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Sample records for nwcf evaporator tank

  1. NWCF Evaporator Tank System 2001 Offgas Emissions Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Richard Doin; Lamb, Kenneth Mitchel; Matejka, Leon Anthony; Nenni, Joseph A

    2002-02-01

    An offgas emissions inventory and liquid stream characterization of the Idaho New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Evaporator Tank System (ETS), formerly known as the High Level Liquid Waste Evaporator (HLLWE), has been completed. The emissions rates of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, multiple metals, particulate, and hydrochloric acid were measured in accordance with an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) and Test Plan that invoked U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard sample collection and analysis procedures. Offgas samples were collected during the start up and at the end of evaporator batches when it was hypothesized the emissions would be at peak rates. Corresponding collection of samples from the evaporator feed overhead condensate, and bottoms was made at approximately the same time as the emissions inventory to support material balance determinations for the evaporator process. The data indicate that organic compound emissions are slightly higher at the beginning of the batch while metals emissions, including mercury, are slightly higher at the end of the evaporator batch. The maximum emissions concentrations are low for all constituents of primary concern. Mercury emissions were less than 5 ppbv, while the sum of HCl and Cl2 emissions was less than 1 ppmv. The sum of all organic emissions also was less than 1 ppmv. The estimated hazardous quotient (HQ) for the evaporator was 6.2e-6 as compared to 0.25 for the EPA target criteria. The cancer risk was 1.3e-10 compared to an EPA target of le-5.

  2. NWCF Evaporator Tank System 2001 Offgas Emissions Inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, R.D.; Lamb, K.M.; Matejka, L.A.; Nenni, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    An offgas emissions inventory and liquid stream characterization of the Idaho New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Evaporator Tank System (ETS), formerly known as the High Level Liquid Waste Evaporator (HLLWE), has been completed. The emissions rates of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, multiple metals, particulate, and hydrochloric acid were measured in accordance with an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) and Test Plan that invoked U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard sample collection and analysis procedures. Offgas samples were collected during the start up and at the end of evaporator batches when it was hypothesized the emissions would be at peak rates. Corresponding collection of samples from the evaporator feed overhead condensate, and bottoms was made at approximately the same time as the emissions inventory to support material balance determinations for the evaporator process. The data indicate that organic compound emissions are slightly higher at the beginning of the batch while metals emissions, including mercury, are slightly higher at the end of the evaporator batch. The maximum emissions concentrations are low for all constituents of primary concern. Mercury emissions were less than 5 ppbv, while the sum of HCl and Cl2 emissions was less than 1 ppmv. The sum of all organic emissions also was less than 1 ppmv. The estimated hazardous quotient (HQ) for the evaporator was 6.2e-6 as compared to 0.25 for the EPA target criteria. The cancer risk was 1.3e-10 compared to an EPA target of le-5

  3. Evaporation analysis for Tank SX-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrington, C.A.

    1994-10-01

    Decreases in historical interstitial liquid level measurements in tank SX-104 were compared to predictions of a numerical model based upon diffusion of water through a porous crust. The analysis showed that observed level decreases could be explained by evaporation

  4. Evaporation analysis for Tank SX-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrington, C.A.

    1994-10-01

    Decreases in historical interstitial liquid level measurements in tank SX-104 were compared to predictions of a numerical model based upon diffusion of water through a porous crust. The analysis showed that observed level decreases could be explained by evaporation.

  5. TANK 32 EVAPORATOR FEED PUMP TRANSFER ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamburello, D.; Dimenna, Richard; Lee, Si

    2009-01-01

    The transfer of liquid salt solution from Tank 32 to an evaporator is to be accomplished by activating the evaporator feed pump, with the supernate surface at a minimum height of approximately 74.4 inches above the sludge layer, while simultaneously turning on the downcomer with a flow rate of 110 gpm. Previously, activation of the evaporator feed pump was an isolated event without any other components running at the same time. An analysis of the dissolved solution transfer has been performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to determine the amount of entrained sludge solids pumped out of the tank toward the evaporator with the downcomer turned on. The analysis results shows that, for the minimum tank liquid level of 105 inches above the tank bottom (which corresponds to a liquid depth of 74.4 inches above the sludge layer), the evaporator feed pump will contain less than 0.1 wt% sludge solids in the discharge stream, which is an order of magnitude less than the 1.0 wt% undissolved solids (UDS) loading criteria to feed the evaporator. Lower liquid levels with respect to the sludge layer will result in higher amounts of sludge entrainment due to the increased plunging jet velocity from the downcomer disturbing the sludge layer

  6. TANK 26 EVAPORATOR FEED PUMP TRANSFER ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamburello, D; Si Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2008-01-01

    The transfer of liquid salt solution from Tank 26 to an evaporator is to be accomplished by activating the evaporator feed pump, located approximately 72 inches above the sludge layer, while simultaneously turning on the downcomer. Previously, activation of the evaporator feed pump was an isolated event without any other components running at the same time. An analysis of the dissolved solution transfer has been performed using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the amount of entrained sludge solids pumped out of the tank to the evaporator with the downcomer turned on. The analysis results showed that, for the maximum and minimum supernate levels in Tank 26 (252.5 and 72 inches above the sludge layer, respectively), the evaporator feed pump will entrain between 0.05 and 0.1 wt% sludge solids weight fraction into the eductor, respectively. Lower tank liquid levels, with respect to the sludge layer, result in higher amounts of sludge entrainment due to the increased velocity of the plunging jets from the downcomer and evaporator feed pump bypass as well as decreased dissipation depth

  7. New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Waste Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. E. Archibald

    1999-01-01

    This report addresses the issues of conducting debris treatment in the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF) decontamination area and the methods currently being used to decontaminate material at the NWCF

  8. Tank 26F-2F Evaporator Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-12-19

    Tank 26F supernate sample was sent by Savannah River Remediation to Savannah River National Laboratory for evaporation test to help understand the underlying cause of the recent gravity drain line (GDL) pluggage during operation of the 2F Evaporator system. The supernate sample was characterized prior to the evaporation test. The evaporation test involved boiling the supernate in an open beaker until the density of the concentrate (evaporation product) was between 1.4 to 1.5 g/mL. It was followed by filtering and washing of the precipitated solids with deionized water. The concentrate supernate (or concentrate filtrate), the damp unwashed precipitated solids, and the wash filtrates were characterized. All the precipitated solids dissolved during water washing. A semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis on the unwashed precipitated solids revealed their composition. All the compounds with the exception of silica (silicon oxide) are known to be readily soluble in water. Hence, their dissolution during water washing is not unexpected. Even though silica is a sparingly water-soluble compound, its dissolution is also not surprising. This stems from its small fraction in the solids as a whole and also its relative freshness. Assuming similar supernate characteristics, flushing the GDL with water (preferably warm) should facilitate dissolution and removal of future pluggage events as long as build up/aging of the sparingly soluble constituent (silica) is limited. On the other hand, since the amount of silica formed is relatively small, it is quite possible dissolution of the more soluble larger fraction will cause disintegration or fragmentation of the sparingly soluble smaller fraction (that may be embedded in the larger soluble solid mass) and allow its removal via suspension in the flushing water.

  9. Out-of-tank evaporator demonstration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, A.J.; Jennings, H.L.; VanEssen, D.C.

    1998-02-01

    The project reported here was conducted to demonstrate a skid-mounted, subatmospheric evaporator to concentrate liquid low-level waste (LLLW) stored in underground tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This waste is similar to wastes stored at Hanford and Savannah River. A single-stage subatmospheric evaporator rated to produce 90 gallons of distillate per hour was procured from Delta Thermal, Inc., of Pensacola, Florida, and installed in an existing building. During the 8-day demonstration, 22,000 gal of LLLW was concentrated by 25% with the evaporator system. Decontamination factors achieved averaged 5 x 10 6 (i.e., the distillate contained five million times less Cesium 137 than the feed). Evaporator performance substantially exceeded design requirements and expectations based on bench-scale surrogate test data. Out-of tank evaporator demonstration operations successfully addressed the feasibility of hands-on maintenance. Demonstration activities indicate that: (1) skid-mounted, mobile equipment is a viable alternative for the treatment of ORNL LLLW, and (2) hands-on maintenance and decontamination for movement to another site is achievable. Cost analysis show that 10% of the demonstration costs will be immediately recovered by elimination of solidification and disposal costs. The entire cost of the demonstration can be recovered by processing the inventory of Melton Valley Storage Tank waste and/or sluice water prior to solidifications. An additional savings of approximately $200,000 per year can be obtained by processing newly generated waste through the system. The results indicate that this type of evaporator system should be considered for application across the DOE complex. 25 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  10. 1998 242-A interim evaporator tank system integrity assessment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    Portions of the 242-A Evaporator on the Hanford Site must be assessed to meet the requirements of the Washington State Department of Ecology's Dangerous Waste Regulation, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303. The assessment is limited to the provisions of Section 173-303-640. This Integrity Assessment Plan (IAP) identifies tasks which will be performed during the assessment phase and describes the intended assessment techniques. The 242-A Evaporator facility processes waste solutions from most of the operating laboratories and plants of the Hanford Site. The waste solutions are concentrated in the evaporator to a slurry of liquid and crystallized salts. This concentrated slurry is returned to the Tank Farms at a significantly reduce volume. The water vapor from the evaporation process is condensed, filtered, and can be pumped through an ion exchange bed before transfer to a retention basin. The non-condensable portion of the vapor is filtered and continuously monitored before venting to the atmosphere. The 242-A Evaporator will be assessed as seven subsystems. Four of the subsystems store, transport or treat Washington State Dangerous wastes, the other three subsystems are integral parts of the process, however, they do not directly store, transfer, or treat listed dangerous wastes. The facility will be inspected, tested, and analyzed through this assessment. The seven subsystems, defined in detail in Appendix B, are: Evaporator Process and Slurry Subsystem; Vapor Condenser Subsystem; Vessel Vent Subsystem; Process Condensate Subsystem; Steam Condensate Subsystem; Raw Water Disposal Subsystem; and Building and Secondary Containment Subsystem

  11. 1998 interim 242-A Evaporator tank system integrity assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.E.

    1998-07-02

    This Integrity Assessment Report (IAR) is prepared by Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) under contract to Lockheed-Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) for Waste Management Hanford (WMH), the 242-A Evaporator (facility) operations contractor for Fluor Daniel Hanford, and the US Department of Energy, the system owner. The contract specifies that FDNW perform an interim (5 year) integrity assessment of the facility and prepare a written IAR in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-640. The WAC 173-303 defines a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility tank system as the ``dangerous waste storage or treatment tank and its ancillary equipment and containment.`` This integrity assessment evaluates the two tank systems at the facility: the evaporator vessel, C-A-1 (also called the vapor-liquid separator), and the condensate collection tank, TK-C-100. This IAR evaluates the 242-A facility tank systems up to, but not including, the last valve or flanged connection inside the facility perimeter. The initial integrity assessment performed on the facility evaluated certain subsystems not directly in contact with dangerous waste, such as the steam condensate and used raw water subsystems, to provide technical information. These subsystems were not evaluated in this IAR. The last major upgrade to the facility was project B-534. The facility modifications, as a result of project B-534, were evaluated in the 1993 facility interim integrity assessment. Since that time, the following upgrades have occurred in the facility: installation of a process condensate recycle system, and installation of a package steam boiler to provide steam for the facility. The package boiler is not within the scope of the facility TSD.

  12. Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaney, B.T.; Turner, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Evaporation has long been used as a unit operation in the manufacture of various products in the chemical-process industries. In addition, it is currently being used for the treatment of hazardous wastes such as radioactive liquids and sludges, metal-plating wastes, and other organic and inorganic wastes. Design choice is dependent on the liquid to be evaporated. The three most common types of evaporation equipment are the rising-film, falling-film, and forced-circulation evaporators. The first two rely on boiling heat transfer and the latter relies on flash vaporization. Heat exchangers, flash tanks, and ejectors are common auxiliary equipment items incorporated with evaporator bodies to complete an evaporator system. Properties of the liquid to be evaporated are critical in final selection of an appropriate evaporator system. Since operating costs are a significant factor in overall cost, heat-transfer characteristics and energy requirements are important considerations. Properties of liquids which are critical to the determination of final design include: heat capacity, heat of vaporization, density, thermal conductivity, boiling point rise, and heat-transfer coefficient. Evaporation is an expensive technology, both in terms of capital costs and operating costs. Additionally, mechanical evaporation produces a condensate and a bottoms stream, one or both of which may require further processing or disposal. 3 figs

  13. Evaporation reduction in stock tanks for increasing water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. A.; Issac, V. C.

    1990-11-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of shading and floating materials in reducing evaporation from a free water surface. White polyethene sheet used for shading the water surface reduced evaporation by 91% and cost Rs.2.54 (US0.15) per 10001. Floating materials evaluated were polyethene sheet, foam rubber sheet, polystyrene sheet, bamboo, and Sacchrum munja. Evaporation reduction for a 19-month test period ranged from 37% for S. munja to 82% for polystyrene sheet. Foam rubber sheet, polyethene sheet and bamboo reduced evaporation by 74, 66 and 53%, respectively. The polystyrene sheet and polyethene sheet covers were the most economical, saving water at a cost of Rs.3.07 (US0.19) and Rs.4.44 (US$0.27) per 10001, respectively.

  14. EVALUATION OF MIXING IN THE SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR AND MELTER FEED TANK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARINIK, ANDREW

    2004-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) vitrifies High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) currently stored in underground tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The HLW currently being processed is a waste sludge composed primarily of metal hydroxides and oxides in caustic slurry. These slurries are typically characterized as Bingham Plastic fluids. The HLW undergoes a pretreatment process in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC) at DWPF. The processed HLW sludge is then transferred to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) where it is acidified with nitric and formic acid then evaporated to concentrate the solids. Reflux boiling is used to strip mercury from the waste and then the waste is transferred to the Slurry Mix Evaporator tank (SME). Glass formers are added as a frit slurry to the SME to prepare the waste for vitrification. This mixture is evaporated in the SME to the final concentration target. The frit slurry mixture is then transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) to be fed to the melter

  15. Sampling and Analysis for Tank 241-AW-104 Waste in Support of Evaporator Campaign 2001-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCKINNEY, S.G.

    2000-01-01

    This Tank Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) identifies sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), and reporting objectives for the characterization of tank 241-AW-104 waste. Technical bases for these objectives are specified in the 242-A Evaporator Data Quality Objectives (Bowman 2000a and Von Bargen 1998), 242-A Evaporator Quality Assurance Project Plan (Bowman 1998 and Bowman 2000b), Tank 241-AW-104 Sampling Requirements in Support of Evaporator Campaign 2000-1 (Le 2000). Characterization results will be used to support the evaporator campaign currently planned for early fiscal year 2001. No other needs (or issues) requiring data for this tank waste apply to this sampling event

  16. Evaporation losses and dispersion of volatile organic compounds from tank farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howari, Fares M

    2015-05-01

    The present study is an application of a Gaussian dispersion model to evaluate volatilization losses from tank farms. It reports methodology to estimate evaporation losses of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from organic liquid in storage tanks. This study used fixed roof and floating roof equations for breathing and working losses. Total loss, the breathing loss, vapor pressure, molecular weight of the product, tank diameter, diurnal temperature, paint factor, tank capacity, and number of turnovers were considered and factored in the calculation. AERMOD and ALOHA softwares were used to simulate the dispersion of VOCs under normal and accidental scenarios. For the modeling purposes, meteorological data such as annual average ambient temperature, annual average atmospheric pressure, daily minimum ambient temperature, daily maximum ambient temperature, solar insulation factor, and average wind speed were included as input in the calculation and modeling activities. The study took place in Sharjah Emirate in United Arab Emirates, which borders Dubai to the south and Ajman to the north, and the three form a conurbation. The reported method was used to estimate evaporation losses for baseline and hypothetical leak scenarios. Results of this research show that liquid storage tanks in the study area emit a low concentration of VOC under the studied and assumed conditions, e.g., new tanks with high performance sealing as well as the noted earlier climatic conditions. The dispersion of those concentrations is controlled by the prevailing wind direction. The predicted VOCs concentrations were within the range of the measured VOCs values in air. The study found that the spatial distributions of the predicted concentration attenuate with time and distance. Under the reported accidental spill scenario, the Gaussian model indicates that the danger area starts within the zone of less than 10 m. The danger area is subjected to flame pockets, and the VOC concentrations in this

  17. Configuration management plan for waste tank farms and the 242-A evaporator of tank waste remediation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laney, T.

    1994-01-01

    The configuration management architecture presented in this Configuration Management Plan is based on the functional model established by DOE-STD-1073-93, ''Guide for Operational Configuration Management Program.'' The DOE Standard defines the configuration management program by the five basic program elements of ''program management,'' ''design requirements,'' ''document control,'' ''change control,'' and ''assessments,'' and the two adjunct recovery programs of ''design reconstitution,'' and ''material condition and aging management.'' The CM model of five elements and two adjunct programs strengthen the necessary technical and administrative control to establish and maintain a consistent technical relationship among the requirements, physical configuration, and documentation. Although the DOE Standard was originally developed for the operational phase of nuclear facilities, this plan has the flexibility to be adapted and applied to all life-cycle phases of both nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. The configuration management criteria presented in this plan endorses the DOE Standard and has been tailored specifically to address the technical relationship of requirements, physical configuration, and documentation during the full life cycle of the Waste Tank Farms and 242-A Evaporator of Tank Waste Remediation System

  18. Pressurization of a Flightweight, Liquid Hydrogen Tank: Evaporation & Condensation at a Liquid/Vapor Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis and simulation of evaporation and condensation at a motionless liquid/vapor interface. A 1-D model equation, emphasizing heat and mass transfer at the interface, is solved in two ways, and incorporated into a subgrid interface model within a CFD simulation. Simulation predictions are compared with experimental data from the CPST Engineering Design Unit tank, a cryogenic fluid management test tank in 1-g. The numerical challenge here is the physics of the liquid/vapor interface; pressurizing the ullage heats it by several degrees, and sets up an interfacial temperature gradient that transfers heat to the liquid phase-the rate limiting step of condensation is heat conducted through the liquid and vapor. This physics occurs in thin thermal layers O(1 mm) on either side of the interface which is resolved by the subgrid interface model. An accommodation coefficient of 1.0 is used in the simulations which is consistent with theory and measurements. This model is predictive of evaporation/condensation rates, that is, there is no parameter tuning.

  19. Evaporators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard

    1996-01-01

    Type of evaporators. Regulation. Thermal dimensioning. Determination of pressure loss and heat transfer coefficients.......Type of evaporators. Regulation. Thermal dimensioning. Determination of pressure loss and heat transfer coefficients....

  20. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Radiation protection of personnel and the public is accomplished by establishing a well defined Radiation Protection Organization to ensure that appropriate controls on radioactive materials and radiation sources are implemented and documented. This Requirements Identification Document (RID) applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in executing the mission of the Tank Farms. The physical boundaries within which the requirements of this RID apply are the Single Shell Tank Farms, Double Shell Tank Farms, 242-A Evaporator-Crystallizer, 242-S, T Evaporators, Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF), Purgewater Storage Facility (PWSF), and all interconnecting piping, valves, instrumentation, and controls. Also included is all piping, valves, instrumentation, and controls up to and including the most remote valve under Tank Farms control at any other Hanford Facility having an interconnection with Tank Farms. The boundary of the structures, systems, components, and programs to which this RID applies, is defined by those that are dedicated to and/or under the control of the Tank Farms Operations Department and are specifically implemented at the Tank Farms

  1. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Radiation protection of personnel and the public is accomplished by establishing a well defined Radiation Protection Organization to ensure that appropriate controls on radioactive materials and radiation sources are implemented and documented. This Requirements Identification Document (RID) applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in executing the mission of the Tank Farms. The physical boundaries within which the requirements of this RID apply are the Single Shell Tank Farms, Double Shell Tank Farms, 242-A Evaporator-Crystallizer, 242-S, T Evaporators, Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF), Purgewater Storage Facility (PWSF), and all interconnecting piping, valves, instrumentation, and controls. Also included is all piping, valves, instrumentation, and controls up to and including the most remote valve under Tank Farms control at any other Hanford Facility having an interconnection with Tank Farms. The boundary of the structures, systems, components, and programs to which this RID applies, is defined by those that are dedicated to and/or under the control of the Tank Farms Operations Department and are specifically implemented at the Tank Farms.

