-thermal problem with time-varying geometry. Two specific algorithms are developed to incorporate this effect into the model, driven by local distribution of temperature and its gradients. The algorithms are implemented into the COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2 code that is used for numerical computations of the task. The methodology is illustrated with a typical example whose results are discussed.

  10. Model of an electric field produced by viscous interaction in the plasma sheet of the magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkaev, N.V.

    1996-01-01

    Two-dimensional model of flow in a plasma layer of magnetotail is considered with account of low viscosity. The general Ohm's law is used for electric current. The role of viscous forces is most sufficient in boundary layers, which expand with moving away along the flow and located along the boundaries of plasma layer and solar wind. Auto model solution, describing the distribution of potential and velocity in boundary layers was obtained. The solution for boundary layers dictates boundary conditions for determination of large-scale distribution of electric potential in plasma layer. 7 refs., 4 figs

  11. A model of disordered zone formation in Cu3Au under cascade-producing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapinos, V.G.; Bacon, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    A model to describe the disordering of ordered Cu 3 Au under irradiation is proposed. For the thermal spike phase of a displacement cascade, the processes of heat evolution and conduction in the cascade region are modelled by solving the thermal conduction equation by a discretization method for a medium that can melt and solidify under appropriate conditions. The model considers disordering to result from cascade core melting, with the final disordered zone corresponding to the largest molten zone achieved. The initial conditions for this treatment are obtained by simulation of cascades by the MARLOWE code. The contrast of disordered zones imaged in a superlattice dark-field reflection and projected on the plane parallel to the surface of a thin foil was calculated. The average size of images from hundreds of cascades created by incident Cu + ions were calculated for different ion energies and compared with experimental transmission electron microscopy data. The model is in reasonable quantitative agreement with the experimentally observed trends. (author)

  12. Modelling and optimisation of fs laser-produced K (alpha) sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gibbon, P.; Mašek, Martin; Teubner, U.; Lu, W.; Nicoul, M.; Shymanovich, U.; Tarasevitch, A.; Zhou, P.; Sokolowski-Tinten, K.; von der Linde, D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 1 (2009), 23-31 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : fs laser-plasma interaction * K (alpha) sources * 3D numerical modelling Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.595, year: 2009

  13. Manifestation of a neuro-fuzzy model to produce landslide susceptibility map using remote sensing data derived parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Lee, Saro; Buchroithner, Manfred

    Landslides are the most common natural hazards in Malaysia. Preparation of landslide suscep-tibility maps is important for engineering geologists and geomorphologists. However, due to complex nature of landslides, producing a reliable susceptibility map is not easy. In this study, a new attempt is tried to produce landslide susceptibility map of a part of Cameron Valley of Malaysia. This paper develops an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based on a geographic information system (GIS) environment for landslide susceptibility mapping. To ob-tain the neuro-fuzzy relations for producing the landslide susceptibility map, landslide locations were identified from interpretation of aerial photographs and high resolution satellite images, field surveys and historical inventory reports. Landslide conditioning factors such as slope, plan curvature, distance to drainage lines, soil texture, lithology, and distance to lineament were extracted from topographic, soil, and lineament maps. Landslide susceptible areas were analyzed by the ANFIS model and mapped using the conditioning factors. Furthermore, we applied various membership functions (MFs) and fuzzy relations to produce landslide suscep-tibility maps. The prediction performance of the susceptibility map is checked by considering actual landslides in the study area. Results show that, triangular, trapezoidal, and polynomial MFs were the best individual MFs for modelling landslide susceptibility maps (86

  14. Progesterone Metabolites Produced by Cytochrome P450 3A Modulate Uterine Contractility in a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Avinash S.; Swamy, Geeta K.; Murtha, Amy P.; Heine, R. Phillips; Zheng, Xiaomei; Grotegut, Chad A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We seek to characterize the effect of progesterone metabolites on spontaneous and oxytocin-induced uterine contractility. Study Design: Spontaneous contractility was studied in mouse uterine horns after treatment with progesterone, 2α-hydroxyprogesterone, 6β-hydroxyprogesterone (6β-OHP), 16α-hydroxyprogesterone (16α-OHP), or 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) at 10−9 to 10−6 mol/L. Uterine horns were exposed to progestins (10−6 mol/L), followed by increasing concentrations of oxytocin (1-100 nmol/L) to study oxytocin-induced contractility. Contraction parameters were compared for each progestin and matched vehicle control using repeated measures 2-way analysis of variance. In vitro metabolism of progesterone by recombinant cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) microsomes (3A5, 3A5, and 3A7) identified major metabolites. Results: Oxytocin-induced contractile frequency was decreased by 16α-OHP (P = .03) and increased by 6β-OHP (P = .05). Progesterone and 17-OHPC decreased oxytocin-induced contractile force (P = .02 and P = .04, respectively) and frequency (P = .02 and P = .03, respectively). Only progesterone decreased spontaneous contractile force (P = .02). Production of 16α-OHP and 6β-OHP metabolites were confirmed in all CYP3A isoforms tested. Conclusion: Progesterone metabolites produced by maternal or fetal CYP3A enzymes influence uterine contractility. PMID:26037300

  15. Notified Access: Extending Remote Memory Access Programming Models for Producer-Consumer Synchronization

    KAUST Repository

    Belli, Roberto; Hoefler, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Remote Memory Access (RMA) programming enables direct access to low-level hardware features to achieve high performance for distributed-memory programs. However, the design of RMA programming schemes focuses on the memory access and less on the synchronization. For example, in contemporary RMA programming systems, the widely used producer-consumer pattern can only be implemented inefficiently, incurring in an overhead of an additional round-trip message. We propose Notified Access, a scheme where the target process of an access can receive a completion notification. This scheme enables direct and efficient synchronization with a minimum number of messages. We implement our scheme in an open source MPI-3 RMA library and demonstrate lower overheads (two cache misses) than other point-to-point synchronization mechanisms for each notification. We also evaluate our implementation on three real-world benchmarks, a stencil computation, a tree computation, and a Colicky factorization implemented with tasks. Our scheme always performs better than traditional message passing and other existing RMA synchronization schemes, providing up to 50% speedup on small messages. Our analysis shows that Notified Access is a valuable primitive for any RMA system. Furthermore, we provide guidance for the design of low-level network interfaces to support Notified Access efficiently.

  16. Notified Access: Extending Remote Memory Access Programming Models for Producer-Consumer Synchronization

    KAUST Repository

    Belli, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    Remote Memory Access (RMA) programming enables direct access to low-level hardware features to achieve high performance for distributed-memory programs. However, the design of RMA programming schemes focuses on the memory access and less on the synchronization. For example, in contemporary RMA programming systems, the widely used producer-consumer pattern can only be implemented inefficiently, incurring in an overhead of an additional round-trip message. We propose Notified Access, a scheme where the target process of an access can receive a completion notification. This scheme enables direct and efficient synchronization with a minimum number of messages. We implement our scheme in an open source MPI-3 RMA library and demonstrate lower overheads (two cache misses) than other point-to-point synchronization mechanisms for each notification. We also evaluate our implementation on three real-world benchmarks, a stencil computation, a tree computation, and a Colicky factorization implemented with tasks. Our scheme always performs better than traditional message passing and other existing RMA synchronization schemes, providing up to 50% speedup on small messages. Our analysis shows that Notified Access is a valuable primitive for any RMA system. Furthermore, we provide guidance for the design of low-level network interfaces to support Notified Access efficiently.

  17. MCDIRC: A model to estimate creep produced by microcracking around a shaft in intact rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, B.J.S.; Rigby, G.L.

    1989-12-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is studying the concept of disposing of nuclear fuel waste in a vault in plutonic rock. Models are being developed to predict the mechanical behaviour of the rock in response to excavation and heat from the waste. The dominant mechanism of deformation at temperatures below 150 degrees C is microcracking, which results in rock creep and a decrease in rock strength. A model has been constructed to consider the perturbation of the stress state of intact rock by a vertical cylindrical opening. Slow crack-growth data are used to estimate time-dependent changes in rock strength, from which the movement (creep) of the opening wall and radial strain in the rock mass can be estimated

  18. Modeling OPEC behavior: theories of risk aversion for oil producer decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.B.

    1999-01-01

    Theories of OPEC such as price leadership, cartel, or game theoretic models suggest an incentive for OPEC members to expand their production capacity well above current levels in order to maximize revenues. Yet individual OPEC members consistently explore for and develop oil fields at a level well below their potential. The cause of low oil exploration and development efforts among OPEC members, and even some non-OPEC members, may have to do with risk aversion. This paper describes an alternative theory for OPEC behavior based on risk aversion using a two piece non-Neumann-Morgenstern utility function similar to Fishburn and Koehenberger (1979, Decision Science 10, 503-518), and Friedman and Savage (1948, Journal of political Economy 56). The model shows possible low oil production behavior. (author)

  19. Sites that Can Produce Left-handed Amino Acids in the Supernova Neutrino Amino Acid Processing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Richard N.; Famiano, Michael A.; Onaka, Takashi; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2018-03-01

    The Supernova Neutrino Amino Acid Processing model, which uses electron anti-neutrinos and the magnetic field from a source object such as a supernova to selectively destroy one amino acid chirality, is studied for possible sites that would produce meteoroids with partially left-handed amino acids. Several sites appear to provide the requisite magnetic field intensities and electron anti-neutrino fluxes. These results have obvious implications for the origin of life on Earth.

  20. Mathematical Modeling and Algebraic Technique for Resolving a Single-Producer Multi-Retailer Integrated Inventory System with Scrap

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Shyi Peter Chiu; Chien-Hua Lee; Nong Pan; Singa Wang Chiu

    2013-01-01

    This study uses mathematical modeling along with an algebraic technique to resolve the production-distribution policy for a single-producer multi-retailer integrated inventory system with scrap in production. We assume that a product is manufactured through an imperfect production process where all nonconforming items will be picked up and scrapped in each production cycle. After the entire lot is quality assured, multiple shipments will be delivered synchronously to m different retailers in ...

  1. Interactions between connected half-sarcomeres produce emergent mechanical behavior in a mathematical model of muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth S Campbell

    2009-01-01

    Most reductionist theories of muscle attribute a fiber's mechanical properties to the scaled behavior of a single half-sarcomere. Mathematical models of this type can explain many of the known mechanical properties of muscle but have to incorporate a passive mechanical component that becomes approximately 300% stiffer in activating conditions to reproduce the force response elicited by stretching a fast mammalian muscle fiber. The available experimental data suggests that titin filaments, whi...

  2. Modelling the risk of Taenia solium exposure from pork produced in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lian F; de Glanville, William A; Cook, Elizabeth A J; Bronsvoort, Barend M De C; Handel, Ian; Wamae, Claire N; Kariuki, Samuel; Fèvre, Eric M

    2017-02-01

    The tapeworm Taenia solium is the parasite responsible for neurocysticercosis, a neglected tropical disease of public health importance, thought to cause approximately 1/3 of epilepsy cases across endemic regions. The consumption of undercooked infected pork perpetuates the parasite's life-cycle through the establishment of adult tapeworm infections in the community. Reducing the risk associated with pork consumption in the developing world is therefore a public health priority. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of any one pork meal in western Kenya containing a potentially infective T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption, an aspect of the parasite transmission that has not been estimated before. To estimate this, we used a quantitative food chain risk assessment model built in the @RISK add-on to Microsoft Excel. This model indicates that any one pork meal consumed in western Kenya has a 0.006 (99% Uncertainty Interval (U.I). 0.0002-0.0164) probability of containing at least one viable T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption and therefore being potentially infectious to humans. This equates to 22,282 (99% U.I. 622-64,134) potentially infective pork meals consumed in the course of one year within Busia District alone. This model indicates a high risk of T. solium infection associated with pork consumption in western Kenya and the work presented here can be built upon to investigate the efficacy of various mitigation strategies for this locality.

  3. Modelling the risk of Taenia solium exposure from pork produced in western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian F Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The tapeworm Taenia solium is the parasite responsible for neurocysticercosis, a neglected tropical disease of public health importance, thought to cause approximately 1/3 of epilepsy cases across endemic regions. The consumption of undercooked infected pork perpetuates the parasite's life-cycle through the establishment of adult tapeworm infections in the community. Reducing the risk associated with pork consumption in the developing world is therefore a public health priority. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of any one pork meal in western Kenya containing a potentially infective T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption, an aspect of the parasite transmission that has not been estimated before. To estimate this, we used a quantitative food chain risk assessment model built in the @RISK add-on to Microsoft Excel. This model indicates that any one pork meal consumed in western Kenya has a 0.006 (99% Uncertainty Interval (U.I. 0.0002-0.0164 probability of containing at least one viable T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption and therefore being potentially infectious to humans. This equates to 22,282 (99% U.I. 622-64,134 potentially infective pork meals consumed in the course of one year within Busia District alone. This model indicates a high risk of T. solium infection associated with pork consumption in western Kenya and the work presented here can be built upon to investigate the efficacy of various mitigation strategies for this locality.

  4. Fenofibrate plus Metformin Produces Cardioprotection in a Type 2 Diabetes and Acute Myocardial Infarction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Oidor-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether fenofibrate, metformin, and their combination generate cardioprotection in a rat model of type 2 diabetes (T2D and acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic- (DB- rats received 14 days of either vehicle, fenofibrate, metformin, or their combination and immediately after underwent myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R. Fenofibrate plus metformin generated cardioprotection in a DBI/R model, reported as decreased coronary vascular resistance, compared to DBI/R-Vehicle, smaller infarct size, and increased cardiac work. The subchronic treatment with fenofibrate plus metformin increased, compared with DBI/R-Vehicle, total antioxidant capacity, manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase activity (MnSOD, guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH-I expression, tetrahydrobiopterin : dihydrobiopterin (BH4 : BH2 ratio, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activity, nitric oxide (NO bioavailability, and decreased inducible NOS (iNOS activity. These findings suggest that PPARα activation by fenofibrate + metformin, at low doses, generates cardioprotection in a rat model of T2D and AMI and may represent a novel treatment strategy to limit I/R injury in patients with T2D.

  5. Stochastic modelling of Listeria monocytogenes single cell growth in cottage cheese with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from aroma producing cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-01-01

    . 2014. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 188, 15-25]. Growth of L. monocytogenes single cells, using lag time distributions corresponding to three different......A stochastic model was developed for simultaneous growth of low numbers of Listeria monocytogenes and populations of lactic acid bacteria from the aroma producing cultures applied in cottage cheese. During more than two years, different batches of cottage cheese with aroma culture were analysed...

  6. A Single Neonatal Exposure to BMAA in a Rat Model Produces Neuropathology Consistent with Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Louise Scott

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although cyanobacterial β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, Parkinson’s Disease (PD and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, no BMAA animal model has reproduced all the neuropathology typically associated with these neurodegenerative diseases. We present here a neonatal BMAA model that causes β-amyloid deposition, neurofibrillary tangles of hyper-phosphorylated tau, TDP-43 inclusions, Lewy bodies, microbleeds and microgliosis as well as severe neuronal loss in the hippocampus, striatum, substantia nigra pars compacta, and ventral horn of the spinal cord in rats following a single BMAA exposure. We also report here that BMAA exposure on particularly PND3, but also PND4 and 5, the critical period of neurogenesis in the rodent brain, is substantially more toxic than exposure to BMAA on G14, PND6, 7 and 10 which suggests that BMAA could potentially interfere with neonatal neurogenesis in rats. The observed selective toxicity of BMAA during neurogenesis and, in particular, the observed pattern of neuronal loss observed in BMAA-exposed rats suggest that BMAA elicits its effect by altering dopamine and/or serotonin signaling in rats.

  7. Mathematical modelling of flue gas tempered flames produced from pulverised coal fired with oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breussin, A.; Weber, R.; Kamp, W.L. van de

    1997-10-01

    The combustion of pulverised coal in conventional utility boilers contributes significantly to global CO{sub 2} emissions. Because atmospheric air is used as the combustion medium, the exhaust gases of conventional pulverised coal fired utility boilers contain approximately 15 % CO{sub 2}. This relatively low concentration makes separating and recovering CO{sub 2} a very energy-intensive process. This process can be simplified if N{sub 2} is eliminated from the comburent before combustion by firing the pulverised coal with pure oxygen. However, this concept will result in very high flames temperatures. Flue gas recirculation can be used to moderate the flame temperature, whilst generating a flue gas with a CO{sub 2} concentration of 95 %. In this presentation, both experimental and modelling work will be described. The former deals with identifying the issues related to the combustion of pulverised coal in simulated turbine exhaust gas, particularly with respect to stability, burnout and pollutant emissions. The second part of this presentation describes mathematical modelling of type 2 as well as type 1 swirling pulverised coal flames. Future work will concentrate on high CO{sub 2} levels environments. (orig.)

  8. Model of analysis of maximum loads in wind generators produced by extreme winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera – Sánchez, Omar; Schellong, Wolfgang; González – Fernández, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    The use of the wind energy by means of the wind turbines in areas of high risk of occurrence of Hurricanes comes being an important challenge for the designers of wind farm at world for some years. The wind generator is not usually designed to support this type of phenomena, for this reason the areas of high incidence of tropical hurricanes of the planning are excluded, that which, in occasions disables the use of this renewable source of energy totally, either because the country is very small, or because it coincides the area of more potential fully with that of high risk. To counteract this situation, a model of analysis of maxims loads has been elaborated taken place the extreme winds in wind turbines of great behavior. This model has the advantage of determining, in a chosen place, for the installation of a wind farm, the micro-areas with higher risk of wind loads above the acceptable for the standard classes of wind turbines. (author)

  9. Producer-decomposer matching in a simple model ecosystem: A network coevolutionary approach to ecosystem organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Masahiko; Yamamura, Norio; Nakajima, Hisao; Abe, Takuya

    1993-01-01

    The present not is concerned with how the ecosystem maintains its energy and matter processes, and how those processes change throughout ecological and geological time, or how the constituent biota of an ecosystem maintain their life, and how ecological (species) succession and biological evolution proceed within an ecosystem. To advance further Tansky's (1976) approach to ecosystem organization, which investigated the characteristic properties of the developmental process of a model ecosystem, by applying Margalef's (1968) maximum maturity principle to derive its long term change, we seek a course for deriving the macroscopic trends along the organization process of an ecosystem as a consequence of the interactions among its biotic components and their modification of ecological traits. Using a simple ecosystem model consisting of four aggregated components (open-quotes compartmentsclose quotes) connected by nutrient flows, we investigate how a change in the value of a parameter alters the network pattern of flows and stocks, even causing a change in the value of another parameter, which in turn brings about further change in the network pattern and values of some (possible original) parameters. The continuation of this chain reaction involving feedbacks constitutes a possible mechanism for the open-quotes coevolutionclose quotes or open-quotes matchingclose quotes among flows, stocks, and parameters

  10. Evaluation of methods to produce an image library for automatic patient model localization for dose mapping during fluoroscopically guided procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian-Meneghin, Josh; Xiong, Z.; Rudin, S.; Oines, A.; Bednarek, D. R.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate methods for producing a library of 2D-radiographic images to be correlated to clinical images obtained during a fluoroscopically-guided procedure for automated patient-model localization. The localization algorithm will be used to improve the accuracy of the skin-dose map superimposed on the 3D patient- model of the real-time Dose-Tracking-System (DTS). For the library, 2D images were generated from CT datasets of the SK-150 anthropomorphic phantom using two methods: Schmid's 3D-visualization tool and Plastimatch's digitally-reconstructed-radiograph (DRR) code. Those images, as well as a standard 2D-radiographic image, were correlated to a 2D-fluoroscopic image of a phantom, which represented the clinical-fluoroscopic image, using the Corr2 function in Matlab. The Corr2 function takes two images and outputs the relative correlation between them, which is fed into the localization algorithm. Higher correlation means better alignment of the 3D patient-model with the patient image. In this instance, it was determined that the localization algorithm will succeed when Corr2 returns a correlation of at least 50%. The 3D-visualization tool images returned 55-80% correlation relative to the fluoroscopic-image, which was comparable to the correlation for the radiograph. The DRR images returned 61-90% correlation, again comparable to the radiograph. Both methods prove to be sufficient for the localization algorithm and can be produced quickly; however, the DRR method produces more accurate grey-levels. Using the DRR code, a library at varying angles can be produced for the localization algorithm.

  11. Urban meteorological modelling for nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Sorensen, Jens Havskov; Hoe, Steen Cordt; Amstrup, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    The main objectives of the current EU project 'Integrated Systems for Forecasting Urban Meteorology, Air Pollution and Population Exposure' (FUMAPEX) are the improvement of meteorological forecasts for urban areas, the connection of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models to urban air pollution and population dose models, the building of improved urban air quality information and forecasting systems, and their application in cities in various European climates. In addition to the forecast of the worst air-pollution episodes in large cities, the potential use of improved weather forecasts for nuclear emergency management in urban areas, in case of hazardous releases from nuclear accidents or terror acts, is considered. Such use of NWP data is tested for the Copenhagen metropolitan area and the Oresund region. The Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) is running an experimental version of the HIRLAM NWP model over Zealand including the Copenhagen metropolitan area with a horizontal resolution of 1.4 km, thus approaching the city-scale. This involves 1-km resolution physiographic data with implications for the urban surface parameters, e.g. surface fluxes, roughness length and albedo. For the city of Copenhagen, the enhanced high-resolution NWP forecasting will be provided to demonstrate the improved dispersion forecasting capabilities of the Danish nuclear emergency preparedness decision-support system, the Accident Reporting and Guidance Operational System (ARGOS), used by the Danish Emergency Management Agency (DEMA). Recently, ARGOS has been extended with a capability of real-time calculation of regional-scale atmospheric dispersion of radioactive material from accidental releases. This is effectuated through on-line interfacing with the Danish Emergency Response Model of the Atmosphere (DERMA), which is run at DMI. For local-scale modelling of atmospheric dispersion, ARGOS utilises the Local-Scale Model Chain (LSMC), which makes use of high-resolution DMI

  12. Unified Aerosol Microphysics for NWP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    it may be treated as a generic variable such as when it is processed by advection, or it may be used specifically like dust in ice nucleation...interactions. We shifted instead to a winter-time passage of a low pressure system across North Africa and the Mediterranean Sea (Figure 1). The strong...MODIS multispectral albedo data, MODIS land surface data, and the NRL DSD for SW Asia and E Asia a multi-variate, non-linear classification was

  13. Instructions for producing a mouse model of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, S.; Baschant, U.; Rauch, A.

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are effective drugs used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or asthma. Furthermore, they regulate various physiological processes, including bone remodeling. However, long-term high- and even low-dose glucocorticoid use is associated...... with a compromised bone quality and an increased fracture risk. At the cellular level, glucocorticoids suppress bone formation and stimulate bone resorption, which leads to loss of bone mass. To investigate the underlying mechanisms and new therapeutic strategies, the in vivo model for glucocorticoid-induced bone...... loss is widely used. This protocol outlines the common procedure that is currently used for the induction of bone loss in mice using glucocorticoids. It further provides useful hints and highlights possible pitfalls to take into account before starting an experiment....

  14. Thermodynamic model of a diesel engine to work with gas produced from biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesme Jaén, René; Silva Jardines, Fernando; Rodríguez Ortíz, Leandro Alexei; García Faure, Luis Gerónimo; Peralta Campos, Leonel Grave de; Oliva Ruiz, Luis; Iglesias Vaillant, Yunier

    2017-01-01

    The poor gas, obtained from the gasification of the biomass with air, has a high content of volatile substances, high stability to the ignition and can be used in internal combustion engines. In the present work the results of a thermodynamic model for a Diesel engine AshokLeyland, installed in 'El Brujo' sawmill of the Gran Piedra Baconao Forestry Company of Santiago de Cuba. From the composition and the combustion equation of the poor gas, the thermodynamic cycle calculation and the energy balance of the engine for different loads. Cycle parameters, fuel air ratio, CO2 emissions, engine power and performance were determined. As the main result of the work, the engine had an effective efficiency of 22.3%, consumed 3605.5 grams of fuel / KWh and emits 2055 grams of CO2 / kWh. (author)

  15. Interactions between connected half-sarcomeres produce emergent mechanical behavior in a mathematical model of muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S Campbell

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Most reductionist theories of muscle attribute a fiber's mechanical properties to the scaled behavior of a single half-sarcomere. Mathematical models of this type can explain many of the known mechanical properties of muscle but have to incorporate a passive mechanical component that becomes approximately 300% stiffer in activating conditions to reproduce the force response elicited by stretching a fast mammalian muscle fiber. The available experimental data suggests that titin filaments, which are the mostly likely source of the passive component, become at most approximately 30% stiffer in saturating Ca2+ solutions. The work described in this manuscript used computer modeling to test an alternative systems theory that attributes the stretch response of a mammalian fiber to the composite behavior of a collection of half-sarcomeres. The principal finding was that the stretch response of a chemically permeabilized rabbit psoas fiber could be reproduced with a framework consisting of 300 half-sarcomeres arranged in 6 parallel myofibrils without requiring titin filaments to stiffen in activating solutions. Ablation of inter-myofibrillar links in the computer simulations lowered isometric force values and lowered energy absorption during a stretch. This computed behavior mimics effects previously observed in experiments using muscles from desmin-deficient mice in which the connections between Z-disks in adjacent myofibrils are presumably compromised. The current simulations suggest that muscle fibers exhibit emergent properties that reflect interactions between half-sarcomeres and are not properties of a single half-sarcomere in isolation. It is therefore likely that full quantitative understanding of a fiber's mechanical properties requires detailed analysis of a complete fiber system and cannot be achieved by focusing solely on the properties of a single half-sarcomere.

  16. A theoretical model for estimating the vacancies produced in graphene by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codorniu Pujals, Daniel; Aguilera Corrales, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    The award of the Nobel Prize of Physics 2010 to the scientists that isolated graphene is a clear evidence of the great interest that this system has raised among the physicists. This quasi-two-dimensional material, whose electrons behave as massless Dirac particles, presents sui generis properties that seem very promising for diverse practical applications. At the same time, the system poses new theoretical challenges for the scientists of very different branches, from Material Science to Relativistic Quantum Mechanics. A topic of great actuality in graphene researches is the search of ways to control the number and distribution of the defects in its crystal lattice, in order to achieve certain physical properties. One of these ways can be the irradiation with different kind of particles. However, the irradiation processes in two-dimensional systems have been insufficiently studied. The classic models of interaction of the radiation with solids are based on three-dimensional structures, for what they should be modified to apply them to graphene. In the present work we discuss, from the theoretical point of view, the features of the processes that happen in the two-dimensional structure of monolayer graphene under irradiation with different kinds of particles. In that context, some mathematical expressions that allow to estimate the concentration of the vacancies created during these processes are presented. We also discuss the possible use of the information obtained from the model to design structures of topological defects with certain elastic deformation fields, as well as their influence in the electronic properties. (Author)

  17. Therapeutic effect of androgen therapy in a mouse model of aplastic anemia produced by short telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär, Christian; Huber, Nicolas; Beier, Fabian; Blasco, Maria A

    2015-10-01

    Aplastic anemia is a rare but life-threatening disorder characterized by cytopenia in at least two of the three blood lineages. A frequent feature of patients with aplastic anemia is that they have shorter telomeres than those of age-matched controls. Testosterone has been used for over half a century in the treatment of aplastic anemia. However, although remissions are frequent following hormone therapy, the molecular mechanism underlying the response to treatment has remained unknown. Here we explored the possibility that the recently described regulation of telomerase activity by sex hormones may be the mechanism responsible. To this end, we used a mouse model of aplastic anemia induced by short telomeres in the bone marrow compartment. We found that testosterone therapy results in telomerase up-regulation, improved blood counts, and a significant extension of life-span of these mice. Importantly, longitudinal follow-up studies revealed longer telomeres in peripheral blood in mice subjected to hormone treatment. Our results demonstrate that testosterone-mediated telomerase activation can attenuate or reverse aplastic anemia disease progression associated with the presence of short telomeres. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  18. Immune Modulating Capability of Two Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bifidobacterium Strains in a Wistar Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Salazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the usual carriers for the delivery of probiotics to humans, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus being the most frequently used bacteria. In this work, the strains Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 and Bifidobacterium longum IPLA E44 were tested for their capability to modulate immune response and the insulin-dependent glucose homeostasis using male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet. Three intervention groups were fed daily for 24 days with 10% skimmed milk, or with 109 cfu of the corresponding strain suspended in the same vehicle. A significant increase of the suppressor-regulatory TGF-β cytokine occurred with both strains in comparison with a control (no intervention group of rats; the highest levels were reached in rats fed IPLA R1. This strain presented an immune protective profile, as it was able to reduce the production of the proinflammatory IL-6. Moreover, phosphorylated Akt kinase decreased in gastroctemius muscle of rats fed the strain IPLA R1, without affecting the glucose, insulin, and HOMA index in blood, or levels of Glut-4 located in the membrane of muscle and adipose tissue cells. Therefore, the strain B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 is a probiotic candidate to be tested in mild grade inflammation animal models.

  19. A new mouse model for renal lesions produced by intravenous injection of diphtheria toxin A-chain expression plasmid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Shingo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various animal models of renal failure have been produced and used to investigate mechanisms underlying renal disease and develop therapeutic drugs. Most methods available to produce such models appear to involve subtotal nephrectomy or intravenous administration of antibodies raised against basement membrane of glomeruli. In this study, we developed a novel method to produce mouse models of renal failure by intravenous injection of a plasmid carrying a toxic gene such as diphtheria toxin A-chain (DT-A gene. DT-A is known to kill cells by inhibiting protein synthesis. Methods An expression plasmid carrying the cytomegalovirus enhancer/chicken β-actin promoter linked to a DT-A gene was mixed with lipid (FuGENE™6 and the resulting complexes were intravenously injected into adult male B6C3F1 mice every day for up to 6 days. After final injection, the kidneys of these mice were sampled on day 4 and weeks 3 and 5. Results H-E staining of the kidney specimens sampled on day 4 revealed remarkable alterations in glomerular compartments, as exemplified by mesangial cell proliferation and formation of extensive deposits in glomerular basement membrane. At weeks 3 and 5, gradual recovery of these tissues was observed. These mice exhibited proteinuria and disease resembling sub-acute glomerulonephritis. Conclusions Repeated intravenous injections of DT-A expression plasmid DNA/lipid complex caused temporary abnormalities mainly in glomeruli of mouse kidney. The disease in these mice resembles sub-acute glomerulonephritis. These DT-A gene-incorporated mice will be useful as animal models in the fields of nephrology and regenerative medicine.

  20. Lumbar subtotal corpectomy non-fusion model produced using a novel prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiantao; Zhang, Feng; Gao, Zhengchao; Li, Yuhuan; Niu, Binbin; He, Xijing

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we aimed to design a movable artificial lumbar complex (MALC) prosthesis for non-fusion reconstruction after lumbar subtotal corpectomy and to establish an in vitro anterolateral lumbar corpectomy non-fusion model for evaluating the biomechanical stability, preservation of segment movements and influence on adjacent inter-vertebral movements of this prosthesis. Imaging was performed on a total of 26 fresh goat lumbar spine specimens to determine which of the specimens did not meet the requirements (free of deformity and fractures); the residual specimens were randomly divided into an intact group, a fusion group and a non-fusion group. Bone mineral density (BMD) was tested and compared among the three groups. Biomechanical testing was conducted to obtain the range of motion (ROM) in flexion-extension, lateral bending at L2-3, L3-4 and L4-5 and axial rotation at L2-5 in the three groups. Two specimens were excluded due to vertebral fractures. BMD showed no statistical significance among three groups (P > 0.05). The stability of the prosthesis did not differ significantly during flexion, extension, and lateral bending at L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 and axial torsion at L2-5 between the intact group and the non-fusion group (P > 0.05). Segment movements of the specimens in the non-fusion group revealed significantly decreased L2-3 ROM and significantly increased L3-4 and L4-5 ROM in flexion and lateral bending compared with the fusion group (P inter-vertebral spaces. However, additional studies, including in vivo animal experiments as well as biocompatibility and biomechanical tests of human body specimens are needed.

  1. The value and adaptation of plant uptake models in international trade of produce treated with crop protection products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennedy, C.; Anderson, J.; Snyder, N.

    2010-01-01

    Crop Protection Product (CPP) national registrations and/or international trade require magnitude and decline of residue data for treated produce. These data are used to assess human dietary risk and establish legal limits (Maximum Residue Limits, MRLs) for traded produce. The ability to predict...... residues based on limited data sets affords business value by enabling informed product development decisions about the likelihood for MRL compliance for varied product use scenarios. Predicted residues can additionally support the design and conduct of time-constrained interdependent studies required...... for product registrations. While advances in predicting residues for the case of foliar applications of CPPs have been achieved, predictions for the case of soil applications of CPPs provide additional challenge. The adaptation of a newly developed dynamic model to CPP product use scenarios will be explored...

  2. Search for the standard model Higgs Boson produced in association with top quarks using the full CDF data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Álvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Compostella, G; Connors, J; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Funakoshi, Y; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kim, Y J; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Klimenko, S; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lecompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lin, C-J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Mastrandrea, P; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Prokoshin, F; Pranko, A; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Riddick, T; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Sorin, V; Song, H; Squillacioti, P; Stancari, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2012-11-02

    A search is presented for the standard model Higgs boson produced in association with top quarks using the full Run II proton-antiproton collision data set, corresponding to 9.45 fb(-1), collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. No significant excess over the expected background is observed, and 95% credibility-level upper bounds are placed on the cross section σ(ttH → lepton + missing transverse energy+jets). For a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV/c(2), we expect to set a limit of 12.6 and observe a limit of 20.5 times the standard model rate. This represents the most sensitive search for a standard model Higgs boson in this channel to date.

  3. Three dimensional modeling on airflow, heat and mass transfer in partially impermeable enclosure containing agricultural produce during natural convective cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chourasia, M.K.; Goswami, T.K.

    2007-01-01

    A three dimensional model was developed to simulate the transport phenomena in heat and mass generating porous medium cooled under natural convective environment. Unlike the previous works on this aspect, the present model was aimed for bulk stored agricultural produce contained in a permeable package placed on a hard surface. This situation made the bottom of the package impermeable to fluid flow as well as moisture transfer and adiabatic to heat transfer. The velocity vectors, isotherms and contours of rate of moisture loss were presented during transient cooling as well as at steady state using the commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code based on the finite volume technique. The CFD model was validated using the experimental data on the time-temperature history as well as weight loss obtained from a bag of potatoes kept in a cold store. The simulated and experimental values on temperature and moisture loss of the product were found to be in good agreement

  4. Assimilation of radar reflectivity into the LM COSMO model with a high horizontal resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Řezáčová, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2006), s. 317-330 ISSN 1350-4827 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/0114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : precipitation forecast * assimilation * radar reflectivity * NWP model * local storm Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.453, year: 2006

  5. Experimental Validation of Plastic Mandible Models Produced by a “Low-Cost” 3-Dimensional Fused Deposition Modeling Printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschio, Federico; Pandya, Mirali; Olszewski, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of 3-dimensional (3D) plastic (ABS) models generated using a low-cost 3D fused deposition modelling printer. Material/Methods Two human dry mandibles were scanned with a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) Accuitomo device. Preprocessing consisted of 3D reconstruction with Maxilim software and STL file repair with Netfabb software. Then, the data were used to print 2 plastic replicas with a low-cost 3D fused deposition modeling printer (Up plus 2®). Two independent observers performed the identification of 26 anatomic landmarks on the 4 mandibles (2 dry and 2 replicas) with a 3D measuring arm. Each observer repeated the identifications 20 times. The comparison between the dry and plastic mandibles was based on 13 distances: 8 distances less than 12 mm and 5 distances greater than 12 mm. Results The mean absolute difference (MAD) was 0.37 mm, and the mean dimensional error (MDE) was 3.76%. The MDE decreased to 0.93% for distances greater than 12 mm. Conclusions Plastic models generated using the low-cost 3D printer UPplus2® provide dimensional accuracies comparable to other well-established rapid prototyping technologies. Validated low-cost 3D printers could represent a step toward the better accessibility of rapid prototyping technologies in the medical field. PMID:27003456

  6. Experimental Validation of Plastic Mandible Models Produced by a "Low-Cost" 3-Dimensional Fused Deposition Modeling Printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschio, Federico; Pandya, Mirali; Olszewski, Raphael

    2016-03-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of 3-dimensional (3D) plastic (ABS) models generated using a low-cost 3D fused deposition modelling printer. Two human dry mandibles were scanned with a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) Accuitomo device. Preprocessing consisted of 3D reconstruction with Maxilim software and STL file repair with Netfabb software. Then, the data were used to print 2 plastic replicas with a low-cost 3D fused deposition modeling printer (Up plus 2®). Two independent observers performed the identification of 26 anatomic landmarks on the 4 mandibles (2 dry and 2 replicas) with a 3D measuring arm. Each observer repeated the identifications 20 times. The comparison between the dry and plastic mandibles was based on 13 distances: 8 distances less than 12 mm and 5 distances greater than 12 mm. The mean absolute difference (MAD) was 0.37 mm, and the mean dimensional error (MDE) was 3.76%. The MDE decreased to 0.93% for distances greater than 12 mm. Plastic models generated using the low-cost 3D printer UPplus2® provide dimensional accuracies comparable to other well-established rapid prototyping technologies. Validated low-cost 3D printers could represent a step toward the better accessibility of rapid prototyping technologies in the medical field.

  7. Traumatic brain injury produced by exposure to blasts, a critical problem in current wars: biomarkers, clinical studies, and animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, C. Edward

    2011-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting from exposure to blast energy released by Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) has been recognized as the "signature injury" of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Repeated exposure to mild blasts may produce subtle deficits that are difficult to detect and quantify. Several techniques have been used to detect subtle brain dysfunction including neuropsychological assessments, computerized function testing and neuroimaging. Another approach is based on measurement of biologic substances (e.g. proteins) that are released into the body after a TBI. Recent studies measuring biomarkers in CSF and serum from patients with severe TBI have demonstrated the diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring potential. Advancement of the field will require 1) biochemical mining for new biomarker candidates, 2) clinical validation of utility, 3) technical advances for more sensitive, portable detectors, 4) novel statistical approach to evaluate multiple biomarkers, and 5) commercialization. Animal models have been developed to simulate elements of blast-relevant TBI including gas-driven shock tubes to generate pressure waves similar to those produced by explosives. These models can reproduce hallmark clinical neuropathological responses such as neuronal degeneration and inflammation, as well as behavioral impairments. An important application of these models is to screen novel therapies and conduct proteomic, genomic, and lipodomic studies to mine for new biomarker candidates specific to blast relevant TBI.

  8. Simulation of Flash-Flood-Producing Storm Events in Saudi Arabia Using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Liping

    2015-05-01

    The challenges of monitoring and forecasting flash-flood-producing storm events in data-sparse and arid regions are explored using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model (version 3.5) in conjunction with a range of available satellite, in situ, and reanalysis data. Here, we focus on characterizing the initial synoptic features and examining the impact of model parameterization and resolution on the reproduction of a number of flood-producing rainfall events that occurred over the western Saudi Arabian city of Jeddah. Analysis from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim) data suggests that mesoscale convective systems associated with strong moisture convergence ahead of a trough were the major initial features for the occurrence of these intense rain events. The WRF Model was able to simulate the heavy rainfall, with driving convective processes well characterized by a high-resolution cloud-resolving model. The use of higher (1 km vs 5 km) resolution along the Jeddah coastline favors the simulation of local convective systems and adds value to the simulation of heavy rainfall, especially for deep-convection-related extreme values. At the 5-km resolution, corresponding to an intermediate study domain, simulation without a cumulus scheme led to the formation of deeper convective systems and enhanced rainfall around Jeddah, illustrating the need for careful model scheme selection in this transition resolution. In analysis of multiple nested WRF simulations (25, 5, and 1 km), localized volume and intensity of heavy rainfall together with the duration of rainstorms within the Jeddah catchment area were captured reasonably well, although there was evidence of some displacements of rainstorm events.

  9. FEM modeling of the reinforcement mechanism of Hydroxyapatite in PLLA scaffolds produced by supercritical drying, for Tissue Engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldino, L; Naddeo, F; Cardea, S; Naddeo, A; Reverchon, E

    2015-11-01

    Scaffolds have been produced by supercritical CO2 drying of Poly-L-Lactid Acid (PLLA) gels loaded with micrometric fructose particles used as porogens. These structures show a microporous architecture generated by the voids left in the solid material by porogen leaching, while they maintain the nanostructure of the gel, consisting of a network of nanofilaments. These scaffolds have also been loaded with Hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles, from 10 to 50% w/w with respect to the polymer, to improve the mechanical properties of the PLLA structure. Based on miscroscopic and mechanical considerations, we propose a parametric Finite Element Method (FEM) model of PLLA-HA composites that describes the microporous structure as a close-packing of equal spheres and the nanoscale structure as a space frame of isotropic curved fibers. The effect of HA on the mechanical properties of the scaffolds has been modeled on the basis of SEM images and by taking into consideration the formation of concentric cylinders of HA nanoparticles around PLLA nanofibers. Modeling analysis confirms that mechanical properties of these scaffolds depend on nanofibrous network connections and that bending is the major factor causing deformation of the network. The FEM model also takes into account the formation of HA multi-layer coating on some areas in the nanofiber network and its increase in thickness with HA percentage. The Young modulus tends to a plateau for HA percentages larger than 30% w/w and when the coverage of the nanofibers produced by HA nanoparticles reaches a loaded surface index of 0.14 in the FEM model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Updates to the Demographic and Spatial Allocation Models to Produce Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS) (Final Report, Version 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's announced the availability of the final report, Updates to the Demographic and Spatial Allocation Models to Produce Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS) (Version 2). This update furthered land change modeling by providing nationwide housing developmen...

  11. Effects of model resolution and parameterizations on the simulations of clouds, precipitation, and their interactions with aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoung Soo; Li, Zhanqing; Zhang, Yuwei; Yoo, Hyelim; Kim, Seungbum; Kim, Byung-Gon; Choi, Yong-Sang; Mok, Jungbin; Um, Junshik; Ock Choi, Kyoung; Dong, Danhong

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the roles played by model resolution and microphysics parameterizations in the well-known uncertainties or errors in simulations of clouds, precipitation, and their interactions with aerosols by the numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. For this investigation, we used cloud-system-resolving model (CSRM) simulations as benchmark simulations that adopt high-resolution and full-fledged microphysical processes. These simulations were evaluated against observations, and this evaluation demonstrated that the CSRM simulations can function as benchmark simulations. Comparisons between the CSRM simulations and the simulations at the coarse resolutions that are generally adopted by current NWP models indicate that the use of coarse resolutions as in the NWP models can lower not only updrafts and other cloud variables (e.g., cloud mass, condensation, deposition, and evaporation) but also their sensitivity to increasing aerosol concentration. The parameterization of the saturation process plays an important role in the sensitivity of cloud variables to aerosol concentrations. while the parameterization of the sedimentation process has a substantial impact on how cloud variables are distributed vertically. The variation in cloud variables with resolution is much greater than what happens with varying microphysics parameterizations, which suggests that the uncertainties in the NWP simulations are associated with resolution much more than microphysics parameterizations.

  12. Soyamilk fermented with riboflavin-producing Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 2130 reverts and prevents ariboflavinosis in murine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez Del Valle, M; Laiño, J E; de Moreno de LeBlanc, A; Savoy de Giori, G; LeBlanc, J G

    2016-10-01

    It has been previously shown that Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 2130 is able to produce riboflavin in soyamilk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of this riboflavin-bio-enriched soyamilk to revert and/or prevent the nutritional deficiency of riboflavin using different animal models. When used to supplement the diets of previously depleted animals, it was shown that the growth, riboflavin status and morphology of the small intestines reverted to normal parameters and were similar to animals supplemented with commercial riboflavin. In the prevention model, the same tendency was observed, where animals that received soyamilk fermented with L. plantarum CRL 2130 did not show signs of riboflavin deficiency. This new bio-fortified soya-based product could be used as part of normal diets to provide a more natural alternative to mandatory fortification with riboflavin for the prevention of its deficiency.

  13. A Mathematical Model of the Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP System for the Gas Transmission Rate of Fruit Produce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model to predict oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapour exchanges in non-perforated and micro-perforated modified atmosphere packaging films has successfully been proposed. The transmission rate of gases was measured for films with thickness of 0.03 and 0.05 mm, perforation diameters of 0.5 and 2.0 mm, and temperatures of 0, 10 and 20 °C. Under most conditions, the increase in temperature and perforation diameter increased the transmission rate of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapour, whereas the increase in film thickness decreased the transmission rate of the various gases. Validation of the proposed modified atmosphere packaging model was found to yield good prediction for gas concentrations and percentage losses in the mass of the produce after comparison with the experimental results of modified atmosphere packaging for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum.

  14. Integrated use of NMR, petrel and modflow in the modeling of SAGD produced water re-injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, K.; Phair, C; Alloisio, S; Novotny, M; Raven, S

    2011-01-01

    In the oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a method used to enhance oil recovery in which production water disposal is a challenge. During this process, production water is re-injected into the reservoir and operators have to verify that it will not affect the quality of the surrounding fresh groundwater. This research aimed at determining the flow path and the time that produced water would take to reach an adjacent aquifer. This study was carried out on a horizontal well pair at the Axe Lake Area in northwestern Saskatchewan, using existing site data in Petrel to create a static hydrogeological model which was then exported to Modflow to simulate injection scenarios. This innovative method provided flow path of the re-injected water and time to reach the fresh with advantages over conventional hydrogeological modeling. The innovative workflow presented herein successfully provided useful information to assess the feasibility of the SAGD project and could be used for other projects.

  15. Preliminary characterization of wild lactic acid bacteria and their abilities to produce flavour compounds in ripened model cheese system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, C L; De Luca, S; Todaro, A; Restuccia, C; Lanza, C M; Spagna, G; Caggia, C

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this work was to preliminary characterize wild lactic acid bacteria (LAB), previously isolated during artisanal Pecorino Siciliano (PS) cheese-making for technological and flavour formation abilities in a model cheese system. Twelve LAB were studied for the ability to grow at 10 and 45 degrees C, to coagulate and acidify both reconstituted skim milk and ewe's milk. Moreover, the capacity of the strains to generate aroma compounds was evaluated in a model cheese system at 30- and 60-day ripening. Flavour compounds were screened by sensory analysis and throughout gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS). Most of the strains were able to grow both at 10 and 45 degrees C and exhibited high ability to acidify and coagulate ewes' milk. Sensory evaluation revealed that the wild strains produced more significant flavour attributes than commercial strains in the 60-day-old model cheese system. GC-MS data confirmed the results of sensory evaluations and showed the ability of wild lactobacilli to generate key volatile compounds. Particularly, three wild lactobacilli strains, belonging to Lactobacillus casei, Lb. rhamnosus and Lb. plantarum species, generated both in 60- and 30-day-old model cheeses system, the 3-methyl butan(al)(ol) compound, which is associated with fruity taste. The present work preliminarily demonstrated that the technological and flavour formation abilities of the wild strains are strain-specific and that wild lactobacilli, which produced key flavour compounds during ripening, could be used as tailor-made starters. This study reports the technological characterization and flavour formation ability of wild LAB strains isolated from artisanal Pecorino cheese and highlights that the catabolic activities were highly strain dependent. Hence, wild lactobacilli could be selected as tailor-made starter cultures for the PS cheese manufacture.

  16. Genetically engineered mesenchymal stromal cells produce IL-3 and TPO to further improve human scaffold-based xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta, Marco; de Boer, Bauke; Jaques, Jenny; Antonelli, Antonella; Horton, Sarah J; Yuan, Huipin; de Bruijn, Joost D; Groen, Richard W J; Vellenga, Edo; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2017-07-01

    Recently, NOD-SCID IL2Rγ -/- (NSG) mice were implanted with human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the presence of ceramic scaffolds or Matrigel to mimic the human bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. This approach allowed the engraftment of leukemic samples that failed to engraft in NSG mice without humanized niches and resulted in a better preservation of leukemic stem cell self-renewal properties. To further improve our humanized niche scaffold model, we genetically engineered human MSCs to secrete human interleukin-3 (IL-3) and thrombopoietin (TPO). In vitro, these IL-3- and TPO-producing MSCs were superior in expanding human cord blood (CB) CD34 + hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. MLL-AF9-transduced CB CD34 + cells could be transformed efficiently along myeloid or lymphoid lineages on IL-3- and TPO-producing MSCs. In vivo, these genetically engineered MSCs maintained their ability to differentiate into bone, adipocytes, and other stromal components. Upon transplantation of MLL-AF9-transduced CB CD34 + cells, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) developed in engineered scaffolds, in which a significantly higher percentage of myeloid clones was observed in the mouse compartments compared with previous models. Engraftment of primary AML, B-cell ALL, and biphenotypic acute leukemia (BAL) patient samples was also evaluated, and all patient samples could engraft efficiently; the myeloid compartment of the BAL samples was better preserved in the human cytokine scaffold model. In conclusion, we show that we can genetically engineer the ectopic human BM microenvironment in a humanized scaffold xenograft model. This approach will be useful for functional study of the importance of niche factors in normal and malignant human hematopoiesis. Copyright © 2017 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of muscle pulleys in producing eye position-dependence in the angular vestibuloocular reflex: a model-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurtell, M. J.; Kunin, M.; Raphan, T.; Wall, C. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    It is well established that the head and eye velocity axes do not always align during compensatory vestibular slow phases. It has been shown that the eye velocity axis systematically tilts away from the head velocity axis in a manner that is dependent on eye-in-head position. The mechanisms responsible for producing these axis tilts are unclear. In this model-based study, we aimed to determine whether muscle pulleys could be involved in bringing about these phenomena. The model presented incorporates semicircular canals, central vestibular pathways, and an ocular motor plant with pulleys. The pulleys were modeled so that they brought about a rotation of the torque axes of the extraocular muscles that was a fraction of the angle of eye deviation from primary position. The degree to which the pulleys rotated the torque axes was altered by means of a pulley coefficient. Model input was head velocity and initial eye position data from passive and active yaw head impulses with fixation at 0 degrees, 20 degrees up and 20 degrees down, obtained from a previous experiment. The optimal pulley coefficient required to fit the data was determined by calculating the mean square error between data and model predictions of torsional eye velocity. For active head impulses, the optimal pulley coefficient varied considerably between subjects. The median optimal pulley coefficient was found to be 0.5, the pulley coefficient required for producing saccades that perfectly obey Listing's law when using a two-dimensional saccadic pulse signal. The model predicted the direction of the axis tilts observed in response to passive head impulses from 50 ms after onset. During passive head impulses, the median optimal pulley coefficient was found to be 0.21, when roll gain was fixed at 0.7. The model did not accurately predict the alignment of the eye and head velocity axes that was observed early in the response to passive head impulses. We found that this alignment could be well predicted if

  18. Metabolic network reconstruction and genome-scale model of butanol-producing strain Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Pan-Jun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solventogenic clostridia offer a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based production of butanol--an important chemical feedstock and potential fuel additive or replacement. C. beijerinckii is an attractive microorganism for strain design to improve butanol production because it (i naturally produces the highest recorded butanol concentrations as a byproduct of fermentation; and (ii can co-ferment pentose and hexose sugars (the primary products from lignocellulosic hydrolysis. Interrogating C. beijerinckii metabolism from a systems viewpoint using constraint-based modeling allows for simulation of the global effect of genetic modifications. Results We present the first genome-scale metabolic model (iCM925 for C. beijerinckii, containing 925 genes, 938 reactions, and 881 metabolites. To build the model we employed a semi-automated procedure that integrated genome annotation information from KEGG, BioCyc, and The SEED, and utilized computational algorithms with manual curation to improve model completeness. Interestingly, we found only a 34% overlap in reactions collected from the three databases--highlighting the importance of evaluating the predictive accuracy of the resulting genome-scale model. To validate iCM925, we conducted fermentation experiments using the NCIMB 8052 strain, and evaluated the ability of the model to simulate measured substrate uptake and product production rates. Experimentally observed fermentation profiles were found to lie within the solution space of the model; however, under an optimal growth objective, additional constraints were needed to reproduce the observed profiles--suggesting the existence of selective pressures other than optimal growth. Notably, a significantly enriched fraction of actively utilized reactions in simulations--constrained to reflect experimental rates--originated from the set of reactions that overlapped between all three databases (P = 3.52 × 10-9, Fisher's exact test

  19. Numerical modeling of combustion of low-calorific-producer-gas from Mangium wood within a late mixing porous burner (LMPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokkarn Jirakulsomchok

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a numerical study of combustion of low-calorific-producer-gas from Mangium wood within a late mixing porous burner (LMPB. The LMPB consists of four main components, i.e., the fuel preheating porous (FP, the porous combustor (PC, the air jacket, and the mixing chamber. Interestingly, this LMPB was able to highly preheated and it still maintained high safety in operation. A single-step global reaction, steady state approach and a one-dimensional model were considered. The necessary information for burner characteristics, i.e., temperature profile, flame location and maximum temperature were also presented. The results indicated that stable combustion of a low-calorific-producer-gas within LMPB was possible achieved. Increasing equivalence ratio resulted in increasing in the flame temperature. Meanwhile, increasing the firing rate caused slightly decrease in flame temperature. The flame moved to downstream zone of the PC when the firing rate increased. Finally, it was found that the equivalence ratio did not affect the flame location.

  20. Sustainable production of broiler chicken and laying hen: bibliographical review and proposal of a model for small producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Milena Soler F.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The peasant production of broiler chicken and laying hens in the world is wide, being the developing countries which most productions of this type arise. 'ese backyard holdings play an important role as they ensure the consumption of protein products and a subsistence economy to poor families. Due to the low number of technical and scientific studies on these extensive systems in the department of Boyacá, this work aimed to establish by general literature review the world, national and regional state of the art in the production of broiler chicken and alternatively laying hen, and as specific objectives, to produce an analysis of the diferent managements and plans and propose a production model that suits the needs of small producers. the results of the world’s state of the art showed that all countries have a variety of peasant farms, but there is a clear path to commercialization of these poultry farming products, renowned for their safety and quality of nutrients. In some municipalities in Boyacá, these farmers have favorable production systems and yields earnings due to the reduced production costs by the introduction of crop products and recyclable materials, and also have no significant environmental impacts, however, health management is poor and animal feeding starts to rely on concentrated foods.

  1. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of ODS and non-ODS Fe–14Cr model alloys produced by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, M.A.; Castro, V. de; Leguey, T.; Muñoz, A.; Pareja, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique has been explored as an alternative consolidation route for producing ultra-fine grained Fe–14Cr model alloys containing a dispersion of oxide nanoparticles. Elemental powders of Fe and Cr, and nanosized Y 2 O 3 powder have been mechanically alloyed in a planetary ball mill and rapidly sintered in a spark plasma furnace. Two alloys, with nominal compositions Fe–14%Cr and Fe–14%Cr–0.3%Y 2 O 3 (wt.%), have been fabricated and their microstructure and mechanical properties investigated. The results have been compared with those obtained for other powder metallurgy processed alloys of the same composition but consolidated by hot isostatic pressing. The SPS technique under the present conditions has produced Fe–14Cr materials that apparently exhibit different microstructures yielding inferior mechanical properties than the counterpart material consolidated by hot isostatic pressing. Although the presence of a dispersion of Y-rich particles is evident, the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe–14Cr alloy consolidated by SPS exhibits poor tensile properties. The extensive decoration of the powder particle surfaces with Cr-rich precipitates and the residual porosity appear to be responsible for the impaired properties of this ODS alloy consolidated by SPS

  2. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of ODS and non-ODS Fe–14Cr model alloys produced by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, M.A.; Castro, V. de [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Leguey, T., E-mail: leguey@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Muñoz, A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain)

    2013-05-15

    In this work the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique has been explored as an alternative consolidation route for producing ultra-fine grained Fe–14Cr model alloys containing a dispersion of oxide nanoparticles. Elemental powders of Fe and Cr, and nanosized Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder have been mechanically alloyed in a planetary ball mill and rapidly sintered in a spark plasma furnace. Two alloys, with nominal compositions Fe–14%Cr and Fe–14%Cr–0.3%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (wt.%), have been fabricated and their microstructure and mechanical properties investigated. The results have been compared with those obtained for other powder metallurgy processed alloys of the same composition but consolidated by hot isostatic pressing. The SPS technique under the present conditions has produced Fe–14Cr materials that apparently exhibit different microstructures yielding inferior mechanical properties than the counterpart material consolidated by hot isostatic pressing. Although the presence of a dispersion of Y-rich particles is evident, the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe–14Cr alloy consolidated by SPS exhibits poor tensile properties. The extensive decoration of the powder particle surfaces with Cr-rich precipitates and the residual porosity appear to be responsible for the impaired properties of this ODS alloy consolidated by SPS.

  3. A fast linear predictive adaptive model of packed bed coupled with UASB reactor treating onion waste to produce biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milquez-Sanabria, Harvey; Blanco-Cocom, Luis; Alzate-Gaviria, Liliana

    2016-10-03

    Agro-industrial wastes are an energy source for different industries. However, its application has not reached small industries. Previous and current research activities performed on the acidogenic phase of two-phase anaerobic digestion processes deal particularly with process optimization of the acid-phase reactors operating with a wide variety of substrates, both soluble and complex in nature. Mathematical models for anaerobic digestion have been developed to understand and improve the efficient operation of the process. At present, lineal models with the advantages of requiring less data, predicting future behavior and updating when a new set of data becomes available have been developed. The aim of this research was to contribute to the reduction of organic solid waste, generate biogas and develop a simple but accurate mathematical model to predict the behavior of the UASB reactor. The system was maintained separate for 14 days during which hydrolytic and acetogenic bacteria broke down onion waste, produced and accumulated volatile fatty acids. On this day, two reactors were coupled and the system continued for 16 days more. The biogas and methane yields and volatile solid reduction were 0.6 ± 0.05 m 3 (kg VS removed ) -1 , 0.43 ± 0.06 m 3 (kg VS removed ) -1 and 83.5 ± 9.8 %, respectively. The model application showed a good prediction of all process parameters defined; maximum error between experimental and predicted value was 1.84 % for alkalinity profile. A linear predictive adaptive model for anaerobic digestion of onion waste in a two-stage process was determined under batch-fed condition. Organic load rate (OLR) was maintained constant for the entire operation, modifying effluent hydrolysis reactor feed to UASB reactor. This condition avoids intoxication of UASB reactor and also limits external buffer addition.

  4. Experimental mouse model of optic neuritis with inflammatory demyelination produced by passive transfer of neuromyelitis optica-immunoglobulin G

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Although optic neuritis (ON) is a defining feature of neuromyelitis optica (NMO), appropriate animal models of NMO ON are lacking. Most NMO patients are seropositive for immunoglobulin G autoantibodies (NMO-IgG) against the astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). Methods Several approaches were tested to develop a robust, passive-transfer mouse model of NMO ON, including NMO-IgG and complement delivery by: (i) retrobulbar infusion; (ii) intravitreal injection; (iii) a single intracranial injection near the optic chiasm; and (iv) 3-days continuous intracranial infusion near the optic chiasm. Results Little ON or retinal pathology was seen using approaches (i) to (iii). Using approach (iv), however, optic nerves showed characteristic NMO pathology, with loss of AQP4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity, granulocyte and macrophage infiltration, deposition of activated complement, demyelination and axonal injury. Even more extensive pathology was created in mice lacking complement inhibitor protein CD59, or using a genetically modified NMO-IgG with enhanced complement effector function, including significant loss of retinal ganglion cells. In control studies, optic nerve pathology was absent in treated AQP4-deficient mice, or in wild-type mice receiving control (non-NMO) IgG and complement. Conclusion Passive transfer of NMO-IgG and complement by continuous infusion near the optic chiasm in mice is sufficient to produce ON with characteristic NMO pathology. The mouse model of NMO ON should be useful in further studies of NMO pathogenesis mechanisms and therapeutics. PMID:24468108

  5. Logarithmic correction in the deformed AdS5 model to produce the heavy quark potential and QCD beta function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Song; Huang Mei; Yan Qishu

    2011-01-01

    We study the holographic QCD model, which contains a quadratic term -σz 2 and a logarithmic term -c 0 log[(z IR -z)/z IR ] with an explicit infrared cutoff z IR in the deformed AdS 5 warp factor. We investigate the heavy-quark potential for three cases, i.e., with only a quadratic correction, with both quadratic and logarithmic corrections, and with only a logarithmic correction. We solve the dilaton field and dilation potential from the Einstein equation and investigate the corresponding beta function in the Guersoy-Kiritsis-Nitti framework. Our studies show that in the case with only a quadratic correction, a negative σ or the Andreev-Zakharov model is favored to fit the heavy-quark potential and to produce the QCD beta function at 2-loop level; however, the dilaton potential is unbounded in the infrared regime. One interesting observation for the case of positive σ is that the corresponding beta function exists in an infrared fixed point. In the case with only a logarithmic correction, the heavy-quark Cornell potential can be fitted very well, the corresponding beta function agrees with the QCD beta function at 2-loop level reasonably well, and the dilaton potential is bounded from below in the infrared. At the end, we propose a more compact model which has only a logarithmic correction in the deformed warp factor and has less free parameters.

  6. Improved bioavailability and biodegradation of a model polyaromatic hydrocarbon by a biosurfactant producing bacterium of marine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Palashpriya; Mukherjee, Soumen; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2008-07-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic pollutants mostly derived from the processing and combustion of fossil fuels and cause human health hazards. In the present study a marine biosurfactant producing strain of Bacillus circulans was used to increase the bioavailability and consequent degradation of a model polyaromatic hydrocarbon, anthracene. Although the organism could not utilize anthracene as the sole carbon source, it showed better growth and biosurfactant production in an anthracene supplemented glycerol mineral salts medium (AGlyMSM) compared to a normal glycerol mineral salts medium (GlyMSM). The biosurfactant product showed high degree of emulsification of various hydrocarbons. Analysis by gas chromatography (GC), high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the biosurfactant could effectively entrap and solubilize PAH. Thin layer chromatographic analysis showed that anthracene was utilized as a carbon substrate for the production of biosurfactant. Thus organic pollutant anthracene was metabolized and converted to biosurfactants facilitating its own bioremediation.

  7. Tensile Properties Characterization of AlSi10Mg Parts Produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering via Nested Effects Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagio Palumbo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A statistical approach for the characterization of Additive Manufacturing (AM processes is presented in this paper. Design of Experiments (DOE and ANalysis of VAriance (ANOVA, both based on Nested Effects Modeling (NEM technique, are adopted to assess the effect of different laser exposure strategies on physical and mechanical properties of AlSi10Mg parts produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS. Due to the wide industrial interest in AM technologies in many different fields, it is extremely important to ensure high parts performances and productivity. For this aim, the present paper focuses on the evaluation of tensile properties of specimens built with different laser exposure strategies. Two optimal laser parameters settings, in terms of both process quality (part performances and productivity (part build rate, are identified.

  8. Tensile Properties Characterization of AlSi10Mg Parts Produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering via Nested Effects Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Biagio; Del Re, Francesco; Martorelli, Massimo; Lanzotti, Antonio; Corrado, Pasquale

    2017-02-08

    A statistical approach for the characterization of Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes is presented in this paper. Design of Experiments (DOE) and ANalysis of VAriance (ANOVA), both based on Nested Effects Modeling (NEM) technique, are adopted to assess the effect of different laser exposure strategies on physical and mechanical properties of AlSi10Mg parts produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS). Due to the wide industrial interest in AM technologies in many different fields, it is extremely important to ensure high parts performances and productivity. For this aim, the present paper focuses on the evaluation of tensile properties of specimens built with different laser exposure strategies. Two optimal laser parameters settings, in terms of both process quality (part performances) and productivity (part build rate), are identified.

  9. Producing physically consistent and bias free extreme precipitation events over the Switzerland: Bridging gaps between meteorology and impact models

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Gómez-Navarro, Juan; Raible, Christoph C.; Blumer, Sandro; Martius, Olivia; Felder, Guido

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation episodes, although rare, are natural phenomena that can threat human activities, especially in areas densely populated such as Switzerland. Their relevance demands the design of public policies that protect public assets and private property. Therefore, increasing the current understanding of such exceptional situations is required, i.e. the climatic characterisation of their triggering circumstances, severity, frequency, and spatial distribution. Such increased knowledge shall eventually lead us to produce more reliable projections about the behaviour of these events under ongoing climate change. Unfortunately, the study of extreme situations is hampered by the short instrumental record, which precludes a proper characterization of events with return period exceeding few decades. This study proposes a new approach that allows studying storms based on a synthetic, but physically consistent database of weather situations obtained from a long climate simulation. Our starting point is a 500-yr control simulation carried out with the Community Earth System Model (CESM). In a second step, this dataset is dynamically downscaled with the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) to a final resolution of 2 km over the Alpine area. However, downscaling the full CESM simulation at such high resolution is infeasible nowadays. Hence, a number of case studies are previously selected. This selection is carried out examining the precipitation averaged in an area encompassing Switzerland in the ESM. Using a hydrological criterion, precipitation is accumulated in several temporal windows: 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 5 days and 10 days. The 4 most extreme events in each category and season are selected, leading to a total of 336 days to be simulated. The simulated events are affected by systematic biases that have to be accounted before this data set can be used as input in hydrological models. Thus, quantile mapping is used to remove such biases. For this task

  10. Prediction of minimum temperatures in an alpine region by linear and non-linear post-processing of meteorological models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Barbiero

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Model Output Statistics (MOS refers to a method of post-processing the direct outputs of numerical weather prediction (NWP models in order to reduce the biases introduced by a coarse horizontal resolution. This technique is especially useful in orographically complex regions, where large differences can be found between the NWP elevation model and the true orography. This study carries out a comparison of linear and non-linear MOS methods, aimed at the prediction of minimum temperatures in a fruit-growing region of the Italian Alps, based on the output of two different NWPs (ECMWF T511–L60 and LAMI-3. Temperature, of course, is a particularly important NWP output; among other roles it drives the local frost forecast, which is of great interest to agriculture. The mechanisms of cold air drainage, a distinctive aspect of mountain environments, are often unsatisfactorily captured by global circulation models. The simplest post-processing technique applied in this work was a correction for the mean bias, assessed at individual model grid points. We also implemented a multivariate linear regression on the output at the grid points surrounding the target area, and two non-linear models based on machine learning techniques: Neural Networks and Random Forest. We compare the performance of all these techniques on four different NWP data sets. Downscaling the temperatures clearly improved the temperature forecasts with respect to the raw NWP output, and also with respect to the basic mean bias correction. Multivariate methods generally yielded better results, but the advantage of using non-linear algorithms was small if not negligible. RF, the best performing method, was implemented on ECMWF prognostic output at 06:00 UTC over the 9 grid points surrounding the target area. Mean absolute errors in the prediction of 2 m temperature at 06:00 UTC were approximately 1.2°C, close to the natural variability inside the area itself.