  2. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 6) outlines the standards and requirements for the sections on: Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Research and Development and Experimental Activities, and Nuclear Safety.

  3. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 3) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Safeguards and Security, Engineering Design, and Maintenance.

  4. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 6) outlines the standards and requirements for the sections on: Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Research and Development and Experimental Activities, and Nuclear Safety

  5. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 3) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Safeguards and Security, Engineering Design, and Maintenance

  6. Determination of the crystalline structure of scale solids from the 16H evaporator gravity drain line to tank 38H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    August 2015, scale solids from the 16H Evaporator Gravity Drain Line (GDL) to the Tank 38H were delivered to SRNL for analysis. The desired analytical goal was to identify and confirm the crystalline structure of the scale material and determine if the form of the aluminosilicate mineral was consistent with previous analysis of the scale material from the GDL.

  7. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 2) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Quality Assurance, Training and Qualification, Emergency Planning and Preparedness, and Construction.

  8. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 4) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Radiation Protection and Operations

  9. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 5) outlines the standards and requirements for the Fire Protection and Packaging and Transportation sections

  10. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 2) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Quality Assurance, Training and Qualification, Emergency Planning and Preparedness, and Construction

  11. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 4) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Radiation Protection and Operations.

  12. Analysis of tank 4 (FTF-4-15-22, 23) surface and subsurface supernatant samples in support of enrichment control, corrosion control and evaporator feed qualification programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-09

    This report provides the results of analyses on Savannah River Site Tank 4 surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the Enrichment Control Program (ECP), the Corrosion Control Program (CCP) and the Evaporator Feed Qualification (EFQ) Program. The purpose of the ECP sample taken from Tank 4 in August 2015 was to determine if the supernatant liquid would be “acceptable feed” to the 2H and 3H evaporator systems.

  13. Determining the amount of anhydrous alcohol evaporated in vertical cylindrical tanks; Determinacao da quantidade de alcool etilico anidro evaporado em tanques cilindricos verticais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Elcio Cruz de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In order to assess the anhydrous alcohol evaporated amount in vertical cylindrical tanks was developed a calculation methodology based on the rate of mass transfer of the product, the Reynolds number and the mass transfer coefficient. An Excel spreadsheet was prepared with data entry of the tank and physical and chemical properties of the product (temperature and density). For a temperature of 50 deg C, the volume evaporated reaches values of 0.8% by day. (author)

  14. RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.

    2010-02-08

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will complete Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in fiscal year 2010. DWPF has experienced multiple feed stoppages for the SB5 Melter Feed Tank (MFT) due to clogs. Melter throughput is decreased not only due to the feed stoppage, but also because dilution of the feed by addition of prime water (about 60 gallons), which is required to restart the MFT pump. SB5 conditions are different from previous batches in one respect: pH of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product (9 for SB5 vs. 7 for SB4). Since a higher pH could cause gel formation, due in part to greater leaching from the glass frit into the supernate, SRNL studies were undertaken to check this hypothesis. The clogging issue is addressed by this simulant work, requested via a technical task request from DWPF. The experiments were conducted at Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL) wherein a non-radioactive simulant consisting of SB5 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product simulant and frit was subjected to a 30 hour SME cycle at two different pH levels, 7.5 and 10; the boiling was completed over a period of six days. Rheology and supernate elemental composition measurements were conducted. The caustic run exhibited foaming once, after 30 minutes of boiling. It was expected that caustic boiling would exhibit a greater leaching rate, which could cause formation of sodium aluminosilicate and would allow gel formation to increase the thickness of the simulant. Xray Diffraction (XRD) measurements of the simulant did not detect crystalline sodium aluminosilicate, a possible gel formation species. Instead, it was observed that caustic conditions, but not necessarily boiling time, induced greater thickness, but lowered the leach rate. Leaching consists of the formation of metal hydroxides from the oxides, formation of boric acid from the boron oxide, and dissolution of SiO{sub 2}, the major frit component. It is likely that the observed precipitation of Mg

  15. Pressurization of a Flightweight, Liquid Hydrogen Tank: Evaporation and Condensation at a Liquid Vapor Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark E.

    2017-01-01

    Evaporation and condensation at a liquidvapor interface is important for long-term, in-space cryogenic propellant storage. Yet the current understanding of interfacial physics does not predict behavior or evaporation condensation rates. The proposed paper will present a physical model, based on the 1-D Heat equation and Schrages equation which demonstrates thin thermal layers at the fluidvapor interface.

  16. 40 CFR 52.256 - Control of evaporative losses from the filling of vehicular tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... filling of vehicular tanks. 52.256 Section 52.256 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... discharge of hydrocarbon vapors to the atmosphere from either the vehicle filler neck or dispensing nozzle... sign all necessary contracts for emission control systems, or issue orders for the purchase of...

  17. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 7. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, D.L.

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 7) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Occupational Safety and Health, and Environmental Protection.

  18. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 7. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, D.L.

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 7) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Occupational Safety and Health, and Environmental Protection

  19. Remotely replaceable fuel and feed nozzles for the NWCF calciner vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, R.D.; Carter, J.A.; May, K.W.

    1978-01-01

    The development and testing of remotely replaceable fuel and feed nozzles for calcination of liquid radioactive wastes in the calciner vessel of the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) being built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are described. A complete fuel nozzle assembly was fabricated and tested at the Remote Maintenance Development Facility to evolve design refinements, identify required support equipment, and develop handling techniques. The design also provided for remote replacement of the nozzle support carriage and adjacent feed and fuel pipe loops using two pairs of master-slave manipulators

  20. Experimental Results of NWCF Run H4 Calcine Dissolution Studies Performed in FY-98 and -99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garn, Troy Gerry; Herbst, Ronald Scott; Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Sierra, Tracy Laureena

    2001-08-01

    Dissolution experiments were performed on actual samples of NWCF Run H-4 radioactive calcine in fiscal years 1998 and 1999. Run H-4 is an aluminum/sodium blend calcine. Typical dissolution data indicates that between 90-95 wt% of H-4 calcine can be dissolved using 1gram of calcine per 10 mLs of 5-8M nitric acid at boiling temperature. Two liquid raffinate solutions composed of a WM-188/aluminum nitrate blend and a WM-185/aluminum nitrate blend were converted into calcine at the NWCF. Calcine made from each blend was collected and transferred to RAL for dissolution studies. The WM-188/aluminum nitrate blend calcine was dissolved with resultant solutions used as feed material for separation treatment experimentation. The WM-185/aluminum nitrate blend calcine dissolution testing was performed to determine compositional analyses of the dissolved solution and generate UDS for solid/liquid separation experiments. Analytical fusion techniques were then used to determine compositions of the solid calcine and UDS from dissolution. The results from each of these analyses were used to calculate elemental material balances around the dissolution process, validating the experimental data. This report contains all experimental data from dissolution experiments performed using both calcine blends.

  1. Feasibility study for an additional HEPA filter leaching system in NWCF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, W.D.

    1992-11-01

    This report documents the feasibility of installing a second high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter leaching system in the New Waste Calcining Facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). A large spent filter backlog already exists at the ICPP, and it has been uncertain whether the existing HEPA filter leaching system will have a throughput rate sufficient to work off the existing backlog in a timely manner. Three areas within the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) have been identified as possible locations for a second filter leaching system. This report examines the suitability of each location, identifies modifications that would be necessary-to install a filter leaching system at each location, examines the impact of modifying each location, and discusses recent efforts to estimate filter throughput using the existing filter leaching system. Based on all available information, installation of a second filter leaching system is not recommended at the present time.

  2. Final characterization and safety screen report of double shell tank 241-AP-104 for 242-A evaporator, campaign 96-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    This data package satisfies the requirement for a format IV, final report. It is a follow-up to the 45-day safety screen report for tank AP-104. Evaporator candidate feed from tank 241-AP-104 (hereafter referred to as AP-104) was characterized for physical, inorganic, organic and radiochemical parameters by the Westinghouse Hanford Company, 222-S Laboratory, and by the Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) as directed by the Tank Sample and Analysis Plan (TSAP), References 1 through 4. Preliminary data in the form of summary analytical tables were provided to the project in advance of this final report to enable early estimation of evaporator operational parameters, using the Predict modeling program. Laboratory analyses at ACL Laboratory was performed according to the TSAP. Analyses were performed at the 222-S Laboratory as defined and specified in the TSAP and the Laboratory's Quality Assurance Plan, References 5 and 6. Any deviations from the instructions documented in the TSAP are discussed in this narrative and are supported with additional documentation. SAMPLING The TSAP, section 2, provided sampling information for waste samples collected from tank AP-104. The bottle-on-a-string method was used to collect liquid grab samples from the tank. Each glass sample bottle was amber, precleaned, and contained approximately 100 milliliters. Each bottle was closed with a teflon seal cap (or teflon septum for volatile organic analysis samples). Field blank samples were prepared by placing deionized water into sampling bottles, lowering the unclosed bottles into the riser for a period of time, retrieving them from the riser, and then closing the bottles with the same types of caps used for the tank samples. None of the samples were preserved by acidification. Upon receipt, the sample bottles destined for organic analyses were placed in a refrigerator. No attempt was made during sampling to assure the complete

  3. Final characterization and safety screen report of double shell tank 241-AP-104 for 242-A evaporator, campaign 96-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.L.

    1996-04-19

    This data package satisfies the requirement for a format IV, final report. It is a follow-up to the 45-day safety screen report for tank AP-104. Evaporator candidate feed from tank 241-AP-104 (hereafter referred to as AP-104) was characterized for physical, inorganic, organic and radiochemical parameters by the Westinghouse Hanford Company, 222-S Laboratory, and by the Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) as directed by the Tank Sample and Analysis Plan (TSAP), References 1 through 4. Preliminary data in the form of summary analytical tables were provided to the project in advance of this final report to enable early estimation of evaporator operational parameters, using the Predict modeling program. Laboratory analyses at ACL Laboratory was performed according to the TSAP. Analyses were performed at the 222-S Laboratory as defined and specified in the TSAP and the Laboratory`s Quality Assurance Plan, References 5 and 6. Any deviations from the instructions documented in the TSAP are discussed in this narrative and are supported with additional documentation. SAMPLING The TSAP, section 2, provided sampling information for waste samples collected from tank AP-104. The bottle-on-a-string method was used to collect liquid grab samples from the tank. Each glass sample bottle was amber, precleaned, and contained approximately 100 milliliters. Each bottle was closed with a teflon seal cap (or teflon septum for volatile organic analysis samples). Field blank samples were prepared by placing deionized water into sampling bottles, lowering the unclosed bottles into the riser for a period of time, retrieving them from the riser, and then closing the bottles with the same types of caps used for the tank samples. None of the samples were preserved by acidification. Upon receipt, the sample bottles destined for organic analyses were placed in a refrigerator. No attempt was made during sampling to assure the complete

  4. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Safeguards and Security (S&S) Functional Area address the programmatic and technical requirements, controls, and standards which assure compliance with applicable S&S laws and regulations. Numerous S&S responsibilities are performed on behalf of the Tank Farm Facility by site level organizations. Certain other responsibilities are shared, and the remainder are the sole responsibility of the Tank Farm Facility. This Requirements Identification Document describes a complete functional Safeguards and Security Program that is presumed to be the responsibility of the Tank Farm Facility. The following list identifies the programmatic elements in the S&S Functional Area: Program Management, Protection Program Scope and Evaluation, Personnel Security, Physical Security Systems, Protection Program Operations, Material Control and Accountability, Information Security, and Key Program Interfaces.

  5. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Fire Protection functional area for the Hanford Site Tank Farm facilities and support structures is based on the application of relevant DOE orders, regulations, and industry codes and standards. The fire protection program defined in this document may be divided into three areas: (1) organizational, (2) administrative programmatic features, and (3) technical features. The information presented in each section is in the form of program elements and orders, regulations, industry codes, and standards that serve as the attributes of a fire protection program for the Tank Farm facilities. Upon completion this document will be utilized as the basis to evaluate compliance of the fire protection program being implemented for the Tank Farm facilities with the requirements of DOE orders and industry codes and standards

  6. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The scope of the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) Functional Area includes the programmatic controls associated with the management and operation of the Hanford Tank Farm Facility. The driving management organization implementing the programmatic controls is the Tank Farms Waste Management (WM)organization whose responsibilities are to ensure that performance objectives are established; and that measurable criteria for attaining objectives are defined and reflected in programs, policies and procedures. Objectives for the WM Program include waste minimization, establishment of effective waste segregation methods, waste treatment technology development, radioactive (low-level, high-level) hazardous and mixed waste transfer, treatment, and storage, applicability of a corrective action program, and management and applicability of a decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) program in future years.

  7. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The scope of the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) Functional Area includes the programmatic controls associated with the management and operation of the Hanford Tank Farm Facility. The driving management organization implementing the programmatic controls is the Tank Farms Waste Management (WM)organization whose responsibilities are to ensure that performance objectives are established; and that measurable criteria for attaining objectives are defined and reflected in programs, policies and procedures. Objectives for the WM Program include waste minimization, establishment of effective waste segregation methods, waste treatment technology development, radioactive (low-level, high-level) hazardous and mixed waste transfer, treatment, and storage, applicability of a corrective action program, and management and applicability of a decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) program in future years

  8. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this Requirements Identification Document (RID) section is to identify, in one location, all of the facility specific requirements and good industry practices which are necessary or important to establish an effective Issues Management Program for the Tank Farm Facility. The Management Systems Functional Area includes the site management commitment to environmental safety and health (ES&H) policies and controls, to compliance management, to development and management of policy and procedures, to occurrence reporting and corrective actions, resource and issue management, and to the self-assessment process.

  9. Exploratory tests of washing radioactive sludge samples from the Melton Valley and evaporator facility storage tanks at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, M.B.; Botts, J.L.; Keller, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    Exploratory tests were initiated to wash radioactive sludge samples from the waste storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose was to provide preliminary information about (1) the anions in the sludge phase that are soluble in water or dilute acid (e.g., the anions in the interstitial liquid) and (2) the solubilities of sludge constituents in water under process conditions. The experiments were terminated before completion due to changing priorities by the Department of Energy (DOE). This memorandum was prepared primarily for documentation purposes and presents the incomplete data. 3 refs., 13 tabs

  10. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this Requirements Identification Document (RID) section is to identify, in one location, all of the facility specific requirements and good industry practices which are necessary or important to establish an effective Issues Management Program for the Tank Farm Facility. The Management Systems Functional Area includes the site management commitment to environmental safety and health (ES ampersand H) policies and controls, to compliance management, to development and management of policy and procedures, to occurrence reporting and corrective actions, resource and issue management, and to the self-assessment process

  11. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Quality Assurance Functional Area Requirements Identification Document (RID), addresses the programmatic requirements that ensure risks and environmental impacts are minimized, ensure safety, reliability, and performance are maximized through the application of effective management systems commensurate with the risks posed by the Tank Farm Facility and its operation. This RID incorporates guidance intended to provide Tank Farms management with the necessary requirements information to develop, upgrade, or assess the effectiveness of a Quality Assurance Program in the performance of organizational and functional activities. Quality Assurance is defined as all those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a facility, structure, system, or component will perform satisfactorily and safely in service. This document will provide the specific requirements to meet DNFSB recommendations and the guidance provided in DOE Order 5700.6C, utilizing industry codes, standards, regulatory guidelines, and industry good practices that have proven to be essential elements for an effective and efficient Quality Assurance Program as the nuclear industry has matured over the last thirty years

  12. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Quality Assurance Functional Area Requirements Identification Document (RID), addresses the programmatic requirements that ensure risks and environmental impacts are minimized, ensure safety, reliability, and performance are maximized through the application of effective management systems commensurate with the risks posed by the Tank Farm Facility and its operation. This RID incorporates guidance intended to provide Tank Farms management with the necessary requirements information to develop, upgrade, or assess the effectiveness of a Quality Assurance Program in the performance of organizational and functional activities. Quality Assurance is defined as all those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a facility, structure, system, or component will perform satisfactorily and safely in service. This document will provide the specific requirements to meet DNFSB recommendations and the guidance provided in DOE Order 5700.6C, utilizing industry codes, standards, regulatory guidelines, and industry good practices that have proven to be essential elements for an effective and efficient Quality Assurance Program as the nuclear industry has matured over the last thirty years.

  13. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This Requirements Identification Document (RID) describes an Occupational Health and Safety Program as defined through the Relevant DOE Orders, regulations, industry codes/standards, industry guidance documents and, as appropriate, good industry practice. The definition of an Occupational Health and Safety Program as specified by this document is intended to address Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendations 90-2 and 91-1, which call for the strengthening of DOE complex activities through the identification and application of relevant standards which supplement or exceed requirements mandated by DOE Orders. This RID applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in maintaining the facility and executing the mission of the High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms.

  14. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This Requirements Identification Document (RID) describes an Occupational Health and Safety Program as defined through the Relevant DOE Orders, regulations, industry codes/standards, industry guidance documents and, as appropriate, good industry practice. The definition of an Occupational Health and Safety Program as specified by this document is intended to address Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendations 90-2 and 91-1, which call for the strengthening of DOE complex activities through the identification and application of relevant standards which supplement or exceed requirements mandated by DOE Orders. This RID applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in maintaining the facility and executing the mission of the High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms

  15. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M.

    1998-02-01

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study

  16. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study.

  17. 242-A evaporator hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the 242-A Evaporator, on the Hanford Site. Through this document the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated. The evaporator sues a conventional, forced-circulation, vacuum evaporation system to concentrate radioactive waste solutions. This concentration results in the reduction in waste volume and reduces the number of double-shelled tanks required to store the waste

  18. The sustainability of LNG evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stougie, L.; Van der Kooi, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) import terminals are under construction to fulfil the growing demand for energy carriers. After storage in tanks, the LNG needs to be heated and evaporated, also called ‘regasified’, to the natural gas needed in households and industry. Several options exist for

  19. Analyses and characterization of double shell tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Evaporator candidate feed from tank 241-AP-108 (108-AP) was sampled under prescribed protocol. Physical, inorganic, and radiochemical analyses were performed on tank 108-AP. Characterization of evaporator feed tank waste is needed primarily for an evaluation of its suitability to be safely processed through the evaporator. Such analyses should provide sufficient information regarding the waste composition to confidently determine whether constituent concentrations are within not only safe operating limits, but should also be relevant to functional limits for operation of the evaporator. Characterization of tank constituent concentrations should provide data which enable a prediction of where the types and amounts of environmentally hazardous waste are likely to occur in the evaporator product streams

  20. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence of the evaporator dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, R.D. Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for evaporator dump consequence for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Evaporator Dump scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided

  1. History of waste tank 13, 1956 through 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.L.; Tharin, D.W.; Lohr, D.R.