  11. Effects of ZDY101, an active component from Zhimu, on rat dementia model produced by intracranial injection of ibotenic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Qixiang; Hu Yaer; Guan Hong; Xia Zongqin

    2004-01-01

    A dementia model was produced in adult Sprague-Dawley rats by bilateral injection of ibotenic acid, 2μg in 0.5 μL per side, into basal ganglion. ZDY101, 3.6, 18, 90 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 , was given through gastric tube to 3 groups of the model rats for 90 days. The learning and memory ability of model rats without treatment declined compared with sham-operated controls, the composite index (number of wrong response in 5 min divided by latent period) being 0.71 ± 0.30 vs 0.10 ± 0.13 respectively. The brain M receptor density also decreased as compared with sham-operated controls, being 891 ± 150 vs 1039 ± 214 fmol·mg -1 protein respectively. ZDY101 simultaneously up-regulated the brain M receptor density and improved the memory and learning ability of model rats. For the middle dose group, the M receptor density was 1028 ±145 fmol·mg -1 protein (P<0.05) and the composite index of step-through test was 0.20 ± 0.18 (P<0.01). Since there was a significant correlation between M-receptor density and result of step-through test, it is apparent that the mechanism of action of ZDY101 is quite different from that of cholinesterase inhibitor. It is highly probable that the improvement of memory was due to the up-regulation of brain M receptor density. (authors)

  12. Inoculum effect on the efficacies of amoxicillin-clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam, and imipenem against extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and non-ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in an experimental murine sepsis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docobo-Pérez, F; López-Cerero, L; López-Rojas, R; Egea, P; Domínguez-Herrera, J; Rodríguez-Baño, J; Pascual, A; Pachón, J

    2013-05-01

    Escherichia coli is commonly involved in infections with a heavy bacterial burden. Piperacillin-tazobactam and carbapenems are among the recommended empirical treatments for health care-associated complicated intra-abdominal infections. In contrast to amoxicillin-clavulanate, both have reduced in vitro activity in the presence of high concentrations of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and non-ESBL-producing E. coli bacteria. Our goal was to compare the efficacy of these antimicrobials against different concentrations of two clinical E. coli strains, one an ESBL-producer and the other a non-ESBL-producer, in a murine sepsis model. An experimental sepsis model {~5.5 log10 CFU/g [low inoculum concentration (LI)] or ~7.5 log(10) CFU/g [high inoculum concentration (HI)]} using E. coli strains ATCC 25922 (non-ESBL producer) and Ec1062 (CTX-M-14 producer), which are susceptible to the three antimicrobials, was used. Amoxicillin-clavulanate (50/12.5 mg/kg given intramuscularly [i.m.]), piperacillin-tazobactam (25/3.125 mg/kg given intraperitoneally [i.p.]), and imipenem (30 mg/kg i.m.) were used. Piperacillin-tazobactam and imipenem reduced spleen ATCC 25922 strain concentrations (-2.53 and -2.14 log10 CFU/g [P imipenem, and amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively, although imipenem and amoxicillin-clavulanate were more efficacious than piperacillin-tazobactam). An adapted imipenem treatment (based on the time for which the serum drug concentration remained above the MIC obtained with a HI of the ATCC 25922 strain) improved its efficacy to -1.67 log10 CFU/g (P imipenem treatment of infections caused by ESBL- and non-ESBL-producing E. coli strains in patients with therapeutic failure with piperacillin-tazobactam.

  13. The effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens on model bacterial strains and isolates from industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva-Tonkova, Evgenia; Sotirova, Anna; Galabova, Danka

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens on bacterial strains, laboratory strains, and isolates from industrial wastewater was investigated. It was shown that biosurfactant, depending on the concentration, has a neutral or detrimental effect on the growth and protein release of model Gram (+) strain Bacillus subtilis 168. The growth and protein release of model Gram (-) strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1390 was not influenced by the presence of biosurfactant in the medium. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant at the used concentrations supported the growth of some slow growing on hexadecane bacterial isolates, members of the microbial community. Changes in cell surface hydrophobicity and permeability of some Gram (+) and Gram (-) isolates in the presence of rhamnolipid biosurfactant were followed in experiments in vitro. It was found that bacterial cells treated with biosurfactant became more or less hydrophobic than untreated cells depending on individual characteristics and abilities of the strains. For all treated strains, an increase in the amount of released protein was observed with increasing the amount of biosurfactant, probably due to increased cell permeability as a result of changes in the organization of cell surface structures. The results obtained could contribute to clarify the relationships between members of the microbial community as well as suggest the efficiency of surface properties of rhamnolipid biosurfactant from Pseudomonas fluorescens making it potentially applicable in bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted environments.

  14. Chronic metals ingestion by prairie voles produces sex-specific deficits in social behavior: an animal model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J Thomas; Hood, Amber N; Chen, Yue; Cobb, George P; Wallace, David R

    2010-11-12

    We examined the effects of chronic metals ingestion on social behavior in the normally highly social prairie vole to test the hypothesis that metals may interact with central dopamine systems to produce the social withdrawal characteristic of autism. Relative to water-treated controls, 10 weeks of chronic ingestion of either Hg(++) or Cd(++) via drinking water significantly reduced social contact by male voles when they were given a choice between isolation or contact with an unfamiliar same-sex conspecific. The effects of metals ingestion were specific to males: no effects of metals exposure were seen in females. Metals ingestion did not alter behavior of males allowed to choose between isolation or their familiar cage-mates, rather than strangers. We also examined the possibility that metals ingestion affects central dopamine functioning by testing the voles' locomotor responses to peripheral administration of amphetamine. As with the social behavior, we found a sex-specific effect of metals on amphetamine responses. Males that consumed Hg(++) did not increase their locomotor activity in response to amphetamine, whereas similarly treated females and males that ingested only water significantly increased their locomotor activities. Thus, an ecologically relevant stimulus, metals ingestion, produced two of the hallmark characteristics of autism - social avoidance and a male-oriented bias. These results suggest that metals exposure may contribute to the development of autism, possibly by interacting with central dopamine function, and support the use of prairie voles as a model organism in which to study autism. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of Trajectories Generated by the NOAA Oil Spill Model to Trajectories Produced Using HF Radar-Derived Curents in Monterey Bay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    .... Trajectories produced by the NOAA/HAZMAT On-Scene Spill Model, using different combinations of surface currents and winds, were compared to trajectories generated using HF radar-derived surface currents...

  16. In vivo screening platform for shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Bin Hwang

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC strains are the main cause of bacillary dysentery, although STEC strains generally induce milder disease symptoms compared to Shigella species. This study aimed to determine the virulence of STEC using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model host. Worm killing, fertility and bacterial colonisation assays were performed to examine the potential difference in the virulence of STEC strains compared to that of the control E. coli OP50 strains on which worms were fed. A statistically significant difference in the survival rates of C. elegans was observed in that the STEC strains caused death in 8-10 days and the E. coli OP50 strains caused death in 15 days. STEC strains severely reduced the fertility of the worms. The intestinal load of bacteria in the adult stage nematodes harbouring the E. coli OP50 strains was found to be 3.5 log CFU mL-1. In contrast, the STEC strains E15, E18 and E22 harboured 4.1, 4.2 and 4.7 log CFU ml-1 per nematode, respectively. The heat-killed STEC strains significantly increased the longevity of the worms compared to the non-heated STEC strains. In addition, PCR-based genomic profiling of shiga toxin genes, viz., stx1 and stx2, identified in selected STEC strains revealed that these toxins may be associated with the virulence of the STEC strains. This study demonstrated that C. elegans is an effective model to examine and compare the pathogenicity and virulence variation of STEC strains to that of E. coli OP50 strains.

  17. Large-Scale Flows and Magnetic Fields Produced by Rotating Convection in a Quasi-Geostrophic Model of Planetary Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guervilly, C.; Cardin, P.

    2017-12-01

    Convection is the main heat transport process in the liquid cores of planets. The convective flows are thought to be turbulent and constrained by rotation (corresponding to high Reynolds numbers Re and low Rossby numbers Ro). Under these conditions, and in the absence of magnetic fields, the convective flows can produce coherent Reynolds stresses that drive persistent large-scale zonal flows. The formation of large-scale flows has crucial implications for the thermal evolution of planets and the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. In this work, we explore this problem with numerical simulations using a quasi-geostrophic approximation to model convective and zonal flows at Re 104 and Ro 10-4 for Prandtl numbers relevant for liquid metals (Pr 0.1). The formation of intense multiple zonal jets strongly affects the convective heat transport, leading to the formation of a mean temperature staircase. We also study the generation of magnetic fields by the quasi-geostrophic flows at low magnetic Prandtl numbers.

  18. Evaluating the Impacts of NASA/SPoRT Daily Greenness Vegetation Fraction on Land Surface Model and Numerical Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Case, Jonathan L.; Molthan, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center develops new products and techniques that can be used in operational meteorology. The majority of these products are derived from NASA polar-orbiting satellite imagery from the Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms. One such product is a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) dataset, which is produced from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data aboard the NASA EOS Aqua and Terra satellites. NASA SPoRT began generating daily real-time GVF composites at 1-km resolution over the Continental United States (CONUS) on 1 June 2010. The purpose of this study is to compare the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climatology GVF product (currently used in operational weather models) to the SPoRT-MODIS GVF during June to October 2010. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) was employed to study the impacts of the new SPoRT-MODIS GVF dataset on land surface models apart from a full numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. For the 2010 warm season, the SPoRT GVF in the western portion of the CONUS was generally higher than the NCEP climatology. The eastern CONUS GVF had variations both above and below the climatology during the period of study. These variations in GVF led to direct impacts on the rates of heating and evaporation from the land surface. The second phase of the project is to examine the impacts of the SPoRT GVF dataset on NWP using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two separate WRF model simulations were made for individual severe weather case days using the NCEP GVF (control) and SPoRT GVF (experimental), with all other model parameters remaining the same. Based on the sensitivity results in these case studies, regions with higher GVF in the SPoRT model runs had higher evapotranspiration and lower direct surface heating, which typically resulted in lower (higher) predicted 2-m temperatures (2-m dewpoint temperatures). The opposite was true

  19. Comparison of thoracolumbar motion produced by manual and Jackson-table-turning methods. Study of a cadaveric instability model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPaola, Christian P; DiPaola, Matthew J; Conrad, Bryan P; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Del Rossi, Gianluca; Sawers, Andrew; Rechtine, Glenn R

    2008-08-01

    Patients who have sustained a spinal cord injury remain at risk for further neurologic deterioration until the spine is adequately stabilized. To our knowledge, no study has previously addressed the effects of different bed-to-operating room table transfer techniques on thoracolumbar spinal motion in an instability model. We hypothesized that the conventional logroll technique used to transfer patients from a supine position to a prone position on the operating room table has the potential to confer significantly more motion to the unstable thoracolumbar spine than the Jackson technique. Three-column instability was surgically created at the L1 level in seven cadavers. Two protocols were tested. The manual technique entailed performing a standard logroll of a supine cadaver to a prone position on an operating room Jackson table. The Jackson technique involved sliding the supine cadaver to the Jackson table, securing it to the table, and then rotating it into a prone position. An electromagnetic tracking device measured motion--i.e., angular motion (flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation) and linear translation (axial, medial-lateral, and anterior-posterior) between T12 and L2. The logroll technique created significantly more motion than the Jackson technique as measured with all six parameters. Manual logroll transfers produced an average of 13.8 degrees to 18.1 degrees of maximum angular displacement and 16.6 to 28.3 mm of maximum linear translation. The Jackson technique resulted in an average of 3.1 degrees to 5.8 degrees of maximum angular displacement (p patient safety. Performing the Jackson turn requires approximately half as many people as required for a manual logroll. This study suggests that the Jackson technique should be considered for supine-to-prone transfer of patients with known or suspected instability of the thoracolumbar spine.

  20. Hesperidin produces cardioprotective activity via PPAR-γ pathway in ischemic heart disease model in diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogeeta O Agrawal

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of hesperidin, a natural flavonoid, in cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (I/R injury in diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats with diabetes were divided into five groups and were orally administered saline once daily (IR-sham and IR-control, Hesperidin (100 mg/kg/day; IR-Hesperidin, GW9962 (PPAR-γ receptor antagonist, or combination of both for 14 days. On the 15th day, in the IR-control and IR-treatment groups, rats were subjected to left anterior descending (LAD coronary artery occlusion for 45 minutes followed by a one-hour reperfusion. Haemodynamic parameters were recorded and rats were sacrificed; hearts were isolated for biochemical, histopathological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemistry. In the IR-control group, significant ventricular dysfunctions were observed along with enhanced expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax. A decline in cardiac injury markers lactate dehydrogenase activity, CK-MB and increased content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, a marker of lipid peroxidation, and TNF-α were observed. Hesperidin pretreatment significantly improved mean arterial pressure, reduced left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and improved both inotropic and lusitropic function of the heart (+LVdP/dt and -LVdP/dt as compared to IR-control. Furthermore, hesperidin treatment significantly decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and reversed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase towards normal value. Hesperidin showed anti-apoptotic effects by upregulating Bcl-2 protein and decreasing Bax protein expression. Additionally, histopathological and ultrastructural studies reconfirmed the protective action of hesperidin. On the other hand, GW9662, selective PPAR-γ receptor antagonist, produced opposite effects and attenuated the hesperidin induced improvements. The study for the first time evidence the involvement of PPAR-γ pathway in the cardioprotective activity of

  1. Updates to the Demographic and Spatial Allocation Models to Produce Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS) (Version 2) (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the draft report, Updates to the Demographic and Spatial Allocation Models to Produce Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS) for a 30-day public comment period. The ICLUS version 2 (v2) modeling tool furthered land change mod...

  2. A simple nudging scheme to assimilate ASCAT soil moisture data in the WRF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capecchi, V.; Gozzini, B.

    2012-04-01

    The present work shows results obtained in a numerical experiment using the WRF (Weather and Research Forecasting, www.wrf-model.org) model. A control run where soil moisture is constrained by GFS global analysis is compared with a test run where soil moisture analysis is obtained via a simple nudging scheme using ASCAT data. The basic idea of the assimilation scheme is to "nudge" the first level (0-10 cm below ground in NOAH model) of volumetric soil moisture of the first-guess (say θ(b,1) derived from global model) towards the ASCAT derived value (say ^θ A). The soil moisture analysis θ(a,1) is given by: { θ + K (^θA - θ ) l = 1 θ(a,1) = θ(b,l) (b,l) l > 1 (b,l) (1) where l is the model soil level. K is a constant scalar value that is user specified and in this study it is equal to 0.2 (same value as in similar studies). Soil moisture is critical for estimating latent and sensible heat fluxes as well as boundary layer structure. This parameter is, however, poorly assimilated in current global and regional numerical models since no extensive soil moisture observation network exists. Remote sensing technologies offer a synoptic view of the dynamics and spatial distribution of soil moisture with a frequent temporal coverage and with a horizontal resolution similar to mesoscale NWP model. Several studies have shown that measurements of normalized backscatter (surface soil wetness) from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) operating at microwave frequencies and boarded on the meteorological operational (Metop) satellite, offer quality information about surface soil moisture. Recently several studies deal with the implementation of simple assimilation procedures (nudging, Extended Kalman Filter, etc...) to integrate ASCAT data in NWP models. They found improvements in screen temperature predictions, particularly in areas such as North-America and in the Tropics, where it is strong the land-atmosphere coupling. The ECMWF (Newsletter No. 127) is currently

  3. Model output statistics applied to wind power prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensen, A; Giebel, G; Landberg, L [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Madsen, H; Nielsen, H A [The Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Mathematical Modelling, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Being able to predict the output of a wind farm online for a day or two in advance has significant advantages for utilities, such as better possibility to schedule fossil fuelled power plants and a better position on electricity spot markets. In this paper prediction methods based on Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models are considered. The spatial resolution used in NWP models implies that these predictions are not valid locally at a specific wind farm. Furthermore, due to the non-stationary nature and complexity of the processes in the atmosphere, and occasional changes of NWP models, the deviation between the predicted and the measured wind will be time dependent. If observational data is available, and if the deviation between the predictions and the observations exhibits systematic behavior, this should be corrected for; if statistical methods are used, this approaches is usually referred to as MOS (Model Output Statistics). The influence of atmospheric turbulence intensity, topography, prediction horizon length and auto-correlation of wind speed and power is considered, and to take the time-variations into account, adaptive estimation methods are applied. Three estimation techniques are considered and compared, Extended Kalman Filtering, recursive least squares and a new modified recursive least squares algorithm. (au) EU-JOULE-3. 11 refs.

  4. Getting Inside Knowledge: The Application of Entwistle's Model of Surface/Deep Processing in Producing Open Learning Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara; Honour, Leslie

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a study that required student teachers training in business education to produce open learning materials on intercultural communication. Analysis of stages and responses to this assignment revealed a distinction between "deep" and "surface" learning. Includes charts delineating the characteristics of these two types…

  5. Establishment of a rationalized safety assurance logic aiming at FBRs with enhanced social acceptance (1). Interim report of CEA/JNC collaboration NWP-5(a) from 1999 to 2001: common view and JNC's contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Hajime; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Kurisaka, Kenichi; Kubo, Shigenobu; Kamiyama, Kenji

    2001-12-01

    This is an interim report describing the progress and the results of the collaborative research works between JNC and CEA on the safety logic in future fast reactors under the title of 'Establishment of a Rationalized Safety Assurance Logic Aiming at FBRs with Enhanced Social Acceptance' from 1999 to 2001. This contains JNC's contribution and common view of both partners. (1) Safety goals are proposed from JNC and CEA. Significant coherency is found such as to keep defense-in depth concept, mitigation measures against core melt are taken into account for containment design, evacuation free' concept is pursued, quantitative safety target is also considered as well as deterministic approach, and improvement of social acceptance is considered from the development stage of the fuel cycle including nuclear power plants. (2) Safety characteristics of each candidate coolant were compared and discussed. Gas-cooled fast reactor is a common interest area. Discussions are focused on: safety design requirements, safety evaluation events list, transient behavior analysis, core catcher designs, and so on. (3) JNC's results include criticality map for predicting CDA behavior and consequences, and CDA analysis results of lead-cooled and gas-cooled fast reactors with SIMMER-III. The collaboration on the action NWP-5a is recognized as being of great importance for the orientation of the innovative design studies. (author)

  6. Olesoxime (cholest-4-en-3-one, oxime): Analgesic and neuroprotective effects in a rat model of painful peripheral neuropathy produced by the chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Wen Hua; Zheng, Felix Y.; Bennett, Gary J.; Bordet, Thierry; Pruss, Rebecca M.

    2009-01-01

    Olesoxime is a small cholesterol-like molecule that was discovered in a screening program aimed at finding treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other diseases where motor neurons degenerate. In addition to its neuroprotective and pro-regenerative effects on motor neurons in vitro and in vivo, it has been shown to have analgesic effects in rat models of painful peripheral neuropathy due to vincristine and diabetes. We used a rat model of painful peripheral neuropathy produced by the...

  7. Mathematical modeling and numerical analysis of the growth of Non-O157 shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in spinach leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to investigate the growth of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in spinach leaves and to develop kinetic models to describe the bacterial growth. Six serogroups of non-O157 STEC, including O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, were used in the growth stu...

  8. Producing cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.

  9. Evaluating the Impacts of NASA/SPoRT Daily Greenness Vegetation Fraction on Land Surface Model and Numerical Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Kumar, Sujay V.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) dataset, which is updated daily using swaths of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data aboard the NASA EOS Aqua and Terra satellites. NASA SPoRT began generating daily real-time GVF composites at 1-km resolution over the Continental United States (CONUS) on 1 June 2010. The purpose of this study is to compare the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climatology GVF product (currently used in operational weather models) to the SPoRT-MODIS GVF during June to October 2010. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) was employed to study the impacts of the SPoRT-MODIS GVF dataset on a land surface model (LSM) apart from a full numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. For the 2010 warm season, the SPoRT GVF in the western portion of the CONUS was generally higher than the NCEP climatology. The eastern CONUS GVF had variations both above and below the climatology during the period of study. These variations in GVF led to direct impacts on the rates of heating and evaporation from the land surface. In the West, higher latent heat fluxes prevailed, which enhanced the rates of evapotranspiration and soil moisture depletion in the LSM. By late Summer and Autumn, both the average sensible and latent heat fluxes increased in the West as a result of the more rapid soil drying and higher coverage of GVF. The impacts of the SPoRT GVF dataset on NWP was also examined for a single severe weather case study using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two separate coupled LIS/WRF model simulations were made for the 17 July 2010 severe weather event in the Upper Midwest using the NCEP and SPoRT GVFs, with all other model parameters remaining the same. Based on the sensitivity results, regions with higher GVF in the SPoRT model runs had higher evapotranspiration and

  10. Applying 3-PG, a simple process-based model designed to produce practical results, to data from loblolly pine experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe J. Landsberg; Kurt H. Johnsen; Timothy J. Albaugh; H. Lee Allen; Steven E. McKeand

    2001-01-01

    3-PG is a simple process-based model that requires few parameter values and only readily available input data. We tested the structure of the model by calibrating it against loblolly pine data from the control treatment of the SETRES experiment in Scotland County, NC, then altered the fertility rating to simulate the effects of fertilization. There was excellent...

  11. Emotional consciousness: a neural model of how cognitive appraisal and somatic perception interact to produce qualitative experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thagard, Paul; Aubie, Brandon

    2008-09-01

    This paper proposes a theory of how conscious emotional experience is produced by the brain as the result of many interacting brain areas coordinated in working memory. These brain areas integrate perceptions of bodily states of an organism with cognitive appraisals of its current situation. Emotions are neural processes that represent the overall cognitive and somatic state of the organism. Conscious experience arises when neural representations achieve high activation as part of working memory. This theory explains numerous phenomena concerning emotional consciousness, including differentiation, integration, intensity, valence, and change.

  12. Estimating model parameters for an impact-produced shock-wave simulation: Optimal use of partial data with the extended Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Jim; Flicker, Dawn; Ide, Kayo; Ghil, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper builds upon our recent data assimilation work with the extended Kalman filter (EKF) method [J. Kao, D. Flicker, R. Henninger, S. Frey, M. Ghil, K. Ide, Data assimilation with an extended Kalman filter for an impact-produced shock-wave study, J. Comp. Phys. 196 (2004) 705-723.]. The purpose is to test the capability of EKF in optimizing a model's physical parameters. The problem is to simulate the evolution of a shock produced through a high-speed flyer plate. In the earlier work, we have showed that the EKF allows one to estimate the evolving state of the shock wave from a single pressure measurement, assuming that all model parameters are known. In the present paper, we show that imperfectly known model parameters can also be estimated accordingly, along with the evolving model state, from the same single measurement. The model parameter optimization using the EKF can be achieved through a simple modification of the original EKF formalism by including the model parameters into an augmented state variable vector. While the regular state variables are governed by both deterministic and stochastic forcing mechanisms, the parameters are only subject to the latter. The optimally estimated model parameters are thus obtained through a unified assimilation operation. We show that improving the accuracy of the model parameters also improves the state estimate. The time variation of the optimized model parameters results from blending the data and the corresponding values generated from the model and lies within a small range, of less than 2%, from the parameter values of the original model. The solution computed with the optimized parameters performs considerably better and has a smaller total variance than its counterpart using the original time-constant parameters. These results indicate that the model parameters play a dominant role in the performance of the shock-wave hydrodynamic code at hand

  13. Dynamic modeling and analyses of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process to produce bio-ethanol from rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jordon; Su, Wen-Jun; Chien, I-Lung; Chang, Der-Ming; Chou, Sheng-Hsin; Zhan, Rui-Yu

    2010-02-01

    The rice straw, an agricultural waste from Asians' main provision, was collected as feedstock to convert cellulose into ethanol through the enzymatic hydrolysis and followed by the fermentation process. When the two process steps are performed sequentially, it is referred to as separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). The steps can also be performed simultaneously, i.e., simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). In this research, the kinetic model parameters of the cellulose saccharification process step using the rice straw as feedstock is obtained from real experimental data of cellulase hydrolysis. Furthermore, this model can be combined with a fermentation model at high glucose and ethanol concentrations to form a SSF model. The fermentation model is based on cybernetic approach from a paper in the literature with an extension of including both the glucose and ethanol inhibition terms to approach more to the actual plants. Dynamic effects of the operating variables in the enzymatic hydrolysis and the fermentation models will be analyzed. The operation of the SSF process will be compared to the SHF process. It is shown that the SSF process is better in reducing the processing time when the product (ethanol) concentration is high. The means to improve the productivity of the overall SSF process, by properly using aeration during the batch operation will also be discussed.

  14. A hybrid convection scheme for use in non-hydrostatic numerical weather prediction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Kuell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The correct representation of convection in numerical weather prediction (NWP models is essential for quantitative precipitation forecasts. Due to its small horizontal scale convection usually has to be parameterized, e.g. by mass flux convection schemes. Classical schemes originally developed for use in coarse grid NWP models assume zero net convective mass flux, because the whole circulation of a convective cell is confined to the local grid column and all convective mass fluxes cancel out. However, in contemporary NWP models with grid sizes of a few kilometers this assumption becomes questionable, because here convection is partially resolved on the grid. To overcome this conceptual problem we propose a hybrid mass flux convection scheme (HYMACS in which only the convective updrafts and downdrafts are parameterized. The generation of the larger scale environmental subsidence, which may cover several grid columns, is transferred to the grid scale equations. This means that the convection scheme now has to generate a net convective mass flux exerting a direct dynamical forcing to the grid scale model via pressure gradient forces. The hybrid convection scheme implemented into the COSMO model of Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD is tested in an idealized simulation of a sea breeze circulation initiating convection in a realistic manner. The results are compared with analogous simulations with the classical Tiedtke and Kain-Fritsch convection schemes.

  15. Modeling long recovery early events (LOREs) produced by lightning-induced ionization of the nighttime upper mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, D. A.; Moore, R. C.

    2017-07-01

    We present results of a cylindrically symmetric, coupled electrodynamic, and photochemical model which simulates diffuse ionization of the middle atmosphere induced by strong lightning discharges (peak currents >150 kA). Scattering of subionospherically propagating, very low frequency radio waves is then evaluated using the Long-Wave Propagation Capability code. Some modeled sprite halos exhibit continued electron density growth up to timescales of seconds due to O- detachment, though it is not yet clear how this might relate to the slower onset durations (>20 ms) of some early VLF events. Modeled electron density enhancements in sprite halos, capable of strong VLF scattering, can persist for long periods of time (greater than hundreds of seconds) even at lower altitudes where their recovery is initially controlled by fast attachment processes. Consequently, our modeling results indicate that both typical recovery (20 to 240 s) and long recovery (LOREs, >300 s) VLF scattering events can be explained by scattering from conductivity changes associated with sprite halos. In contrast, modeled scattered fields resulting from elve-associated conductivity changes, though exhibiting long recovery times, are too weak to sufficiently explain typical LORE observations. Theoretical scattering from structured ionization events (e.g., sprites columns and gigantic jets) is not considered in this work.

  16. Search for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced in association with top quarks with the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Yang

    2016-01-01

    After the discovery of a new particle consistent with the Higgs boson in 2012, the direct observation and measurement of the coupling of this particle to top quarks has become increasingly important. In this talk, a review of the latest ATLAS results on the search for the Higgs boson produced in association with top quarks, tt-barH, is presented. In particular, three analyses aiming at different tt-barH final states are reviewed. These include a search with the Higgs boson decaying to bb-bar, a search in multileptonic final states and a search with H → γγ. The results from these analyses are combined, giving a tt-barH signal strength of 1:8±0:8 and excluding a tt-barH signal 3.2 larger than the SM expectation at 95% confidence level for a SM Higgs boson with a mass of 125.36 GeV

  17. Analysis of Driving Factors for Extended Producer Responsibility by Using Interpretative Structure Modelling (ISM and Analytic Network Process (ANP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Zheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of an efficient reverse supply chain is important, especially in the electronics industry, considering the environmental and resource pressures worldwide. Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR, an important environmental policy approach, has been adopted extensively in various countries, and the effectiveness of its implementation has been proven through practical application. However, the establishment and development of EPR are lacking in most developing countries where collection and recycling systems are underdeveloped. This study addresses this problem by exploring the hierarchical relationship among the driving factors of EPR in the electronics industry in China and by identifying and ranking the factors that are critical in EPR implementation. As important managerial conclusions, research results show that EPR-related laws and regulations, the consciousness of senior executives, and corporate image are the three most important driving factors of EPR implementation.

  18. Spectral and energetic study of the microwave level produced by various mobile telephone models in the user head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Kassem, I.

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this work is the investigation of real microwave (MW) emission level and propagation properties produced by samples of mobile phones taking as reference the guidelines recommended by the International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation protection (ICNIRP). Measurements were performed using specified radiation meters for detecting microwaves. These measurements consisted the detecting of frequency spectrum and then the measurements of the strength of electric and magnetic fields as well as the power density. The instantaneous signal level was important for all studied mobile phones, and this level exceed the ICNIRP limits for large part of these phones. Taking into account the mean value, the major part of studies mobile phones respect the international limits. In fact, only 22% of studied mobile phones emit signals from the back side of the phone which exceed the ICNIRP limits. The emitted signal intensity decreases rapidly with distance; it becomes about 10 % of the maximum at 20 cm from the mobile phone. (author)

  19. Role of asymmetric meridional circulation in producing north-south asymmetry in a solar cycle dynamo model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belucz, Bernadett; Dikpati, Mausumi

    2013-01-01

    Solar cycles in the north and south hemispheres differ in cycle length, amplitude, profile, polar fields, and coronal structure. To show what role differences in meridional flow could play in producing these differences, we present the results of three sets of numerical simulations from a flux transport dynamo in which one property of meridional circulation has been changed in the south only. The changes are in amplitude and the presence of a second cell in latitude or in depth. An ascending phase speedup causes weakening of polar and toroidal fields; a speed decrease in a late descending phase does not change amplitudes. A long-duration speed increase leads to lower toroidal field peaks but unchanged polar field peaks. A second high-latitude circulation cell in an ascending phase weakens the next polar and toroidal field peaks, and the ascending phase is lengthened. A second cell in a late descending phase speeds up the cycle. A long-duration second cell leads to a poleward branch of the butterfly diagram and weaker polar fields. A second cell in depth reverses the tilt of the butterfly wing, decreasing polar fields when added during an ascending phase and increasing them during a late descending phase. A long-duration presence of a second cell in radius evolves the butterfly diagram far away from the observed one, with different dynamo periods in low and high latitudes. Thus, a second cell in depth is unlikely to persist more than a few years if the solar dynamo is advection-dominated. Our results show the importance of time variation and north-south asymmetry in meridional circulation in producing differing cycles in the north and south.

  20. Role of asymmetric meridional circulation in producing north-south asymmetry in a solar cycle dynamo model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belucz, Bernadett [Eötvös University, Department of Astronomy, 1518 Budapest, Pf. 32 (Hungary); Dikpati, Mausumi [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3080 Center Green, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    Solar cycles in the north and south hemispheres differ in cycle length, amplitude, profile, polar fields, and coronal structure. To show what role differences in meridional flow could play in producing these differences, we present the results of three sets of numerical simulations from a flux transport dynamo in which one property of meridional circulation has been changed in the south only. The changes are in amplitude and the presence of a second cell in latitude or in depth. An ascending phase speedup causes weakening of polar and toroidal fields; a speed decrease in a late descending phase does not change amplitudes. A long-duration speed increase leads to lower toroidal field peaks but unchanged polar field peaks. A second high-latitude circulation cell in an ascending phase weakens the next polar and toroidal field peaks, and the ascending phase is lengthened. A second cell in a late descending phase speeds up the cycle. A long-duration second cell leads to a poleward branch of the butterfly diagram and weaker polar fields. A second cell in depth reverses the tilt of the butterfly wing, decreasing polar fields when added during an ascending phase and increasing them during a late descending phase. A long-duration presence of a second cell in radius evolves the butterfly diagram far away from the observed one, with different dynamo periods in low and high latitudes. Thus, a second cell in depth is unlikely to persist more than a few years if the solar dynamo is advection-dominated. Our results show the importance of time variation and north-south asymmetry in meridional circulation in producing differing cycles in the north and south.

  1. Experimental modeling of aerosols produced by microorganisms in working area air as risk factor exerting hazardous impacts on health of workers employed at biotechnological production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Dudchik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific foundation and practices in the sphere of hygienic and ecological standardization concerning biological factors of the environment have a number of peculiarities and are methodically less developed than chemical factors standardization. Efficient industrial control over maximum permissible concentrations of standardized microorganisms-producers in working area air is based on validated instrumental techniques of quantitative assessment. Our goal was to create experimental models for microorganisms-producers' aerosols of a multi-component microbe specimen in working area air as a risk factor causing impacts on health of workers employed at biotechnological production; another task was to work out a procedure for measuring Pseudomonas aurantiaca B-162/255.17concentration and cells and spores of Bacillus sp. BB58-3 strain in working area air. We gave grounds for a technology aimed at quantitative determination of microorganisms-producers in working area air in a modeling experiment; it was based on conventional stages and tech-niques accepted in microbiological practices, namely air samples taking via aspiration technique allowing for a volume taken; cultivation under conditions which are optimal for examined microorganisms-producers in a nutrient medium with reduced composition; calculation of evolved colonies with specific morphological features; morphologic identification of microorganisms and colonies; calculation of microorganisms' quantity on dishes with recalculation per 1 m3 of air. Bas-ing on the detected regular concentration dependences of microbe contamination dynamics in air we worked out a proce-dure for quantitative determination of microorganisms-producers; we also performed metrological estimate of opera-tional properties for assessing microorganisms-producers of a multi-component microbe specimen as a risk factor caus-ing hazardous impacts on health of workers employed at biotechnological production. We validated our

  2. Production of solar radiation bankable datasets from high-resolution solar irradiance derived with dynamical downscaling Numerical Weather prediction model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Charabi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A bankable solar radiation database is required for the financial viability of solar energy project. Accurate estimation of solar energy resources in a country is very important for proper siting, sizing and life cycle cost analysis of solar energy systems. During the last decade an important progress has been made to develop multiple solar irradiance database (Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI, using satellite of different resolution and sophisticated models. This paper assesses the performance of High-resolution solar irradiance derived with dynamical downscaling Numerical Weather Prediction model with, GIS topographical solar radiation model, satellite data and ground measurements, for the production of bankable solar radiation datasets. For this investigation, NWP model namely Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO is used for the dynamical downscaling of solar radiation. The obtained results increase confidence in solar radiation data base obtained from dynamical downscaled NWP model. The mean bias of dynamical downscaled NWP model is small, on the order of a few percents for GHI, and it could be ranked as a bankable datasets. Fortunately, these data are usually archived in the meteorological department and gives a good idea of the hourly, monthly, and annual incident energy. Such short time-interval data are valuable in designing and operating the solar energy facility. The advantage of the NWP model is that it can be used for solar radiation forecast since it can estimate the weather condition within the next 72–120 hours. This gives a reasonable estimation of the solar radiation that in turns can be used to forecast the electric power generation by the solar power plant.

  3. Towards a chain coordination model for quality management strategies to strengthen the competition of European pork producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkmann, D.; Lang, J.; Petersen, B.; Wognum, P.M.; Trienekens, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new chain coordination model for quality management strategies of European pork supply chains. It is a result of qualitative research into intensive and extensive pork production in seven selected countries consisting of a literature review, country-specific expert interviews

  4. Modeling and Optimizing of Producing Recycled PET from Fabrics Waste via Falling Film-Rotating Disk Combined Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Qin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling and reusing of poly (ethylene terephthalate (PET fabrics waste are essential for reducing serious waste of resources and environmental pollution caused by low utilization rate. The liquid-phase polymerization method has advantages of short process flow, low energy consumption, and low production cost. However, unlike prepolymer, the material characteristics of PET fabrics waste (complex composition, high intrinsic viscosity, and large quality fluctuations make its recycling a technique challenge. In this study, the falling film-rotating disk combined reactor is proposed, and the continuous liquid-phase polymerization is modeled by optimizing and correcting existing models for the final stage of PET polymerization to improve the product quality in plant production. Through modeling and simulation, the weight analysis of indexes closely related to the product quality (intrinsic viscosity, carboxyl end group concentration, and diethylene glycol content was investigated to optimize the production process in order to obtain the desired polymer properties and meet specific product material characteristics. The model could be applied to other PET wastes (e.g., bottles and films and extended to investigate different aspects of the recycling process.

  5. Dynamics of a Bioreactor with a Bacteria Piecewise-Linear Growth Model in a Methane-Producing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz A. Melo Varela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a study, both analytical and numerical, of a continuous-time dynamical system associated with a simple model of a wastewater biorreactor. Nonsmooth phenomena and border-collision local bifurcations appear when the main parameters (dilution and biomass concentration at the inflow are varied. We apply the Filippov methods following Kuznetsov’s work.

  6. Statistical Analysis of NWP Prediction Errors and Their Consequences for Short-Time Photovoltaic Energy Forecasting; A Semi-Parametric Way to Prediction Quality Improvements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Marek; Eben, Kryštof; Konár, Ondřej; Krč, Pavel; Pelikán, Emil; Juruš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2014), EMS2014-429 [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ & European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC) /10./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : prediction * mathematical modeling * renewable energies Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use

  7. Ann Modeling for Grey Particles Produced from Interactions of Different Projectiles with Emulsion Nuclei at 4.5 AGEV/C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bakry, M.N.Y.; Basha, A.M.; Rashed, N.; Mahmoud, M.A.; Radi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is one of the important tools in high energy physics. In this paper, we are using ANN for modeling the multiplicity distributions of grey particles produced from interactions of P, 3 He, 4 He, 6 Li, 12 C, 24 Mg, and 32 S with emulsion nuclei, light nuclei (CNO), and heavy nuclei (Ag Br). The equations of these distributions were obtained

  8. Search for the standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a top-quark pair in pp collisions at the LHC

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    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Keaveney, James; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Selvaggi, Michele; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Qiang; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Tikvica, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Kuotb Awad, Alaa Metwaly; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Brochet, Sébastien; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Calpas, Betty; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Friederike; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Gosselink, Martijn; Haller, Johannes; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sibille, Jennifer; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Radics, Balint; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Saxena, Pooja; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Biasotto, Massimo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Grigelionis, Ignas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Butt, Jamila; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Wolszczak, Weronika; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; 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Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Ojalvo, Isabel; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2013-05-28

    A search for the standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a top-quark pair is presented using data samples corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns (5.1 inverse femtobarns) collected in pp collisions at the center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV (8 TeV). Events are considered where the top-quark pair decays to either one lepton+jets ($t\\bar{t} \\to \\ell\

  9. Combined prenatal and postnatal butyl paraben exposure produces autism-like symptoms in offspring: comparison with valproic acid autistic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Elham H A; Elgoly, Amany H Mahmoud

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the impact of butyl paraben (BP) in brain of the pups developed for mothers administered BP from early pregnancy till weaning and its effect on studying the behavior, brain neurotransmitters and brain derived neurotrophic factor BDNF via comparing the results with valproic acid (VA) autistic-rat model preparing by a single oral injection dose of VA (800 mg/kg b.wt) at the 12.5 days of gestation. Butyl paraben was orally and subcutaneously administered (200 mg/kg b.wt) to pregnant rats from gestation day 1 to lactation day 21. The offspring male rats were subjected at the last 3 days of lactation to Morris water maze and three chamber sociability test then decapitated and the brain was excised and dissected to the cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, midbrain and pons for the determination of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin (NE, DA and 5-HT) and cortex amino acids and whole brain BDNF. The results showed similar social and learning and memory behavioral deficits in VA rat model and the butyl paraben offspring in comparison with the controls. Also, some similar alterations were observed in monoamine content, amino acids and BDNF factor in the autistic-like model and butyl paraben offspring in comparison with the controls. The alterations were recorded notably in hippocampus and pons NE, midbrain DA, hippocampus and midbrain 5-HT, and frontal cortex GABA and asparagine. These data suggest that prenatal exposure to butyl paraben induced neuro-developmental disorders similar to some of the neurodevelopmental disorders observed in the VA model of autism. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Numerical Methods in Atmospheric and Oceanic Modelling: The Andre J. Robert Memorial Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmond, Tom

    Most people, even including some in the scientific community, do not realize how much the weather forecasts they use to guide the activities of their daily lives depend on very complex mathematics and numerical methods that are the basis of modern numerical weather prediction (NWP). André Robert (1929-1993), to whom Numerical Methods in Atmospheric and Oceanic Modelling is dedicated, had a career that contributed greatly to the growth of NWP and the role that the atmospheric computer models of NWP play in our society. There are probably no NWP models running anywhere in the world today that do not use numerical methods introduced by Robert, and those of us who work with and use these models everyday are indebted to him.The first two chapters of the volume are chronicles of Robert's life and career. The first is a 1987 interview by Harold Ritchie, one of Robert's many proteges and colleagues at the Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service. The interview traces Robert's life from his birth in New York to French Canadian parents, to his emigration to Quebec at an early age, his education and early employment, and his rise in stature as one of the preeminent research meteorologists of our time. An amusing anecdote he relates is his impression of weather forecasts while he was considering his first job as a meteorologist in the early 1950s. A newspaper of the time placed the weather forecast and daily horoscope side by side, and Robert regarded each to have a similar scientific basis. Thankfully he soon realized there was a difference between the two, and his subsequent career certainly confirmed the distinction.

  11. Comparison of mean properties of simulated convection in a cloud-resolving model with those produced by cumulus parameterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudhia, J.; Parsons, D.B. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    An Intensive Observation Period (IOP) of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program took place at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site from June 16-26, 1993. The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5) has been used to simulate this period on a 60-km domain with 20- and 6.67-km nests centered on Lamont, Oklahoma. Simulations are being run with data assimilation by the nudging technique to incorporate upper-air and surface data from a variety of platforms. The model maintains dynamical consistency between the fields, while the data correct for model biases that may occur during long-term simulations and provide boundary conditions. For the work reported here the Mesoscale Atmospheric Prediction System (MAPS) of the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 3-hourly analyses were used to drive the 60-km domain while the inner domains were unforced. A continuous 10-day period was simulated.

  12. Measurement and modeling of ozone and nitrogen oxides produced by laser breakdown in oxygen-nitrogen atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornushkin, Igor B; Stevenson, Chris L; Galbács, Gábor; Smith, Ben W; Winefordner, James D

    2003-11-01

    The production of ozone nad nitrogen oxides was studied during multiple laser breakdown in oxygen-nitrogen mixtures at atmospheric pressure. About 2000 laser shots at 10(10) W cm-2 were delivered into a sealed reaction chamber. The chamber with a long capillary was designed to measure absorption of O3, NO, and NO2 as a function of the number of laser shots. The light source for absorption measurements was the continuum radiation emitted by the plasma during the first 0.2 microsecond of its evolution. A kinetic model was developed that encompassed the principal chemical reactions between the major atmospheric components and the products of laser breakdown. In the model, the laser plasma was treated as a source of nitric oxide and atomic oxygen, whose rates of production were calculated using measured absorption by NO, NO2, and O3. The calculated concentration profiles for NO, NO2, and O3 were in good agreement with measured profiles over a time scale of 0-200 s. The steady-state concentration of ozone was measured in a flow cell in air. For a single breakdown in air, the estimated steady-state yield of ozone was 2 x 10(12) molecules, which agreed with the model prediction. This study can be of importance for general understanding of laser plasma chemistry and for elucidating the nature of spectral interferences and matrix effects that may take place in applied spectrochemical analysis.

  13. Markov model plus k-word distributions: a synergy that produces novel statistical measures for sequence comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qi; Yang, Yanchun; Wang, Tianming

    2008-10-15

    Many proposed statistical measures can efficiently compare biological sequences to further infer their structures, functions and evolutionary information. They are related in spirit because all the ideas for sequence comparison try to use the information on the k-word distributions, Markov model or both. Motivated by adding k-word distributions to Markov model directly, we investigated two novel statistical measures for sequence comparison, called wre.k.r and S2.k.r. The proposed measures were tested by similarity search, evaluation on functionally related regulatory sequences and phylogenetic analysis. This offers the systematic and quantitative experimental assessment of our measures. Moreover, we compared our achievements with these based on alignment or alignment-free. We grouped our experiments into two sets. The first one, performed via ROC (receiver operating curve) analysis, aims at assessing the intrinsic ability of our statistical measures to search for similar sequences from a database and discriminate functionally related regulatory sequences from unrelated sequences. The second one aims at assessing how well our statistical measure is used for phylogenetic analysis. The experimental assessment demonstrates that our similarity measures intending to incorporate k-word distributions into Markov model are more efficient.

  14. A Life-Cycle Model of Human Social Groups Produces a U-Shaped Distribution in Group Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Deniz Salali

    Full Text Available One of the central puzzles in the study of sociocultural evolution is how and why transitions from small-scale human groups to large-scale, hierarchically more complex ones occurred. Here we develop a spatially explicit agent-based model as a first step towards understanding the ecological dynamics of small and large-scale human groups. By analogy with the interactions between single-celled and multicellular organisms, we build a theory of group lifecycles as an emergent property of single cell demographic and expansion behaviours. We find that once the transition from small-scale to large-scale groups occurs, a few large-scale groups continue expanding while small-scale groups gradually become scarcer, and large-scale groups become larger in size and fewer in number over time. Demographic and expansion behaviours of groups are largely influenced by the distribution and availability of resources. Our results conform to a pattern of human political change in which religions and nation states come to be represented by a few large units and many smaller ones. Future enhancements of the model should include decision-making rules and probabilities of fragmentation for large-scale societies. We suggest that the synthesis of population ecology and social evolution will generate increasingly plausible models of human group dynamics.

  15. Producing an integrated climate-land-energy-water (CLEW) model for glaciated regions in the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delman, E. M.; Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Growing concern over the impact of climate change on global freshwater resources has spurred a demand for practical, basin-specific adaptation tools. The potential for water stress is particularly inflated in the glaciated watersheds of the developing world; widespread and rapid glacial retreat has forced regional resource managers to reconcile the reality of a diminishing supply with an overall increase in demand, while accounting for the underlying geopolitical and cultural context. An integrated approach, such as the development of a Climate-Land-Energy-Water (CLEW) model that examines relationships among climate, land-use, and the energy and water sectors, can be used to assess the impact of different climate change scenarios on basin sustainability and vulnerability. This study will first constrain the hydrologic budget in the Río Santa Watershed of Peru using satellite imagery, historical and contemporary stream discharge data, hydrologic modeling, climatic data analysis, and isotopic and chemical tracers. Ultimately, glacier retreat will be examined at the watershed scale and be used as an input in the CLEW model framework to assess hydrologic budget scenarios and the subsequent impact on regional economic and environmental sustainability.

  16. Producing a satellite-derived map and modelling Spartina alterniflora expansion for Willapa Bay in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Cynthia Jane

    1998-12-01

    This research addresses the identification of the areal extent of the intertidal wetlands of Willapa Bay, Washington, and the evaluation of the potential for exotic Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) expansion in the bay using a spatial geographic approach. It is hoped that the results will address not only the management needs of the study area but provide a research design that may be applied to studies of other coastal wetlands. Four satellite images, three Landsat Multi-Spectral (MSS) and one Thematic Mapper (TM), are used to derive a map showing areas of water, low, middle and high intertidal, and upland. Two multi-date remote sensing mapping techniques are assessed: a supervised classification using density-slicing and an unsupervised classification using an ISODATA algorithm. Statistical comparisons are made between the resultant derived maps and the U.S.G.S. topographic maps for the Willapa Bay area. The potential for Spartina expansion in the bay is assessed using a sigmoidal (logistic) growth model and a spatial modelling procedure for four possible growth scenarios: without management controls (Business-as-Usual), with moderate management controls (e.g. harvesting to eliminate seed setting), under a hypothetical increase in the growth rate that may reflect favorable environmental changes, and under a hypothetical decrease in the growth rate that may reflect aggressive management controls. Comparisons for the statistics of the two mapping techniques suggest that although the unsupervised classification method performed satisfactorily, the supervised classification (density-slicing) method provided more satisfactory results. Results from the modelling of potential Spartina expansion suggest that Spartina expansion will proceed rapidly for the Business-as-Usual and hypothetical increase in the growth rate scenario, and at a slower rate for the elimination of seed setting and hypothetical decrease in the growth rate scenarios, until all potential

  17. Recurrent milk aspiration produces changes in airway mechanics, lung eosinophilia, and goblet cell hyperplasia in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janahi, I A; Elidemir, O; Shardonofsky, F R; Abu-Hassan, M N; Fan, L L; Larsen, G L; Blackburn, M R; Colasurdo, G N

    2000-12-01

    Recurrent aspiration of milk into the respiratory tract has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory lung disorders including asthma. However, the lack of animal models of aspiration-induced lung injury has limited our knowledge of the pathophysiological characteristics of this disorder. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of recurrent milk aspiration on airway mechanics and lung cells in a murine model. Under light anesthesia, BALB/c mice received daily intranasal instillations of whole cow's milk (n = 7) or sterile physiologic saline (n = 9) for 10 d. Respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and dynamic elastance (Edyn,rs) were measured in anesthetized, tracheotomized, paralyzed and mechanically ventilated mice 24 h after the last aspiration of milk. Rrs and Edyn,rs were derived from transrespiratory and plethysmographic pressure signals. In addition, airway responses to increasing concentrations of i.v. methacholine (Mch) were determined. Airway responses were measured in terms of PD(100) (dose of Mch causing 100% increase from baseline Rrs) and Rrs,max (% increase from baseline at the maximal plateau response) and expressed as % control (mean +/- SE). We found recurrent milk aspiration did not affect Edyn and baseline Rrs values. However, airway responses to Mch were increased after milk aspiration when compared with control mice. These changes in airway mechanics were associated with an increased percentage of lymphocytes and eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage, mucus production, and lung inflammation. Our findings suggest that recurrent milk aspiration leads to alterations in airway function, lung eosinophilia, and goblet cell hyperplasia in a murine model.

  18. Effects of yeast stress and pH on 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD)-producing reactions in model dough systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, C G; Sadd, P A

    2005-07-01

    A major precursor of 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) in leavened cereal products is glycerol, which is formed as a natural by-product of yeast fermentation. However, yeast metabolism is affected by stresses such as low osmotic pressure from, for example, the incorporation of sugar or salt in the dough recipe. Tests with model doughs have shown that glycerol production was proportional to yeast mass and limited by available sugars, but that high levels of yeast inhibited 3-MCPD formation. The yeast fraction responsible for the inhibition of 3-MCPD in model dough was shown to be the soluble cytosol proteins, and the inhibition mechanism could be explained by the known reactions of 3-MCPD and/or its precursors with ammonia/amino acids (from yeast proteins). Added glucose did not increase the production of glycerol by yeast but it did promote the generation of 3-MCPD in cooked doughs. The latter effect was attributed to the removal of 3-MCPD inhibitors such as ammonia and amino acids by their reactions with added glucose (e.g. Maillard). The thermal generation of organic acids from added glucose also reduced the pH of cooked doughs, so the effect of pH and short-chain organic acids on 3-MCPD generation in dough was measured. There was a good correlation between initial dough pH and the level of 3-MCPD generated. The effect was weaker than that predicted by simple kinetic modelling, suggesting that the involvement of H+ and/or the organic acid was catalytic. The results showed that modifications to dough recipes involving the addition of reducing sugars and/or organic acids can have a significant impact on 3-MPCD generation in bakery products.

  19. Using an agent-based model to evaluate the effect of producer specialization on the epidemiological resilience of livestock production networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Serge W

    2018-01-01

    An agent-based computer model that builds representative regional U.S. hog production networks was developed and employed to assess the potential impact of the ongoing trend towards increased producer specialization upon network-level resilience to catastrophic disease outbreaks. Empirical analyses suggest that the spatial distribution and connectivity patterns of contact networks often predict epidemic spreading dynamics. Our model heuristically generates realistic systems composed of hog producer, feed mill, and slaughter plant agents. Network edges are added during each run as agents exchange livestock and feed. The heuristics governing agents' contact patterns account for factors including their industry roles, physical proximities, and the age of their livestock. In each run, an infection is introduced, and may spread according to probabilities associated with the various modes of contact. For each of three treatments-defined by one-phase, two-phase, and three-phase production systems-a parameter variation experiment examines the impact of the spatial density of producer agents in the system upon the length and size of disease outbreaks. Resulting data show phase transitions whereby, above some density threshold, systemic outbreaks become possible, echoing findings from percolation theory. Data analysis reveals that multi-phase production systems are vulnerable to catastrophic outbreaks at lower spatial densities, have more abrupt percolation transitions, and are characterized by less-predictable outbreak scales and durations. Key differences in network-level metrics shed light on these results, suggesting that the absence of potentially-bridging producer-producer edges may be largely responsible for the superior disease resilience of single-phase "farrow to finish" production systems.

  20. Testing model energy spectra of charged particles produced in hadron interactions on the basis of atmospheric muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedenko, L. G.; Roganova, T. M.; Fedorova, G. F.

    2015-01-01

    An original method for calculating the spectrum of atmospheric muons with the aid of the CORSIKA 7.4 code package and numerical integration is proposed. The first step consists in calculating the energy distribution of muons for various fixed energies of primary-cosmic-ray particles and within several chosen hadron-interaction models included in the CORSIKA 7.4 code package. After that, the spectrum of atmospheric muons is calculated via integrating the resulting distribution densities with the chosen spectrum of primary-cosmic-ray particles. The atmospheric-muon fluxes that were calculated on the basis of the SIBYLL 2.1, QGSJET01, and QGSJET II-04 models exceed the predictions of the wellknown Gaisser approximation of this spectrum by a factor of 1.5 to 1.8 in the range of muon energies between about 10 3 and 10 4 GeV.Under the assumption that, in the region of extremely highmuon energies, a dominant contribution to the muon flux comes from one to two generations of charged π ± and K ± mesons, the production rate calculated for these mesons is overestimated by a factor of 1.3 to 1.5. This conclusion is confirmed by the results of the LHCf and TOTEM experiments

  1. Green tea supplementation produces better neuroprotective effects than red and black tea in Alzheimer-like rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimidt, Helen L; Garcia, Alexandre; Martins, Alexandre; Mello-Carpes, Pamela B; Carpes, Felipe P

    2017-10-01

    Green tea from Camellia sinensis plays a neuroprotective role in different neurodegenerative conditions, such as memory deficits in Alzheimer disease (AD). However, whether other teas from Camellia sinensis present similar neuroprotective effect still is not clear. Here we investigate effects of green, red and black tea supplementation on memory and hippocampus oxidative status in a rat model of Alzheimer-like disease (AD-like). Wistar male rats were supplemented with green, red or black tea during 8weeks before Aβ intra-hippocampal injection (2μL of Aβ-25-35, CA1 region). AD and sham rats were submitted to memory tests. After euthanasia, oxidative status in the bilateral hippocampus was quantified. Green and red teas avoid memory deficits in AD rats, but only green tea also avoids oxidative stress and damage in the hippocampus. Green tea was more effective for neuroprotection than red and black teas from the Camellia sinensis in the AD rat model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Resistance to DNA Damaging Agents Produced Invasive Phenotype of Rat Glioma Cells—Characterization of a New in Vivo Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Stojković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemoresistance and invasion properties are severe limitations to efficient glioma therapy. Therefore, development of glioma in vivo models that more accurately resemble the situation observed in patients emerges. Previously, we established RC6 rat glioma cell line resistant to DNA damaging agents including antiglioma approved therapies such as 3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU and temozolomide (TMZ. Herein, we evaluated the invasiveness of RC6 cells in vitro and in a new orthotopic animal model. For comparison, we used C6 cells from which RC6 cells originated. Differences in cell growth properties were assessed by real-time cell analyzer. Cells’ invasive potential in vitro was studied in fluorescently labeled gelatin and by formation of multicellular spheroids in hydrogel. For animal studies, fluorescently labeled cells were inoculated into adult male Wistar rat brains. Consecutive coronal and sagittal brain sections were analyzed 10 and 25 days post-inoculation, while rats’ behavior was recorded during three days in the open field test starting from 25th day post-inoculation. We demonstrated that development of chemoresistance induced invasive phenotype of RC6 cells with significant behavioral impediments implying usefulness of orthotopic RC6 glioma allograft in preclinical studies for the examination of new approaches to counteract both chemoresistance and invasion of glioma cells.

  3. Studies on hepatic lipidosis and coinciding health and fertility problems of high-producing dairy cows using the "Utrecht fatty liver model of dairy cows". A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, M J H; Wensing, T

    2006-09-01

    Fatty liver or hepatic lipidosis is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that occurs rather frequently in early lactation and is associated with decreased health, production and fertility. A background section of the review explores reasons why high-producing dairy cows are prone to develop fatty liver post partum. Hepatic lipidosis and coinciding health and fertility problems seriously endanger profitability and longevity of the dairy cow. Results from a great number of earlier epidemiological and clinical studies made it clear that a different approach was needed for elucidation of pathogenesis and etiology of this complex of health problems. There was a need for an adequate animal model in which hepatic lipidosis and production, health and fertility problems could be provoked under controlled conditions. It was hypothesized that overconditioning ante partum and feed restriction post partum might induce lipolysis in adipose tissue and triacylglycerol accumulation in the liver following calving. This consideration formed the basis for the experiments, which resulted in the "Utrecht fatty liver model of dairy cows". In this model, post partum triacylglycerol-lipidosis as well as the whole complex of health and fertility problems are induced under well-controlled conditions. The experimental protocol based on this hypothesis produced in all cases (10 feeding trials with over 150 dairy cattle) the intended result, i.e. all experimental cows developed post partum higher hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations than did control cows. The model was evaluated in biochemical, clinical pathology, immunological, clinical and fertility terms. It turned out that in this model, post partum triacylglycerol-lipidosis as well as the whole complex of health and fertility problems were induced under well-controlled conditions.

  4. Development and evaluation of an empirical diurnal sea surface temperature model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihs, R. R.; Bourassa, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    An innovative method is developed to determine the diurnal heating amplitude of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) using observations of high-quality satellite SST measurements and NWP atmospheric meteorological data. The diurnal cycle results from heating that develops at the surface of the ocean from low mechanical or shear produced turbulence and large solar radiation absorption. During these typically calm weather conditions, the absorption of solar radiation causes heating of the upper few meters of the ocean, which become buoyantly stable; this heating causes a temperature differential between the surface and the mixed [or bulk] layer on the order of a few degrees. It has been shown that capturing the diurnal cycle is important for a variety of applications, including surface heat flux estimates, which have been shown to be underestimated when neglecting diurnal warming, and satellite and buoy calibrations, which can be complicated because of the heating differential. An empirical algorithm using a pre-dawn sea surface temperature, peak solar radiation, and accumulated wind stress is used to estimate the cycle. The empirical algorithm is derived from a multistep process in which SSTs from MTG's SEVIRI SST experimental hourly data set are combined with hourly wind stress fields derived from a bulk flux algorithm. Inputs for the flux model are taken from NASA's MERRA reanalysis product. NWP inputs are necessary because the inputs need to incorporate diurnal and air-sea interactive processes, which are vital to the ocean surface dynamics, with a high enough temporal resolution. The MERRA winds are adjusted with CCMP winds to obtain more realistic spatial and variance characteristics and the other atmospheric inputs (air temperature, specific humidity) are further corrected on the basis of in situ comparisons. The SSTs are fitted to a Gaussian curve (using one or two peaks), forming a set of coefficients used to fit the data. The coefficient data are combined with

  5. MCCREEP - a model to estimate creep produced by microcracking around a cavity in an intact rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, B.J.S.; Rigby, G.L.

    1991-11-01

    AECL Research is examining the disposal of nuclear fuel waste in a vault in plutonic rock. Models (MCDIRC and MCROC) have been developed to predict the mechanical behaviour of the rock in response to excavation and heat from the waste. The dominant mechanism of deformation at temperatures below 150 degrees C is microcracking, which results in rock creep and a decrease in rock strength. MCDIRC has been constructed to consider the perturbation of the stress state of intact rock by long cylindrical cavities. Slow crack-growth data are used to estimate time-dependent changes in rock strength, from which possible movements (creep strain) in the rock mass are estimated. MCDIRC depends on analytical solutions for stress-state perturbations. MCCREEP has been developed from MCDIRC and relies on the use of finite-element methods to solve for stress states. It is more flexible than MCDIRC and can deal with non-homogeneous rock properties and non-symmetrical cavities

  6. Cyclodextrin-Complexed Ocimum basilicum Leaves Essential Oil Increases Fos Protein Expression in the Central Nervous System and Produce an Antihyperalgesic Effect in Animal Models for Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone S. Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O. basilicum leaves produce essential oils (LEO rich in monoterpenes. The short half-life and water insolubility are limitations for LEO medical uses. β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD has been employed to improve the pharmacological properties of LEO. We assessed the antihyperalgesic profile of LEO, isolated or complexed in β-CD (LEO/β-CD, on an animal model for fibromyalgia. Behavioral tests: mice were treated every day with either LEO/β-CD (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg, p.o., LEO (25 mg/kg, p.o., tramadol (TRM 4 mg/kg, i.p. or vehicle (saline, and 60 min after treatment behavioral parameters were assessed. Therefore, mice were evaluated for mechanical hyperalgesia (von Frey, motor coordination (Rota-rod and muscle strength (Grip Strength Metter in a mice fibromyalgia model. After 27 days, we evaluated the central nervous system (CNS pathways involved in the effect induced by experimental drugs through immunofluorescence protocol to Fos protein. The differential scanning analysis (DSC, thermogravimetry/derivate thermogravimetry (TG/DTG and infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR curves indicated that the products prepared were able to incorporate the LEO efficiently. Oral treatment with LEO or LEO-βCD, at all doses tested, produced a significant reduction of mechanical hyperalgesia and we were able to significantly increase Fos protein expression. Together, our results provide evidence that LEO, isolated or complexed with β-CD, produces analgesic effects on chronic non-inflammatory pain as fibromyalgia.

  7. Building on IUCN regional red lists to produce lists of species of conservation priority: a model with Irish bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Una; Murray, Tomás E; Paxton, Robert J; Brown, Mark J F

    2007-10-01

    A World Conservation Union (IUCN) regional red list is an objective assessment of regional extinction risk and is not the same as a list of conservation priority species. Recent research reveals the widespread, but incorrect, assumption that IUCN Red List categories represent a hierarchical list of priorities for conservation action. We developed a simple eight-step priority-setting process and applied it to the conservation of bees in Ireland. Our model is based on the national red list but also considers the global significance of the national population; the conservation status at global, continental, and regional levels; key biological, economic, and societal factors; and is compatible with existing conservation agreements and legislation. Throughout Ireland, almost one-third of the bee fauna is threatened (30 of 100 species), but our methodology resulted in a reduced list of only 17 priority species. We did not use the priority species list to broadly categorize species to the conservation action required; instead, we indicated the individual action required for all threatened, near-threatened, and data-deficient species on the national red list based on the IUCN's conservation-actions template file. Priority species lists will strongly influence prioritization of conservation actions at national levels, but action should not be exclusive to listed species. In addition, all species on this list will not necessarily require immediate action. Our method is transparent, reproducible, and readily applicable to other taxa and regions.

  8. Photodynamic effect produced by HeNe radiation in Harderian glands of Wistar rats: an experimental model for PDT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Edmyr R.; Nicola, Ester M. D.; Metze, Konradin; Nicola, Jorge H.

    2000-06-01

    In rats, the Harderian Gland secret Protoporphirin IX which is retained at acinar lumina. Since this photosensitizer is important for PDT of malignant tumors, we propose to study this gland as a model to help understanding PDT with endogenous photosensitizers. Twenty Wistar SPF adult rats were submitted to surgical exposure of both Harderian glands, revealing red fluorescence upon UV, characterizing the protoporphirin IX presence. After that, one gland of each pair (one kept as control) was irradiated with an 8 mW HeNe (6328 angstrom) for 45 minutes, delivering about 2.7 joules/mm2. After 24 hours a group of 10 animals were scarified and the glands removed for histological analysis. The remaining animals were subjected to the same procedure but the glands were removed immediately after laser treatment. Histological and fluorescence analysis immediately after laser irradiation showed cell fragmentation with loss of acinar architecture with diffusion of protoporphirin in the cytoplasm of damaged cells, as well as interstitial edema. After 24 hours these alterations were more pronounced with accentuated loss of intraluminal protoporphirin and beginning of leukocytic demarcation of necrotic areas. The innate Harderian glands of rats, exposed to HeNe laser, showed a similar behavior as tumor tissue under PDT.

  9. In a rat model of night work, activity during the normal resting phase produces desynchrony in the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Nadia, Saderi; Angeles-Castellanos, M; Buijs, Ruud M; Escobar, Carolina

    2010-12-01

    Internal synchrony among external cycles and internal oscillators allows adaptation of physiology to cyclic demands for homeostasis. Night work and shift work lead to a disrupted phase relationship between external time cues and internal rhythms, also losing internal coherence among oscillations. This process results in internal desynchrony (ID) in which behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic variables cycle out of phase. It is still not clear whether ID originates at a peripheral or at a central level. In order to determine the possible role of hypothalamic oscillators in ID, we explored with a rat model of "night work" daily rhythms of activity and clock gene expression in the hypothalamus. This study provides evidence that wakefulness and activity during the normal resting phase lead to a shift in the diurnal rhythms of c-Fos and induce a rhythm of PER1 in the arcuate and dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, both associated with metabolism and regulation of the sleep/wake cycle. Moreover, the number of orexin (ORX)-positive neurons and c-Fos in the perifornical area increased during the working period, suggesting a relevant switch of activity in this brain region induced by the scheduled activity; however, the colocalization of c-Fos in ORX-positive cells was not increased. In contrast, the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus remained locked to the light/dark cycle, resulting in ID in the hypothalamus. Present data suggest that ID occurs already at the level of the first output projections from the SCN, relaying nuclei that transmit temporal signals to other brain areas and to the periphery.

  10. Microbial Performance of Food Safety Control and Assurance Activities in a Fresh Produce Processing Sector Measured Using a Microbial Assessment Scheme and Statistical Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Sawe, Chemutai Tonui; Onyango, Cecilia Moraa

    2017-01-01

    assessment scheme and statistical modeling were used to systematically assess the microbial performance of core control and assurance activities in five Kenyan fresh produce processing and export companies. Generalized linear mixed models and correlated random-effects joint models for multivariate clustered...... the maximum safety level for environmental samples. Escherichia coli was detected in five of the six CSLs, including the final product. Among the processing-environment samples, the hand or glove swabs of personnel revealed a higher level of predicted contamination with E. coli, and 80% of the factories were...... of contamination with coliforms in water at the inlet than in the final rinse water. Four (80%) of the five assessed processors had poor to unacceptable counts of Enterobacteriaceae on processing surfaces. Personnel-, equipment-, and product-related hygiene measures to improve the performance of preventive...