    1978-06-01

    Tank 13 was placed in service as a receiver of LW from the Building 221-H Purex process in December 1956. Five years later, the supernate was decanted to evaporator feed tank 21. It has since served as a transfer tank for HW supernate being sent to tank 21 and has received sludge removed from other tanks four times. The tank annulus has been inspected with an optical periscope and a lead-shielded camera. No indication of tank leakage had been seen through December 1974. However, subsequent to this report (on April 14, 1977), an arrested leak was discovered, making tank 13 the last of the four type II tanks to leak. Analytical samples of supernate and sludge have been taken. Tank 13 has had no cooling coil failures. Primary tank wall thicknesses, sludge level determinations, and temperature profiles have been obtained. Tank 13 has been included in various tests. Equipment modifications and various equipment repairs were made. 11 figures, 2 tables

  2. 242-A Evaporator quality assurance plan. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basra, T.S.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this quality assurance project plan (Plan) is to provide requirements for activities pertaining to sampling, shipping, and analyses associated with candidate feed tank samples for the 242-A Evaporator project. The purpose of the 242-A Evaporator project is to reduce the volume of aqueous waste in the Double Shell Tank (DST) System and will result in considerable savings to the disposal of mixed waste. The 242-A Evaporator feed stream originates from DSTs identified as candidate feed tanks. The 242-A Evaporator reduces the volume of aqueous waste contained in DSTs by boiling off water and sending the condensate (called process condensate) to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LEPF) storage basin where it is stored prior to treatment in the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The objective of this quality assurance project plan is to provide the planning, implementation, and assessment of sample collection and analysis, data issuance, and validation activities for the candidate feed tanks

  3. Streamer Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Steven T.; Wang, A. H.; Wu, Shi T.; Nerney, S.

    1998-01-01

    Evaporation is the consequence of slow plasma heating near the tops of streamers where the plasma is only weakly contained by the magnetic field. The form it takes is the slow opening of field lines at the top of the streamer and transient formation of new solar wind. It was discovered in polytropic model calculations, where due to the absence of other energy loss mechanisms in magnetostatic streamers, its ultimate endpoint is the complete evaporation of the streamer. This takes, for plausible heating rates, weeks to months in these models. Of course streamers do not behave this way, for more than one reason. One is that there are losses due to thermal conduction to the base of the streamer and radiation from the transition region. Another is that streamer heating must have a characteristic time constant and depend on the ambient physical conditions. We use our global Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model with thermal conduction to examine a few examples of the effect of changing the heating scale height and of making ad hoc choices for how the heating depends on ambient conditions. At the same time, we apply and extend the analytic model of streamers, which showed that streamers will be unable to contain plasma for temperatures near the cusp greater than about 2xl0(exp 6) K. Slow solar wind is observed to come from streamers through transient releases. A scenario for this that is consistent with the above physical process is that heating increases the near-cusp temperature until field lines there are forced open. The subsequent evacuation of the flux tubes by the newly forming slow wind decreases the temperature and heating until the flux tubes are able to reclose. Then, over a longer time scale, heating begins to again refill the flux tubes with plasma and increase the temperature until the cycle repeats itself. The calculations we report here are first steps towards quantitative evaluation of this scenario.

  4. Defense Waste Processing Facility Recycle Stream Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STONE, MICHAEL

    2006-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) stabilizes high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification of the waste slurries. DWPF currently produces approximately five gallons of dilute recycle for each gallon of waste vitrified. This recycle stream is currently sent to the HLW tank farm at SRS where it is processed through the HLW evaporators with the concentrate eventually sent back to the DWPF for stabilization. Limitations of the HLW evaporators and storage space constraints in the tank farm have the potential to impact the operation of the DWPF and could limit the rate that HLW is stabilized. After an evaluation of various alternatives, installation of a dedicated evaporator for the DWPF recycle stream was selected for further evaluation. The recycle stream consists primarily of process condensates from the pretreatment and vitrification processes. Other recycle streams consist of process samples, sample line flushes, sump flushes, and cleaning solutions from the decontamination and filter dissolution processes. The condensate from the vitrification process contains some species, such as sulfate, that are not appreciably volatile at low temperature and could accumulate in the system if 100% of the evaporator concentrate was returned to DWPF. These species are currently removed as required by solids washing in the tank farm. The cleaning solutions are much higher in solids content than the other streams and are generated 5-6 times per year. The proposed evaporator would be required to concentrate the recycle stream by a factor of 30 to allow the concentrate to be recycled directly to the DWPF process, with a purge stream sent to the tank farm as required to prevent buildup of sulfate and similar species in the process. The overheads are required to meet stringent constraints to allow the condensate to be sent directly to an effluent treatment plant. The proposed evaporator would nearly de-couple the DWPF process from the

  5. Solubility of plutonium and waste evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karraker, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical processing of irradiated reactor elements at the Savannah River Site separates uranium, plutonium and fission products; fission products and process-added chemicals are mixed with an excess of NaOH and discharged as a basic slurry into large underground tanks for temporary storage. The slurry is composed of base-insoluble solids that settle to the bottom of the tank; the liquid supemate contains a mixture of base-soluble chemicals--nitrates, nitrites aluminate, sulfate, etc. To conserve space in the waste tanks, the supemate is concentrated by evaporation. As the evaporation proceeds, the solubilities of some components are exceeded, and these species crystallize from solution. Normally, these components are soluble in the hot solution discharged from the waste tank evaporator and do not crystallize until the solution cools. However, concern was aroused at West Valley over the possibility that plutonium would precipitate and accumulate in the evaporator, conceivably to the point that a nuclear accident was possible. There is also a concern at SRS from evaporation of sludge washes, which arise from washing the base-insoluble solids (open-quote sludge close-quote) with ca. 1M NaOH to reduce the Al and S0 4 -2 content. The sludge washes of necessity extract a low level of Pu from the sludge and are evaporated to reduce their volume, presenting the possibility of precipitating Pu. Measurements of the solubility of Pu in synthetic solutions of similar composition to waste supernate and sludge washes are described in this report

  6. History of Tank 23, 1962 through 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G.

    1979-04-01

    Tank 23 was placed in service in April 1964 receiving contaminated water from Buildings 244-H, the Receiving Basin for Off-Site Fuel (RBOF), and 245-H, the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF). Tank 23 also provided emergency storage space for 500,000 gallons in the event of a severe contamination incident in Building 244-H. The tank has remained in this service since that time. The Tank 23 waste was processed initially by the 242-H evaporator, but since mid-1966 the waste has been processed through a zeolite bed to remove 137 C and other radioisotopes by ion exchange, and discarded to seepage basins. Inspections of the tank interior were made by using a 40-ft optical periscope and the thickness of the steel bottom of the tank was measured ultrasonically. Samples of the waste in the tank and liquid collected in the side wall and bottom sumps were analyzed. Several equipment modifications and repairs were made

  7. Experimental evaluation of LPG tank explosion hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawczyk, Jan

    2003-01-31

    Liquefied-pressure gases (LPG) are transported and stored in the liquid phase in closed tanks under sufficiently high pressure. In the case of an accident, an abrupt tank unsealing may release enormous quantity of evaporating gas and energy that has a destructive effect on the tank and its surroundings. In this paper, experiments with explosions of small LPG tanks are described. The data acquisition equipment applied in the tests provided a chance to learn dynamics of the process and determine hazard factors. The tests enabled a determination of temperature and pressure at which tanks containing LPG disrupt. The results enable a reconstruction of consecutive phases of the explosion and identification of hazards resulting from damage of the tanks. An explanation of the tank unsealing process with fluid parameters above critical point is given.

  8. NWCF maintenance features and capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.R.; Bingham, G.E.

    A New Waste Calcining Facility is being built at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to replace the existing Waste Calcining Facility which was built to demonstrate fluidized-bed solidification of highly radioactive liquid wastes. The new facility is being designed to provide a higher waste throughput, more corrosion resistant materials of construction, more effective cleanup of effluent streams, and extensive remote maintenance and equipment replacement capability. The facility will also contain extensive decontamination capability should contact maintenance become necessary. The facility is presently in construction and is scheduled for hot operation in 1980

  9. Tank waste concentration mechanism study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, L.C.; Johnson, L.J.

    1994-09-01

    This study determines whether the existing 242-A Evaporator should continue to be used to concentrate the Hanford Site radioactive liquid tank wastes or be replaced by an alternative waste concentration process. Using the same philosophy, the study also determines what the waste concentration mechanism should be for the future TWRS program. Excess water from liquid DST waste should be removed to reduce the volume of waste feed for pretreatment, immobilization, and to free up storage capacity in existing tanks to support interim stabilization of SSTS, terminal cleanout of excess facilities, and other site remediation activities

  10. Estimation of evaporative losses during storage of crude oil and petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Marina A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage of crude oil and petroleum products inevitably leads to evaporative losses. Those losses are important for the industrial plants mass balances, as well as for the environmental protection. In this paper, estimation of evaporative losses was performed using software program TANKS 409d which was developed by the Agency for Environmental Protection of the United States - US EPA. Emissions were estimated for the following types of storage tanks: fixed conical roof tank, fixed dome roof tank, external floating roof tank, internal floating roof tank and domed external floating roof tank. Obtained results show quantities of evaporated losses per tone of stored liquid. Crude oil fixed roof storage tank losses are cca 0.5 kg per tone of crude oil. For floating roof, crude oil losses are 0.001 kg/t. Fuel oil (diesel fuel and heating oil have the smallest evaporation losses, which are in order of magnitude 10-3 kg/tone. Liquids with higher Reid Vapour Pressure have very high evaporative losses for tanks with fixed roof, up to 2.07 kg/tone. In case of external floating roof tank, losses are 0.32 kg/tone. The smallest losses are for internal floating roof tank and domed external floating roof tank: 0.072 and 0.044, respectively. Finally, it can be concluded that the liquid with low volatility of low BTEX amount can be stored in tanks with fixed roof. In this case, the prevailing economic aspect, because the total amount of evaporative loss does not significantly affect the environment. On the other hand, storage of volatile derivatives with high levels of BTEX is not justified from the economic point of view or from the standpoint of the environment protection.

  11. Liquid waste evaporator operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchamp, A.

    2006-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) operates the Waste Treatment Centre (WTC) to treat and immobilize some of the low- level radioactive waste (LLRW) streams at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). The WTC at treats low- level radioactive liquid waste by removing the contaminants from the wastewater, concentrating them, and immobilizing them. The fundamental design concept for the WTC is to process the waste streams using forced circulation type liquid waste evaporation (LWE), to solidify the concentrates using thin film evaporator and to discharge the purified effluent into the Ottawa River following verification monitoring. The solidified product drums are stored in existing storage facilities in the CRL. The LWE was installed in the WTC to treat the LLRW. After about four (4) years of design, construction and cold commissioning, the active commissioning of the evaporator process using radioactive waste streams commenced in February 2000. The LWE has overcome problems encountered with previous processing system such as fouling and enabled treatment of historical liquid wastes, which are currently stored in tanks at CRL, and waste from future CRL projects. This paper summarizes some of the operating experience obtained during the last four years of operation. (author)

  12. Process control plan for 242-A Evaporator Campaign 95-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, E.Q.; Guthrie, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The wastes from tanks 106-AP, 107-AP, and 106-AW have been selected to be candidate feed wastes for Evaporator Campaign 95-1. The wastes in tank 106-AP and 107-AP are primarily from B-Plant strontium processing and PUREX neutralized cladding removal, respectively. The waste in tank 106-AW originated primarily from the partially concentrated product from 242-A Evaporator Campaign 94-2. Approximately 8.67 million liters of waste from these tanks will be transferred to tank 102-AW during the campaign. Tank 102-AW is the dedicated waste feed tank for the evaporator and currently contains 647,000 liters of processable waste. The purpose of the 242-A Evaporator Campaign 95-1 Process Control Plan (hereafter referred to as PCP) is to certify that the wastes in tanks 106-AP, 107-AP, 102-AW, and 106-AW are acceptable for processing through evaporator and provide a general description of process strategies and activities which will take place during Campaign 95-1. The PCP also summarizes and presents a comprehensive characterization of the wastes in these tanks

  13. Process control plan for 242-A Evaporator Campaign 95-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, E.Q.; Guthrie, M.D.

    1995-05-18

    The wastes from tanks 106-AP, 107-AP, and 106-AW have been selected to be candidate feed wastes for Evaporator Campaign 95-1. The wastes in tank 106-AP and 107-AP are primarily from B-Plant strontium processing and PUREX neutralized cladding removal, respectively. The waste in tank 106-AW originated primarily from the partially concentrated product from 242-A Evaporator Campaign 94-2. Approximately 8.67 million liters of waste from these tanks will be transferred to tank 102-AW during the campaign. Tank 102-AW is the dedicated waste feed tank for the evaporator and currently contains 647,000 liters of processable waste. The purpose of the 242-A Evaporator Campaign 95-1 Process Control Plan (hereafter referred to as PCP) is to certify that the wastes in tanks 106-AP, 107-AP, 102-AW, and 106-AW are acceptable for processing through evaporator and provide a general description of process strategies and activities which will take place during Campaign 95-1. The PCP also summarizes and presents a comprehensive characterization of the wastes in these tanks.

  14. Thermodynamic Modeling of Savannah River Evaporators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F.

    2001-08-02

    A thermodynamic model based on the code SOLGASMIX is developed to calculate phase equilibrium in evaporators and related tank wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This model uses the Pitzer method to calculate activity coefficients, and many of the required Pitzer parameters have been determined in the course of this work. Principal chemical species in standard SRS simulant solutions are included, and the temperature range for most parameters has been extended above 100 C. The SOLGASMIX model and calculations using the code Geochemists Workbench are compared to actual solubility data including silicate, aluminate, and aluminosilicate solutions. In addition, SOLGASMIX model calculations are also compared to transient solubility data involving SRS simulant solutions. These comparisons indicate that the SOLGASMIX predictions closely match reliable data over the range of temperature and solution composition expected in the SRS evaporator and related tanks. Predictions using the Geochemists Workbench may be unreliable, due primarily to the use of an inaccurate activity coefficient model.

  15. Mathematical model of the Savannah River Site waste tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.G. III.

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to simulate operation of the waste tank farm and the associated evaporator systems at the Savannah River Site. The model solves material balance equations to predict the volumes of liquid waste, salt, and sludge for all of the tanks within each of the evaporator systems. Additional logic is included to model the behavior of waste tanks not directly associated with the evaporators. Input parameters include the Material Management Plan forecast of canyon operations, specification of other waste sources for the evaporator systems, evaporator operating characteristics, and salt and sludge removal schedules. The model determines how the evaporators will operate, when waste transfers can be made, and waste accumulation rates. Output from the model includes waste tank contents, summaries of systems operations, and reports of space gain and the remaining capacity to store waste materials within the tank farm. Model simulations can be made to predict waste tank capacities on a daily basis for up to 20 years. The model is coded as a set of three computer programs designed to run on either IBM compatible or Apple Macintosh II personal computers

  16. Nitrogen tank

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Wanted The technical file about the pressure vessel RP-270 It concerns the Nitrogen tank, 60m3, 22 bars, built in 1979, and installed at Point-2 for the former L3 experiment. If you are in possession of this file, or have any files about an equivalent tank (probably between registered No. RP-260 and -272), please contact Marc Tavlet, the ALICE Glimos.

  17. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) constructed a 0.4-ha parking lot in Edison, NJ, that incorporated three different permeable pavement types in the parking lanes – permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). An impermeable liner installed 0.4 m below the driving surface in four 11.6-m by 4.74-m sections per each pavement type captures all infiltrating water and routes it to collection tanks that can contain events up to 38 mm. Each section has a design impervious area to permeable pavement area ratio of 0.66:1. Pressure transducers installed in the underdrain collection tanks measured water level for 24 months. Level was converted to volume using depth-to-volume ratios for individual collection tanks. Using a water balance approach, the measured infiltrate volume was compared to rainfall volume on an event-basis to determine the rainfall retained in the pavement strata and underlying aggregate. Evaporation since the previous event created additional storage in the pavement and aggregate layers. Events were divided into three groups based on antecedent dry period (ADP) and three, four-month categories of potential e

  18. Sheet Membrane Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Zapata, Felipe; Dillion, Paul; Castillo, Juan; Vonau, Walter; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Frodge, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    A document describes a sheet membrane spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME), which allows for the use of one common water tank that can supply cooling water to the astronaut and to the evaporator. Test data showed that heat rejection performance dropped only 6 percent after being subjected to highly contaminated water. It also exhibited robustness with respect to freezing and Martian atmospheric simulation testing. Water was allowed to freeze in the water channels during testing that simulated a water loop failure and vapor backpressure valve failure. Upon closing the backpressure valve and energizing the pump, the ice eventually thawed and water began to flow with no apparent damage to the sheet membrane. The membrane evaporator also serves to de-gas the water loop from entrained gases, thereby eliminating the need for special degassing equipment such as is needed by the current spacesuit system. As water flows through the three annular water channels, water evaporates with the vapor flowing across the hydrophobic, porous sheet membrane to the vacuum side of the membrane. The rate at which water evaporates, and therefore, the rate at which the flowing water is cooled, is a function of the difference between the water saturation pressure on the water side of the membrane, and the pressure on the vacuum side of the membrane. The primary theory is that the hydrophobic sheet membrane retains water, but permits vapor pass-through when the vapor side pressure is less than the water saturation pressure. This results in evaporative cooling of the remaining water.

  19. Evaporation and Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, T.

    1993-01-01

    In this article the influence of climate change on evaporation is discussed. The emphasis is on open water evaporation. Three methods for calculating evaporation are compared considering only changes in temperature and factors directly dependent on temperature. The Penman-method is used to

  20. SRS Tank 38H and 43H Supernate Foaming Studies and Tank 38H Reel Tape Solids Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Restivo, M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-12-04

    Radioactive waste samples retrieved from Savannah River Site (SRS) Tanks 38H and 43H (concentrate receipt and feed tanks, respectively, for the 2H Evaporator system) were evaluated with regard to their tendency to form foams during air sparging. This work was conducted due to recent processing issues and outages in the evaporator that were believed to have resulted from sample foaming. The samples evaluated for foam formation included supernate collected in April of 2014 (near the time of the evaporator outage) as well as historical samples available within the SRNL shielded cells facility. The April samples included one Tank 43H surface sample (HTF-43-14-42), one Tank 43H sub-surface sample (HTF-43-14-43), and one Tank 38H (HTF-38-14-41) surface sample. In addition, two Tank 43H samples (HTF-43-14-8 and HTF-43-14-9) and one Tank 38H sample (HTF-38-14-6) were also evaluated along with a blended sample of various historical Tank 38H and 43H samples. Characterization results for the April samples are also provided. The composition of the samples was similar to historical evaporator system samples received at SRNL.

  1. Evaluation of tank waste transfers at 241-AW tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    A number of waste transfers are needed to process and feed waste to the private contractors in support of Phase 1 Privatization. Other waste transfers are needed to support the 242-A Evaporator, saltwell pumping, and other ongoing Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) operations. The purpose of this evaluation is to determine if existing or planned equipment and systems are capable of supporting the Privatization Mission of the Tank Farms and continuing operations through the end of Phase 1B Privatization Mission. Projects W-211 and W-314 have been established and will support the privatization effort. Equipment and system upgrades provided by these projects (W-211 and W-314) will also support other ongoing operations in the tank farms. It is recognized that these projects do not support the entire transfer schedule represented in the Tank Waste Remediation system Operation and Utilization Plan. Additionally, transfers surrounding the 241-AW farm must be considered. This evaluation is provided as information, which will help to define transfer paths required to complete the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission. This document is not focused on changing a particular project, but it is realized that new project work in the 241-AW Tank Farm is required

  2. History of waste tank 22, 1965--1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G.

    1979-04-01

    Tank 22 (a 1,300,000-gallon Type IV tank) was placed in service June 6, 1965, receiving HW from tank 21. The HW was transferred back into tank 21 in September 1965 and fed to the Building 242-H evaporator. This recycled concentrate and concentrate from other waste was then received in tank 22 until the tank was filled. The HW concentrate and salt remained in the tank until November 1971 when removal was begun. The concentrated supernate was transferred from the tank followed by dissolution and removal of salt from the tank walls and bottom. The salt removal was completed in May 1974 and since that time tank 22 has served as a receiver of LW from Building 221-H. Inspections of the tank interior were made using a 40-ft optical periscope and the steel thickness of the tank bottom was measured ultrasonically. Samples of the tank vapors and liquid collected in the sidewall and bottom sumps were analyzed. Temperature and specific gravity measurements were made of waste stored in the tank. Several equipment modifications and repairs were made

  3. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  4. Integral Radiator and Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Miller, John R.; Jakupca, Ian; Sargi,Scott

    2007-01-01

    A simplified, lightweight system for dissipating heat of a regenerative fuel- cell system would include a heat pipe with its evaporator end placed at the heat source and its condenser end integrated into the wall of the regenerative fuel cell system gas-storage tanks. The tank walls act as heat-radiating surfaces for cooling the regenerative fuel cell system. The system was conceived for use in outer space, where radiation is the only physical mechanism available for transferring heat to the environment. The system could also be adapted for use on propellant tanks or other large-surface-area structures to convert them to space heat-radiating structures. Typically for a regenerative fuel cell system, the radiator is separate from the gas-storage tanks. By using each tank s surface as a heat-radiating surface, the need for a separate, potentially massive radiator structure is eliminated. In addition to the mass savings, overall volume is reduced because a more compact packaging scheme is possible. The underlying tank wall structure provides ample support for heat pipes that help to distribute the heat over the entire tank surface. The heat pipes are attached to the outer surface of each gas-storage tank by use of a high-thermal conductance, carbon-fiber composite-material wrap. Through proper choice of the composite layup, it is possible to exploit the high longitudinal conductivity of the carbon fibers (greater than the thermal conductivity of copper) to minimize the unevenness of the temperature distribution over the tank surface, thereby helping to maximize the overall heat-transfer efficiency. In a prototype of the system, the heat pipe and the composite wrap contribute an average mass of 340 g/sq m of radiator area. Lightweight space radiator panels have a mass of about 3,000 g/sq m of radiator area, so this technique saves almost 90 percent of the mass of separate radiator panels. In tests, the modified surface of the tank was found to have an emissivity of 0

  5. Dual Tank Fuel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  6. Mobile evaporator corrosion test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozeveld, A.; Chamberlain, D.B.