  11. The development of a Krook model for nonlocal transport in laser produced plasmas. II. Application of the theory and comparisons with other models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombant, Denis; Manheimer, Wallace

    2008-01-01

    This paper incorporates the Krook model for nonlocal transport into a fluid simulation. It uses these fluid simulations to compare with Fokker-Planck simulations and also with a recent NRL NIKE [S. P. Obenschain et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098 (1996)] experiment. The paper also examines several other models for electron energy transport that have been used in laser fusion research. With regards to the comparison with Fokker-Planck simulation, the Krook model gives better agreement, especially in the time asymptotic limit. With regards to the NRL experiment, all models except one give reasonable agreement

  12. Assimilation of the radar-derived water vapour mixing ratio into the LM COSMO model with a high horizontal resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Řezáčová, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 3 (2009), s. 331-342 ISSN 0169-8095. [International workshop on precipitation in urban areas /7./. St. Moritz, 07.12.2006-10.12.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/0905; GA MŠk OC 112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Precipitation * Local convective storm assimilation * Radar reflectivity * NWP model Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.811, year: 2009

  13. Verification of the skill of numerical weather prediction models in forecasting rainfall from U.S. landfalling tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitel, Beda; Villarini, Gabriele; Vecchi, Gabriel A.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study is the evaluation of the skill of five state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems [European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), UK Met Office (UKMO), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), China Meteorological Administration (CMA), and Canadian Meteorological Center (CMC)] in forecasting rainfall from North Atlantic tropical cyclones (TCs). Analyses focus on 15 North Atlantic TCs that made landfall along the U.S. coast over the 2007-2012 period. As reference data we use gridded rainfall provided by the Climate Prediction Center (CPC). We consider forecast lead-times up to five days. To benchmark the skill of these models, we consider rainfall estimates from one radar-based (Stage IV) and four satellite-based [Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission - Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA, both real-time and research version); Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN); the CPC MORPHing Technique (CMORPH)] rainfall products. Daily and storm total rainfall fields from each of these remote sensing products are compared to the reference data to obtain information about the range of errors we can expect from "observational data." The skill of the NWP models is quantified: (1) by visual examination of the distribution of the errors in storm total rainfall for the different lead-times, and numerical examination of the first three moments of the error distribution; (2) relative to climatology at the daily scale. Considering these skill metrics, we conclude that the NWP models can provide skillful forecasts of TC rainfall with lead-times up to 48 h, without a consistently best or worst NWP model.

  14. Finite element method (FEM) model of the mechanical stress on phospholipid membranes from shock waves produced in nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ronald; Roth, Caleb C.; Shadaram, Mehdi; Beier, Hope; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2015-03-01

    The underlying mechanism(s) responsible for nanoporation of phospholipid membranes by nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsEP) remains unknown. The passage of a high electric field through a conductive medium creates two primary contributing factors that may induce poration: the electric field interaction at the membrane and the shockwave produced from electrostriction of a polar submersion medium exposed to an electric field. Previous work has focused on the electric field interaction at the cell membrane, through such models as the transport lattice method. Our objective is to model the shock wave cell membrane interaction induced from the density perturbation formed at the rising edge of a high voltage pulse in a polar liquid resulting in a shock wave propagating away from the electrode toward the cell membrane. Utilizing previous data from cell membrane mechanical parameters, and nsEP generated shockwave parameters, an acoustic shock wave model based on the Helmholtz equation for sound pressure was developed and coupled to a cell membrane model with finite-element modeling in COMSOL. The acoustic structure interaction model was developed to illustrate the harmonic membrane displacements and stresses resulting from shockwave and membrane interaction based on Hooke's law. Poration is predicted by utilizing membrane mechanical breakdown parameters including cortical stress limits and hydrostatic pressure gradients.

  15. Comparison of two models for the X-ray dispersion produced in a Novillo Tokamak with measurements make with thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores O, A.; Castillo, A.; Barocio, S.R.; Melendez L, L.; Chavez A, E.; Cruz C, G.J.; Lopez, R.; Olayo, M.G.; Gonzalez M, P.; Azorin N, J.

    1999-01-01

    It was presented the results to study about the X-ray dispersion produced in the Novillo Tokamak using thermoluminescent dosemeters (DTL). The measurements were make in the equatorial plane of Tokamak, along twelve radial directions. The dispersion is observed due to the radiation interaction with walls surrounding the machine. It was proposed two types of heuristic mathematical methods for describing the X-ray dispersion, comparing them with the experimental data obtained with Dtl. The predictions of both models are adjusted well to the experimental data. (Author)

  16. Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson Produced in Association with a Vector Boson and Decaying to Bottom Quarks at the CMS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mooney, Michael Ryan

    2014-01-01

    A search for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced in association with a W or Z boson and decaying to bottom quarks is presented. A sample of approximately 24 fb$^{−1}$ of data recorded by the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider, operating at center-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and 8 TeV in 2011 and 2012, respectively, is used to search for events consistent with the signature of two b jets recoiling with high momentum from a W($\\ell \

  17. Search for the standard model Higgs boson produced through vector boson fusion and decaying to bottom quarks with the CMS experiment at 13 TeV.

    CERN Document Server

    Chernyavskaya, Nadezda

    2015-01-01

    This report discusses the preparation for the search for the standard model Higgs boson produced through vector boson fusion and decaying to bottom quarks with the CMS experiment at 13 TeV in the LHC Run II. The analysis strategy, preselection and the set of discriminating variables are discussed. A new discriminating variable $\\Delta\\eta_{bq}$ with a good separation power is proposed. The efficiency of correctly finding the b-jets and q-jets in signal events is increased by developing and implementing a jet b-likelihood and q-likelihood.

  18. Ensemble Data Assimilation of Wind and Photovoltaic Power Information in the Convection-permitting High-Resolution Model COSMO-DE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declair, Stefan; Saint-Drenan, Yves-Marie; Potthast, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Determining the amount of weather dependent renewable energy is a demanding task for transmission system operators (TSOs) and wind and photovoltaic (PV) prediction errors require the use of reserve power, which generate costs and can - in extreme cases - endanger the security of supply. In the project EWeLiNE funded by the German government, the German Weather Service and the Fraunhofer Institute on Wind Energy and Energy System Technology develop innovative weather- and power forecasting models and tools for grid integration of weather dependent renewable energy. The key part in energy prediction process chains is the numerical weather prediction (NWP) system. Wind speed and irradiation forecast from NWP system are however subject to several sources of error. The quality of the wind power prediction is mainly penalized by forecast error of the NWP model in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), which is characterized by high spatial and temporal fluctuations of the wind speed. For PV power prediction, weaknesses of the NWP model to correctly forecast i.e. low stratus, the absorption of condensed water or aerosol optical depth are the main sources of errors. Inaccurate radiation schemes (i.e. the two-stream parametrization) are also known as a deficit of NWP systems with regard to irradiation forecast. To mitigate errors like these, NWP model data can be corrected by post-processing techniques such as model output statistics and calibration using historical observational data. Additionally, latest observations can be used in a pre-processing technique called data assimilation (DA). In DA, not only the initial fields are provided, but the model is also synchronized with reality - the observations - and hence the model error is reduced in the forecast. Besides conventional observation networks like radiosondes, synoptic observations or air reports of wind, pressure and humidity, the number of observations measuring meteorological information indirectly such as satellite

  19. Computational Modeling of Large Wildfires: A Roadmap

    KAUST Repository

    Coen, Janice L.

    2010-08-01

    Wildland fire behavior, particularly that of large, uncontrolled wildfires, has not been well understood or predicted. Our methodology to simulate this phenomenon uses high-resolution dynamic models made of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models coupled to fire behavior models to simulate fire behavior. NWP models are capable of modeling very high resolution (< 100 m) atmospheric flows. The wildland fire component is based upon semi-empirical formulas for fireline rate of spread, post-frontal heat release, and a canopy fire. The fire behavior is coupled to the atmospheric model such that low level winds drive the spread of the surface fire, which in turn releases sensible heat, latent heat, and smoke fluxes into the lower atmosphere, feeding back to affect the winds directing the fire. These coupled dynamic models capture the rapid spread downwind, flank runs up canyons, bifurcations of the fire into two heads, and rough agreement in area, shape, and direction of spread at periods for which fire location data is available. Yet, intriguing computational science questions arise in applying such models in a predictive manner, including physical processes that span a vast range of scales, processes such as spotting that cannot be modeled deterministically, estimating the consequences of uncertainty, the efforts to steer simulations with field data ("data assimilation"), lingering issues with short term forecasting of weather that may show skill only on the order of a few hours, and the difficulty of gathering pertinent data for verification and initialization in a dangerous environment. © 2010 IEEE.

  20. Comparison of penumbra regions produced by ancient Gamma knife model C and Gamma ART 6000 using Monte Carlo MCNP6 simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaee, Nooshin; Asgari, Sepideh; Nedaie, Hassan Ali

    2018-07-01

    The accuracy of penumbral measurements in radiotherapy is pivotal because dose planning computers require accurate data to adequately modeling the beams, which in turn are used to calculate patient dose distributions. Gamma knife is a non-invasive intracranial technique based on principles of the Leksell stereotactic system for open deep brain surgeries, invented and developed by Professor Lars Leksell. The aim of this study is to compare the penumbra widths of Leksell Gamma Knife model C and Gamma ART 6000. Initially, the structure of both systems were simulated by using Monte Carlo MCNP6 code and after validating the accuracy of simulation, beam profiles of different collimators were plotted. MCNP6 beam profile calculations showed that the penumbra values of Leksell Gamma knife model C and Gamma ART 6000 for 18, 14, 8 and 4 mm collimators are 9.7, 7.9, 4.3, 2.6 and 8.2, 6.9, 3.6, 2.4, respectively. The results of this study showed that since Gamma ART 6000 has larger solid angle in comparison with Gamma Knife model C, it produces better beam profile penumbras than Gamma Knife model C in the direct plane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Heights integrated model as instrument for simulation of hydrodynamic, radiation transport, and heat conduction phenomena of laser-produced plasma in EUV applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizyuk, V.; Hassanein, A.; Morozov, V.; Sizyuk, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2007-01-16

    The HEIGHTS integrated model has been developed as an instrument for simulation and optimization of laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources relevant to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The model combines three general parts: hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and heat conduction. The first part employs a total variation diminishing scheme in the Lax-Friedrich formulation (TVD-LF); the second part, a Monte Carlo model; and the third part, implicit schemes with sparse matrix technology. All model parts consider physical processes in three-dimensional geometry. The influence of a generated magnetic field on laser plasma behavior was estimated, and it was found that this effect could be neglected for laser intensities relevant to EUV (up to {approx}10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}). All applied schemes were tested on analytical problems separately. Benchmark modeling of the full EUV source problem with a planar tin target showed good correspondence with experimental and theoretical data. Preliminary results are presented for tin droplet- and planar-target LPP devices. The influence of three-dimensional effects on EUV properties of source is discussed.

  2. Search for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced in association with top quarks and decaying into bb in the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, Shunsuke; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Standard Model Higgs boson produced in association with a top-quark pair(ttbar) can permit direct measurement of the top Yukawa coupling. This poster is focused on the Higgs->bb channel with ttbar decaying into one or two electrons or muons. The analysis used pp collision data at the center of mass energy of 13 TeV, collected with the LHC-ATLAS detector in 2015-2016. The search is already limited by systematic uncertainties mostly in background modeling. In order to improve the sensitivity of the analysis, events are categorized according to their jet multiplicities and b-tagging properties. We present the latest result from the ATLAS experiment with improved techniques to discriminate signal from background dominated by ttbar+jets production.

  3. Searching for the standard model Higgs boson produced by vector boson fusion in the fully hadronic four-jet topology with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chernyavskaya, Nadezda

    2017-01-01

    A search for the standard model Higgs boson produced by vector boson fusion in the fully hadronic four-jet topology is presented. The analysis is based on 2.3 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV collected by CMS in 2015. Upper limits, at 95\\% confidence level, on the production cross section times branching fraction of the Higgs boson decaying to bottom quarks, are derived for a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV. The fitted signal strength relative to the expectation for the standard model Higgs boson is obtained. Results are also combined with the ones obtained with Run1 data at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV collected in 2012.

  4. Complete genome sequence of N2-fixing model strain Klebsiella sp. nov. M5al, which produces plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and siderophores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhili Yu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial strain M5al is a model strain for studying the molecular genetics of N2-fixation and molecular engineering of microbial production of platform chemicals 1,3-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the strain M5al, which belongs to a novel species closely related to Klebsiella michiganensis. M5al secretes plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and colonizes rice roots but does not cause soft rot disease. M5al also produces siderophores and contains the gene clusters for synthesis and transport of yersiniabactin which is a critical virulence factor for Klebsiella pathogens in causing human disease. We propose that the model strain M5al can be genetically modified to study bacterial N2-fixation in association with non-legume plants and production of 1,3-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol through degradation of plant cell wall biomass.

  5. An AANAT/ASMT transgenic animal model constructed with CRISPR/Cas9 system serving as the mammary gland bioreactor to produce melatonin-enriched milk in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng; Tao, Jingli; Yang, Minghui; He, Changjiu; Tian, Xiuzhi; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Jinlong; Deng, Shoulong; Feng, Jianzhong; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Wang, Jing; Ji, Pengyun; Song, Yukun; He, Pingli; Han, Hongbing; Fu, Juncai; Lian, Zhengxing; Liu, Guoshi

    2017-08-01

    Melatonin as a potent antioxidant exhibits important nutritional and medicinal values. To produce melatonin-enriched milk will benefit the consumers. In this study, a sheep bioreactor which generates melatonin-enriched milk has been successfully developed by the technology that combined CRISPR/Cas9 system and microinjection. The AANAT and ASMT were cloned from pineal gland of Dorper sheep (Ovis aries). The in vitro studies found that AANAT and ASMT were successfully transferred to the mammary epithelial cell lines and significantly increased melatonin production in the culture medium compared to the nontransgenic cell lines. In addition, the Cas9 mRNA, sgRNA, and the linearized vectors pBC1-AANAT and pBC1-ASMT were co-injected into the cytoplasm of pronuclear embryos which were implanted into ewes by oviducts transferring. Thirty-four transgenic sheep were generated with the transgenic positive rate being roughly 35% which were identified by Southern blot and sequencing. Seven carried transgenic AANAT, two carried ASMT, and 25 carried both of AANAT and ASMT genes. RT-PCR and Western blot demonstrated that the lambs expressed these genes in their mammary epithelial cells and these animals produced melatonin-enriched milk. This is the first report to show a functional AANAT and ASMT transgenic animal model which produce significantly high levels of melatonin milk compared to their wild-type counterparts. The advanced technologies used in the study laid a foundation for generating large transgenic livestock, for example, the cows, which can produce high level of melatonin milk. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Glass Property Models and Constraints for Estimating the Glass to be Produced at Hanford by Implementing Current Advanced Glass Formulation Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Dong-Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skorski, Daniel C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matyas, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent glass formulation and melter testing data have suggested that significant increases in waste loading in HLW and LAW glasses are possible over current system planning estimates. The data (although limited in some cases) were evaluated to determine a set of constraints and models that could be used to estimate the maximum loading of specific waste compositions in glass. It is recommended that these models and constraints be used to estimate the likely HLW and LAW glass volumes that would result if the current glass formulation studies are successfully completed. It is recognized that some of the models are preliminary in nature and will change in the coming years. Plus the models do not currently address the prediction uncertainties that would be needed before they could be used in plant operations. The models and constraints are only meant to give an indication of rough glass volumes and are not intended to be used in plant operation or waste form qualification activities. A current research program is in place to develop the data, models, and uncertainty descriptions for that purpose. A fundamental tenet underlying the research reported in this document is to try to be less conservative than previous studies when developing constraints for estimating the glass to be produced by implementing current advanced glass formulation efforts. The less conservative approach documented herein should allow for the estimate of glass masses that may be realized if the current efforts in advanced glass formulations are completed over the coming years and are as successful as early indications suggest they may be. Because of this approach there is an unquantifiable uncertainty in the ultimate glass volume projections due to model prediction uncertainties that has to be considered along with other system uncertainties such as waste compositions and amounts to be immobilized, split factors between LAW and HLW, etc.

  7. Testing a model-guided approach to the development of new thermoluminescent materials using YAG:Ln produced by solution combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliken, E.D.; Oliveira, L.C.; Denis, G.; Yukihara, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to test a model-guided approach, coupled with an efficient material synthesis method, for the development of new thermoluminescent (TL) material using yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG, Y 3 Al 5 O 12 ) as a model material. We systematically investigated undoped and lanthanide-doped YAG using x-ray diffraction (XRD), TL, and radioluminescence (RL) to understand the role of the lanthanides in the TL process, i.e., whether they act as trapping centers or recombination centers. We also prepared samples with multiple dopants to test the possibility of creating materials with multiple TL peaks. The initial rise method of TL analysis was used to estimate the activation energies associated with the TL peaks. The role of the lanthanide impurities predicted using the lanthanide energy level diagram was largely confirmed, as evidenced by the TL curves, TL emission spectra and activation energy analysis. However, our data suggests that the exact role of the lanthanide dopants during the TL process depends on the thermal stability of the trapped charges, i.e. the same lanthanide can act as a trapping center in one system and as a recombination center in another system. These results demonstrate the possibility of introducing appropriate TL peaks and recombination centers in YAG produced by SCS by lanthanide doping, where the role of the lanthanide dopant is consistent with a model for the lanthanide energy levels. This allows for a more guided approach to the development of new TL materials with peaks in certain temperature range or multiple TL peaks, at least in conditions in which the model applies. - Highlights: ► TL peaks and recombination centers introduced in YAG by Ln doping. ► Role of the Ln consistent with model for the Ln energy levels. ► Model-guided approach to the development of new TL materials demonstrated.

  8. Cancer cells growing on perfused 3D collagen model produced higher reactive oxygen species level and were more resistant to cisplatin compared to the 2D model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingxi; Zhang, Zijiang; Liu, Yupeng; Cui, Zhanfeng; Zhang, Tongcun; Li, Zhaohui; Ma, Wenjian

    2018-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) collagen scaffold models, due to their ability to mimic the tissue and organ structure in vivo, have received increasing interest in drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. In this study, we developed a perfused 3D model and studied cellular response to cytotoxic drugs in comparison with traditional 2D cell cultures as evaluated by cancer drug cisplatin. Cancer cells grown in perfused 3D environments showed increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production compared to the 2D culture. As determined by growth analysis, cells in the 3D culture, after forming a spheroid, were more resistant to the cancer drug cisplatin compared to that of the 2D cell culture. In addition, 3D culturing cells showed elevated level of ROS, indicating a physiological change or the formation of a microenvironment that resembles tumor cells in vivo. These data revealed that cellular response to drugs for cells growing in 3D environments are dramatically different from that of 2D cultured cells. Thus, the perfused 3D collagen scaffold model we report here might be a potentially very useful tool for drug analysis.

  9. The In Vitro Mass-Produced Model Mycorrhizal Fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, Significantly Increases Yields of the Globally Important Food Security Crop Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Isabel; Ruiz, Michael; Fernández, Cristhian; Peña, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P). The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future. PMID:23950975

  10. The in vitro mass-produced model mycorrhizal fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, significantly increases yields of the globally important food security crop cassava.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Ceballos

    Full Text Available The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P. The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future.

  11. Producing Distribution Maps for a Spatially-Explicit Ecosystem Model Using Large Monitoring and Environmental Databases and a Combination of Interpolation and Extrapolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Grüss

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To be able to simulate spatial patterns of predator-prey interactions, many spatially-explicit ecosystem modeling platforms, including Atlantis, need to be provided with distribution maps defining the annual or seasonal spatial distributions of functional groups and life stages. We developed a methodology combining extrapolation and interpolation of the predictions made by statistical habitat models to produce distribution maps for the fish and invertebrates represented in the Atlantis model of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM Large Marine Ecosystem (LME (“Atlantis-GOM”. This methodology consists of: (1 compiling a large monitoring database, gathering all the fisheries-independent and fisheries-dependent data collected in the northern (U.S. GOM since 2000; (2 compiling a large environmental database, storing all the environmental parameters known to influence the spatial distribution patterns of fish and invertebrates of the GOM; (3 fitting binomial generalized additive models (GAMs to the large monitoring and environmental databases, and geostatistical binomial generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs to the large monitoring database; and (4 employing GAM predictions to infer spatial distributions in the southern GOM, and GLMM predictions to infer spatial distributions in the U.S. GOM. Thus, our methodology allows for reasonable extrapolation in the southern GOM based on a large amount of monitoring and environmental data, and for interpolation in the U.S. GOM accurately reflecting the probability of encountering fish and invertebrates in that region. We used an iterative cross-validation procedure to validate GAMs. When a GAM did not pass the validation test, we employed a GAM for a related functional group/life stage to generate distribution maps for the southern GOM. In addition, no geostatistical GLMMs were fit for the functional groups and life stages whose depth, longitudinal and latitudinal ranges within the U.S. GOM are not entirely covered by

  12. Analysis of Vector Models in Quantification of Artifacts Produced by Standard Prosthetic Inlays in Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT – a Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Różyło-Kalinowska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT is a relatively new, but highly efficient imaging method applied first in dentistry in 1998. However, the quality of the obtained slices depends among other things on artifacts generated by dental restorations as well as orthodontic and prosthetic appliances. The aim of the study was to quantify the artifacts produced by standard prosthetic inlays in CBCT images. The material consisted of 17 standard prosthetic inlays mounted in dental roots embedded in resin. The samples were examined by means of a large field of view CBCT unit, Galileos (Sirona, Germany, at 85 kV and 14 mAs. The analysis was performed using Able 3DDoctor software for data in the CT raster space as well as by means of Materialise Magics software for generated vector models (STL. The masks generated in the raster space included the area of the inlays together with image artifacts. The region of interest (ROI of the raster space is a set of voxels from a selected range of Hounsfield units (109-3071. Ceramic inlay with zirconium dioxide (Cera Post as well as epoxy resin inlay including silica fibers enriched with zirconium (Easy Post produced the most intense artifacts. The smallest image distortions were created by titanium inlays, both passive (Harald Nordin and active (Flexi Flange. Inlays containing zirconium generated the strongest artifacts, thus leading to the greatest distortions in the CBCT images. Carbon fiber inlay did not considerably affect the image quality.

  13. Statistical model to predict dry sliding wear behaviour of Aluminium-Jute bast ash particulate composite produced by stir-casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gambo Anthony VICTOR

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A model to predict the dry sliding wear behaviour of Aluminium-Jute bast ash particulate composites produced by double stir-casting method was developed in terms of weight fraction of jute bast ash (JBA. Experiments were designed on the basis of the Design of Experiments (DOE technique. A 2k factorial, where k is the number of variables, with central composite second-order rotatable design was used to improve the reliability of results and to reduce the size of experimentation without loss of accuracy. The factors considered in this study were sliding velocity, sliding distance, normal load and mass fraction of JBA reinforcement in the matrix. The developed regression model was validated by statistical software MINITAB-R14 and statistical tool such as analysis of variance (ANOVA. It was found that the developed regression model could be effectively used to predict the wear rate at 95% confidence level. The wear rate of cast Al-JBAp composite decreased with an increase in the mass fraction of JBA and increased with an increase of the sliding velocity, sliding distance and normal load acting on the composite specimen.

  14. Implications and concerns of deep-seated disposal of hydrocarbon exploration produced water using three-dimensional contaminant transport model in Bhit Area, Dadu District of Southern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Akhter, Gulraiz; Ashraf, Arshad; Fryar, Alan

    2010-11-01

    A three-dimensional contaminant transport model has been developed to simulate and monitor the migration of disposal of hydrocarbon exploration produced water in Injection well at 2,100 m depth in the Upper Cretaceous Pab sandstone, Bhit area in Dadu district of Southern Pakistan. The regional stratigraphic and structural geological framework of the area, landform characteristics, meteorological parameters, and hydrogeological milieu have been used in the model to generate the initial simulation of steady-state flow condition in the underlying aquifer's layers. The geometry of the shallow and deep-seated characteristics of the geological formations was obtained from the drilling data, electrical resistivity sounding surveys, and geophysical well-logging information. The modeling process comprised of steady-state simulation and transient simulation of the prolific groundwater system of contamination transport after 1, 10, 30 years of injection. The contaminant transport was evaluated from the bottom of the injection well, and its short- and long-term effects were determined on aquifer system lying in varying hydrogeological and geological conditions.

  15. Search for the standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a standard W or a Z boson and decaying to bottom quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.,

    2014-01-21

    A search for the standard model Higgs boson (H) decaying to b b-bar when produced in association with a weak vector boson (V) is reported for the following channels: W(mu nu)H, W(e nu)H, W(tau nu)H, Z(mu mu)H, Z(e e)H, and Z(nu nu)H. The search is performed in data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of up to 5.1 inverse femtobarns at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV and up to 18.9 inverse femtobarns at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV, recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. An excess of events is observed above the expected background with a local significance of 2.1 standard deviations for a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, consistent with the expectation from the production of the standard model Higgs boson. The signal strength corresponding to this excess, relative to that of the standard model Higgs boson, is 1.0 +/- 0.5.

  16. Search for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced in association with a vector boson and decaying to bottom quarks with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scanlon Tim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This note presents an updated search with the ATLAS experiment for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced in association with a W or Z boson and decaying to bb̅, using 4.7 fb−1 of LHC data at √s = 7 TeV and 13.0 fb−1 at √s = 8 TeV. The search is performed using events containing zero, one or two electrons or muons targeting the three decay modes ZH → νν̅bb̅, WH → ℓνbb̅ and ZH → ℓ+ℓ-bb̅. No significant excess is observed. For mH = 125 GeV, the observed (expected upper limit on the cross section times the branching ratio is found to be 1.8 (1.9 times the Standard Model prediction. The production of diboson pairs, WZ and ZZ, with a Z boson decaying to bb̅, has been observed with a significance of 4.0 standard deviations at a rate compatible with the Standard Model expectation.

  17. Targeted Temperature Management at 33°C or 36°C Produces Equivalent Neuroprotective Effects in the Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Rat Model of Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Ho; Lim, Jisoo; Chung, Yong Eun; Chung, Sung Phil; Park, Incheol; Kim, Chul Hoon; You, Je Sung

    2018-01-15

    Targeted temperature management (TTM, 32°C to 36°C) is one of the most successful achievements in modern resuscitation medicine. It has become standard treatment for survivors of sudden cardiac arrest to minimize secondary brain damage. TTM at 36°C is just as effective as TTM at 33°C and is actually preferred because it reduces adverse TTM-associated effects. TTM also likely has direct neuroprotective effects in ischemic brains in danger of stroke. It remains unclear, however, whether higher temperature TTM is equally effective in protecting the brain from the effects of stroke. Here, we asked whether TTM at 36°C is as effective as TTM at 33°C in improving outcomes in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of ischemic stroke. After dividing rats randomly into MCAO, MCAO+33°C TTM, MCAO+36°C TTM and sham groups, we subjected all of them except for the sham group to MCAO for 3 h (for the behavioral tests) or 4 h (for all other biochemical analyses). We found TTM protocols at both 33°C and 36°C produce comparable reductions of infarct volumes in the MCAO territory and equally attenuate the extracellular release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in post-ischemic brains. Both TTM conditions prevent the mRNA induction of a major pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, in the ischemic penumbra region. Finally, both TTM protocols produce similar improvements in neurological outcomes in rats, as measured by a battery of behavior tests 21 h after the start of reperfusion. These data acquired in a rat MCAO model suggest TTM at 36°C has excellent therapeutic potential for improving clinical outcomes for patients with acute ischemic stroke.

  18. Efficient models for photoionization produced by non-thermal gas discharges in air based on radiative transfer and the Helmholtz equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdon, A; Pasko, V P; Liu, N Y; Celestin, S; Segur, P; Marode, E

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents formulation of computationally efficient models of photoionization produced by non-thermal gas discharges in air based on three-group Eddington and improved Eddington (SP 3 ) approximations to the radiative transfer equation, and on effective representation of the classic integral model for photoionization in air developed by Zheleznyak et al (1982) by a set of three Helmholtz differential equations. The reported formulations represent extensions of ideas advanced recently by Segur et al (2006) and Luque et al (2007), and allow fast and accurate solution of photoionization problems at different air pressures for the range 0.1 O 2 O 2 is the partial pressure of molecular oxygen in air in units of Torr ( p O 2 = 150 Torr) at atmospheric pressure) and R in cm is an effective geometrical size of the physical system of interest. The presented formulations can be extended to other gases and gas mixtures subject to availability of related emission, absorption and photoionization coefficients. The validity of the developed models is demonstrated by performing direct comparisons of the results from these models and results obtained from the classic integral model. Specific validation comparisons are presented for a set of artificial sources of photoionizing radiation with different Gaussian dimensions, and for a realistic problem involving development of a double-headed streamer at ground pressure. The reported results demonstrate the importance of accurate definition of the boundary conditions for the photoionization production rate for the solution of second order partial differential equations involved in the Eddington, SP 3 and the Helmholtz formulations. The specific algorithms derived from the classic photoionization model of Zheleznyak et al (1982), allowing accurate calculations of boundary conditions for differential equations involved in all three new models described in this paper, are presented. It is noted that the accurate formulation of

  19. The effects of magmatic redistribution of heat producing elements on the lunar mantle evolution inferred from numerical models that start from various initial states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masaki

    2018-02-01

    To discuss how redistribution of heat producing elements (HPEs) by magmatism affects the lunar mantle evolution depending on the initial condition, I present two-dimensional numerical models of magmatism in convecting mantle internally heated by incompatible HPEs. Mantle convection occurs beneath a stagnant lithosphere that inhibits recycling of the HPE-enriched crustal materials to the mantle. Magmatism is modeled by a permeable flow of magma generated by decompression melting through matrix. Migrating magma transports heat, mass, and HPEs. When the deep mantle is initially hot with the temperature TD around 1800 K at its base, magmatism starts from the beginning of the calculated history to extract HPEs from the mantle. The mantle is monotonously cooled, and magmatism ceases within 2 Gyr, accordingly. When the deep mantle is initially colder with TD around 1100 K, HPEs stay in the deep mantle for a longer time to let the planet be first heated up and then cooled only slightly. If, in addition, there is an HPE-enriched domain in the shallow mantle at the beginning of the calculation, magma continues ascending to the surface through the domain for more than 3 Gyr. The low TD models fit in with the thermal and magmatic history of the Moon inferred from spacecraft observations, although it is not clear if the models are consistent with the current understanding of the origin of the Moon and its magnetic field. Redistribution of HPEs by magmatism is a crucial factor that must be taken into account in future studies of the evolution of the Moon.

  20. Validation of a novel cost effective easy to produce and durable in vitro model for kidney-puncture and PNL-Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jan Thorsten; Rassweiler, Jens; Rassweiler-Seyfried, Marie-Claire Charlotte

    2018-03-29

    Nephrolithiasis is one of the most common diseases in urology. According to the EAU Guidelines, a percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy (PNL) is recommended when treating a kidney stone >2 cm. Nowadays PNL is performed even for smaller stones (PNL is the puncture of the planned site. PNL-novice surgeons need to practice this step in a safe environment with an ideal training model. We developed and evaluated a new, easy to produce, in-vitro model for the training of the freehand puncture of the kidney. Porcine kidneys with ureters were embedded in ballistic gel. Food coloring and preservative agent were added. We used the standard imaging modalities of X-ray and ultrasound to validate the training model. An additional new technique, the iPAD guided puncture, was evaluated. Five novices and three experts conducted 12 punctures for each imaging technique. Puncture time, radiation dose, and number of attempts to a successful puncture were measured. Mann-Whitney-U, Kruskal-Wallis, and U-Tests were used for statistical analyses. The sonographic guided puncture is slightly but not significantly faster than the fluoroscopic guided puncture and the iPAD assisted puncture. Similarly, the most experienced surgeon's time for a successful puncture was slightly less than that of the residents, and the experienced surgeons needed the least attempts to perform a successful puncture. In terms of radiation exposure, the residents had a significant reduction of radiation exposure compared to the experienced surgeons. The newly developed ballistic gel kidney-puncture model is a good training tool for a variety of kidney puncture techniques, with good content, construct, and face validity.

  1. Search for a standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a top-quark pair and decaying to bottom quarks using a matrix element method

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Molina, Jorge; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Tziaferi, Eirini; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Ryu, Min Sang; Kim, Jae Yool; Moon, Dong Ho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Musella, Pasquale; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Salerno, Daniel; Taroni, Silvia; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Scarborough, Tara; Wu, Zhenbin; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Sagir, Sinan; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Krohn, Michael; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Gray, Julia; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Meier, Frank; Ratnikov, Fedor; Snow, Gregory R; Zvada, Marian; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Musienko, Yuri; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Malik, Sudhir; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Primavera, Federica; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Zablocki, Jakub; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Korjenevski, Sergey; Petrillo, Gianluca; Verzetti, Mauro; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-06-09

    A search for a standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a top-quark pair and decaying to bottom quarks is presented. Events with hadronic jets and one or two oppositely charged leptons are selected from a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. In order to separate the signal from the larger $\\mathrm{t \\bar{t}}$+jets background, this analysis uses a matrix element method that assigns a probability density value to each reconstructed event under signal or background hypotheses. The ratio between the two values is used in a maximum likelihood fit to extract the signal yield. The results are presented in terms of the measured signal strength modifier, $\\mu$, relative to the standard model prediction for a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV. The observed (expected) exclusion limit at a 95% confidence level is $\\mu$ lower than 4.2 (3.3), corresponding to a best fit value $\\hat{\\m...

  2. Search for the standard model Higgs boson produced in association with W and Z bosons in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Anagnostou, Georgios; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lingemann, Joschka; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Scheurer, Armin; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Monika; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Heo, Seong Gu; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Ricci-tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Azzolini, Virginia; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Peterman, Alison; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Li, Wei; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Safdi, Ben; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Brownson, Eric; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Roh, Youn; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Johnston, Cody; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    A search for the Higgs boson produced in association with a W or Z boson in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is performed with the CMS detector at the LHC using the full 2011 data sample, from an integrated luminosity of 5 inverse femtobarns. Higgs boson decay modes to tau tau and WW are explored by selecting events with three or four leptons in the final state. No excess above the standard model expectation is observed, resulting in exclusion limits on the product of Higgs associated production cross section and decay branching fraction for Higgs boson masses between 110 and 200 GeV in these channels. Combining these results with other CMS associated production searches using the same dataset in the H $\\to \\gamma \\gamma$ and H $\\to b\\bar{b}$ decay modes, the cross section for associated Higgs boson production 3.3 times the standard model expectation or larger is ruled out at the 95% confidence level for a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV.

  3. Search for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced in association with top quark pairs in multi-leptonic final states with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Milesi, Marco; Andreazza, Attilio

    The search for the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson produced in association with top quarks - known as $t\\bar{t}H$ production - plays a crucial role in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) physics programme, as it allows a direct measurement of the Higgs field Yukawa coupling to the heaviest fermion and can constrain effects of new physics beyond the Standard Model in the top coupling sector. This thesis presents a search for the $t\\bar{t}H$ production in an inclusive multi-leptonic final state, with a proton-proton collision dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $\\int L dt = 36.1~\\mathrm{fb}^{−1}$, collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in 2015 and 2016 at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=13~\\mathrm{TeV}$.
 The final state is characterised by high jet multiplicity, and the presence of several electrons and muons, as well as hadronically decaying tau leptons. The multiplicity of these physics objects allows the definition of several categories to enhance the sensitivity of the analysis...

  4. Search for the standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a top-quark pair in pp collisions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Treberer-treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C. -E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D’Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Keaveney, J.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. 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C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Morovic, S.; Tikvica, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Kuotb Awad, A. M.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J. -L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J. -M.; Chabert, E. 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A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Steggemann, J.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Weber, M.; Bontenackels, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Costanza, F.; Dammann, D.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Flucke, G.; Geiser, A.; Glushkov, I.; Gunnellini, P.; Habib, S.; Hauk, J.; Hellwig, G.; Jung, H.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, H.; Krämer, M.; Krücker, D.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Marienfeld, M.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Meyer, A. 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S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pacifico, N.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Meneghelli, M.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D’Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Frosali, S.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Colafranceschi, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Fabbricatore, P.; Musenich, R.; Tosi, S.; Benaglia, A.; De Guio, F.; Di Matteo, L.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Massironi, A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; De Cosa, A.; Dogangun, O.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Biasotto, M.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dorigo, T.; Galanti, M.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giubilato, P.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Lazzizzera, I.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Passaseo, M.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Ventura, S.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Nappi, A.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Taroni, S.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; D’Agnolo, R. T.; Dell’Orso, R.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Kraan, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Vernieri, C.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Fanelli, C.; Grassi, M.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Soffi, L.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Demaria, N.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Ortona, G.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Penzo, A.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Kim, T. Y.; Nam, S. K.; Chang, S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, J. E.; Kong, D. J.; Oh, Y. D.; Park, H.; Son, D. C.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Zero J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Lee, K. S.; Moon, D. H.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, C.; Park, I. C.; Park, S.; Ryu, G.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, M. S.; Kwon, E.; Lee, B.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Grigelionis, I.; Juodagalvis, A.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Villasenor-Cendejas, L. M.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Reyes-Santos, M. A.; Krofcheck, D.; Bell, A. J.; Butler, P. H.; Doesburg, R.; Reucroft, S.; Silverwood, H.; Ahmad, M.; Asghar, M. I.; Butt, J.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khalid, S.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Qazi, S.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Wrochna, G.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Wolszczak, W.; Almeida, N.; Bargassa, P.; David, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Bunin, P.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Savina, M.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Smirnov, V.; Volodko, A.; Zarubin, A.; Evstyukhin, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Matveev, V.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Erofeeva, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Spiridonov, A.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Bunichev, V.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Markina, A.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Ekmedzic, M.; Krpic, D.; Milosevic, J.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Ferrando, A.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Merino, G.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Willmott, C.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Chuang, S. H.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez Sanchez, J.; Graziano, A.; Jorda, C.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Bendavid, J.; Benitez, J. F.; Bernet, C.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Christiansen, T.; Coarasa Perez, J. A.; d’Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; De Roeck, A.; De Visscher, S.; Di Guida, S.; Dobson, M.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Eugster, J.; Funk, W.; Georgiou, G.; Giffels, M.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Giunta, M.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R.; Govoni, P.; Gowdy, S.; Guida, R.; Hammer, J.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hartl, C.; Harvey, J.; Hegner, B.; Hinzmann, A.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kaadze, K.; Karavakis, E.; Kousouris, K.; Krajczar, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lee, Y. -J.; Lourenço, C.; Malberti, M.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moser, R.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Nesvold, E.; Orsini, L.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Polese, G.; Quertenmont, L.; Racz, A.; Reece, W.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Rolandi, G.; Rovelli, C.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Santanastasio, F.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Segoni, I.; Sekmen, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Stoye, M.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wöhri, H. K.; Worm, S. D.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; König, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, F.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A. C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Mohr, N.; Moortgat, F.; Nägeli, C.; Nef, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pape, L.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Ronga, F. J.; Rossini, M.; Sala, L.; Sanchez, A. K.; Starodumov, A.; Stieger, B.; Takahashi, M.; Tauscher, L.; Thea, A.; Theofilatos, K.; Treille, D.; Urscheler, C.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Amsler, C.; Chiochia, V.; Favaro, C.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Kilminster, B.; Millan Mejias, B.; Otiougova, P.; Robmann, P.; Snoek, H.; Tupputi, S.; Verzetti, M.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, S. W.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Bartalini, P.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W. -S.; Hsiung, Y.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Lu, R. -S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Shi, X.; Shiu, J. G.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wang, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sogut, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Aliev, T.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Deniz, M.; Gamsizkan, H.; Guler, A. M.; Karapinar, G.; Ocalan, K.; Ozpineci, A.; Serin, M.; Sever, R.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Sonmez, N.; Bahtiyar, H.; Barlas, E.; Cankocak, K.; Günaydin, Y. O.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Yücel, M.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Frazier, R.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Kreczko, L.; Metson, S.; Newbold, D. M.; Nirunpong, K.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Basso, L.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Jackson, J.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Bainbridge, R.; Ball, G.; Buchmuller, O.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Gilbert, A.; Guneratne Bryer, A.; Hall, G.; Hatherell, Z.; Hays, J.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A. -M.; Marrouche, J.; Mathias, B.; Nandi, R.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Pioppi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Sparrow, A.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wakefield, S.; Wardle, N.; Whyntie, T.; Chadwick, M.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Kasmi, A.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; St. John, J.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Caulfield, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Dolen, J.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Houtz, R.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Mall, O.; Miceli, T.; Nelson, R.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Rutherford, B.; Searle, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Yohay, R.; Andreev, V.; Cline, D.; Cousins, R.; Duris, J.; Erhan, S.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Felcini, M.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Jarvis, C.; Rakness, G.; Schlein, P.; Traczyk, P.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Clare, R.; Dinardo, M. E.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Giordano, F.; Hanson, G.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Nguyen, H.; Paramesvaran, S.; Sturdy, J.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wilken, R.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Evans, D.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Mangano, B.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Petrucciani, G.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Bellan, R.; Campagnari, C.; D’Alfonso, M.; Danielson, T.; Flowers, K.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Kalavase, P.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Lowette, S.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Mccoll, N.; Pavlunin, V.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rossin, R.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Kcira, D.; Ma, Y.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Veverka, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Yang, Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carroll, R.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Jang, D. W.; Liu, Y. F.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Drell, B. R.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eggert, N.; Gibbons, L. K.; Hopkins, W.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Kreis, B.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Chetluru, V.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chle-bana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Gutsche, O.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kunori, S.; Kwan, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O’Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Yun, J. C.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Kim, B.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Remington, R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Hewamanage, S.; Lebolo, L. M.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Chen, J.; Diamond, B.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Callner, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Kurt, P.; Lacroix, F.; O’Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Strom, D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Duru, F.; Griffiths, S.; Merlo, J. -P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Newsom, C. R.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A. V.; Hu, G.; Maksimovic, P.; Swartz, M.; Whitbeck, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Kenny, R. P.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wood, J. S.; Barfuss, A. F.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Peterman, A.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Bauer, G.; Busza, W.; Butz, E.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Kim, Y.; Klute, M.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Sung, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wolf, R.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Yilmaz, Y.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Haupt, J.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Snow, G. R.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Wan, Z.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Lusito, L.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Smith, G.; Timcheck, J.; Vuosalo, C.; Williams, G.; Winer, B. L.; Wolfe, H.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zenz, S. C.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alagoz, E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Vidal Marono, M.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Petrillo, G.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Rose, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Walker, M.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Belknap, D. A.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Mozer, M. U.; Ojalvo, I.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2013-05-28

    A search for the standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a top-quark pair is presented using data samples corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb-1 (5.1 fb-1) collected in pp collisions at the center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV (8 TeV). Events are considered where the top-quark pair decays to either one lepton+jets or dileptons , ℓ being an electron or a muon. The search is optimized for the decay mode . The largest background to the signal is top-quark pair production with additional jets. Artificial neural networks are used to discriminate between signal and background events. Combining the results from the 7 TeV and 8 TeV samples, the observed (expected) limit on the cross section for Higgs boson production in association with top-quark pairs for a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV is 5.8 (5.2) times the standard model expectation.

  5. Psychosocial predator-based animal model of PTSD produces physiological and behavioral sequelae and a traumatic memory four months following stress onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Park, Collin R; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2015-08-01

    We have a well-established animal model of PTSD composed of predator exposure administered in conjunction with social instability that produces PTSD-like behavioral and physiological abnormalities one month after stress initiation. Here, we assessed whether the PTSD-like effects would persist for at least 4months after the initiation of the psychosocial stress regimen. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either 2 or 3 predator-based fear conditioning sessions. During each session, rats were placed in a chamber for a 3-min period that terminated with a 30-s tone, followed by 1h of immobilization of the rats during cat exposure (Day 1). All rats in the stress groups received a second fear conditioning session 10days later (Day 11). Half of the stress rats received a third fear conditioning session 3weeks later (Day 32). The two cat-exposed groups were also exposed to daily unstable housing conditions for the entire duration of the psychosocial stress regimen. The control group received stable (conventional) housing conditions and an equivalent amount of chamber exposure on Days 1, 11 and 32, without cat exposure. Behavioral testing commenced for all groups on Day 116. The stress groups demonstrated increased anxiety on the elevated plus maze, impaired object recognition memory and robust contextual and cued fear conditioned memory 3months after the last conditioning session. Combined data from the two stress groups revealed lower post-stress corticosterone levels and greater diastolic blood pressure relative to the control group. These findings indicate that predator-based psychosocial stress produces persistent PTSD-like physiological and behavioral abnormalities that may provide insight into the neurobiological and endocrine sequelae in traumatized people with PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. N-Hydroxylation of 4-Aminobiphenyl by CYP2E1 Produces Oxidative Stress in a Mouse Model of Chemically Induced Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Sugamori, Kim S.; Tung, Aveline; McPherson, J. Peter; Grant, Denis M.

    2015-01-01

    4-Aminobiphenyl (ABP) is a trace component of cigarette smoke and hair dyes, a suspected human carcinogen and a potent rodent liver carcinogen. Postnatal exposure of mice to ABP results in a higher incidence of liver tumors in males than in females, paralleling the sex difference in human liver cancer incidence. A traditional model of ABP tumorigenesis involves initial CYP1A2-mediated N-hydroxylation, which eventually leads to production of mutagenic ABP-DNA adducts that initiate tumor growth. However, several studies have found no correlation between sex or CYP1A2 function and the DNA-damaging, mutagenic, or tumorigenic effects of ABP. Oxidative stress may be an important etiological factor for liver cancer, and it has also been linked to ABP exposure. The goals of this study were to identify novel enzyme(s) that contribute to ABP N-oxidation, and to investigate a potential role for oxidative stress in ABP liver tumorigenicity. Isozyme-selective inhibition experiments using liver microsomes from wild-type and genetically modified mice identified CYP2E1 as a major ABP N-hydroxylating enzyme. The N-hydroxylation of ABP by transiently expressed CYP2E1 produced oxidative stress in cultured mouse hepatoma cells. In vivo postnatal exposure of mice to a tumorigenic dose of ABP also produced oxidative stress in male wild-type mice, but not in male Cyp2e1(−/−) mice or in female mice. However, a stronger NRF2-associated antioxidant response was observed in females. Our results identify CYP2E1 as a novel ABP-N-oxidizing enzyme, and suggest that sex differences in CYP2E1-dependent oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to ABP may contribute to the observed sex difference in tumor incidence. PMID:25601990

  7. Testing and validation of numerical models of groundwater flow, solute transport and chemical reactions in fractured granites: A quantitative study of the hydrogeological and hydrochemical impact produced

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinero Huguet, J

    2001-07-01

    This work deals with numerical modeling of groundwater flow, solute transport and chemical reactions through fractured media. These models have been developed within the framework of research activities founded by ENRESA , the Spanish Company for Nuclear Waste Management. This project is the result of a collaborative agreement between ENRESA and his equivalent Swedish Company (SKB) through the research project Task Force 5 of the Aspo Underground Laboratory. One of the objectives of this project is to assess quantitatively th hydrogeological and hydrochemical impact produced by the construction of a Deep Geological Repository in fractured granites. This is important because the new conditions altered construction impact will constitute the initial conditions for the repository closure stage. A second goo l of this work deals with testing the ability of current numerical tools to cope simultaneously with the complex hydrogeological and hydrochemical settlings, which are expected to take place in actual nuclear waste underground repositories constructed in crystalline fractured bed racks. This study has been undertaken through the performance of numerical models, which have subsequently been applied to simulate the hydrogeological and hydrochemical behavior of a granite massif, at a kilo metrical scale, during construction of the Aspo Hard Rock Underground Laboratory (Sweden). The Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory is a prototype, full-scale underground facility launched and operated by SKB. The main aim of the laboratory is to provide an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic rock environment down to the depth planned for the future deep repository. The framework of this underground facility provides a unique opportunity to attempt the objectives of the present dissertation. (Author)

  8. Testing and validation of numerical models of groundwater flow, solute transport and chemical reactions in fractured granites: A quantitative study of the hydrogeological and hydrochemical impact produced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinero Huguet, J.

    2001-06-01

    This work deals with numerical modeling of groundwater flow, solute transport and chemical reactions through fractured media. These models have been developed within the framework of research activities founded by ENRESA , the Spanish Company for Nuclear Waste Management. This project is the result of a collaborative agreement between ENRESA and his equivalent Swedish Company (SKB) through the research project Task Force 5 of the Aspo Underground Laboratory. One of the objectives of this project is to assess quantitatively th hydrogeological and hydrochemical impact produced by the construction of a Deep Geological Repository in fractured granites. This is important because the new conditions altered construction impact will constitute the initial conditions for the repository closure stage. A second goo l of this work deals with testing the ability of current numerical tools to cope simultaneously with the complex hydrogeological and hydrochemical settlings, which are expected to take place in actual nuclear waste underground repositories constructed in crystalline fractured bed racks. This study has been undertaken through the performance of numerical models, which have subsequently been applied to simulate the hydrogeological and hydrochemical behavior of a granite massif, at a kilo metrical scale, during construction of the Aspo Hard Rock Underground Laboratory (Sweden). The Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory is a prototype, full-scale underground facility launched and operated by SKB. The main aim of the laboratory is to provide an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic rock environment down to the depth planned for the future deep repository. The framework of this underground facility provides a unique opportunity to attempt the objectives of the present dissertation. (Author)

  9. Humanized Mouse Model of Skin Inflammation Is Characterized by Disturbed Keratinocyte Differentiation and Influx of IL-17A Producing T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Vivian L.; Keijsers, Romy R. M. C.; van de Kerkhof, Peter C. M.; Seyger, Marieke M. B.; Fasse, Esther; Svensson, Lars; Latta, Markus; Norsgaard, Hanne; Labuda, Tord; Hupkens, Pieter; van Erp, Piet E. J.; Joosten, Irma; Koenen, Hans J. P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Humanized mouse models offer a challenging possibility to study human cell function in vivo. In the huPBL-SCID-huSkin allograft model human skin is transplanted onto immunodeficient mice and allowed to heal. Thereafter allogeneic human peripheral blood mononuclear cells are infused intra peritoneally to induce T cell mediated inflammation and microvessel destruction of the human skin. This model has great potential for in vivo study of human immune cells in (skin) inflammatory processes and for preclinical screening of systemically administered immunomodulating agents. Here we studied the inflammatory skin response of human keratinocytes and human T cells and the concomitant systemic human T cell response. As new findings in the inflamed human skin of the huPBL-SCID-huSkin model we here identified: 1. Parameters of dermal pathology that enable precise quantification of the local skin inflammatory response exemplified by acanthosis, increased expression of human β-defensin-2, Elafin, K16, Ki67 and reduced expression of K10 by microscopy and immunohistochemistry. 2. Induction of human cytokines and chemokines using quantitative real-time PCR. 3. Influx of inflammation associated IL-17A-producing human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as immunoregulatory CD4+Foxp3+ cells using immunohistochemistry and -fluorescence, suggesting that active immune regulation is taking place locally in the inflamed skin. 4. Systemic responses that revealed activated and proliferating human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that acquired homing marker expression of CD62L and CLA. Finally, we demonstrated the value of the newly identified parameters by showing significant changes upon systemic treatment with the T cell inhibitory agents cyclosporine-A and rapamycin. In summary, here we equipped the huPBL-SCID-huSkin humanized mouse model with relevant tools not only to quantify the inflammatory dermal response, but also to monitor the peripheral immune status. This combined approach will gain our

  10. A Novel Closed-head Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Caused by Primary Overpressure Blast to the Cranium Produces Sustained Emotional Deficits in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Heldt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional disorders are a common outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (TBI in humans, but their pathophysiological basis is poorly understood. We have developed a mouse model of closed-head blast injury using an air pressure wave delivered to a small area on one side of the cranium, which we have used to create mild TBI. We found that 20-psi blasts in 3-month old C57BL/6 male mice yielded no obvious behavioral or histological evidence of brain injury, while 25-40 psi blasts produced transient anxiety in an open field arena but little histological evidence of brain damage. By contrast, 50-60 psi blasts resulted in anxiety-like behavior in an open field arena that became more evident with time after blast. In additional behavioral tests conducted 2-8 weeks after blast, 50-60 psi mice also demonstrated increased acoustic startle, perseverance of learned fear, and enhanced contextual fear, as well as depression-like behavior and diminished prepulse inhibition. We found no evident cerebral pathology, however, and only scattered axonal degeneration in brain sections from 50-60 psi mice 3-8 weeks after blast. Thus, the TBI caused by single 50-60 psi blasts in mice exhibits the minimal neuronal loss coupled to diffuse axonal injury characteristic of human mild TBI. A reduction in the abundance of a subpopulation of excitatory projection neurons in basolateral amygdala enriched in Thy1 was, however, observed. The reported link of this neuronal population to fear suppression suggests their damage by mild TBI may contribute to the heightened anxiety and fearfulness observed after blast in our mice. Our overpressure air blast model of concussion in mice will enable further studies of the mechanisms underlying the diverse emotional deficits seen after mild TBI.

  11. The endogenous hydrogen sulfide producing enzyme cystathionine-β synthase contributes to visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jiande DZ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity, a characteristic pathophysiological feature of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, remains elusive. Recent studies suggest a role for hydrogen sulfide (H2S in pain signaling but this has not been well studied in visceral models of hyperalgesia. We therefore determined the role for the endogenous H2S producing enzyme cystathionine-β-synthetase (CBS in a validated rat model of IBS-like chronic visceral hyperalgesia (CVH. CVH was induced by colonic injection of 0.5% acetic acid (AA in 10-day-old rats and experiments were performed at 8–10 weeks of age. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons innervating the colon were labeled by injection of DiI (1,1'-dioleyl-3,3,3',3-tetramethylindocarbocyanine methanesulfonate into the colon wall. Results In rat DRG, CBS-immunoreactivity was observed in approximately 85% of predominantly small- and medium-sized neurons. Colon specific DRG neurons revealed by retrograde labeling DiI were all CBS-positive. CBS-positive colon neurons co-expressed TRPV1 or P2X3 receptors. Western blotting analysis showed that CBS expression was significantly increased in colon DRGs 8 weeks after neonatal AA-treatment. Furthermore, the CBS inhibitor hydroxylamine markedly attenuated the abdominal withdrawal reflex scores in response to colorectal distention in rats with CVH. By contrast, the H2S donor NaHS significantly enhanced the frequency of action potentials of colon specific DRG neurons evoked by 2 times rheobase electrical stimulation. Conclusion Our results suggest that upregulation of CBS expression in colonic DRG neurons and H2S signaling may play an important role in developing CVH, thus identifying a specific neurobiological target for the treatment of CVH in functional bowel syndromes.

  12. Glucocorticoid receptor activation is involved in producing abnormal phenotypes of single-prolonged stress rats: a putative post-traumatic stress disorder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohda, K; Harada, K; Kato, K; Hoshino, A; Motohashi, J; Yamaji, T; Morinobu, S; Matsuoka, N; Kato, N

    2007-08-10

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stress-related mental disorder caused by traumatic experience, and presents with characteristic symptoms, such as intrusive memories, a state of hyperarousal, and avoidance, that endure for years. Single-prolonged stress (SPS) is one of the animal models proposed for PTSD. Rats exposed to SPS showed enhanced inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which has been reliably reproduced in patients with PTSD, and increased expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus. In this study, we characterized further neuroendocrinologic, behavioral and electrophysiological alterations in SPS rats. Plasma corticosterone recovered from an initial increase within a week, and gross histological changes and neuronal cell death were not observed in the hippocampus of the SPS rats. Behavioral analyses revealed that the SPS rats presented enhanced acoustic startle and impaired spatial memory that paralleled the deficits in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression. Contextual fear memory was enhanced in the rats 1 week after SPS exposure, whereas LTP in the amygdala was blunted. Interestingly, blockade of GR activation by administering 17-beta-hydroxy-11-beta-/4-/[methyl]-[1-methylethyl]aminophenyl/-17-alpha-[prop-1-ynyl]estra-4-9-diene-3-one (RU40555), a GR antagonist, prior to SPS exposure prevented potentiation of fear conditioning and impairment of LTP in the CA1 region. Altogether, SPS caused a number of behavioral changes similar to those described in PTSD, which marks SPS as a putative PTSD model. The preventive effects of a GR antagonist suggested that GR activation might play a critical role in producing the altered behavior and neuronal function of SPS rats.

  13. Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson Produced in Association with Top Quarks in the Fully Hadronic Final State at the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Salerno, Daniel Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    I present my work at the CMS experiment on a search for the standard model (SM)Higgs boson produced in association with top quarks. The search is targeted towards¯final states compatible with the H → bb decay and the fully hadronic decay channelof the t¯ pair, and uses data from proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energytof 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb−1 . This is a challengingsearch with many final state particles that cannot be uniquely identified and with largecontamination from SM background processes. It is performed for the first time at CMS√and the first time anywhere at s = 13 TeV, and contributes to the overall sensitivityof the t¯H cross section measurement, which constitutes a crucial test of the SM.tThe CMS apparatus is a multipurpose detector operating at the LHC, which is ahadron collider at CERN. The CMS detector operates a 3.8 T superconducting solenoid,and includes dedicated subsystems for charged particle tracking near the interactionpoi...

  14. Search for the standard model Higgs boson produced in association with W and Z bosons in pp collisions at $ \\sqrt{s}=7 $ TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesen-hofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C. -E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D’Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, S.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, B.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J. -L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J. -M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. 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G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Grassi, M.; Longo, E.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Sigamani, M.; Soffi, L.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Demaria, N.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Penzo, A.; Schizzi, A.; Heo, S. G.; Kim, T. Y.; Nam, S. K.; Chang, S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kong, D. J.; Park, H.; Ro, S. R.; Son, D. C.; Son, T.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Zero J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Lee, K. S.; Moon, D. H.; Park, S. K.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, C.; Park, I. C.; Park, S.; Ryu, G.; Cho, Y.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, M. S.; Kwon, E.; Lee, B.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Bilinskas, M. J.; Grigelionis, I.; Janulis, M.; Juodagalvis, A.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Villasenor-Cendejas, L. M.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Reyes-Santos, M. A.; Krofcheck, D.; Bell, A. J.; Butler, P. H.; Doesburg, R.; Reucroft, S.; Silverwood, H.; Ahmad, M.; Asghar, M. I.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khalid, S.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Qazi, S.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Gokieli, R.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Wrochna, G.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Almeida, N.; Bargassa, P.; David, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Bunin, P.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Ko-zlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Savina, M.; Shmatov, S.; Smirnov, V.; Volodko, A.; Zarubin, A.; Evstyukhin, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Matveev, V.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Erofeeva, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Kossov, M.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Bunichev, V.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Markina, A.; Obraztsov, S.; Perfilov, M.; Petrushanko, S.; Popov, A.; Sarycheva, L.; Savrin, V.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Konstantinov, D.; Korablev, A.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Djordjevic, M.; Ekmedzic, M.; Krpic, D.; Milosevic, J.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Arce, P.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Ferrando, A.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Merino, G.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Willmott, C.; Albajar, C.; Codispoti, G.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Chuang, S. H.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Felcini, M.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez Sanchez, J.; Graziano, A.; Jorda, C.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron Sanudo, M.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benitez, J. F.; Bernet, C.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Christiansen, T.; Coarasa Perez, J. A.; D’Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; De Roeck, A.; Di Guida, S.; Dobson, M.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Frisch, B.; Funk, W.; Georgiou, G.; Giffels, M.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Giunta, M.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R.; Govoni, P.; Gowdy, S.; Guida, R.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hartl, C.; Harvey, J.; Hegner, B.; Hinzmann, A.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kaadze, K.; Karavakis, E.; Kousouris, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lee, Y. -J.; Lenzi, P.; Lourenço, C.; Mäki, T.; Malberti, M.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moser, R.; Mozer, M. U.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Nesvold, E.; Orimoto, T.; Orsini, L.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Polese, G.; Quertenmont, L.; Racz, A.; Reece, W.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Rolandi, G.; Rommerskirchen, T.; Rovelli, C.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Santanastasio, F.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Segoni, I.; Sekmen, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wöhri, H. K.; Worm, S. D.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; König, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, F.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Sibille, J.; Bäni, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Dünser, M.; Eugster, J.; Freudenreich, K.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A. C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Mohr, N.; Moortgat, F.; Nägeli, C.; Nef, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pape, L.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Ronga, F. J.; Rossini, M.; Sala, L.; Sanchez, A. K.; Starodumov, A.; Stieger, B.; Takahashi, M.; Tauscher, L.; Thea, A.; Theofilatos, K.; Treille, D.; Urscheler, C.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Wehrli, L.; Amsler, C.; Chiochia, V.; De Visscher, S.; Favaro, C.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Millan Mejias, B.; Otiougova, P.; Robmann, P.; Snoek, H.; Tupputi, S.; Verzetti, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, K. H.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, S. W.; Lin, W.; Liu, Z. K.; Lu, Y. J.; Mekterovic, D.; Singh, A. P.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Bartalini, P.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W. -S.; Hsiung, Y.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Lu, R. -S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Shi, X.; Shiu, J. G.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wan, X.; Wang, M.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Karaman, T.; Karapinar, G.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sogut, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, L. N.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Aliev, T.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Deniz, M.; Gamsizkan, H.; Guler, A. M.; Ocalan, K.; Ozpineci, A.; Serin, M.; Sever, R.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Yildirim, E.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Sonmez, N.; Cankocak, K.; Levchuk, L.; Bostock, F.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Frazier, R.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Kreczko, L.; Metson, S.; Newbold, D. M.; Nirunpong, K.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Basso, L.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Jackson, J.; Kennedy, B. W.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; RadburnSmith, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Bainbridge, R.; Ball, G.; Beuselinck, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Guneratne Bryer, A.; Hall, G.; Hatherell, Z.; Hays, J.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A. -M.; Marrouche, J.; Mathias, B.; Nandi, R.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Pioppi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Ryan, M. J.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Sparrow, A.; Stoye, M.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wakefield, S.; Wardle, N.; Whyntie, T.; Chadwick, M.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; St. John, J.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Cutts, D.; Ferapontov, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Nguyen, D.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Tsang, K. V.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Dolen, J.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Houtz, R.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Miceli, T.; Pellett, D.; Riccitam, F.; Rutherford, B.; Searle, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Vasquez Sierra, R.; Andreev, V.; Cline, D.; Cousins, R.; Duris, J.; Erhan, S.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Jarvis, C.; Plager, C.; Rakness, G.; Schlein, P.; Tucker, J.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Clare, R.; Dinardo, M. E.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Giordano, F.; Hanson, G.; Jeng, G. Y.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Nguyen, H.; Paramesvaran, S.; Sturdy, J.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wilken, R.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Evans, D.; Golf, F.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Mangano, B.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Petrucciani, G.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Bellan, R.; Campagnari, C.; D’Alfonso, M.; Danielson, T.; Flowers, K.; Geffert, P.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Kalavase, P.; Koay, S. A.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Lowette, S.; Mccoll, N.; Pavlunin, V.; Rebassoo, F.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rossin, R.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Gataullin, M.; Ma, Y.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Traczyk, P.; Veverka, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Yang, Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Akgun, B.; Azzolini, V.; Carroll, R.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Jang, D. W.; Liu, Y. F.; Paulini, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Drell, B. R.; Edelmaier, C. J.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Heyburn, B.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eggert, N.; Gibbons, L. K.; Heltsley, B.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Kreis, B.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Vaughan, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bloch, I.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Chetluru, V.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Green, D.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Kilminster, B.; Klima, B.; Kunori, S.; Kwan, S.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O’Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Tan, P.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Yumiceva, F.; Yun, J. C.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Gartner, J.; Hugon, J.; Kim, B.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Remington, R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Sellers, P.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Hewamanage, S.; Lebolo, L. M.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Chen, J.; Diamond, B.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Jenkins, M.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Adams, M. R.; Anghel, I. M.; Apanasevich, L.; Bai, Y.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Callner, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Dragoiu, C.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Lacroix, F.; Malek, M.; O’Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Strom, D.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Duru, F.; Griffiths, S.; Merlo, J. -P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Newsom, C. R.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Hu, G.; Maksimovic, P.; Rappoccio, S.; Swartz, M.; Whitbeck, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Grachov, O.; Kenny, R. P.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tinti, G.; Wood, J. S.; Zhukova, V.; Barfuss, A. F.; Bolton, T.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Boutemeur, M.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kirn, M.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Peterman, A.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Twedt, E.; Apyan, A.; Bauer, G.; Bendavid, J.; Busza, W.; Butz, E.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hahn, K. A.; Kim, Y.; Klute, M.; Krajczar, K.; Li, W.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, M.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Sung, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wenger, E. A.; Wolf, R.; Wyslouch, B.; Xie, S.; Yang, M.; Yilmaz, Y.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Cooper, S. I.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Butt, J.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malbouisson, H.; Malik, S.; Snow, G. R.; Baur, U.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Shipkowski, S. P.; Smith, K.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Nash, D.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Ofierzynski, R. A.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Antonelli, L.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Vuosalo, C.; Williams, G.; Winer, B. L.; Adam, N.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Gerbaudo, D.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Safdi, B.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Acosta, J. G.; Brownson, E.; Huang, X. T.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Oliveros, S.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Alagoz, E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Leonardo, N.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Vidal Marono, M.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Boulahouache, C.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Rose, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Sengupta, S.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Roh, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Florez, C.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Johnston, C.; Kurt, P.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Yohay, R.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Bachtis, M.; Belknap, D.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Gray, L.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Leonard, J.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Palmonari, F.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2012-11-01

    A search for the Higgs boson produced in association with a W or Z boson in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is performed with the CMS detector at the LHC using the full 2011 data sample, from an integrated luminosity of 5 inverse femtobarns. Higgs boson decay modes to tau tau and WW are explored by selecting events with three or four leptons in the final state. No excess above background expectations is observed, resulting in exclusion limits on the product of Higgs associated production cross section and decay branching fraction for Higgs boson masses between 110 and 200 GeV in these channels. Combining these results with other CMS associated production searches using the same dataset in the H to gamma gamma and H to b b-bar decay modes, the cross section for associated Higgs boson production 3.3 times the standard model expectation or larger is ruled out at the 95% confidence level for a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV.