    1997-05-01

    Laboratory corrosion tests were conducted on eight candidates to select a durable and cost-effective alloy for use in mobile evaporators to process radioactive waste solutions. Based on an extensive literature survey of corrosion data, three stainless steel alloys (304L, 316L, AL-6XN), four nickel-based alloys (825, 625, 690, G-30), and titanium were selected for testing. The corrosion tests included vapor phase, liquid junction (interface), liquid immersion, and crevice corrosion tests on plain and welded samples of candidate materials. Tests were conducted at 80 degrees C for 45 days in two different test solutions: a nitric acid solution. to simulate evaporator conditions during the processing of the cesium ion-exchange eluant and a highly alkaline sodium hydroxide solution to simulate the composition of Tank 241-AW-101 during evaporation. All of the alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in the alkaline test solution. Corrosion rates were very low and localized corrosion was not observed. Results from the nitric acid tests showed that only 316L stainless steel did not meet our performance criteria. The 316L welded interface and crevice specimens had rates of 22.2 mpy and 21.8 mpy, respectively, which exceeds the maximum corrosion rate of 20 mpy. The other welded samples had about the same corrosion resistance as the plain samples. None of the welded samples showed preferential weld or heat-affected zone (HAZ) attack. Vapor corrosion was negligible for all alloys. All of the alloys except 316L exhibited either open-quotes satisfactoryclose quotes (2-20 mpy) or open-quotes excellentclose quotes (<2 mpy) corrosion resistance as defined by National Association of Corrosion Engineers. However, many of the alloys experienced intergranular corrosion in the nitric acid test solution, which could indicate a susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in this environment

  7. Tank 241-A-105 leak assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-01

    Tank 241-A-105 is one of 149 single shell tanks constructed at Hanford to contain and store highly radioactive wastes originating from the processing of spent nuclear reactor fuel. Radiation detection and temperature monitoring devices installed beneath the tank indicate that several episodes of leakage of waste from the tank have occurred. The aim of this study was to evaluate the previous estimates and reanalyze the data to provide a more accurate estimate of leakage from the tank. The principal conclusions of this study are as follows: Earlier investigators estimated leakage prior to August 1968 at 5,000 to 15,000 gallons. Their estimate appears reasonable. Leakage while the tank was being sluiced (8/68--11/70) probably exceeded 5,000 gallons, but probably did not exceed 30,000 gallons. Insufficient data are available to be more precise. Cooling water added to the tank during the sprinkling phase (11/70 -- 12/78) was approximately 610,000 gallons. Sufficient heat was generated in the tank to evaporate most, and perhaps nearly all, of this water. Radionuclides escaping into the soil under the tank cannot be estimated directly because of many uncertainties. Based on a range of leakage from 10,000 to 45,000 gallons, assumed compositions, and decayed to 1/1/91, radioactivity under the tank is expected to be in the range of 85,000--760,000 curies. Measured radiation peaks were nearly all located directly below the perimeter of the tank and, except in rare cases, they showed no tendency to spread horizontally. Moreover, the maximum radiation readings detected are a very small fraction of the radiation reading in the tank. This is the basis for the conclusion that the rate of leakage and, most likely, the quantity leaked, was small. 51 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Microwave heating type evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taura, Masazumi; Nishi, Akio; Morimoto, Takashi; Izumi, Jun; Tamura, Kazuo; Morooka, Akihiko.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent evaporization stills against corrosion due to radioactive liquid wastes. Constitution: Microwaves are supplied from a microwave generator by way of a wave guide tube and through a microwave permeation window to the inside of an evaporatization still. A matching device is attached to the wave guide tube for transmitting the microwaves in order to match the impedance. When the microwaves are supplied to the inside of the evaporization still, radioactive liquid wastes supplied from a liquid feed port by way of a spray tower to the inside of the evaporization still is heated and evaporated by the induction heating of the microwaves. (Seki, T.)

  9. Evaporation Anisotropy of Forsterite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, K.; Nagahara, H.; Morioka, M.

    1996-03-01

    Evaporation anisotropy of a synthetic single crystal of forsterite was investigated by high temperature vacuum experiments. The (001), (010), and (001) surfaces show microstructures characteristic for each surface. Obtained overall linear evaporation rates for the (001), (010), and (001) surfaces are ~17, ~7, and ~22 mm/hour, and the intrinsic evaporation rates, obtained by the change in surface microstructures, are ~10, ~4.5, and ~35 mm/hour, respectively. The difference between the intrinsic evaporation rates and overall rates can be regarded as contribution of dislocation, which is notable for the (100) and (010) surfaces and insignificant for the (001) surface. This is consistent with observed surface microstructures.

  10. Origin of Wastes in Single Shell Tanks [SST] 241-B-110 & 241B-111

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, M.E.

    2003-05-02

    A review of waste transfer documents was conducted to identify the origin of wastes present in tanks B-110 and B-111. These tanks initially received second decontamination cycle (2C) waste from the 221-B Bismuth Phosphate Plant, which separated into 2C sludge and supernatant. The supernatant was discharged to cribs. 242-B Evaporator bottoms were briefly stored in these tanks. Later, these tanks received waste from fission product separations conducted at the 221-B Plant.

  11. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  12. Evaporation and weather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, H.A.R. de; Feddes, R.A.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Lablans, W.N.; Schuurmans, C.J.E.; Shuttleworth, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Data on evaporation to be used in agriculture, hydrology, forestry, etc. are usually supplied by meteorologists. Meteorologists themselves also use evaporation data. Air mass properties determining weather are strongly dependent on the input of water vapour from the surface. So for weather

  13. Evaporation, Boiling and Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation and boiling are both terms applied to the change of a liquid to the vapour/gaseous state. This article argues that it is the formation of bubbles of vapour within the liquid that most clearly differentiates boiling from evaporation although only a minority of chemistry textbooks seems to mention bubble formation in this context. The…

  14. History of waste tank 16, 1959 through 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.L.; Tharin, D.W.; Jones, D.W.; Lohr, D.R.

    1977-07-01

    Tank 16 was placed in service as a receiver of fresh high heat waste (HW) on May 9, 1959, and was filled to capacity in May 1960. Approximately half the tank contents were transferred to tanks 14 and 15 during September and October 1960 because of leakage into the annulus. Use of tank 16 was resumed in October 1967 when authorization (TA 2-603) was obtained to receive LW, and the tank was filled to capacity by June 1968. Subsequently, supernate was removed from the tank, and a blend of fresh LW and evaporator bottoms was added. In March 1972, the supernate was transferred to tank 13 because leakage had resumed. The sludge was left in the tank bottom and the use of tank 16 for any additional waste storage was discontinued. In September 1960 liquid waste overflowed the annulus pan. Leakage essentially stopped after the tank liquid level was lowered below the middle horizontal weld. After exhaustive study, tank cracking and resultant leakage was concluded to have been caused by stress corrosion due to the action of NaOH or NaNO 3 on areas of high local stress in the steel plate such as welds. Samples of sludge, supernate, tank vapors, and leaked material in the annulus were analyzed, and tank temperature and radiation profiles were taken. Two disk samples were cut from the primary tank wall for metallurgical examination. Test coupons of various metals were exposed to tank 16 waste to aid new tank design and to study stress corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. In addition, samples of SRP bedrock were placed in tank 16 to study reactions between bedrock and HW. 18 figures, 2 tables

  15. Aluminosilicate Formation in High Level Waste Evaporators: A Mechanism for Uranium Accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    High level waste Evaporators at the Savannah River Site (SRS) process radioactive waste to concentrate supernate and thus conserve tank space. In June of 1997, difficulty in evaporator operation was initially observed. This operational difficulty evidenced itself as a plugging of the evaporator's gravity drain line (GDL). The material blocking the GDL was determined to be a sodium aluminosilicate. Following a mechanical cleaning of the GDL, the evaporator was returned to service until October 1999. At this time massive deposits were discovered in the evaporator pot. As a result of the changes in evaporator chemistry and the resulting formation of aluminosilicate deposits in the evaporator, a comprehensive research and development program has been undertaken. This program is underway in order to assist in understanding the new evaporator chemistry and gain insight into the deposition phenomena. Key results from testing in FY01 have demonstrated that the chemistry of the evaporator feed favors aluminosilicate formation. Both the reaction kinetics and particle growth of the aluminosilicate material under SRS evaporator conditions has been demonstrated to occur within the residence times utilized in the SRS evaporator operation. Batch and continuous-flow experiments at known levels of supersaturation have shown a significant correlation between the deposition of aluminosilicates and mixing intensity in the vessel. Advances in thermodynamic modeling of the evaporator chemistry have been accomplished. The resulting thermodynamic model has been related to the operational history of the evaporator, is currently assisting in feed selection, and could potentially assist in expanding the operating envelopes technical baselines for evaporator operation

  16. History of waste tank 1, 1954 through 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G.; Stevens, W.E.

    1978-10-01

    Tank 1 was placed in service as a receiver of high heat waste (HW) in October 1954. The supernate was removed from the tank in October 1961 and the tank began receiving low heat waste (LW) in January 1962. The LW supernate was decanted in October 1962 and prior to beginning a second HW filling in April 1963. The supernate from this HW filling was decanted twice in 1969. Sludge removal operations were conducted in May and August 1969 in order to use tank 1 for salt storage. The first evaporator concentrate receipt was in September 1969 and tank 1 has only been used as a salt storage tank since. Leakage from the tank into the annulus was discovered in February 1969. Deposits less than 1/4 inch deep of leaked waste were found on the pan floor. However, no leak sites have been found. Inspections of the tank interior and annulus were made by direct observation and by using a 40-ft optical periscope. Samples of sludge, supernate, tank vapors, and leaked material into the annulus were analyzed and tank temperature profiles were taken. Deflection measurements were made of the primary tank bottom knuckle plate while filling the tank with salt. Two vertical cooling coils have failed. Several equipment modifications and various equipment repairs were made. 18 figures, 2 tables

  17. Evaporative cooling of trapped atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketterle, W.; Van Druten, N.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on evaporative cooling of trapped atoms: Theoretical models for evaporative cooling; the role of collisions for real atoms; experimental techniques and summary of evaporative cooling experiments. 166 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  18. 95-1 Campaign evaporator boildown results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Process Chemistry Laboratories were requested to support the 242-A Evaporator restart as part of the overall 222-S laboratory effort. The net purpose of these studies is to determine the characteristics of double-shell tank materials as they are processed in the evaporator. The results for the boildown study (which includes pressure and temperature versus % waste volume reduction and density of final boildown residue) supporting the 242-A Evaporator restart are reported below. The boildown was performed in a vacuum distillation apparatus with an adjustable vacuum limiting manometer and an isolatable collection graduated cylinder. The boildown was conducted over a seven hour period. The evaporation was done at 60 torr (to avoid excessive foaming and bumping of solution) for approximately half of the boildown, the pressure then being reduced to 40 torr when the reduction in solution volume allowed this to be done. Percent waste volume reduction was measured by observing the amount of condensate collected in a graduated cylinder. As the graduated cylinder became full, it was isolated from the rest of the system and the condensate removed. Pressure was set using an electronic manometer with a low pressure limiter set at the desired level. Temperature was measured using a J-type thermocouple. The apparatus was calibrated by observing the pressure versus temperature response of pure water, and comparing the values thus obtained to published values

  19. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each person...

  20. Vacuum evaporation of pure metals

    OpenAIRE

    Safarian, Jafar; Engh, Thorvald Abel

    2013-01-01

    Theories on the evaporation of pure substances are reviewed and applied to study vacuum evaporation of pure metals. It is shown that there is good agreement between different theories for weak evaporation, whereas there are differences under intensive evaporation conditions. For weak evaporation, the evaporation coefficient in Hertz-Knudsen equation is 1.66. Vapor velocity as a function of the pressure is calculated applying several theories. If a condensing surface is less than one collision...

  1. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    OpenAIRE

    Brandsma, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the theory. Further, special conditions in evaporation are considered, followed by a fotmulation of the difficulties in determining evaporation, The last part of the paper gives a short discussion about ...

  2. Evaporation under vacuum condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Satoshi; Shibata, Yuki; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Hashizume, Hidetoshi; Toda, Saburo; Takase, Kazuyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    2000-01-01

    In nuclear fusion reactor design, an event of water coolant ingress into its vacuum vessel is now being considered as one of the most probable accidents. In this report, the evaporation under vacuum condition is evaluated by using the evaporation model we have developed. The results show that shock-wave by the evaporation occurs whose behavior strongly depends on the initial conditions of vacuum. And in the case of lower initial pressure and temperature, the surface temp finally becomes higher than other conditions. (author)

  3. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-BY-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benar, C.J.

    1996-09-26

    This characterization report summarizes the available information on the historical uses, current status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste contained in underground storage tank 241-BY-104. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Milestone M-44-09. Tank 241-BY-104 is one of 12 single-shell tanks located in the BY-Tank Farm in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. Tank 241-BY-104 entered service in the first quarter of 1950 with a transfer of metal waste from an unknown source. Through cascading, the tank was full of metal waste by the second quarter of 1951. The waste was sluiced in the second quarter of 1954. Uranium recovery (tributyl phosphate) waste was sent from tank 241-BY-107 during the second quarter of 1955 and from tank 241-BY-110 during the third quarter of 1955. Most of this waste was sent to a crib during the fourth quarter of 1955. During the third and fourth quarters of 1956 and the second and third quarters of 1957, the tank received waste from the in-plant ferrocyanide scavenging process (PFeCN2) from tanks 241-BY-106, -107, -108, and -110. This waste type is predicted to compose the bottom layer of waste currently in the tank. The tank received PUREX cladding waste (CWP) periodically from 1961 to 1968. Ion-exchange waste from cesium recovery operations was received from tank 241-BX-104 during the second and third quarters of 1968. Tank 241-BY-104 received evaporator bottoms waste from the in-tank solidification process that was conducted in the BY-Tank Farm 0247from tanks 241 -BY- 109 and 241 -BY- 1 12 from 1970 to 1974. The upper portion of tank waste is predicted to be composed of BY saltcake. Tank 241-BY-104 was declared inactive in 1977. Waste was saltwell pumped from the tank during the third quarter of 1982 and the fourth quarter of 1985. Table ES-1 and Figure ES-1 describe tank 241-BY-104 and its status. The tank has an operating capacity of 2,869 kL and presently

  4. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AP-101. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    One major function of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize wastes m support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis and other available information about a tank are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendixes serve as the TCR for double-shell tank 241-AP-101. The objectives of this report are to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-AP-101 waste; and to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. Section 2.0 summarizes the response to technical issues, Section 3.0 provides the best-basis inventory estimate, and Section 4.0 makes recommendations about safety status and additional sampling needs. The appendixes contain supporting data and information. This report supported the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Milestone M-44-05. The characterization information in this report originated from sample analyses and known historical sources. Appendix A provides historical information for tank 241-AP-101 including surveillance, information, records pertaining to waste transfers and tank operations, and expected tank contents derived from a model based upon process knowledge. Appendix B summarizes recent sampling events and historical sampling information. Tank 241-AP-101 was grab sampled in November 1995, when the tank contained 2,790 kL (737 kgal) of waste. An addition1034al 1,438 kL (380 kgal) of waste was received from tank 241-AW-106 in transfers on March 1996 and January 1997. This waste was the product of the 242-A Evaporator Campaign 95-1. Characterization information for the additional 1,438 kL (380 kgal) was obtained using grab sampling data from tank 241-AW-106 and a slurry sample from the evaporator. Appendix C reports on the statistical analysis and numerical manipulation of data used in

  5. Evaporation from microreservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, N Scott; Henry, Charles S; Dandy, David S

    2009-06-21

    As a result of very large surface area to volume ratios, evaporation is of significant importance when dealing with lab-on-a-chip devices that possess open air/liquid interfaces. For devices utilizing a reservoir as a fluid delivery method to a microfluidic network, excessive evaporation can quickly lead to reservoir dry out and overall device failure. Predicting the rates of evaporation from these reservoirs is difficult because the position of the air/liquid interface changes with time as the volume of liquid in the reservoir decreases. Here we present a two-step method to accurately predict the rates of evaporation of such an interface over time. First, a simple method is proposed to determine the shape of an air/liquid meniscus in a reservoir given a specific liquid volume. Second, computational fluid dynamics simulations are used to calculate the instantaneous rate of evaporation for that meniscus shape. It is shown that the rate of evaporation is strongly dependent on the overall geometry of the system, enhanced in expanding reservoirs while suppressed in contracting reservoirs, where the geometry can be easily controlled with simple experimental methods. Using no adjustable parameters, the model accurately predicts the position of the inner moving contact line as a function of time following meniscus rupture in poly(dimethylsiloxane) reservoirs, and predicts the overall time for the persistence of liquid in those reservoirs to within 0.5 minutes. The methods in this study can be used to design holding reservoirs for lab-on-a-chip devices that involve no external control of evaporation, such that evaporation rates can be adjusted as necessary by modification of the reservoir geometry.

  6. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-02-24

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  7. Tank 241-U-203: Tank Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1995-01-01

    The revised Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order states that a tank characterization plan will be developed for each double-shell tank and single-shell tank using the data quality objective process. The plans are intended to allow users and regulators to ensure their needs will be met and resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-U-203 sampling activities

  8. Single-Shell tank system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FIELD, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    The Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) system consists of 149 underground SSTs and processing equipment designed and constructed between 1940 and 1964 to transport and store radioactive hazardous/dangerous wastes generated from irradiated nuclear fuel processing. The tanks, designed to store waste, vary in size from between 190,000 to 3,800,000 L (50,000 gal to 1,000,000 gal) and contain a variety of solid and liquid waste. The system also includes miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUST). In addition to the tanks, there is a large amount of ancillary equipment associated with the system and although not designed to store wastes, the ancillary equipment is contaminated through contact with the waste. Waste was routed to the tanks through a network of underground piping, with interconnections provided in concrete pits that allowed changes to the routing through instrumentation. Processing vaults used during waste handling operations, evaporators used to reduce the waste stored in the system, and other miscellaneous structures used for a variety of waste handling operations are also included in the system. The SST system was taken out of service in 1980 and no additional waste has been added to the tanks. The SSTs and ancillary equipment were designed and constructed before promulgation of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1986. The purpose of this document is to describe the SST system for use in performing an engineering and compliance assessment in support of M-23 milestones (Ecology, et al. 2000). This system description provides estimated locations and volumes of waste within the SST system, including storage tanks, transfer systems, evaporators aid miscellaneous support facilities

  9. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the

  10. Sludge mobilization with submerged nozzles in horizontal cylindrical tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylton, T.D.; Cummins, R.L.; Youngblood, E.L.; Perona, J.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) and the evaporator service tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are used for the collection and storage of liquid low-level waste (LLLW). Wastes collected in these tanks are typically acidic when generated and are neutralized with sodium hydroxide to protect the tanks from corrosion; however, the high pH of the solution causes the formation of insoluble compounds that precipitate. These precipitates formed a sludge layer approximately 0.6 to 1.2 m (2 to 4 ft) deep in the bottom of the tanks. The sludge in the MVSTs and the evaporator service tanks will eventually need to be removed from the tanks and treated for final disposal or transferred to another storage facility. The primary options for removing the sludge include single-point sluicing, use of a floating pump, robotic sluicing, and submerged-nozzle sluicing. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the feasibility of submerged-nozzle sluicing in horizontal cylindrical tanks and (2) obtain experimental data to validate the TEMPEST (time-dependent, energy, momentun, pressure, equation solution in three dimensions) computer code

  11. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked on...