  15. Immunization with 60 kD Ro peptide produces different stages of preclinical autoimmunity in a Sjögren's syndrome model among multiple strains of inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, B T; Dsouza, A; Igoe, A; Lee, Y J; Maier-Moore, J S; Gordon, T; Jackson, M; Scofield, R H

    2013-07-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic illness manifested characteristically by immune injury to the salivary and lacrimal glands, resulting in dry mouth/eyes. Anti-Ro [Sjögren's syndrome antigen A (SSA)] and anti-La [Sjögren's syndrome antigen B (SSB)] autoantibodies are found frequently in Sjögren's subjects as well as in individuals who will go on to develop the disease. Immunization of BALB/c mice with Ro60 peptides results in epitope spreading with anti-Ro and anti-La along with lymphocyte infiltration of salivary glands similar to human Sjögren's. In addition, these animals have poor salivary function/low saliva volume. In this study, we examined whether Ro-peptide immunization produces a Sjögren's-like illness in other strains of mice. BALB/c, DBA-2, PL/J, SJL/J and C57BL/6 mice were immunized with Ro60 peptide-274. Sera from these mice were studied by immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for autoantibodies. Timed salivary flow was determined after pharmacological stimulation, and salivary glands were examined pathologically. We found that SJL/J mice had no immune response to the peptide from Ro60, while C57BL/6 mice produced antibodies that bound the peptide but had no epitope spreading. PL/J mice had epitope spreading to other structures of Ro60 as well as to La, but like C57BL/6 and SJL/J had no salivary gland lymphocytic infiltration and no decrement of salivary function. DBA-2 and BALB/c mice had infiltration but only BALB/c had decreased salivary function. The immunological processes leading to a Sjögren's-like illness after Ro-peptide immunization were interrupted in a stepwise fashion in these differing mice strains. These data suggest that this is a model of preclinical disease with genetic control for epitope spreading, lymphocytic infiltration and glandular dysfunction. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Interleukin 17, Produced by γδ T Cells, Contributes to Hepatic Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Biliary Atresia and Is Increased in Livers of Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemann, Christian; Schröder, Arne; Dreier, Anika; Möhn, Nora; Dippel, Stephanie; Winterberg, Thomas; Wilde, Anne; Yu, Yi; Thorenz, Anja; Gueler, Faikah; Jörns, Anne; Tolosa, Eva; Leonhardt, Johannes; Haas, Jan D; Prinz, Immo; Vieten, Gertrud; Petersen, Claus; Kuebler, Joachim F

    2016-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a rare disease in infants, with unknown mechanisms of pathogenesis. It is characterized by hepatobiliary inflammatory, progressive destruction of the biliary system leading to liver fibrosis, and deterioration of liver function. Interleukin (IL) 17A promotes inflammatory and autoimmune processes. We studied the role of IL17A and cells that produce this cytokine in a mouse model of BA and in hepatic biopsy samples from infants with BA. We obtained peripheral blood and liver tissue specimens from 20 patients with BA, collected at the time of Kasai portoenterostomy, along with liver biopsies from infants without BA (controls). The tissue samples were analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in situ PCR, and flow cytometry analyses. BA was induced in balb/cAnNCrl mice by rhesus rotavirus infection; uninfected mice were used as controls. Liver tissues were collected from mice and analyzed histologically and by reverse transcriptase PCR; leukocytes were isolated, stimulated, and analyzed by flow cytometry and PCR analyses. Some mice were given 3 intraperitoneal injections of a monoclonal antibody against IL17 or an isotype antibody (control). Livers from rhesus rota virus-infected mice with BA had 7-fold more Il17a messenger RNA than control mice (P = .02). γδ T cells were the exclusive source of IL17; no T-helper 17 cells were detected in livers of mice with BA. The increased number of IL17a-positive γδ T cells liver tissues of mice with BA was associated with increased levels of IL17A, IL17F, retinoid-orphan-receptor C, C-C chemokine receptor 6, and the IL23 receptor. Mice that were developing BA and given antibodies against IL17 had lower levels of liver inflammation and mean serum levels of bilirubin than mice receiving control antibodies (191 μmol/L vs 78 μmol/L, P = .002). Liver tissues from patients with BA had 4.6-fold higher levels of IL17 messenger RNA than control liver tissues (P = .02

  17. Three-dimensional (3D) coseismic deformation map produced by the 2014 South Napa Earthquake estimated and modeled by SAR and GPS data integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcari, Marco; Albano, Matteo; Fernández, José; Palano, Mimmo; Samsonov, Sergey; Stramondo, Salvatore; Zerbini, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present a 3D map of coseismic displacements due to the 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake, California, obtained by integrating displacement information data from SAR Interferometry (InSAR), Multiple Aperture Interferometry (MAI), Pixel Offset Tracking (POT) and GPS data acquired by both permanent stations and campaigns sites. This seismic event produced significant surface deformation along the 3D components causing several damages to vineyards, roads and houses. The remote sensing results, i.e. InSAR, MAI and POT, were obtained from the pair of SAR images provided by the Sentinel-1 satellite, launched on April 3rd, 2014. They were acquired on August 7th and 31st along descending orbits with an incidence angle of about 23°. The GPS dataset includes measurements from 32 stations belonging to the Bay Area Regional Deformation Network (BARDN), 301 continuous stations available from the UNAVCO and the CDDIS archives, and 13 additional campaign sites from Barnhart et al, 2014 [1]. These data constrain the horizontal and vertical displacement components proving to be helpful for the adopted integration method. We exploit the Bayes theory to search for the 3D coseismic displacement components. In particular, for each point, we construct an energy function and solve the problem to find a global minimum. Experimental results are consistent with a strike-slip fault mechanism with an approximately NW-SE fault plane. Indeed, the 3D displacement map shows a strong North-South (NS) component, peaking at about 15 cm, a few kilometers far from the epicenter. The East-West (EW) displacement component reaches its maximum (~10 cm) south of the city of Napa, whereas the vertical one (UP) is smaller, although a subsidence in the order of 8 cm on the east side of the fault can be observed. A source modelling was performed by inverting the estimated displacement components. The best fitting model is given by a ~N330° E-oriented and ~70° dipping fault with a prevailing

  18. A global high-resolution model experiment on the predictability of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judt, F.

    2016-12-01

    Forecasting high-impact weather phenomena is one of the most important aspects of numerical weather prediction (NWP). Over the last couple of years, a tremendous increase in computing power has facilitated the advent of global convection-resolving NWP models, which allow for the seamless prediction of weather from local to planetary scales. Unfortunately, the predictability of specific meteorological phenomena in these models is not very well known. This raises questions about which forecast problems are potentially tractable, and what is the value of global convection-resolving model predictions for the end user. To address this issue, we use the Yellowstone supercomputer to conduct a global high-resolution predictability experiment with the recently developed Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS). The computing power of Yellowstone enables the model to run at a globally uniform resolution of 4 km with 55 vertical levels (>2 billion grid cells). These simulations, which require 3 million core-hours for the entire experiment, allow for the explicit treatment of organized deep moist convection (i.e., thunderstorm systems). Resolving organized deep moist convection alleviates grave limitations of previous predictability studies, which either used high-resolution limited-area models or global simulations with coarser grids and cumulus parameterization. By computing the error growth characteristics in a set of "identical twin" model runs, the experiment will clarify the intrinsic predictability limits of atmospheric phenomena on a wide range of scales, from severe thunderstorms to global-scale wind patterns that affect the distribution of tropical rainfall. Although a major task by itself, this study is intended to be exploratory work for a future predictability experiment going beyond of what has so far been feasible. We hope to use CISL's new Cheyenne supercomputer to conduct a similar predictability experiments on a global mesh with 1-2 km resolution. This

  19. Antioxidant status and gut microbiota change in an aging mouse model as influenced by exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus plantarum YW11 isolated from Tibetan kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Xiao; Jiang, Yunyun; Zhao, Wen; Guo, Ting; Cao, Yongqiang; Teng, Junwei; Hao, Xiaona; Zhao, Juan; Yang, Zhennai

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Lactobacillus plantarum YW11 on the oxidative status and gut microbiota in an aging mouse model induced with d-galactose. The in vitro assay of the antioxidant activity of the EPS showed concentration-dependent (0.25-3.0 mg/mL) activities. At 3.0 mg/mL, the EPS reached the highest scavenging activities with half maximal inhibitory concentration values against hydroxyl radicals at 75.10% and 1.22 mg/mL, superoxide anion at 62.71% and 1.54 mg/mL, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at 35.11% and 0.63 mg/mL, and the maximal chelating rate on ferrous ion and the half-maximal chelating concentration of the EPS at 41.09% and 1.07 mg/mL, respectively. High doses of EPS (50 mg/kg per day) effectively relieved the oxidative stress in the aging mice with increased levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and total antioxidant capacity in mice serum by 21.55, 33.14, 61.09, and 38.18%, respectively, and decreased malondialdehyde level from 11.69 to 5.89 mmol/mL compared with those in the untreated aging mice model. The analysis of pyrosequencing sequence data from the gut microbiota revealed that the EPS could recover the microbiota diversity and phylotypes decreased or eliminated by the d-galactose treatment. The EPS could selectively decrease the abundance of Flexispira (37.5 fold), and increase the abundance of Blautia (36.5 fold) and Butyricicoccus (9.5 fold), which correspondingly decreased the content of nitrogen oxides to 9.87% and increased the content of short-chain fatty acids by 2.23 fold, thereby improving the oxidative and health conditions of the host intestinal tract. Further correlation analysis of core-microbiota variation induced by different treatments showed a strong correlation with oxidative phenotypes [catalase, goodness of prediction (Q 2 ) = 0.49; total antioxidant capacity, Q 2 = 0.45; nitrogen oxides, Q 2 = 0.67; short-chain fatty acids, Q 2 = 0.55]. The

  20. Enviro-HIRLAM online integrated meteorology–chemistry modelling system: strategy, methodology, developments and applications (v7.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baklanov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Environment – High Resolution Limited Area Model (Enviro-HIRLAM is developed as a fully online integrated numerical weather prediction (NWP and atmospheric chemical transport (ACT model for research and forecasting of joint meteorological, chemical and biological weather. The integrated modelling system is developed by the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI in collaboration with several European universities. It is the baseline system in the HIRLAM Chemical Branch and used in several countries and different applications. The development was initiated at DMI more than 15 years ago. The model is based on the HIRLAM NWP model with online integrated pollutant transport and dispersion, chemistry, aerosol dynamics, deposition and atmospheric composition feedbacks. To make the model suitable for chemical weather forecasting in urban areas, the meteorological part was improved by implementation of urban parameterisations. The dynamical core was improved by implementing a locally mass-conserving semi-Lagrangian numerical advection scheme, which improves forecast accuracy and model performance. The current version (7.2, in comparison with previous versions, has a more advanced and cost-efficient chemistry, aerosol multi-compound approach, aerosol feedbacks (direct and semi-direct on radiation and (first and second indirect effects on cloud microphysics. Since 2004, the Enviro-HIRLAM has been used for different studies, including operational pollen forecasting for Denmark since 2009 and operational forecasting atmospheric composition with downscaling for China since 2017. Following the main research and development strategy, further model developments will be extended towards the new NWP platform – HARMONIE. Different aspects of online coupling methodology, research strategy and possible applications of the modelling system, and fit-for-purpose model configurations for the meteorological and air quality communities are discussed.

  1. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  2. Producing charcoal from wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental works to use wood wastes for producing charcoal are examined, which are being conducted in the Sverdlovsk assembly and adjustment administration of Soyuzorglestekhmontazh. A wasteless prototype installation for producing fine charcoal is described, along with its subsequent briqueting, which is made on the basis of units which are series produced by the factories of the country. The installation includes subassemblies for preparing and drying the raw material and for producing the charcoal briquets. In the opinion of specialists, the charcoal produced from the wastes may be effectively used in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and in the production of pipes.

  3. Simulation modelling and risk assessment as tools to identify the impact of climate change on microbiological food safety – The case study of fresh produce supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Devlieghere, F.; Leemans, R.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2010-01-01

    The current quality assurance and control tools and methods to prevent and/or to control microbiological risks associated with fresh produce are challenged due to the following pressures upon the food supply chain, i.e. changing consumption patterns, globalization and climate change. It demonstrates

  4. Secondary Structural Models (16S rRNA of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Producing Bacillus Species Isolated from Different Rhizospheric Soil: Phylogenetics and Chemical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Mohapatra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs producing bacterial isolates are gaining more importance over the world due to the synthesis of a biodegradable polymer which is extremely desirable to substitute synthetic plastics. PHAs are produced by various microorganisms under certain stress conditions. In this study, sixteen bacterial isolates characterized previously by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing (NCBI Accession No. KF626466 to KF626481 were again stained by Nile red after three years of preservation in order to confirm their ability to accumulate PHAs. Also, phylogenetic analysis carried out in the present investigation evidenced that the bacterial species belonging to genus Bacillus are the dominant flora of the rhizospheric region, with a potentiality of biodegradable polymer (PHAs production. Again, RNA secondary structure prediction hypothesized that there is no direct correlation between RNA folding pattern stability with a rate of PHAs production among the selected isolates of genus Bacillus.

  5. Global environment and factors affecting the salary of the CEO (chief executive officer) of a goods producing firm: an Econometric modeling approach using STATA

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Zohaib; Muhammad, Ahsanuddin; Hussain, Ghulam

    2010-01-01

    The flattening of the world thanks to the cluster of profound socio-economic and politico-cultural changes has created unprecedented challenges for organizational leadership and management. The fast evolving global world of ours where challenges have to be continually met requires timely decision taken by CEOs’ (Chief Executive Officers) who shape and give direction to world politics and economic order. In the light of this we have studied the decisions taken by CEOs’ of goods producing firms...

  6. Effect of bacteriocin-producing lactobacilli on the survival of Escherichia coli and Listeria in a dynamic model of the stomach and the small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gänzle, M.G.; Hertel, C.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der; Hammes, W.P.

    1999-01-01

    The survival of Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174 (bac+) and (bac-) in combination with Escherichia coli LTH 1600 or Listeria innocua DSM20649 during transit through a dynamic model of the human stomach and small intestine (GIT model) was studied. Furthermore, we determined the digestion of curvacin A

  7. Biologically produced sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are

  8. Consumers and Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  9. Producers and oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, W.

    1993-01-01

    This article attempts an assessment of the potential use of futures by the Middle East oil producers. It focuses on Saudi Arabia since the sheer size of Saudi Arabian sales poses problems, but the basic issues discussed are similar for the other Middle East producers. (Author)

  10. Rotational and divergent kinetic energy in the mesoscale model ALADIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Blažica

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic energy spectra from the mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP model ALADIN with horizontal resolution 4.4 km are split into divergent and rotational components which are then compared at horizontal scales below 300 km and various vertical levels. It is shown that about 50% of kinetic energy in the free troposphere in ALADIN is divergent energy. The percentage increases towards 70% near the surface and in the upper troposphere towards 100 hPa. The maximal percentage of divergent energy is found at stratospheric levels around 100 hPa and at scales below 100 km which are not represented by the global models. At all levels, the divergent energy spectra are characterised by shallower slopes than the rotational energy spectra, and the difference increases as horizontal scales become larger. A very similar vertical distribution of divergent energy is obtained by using the standard ALADIN approach for the computation of spectra based on the extension zone and by applying detrending approach commonly used in mesoscale NWP community.

  11. Evidence for a particle produced in association with weak bosons and decaying to a bottom-antibottom quark pair in Standard Model Higgs search at the Tevatron.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    At mH = 120 GeV, the p-value for a background fluctuation to produce this excess corresponds to a local (global) significance of 3.0 (2.5) standard deviations. We also combine separately searches for H--> bb and H --> WW. We find that the excess is concentrated in the H --> bb channel, appearing in the searches over a broad range of mH, as expected from the bb resolution in our detectors. The excess is most significant in the mass range between 120 and 135 GeV.  The largest local significance is ...

  12. A simplified numerical model for atomic processes of the low and medium Z-ions in the laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Takashi; Kato, Susumu; Mima, Kunioki (Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering); Nishiguchi, Akio

    1992-11-01

    To calculate the ion fractional abundance of every charge state with the short computation time, we tried to build a suitable model for describing atomic processes. In 1982, Busquet proposed a mixed model, where he introduced two superlevels. They are related to a ground state and a ionized state, respectively, and the local-thermodynamic equilibrium (LET) is assumed over the excited states with the ionized state. In order to treat the atomic processes more accurately, we introduce the three superlevels which are the ground state, the first excited state and ionized state. The transition rates between them are evaluated by using Burguess formula which is used in the rate equations. The present model (Extended Mixed Model; EMM) gives results closer to the collisional-radiative model (CRM) than the original mixed model. The emissivity calculated by average-ion model (AIM) is compared with the one by EMM. The x-ray spectra are also obtained by using the EMM together with the hydrodynamic implosion code HIMICO. (author).

  13. A simplified numerical model for atomic processes of the low and medium Z-ions in the laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Takashi; Kato, Susumu; Mima, Kunioki; Nishiguchi, Akio.

    1992-01-01

    To calculate the ion fractional abundance of every charge state with the short computation time, we tried to build a suitable model for describing atomic processes. In 1982, Busquet proposed a mixed model, where he introduced two superlevels. They are related to a ground state and a ionized state, respectively, and the local-thermodynamic equilibrium (LET) is assumed over the excited states with the ionized state. In order to treat the atomic processes more accurately, we introduce the three superlevels which are the ground state, the first excited state and ionized state. The transition rates between them are evaluated by using Burguess formula which is used in the rate equations. The present model (Extended Mixed Model; EMM) gives results closer to the collisional-radiative model (CRM) than the original mixed model. The emissivity calculated by average-ion model (AIM) is compared with the one by EMM. The x-ray spectra are also obtained by using the EMM together with the hydrodynamic implosion code HIMICO. (author)

  14. Small and medium sized wine producers dealing with business to business e-commerce: Towards a relational model for enhancing value (co- creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The internet has produced a forward-looking shift in the way we communicate, think and run economic activities around the globe. The revolution in Information and Communication Technology (ICT has generated an innovating process in the agri-food sector that is far from being unwind. The wine industry is a case in point. Indeed, the industry has attempted to address the multifaceted challenges posed by electronic commerce since always. Business to business electronic commerce has been slower to develop than its counterpart, i.e. business to consumer E-commerce. However business to business e-commerce is starting to attract an increased interest, by showing a significant business value in terms of potential. Against this background, the slow development of B2B e-commerce has been linked to regulatory and economic reasons. In order to deal with such stumbling blocks, the paper suggests a shift towards an open platform that is aimed at facilitating transactions and interactions among businesses through a continuous problem-solving process in which trust and value is co-created by producers and customers through relational contracting.

  15. Combination of Deterministic and Probabilistic Meteorological Models to enhance Wind Farm Power Forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremen, Lueder von

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale wind farms will play an important role in the future worldwide energy supply. However, with increasing wind power penetration all stakeholders on the electricity market will ask for more skilful wind power predictions regarding save grid integration and to increase the economic value of wind power. A Neural Network is used to calculate Model Output Statistics (MOS) for each individual forecast model (ECMWF and HIRLAM) and to model the aggregated power curve of the Middelgrunden offshore wind farm. We showed that the combination of two NWP models clearly outperforms the better single model. The normalized day-ahead RMSE forecast error for Middelgrunden can be reduced by 1% compared to single ECMWF. This is a relative improvement of 6%. For lead times >24h it is worthwhile to use a more sophisticated model combination approach than simple linear weighting. The investigated principle component regression is able to extract the uncorrelated information from two NWP forecasts. The spread of Ensemble Predictions is related to the skill of wind power forecasts. Simple contingency diagrams show that low spread corresponds is more often related to low forecast errors and high spread to large forecast errors

  16. Parameterizing Subgrid-Scale Orographic Drag in the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, M. D.; Olson, J.; Kenyon, J.; Smirnova, T. G.; Brown, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The accuracy of wind forecasts in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is improved when the drag forces imparted on atmospheric flow by subgrid-scale orography are included. Without such parameterizations, only the terrain resolved by the model grid, along with the small-scale obstacles parameterized by the roughness lengths can have an effect on the flow. This neglects the impacts of subgrid-scale terrain variations, which typically leads to wind speeds that are too strong. Using statistical information about the subgrid-scale orography, such as the mean and variance of the topographic height within a grid cell, the drag forces due to flow blocking, gravity wave drag, and turbulent form drag are estimated and distributed vertically throughout the grid cell column. We recently implemented the small-scale gravity wave drag paramterization of Steeneveld et al. (2008) and Tsiringakis et al. (2017) for stable planetary boundary layers, and the turbulent form drag parameterization of Beljaars et al. (2004) in the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) NWP model developed at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As a result, a high surface wind speed bias in the model has been reduced and small improvement to the maintenance of stable layers has also been found. We present the results of experiments with the subgrid-scale orographic drag parameterization for the regional HRRR model, as well as for a global model in development at NOAA, showing the direct and indirect impacts.

  17. Relationship between soybean yield/quality and soil quality in a major soybean-producing area based on a 2D-QSAR model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Li, Shiwei

    2017-05-01

    Based on experimental data of the soybean yield and quality from 30 sampling points, a quantitative structure-activity relationship model (2D-QSAR) was established using the soil quality (elements, pH, organic matter content and cation exchange capacity) as independent variables and soybean yield or quality as the dependent variable, with SPSS software. During the modeling, the full data set (30 and 14 compounds) was divided into a training set (24 and 11 compounds) for model generation and a test set (6 and 3 compounds) for model validation. The R2 values of the resulting models and data were 0.826 and 0.808 for soybean yield and quality, respectively, and all regression coefficients were significant (P test set were 0.961 and 0.956, respectively, indicating that the models had a good predictive ability. Moreover, the Mo, Se, K, N and organic matter contents and the cation exchange capacity of soil had a positive effect on soybean production, and the B, Mo, Se, K and N contents and cation exchange coefficient had a positive effect on soybean quality. The results are instructive for enhancing soils to improve the yield and quality of soybean, and this method can also be used to study other crops or regions, providing a theoretical basis to improving the yield and quality of crops.

  18. Producing the Spielberg Brand

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks at the manufacture of Spielberg’s brand, and the limits of its usage. Spielberg’s directorial work is well known, but Spielberg’s identity has also been established in other ways, and I focus particularly on his work as a producer. At the time of writing, Spielberg had produced (or executive produced) 148 movies and television series across a range of genres that takes in high budget blockbusters and low budget documentaries, with many more to come. In these texts, Spielber...

  19. Parameterisation of sea and lake ice in numerical weather prediction models of the German Weather Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrii Mironov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A bulk thermodynamic (no rheology sea-ice parameterisation scheme for use in numerical weather prediction (NWP is presented. The scheme is based on a self-similar parametric representation (assumed shape of the evolving temperature profile within the ice and on the integral heat budget of the ice slab. The scheme carries ordinary differential equations (in time for the ice surface temperature and the ice thickness. The proposed sea-ice scheme is implemented into the NWP models GME (global and COSMO (limited-area of the German Weather Service. In the present operational configuration, the horizontal distribution of the sea ice is governed by the data assimilation scheme, no fractional ice cover within the GME/COSMO grid box is considered, and the effect of snow above the ice is accounted for through an empirical temperature dependence of the ice surface albedo with respect to solar radiation. The lake ice is treated similarly to the sea ice, except that freeze-up and break-up of lakes occurs freely, independent of the data assimilation. The sea and lake ice schemes (the latter is a part of the fresh-water lake parameterisation scheme FLake show a satisfactory performance in GME and COSMO. The ice characteristics are not overly sensitive to the details of the treatment of heat transfer through the ice layer. This justifies the use of a simplified but computationally efficient bulk approach to model the ice thermodynamics in NWP, where the ice surface temperature is a major concern whereas details of the temperature distribution within the ice are of secondary importance. In contrast to the details of the heat transfer through the ice, the cloud cover is of decisive importance for the ice temperature as it controls the radiation energy budget at the ice surface. This is particularly true for winter, when the long-wave radiation dominates the surface energy budget. During summer, the surface energy budget is also sensitive to the grid-box mean ice

  20. Does preliminary optimisation of an anatomically correct skull-brain model using simple simulants produce clinically realistic ballistic injury fracture patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, P F; Carr, D J; Delaney, R J; Hunt, N; Harrison, S; Breeze, J; Gibb, I

    2017-07-01

    Ballistic head injury remains a significant threat to military personnel. Studying such injuries requires a model that can be used with a military helmet. This paper describes further work on a skull-brain model using skulls made from three different polyurethane plastics and a series of skull 'fills' to simulate brain (3, 5, 7 and 10% gelatine by mass and PermaGel™). The models were subjected to ballistic impact from 7.62 × 39 mm mild steel core bullets. The first part of the work compares the different polyurethanes (mean bullet muzzle velocity of 708 m/s), and the second part compares the different fills (mean bullet muzzle velocity of 680 m/s). The impact events were filmed using high speed cameras. The resulting fracture patterns in the skulls were reviewed and scored by five clinicians experienced in assessing penetrating head injury. In over half of the models, one or more assessors felt aspects of the fracture pattern were close to real injury. Limitations of the model include the skull being manufactured in two parts and the lack of a realistic skin layer. Further work is ongoing to address these.

  1. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  2. Multiple solutions in the theory of direct current glow discharges: Effect of plasma chemistry and nonlocality, different plasma-producing gases, and 3D modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, P. G. C.; Benilov, M. S. [Departamento de Física, CCCEE, Universidade da Madeira, Largo do Município, 9000 Funchal (Portugal)

    2013-10-15

    The work is aimed at advancing the multiple steady-state solutions that have been found recently in the theory of direct current (DC) glow discharges. It is shown that an account of detailed plasma chemistry and non-locality of electron transport and kinetic coefficients results in an increase of the number of multiple solutions but does not change their pattern. Multiple solutions are shown to exist for discharges in argon and helium provided that discharge pressure is high enough. This result indicates that self-organization in DC glow microdischarges can be observed not only in xenon, which has been the case until recently, but also in other plasma-producing gases; a conclusion that has been confirmed by recent experiments. Existence of secondary bifurcations can explain why patterns of spots grouped in concentric rings, observed in the experiment, possess in many cases higher number of spots in outer rings than in inner ones.

  3. Detailed modeling of mountain wave PSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fueglistaler

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs play a key role in polar ozone depletion. In the Arctic, PSCs can occur on the mesoscale due to orographically induced gravity waves. Here we present a detailed study of a mountain wave PSC event on 25-27 January 2000 over Scandinavia. The mountain wave PSCs were intensively observed by in-situ and remote-sensing techniques during the second phase of the SOLVE/THESEO-2000 Arctic campaign. We use these excellent data of PSC observations on 3 successive days to analyze the PSCs and to perform a detailed comparison with modeled clouds. We simulated the 3-dimensional PSC structure on all 3 days with a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP model and a microphysical box model (using best available nucleation rates for ice and nitric acid trihydrate particles. We show that the combined mesoscale/microphysical model is capable of reproducing the PSC measurements within the uncertainty of data interpretation with respect to spatial dimensions, temporal development and microphysical properties, without manipulating temperatures or using other tuning parameters. In contrast, microphysical modeling based upon coarser scale global NWP data, e.g. current ECMWF analysis data, cannot reproduce observations, in particular the occurrence of ice and nitric acid trihydrate clouds. Combined mesoscale/microphysical modeling may be used for detailed a posteriori PSC analysis and for future Arctic campaign flight and mission planning. The fact that remote sensing alone cannot further constrain model results due to uncertainities in the interpretation of measurements, underlines the need for synchronous in-situ PSC observations in campaigns.

  4. Single-footprint retrievals for AIRS using a fast TwoSlab cloud-representation model and the SARTA all-sky infrared radiative transfer algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza-Machado, Sergio; Larrabee Strow, L.; Tangborn, Andrew; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong; Liu, Xu; Wu, Wan; Yang, Qiguang

    2018-01-01

    One-dimensional variational retrievals of temperature and moisture fields from hyperspectral infrared (IR) satellite sounders use cloud-cleared radiances (CCRs) as their observation. These derived observations allow the use of clear-sky-only radiative transfer in the inversion for geophysical variables but at reduced spatial resolution compared to the native sounder observations. Cloud clearing can introduce various errors, although scenes with large errors can be identified and ignored. Information content studies show that, when using multilayer cloud liquid and ice profiles in infrared hyperspectral radiative transfer codes, there are typically only 2-4 degrees of freedom (DOFs) of cloud signal. This implies a simplified cloud representation is sufficient for some applications which need accurate radiative transfer. Here we describe a single-footprint retrieval approach for clear and cloudy conditions, which uses the thermodynamic and cloud fields from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models as a first guess, together with a simple cloud-representation model coupled to a fast scattering radiative transfer algorithm (RTA). The NWP model thermodynamic and cloud profiles are first co-located to the observations, after which the N-level cloud profiles are converted to two slab clouds (TwoSlab; typically one for ice and one for water clouds). From these, one run of our fast cloud-representation model allows an improvement of the a priori cloud state by comparing the observed and model-simulated radiances in the thermal window channels. The retrieval yield is over 90 %, while the degrees of freedom correlate with the observed window channel brightness temperature (BT) which itself depends on the cloud optical depth. The cloud-representation and scattering package is benchmarked against radiances computed using a maximum random overlap (RMO) cloud scheme. All-sky infrared radiances measured by NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and NWP thermodynamic and cloud

  5. Single-footprint retrievals for AIRS using a fast TwoSlab cloud-representation model and the SARTA all-sky infrared radiative transfer algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DeSouza-Machado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional variational retrievals of temperature and moisture fields from hyperspectral infrared (IR satellite sounders use cloud-cleared radiances (CCRs as their observation. These derived observations allow the use of clear-sky-only radiative transfer in the inversion for geophysical variables but at reduced spatial resolution compared to the native sounder observations. Cloud clearing can introduce various errors, although scenes with large errors can be identified and ignored. Information content studies show that, when using multilayer cloud liquid and ice profiles in infrared hyperspectral radiative transfer codes, there are typically only 2–4 degrees of freedom (DOFs of cloud signal. This implies a simplified cloud representation is sufficient for some applications which need accurate radiative transfer. Here we describe a single-footprint retrieval approach for clear and cloudy conditions, which uses the thermodynamic and cloud fields from numerical weather prediction (NWP models as a first guess, together with a simple cloud-representation model coupled to a fast scattering radiative transfer algorithm (RTA. The NWP model thermodynamic and cloud profiles are first co-located to the observations, after which the N-level cloud profiles are converted to two slab clouds (TwoSlab; typically one for ice and one for water clouds. From these, one run of our fast cloud-representation model allows an improvement of the a priori cloud state by comparing the observed and model-simulated radiances in the thermal window channels. The retrieval yield is over 90 %, while the degrees of freedom correlate with the observed window channel brightness temperature (BT which itself depends on the cloud optical depth. The cloud-representation and scattering package is benchmarked against radiances computed using a maximum random overlap (RMO cloud scheme. All-sky infrared radiances measured by NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS and NWP

  6. Methods for producing diterpenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention discloses that by combining different di TPS enzymes of class I and class II different diterpenes may be produced including diterpenes not identified in nature. Surprisingly it is revealed that a di TPS enzyme of class I of one species may be combined with a di TPS enzyme...... of class II from a different species, resulting in a high diversity of diterpenes, which can be produced....

  7. Polysaccharide-producing microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braud, J.P.; Chaumont, D.; Gudin, C.; Thepenier, C.; Chassin, P.; Lemaire, C.

    1982-11-01

    The production of extracellular polysaccharides is studied with Nostoc sp (cyanophycus), Porphiridium cruentum, Rhodosorus marinus, Rhodella maculata (rhodophyci) and Chlamydomonas mexicana (chlorophycus). The polysaccharides produced are separated by centrifugation of the culture then precipitation with alcohol. Their chemical structure was studied by infrared spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. By their rheological properties and especially their insensitivity to temperatrure and pH variations the polysaccharides produced by Porphryridium cruentum and Rhodella maculata appear as suitable candidates for industrial applications.

  8. Application of a Coated Film Catalyst Layer Model to a High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell with Low Catalyst Loading Produced by Reactive Spray Deposition Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D. Myles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a semi-empirical model is presented that correlates to previously obtained experimental overpotential data for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC. The goal is to reinforce the understanding of the performance of the cell from a modeling perspective. The HT-PEMFC membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs were constructed utilizing an 85 wt. % phosphoric acid doped Advent TPS® membranes for the electrolyte and gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs manufactured by Reactive Spray Deposition Technology (RSDT. MEAs with varying ratios of PTFE binder to carbon support material (I/C ratio were manufactured and their performance at various operating temperatures was recorded. The semi-empirical model derivation was based on the coated film catalyst layer approach and was calibrated to the experimental data by a least squares method. The behavior of important physical parameters as a function of I/C ratio and operating temperature were explored.

  9. Produced water in mature onshore basins: a systematic model for management and decision making; Agua produzida em bacias terrestres maduras: um roteiro sistematizado para gerencimanro e tomada de decisao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Victor Menezes; Venancio, Fabricio de Queiroz [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IGEO/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Ferreira, Doneivan F. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In the production process oil is common be extracted from the oil well gas and associated formation water. Their proportions depending on the characteristics of the reservoir and the recovery method used. The produced water is a complex matrix. The parameters and the concentration may vary depending on the original tank. Given the exciting oil discoveries in the Pre Sal and the expectation of increasing volumes of oil, Brazil will need to intensify efforts to find solutions to the challenge of managing produced water, including developing techniques that reduce the volumes produced. Additionally, given the expectation of there habilitation of inactive areas with marginal accumulations and prolonging the life of mature fields, are expected increasing volumes of produced water. The industry now has some of this water management techniques, however, depends on the use of these technical factors, economic, environmental and regulatory requirements. This Applied Research paper seeks, through the systematization of several variables considered critical, contribute to the solution of this important industry challenge. The paper provides an overview of the volumes of water produced in the country, providing an overview of domestic water-oil ratio. The paper presents and discusses a systematic roadmap for managing the water produced in terrestrial productions, serving as a model containing assumptions and minimum requirements to assist operators and regulators in making decisions. The proposed roadmap takes into account the main assumptions about managerial decisions on a case by analyzing the critical aspects of each step. It analyzes the main possibilities of water management in accordance with predefined critical variables, providing a conceptual model of decision making. (author)

  10. Combining Modeling and Monitoring to Produce a New Paradigm of an Integrated Approach to Providing Long-Term Control of Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogwell, T. W.

    2009-12-01

    Sir David King, Chief Science Advisor to the British government and Cambridge University Professor, stated in October 2005, "The scientific community is considerably more capable than it has been in the past to assist governments to avoid and reduce risk to their own populations. Prime ministers and presidents ignore the advice from the science community at the peril of their own populations." Some of these greater capabilities can be found in better monitoring techniques applied to better modeling methods. These modeling methods can be combined with the information derived from monitoring data in order to decrease the risk of population exposure to dangerous substances and to promote efficient control or cleanup of the contaminants. An introduction is presented of the types of problems that exist for long-term control of radionuclides at DOE sites. A breakdown of the distributions at specific sites is given, together with the associated difficulties. A paradigm for remediation showing the integration of monitoring with modeling is presented. It is based on a feedback system that allows for the monitoring to act as principal sensors in a control system. The resulting system can be optimized to improve performance. Optimizing monitoring automatically entails linking the monitoring with modeling. If monitoring designs were required to be more efficient, thus requiring optimization, then the monitoring automatically becomes linked to modeling. Records of decision could be written to accommodate revisions in monitoring as better modeling evolves. Currently the establishment of a very prescriptive monitoring program fails to have a mechanism for improving models and improving control of the contaminants. The technical pieces of the required paradigm are already available; they just need to be implemented and applied to solve the long-term control of the contaminants. An integration of the various parts of the system is presented. Each part is described, and examples are

  11. Modeling susceptibility difference artifacts produced by metallic implants in magnetic resonance imaging with point-based thin-plate spline image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchard, Y; Smith, M; Mintchev, M

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suffers from geometric distortions arising from various sources. One such source are the non-linearities associated with the presence of metallic implants, which can profoundly distort the obtained images. These non-linearities result in pixel shifts and intensity changes in the vicinity of the implant, often precluding any meaningful assessment of the entire image. This paper presents a method for correcting these distortions based on non-rigid image registration techniques. Two images from a modelled three-dimensional (3D) grid phantom were subjected to point-based thin-plate spline registration. The reference image (without distortions) was obtained from a grid model including a spherical implant, and the corresponding test image containing the distortions was obtained using previously reported technique for spatial modelling of magnetic susceptibility artifacts. After identifying the nonrecoverable area in the distorted image, the calculated spline model was able to quantitatively account for the distortions, thus facilitating their compensation. Upon the completion of the compensation procedure, the non-recoverable area was removed from the reference image and the latter was compared to the compensated image. Quantitative assessment of the goodness of the proposed compensation technique is presented.

  12. Plastic Models Designed to Produce Large Height-to-Length Ratio Steady-State Planar and Axisymmetric (Radial) Viscous Liquid Laminar Flow Gravity Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanck, Harvey F.

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring gravity currents include events such as air flowing through an open front door, a volcanic eruption's pyroclastic flow down a mountainside, and the spread of the Bhopal disaster's methyl isocyanate gas. Gravity currents typically have a small height-to-distance ratio. Plastic models were designed and constructed with a…

  13. Influence of GABA and GABA-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 on the development of diabetes in a streptozotocin rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, T M; Patterson, E; Wall, R; O'Sullivan, O; Fitzgerald, G F; Cotter, P D; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F; Ross, R P; Stanton, C

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary administration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 and pure GABA exert protective effects against the development of diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague Dawley rats. In a first experiment, healthy rats were divided in 3 groups (n=10/group) receiving placebo, 2.6 mg/kg body weight (bw) pure GABA or L. brevis DPC 6108 (~10(9)microorganisms). In a second experiment, rats (n=15/group) were randomised to five groups and four of these received an injection of STZ to induce type 1 diabetes. Diabetic and non-diabetic controls received placebo [4% (w/v) yeast extract in dH2O], while the other three diabetic groups received one of the following dietary supplements: 2.6 mg/kg bw GABA (low GABA), 200 mg/kg bw GABA (high GABA) or ~10(9) L. brevis DPC 6108. L. brevis DPC 6108 supplementation was associated with increased serum insulin levels (Pfood intake. Insulin was decreased (P0.05), compared with non-diabetic controls while all other diabetic groups displayed reduced diversity (P<0.05). L. brevis DPC 6108 attenuated hyperglycaemia induced by diabetes but additional studies are needed to understand the mechanisms involved in this reduction.

  14. A Longitudinal Study of the Effect of Genistein on Bone in Two Different Murine Models of Diminished Estrogen-Producing Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Reinwald

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to assess the capacity of dietary genistein (GEN, to attenuate bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX and ovary-intact VCD-treated mice. Pretreatment of mice with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD gradually and selectively destroys ovarian follicles whilst leaving ovarian androgen-producing cells largely intact. VCD induces a perimenopause-like condition prior to the onset of reproductive acyclicity. Sixteen-week-old C57BL/6J mice were randomized to five treatment groups: sham(SHM, OVX, SHM + VCD, OVX + GEN, and SHM + VCD + GEN. In vivo, blood samples were drawn for hormone and isoflavone analyses, estrous cycles were monitored, and X-ray imaging was performed to assess changes in bone parameters. Following sacrifice, ovaries were assessed histologically, bone microarchitecture was evaluated via microcomputed tomography, and bone mechanical properties were measured. Some effects of GEN were observed in OVX mice, but GEN effects were not able to be evaluated in VCD-treated mice due to the subtle diminution of bone during the 4 months of this experiment.

  15. Search for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced in association with top quarks and decaying to $\\bar{b}$ at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Montejo Berlingen, J

    2013-01-01

    A search for a Higgs boson produced in association with a pair of top quarks ($tar{t}H$) and decaying into a pair of bottom quarks ($H o bar{b}$) is presented. The analysis uses 4.7~fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collision data at $sqrt{s}=7 ev$ collected in 2011 with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The search is focused on the semileptonic decay mode of the $tar{t}$ system which, together with the $H o bar{b}$ decay, typically results in a final state signature characterised by one high transverse momentum isolated electron or muon, high transverse missing momentum and six jets, of which four jets originate from $b$ quarks. Events are classified in nine different topologies depending on their jet and $b$-tagged jet multiplicities in order to improve the sensitivity of the search. No significant excess of events above the background expectation is observed and 95% confidence-level upper limits on the production cross section times branching ratio, $sigma(tar{t}H) imes BR(H o bar{b})$, are derived for...

  16. Harmonic pollution produced by low power nonlinear loads: mathematical model and practical cases; Contaminacion armonica producida por cargas no lineales de baja potencia: modelo matematico y casos practicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora Barajas, M.A.; Banuelos Sanchez, P. [Universidad de las Americas Puebla (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.morabs@udlap.mx; pedro.banuelos@udlap.mx

    2010-04-15

    Many household electrical appliances like televisions, video recorders and computers are sources of voltage and current harmonics, which increase power losses and contaminate the AC power line. These harmonics can cause serious problems in both, utilities and electrical equipment connected to the same AC line. This paper shows a mathematical analysis of harmonics content on the electrical current for a circuit representing a non linear residential load. A comparative harmonic distortion study produced by the residential loads on the electrical power lines, measured experimentally, is also shown. [Spanish] Muchos de los aparatos electricos que tenemos en casa como televisores, videograbadoras y computadoras, generan armonicos de voltaje y de corriente que incrementan las perdidas de potencia y contaminan las lineas de suministro electrico, pudiendo ocasionar severos danos tanto a las redes de energia como a los equipos que de ellas se alimentan. En este articulo se muestra un analisis matematico del contenido armonico en la corriente de un circuito que representa a una carga residencial no lineal. Ademas, a partir de mediciones electricas realizadas de manera experimental, se presente un estudio comparativo de la contaminacion armonica que este tipo de cargas introduce a las lineas de suministro electrico.

  17. Search for a Standard Model Higgs boson decaying to b quarks and produced in association with Z/W bosons with the CMS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruttola Michele De

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A search for the standard model Higgs boson is performed in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.1 fb−1, recorded by the CMS detector in proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a 7 TeV center-of-mass energy. The following modes are studied: W(μνH, W(eνH, Z(μμH, Z(eeH and Z(ννH, with the Higgs decaying to bb pairs. 95% C.L. upper limits on the VH production cross section are derived for a Higgs mass between 110 and 135 GeV. The expected (observed upper limit at 115 GeV is found to be 5.7 (8.3 times the standard model expectation.

  18. A mammalian model for Laron syndrome produced by targeted disruption of the mouse growth hormone receptor/binding protein gene (the Laron mouse)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yihua; Xu, Bixiong C.; Maheshwari, Hiralal G.; He, Li; Reed, Michael; Lozykowski, Maria; Okada, Shigeru; Cataldo, Lori; Coschigamo, Karen; Wagner, Thomas E.; Baumann, Gerhard; Kopchick, John J.

    1997-01-01

    Laron syndrome [growth hormone (GH) insensitivity syndrome] is a hereditary dwarfism resulting from defects in the GH receptor (GHR) gene. GHR deficiency has not been reported in mammals other than humans. Many aspects of GHR dysfunction remain unknown because of ethical and practical limitations in studying humans. To create a mammalian model for this disease, we generated mice bearing a disrupted GHR/binding protein (GHR/BP) gene through a homologous gene targeting approach. Homozygous GHR/...

  19. Ewing's Sarcoma of Bone Tumor Cells Produce MCSF that Stimulates Monocyte Proliferation in a Novel Mouse Model of Ewing's Sarcoma of Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Margulies, BS; DeBoyace, SD; Damron, TA; Allen, MJ

    2015-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma of bone is a primary childhood malignancy of bone that is treated with X-radiation therapy in combination with surgical excision and chemotherapy. To better study Ewing's sarcoma of bone we developed a novel model of primary Ewing's sarcoma of bone and then treated animals with X-radiation therapy. We identified that uncontrolled tumor resulted in lytic bone destruction while X-radiation therapy decreased lytic bone destruction and increased limb-length asymmetry, a common, cr...

  20. Optimization of a pH-shift control strategy for producing monoclonal antibodies in Chinese hamster ovary cell cultures using a pH-dependent dynamic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogiri, Tomoharu; Tamashima, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Akitoshi; Okamoto, Masahiro

    2018-02-01

    To optimize monoclonal antibody (mAb) production in Chinese hamster ovary cell cultures, culture pH should be temporally controlled with high resolution. In this study, we propose a new pH-dependent dynamic model represented by simultaneous differential equations including a minimum of six system component, depending on pH value. All kinetic parameters in the dynamic model were estimated using an evolutionary numerical optimization (real-coded genetic algorithm) method based on experimental time-course data obtained at different pH values ranging from 6.6 to 7.2. We determined an optimal pH-shift schedule theoretically. We validated this optimal pH-shift schedule experimentally and mAb production increased by approximately 40% with this schedule. Throughout this study, it was suggested that the culture pH-shift optimization strategy using a pH-dependent dynamic model is suitable to optimize any pH-shift schedule for CHO cell lines used in mAb production projects. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification and Modelling of the In-Plane Reinforcement Orientation Variations in a CFRP Laminate Produced by Manual Lay-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Yves; Crouzeix, Laurent; Douchin, Bernard; Collombet, Francis; Grunevald, Yves-Henri

    2017-08-01

    Reinforcement angle orientation has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of composite materials. This work presents a methodology to introduce variable reinforcement angles into finite element (FE) models of composite structures. The study of reinforcement orientation variations uses meta-models to identify and control a continuous variation across the composite ply. First, the reinforcement angle is measured through image analysis techniques of the composite plies during the lay-up phase. Image analysis results show that variations in the mean ply orientations are between -0.5 and 0.5° with standard deviations ranging between 0.34 and 0.41°. An automatic post-treatment of the images determines the global and local angle variations yielding good agreements visually and numerically between the analysed images and the identified parameters. A composite plate analysed at the end of the cooling phase is presented as a case of study. Here, the variation in residual strains induced by the variability in the reinforcement orientation are up to 28% of the strain field of the homogeneous FE model. The proposed methodology has shown its capabilities to introduce material and geometrical variability into FE analysis of layered composite structures.

  2. Identification and Modelling of the In-Plane Reinforcement Orientation Variations in a CFRP Laminate Produced by Manual Lay-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Yves; Crouzeix, Laurent; Douchin, Bernard; Collombet, Francis; Grunevald, Yves-Henri

    2018-06-01

    Reinforcement angle orientation has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of composite materials. This work presents a methodology to introduce variable reinforcement angles into finite element (FE) models of composite structures. The study of reinforcement orientation variations uses meta-models to identify and control a continuous variation across the composite ply. First, the reinforcement angle is measured through image analysis techniques of the composite plies during the lay-up phase. Image analysis results show that variations in the mean ply orientations are between -0.5 and 0.5° with standard deviations ranging between 0.34 and 0.41°. An automatic post-treatment of the images determines the global and local angle variations yielding good agreements visually and numerically between the analysed images and the identified parameters. A composite plate analysed at the end of the cooling phase is presented as a case of study. Here, the variation in residual strains induced by the variability in the reinforcement orientation are up to 28% of the strain field of the homogeneous FE model. The proposed methodology has shown its capabilities to introduce material and geometrical variability into FE analysis of layered composite structures.

  3. The effectiveness of the anti-CD11d treatment is reduced in rat models of spinal cord injury that produce significant levels of intraspinal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, N M; Hryciw, T; Bao, F; Streijger, F; Okon, E; Lee, J H T; Weaver, L C; Dekaban, G A; Kwon, B K; Brown, A

    2017-09-01

    We have previously reported that administration of a CD11d monoclonal antibody (mAb) improves recovery in a clip-compression model of SCI. In this model the CD11d mAb reduces the infiltration of activated leukocytes into the injured spinal cord (as indicated by reduced intraspinal MPO). However not all anti-inflammatory strategies have reported beneficial results, suggesting that success of the CD11d mAb treatment may depend on the type or severity of the injury. We therefore tested the CD11d mAb treatment in a rat hemi-contusion model of cervical SCI. In contrast to its effects in the clip-compression model, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve forelimb function nor did it significantly reduce MPO levels in the hemi-contused cord. To determine if the disparate results using the CD11d mAb were due to the biomechanical nature of the cord injury (compression SCI versus contusion SCI) or to the spinal level of the injury (12th thoracic level versus cervical) we further evaluated the CD11d mAb treatment after a T12 contusion SCI. In contrast to the T12 clip compression SCI, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve locomotor recovery or significantly reduce MPO levels after T12 contusion SCI. Lesion analyses revealed increased levels of hemorrhage after contusion SCI compared to clip-compression SCI. SCI that is accompanied by increased intraspinal hemorrhage would be predicted to be refractory to the CD11d mAb therapy as this approach targets leukocyte diapedesis through the intact vasculature. These results suggest that the disparate results of the anti-CD11d treatment in contusion and clip-compression models of SCI are due to the different pathophysiological mechanisms that dominate these two types of spinal cord injuries. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ensemble Data Assimilation of Photovoltaic Power Information in the Convection-permitting High-Resolution Model COSMO-DE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declair, Stefan; Saint-Drenan, Yves-Marie; Potthast, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Determining the amount of weather dependent renewable energy is a demanding task for transmission system operators (TSOs) and wind and photovoltaic (PV) prediction errors require the use of reserve power, which generate costs and can - in extreme cases - endanger the security of supply. In the project EWeLiNE funded by the German government, the German Weather Service and the Fraunhofer Institute on Wind Energy and Energy System Technology develop innovative weather- and power forecasting models and tools for grid integration of weather dependent renewable energy. The key part in energy prediction process chains is the numerical weather prediction (NWP) system. Irradiation forecasts from NWP systems are however subject to several sources of error. For PV power prediction, weaknesses of the NWP model to correctly forecast i.e. low stratus, absorption of condensed water or aerosol optical depths are the main sources of errors. Inaccurate radiation schemes (i.e. the two-stream parametrization) are also known as a deficit of NWP systems with regard to irradiation forecast. To mitigate errors like these, latest observations can be used in a pre-processing technique called data assimilation (DA). In DA, not only the initial fields are provided, but the model is also synchronized with reality - the observations - and hence forecast errors are reduced. Besides conventional observation networks like radiosondes, synoptic observations or air reports of wind, pressure and humidity, the number of observations measuring meteorological information indirectly by means of remote sensing such as satellite radiances, radar reflectivities or GPS slant delays strongly increases. Numerous PV plants installed in Germany potentially represent a dense meteorological network assessing irradiation through their power measurements. Forecast accuracy may thus be enhanced by extending the observations in the assimilation by this new source of information. PV power plants can provide

  5. Producing metallurgic coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, T.; Isida, K.; Vada, Y.

    1982-11-18

    A mixture of power producing coals with coal briquets of varying composition is proposed for coking in horizontal chamber furnaces. The briquets are produced from petroleum coke, coal fines or semicoke, which make up less than 27 percent of the mixture to be briquetted and coals with a standard coking output of volatile substances and coals with high maximal Gizeler fluidity. The ratio of these coals in the mixture is 0.6 to 2.1 or 18 to 32 percent, respectively. Noncaking or poorly caking coals are used as the power producing coals. The hardness of the obtained coke is DJ15-30 = 90.5 to 92.7 percent.

  6. Performance analysis of NOAA tropospheric signal delay model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Hassan E; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Tropospheric delay is one of the dominant global positioning system (GPS) errors, which degrades the positioning accuracy. Recent development in tropospheric modeling relies on implementation of more accurate numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. In North America one of the NWP-based tropospheric correction models is the NOAA Tropospheric Signal Delay Model (NOAATrop), which was developed by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Because of its potential to improve the GPS positioning accuracy, the NOAATrop model became the focus of many researchers. In this paper, we analyzed the performance of the NOAATrop model and examined its effect on ionosphere-free-based precise point positioning (PPP) solution. We generated 3 year long tropospheric zenith total delay (ZTD) data series for the NOAATrop model, Hopfield model, and the International GNSS Services (IGS) final tropospheric correction product, respectively. These data sets were generated at ten IGS reference stations spanning Canada and the United States. We analyzed the NOAATrop ZTD data series and compared them with those of the Hopfield model. The IGS final tropospheric product was used as a reference. The analysis shows that the performance of the NOAATrop model is a function of both season (time of the year) and geographical location. However, its performance was superior to the Hopfield model in all cases. We further investigated the effect of implementing the NOAATrop model on the ionosphere-free-based PPP solution convergence and accuracy. It is shown that the use of the NOAATrop model improved the PPP solution convergence by 1%, 10% and 15% for the latitude, longitude and height components, respectively

  7. Explicit simulation of ice particle habits in a Numerical Weather Prediction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashino, Tempei

    2007-05-01

    This study developed a scheme for explicit simulation of ice particle habits in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) Models. The scheme is called Spectral Ice Habit Prediction System (SHIPS), and the goal is to retain growth history of ice particles in the Eulerian dynamics framework. It diagnoses characteristics of ice particles based on a series of particle property variables (PPVs) that reflect history of microphysieal processes and the transport between mass bins and air parcels in space. Therefore, categorization of ice particles typically used in bulk microphysical parameterization and traditional bin models is not necessary, so that errors that stem from the categorization can be avoided. SHIPS predicts polycrystals as well as hexagonal monocrystals based on empirically derived habit frequency and growth rate, and simulates the habit-dependent aggregation and riming processes by use of the stochastic collection equation with predicted PPVs. Idealized two dimensional simulations were performed with SHIPS in a NWP model. The predicted spatial distribution of ice particle habits and types, and evolution of particle size distributions showed good quantitative agreement with observation This comprehensive model of ice particle properties, distributions, and evolution in clouds can be used to better understand problems facing wide range of research disciplines, including microphysics processes, radiative transfer in a cloudy atmosphere, data assimilation, and weather modification.

  8. Dynamic simulation and modeling of the motion modes produced during the 3D controlled manipulation of biological micro/nanoparticles based on the AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraee, Mahdieh B; Korayem, Moharam H

    2015-08-07

    Determining the motion modes and the exact position of a particle displaced during the manipulation process is of special importance. This issue becomes even more important when the studied particles are biological micro/nanoparticles and the goals of manipulation are the transfer of these particles within body cells, repair of cancerous cells and the delivery of medication to damaged cells. However, due to the delicate nature of biological nanoparticles and their higher vulnerability, by obtaining the necessary force of manipulation for the considered motion mode, we can prevent the sample from interlocking with or sticking to the substrate because of applying a weak force or avoid damaging the sample due to the exertion of excessive force. In this paper, the dynamic behaviors and the motion modes of biological micro/nanoparticles such as DNA, yeast, platelet and bacteria due to the 3D manipulation effect have been investigated. Since the above nanoparticles generally have a cylindrical shape, the cylindrical contact models have been employed in an attempt to more precisely model the forces exerted on the nanoparticle during the manipulation process. Also, this investigation has performed a comprehensive modeling and simulation of all the possible motion modes in 3D manipulation by taking into account the eccentricity of the applied load on the biological nanoparticle. The obtained results indicate that unlike the macroscopic scale, the sliding of nanoparticle on substrate in nano-scale takes place sooner than the other motion modes and that the spinning about the vertical and transverse axes and the rolling of nanoparticle occur later than the other motion modes. The simulation results also indicate that the applied force necessary for the onset of nanoparticle movement and the resulting motion mode depend on the size and aspect ratio of the nanoparticle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of transgenic rats producing human β-amyloid precursor protein as a model for Alzheimer's disease: Transgene and endogenous APP genes are regulated tissue-specifically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Anthony WS

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that affects a large and growing number of elderly individuals. In addition to idiopathic disease, AD is also associated with autosomal dominant inheritance, which causes a familial form of AD (FAD. Some instances of FAD have been linked to mutations in the β-amyloid protein precursor (APP. Although there are numerous mouse AD models available, few rat AD models, which have several advantages over mice, have been generated. Results Fischer 344 rats expressing human APP driven by the ubiquitin-C promoter were generated via lentiviral vector infection of Fischer 344 zygotes. We generated two separate APP-transgenic rat lines, APP21 and APP31. Serum levels of human amyloid-beta (Aβ40 were 298 pg/ml for hemizygous and 486 pg/ml for homozygous APP21 animals. Serum Aβ42 levels in APP21 homozygous rats were 135 pg/ml. Immunohistochemistry in brain showed that the human APP transgene was expressed in neurons, but not in glial cells. These findings were consistent with independent examination of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP in the brains of eGFP-transgenic rats. APP21 and APP31 rats expressed 7.5- and 3-times more APP mRNA, respectively, than did wild-type rats. Northern blots showed that the human APP transgene, driven by the ubiquitin-C promoter, is expressed significantly more in brain, kidney and lung compared to heart and liver. A similar expression pattern was also seen for the endogenous rat APP. The unexpected similarity in the tissue-specific expression patterns of endogenous rat APP and transgenic human APP mRNAs suggests regulatory elements within the cDNA sequence of APP. Conclusion This manuscript describes the generation of APP-transgenic inbred Fischer 344 rats. These are the first human AD model rat lines generated by lentiviral infection. The APP21 rat line expresses high levels of human APP and could be a useful model for AD. Tissue

  10. THE STUDY OF BRAKE SYSTEMS OF PASSENGER CARS MODEL 61-779 AND THEIR MODIFICATIONS PRODUCED BY OPEN JOINT STOCK COMPANY KRJUKIV CAR BUILDING PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Ya. Vodiannikov

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of research of brake system for the model 61-779 of a passenger car manufactured by JSC «KVBZ» for the period from 2001 to 2006 are presented. It is shown that at the existing gear ratio of a brake lever transmission the passenger car brake efficiency does not correspond to running speed of 140 km/h. The causes of the wheel pairs damage occurrence in exploitation of a passenger train «Kiev – Moscow» as well as the recommendations on their elimination and brake system perfection are considered.

  11. Search for Standard Model Higgs Boson Produced in Association with a Top-Antitop Quark Pair in 1.96 TeV Proton-Antiproton Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Stanley T. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the first search for Standard Model Higgs boson production in association with a top-antitop quark pair in proton-antiproton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The integrated luminosity for othis search corresponds to 319 pb-1 of data recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We outline the even selection criteria, evaluate the even acceptance and estimate backgrounds from Standard Model sources. These events are observed that satisfy our event selection, while 2.16 ± 0.66 events are expected from background processes. no significant excess of events above background is thus observed, and we set 95% confidence level upper limits on the production cross section for this process as a function of the Higgs mass. For a Higgs boson mass of 115 GeV/c2 we find that σ$t\\bar{t}H$ x BR (Hbb) < 690 fb at 95% C.L. These are the first limits set for $t\\bar{t}H$ production. This search also allows us to anticipate the challenges and necessary strategies needed for future searches of $t\\bar{t}H$ production.

  12. A mammalian model for Laron syndrome produced by targeted disruption of the mouse growth hormone receptor/binding protein gene (the Laron mouse)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yihua; Xu, Bixiong C.; Maheshwari, Hiralal G.; He, Li; Reed, Michael; Lozykowski, Maria; Okada, Shigeru; Cataldo, Lori; Coschigamo, Karen; Wagner, Thomas E.; Baumann, Gerhard; Kopchick, John J.

    1997-01-01

    Laron syndrome [growth hormone (GH) insensitivity syndrome] is a hereditary dwarfism resulting from defects in the GH receptor (GHR) gene. GHR deficiency has not been reported in mammals other than humans. Many aspects of GHR dysfunction remain unknown because of ethical and practical limitations in studying humans. To create a mammalian model for this disease, we generated mice bearing a disrupted GHR/binding protein (GHR/BP) gene through a homologous gene targeting approach. Homozygous GHR/BP knockout mice showed severe postnatal growth retardation, proportionate dwarfism, absence of the GHR and GH binding protein, greatly decreased serum insulin-like growth factor I and elevated serum GH concentrations. These characteristics represent the phenotype typical of individuals with Laron syndrome. Animals heterozygous for the GHR/BP defect show only minimal growth impairment but have an intermediate biochemical phenotype, with decreased GHR and GH binding protein expression and slightly diminished insulin-like growth factor I levels. These findings indicate that the GHR/BP-deficient mouse (Laron mouse) is a suitable model for human Laron syndrome that will prove useful for the elucidation of many aspects of GHR/BP function that cannot be obtained in humans. PMID:9371826

  13. A mammalian model for Laron syndrome produced by targeted disruption of the mouse growth hormone receptor/binding protein gene (the Laron mouse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Xu, B C; Maheshwari, H G; He, L; Reed, M; Lozykowski, M; Okada, S; Cataldo, L; Coschigamo, K; Wagner, T E; Baumann, G; Kopchick, J J

    1997-11-25

    Laron syndrome [growth hormone (GH) insensitivity syndrome] is a hereditary dwarfism resulting from defects in the GH receptor (GHR) gene. GHR deficiency has not been reported in mammals other than humans. Many aspects of GHR dysfunction remain unknown because of ethical and practical limitations in studying humans. To create a mammalian model for this disease, we generated mice bearing a disrupted GHR/binding protein (GHR/BP) gene through a homologous gene targeting approach. Homozygous GHR/BP knockout mice showed severe postnatal growth retardation, proportionate dwarfism, absence of the GHR and GH binding protein, greatly decreased serum insulin-like growth factor I and elevated serum GH concentrations. These characteristics represent the phenotype typical of individuals with Laron syndrome. Animals heterozygous for the GHR/BP defect show only minimal growth impairment but have an intermediate biochemical phenotype, with decreased GHR and GH binding protein expression and slightly diminished insulin-like growth factor I levels. These findings indicate that the GHR/BP-deficient mouse (Laron mouse) is a suitable model for human Laron syndrome that will prove useful for the elucidation of many aspects of GHR/BP function that cannot be obtained in humans.

  14. Optimization of the formation of embedded multicellular spheroids of MCF-7 cells: How to reliably produce a biomimetic 3D model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; Li, Caibin; Baguley, Bruce C; Zhou, Fang; Zhou, Weisai; Shaw, John P; Wang, Zhen; Wu, Zimei; Liu, Jianping

    2016-12-15

    To obtain a multicellular MCF-7 spheroid model to mimic the three-dimensional (3D) of tumors, the microwell liquid overlay (A) and hanging-drop/agar (B) methods were first compared for their technical parameters. Then a method for embedding spheroids within collagen was optimized. For method A, centrifugation assisted cells form irregular aggregates but not spheroids. For method B, an extended sedimentation period of over 24 h for cell suspensions and increased viscosity of the culture medium using methylcellulose were necessary to harvest a dense and regular cell spheroid. When the number was less than 5000 cells/drop, embedded spheroids showed no tight cores and higher viability than the unembedded. However, above 5000 cells/drop, cellular viability of embedded spheroids was not significantly different from unembedded spheroids and cells invading through the collagen were in a sun-burst pattern with tight cores. Propidium Iodide staining indicated that spheroids had necrotic cores. The doxorubicin cytotoxicity demonstrated that spheroids were less susceptible to DOX than their monolayer cells. A reliable and reproducible method for embedding spheroids using the hanging-drop/agarose method within collagen is described herein. The cell culture model can be used to guide experimental manipulation of 3D cell cultures and to evaluate anticancer drug efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ewing's sarcoma of bone tumor cells produces MCSF that stimulates monocyte proliferation in a novel mouse model of Ewing's sarcoma of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulies, B S; DeBoyace, S D; Damron, T A; Allen, M J

    2015-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma of bone is a primary childhood malignancy of bone that is treated with X-radiation therapy in combination with surgical excision and chemotherapy. To better study Ewing's sarcoma of bone we developed a novel model of primary Ewing's sarcoma of bone and then treated animals with X-radiation therapy. We identified that uncontrolled tumor resulted in lytic bone destruction while X-radiation therapy decreased lytic bone destruction and increased limb-length asymmetry, a common, crippling complication of X-radiation therapy. Osteoclasts were indentified adjacent to the tumor, however, we were unable to detect RANK-ligand in the Ewing's tumor cells in vitro, which lead us to investigate alternate mechanisms for osteoclast formation. Ewing's sarcoma tumor cells and archival Ewing's sarcoma of bone tumor biopsy samples were shown to express MCSF, which could promote osteoclast formation. Increased monocyte numbers were detected in peripheral blood and spleen in animals with untreated Ewing's sarcoma tumor while monocyte number in animals treated with x-radiation had normal numbers of monocytes. Our data suggest that our Ewing's sarcoma of bone model will be useful in the study Ewing's sarcoma tumor progression in parallel with the effects of chemotherapy and X-radiation therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ewing's Sarcoma of Bone Tumor Cells Produce MCSF that Stimulates Monocyte Proliferation in a Novel Mouse Model of Ewing's Sarcoma of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulies, BS; DeBoyace, SD; Damron, TA; Allen, MJ

    2015-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma of bone is a primary childhood malignancy of bone that is treated with X-radiation therapy in combination with surgical excision and chemotherapy. To better study Ewing's sarcoma of bone we developed a novel model of primary Ewing's sarcoma of bone and then treated animals with X-radiation therapy. We identified that uncontrolled tumor resulted in lytic bone destruction while X-radiation therapy decreased lytic bone destruction and increased limb-length asymmetry, a common, crippling complication of X-radiation therapy. Osteoclasts were indentified adjacent to the tumor, however, we were unable to detect RANK-ligand in the Ewing's tumor cells in vitro, which lead us to investigate alternate mechanisms for osteoclast formation. Ewing's sarcoma tumor cells and archival Ewing's sarcoma of bone tumor biopsy samples were shown to express MCSF, which could promote osteoclast formation. Increased monocyte numbers were detected in peripheral blood and spleen in animals with untreated Ewing's sarcoma tumor while monocyte number in animals treated with x-radiation had normal numbers of monocytes. Our data suggest that our Ewing's sarcoma of bone model will be useful in the study Ewing's sarcoma tumor progression in parallel with the effects of chemotherapy and X-radiation therapy. PMID:26051470

  17. Standards and producers' liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmer, F.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses the liability of producers and the diligence required, which has to come up to technical standards and the latest state of technology. The consequences of this requirement with regard to claims for damages are outlined and proposals for reforms are pointed out. (HSCH) [de

  18. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic–inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie–Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol–gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie–Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating. (paper)

  19. Modeling of electron beams produced by linear accelerator installed at CNSTN / optimization study for the case of radiation sterilization of medical products and pharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jellikh, Jihed

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of particle accelerators has led to the disposal of a very wide diversity of applications, such as the technique of treatment with Beta radiations. an electron accelerator has been installed at the National Center for nuclear Sciences and Technologies CNSTN) with the aim of controlling this technology, its development and its use in the areas of agriculture, industry, human health and scientific research. this project is committed for the study of the exploitation of this new facility in the field of radio-sterilization of medical, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and laboratory products. A numerical tool has been then developed to simulate the radio processing and to simplify this process. Due to this option of dose distribution modeling inside a studied product, it's possible to estimate the best configuration for the accelerator parameter setting. It is a solution allowing to guarantee at once the conformity of the treatment of a product, as well as the reliability of the installation.