  12. Thermodynamic Modeling of the SRS Evaporators: Part II. The 3H System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2001-10-02

    Accumulations of two solid phases have formed scale deposits in the Savannah River Site 2H Evaporator system since late 1996. The aluminosilicate scale deposits caused the evaporator pot to become inoperable in October 1999. Accumulations of the diuranate phase have caused criticality concerns in the SRS 2H Evaporator. In order to ensure that similar deposits are not and will not form in the SRS 3H Evaporator, thermodynamically derived activity diagrams specific to the feeds processed from Tanks 30 and 32 are evaluated in this report.

  13. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft 3 of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  14. Hanford Tank Cleanup Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriochoa, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    Access to Hanford's single-shell radioactive waste storage tank C-107 was significantly improved when workers completed the cut of a 55-inch diameter hole in the top of the tank. The core and its associated cutting equipment were removed from the tank and encased in a plastic sleeve to prevent any potential spread of contamination. The larger tank opening allows use of a new more efficient robotic arm to complete tank retrieval.

  15. Complex Protection of Vertical Stainless Steel Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrislamov Radik Zakievich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the problem of fail-safe oil and oil products storage in stainless steel tanks and present the patented tank inner side protection technology. The latter provides process, ecological and fire safety and reducing soil evaporation of oil products, which is a specific problem. The above-mentioned technology includes corrosion protection and heat insulation protection providing increase of cover durability and RVS service life in general. The offered technological protection scheme is a collaboration of the author, Steel Paint GmbH firm and JSC “Koksokhimmontazhproyekt”. PU foam unicomponent materials of Steel Paint GmbH firm provide the protection of tank inner side and cover.

  16. Jet mixing of liquids in long horizontal cylindrical tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, J.J.; Hylton, T.D.; Youngblood, E.L.; Cummins, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Large storage tanks may require mixing to achieve homogeneity of contents for several reasons: prior to sampling for mass balance purposes, for blending in reagents, for suspending settled solids for removal, or for use as a feed tank to a process. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, mixed waste evaporator concentrates are stored in ∼ 190-m 3 (50,000-gal) horizontal tanks, about 3.7 m (12 ft) in diameter and 18 m (60 ft) in length. This tank configuration has the advantage of permitting transport by truck and therefore fabrication in the shop rather than in the field. A survey of the literature revealed no information on mixing large storage tanks with length-to-diameter ratios greater than 2. Jet mixing experiments were carried out in two model tanks: a 0.87-m 3 (25,000-gal) tank that was about 2/3 linear scale of the actual waste tanks. Mixing times were measured by the use of a sodium chloride tracer and several conductivity probes distributed throughout the tanks. Several jet sizes and configurations were tested. In the 0.87-m 3 tank, jet diameters of 0.016, 0.022, and 0.041 m were used. In the 95-m 3 tank, jet diameters of 0.035 and 0.049 m were used. One-directional and two-directional jets were tested in both tanks. Mixing times for each tank were correlated with the jet Reynolds number and for the two tank sizes using the recirculation time for the developed jet

  17. Tank 241-AW-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1994-01-01

    The first section gives a summary of the available information for Tank AW-101. Included in the discussion are the process history and recent sampling events for the tank, as well as general information about the tank such as its age and the risers to be used for sampling. Tank 241-AW-101 is one of the 25 tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. To resolve the Flammable Gas safety issue, characterization of the tanks, including intrusive tank sampling, must be performed. Prior to sampling, however, the potential for the following scenarios must be evaluated: the potential for ignition of flammable gases such as hydrogen-air and/or hydrogen-nitrous oxide; and the potential for secondary ignition of organic-nitrate/nitrate mixtures in crust layer initiated by the burning of flammable gases or by a mechanical in-tank energy source. The characterization effort applicable to this Tank Characterization Plan is focused on the resolution of the crust burn flammable gas safety issue of Tank AW-101. To evaluate the potential for a crust burn of the waste material, calorimetry tests will be performed on the waste. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) will be used to determine whether an exothermic reaction exists

  18. Tank 241-C-103 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-10-06

    The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify the sampling analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. A Tank Characterization Plant (TCP) will be developed for each double shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. There are four Watch list tank classifications (ferrocyanide, organic salts, hydrogen/flammable gas, and high heat load). These classifications cover the six safety issues related to public and worker health that have been associated with the Hanford Site underground storage tanks. These safety issues are as follows: ferrocyanide, flammable gas, organic, criticality, high heat, and vapor safety issues. Tank C-103 is one of the twenty tanks currently on the Organic Salts Watch List. This TCP will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in accordance with the appropriate DQO documents. In addition, the current contents and status of the tank are projected from historical information. The relevant safety issues that are of concern for tanks on the Organic Salts Watch List are: the potential for an exothermic reaction occurring from the flammable mixture of organic materials and nitrate/nitrite salts that could result in a release of radioactive material and the possibility that other safety issues may exist for the tank.

  19. Tank waste remediation system fiscal year 1998 multi-year work plan WBS 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenseigne, D. L.

    1997-09-15

    The TWRS Project Mission is to manage and immobilize for disposal the Hanford Site radioactive tank waste and cesium (Cs)/strontium (Sr) capsules in a safe, environmentally sound, and cost-effective manner. The scope includes all activities needed to (1) resolve safety issues; (2) operate, maintain, and upgrade the tank farms and supporting infrastructure; (3) characterize, retrieve, pretreat, and immobilize the waste for disposal and tank farm closure; and (4) use waste minimization and evaporation to manage tank waste volumes to ensure that the tank capacities of existing DSTs are not exceeded. The TWRS Project is responsible for closure of assigned operable units and D&D of TWRS facilities.

  20. Forest evaporation models: Relationships between stand growth and evaporation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Maitre, David C

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between forest stand structure, growth and evaporation were analysed to determine whether forest evaporation can be estimated from stand growth data. This approach permits rapid assessment of the potential impacts of afforestation...

  1. Performances in Tank Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel-Viorel Panaitescu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several operations which must do to maximize the performance of tank cleaning. The new advanced technologies in tank cleaning have raised the standards in marine areas. There are many ways to realise optimal cleaning efficiency for different tanks. The evaluation of tank cleaning options means to start with audit of operations: how many tanks require cleaning, are there obstructions in tanks (e.g. agitators, mixers, what residue needs to be removed, are cleaning agents required or is water sufficient, what methods can used for tank cleaning. After these steps, must be verify the results and ensure that the best cleaning values can be achieved in terms of accuracy and reliability. Technology advancements have made it easier to remove stubborn residues, shorten cleaning cycle times and achieve higher levels of automation. In this paper are presented the performances in tank cleaning in accordance with legislation in force. If tank cleaning technologies are effective, then operating costs are minimal.

  2. Tank characterization report: Tank 241-C-109

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borshiem, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Single-shell tank 241-C-109 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in September 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-109 were conducted to support the resolution of the ferrocyanide unreviewed safety question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and consent Order (Tri- Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. This report describes this analysis.

  3. Tank characterization report: Tank 241-C-109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borshiem, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Single-shell tank 241-C-109 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in September 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-109 were conducted to support the resolution of the ferrocyanide unreviewed safety question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and consent Order (Tri- Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. This report describes this analysis

  4. Theoretical comparison between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon; Bales, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have shown that solar combisystems based on bikini tanks for low energy houses perform better than solar domestic hot water systems based on mantle tanks. Tank-in-tank solar combisystems are also attractive from a thermal performance point of view. In this paper......, theoretical comparisons between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems are presented....

  5. Characterization of selected waste tanks from the active LLLW system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1996-08-01

    From September 1989 through January of 1990, there was a major effort to sample and analyze the Active Liquid-Low Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL which include the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST). The purpose of this report is to summarize additional analytical data collected from some of the active waste tanks from November 1993 through February 1996. The analytical data for this report was collected for several unrelated projects which had different data requirements. The overall analyte list was similar for these projects and the level of quality assurance was the same for all work reported. the new data includes isotopic ratios for uranium and plutonium and an evaluation of the denature ratios to address criticality concerns. Also, radionuclides not previously measured in these waste tanks, including 99Tc and 237Np, are provided in this report

  6. Characterization of selected waste tanks from the active LLLW system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1996-08-01

    From September 1989 through January of 1990, there was a major effort to sample and analyze the Active Liquid-Low Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL which include the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST). The purpose of this report is to summarize additional analytical data collected from some of the active waste tanks from November 1993 through February 1996. The analytical data for this report was collected for several unrelated projects which had different data requirements. The overall analyte list was similar for these projects and the level of quality assurance was the same for all work reported. the new data includes isotopic ratios for uranium and plutonium and an evaluation of the denature ratios to address criticality concerns. Also, radionuclides not previously measured in these waste tanks, including 99Tc and 237Np, are provided in this report.

  7. Modeling of the Savannah River Site High Level Waste Evaporator Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, T.

    2003-01-01

    Three evaporators are used to reduce the volume of waste in the waste tank farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Evaporators are crucial operation in the SRS waste processing and management system. Using the Aspen Custom Modeler(TM) (ACM) software package marketed by Aspen Technology, Inc., the evaporator dynamic flowsheet models have been constructed to simulate the behavior of the evaporator systems. The evaporator models are used to assist operations and planning. The models account for the basic arrangement and flowpath for the evaporators: (1) Feed system, (2) Concentrate system, (3) Overheads system, and (4) Steam system. This paper provides a detailed description of the model development and presents the result of a typical simulation scenario

  8. Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    The emergence of more think tanks in recent decades has spawned some interest in how they function and impact policy-making in the European Union and its member states. So far however few empirical studies of think tanks have been carried out and think tanks have mainly been studied in their nati...... and why think tank types converge and diverge across countries and levels of governance, to what extent they are embedded in national contexts and how studies of think tanks can proceed despite methodological problems and disagreement on how to define think tanks....

  9. Environmental Projects. Volume 8: Modifications of wastewater evaporation ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the Mojave Desert about 45 miles north of Barstow, California, and about 160 miles northeast of Pasadena, is part of NASA's Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. The Goldstone Complex is managed, technically directed, and operated for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of seven parabolic dish antennas. These activities may give rise to environmental hazards: use of hazardous chemicals, asbestos, and underground storage tanks as well as the generation of hazardous wastes and the disposal of wastewater. Federal, state, and local laws governing the management of hazardous substances, asbestos, underground storage tanks and wastewater disposal have become so complex there is a need to devise specific programs to comply with the many regulations that implement these laws. In support of the national goal of the preservation of the environment and the protection of human health and safety, NASA, JPL, and the GDSCC have adopted a position that their operating installations shall maintain a high level of compliance with these laws. One of the environmental problems at the GDSCC involved four active, operational, wastewater evaporation ponds designed to receive and evaporate sewage effluent from upstream septic tank systems. One pair of active wastewater evaporation ponds is located at Echo Site, while another operational pair is at Mars Site.

  10. Convection-enhanced water evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    B. M. Weon; J. H. Je; C. Poulard

    2011-01-01

    Water vapor is lighter than air; this can enhance water evaporation by triggering vapor convection but there is little evidence. We directly visualize evaporation of nanoliter (2 to 700 nL) water droplets resting on silicon wafer in calm air using a high-resolution dual X-ray imaging method. Temporal evolutions of contact radius and contact angle reveal that evaporation rate linearly changes with surface area, indicating convective (instead of diffusive) evaporation in nanoliter water droplet...

  11. History of waste tank 24, 1962--1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G.

    1979-04-01

    Tank 24 was placed in service in April 1963 receiving HW concentrate from the Building 242-H evaporator. The tank was filled by October 1965. In October 1966 the cooled concentrate supernate was decanted. The tank was again filled with concentrate by March 1967, then decanted in June 1967 and refilled by July 1967. Since that time the tank has remained in service storing LW and HW salt and receiving spent zeolite from the cesium removal column (CRC). In April 1973 an influx of slightly contaminated water in the bottom leak detection sump was observed. The tank was inspected with an optical periscope and numerous tests and investigations were conducted but the source of the contaminated water was not determined. However, subsequent to this report period a D 2 O tracer test in tank 21 which also experienced an influx of contaminated water into its bottom sump provided conclusive evidence of communication between the tank vapor space and the bottom leak detection sump. The D 2 O tracer test was documented in DPSPU 76-11-19. Inspections of the tank interior were performed by direct observation and photography using an optical periscope inserted through access risers in the roof. Samples of the vapor condensate and supernate in the tank, and liquid collected in the bottom leak detection sump were analyzed. Numerous temperature profiles were taken and several equipment modifications and repairs were made

  12. Research Status of Evaporative Condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; Yang, Yongan

    2018-02-01

    Reducing energy consumption, saving water resources, recycling cool water are main directions of China’s development. Evaporative condenser using latent heat reduces water resources waste, with energy-saving advantages. This paper reviews the research status of evaporative condenser at home and abroad, and introduces the principle, classification, various influencing factors of evaporative condenser, and puts forward the future research direction.

  13. Double-shell tank system dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This Double-Shell Tank System Dangerous Waste Permit Application should be read in conjunction with the 242-A Evaporator Dangerous Waste Permit Application and the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, also submitted on June 28, 1991. Information contained in the Double-Shell Tank System permit application is referenced in the other two permit applications. The Double-Shell Tank System stores and treats mixed waste received from a variety of sources on the Hanford Site. The 242-A Evaporator treats liquid mixed waste received from the double-shell tanks. The 242-A Evaporator returns a mixed-waste slurry to the double-shell tanks and generates the dilute mixed-waste stream stored in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility. This report contains information on the following topics: Facility Description and General Provisions; Waste Characteristics; Process Information; Groundwater Monitoring; Procedures to Prevent Hazards; Contingency Plan; Personnel Training; Exposure Information Report; Waste Minimization Plan; Closure and Postclosure Requirements; Reporting and Recordkeeping; other Relevant Laws; and Certification. 150 refs., 141 figs., 118 tabs

  14. 242-A evaporator quality assurance project plan: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this quality assurance project plan (Plan) is sampling and analytical services including, but not limited to, sample receipt, handling and storage, analytical measurements, submittal of data deliverables, archiving selected portions of samples, returning unneeded sample material to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), and/or sample disposal associated with candidate feed samples and process condensate compliance samples. Sampling and shipping activities are also included within the scope. The purpose of this project is to provide planning, implementation, and assessment guidance for achieving established data quality objectives measurement parameters. This Plan requires onsite and offsite laboratories to conform to that guidance. Laboratory conformance will help ensure that quality data are being generated and therefore, that the 242-A evaporator is operating in a safe and compliant manner. The 242-A evaporator feed stream originates from double-shell tanks (DSTs) identified as candidate feed tanks. The 242-A evaporator reduces the volume of aqueous waste contained in DSTs by boiling off water and sending it to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) storage basin before further treatment. The slurry product is returned to DSTs. Evaporation results in considerable savings by reducing the volume of mixed waste for disposal

  15. Tank 241-U-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-111

  16. Tank 241-TX-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-105

  17. Design of one evaporation system for uranyl nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancilla Romero, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The authors propose an instant evaporation system with recirculation of the concentrated solution to raise the concentration from 50 to 1500 g of uranium per litre of solution. The capacity of the plant is to be 14.1 kg of uranium per hour. The main equipment used in the system is as follows: 1. Ring-type heat exchanger, for increasing the temperature of the mixture of fresh and recirculated solution from 80 to 115 0 C; 2. Separation tank, in which instant evaporation is carried out. The absolute pressure inside the tank will be 500 mmHg, with steam separation from a concentrated (78.5 wt.%) uranyl nitrate solution; 3. Desuperheater-condenser of horizontal tubular type for condensing water vapour and recovering any uranyl nitrate that may have been entrained; 4. Storage tank for the concentrate, with a capacity for one day's normal operation, and a heating coil to prevent crystallization of the concentrated solution; 5. Two storage tanks for feed and condensate with capacity for one day's normal operation; 6. Supporting structure for the above components. Virtually all equipment in contact with the uranyl nitrate solution will be made of 304 stainless steel. Saturated steam at 143.3 0 C will be required. The cost of the proposed system is $543 030.00. (author)

  18. Tank car leaks gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    On January 27, 1994, a Canadian National (CN) tank car loaded with gasoline began to leak from a crack in the tank shell on the end of the car near the stub sill. The tank car had been damaged from impact switching. A part of the tank car was sent for laboratory analysis which concluded that: (1) the fracture originated in two locations in welds, (2) the cracks propagated in a symmetrical manner and progressed into the tank plate, (3) the fracture surface revealed inadequate weld fusion. A stress analysis of the tank car was conducted to determine the coupling force necessary to cause the crack. It was noted that over the last decade several problems have occurred pertaining to stub sill areas of tank cars that have resulted in hazardous material spills. An advisory was sent to Transport Canada outlining many examples where tank cars containing serious defects had passed CN inspections that were specifically designed to identify such defects. 4 figs

  19. Think tanks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach-Ørsten, Mark; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard

    2016-01-01

    outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re......Though think tanks have a long history internationally, they have especially in recent years come to play an increasingly important role in both policy-formulation and public debate. In this article, we analyse the growing presence of think tanks in a Danish context during the 2000s and the first...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...

  20. Oblique evaporation waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Moreira, José R.

    Evaporation waves are processes that may occur under certain conditions in which a metastable or superheated liquid undergoes a sudden phase transition in a narrow and observable region, which resembles a shock wave. It is inferred from photographic documentation that in certain liquid jet flashing regimes the phenomenon is present. The evaporation wave discontinuity has been successfully modeled in a similar way as a deflagration wave in a combusting gas. One-dimensional laboratory experiments have demonstrated the existence of the (lower) Chapman-Jouguet solution for the cases where the liquid were at a high degree of metastability. Subsonic solutions were also observed for less pronounced degree of metastability (Hill 1991, Sim oes-Moreira 1994). In this paper, the fundamental theory is briefly revised and compared with some of the experimental results obtained for the cases operating at the C-J condition. Next, the paper presents the extension of the one-dimensional theory to include the oblique evaporation wave geometry. Relationships between upstream and downstream flow properties are discussed ant further consequences of these relationships are analyzed.

  1. Sodium Aluminosilicate Formation in Tank 43H Simulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.; Walker, D.D.; Fink, S.D.

    1997-11-01

    This work studied the formation of a sodium aluminosilicate, Na 8 Al 6 Si 6 O 24 (NO 3 ) 2?4 H 2 O, at 40 degree 110 degree C in simulated waste solutions with varied amounts of silicon and aluminum. The data agree well with literature solubility data for sodalite, the analogous chloride salt. The following conclusions result from this work: (1) The study shows, by calculation and experiments, that evaporation of the September 1997 Tank 43H inventory will only form minor quantities of the aluminosilicate. (2) The data indicate that the rate of formation of the nitrate enclathrated sodalite solid at these temperatures falls within the residence time (<; 4 h) of liquid in the evaporator. (3) The silicon in entrained Frit 200 transferred to the evaporator with the Tank 43H salt solution will quantitatively convert to the sodium aluminosilicate. One kilogram of Frit 200 produces 2.1 kg of the sodium aluminosilicate

  2. Tank 241-AZ-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, A revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) sampling activities. Tank AZ-101 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The contents of Tank AZ-101, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,630 kL (960 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-101 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 132 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,500 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.87 meters

  3. Tank 241-AZ-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process ... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) sampling activities. Tank AZ-102 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The current contents of Tank AZ-102, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,600 kL (950 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-102 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 360 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,240 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.9 meters

  4. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  5. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  6. Convection-enhanced water evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Weon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water vapor is lighter than air; this can enhance water evaporation by triggering vapor convection but there is little evidence. We directly visualize evaporation of nanoliter (2 to 700 nL water droplets resting on silicon wafer in calm air using a high-resolution dual X-ray imaging method. Temporal evolutions of contact radius and contact angle reveal that evaporation rate linearly changes with surface area, indicating convective (instead of diffusive evaporation in nanoliter water droplets. This suggests that convection of water vapor would enhance water evaporation at nanoliter scales, for instance, on microdroplets or inside nanochannels.

  7. Designing a new highly active liquid evaporator - 16075

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, Paul; Candy, Emma

    2009-01-01

    The Highly Active Liquid Effluent Storage (HALES) plant stores, concentrates and conditions Highly Active Liquor (HAL) in evaporators for buffer storage in Highly Active Storage Tanks (HAST). Highly Active (HA) evaporators play a pivotal role in the delivery of reprocessing, historic clean up and hazard reduction missions across the Sellafield site. In addition to the engineering projects implemented to extend the life expectation of the current evaporator fleet, the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Agency (NDA) is sponsoring the construction of a new HA evaporator (Evaporator D) on the Sellafield site. The design and operation of the new HA evaporator is based on existing/recent HA evaporator technology but learning from past operational experience. Operational experience has been a key area where the existing plant operators have influenced both the new design itself and the requirements for commissioning and training. Many of the learning experiences require relatively simple engineering design modifications such as a new internal washing provision and transfer line blockage recovery systems, they are never-the-less expected to significantly improve the flexibility and operational capability of the new evaporator. Issues that the project delivery team has addressed as part of the development of the design and construction have included: - Minimising interruptions and/or changes to the normal operations of interfacing plants during construction, commissioning and operation of the new facility. - Modularization of the plant, enabling fabrication of the majority of the plant equipment off-site within a workshop (as opposed to on-site) environment improving Quality Assurance and reducing on-Site testing needs. - Drawing out the balance between operational and corrosion resistance improvements with actual design and delivery needs. - Provision of a new facility reliant on the infrastructure of an existing and ageing facility and the competing demands of the related safety

  8. Remote process connectors for the NWCF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, R.T.; Carter, J.A.; Hohback, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    The remote process connectors developed, used, and tested at the Remote Maintenance Development Facility are described. These connectors, including the 3-bolt kinematic-graphite flange and watertight-electrical connectors, are assembled on master jigs (holding-welding fixture) to form interchangeable pump and valve loop assemblies. These assemblies, with their guide-in platforms make possible a method of performing remote maintenance at the New Waste Calcining Facility that is a departure from methods which until now have been the standard of the industry

  9. Miniature electron bombardment evaporation source: evaporation rate measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehasil, V.; Masek, K.; Matolin, V.; Moreau, O.

    1997-01-01

    Miniature electron beam evaporation sources which operate on the principle of vaporization of source material, in the form of a tip, by electron bombardment are produced by several companies specialized in UHV equipment. These sources are used primarily for materials that are normally difficult to deposit due to their high evaporation temperature. They are appropriate for special applications such as heteroepitaxial thin film growth requiring a very low and well controlled deposition rate. A simple and easily applicable method of evaporation rate control is proposed. The method is based on the measurement of ion current produced by electron bombardment of evaporated atoms. The absolute evaporation flux values were measured by means of the Bayard-Alpert ion gauge, which enabled the ion current vs evaporation flux calibration curves to be plotted. (author). 1 tab., 4 figs., 6 refs

  10. Grout and glass performance in support of stabilization/solidification of ORNL tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-09-01

    Wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collected, evaporated, and stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and Bethel Valley Evaporator Storage Tanks (BVEST) pending treatment for disposal. In addition, some sludges and supernatants also requiring treatment remain in two inactive tank systems: the gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) and the old hydrofracture (OHF) tank. The waste consists of two phases: sludge and supernatant. The sludges contain a high amount of radioactivity, and some are classified as TRU sludges. Some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be defined as RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges are presumed to be mixed TRU waste. Grouting and vitrification are currently two likely stabilization/solidification alternatives for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize/solidify hazardous and low-level radioactive waste for decades. Vitrification has been developed as a high-level radioactive alternative for decades and has been under development recently as an alternative disposal technology for mixed waste. The objective of this project is to define an envelope, or operating window, for grout and glass formulations for ORNL tank sludges. Formulations will be defined for the average composition of each of the major tank farms (BVEST/MVST, GAAT, and OHF) and for an overall average composition of all tank farms. This objective is to be accomplished using surrogates of the tank sludges with hot testing of actual tank sludges to check the efficacy of the surrogates

  11. Grout and glass performance in support of stabilization/solidification of ORNL tank sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-09-01

    Wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collected, evaporated, and stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and Bethel Valley Evaporator Storage Tanks (BVEST) pending treatment for disposal. In addition, some sludges and supernatants also requiring treatment remain in two inactive tank systems: the gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) and the old hydrofracture (OHF) tank. The waste consists of two phases: sludge and supernatant. The sludges contain a high amount of radioactivity, and some are classified as TRU sludges. Some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be defined as RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges are presumed to be mixed TRU waste. Grouting and vitrification are currently two likely stabilization/solidification alternatives for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize/solidify hazardous and low-level radioactive waste for decades. Vitrification has been developed as a high-level radioactive alternative for decades and has been under development recently as an alternative disposal technology for mixed waste. The objective of this project is to define an envelope, or operating window, for grout and glass formulations for ORNL tank sludges. Formulations will be defined for the average composition of each of the major tank farms (BVEST/MVST, GAAT, and OHF) and for an overall average composition of all tank farms. This objective is to be accomplished using surrogates of the tank sludges with hot testing of actual tank sludges to check the efficacy of the surrogates.

  12. PFR evaporator leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedley, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    PFR has three heat removal circuits each one having an evaporator, superheater, reheater; all separate units. The status of the system was that circuit No 3 was steaming with 10 MW thermal nuclear power; No 1 circuit was filled with sodium but with the evaporator awaiting modification to cure gas entrainment problems already reported. The leak was in No 2 circuit and was located in the evaporator unit. The evaporator is rated at 120 M thermal at full power and as such is a large unit. The circuit was filled with both sodium and water for the first time three weeks before the conference so it was recent history being reported and therefore any figures quoted should be taken as indicative only. The history of the steam generator was that it was built at works to a very high standard and underwent all the usual tests of strength, inspection of welds and helium leak testing. The steam generator is of U tube design with a tube plate to which the boiler tubes are welded, with all the welds in one of two gas spaces. The inlet and outlet sides are separated by a baffle and the salient features are illustrated in the attached figure. The unit achieved a leak tightness better than the detection limit in the helium leak test at works. This limit was assessed as being less than an equivalent leak of 10 -6 g/s water under steam generator service conditions. However even though all the steam generator units passed this test at works a further test was carried out when the circuits had been completed. The test was carried out during commissioning after sodium filling and with the units hot. The method was to introduce a mixture of helium/ argon at 500 pounds/square inch into the water side of the steam generators and measure the helium concentration in the sodium side gas spaces of the circuit. The test lasted many days and under these conditions the sensitivity is such that a leak equivalent to somewhere between 10 -7 to 10 -6 g/s equivalent water leak could be detected, i

  13. Evaporation and Antievaporation Instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Addazi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We review (antievaporation phenomena within the context of quantum gravity and extended theories of gravity. The (antievaporation effect is an instability of the black hole horizon discovered in many different scenarios: quantum dilaton-gravity, f ( R -gravity, f ( T -gravity, string-inspired black holes, and brane-world cosmology. Evaporating and antievaporating black holes seem to have completely different thermodynamical features compared to standard semiclassical black holes. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to conceptual and technical aspects of (antievaporation effects, while discussing problems that are still open.

  14. Process Control Plan for 242-A Evaporator Campaign January 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LE, E.Q.

    2001-01-01

    Wastewater stored in 104-AW that was generated during the terminal cleanout of the PUREX facility is the primary feed to be processed during the 242-A Evaporator Campaign 01-01, Approximately 801,600 gallons of 104-AW waste was transferred to feed tank 102-AW at the end of January 2001, in preparation for the campaign. The total feed volume that will be processed during Campaign 01-01 is 8 15,200 gallons, which includes the waste from 104-AW and residual waste from the previous evaporator campaign, 00-01, Additional feed will be generated during the pre-campaign cold run and processed during campaign 01-01. Based on characterization data from 104-AW feed waste 'and the evaluation of waste processability presented in Section 5 of this PCP, Campaign 01-01 does not pose any unacceptable risks to the facility, safety, environmental, human health offsite, or onsite personnel. Evaporator Campaign 01-01 is essential in supporting the River Protection Project (RPP) to maintaining its critical mission schedule and regulator commitments for tank waste systems. Several of RPP critical activities requiring completion of Campaign 01-01 by April 1, 2001 are highlighted below. Availability of DST space: Additional tank space that will be made available by this campaign is needed to support the continued interim stabilization of Single-Shell Tanks (SSTs). This additional space will also be used to move waste among Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) to support the demonstrations of SST waste retrieval. DST life extension: An electrical outage in the AW Tank Farm is scheduled to begin following completion of the Campaign 01-01. This outage is a critical step in identifying and completing life extension upgrades to the DST systems. DST upgrades: Project W-314 plans significant upgrades to the AW Tank Farm to retrieve and supply waste feed to the Waste Treatment (Vitrification) Plant using a system that complies with current environmental requirements. These upgrades will commence on

  15. Evaporation of inclined water droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Hwang, In Gyu; Weon, Byung Mook

    2017-01-01

    When a drop is placed on a flat substrate tilted at an inclined angle, it can be deformed by gravity and its initial contact angle divides into front and rear contact angles by inclination. Here we study on evaporation dynamics of a pure water droplet on a flat solid substrate by controlling substrate inclination and measuring mass and volume changes of an evaporating droplet with time. We find that complete evaporation time of an inclined droplet becomes longer as gravitational influence by inclination becomes stronger. The gravity itself does not change the evaporation dynamics directly, whereas the gravity-induced droplet deformation increases the difference between front and rear angles, which quickens the onset of depinning and consequently reduces the contact radius. This result makes the evaporation rate of an inclined droplet to be slow. This finding would be important to improve understanding on evaporation dynamics of inclined droplets. PMID:28205642

  16. Simulated Waste Testing Of Glycolate Impacts On The 2H-Evaporator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C. J.

    2013-08-13

    Glycolic acid is being studied as a total or partial replacement for formic acid in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. After implementation, the recycle stream from DWPF back to the high-level waste tank farm will contain soluble sodium glycolate. Most of the potential impacts of glycolate in the tank farm were addressed via a literature review, but several outstanding issues remained. This report documents the non-radioactive simulant tests impacts of glycolate on storage and evaporation of Savannah River Site high-level waste. The testing for which non-radioactive simulants could be used involved the following: the partitioning of glycolate into the evaporator condensate, the impacts of glycolate on metal solubility, and the impacts of glycolate on the formation and dissolution of sodium aluminosilicate scale within the evaporator. The following are among the conclusions from this work: Evaporator condensate did not contain appreciable amounts of glycolate anion. Of all tests, the highest glycolate concentration in the evaporator condensate was 0.38 mg/L. A significant portion of the tests had glycolate concentration in the condensate at less than the limit of quantification (0.1 mg/L). At ambient conditions, evaporator testing did not show significant effects of glycolate on the soluble components in the evaporator concentrates. Testing with sodalite solids and silicon containing solutions did not show significant effects of glycolate on sodium aluminosilicate formation or dissolution.

  17. ACID EVAPORATION OF ULTIMA GOLD TM AB LIQUID SCINTILLATION COCKTAIL RESIDUE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E.; Fondeur, F.; Crump, S.

    2011-12-21

    Prior analyses of samples from the F/H Lab solutions showed the presence of diisopropylnapthalene (DIN), a major component of Ultima Gold{trademark} AB liquid scintillation cocktail (LSC). These solutions are processed through H-Canyon Tank 10.5 and ultimately through the 17.8E evaporator. Similar solutions originated in SRNL streams sent to the same H Canyon tanks. This study examined whether the presence of these organics poses a process-significant hazard for the evaporator. Evaporation and calorimetry testing of surrogate samples containing 2000 ppm of Ultima Gold{trademark} AB LSC in 8 M nitric acid have been completed. These experiments showed that although reactions between nitric acid and the organic components do occur, they do not appear to pose a significant hazard for runaway reactions or generation of energetic compounds in canyon evaporators. The amount of off-gas generated was relatively modest and appeared to be well within the venting capacity of the H-Canyon evaporators. A significant fraction of the organic components likely survives the evaporation process primarily as non-volatile components that are not expected to represent any new process concerns during downstream operations such as neutralization. Laboratory Waste solutions containing minor amounts of DIN can be safely received, stored, transferred, and processed through the canyon waste evaporator.

  18. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section 179.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and... liquid tank car tanks. ...

  19. 33 CFR 157.15 - Slop tanks in tank vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.15 Slop tanks in tank vessels. (a) Number. A... tanks must have the total capacity to retain oily mixtures from cargo tank washings, oil residue, and... washing water. (c) Design. A slop tank required in this section: (1) Must minimize turbulence, entrainment...

  20. Double-shell tank space analysis of Hanford Site operating scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, D.E.; Riley, D.C.; Shaver, R.L.; Strode, J.N.

    1990-01-01

    Several operating cases were evaluated to determine the Hanford Site activities that can be supported given two 242-A Evaporator operating assumption: (1) the evaporator does not restart and (2) the evaporator does not restart until December 1990. These cases included variation in production facility operation and Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) commitments. The cases that evaluated the ''no evaporator restart'' operating assumptions determined that even the minimal double-shell tank waste generating activities cannot be supported. For the minimal waste generation rate, double-shell tank space would be depleted by December 1991. The cases that evaluated the evaporator restart would support all production mission with the exception of the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) processing. A delay in the evaporator restart and/or increased waste generation could significantly impact the above conclusions. Actions to reduce waste generation rates, minimize stored volumes in the double-shell tanks, and optimize use of double-shell tanks must be pursued. 1 ref., 8 figs

  1. 40 CFR 1060.101 - What evaporative emission requirements apply under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD... diurnal emission standards, including portable marine fuel tanks: (i) All equipment must have a tethered... remain securely connected to prevent fuel leakage throughout the useful life of the equipment. (ii) Fuel...

  2. Results from evaporation tests to support the MWTF heat removal system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crea, B.A.

    1994-12-22

    An experimental tests program was conducted to measure the evaporative heat removal from the surface of a tank of simulated waste. The results contained in this report constitute definition design data for the latest heat removal function of the MWTF primary ventilation system.

  3. Results from evaporation tests to support the MWTF heat removal system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crea, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental tests program was conducted to measure the evaporative heat removal from the surface of a tank of simulated waste. The results contained in this report constitute definition design data for the latest heat removal function of the MWTF primary ventilation system

  4. Underground Storage Tank (working)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Database contains information on ownership and system construction for underground storage tank facilities statewide. Database was developed in early 1990's for...

  5. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System's tank waste retrieval Program

  6. Evaporation studies on Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, V.L. [PAI Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perona, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Evaporation studies were performed with Melton Valley storage tank liquid low-level radioactive waste concentrate and with surrogates (nonradioactive) to determine the feasibility of a proposed out-of-tank-evaporation project. Bench-scale tests indicated that volume reductions ranging from 30 to 55% could be attained. Vendor-site tests were conducted (with surrogate waste forms) using a bench-scale single-stage, low-pressure (subatmospheric), low-temperature (120 to 173{degree}F) evaporator similar to units in operation at several nuclear facilities. Vendor tests were successful; a 30% volume reduction was attained with no crystallization of solids and no foaming, as would be expected from a high pH solution. No fouling of the heat exchanger surfaces occurred during these tests. It is projected that 52,000 to 120,000 gal of water could be evaporated from the supernate stored in the Melton and Bethel Valley liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) storage tanks with this type of evaporator.

  7. Evaporation studies on Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, V.L.; Perona, J.J.

    1993-03-01

    Evaporation studies were performed with Melton Valley storage tank liquid low-level radioactive waste concentrate and with surrogates (nonradioactive) to determine the feasibility of a proposed out-of-tank-evaporation project. Bench-scale tests indicated that volume reductions ranging from 30 to 55% could be attained. Vendor-site tests were conducted (with surrogate waste forms) using a bench-scale single-stage, low-pressure (subatmospheric), low-temperature (120 to 173 degree F) evaporator similar to units in operation at several nuclear facilities. Vendor tests were successful; a 30% volume reduction was attained with no crystallization of solids and no foaming, as would be expected from a high pH solution. No fouling of the heat exchanger surfaces occurred during these tests. It is projected that 52,000 to 120,000 gal of water could be evaporated from the supernate stored in the Melton and Bethel Valley liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) storage tanks with this type of evaporator

  8. Fuel tank integrity research : fuel tank analyses and test plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research : and Development is conducting research into fuel tank : crashworthiness. Fuel tank research is being performed to : determine strategies for increasing the fuel tank impact : resistance to ...

  9. STUDIES OF POTENTIAL INHIBITORS OF SODIUM ALUMINOSILICATE SCALES IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE EVAPORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmarth, B; Lawrence Oji, L; Terri Fellinger, T; David Hobbs, D; Nilesh Badheka, N

    2008-02-27

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 underground storage tanks used to store High Level Waste (HLW). The tank space in these tanks must be managed to support the continued operation of key facilities. The reduction of the tank volumes in these tanks are accomplished through the use of three atmospheric pressure HLW evaporators. For a decade, evaporation of highly alkaline HLW containing aluminum and silicates has produced sodium aluminosilicate scales causing both operation and criticality hazards in the 2H Evaporator System. Segregation of aluminum-rich wastes from silicate-rich wastes minimizes the amount of scale produced and reduces cleaning expenses, but does not eliminate the scaling nor increases operation flexibility in waste process. Similar issues have affected the aluminum refining industry for many decades. Over the past several years, successful commercial products have been identified to eliminate aluminosilicate fouling in the aluminum industry, but have not been utilized in a nuclear environment. Laboratory quantities of three proprietary aluminosilicate scale inhibitors have been produced and been shown to prevent formation of scales. SRNL has been actively testing these potential inhibitors to examine their radiation stability, radiolytic degradation behaviors, and downstream impacts to determine their viability within the HLW system. One of the tested polymers successfully meets the established criteria for application in the nuclear environment. This paper will describe a summary of the methodology used to prioritize laboratory testing protocols based on potential impacts/risks identified for inhibitor deployment at SRS.

  10. What, no black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajicek, P.; Israel, W.

    1980-01-01

    Tipler has claimed that the inward flux of negative energy across the horizon which (according to the semi-classical approximation) accompanies the evaporation of a black hole would cause a solar mass black hole to evaporate in less than a second. It is shown that this claim is in error. (orig.)

  11. Modeling Treated LAW Feed Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DANIEL, WE

    2004-01-01

    This task examines the potential of the treated waste feed blends to form sodium-aluminum silicate precipitates when evaporated using the zeolite database. To investigate the behavior of the blended pretreated waste feed, an OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI ESP) model of the treated low activity waste (LAW) evaporator was built. A range of waste feed compositions representative of Envelope A, B, and C were then fed into the OLI model to predict various physical and chemical properties of the evaporator concentrates. Additional runs with treated LAW evaporator were performed to compare chemical and physical property model predictions and experimental results for small-scale radioactive tests of the treated feed evaporation process

  12. Heat pipe cooling system for underground, radioactive waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, K.C.; Prenger, F.C.

    1980-02-01

    An array of 37 heat pipes inserted through the central hole at the top of a radioactive waste storage tank will remove 100,000 Btu/h with a heat sink of 70 0 F atmospheric air. Heat transfer inside the tank to the heat pipe is by natural convection. Heat rejection to outside air utilizes a blower to force air past the heat pipe condenser. The heat pipe evaporator section is axially finned, and is constructed of stainless steel. The working fluid is ammonia. The finned pipes are individually shrouded and extend 35 ft down into the tank air space. The hot tank air enters the shroud at the top of the tank and flows downward as it is cooled, with the resulting increased density furnishing the pressure difference for circulation. The cooled air discharges at the center of the tank above the sludge surface, flows radially outward, and picks up heat from the radioactive sludge. At the tank wall the heated air rises and then flows inward to comple the cycle

  13. Decontamination and decommissioning of TAN radioactive liquid-waste-evaporator system (PM-2A). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes the decontamination and decommissioning of the Test Area North (TAN) liquid waste evaporator (PM-2A). The PM-2A facility included the aboveground evaporator system, two underground holding tanks and feedlines, an electrical distribution subsystem, and one above ground concrete tank. Much surface soil of the PM-2A area was also radioactively contaminated. Stabilization of the liquid and sludge in the holding tanks, a major task, was achieved by pumping most of the liquid into 55-gal drums and mixing it with cement. The drums were buried in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The remaining liquid and sludge were dried in place by layers of diatomaceous earth. The most contaminated surface soil was removed, and the area backfilled with clean topsoil and graded, reducing the surface radiation field to background. A 6-ft-high chain link fence now surrounds the area. Most of the area was seeded to crested wheatgrass. 46 figures, 9 tables

  14. Evaporative cooling: Effective latent heat of evaporation in relation to evaporation distance from the skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Bröde, P.; Hartog, E.A. den; Kuklane, K.; Holmer, I.; Rossi, R.M.; Richards, M.; Farnworth, B.; Wang, X.

    2013-01-01

    Calculation of evaporative heat loss is essential to heat balance calculations. Despite recognition that the value for latent heat of evaporation, used in these calculations, may not always reflect the real cooling benefit to the body, only limited quantitative data on this is available, which has

  15. Tank characterization reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research

  16. WWTP Process Tank Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jesper

    solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in a multiphase scheme. After a general introduction to the activated sludge tank as a system, the activated sludge tank model is gradually setup in separate stages. The individual sub-processes that are often occurring in activated sludge tanks are initially......-process models, the last part of the thesis, where the integrated process tank model is tested on three examples of activated sludge systems, is initiated. The three case studies are introduced with an increasing degree of model complexity. All three cases are take basis in Danish municipal wastewater treatment...... plants. The first case study involves the modeling of an activated sludge tank undergoing a special controlling strategy with the intention minimizing the sludge loading on the subsequent secondary settlers during storm events. The applied model is a two-phase model, where the sedimentation of sludge...

  17. Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-AP-107

  18. Tank 241-TY-104 Tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-15

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-C Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-TY-104.

  19. Tank 241-AX-102 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-24

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-AX-102.

  20. Pilot-Scale Test Results Of A Thin Film Evaporator System For Management Of Liquid High-Level Wastes At The Hanford Site Washington USA -11364

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.; Tedesch, A.R.; Wilson, R.A.; Beck, T.H.; Larkin, J.

    2011-01-01

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORPIDOE), through Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper summarizes results of a pilot-scale test program conducted during calendar year 2010 as part of the ongoing technology maturation development scope for the WFE.

  1. The use of air flow through water for water evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashin, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    In water desalination system the productivity rate is improved by increasing the rate of eater evaporation either by heating the water or by forcing air to carry more vapor before condensation. This paper describe an experimental investigation into the effect of forcing the air to flow through a hot water contained in a closed tank through a perforated end of inlet tube. When the air bubbles pass through the water, it increases the rate of vaporization. The effect of some operating parameters are investigated and the results are presented and discussed. 6 figs

  2. Hydrothermal waves in evaporating sessile drops

    OpenAIRE

    Brutin, D.; Rigollet, F.; Niliot, C. Le

    2009-01-01

    Drop evaporation is a simple phenomena but still unclear concerning the mechanisms of evaporation. A common agreement of the scientific community based on experimental and numerical work evidences that most of the evaporation occurs at the triple line. However, the rate of evaporation is still empirically predicted due to the lack of knowledge on the convection cells which develop inside the drop under evaporation. The evaporation of sessile drop is more complicated than it appears due to the...

  3. Tank Space Options Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOYLES, V.C.

    2001-01-01

    A risk-based priority for the retrieval of Hanford Site waste from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) has been adopted as a result of changes to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1997) negotiated in 2000. Retrieval of the first three tanks in the retrieval sequence fills available capacity in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) by 2007. As a result, the HFFACO change established a milestone (M-45-12-TO1) requiring the determination of options that could increase waste storage capacity for single-shell tank waste retrieval. The information will be considered in future negotiations. This document fulfills the milestone requirement. This study presents options that were reviewed for the purpose of increasing waste storage capacity. Eight options are identified that have the potential for increasing capacity from 5 to 10 million gallons, thus allowing uninterrupted single-shell tank retrieval until the planned Waste Treatment Plant begins processing substantial volumes of waste from the double-shell tanks in 2009. The cost of implementing these options is estimated to range from less than $1 per gallon to more than $14 per gallon. Construction of new double-shell tanks is estimated to cost about $63 per gallon. Providing 5 to 10 million gallons of available double-shell tank space could enable early retrieval of 5 to 9 high-risk single-shell tanks beyond those identified for retrieval by 2007. These tanks are A-101, AX-101, AX-103, BY-102, C-107, S-105, S-106, S-108, and S-109 (Garfield et al. 2000). This represents a potential to retrieve approximately 14 million total curies, including 3,200 curies of long-lived mobile radionuclides. The results of the study reflect qualitative analyses conducted to identify promising options. The estimated costs are rough-order-of magnitude and, therefore, subject to change. Implementing some of the options would represent a departure from the current baseline and may adversely impact the

  4. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  5. Interfacial Instabilities in Evaporating Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Ross; Sefiane, Khellil; Matar, Omar

    2007-11-01

    We study the effect of substrate thermal properties on the evaporation of sessile drops of various liquids. An infra-red imaging technique was used to record the interfacial temperature. This technique illustrates the non-uniformity in interfacial temperature distribution that characterises the evaporation process. Our results also demonstrate that the evaporation of methanol droplets is accompanied by the formation of wave-trains in the interfacial temperature field; similar patterns, however, were not observed in the case of water droplets. More complex patterns are observed for FC-72 refrigerant drops. The effect of substrate thermal conductivity on the structure of the complex pattern formation is also elucidated.

  6. Introducing ultrasonic falling film evaporator for moderate temperature evaporation enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehbani, Maryam; Rahimi, Masoud

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, Ultrasonic Falling Film (USFF), as a novel technique has been proposed to increase the evaporation rate of moderate temperature liquid film. It is a proper method for some applications which cannot be performed at high temperature, such as foodstuff industry, due to their sensitivity to high temperatures. Evaporation rate of sodium chloride solution from an USFF on an inclined flat plate compared to that for Falling Film without ultrasonic irradiation (FF) at various temperatures was investigated. The results revealed that produced cavitation bubbles have different effects on evaporation rate at different temperatures. At lower temperatures, size fluctuation and collapse of bubbles and in consequence induced physical effects of cavitation bubbles resulted in more turbulency and evaporation rate enhancement. At higher temperatures, the behavior was different. Numerous created bubbles joined together and cover the plate surface, so not only decreased the ultrasound vibrations but also reduced the evaporation rate in comparison with FF. The highest evaporation rate enhancement of 353% was obtained at 40 °C at the lowest Reynolds number of 250. In addition, the results reveal that at temperature of 40 °C, USFF has the highest efficiency compared to FF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 49 CFR 179.201 - Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to non-pressure tank car tanks. 179.201 Section 179.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes... car tanks. ...

  8. SLUDGE BATCH 7B QUALIFICATION ACTIVITIES WITH SRS TANK FARM SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-11-16

    projected noble metals content for SB7b. Characterization was performed on the Tank 51 SB7b samples and SRNL performed DWPF simulations using the Tank 40 SB7b material. This report documents: (1) The preparation and characterization of the Tank 51 SB7b and Tank 40 SB7b samples. (2) The performance of a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation using the SB7b Tank 40 sample. The simulation included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid was added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and reduce mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit was added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters were based on work with a nonradioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and characterization and durability testing (as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT)) of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the SRAT receipt, SRAT product, and SME product. This program was controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R&D) for the DWPF. It should be noted that much of the data in this document has been published in interoffice memoranda. The intent of this technical report is bring all of the SB7b related data together in a single permanent record and to discuss the overall aspects of SB7b processing.

  9. Sludge Batch 7B Qualification Activities With SRS Tank Farm Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-01-01

    projected noble metals content for SB7b. Characterization was performed on the Tank 51 SB7b samples and SRNL performed DWPF simulations using the Tank 40 SB7b material. This report documents: (1) The preparation and characterization of the Tank 51 SB7b and Tank 40 SB7b samples. (2) The performance of a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation using the SB7b Tank 40 sample. The simulation included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid was added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and reduce mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit was added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters were based on work with a nonradioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and characterization and durability testing (as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT)) of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the SRAT receipt, SRAT product, and SME product. This program was controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R and D) for the DWPF. It should be noted that much of the data in this document has been published in interoffice memoranda. The intent of this technical report is bring all of the SB7b related data together in a single permanent record and to discuss the overall aspects of SB7b processing.

  10. Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for the Characterization of the Tank 40H Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    2000-01-01

    The High Level Waste Tank Farms store and process high-level liquid wastes from a number of sources including F- and H-Canyons and a recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The deposition of sodium aluminosilicate along with sodium diuranate in the 242-16H evaporator system led to the removal of authorization to process High Level Waste containing DWPF recycle. Therefore, High Level Waste Engineering has requested SRTC to perform analysis of the contents of Tank 40H and associated transfers from sludge washing to ensure silicon levels are sufficiently low to allow processing of the supernate through the 3H Evaporator

  11. Reactor pressure tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, H.; Scholz, M.; Jungmann, A.

    1975-01-01

    In a reactor pressure tank for a nuclear reactor, self-locking hooks engage a steel ring disposed over the removable cover of the steel vessel. The hooks exert force upon the cover to maintain the cover in a closed position during operation of the reactor pressure tank. The force upon the removal cover is partly the result of the increasing temperature and thermal expansion of the steel vessel during operation. The steel vessel is surrounded by a reinforced-concrete tank. (U.S.)

  12. OPTIMAL EVAPORATING AND CONDENSING TEMPERATURES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORC) in a hot and humid environment. A theoretical procedure is proposed for the determination of the optimal evaporation temperature (OET) and optimal condensing temperature (OCT) of a subcritical ORC plant, which is based on ...

  13. The evaporative vector: Homogeneous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klots, C.E.

    1987-05-01

    Molecular beams of van der Waals molecules are the subject of much current research. Among the methods used to form these beams, three-sputtering, laser ablation, and the sonic nozzle expansion of neat gases - yield what are now recognized to be ''warm clusters.'' They contain enough internal energy to undergo a number of first-order processes, in particular that of evaporation. Because of this evaporation and its attendant cooling, the properties of such clusters are time-dependent. The states of matter which can be arrived at via an evaporative vector on a typical laboratory time-scale are discussed. Topics include the (1) temperatures, (2) metastability, (3) phase transitions, (4) kinetic energies of fragmentation, and (5) the expression of magical properties, all for evaporating homogeneous clusters

  14. The analysis of loading losses from tank trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Ana P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantity of loading losses, which are the primary source of evaporative emissions from tank cars and trucks was analyzed in this paper. Loading losses occur as organic vapors in "empty" cargo tanks are displaced to the atmosphere by the liquid being loaded into the tanks. Emissions from loading petroleum liquid were estimated using three methods: the API (American Petroleum Institute method, the VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure -Association of German Engineers method and the Yugoslav Standard JUS B.HO.531 method. The mass of evaporative losses from loading operations is a function of the following parameters: the method of loading the cargo, the physical and chemical characteristics of the cargo and the ambient temperature during loading. Evaporation losses from the loading of motor gasoline (MB-95, BMB-95, MB-98 and MB-86 and diesel fuels (D-2, Euro D-2 were calculated. Losses on a monthly and annual basis were presented for an assumed amount of loaded cargo. It was estimated that the highest loading losses occur in the summer period because of high ambient daily temperatures and in the period of higher transporting levels. It should be pointed out that the loading losses of diesel fuel calculated using an empirical coefficient according to JUS B.HO.531 are significantly higher in comparison with the loading losses calculated using emission factors from the EPA and the VDI method. The gasoline loading losses calculated using emission factors derived from the three methods are similar.

  15. Regulatory Off-Gas Analysis from the Evaporator of Hanford Simulated Waste Spiked with Organic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calloway, T.B.

    2002-01-01

    After strontium/transuranics removal by precipitation followed by cesium/technetium removal by ion exchange, remaining low activity waste in the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant is to be concentrated by evaporation prior to being mixed with glass formers and vitrified. To provide a technical basis to permit the waste treatment facility, a relatively organic-rich Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 waste simulant was spiked with 14 target volatile, semi-volatile and pesticide compounds, and evaporated under vacuum in a bench-scale natural circulation evaporator fitted with an industrial stack off-gas sampler at the Savannah River Technology Center. An evaporator material balance for the target organics was calculated by combining liquid stream mass and analytical data with off-gas emissions estimates obtained using EPA SW-846 Methods

  16. Tank farm potential ignition sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaief, C.C. III.

    1996-01-01

    This document identifies equipment, instrumentation, and sensors that are located in-tank as well as ex-tank in areas that may have communication paths with the tank vapor space. For each item, and attempt is made to identify the potential for ignition of flammable vapors using a graded approach. The scope includes all 177 underground storage tanks

  17. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, M

    2005-01-01

    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted from gibbsite to

  18. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M

    2005-04-05

    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted

  19. Ocean Technology Development Tank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The new SWFSC laboratory in La Jolla incorporates a large sea- and fresh-water Ocean Technology Development Tank. This world-class facility expands NOAA's ability to...

  20. Sonar Tank Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Sonar Tank Facility permits low cost initial 'wet' testing and check out prior to full scale deployment at sea. It can manage controlled conditions calibration...

  1. Improving the Tank Scout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, R. L

    2006-01-01

    .... While the tank battalions recognize the importance and value of the scout platoon, they are restricted from employing scouts to their full potential due to the platoon's inflexible structure and limited capabilities...

  2. Modeling Propellant Tank Dynamics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of my work will be to develop accurate models of self-pressurizing propellant tanks for use in designing hybrid rockets. The first key goal is to...

  3. Tank Focus Area Pretreatment Program. FY 1995 Program Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.I.; McGinnis, C.P.; Wilkenson, W.T.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    This program management plan (PMP) describes the FY 1995 project plans for the Pretreatment Program of the Tank Focus Area. The Tank Focus Area is one of five areas of environmental concerns originally identified by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Technology Development (EM-50). Projects in the Tank Focus Area relate to the remediation of liquid waste stored in underground storage tanks at various US Department of Energy sites. The Pretreatment Program is an organizational unit performing work within the Tank Focus Area. The function of the Pretreatment Program is to develop, test, evaluate, and demonstrate new technologies, with emphasis on separations. The 11 Pretreatment Program projects for FY 1995 are (1) Cesium Extraction Testing, (2) Comprehensive Supernate Treatment, (3) Hot Cell Studies, (4) Cesium Removal Demonstration, (5) Out-of-Tank Evaporator Demonstration, (6) Crossflow Filtration, (7) Technical Interchange with CEA, (8) TRUEX Applications, (9) NAC/NAG Process Studies (conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory), (10) NAC/NAG Process and Waste Form Studies (conducted at Florida International University), and (11) Program Management. Section 2 of this PMP contains a separate subsection for each FY 1995 project. A brief description of the project, a schedule of major milestones, and a breakdown of costs are provided for each project. The PMP also contains sections that describe the project controls that are in place. Quality assurance, document control, the project management system, and the management organization are described in these sections

  4. Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goolsby, G.K.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation system. At the conclusion of Title 1 design, air flow rates for the primary and annulus ventilation systems were 960 scfm and 4,400 scfm, respectively, per tank. These design flow rates were capable of removing 1,250,000 Btu/hr from each tank. However, recently completed and ongoing studies have resulted in a design change to reduce the extreme case heat load to 700,000 Btu/hr. This revision of the extreme case heat load, coupled with results of scale model evaporative testing performed by WHC Thermal Hydraulics, allow for a reduction of the design air flow rates for both primary and annulus ventilation systems. Based on the preceding discussion, ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. concludes that the design should incorporate the following design air flow rates: Primary ventilation system--500 scfm maximum and Annulus ventilation system--1,100 scfm maximum. In addition, the minimum air flow rates in the primary and annulus ventilation systems will be investigated during Title 2 design. The results of the Title 2 investigation will determine the range of available temperature control using variable air flows to both ventilation systems

  5. High-heat tank safety issue resolution program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this program plan is to provide a guide for selecting corrective actions that will mitigate and/or remediate the high-heat waste tank safety issue for single-shell tank (SST) 241-C-106. This program plan also outlines the logic for selecting approaches and tasks to mitigate and resolve the high-heat safety issue. The identified safety issue for high-heat tank 241-C-106 involves the potential release of nuclear waste to the environment as the result of heat-induced structural damage to the tank's concrete, if forced cooling is interrupted for extended periods. Currently, forced ventilation with added water to promote thermal conductivity and evaporation cooling is used to cool the waste. At this time, the only viable solution identified to resolve this safety issue is the removal of heat generating waste in the tank. This solution is being aggressively pursued as the permanent solution to this safety issue and also to support the present waste retrieval plan. Tank 241-C-106 has been selected as the first SST for retrieval. The program plan has three parts. The first part establishes program objectives and defines safety issues, drivers, and resolution criteria and strategy. The second part evaluates the high-heat safety issue and its mitigation and remediation methods and alternatives according to resolution logic. The third part identifies major tasks and alternatives for mitigation and resolution of the safety issue. Selected tasks and best-estimate schedules are also summarized in the program plan

  6. Organic tanks safety program FY96 waste aging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Linehan, J.C.; Clauss, S.A.; Sharma, A.K.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Uranium and plutonium production at the Hanford Site produced large quantities of radioactive by-products and contaminated process chemicals, which are stored in underground tanks awaiting treatment and disposal. Having been made strongly alkaline and then subjected to successive water evaporation campaigns to increase storage capacity, the wastes now exist in the physical forms of salt cakes, metal oxide sludges, and partially saturated aqueous brine solutions. The tanks that contain organic process chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salt wastes may be at risk for fuel- nitrate combustion accidents. The purpose of the Waste Aging Task is to elucidate how chemical and radiological processes will have aged or degraded the organic compounds stored in the tanks. Ultimately, the task seeks to develop quantitative measures of how aging changes the energetic properties of the wastes. This information will directly support efforts to evaluate the hazard as well as to develop potential control and mitigation strategies

  7. Lake Nasser evaporation reduction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M.I. Ebaid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the reduction of evaporation of Lake Nasser’s water caused by disconnecting (fully or partially some of its secondary channels (khors. This evaluation integrates remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS techniques, aerodynamic principles, and Landsat7 ETM+ images. Three main procedures were carried out in this study; the first derived the surface temperature from Landsat thermal band; the second derived evaporation depth and approximate evaporation volume for the entire lake, and quantified evaporation loss to the secondary channels’ level over one month (March by applied aerodynamic principles on surface temperature of the raster data; the third procedure applied GIS suitability analysis to determine which of these secondary channels (khors should be disconnected. The results showed evaporation depth ranging from 2.73 mm/day at the middle of the lake to 9.58 mm/day at the edge. The evaporated water-loss value throughout the entire lake was about 0.86 billion m3/month (March. The analysis suggests that it is possible to save an approximate total evaporation volume loss of 19.7 million m3/month (March, and thus 2.4 billion m3/year, by disconnecting two khors with approximate construction heights of 8 m and 15 m. In conclusion, remote sensing and GIS are useful for applications in remote locations where field-based information is not readily available and thus recommended for decision makers remotely planning in water conservation and management.

  8. Project W-211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) Description of Operations for 241-AZ-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRIGGS, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTs) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operation (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for Tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102). This DOO provides a basis for the detailed design of the Project W-211 Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AZ-102 and also establishes test criteria for the RCS

  9. Project W-211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) Description of Operations for 241-AZ-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRIGGS, S.R.

    2000-02-25

    The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTs) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operation (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for Tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102). This DOO provides a basis for the detailed design of the Project W-211 Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AZ-102 and also establishes test criteria for the RCS.

  10. Convective evaporation of vertical films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulogne, François; Dollet, Benjamin

    2018-02-28

    Motivated by the evaporation of soap films, which has a significant effect on their lifetime, we performed an experimental study on the evaporation of vertical surfaces with model systems based on hydrogels. From the analogy between heat and mass transfer, we adopt a model describing the natural convection in the gas phase due to a density contrast between dry and saturated air. Our measurements show a good agreement with this model, both in terms of scaling law with the Grashof number and in terms of order of magnitude. We discuss the corrections to take into account, notably the contribution of edge effects, which have a small but visible contribution when lateral and bottom surface areas are not negligible compared to the main evaporating surface area.

  11. Fuel tank tourism; Tanktourismus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, M.; Banfi, S.; Haan, P. de

    2000-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made of the extent of so-called 'tank tourism' in Switzerland. The report attempts to how much motor fuel is purchased in border-near filling stations by persons from the other side of the border as a result of price differences in the different countries. The two methods used to estimate the extent of tank tourism, an ex-post analysis and the analysis of filling station turnover, are explained. Only road-traffic is considered; tank tourism in the aviation area is not looked at in this study. The extent of tank tourism is estimated for petrol and diesel fuels. The individual figures produced by the two methods are compared and the difference between them discussed. The report also investigates the effect of changing prices on tank tourism and discusses the problem of estimating the figures for 'off-road' consumers such as tractors and construction machines.

  12. Ferrocyanide tank waste stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ferrocyanide wastes were generated at the Hanford Site during the mid to late 1950s as a result of efforts to create more tank space for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The ferrocyanide process was developed to remove 137 CS from existing waste and newly generated waste that resulted from the recovery of valuable uranium in Hanford Site waste tanks. During the course of research associated with the ferrocyanide process, it was recognized that ferrocyanide materials, when mixed with sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite, were capable of violent exothermic reaction. This chemical reactivity became an issue in the 1980s, when safety issues associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes in Hanford Site tanks became prominent. These safety issues heightened in the late 1980s and led to the current scrutiny of the safety issues associated with these wastes, as well as current research and waste management programs. Testing to provide information on the nature of possible tank reactions is ongoing. This document supplements the information presented in Summary of Single-Shell Tank Waste Stability, WHC-EP-0347, March 1991 (Borsheim and Kirch 1991), which evaluated several issues. This supplement only considers information particular to ferrocyanide wastes

  13. Energy storage in evaporated brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, R. Ian

    2010-09-15

    We propose storage of electrical energy in brine solutions by using the energy to enhance natural evaporation. Using properties of existing industrial evaporation technologies and estimates of power regeneration from brine by pressure retarded osmosis, efficiency near 100% is calculated. Modelling indicates that systems ranging from 50kW to 50MW output may be practical, with storage capacities of hours to days. The method appears to have potential to be economically competitive with other technologies over a wide range of capacity. It may present a large new application area that could aid the development of salinity-based power generation technology.

  14. modeling of evaporation modeling of evaporation losses in sewage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    show that evaporation reduces with increase in seepage losses which can be enhanced with use of conditioners and coarser sands because of their ... and heat between dried sludge and air (material and. Nigerian Journal of Technology ... Despite the increasing importance of solar drying of sludge, models to predict the ...

  15. 242-A Evaporator waste analysis plan. Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basra, T.S.; Mulkey, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) provides the plan for obtaining information needed for proper waste handling and processing in the 242-A Evaporator located on the Hanford Site. Regulatory and safety issues are addressed by establishing boundary conditions for waste received and treated at the 242-A Evaporator. The boundary conditions are set by establishing limits for items such as potential exothermic reactions, waste compatibility, and control of vessel vent organic emissions. Boundary conditions are also set for operational considerations and to ensure waste acceptance at receiving facilities. The issues that are addressed in this plan include prevention of exotherms in the waste, waste compatibility, vessel vent emissions, and compatibility with the liner in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF). The 242-A Evaporator feed stream is separated into two liquid streams: a concentrated slurry stream and a process condensate. A gaseous exhaust stream is also produced. The slurry contains the majority of the radionuclides and inorganic constituents. This stream is pumped back to the double shell tanks (DSTs) and stored for further treatment after being concentrated to target levels. The process condensate (PC) is primarily water that contains trace amounts of organic material and a greatly reduced concentration of radionuclides. The process condensate is presently stored in the (LERF) until it can be further processed in the Effluent Treatment Facility once it is operational

  16. Restart oversight assessment of Hanford 242-A evaporator: Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report summarizes a January 17--28, 1994, oversight assessment of restart activities for the 242-A Evaporator at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site about 25 miles northeast of Hanford, Washington. The assessment was conducted by qualified staff and consultants from the DOE Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). Its focus was the readiness of the facility for the resumption of safe operations, in particular those operations involved in the treatment and disposal of condensate from the evaporation of liquid radioactive waste, a key element of the tank waste remediation project administered by the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). Overall, the assessment yielded eight programmatic concerns, supported by 38 individual findings. Of the concerns, four have already been closed, and the other four have been resolved. Results pointed up strengths in management and engineering design, as well as effective support of facility training programs by the management and operating contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). Weaknesses were evident, however, in conduct of operations, maintenance, and radiological practices. Furthermore, problems in the submittal and approval of Compliance Schedule Approvals--that is, WHC documentation of the status of compliance with DOE orders--were indicative of a programmatic breakdown in the DOE Order compliance process. According to the results of this assessment, there are no safety and health issues that would preclude or delay restart of the evaporator

  17. 300 area solvent evaporator interim status closure plan: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    This document describes activities for the closure of a hazardous waste tank treatment facility operated by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This treatment facility was a solvent evaporator located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, from 1975 to 1985 on behalf of DOE-RL. The 300 Area Solvent Evaporator (300 ASE) was a modified load lugger (dumpster) in which solvent wastes were evaporated. Some of the solvents were radioactively contaminated because they came from a degreaser which processed bare uranium metal billets from the N Reactor Fuel Manufacturing Facility. The waste was composed of perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, ethyl acetate/bromine solution, paint shop solvents and possibly some used oil. Also, small amounts of uranium, copper, zirconium and possibly beryllium were present in the degreaser solvents as particulates. Radioactive and non-radioactive solvents were not segregated in the 300 ASE, and the entire mixture was regarded as mixed waste

  18. FULL SCALE TESTING TECHNOLOGY MATURATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR FOR HIGH-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT AT HANFORD - 12125

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI AR; CORBETT JE; WILSON RA; LARKIN J

    2012-01-26

    Simulant testing of a full-scale thin-film evaporator system was conducted in 2011 for technology development at the Hanford tank farms. Test results met objectives of water removal rate, effluent quality, and operational evaluation. Dilute tank waste simulant, representing a typical double-shell tank supernatant liquid layer, was concentrated from a 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.5 using a 4.6 m{sup 2} (50 ft{sup 2}) heated transfer area Rototherm{reg_sign} evaporator from Artisan Industries. The condensed evaporator vapor stream was collected and sampled validating efficient separation of the water. An overall decontamination factor of 1.2E+06 was achieved demonstrating excellent retention of key radioactive species within the concentrated liquid stream. The evaporator system was supported by a modular steam supply, chiller, and control computer systems which would be typically implemented at the tank farms. Operation of these support systems demonstrated successful integration while identifying areas for efficiency improvement. Overall testing effort increased the maturation of this technology to support final deployment design and continued project implementation.

  19. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrick, A.P.; Blackburn, L.D.; Brehm, W.F.; Carlos, W.C.; Hauptmann, J.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Danielson, M.J.; Westerman, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Divine, J.R. [ChemMet Ltd., West Richland, WA (United States); Foster, G.M. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy`s high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provides an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements: assessed. each requirement: and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of ASME SA 515, Grade 70, carbon steel.

  20. 40 CFR 280.43 - Methods of release detection for tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or contraction of the product, vapor pockets, tank deformation, evaporation or condensation, and the... inoperative by the ground water, rainfall, or soil moisture or other known interferences so that a release... protection system; (iv) The ground water, soil moisture, or rainfall will not render the testing or sampling...

  1. Inerting ballast tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, Gabriel L.; Bronneberg, Jos [SBM Offshore, AA Schiedam (Netherlands); Barros, Maria A.S.D. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This report expands upon the work conducted by SBM Offshore to develop a tank preservation treatment, which is intended to achieve a service life of 30 years. This work focuses on the corrosion problems, in the ballast tanks, based on new built hulls, both for the Gas Exploration Market, the FLNG - Floating Liquefied Natural Gas, and for the Oil Exploration market - FPSO's - Floating Production Storage and offloading Units. Herein, the corrosion rate input comes from the various references related to the process of nitrogen injection, which is expected to extend the vessel's time life. The essential elements of this solution comprise the deoxygenation process, corrosion models, coating effects, tests from laboratory, shipboard tests, corrosion institutes and regulations applicable to the operation. The best corrosion protection system for ballast tanks area combines a coating system and an inert gas system. The condition of the tanks will be dependent upon the level of protection applied to the steel structure, including, but not limited to coating, cathodic protection, etc. There is a need for products which extend the life time. It is not sufficient, only have good theoretical base for the corrosion and an excellent treatment system. In addition, the design of the ships structure must also eliminate the presence of local stress concentrations which can result in fatigue cracking and rupture of the protective coating barrier starting the corrosion. As a direct result of this, more problems in corrosion can be mitigated, vessels can have a better corrosion performance with less maintenance and repairs to coating systems in ballast tanks. Furthermore ships will be positively impacted operationally due to less frequent dry docking. There is a huge potential in the application of inert gas to combat the corrosion rate inside the ballast tanks, one of the most corrosive environments on earth. This application can have a direct impact on vessel structure

  2. Failure analysis of buried tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Failure of a buried tank can be hazardous. Failure may be a leak through which product is lost from the tank; but also through which contamination can occur. Failures are epidemic -- because buried tanks are out of sight, but also because designers of buried tanks have adopted analyses developed for pressure tanks. So why do pressure tanks fail when they are buried? Most failures of buried tanks are really soil failures. Soil compresses, or slips, or liquefies. Soil is not only a load, it is a support without which the tank deforms. A high water table adds to the load on the tank. It also reduces the strength of the soil. Based on tests, structural analyses are proposed for empty tanks buried in soils of various quality, with the water table at various levels, and with internal vacuum. Failure may be collapse tank. Such collapse is a sudden, audible inversion of the cylinder when the sidefill soil slips. Failure may be flotation. Failure may be a leak. Most leaks are fractures in the welds in overlap seams at flat spots. Flat spots are caused by a hard bedding or a heavy surface wheel load. Because the tank wall is double thick at the overlap, shearing stress in the weld is increased. Other weld failures occur when an end plate shears down past a cylinder; or when the tank is supported only at its ends like a beam. These, and other, failures can be analyzed with justifiable accuracy using basic principles of mechanics of materials. 10 figs

  3. Tank waste isotope contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VANKEUREN, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the results of a calculation to determine the relative contribution of selected isotopes to the inhalation and ingestion doses for a postulated release of Hanford tank waste. The fraction of the dose due to 90 Sr, 90 Y, 137 Cs and the alpha emitters for single shell solids and liquids, double shell solids and liquids, aging waste solids and liquids and all solids and liquids. An effective dose conversion factor was also calculated for the alpha emitters for each composite of the tank waste

  4. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  5. Think Tank Initiative and Think Tank Fund Peer Exchanges | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Think Tank Initiative (TTI) and the Think Tank Fund (TTF) are partnering to support peer exchanges between think tanks in regions where the programs are active: Africa, Latin America, South Asia, and Central and Eastern Europe (the former Soviet Union). This project will help reduce cooperation barriers among ...

  6. Design criteria monograph for metal tanks and tank components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Significant elements in detail tank design are wall and end structures, weld joints at bulkhead and attachment junctures, and ports and access openings. Additional design considerations are influence and effect of fabrication processes on tank component design, and finally, testing and inspection that are required to establish confidence in tank design.

  7. Evaporation in relation to hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wartena, L.; Keijman, J.Q.; Bruijn, H.A.R. de; Bakel, P.J.T. van; Stricker, J.N.M.; Velds, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    In meteorology some topics enjoy particular interest from other disciplines. The interest of hydrologists for the evaporation of water is a case in point, understandably and rightly so. In fact, over the last few decades, hydrology has clearly done more than using meteorological knowledge thus

  8. Fuel tank crashworthiness : loading scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development is conducting research into fuel tank crashworthiness. The breaching of fuel tanks during passenger : rail collisions and derailments increases the potential of serious injury...

  9. 49 CFR 180.519 - Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks. 180.519 Section 180.519 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... of Tank Cars § 180.519 Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car...

  10. Aboveground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    With the 1988 promulgation of the comprehensive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for underground storage of petroleum and hazardous substances, many existing underground storage tank (UST) owners have been considering making the move to aboveground storage. While on the surface, this may appear to be the cure-all to avoiding the underground leakage dilemma, there are many other new and different issues to consider with aboveground storage. The greatest misconception is that by storing materials above ground, there is no risk of subsurface environmental problems. it should be noted that with the aboveground storage tank (AGST) systems, there is still considerable risk of environmental contamination, either by the failure of onground tank bottoms or the spillage of product onto the ground surface where it subsequently finds its way to the ground water. In addition, there are added safety concerns that must be addressed. So what are the other specific areas of concern besides environmental to be addressed when making the decision between underground and aboveground tanks? The primary issues that will be addressed in this paper are: Safety, Product Losses, Cost Comparison of USTs vs AGSTs, Space Availability/Accessibility, Precipitation Handling, Aesthetics and Security, Pending and Existing Regulations

  11. Underground storage tank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Underground storage tanks, UST'S, have become a major component of the Louisville District's Environmental Support Program. The District's Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ''JOC type'' contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ''boiler plate'' information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor's bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor's factor to determine the value of the work

  12. Task 7c: Worm tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Worm tank has a unique shape. In the seismic design of a worm tank, it is desirable to clear the behavior of the worm tank under the seismic loading. We assumed that there are two phenomena in the seismic behavior of the worm tank same as the behavior of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. One is a sloshing behavior of the water and another is the dynamic response of the worm tank. In this study, we investigate the dynamic characteristics of the worm tank during the strong earthquakes. We conducted the vibration tests to clarify the seismic behaviors of the worm tanks and obtained the valuable data to verify the analytical method. It was found that the natural frequency can be calculated using the eigenvalue formula of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. Lower modes of the worm tank are identical with that of the rectangular tank. We can estimate the surface behavior and the impact mode using the data of the rectangular tank. (author)

  13. Fundamentals of evaporation and condensation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, Z.A.

    1979-01-01

    Fundamental relationships governing evaporation and condensation processes are reviewed. The terrace-ledge-kink (TLK) model is discussed in terms of atomic steps comprising growth and evaporation of crystals. Recent results in the field are described

  14. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. Th...

  15. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy's high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provide an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements; assessed each requirement; and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of normalized ASME SA 516, Grade 70, carbon steel

  16. WRPS Meeting The Challenge Of Tank Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    -and-a-half years to modernize the infrastructure in Hanford's tank farms. WRPS issued 850 subcontracts totaling more than $152 million with nearly 76 percent of that total awarded to small businesses. WRPS used the funding to upgrade tank farm infrastructure, develop technologies to retrieve and consolidate tank waste and extend the life of two critical operating facilities needed to feed waste to the WTP. The 222-S Laboratory analyzes waste to support waste retrievals and transfers. The laboratory was upgraded to support future WTP operations with a new computer system, new analytical equipment, a new office building and a new climate-controlled warehouse. The 242-A Evaporator was upgraded with a control-room simulator for operator training and several upgrades to aging equipment. The facility is used to remove liquid from the tank waste, creating additional storage space, necessary for continued waste retrievals and WTP operation. The One System Integrated Project Team is ajoint effort ofWRPS and Bechtel National to identify and resolve common issues associated with commissioning, feeding and operating the Waste Treatment Plant. Two new facilities are being designed to support WTP hot commlsslomng. The Interim Hanford Storage project is planned to store canisters of immobilized high-level radioactive waste glass produced by the vitrification plant. The facility will use open racks to store the 15-foot long, two-foot diameter canisters of waste, which require remote handling. The Secondary Liquid Waste Treatment Project is a major upgrade to the existing Effluent Treatment Facility at Hanford so it can treat about 10 million gallons of liquid radioactive and hazardous effluent a year from the vitrification plant. The One System approach brings the staff of both companies together to identify and resolve WTP safety issues. A questioning attitude is encouraged and an open forum is maintained for employees to raise issues. WRPS is completing its mission safely with record

  17. Prevention of stress corrosion cracking in nuclear waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrejcin, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    At the Savannah River Plant, stress corrosion of carbon steel storage tanks containing alkaline nitrate radioactive waste is prevented by stress relief and specification of limits on waste composition and temperature. Actual cases of cracking have occurred in the primary steel shell of tanks designed and built before 1960 and were attributed to a combination of high residual stresses from fabrication welding and aggressiveness of fresh wastes from the reactor fuel reprocessing plants. The fresh wastes have the highest concentration of nitrate, which has been shown to be the cracking agent. Also, as the waste solutions age and are reduced in volume by evaporation of water, nitrite and hydroxide ions become more concentrated and inhibit stress corrosion. Thus, by providing a heel of aged evaporated waste in tanks that receive fresh wastes, concentrations of the inhibitor ions are maintained within specific ranges to protect against nitrate cracking. The concentration and temperature range limits to prevent cracking were determined by a series of statistically designed experiments

  18. Hanford Waste Tank Grouping Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remund, K.M.; Simpson, B.C.

    1996-01-01

    This letter report discusses the progress and accomplishments of the Tank Grouping Study in FY96. Forty-one single-shell tanks (SSTs) were included in the FY95. In FY96, technical enhancements were also made to data transformations and tank grouping methods. The first focus of the FY96 effort was a general tank grouping study in which the 41 SSTs were grouped into classes with similar waste properties. The second FY96 focus was a demonstration of how multivariate statistical methods can be used to help resolve tank safety issues

  19. 21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaporated milk. 131.130 Section 131.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.130 Evaporated milk. (a) Description. Evaporated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of water only from milk. It...

  20. Evaporation from a sphagnum moss surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.S. Nichols; J.M. Brown

    1980-01-01

    Peat cores, 45 cm in diameter, were collected from a sphagnum bog in northern Minnesota, and used to measure the effects of different temperatures and water levels on evaporation from a sphagnum moss surface in a growth chamber. Under all conditions, evaporation from the moss surface was greater than that from a free-water surface. Evaporation from the moss increased...

  1. Determination of the radionuclide release factor for an evaporator process using nondestructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    The 242-A Evaporator is the primary waste evaporator for the Hanford Site radioactive liquid waste stored in underground double-shell tanks. Low pressure evaporation is used to remove water from the waste, thus reducing the amount of tank space required for storage. The process produces a concentrated slurry, a process condensate, and an offgas. The offgas exhausts through two stages of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters before being discharged to the atmosphere 40 CFR 61 Subpart H requires assessment of the unfiltered exhaust to determine if continuous compliant sampling is required. Because potential (unfiltered) emissions are not measured, methods have been developed to estimate these emissions. One of the methods accepted by the Environmental Protection Agency is the measurement of the accumulation of radionuclides on the HEPA filters. Nondestructive assay (NDA) was selected for determining the accumulation on the HEPA filters. NDA was performed on the HEPA filters before and after a campaign in 1997. NDA results indicate that 2.1 E+4 becquerels of cesium-137 were accumulated on the primary HEPA 1700 filter during the campaign. The feed material processed in the campaign contained a total of 1.4 E+l6 Bq of cesium-137. The release factor for the evaporator process is 1.5 E-12. Based on this release factor, continuous compliant sampling is not required

  2. Duplex Tear Film Evaporation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapf, M R; Braun, R J; King-Smith, P E

    2017-12-01

    Tear film thinning, hyperosmolarity, and breakup can cause irritation and damage to the human eye, and these form an area of active investigation for dry eye syndrome research. Recent research demonstrates that deficiencies in the lipid layer may cause locally increased evaporation, inducing conditions for breakup. In this paper, we explore the conditions for tear film breakup by considering a model for tear film dynamics with two mobile fluid layers, the aqueous and lipid layers. In addition, we include the effects of osmosis, evaporation as modified by the lipid, and the polar portion of the lipid layer. We solve the system numerically for reasonable parameter values and initial conditions and analyze how shifts in these cause changes to the system's dynamics.

  3. Black hole evaporation: a paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Bojowald, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved

  4. Tank Waste Remediation System fiscal year 1996 multi-year program plan WBS 1.1. Revision 1, Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document is a compilation of data relating to the Tank Waste Remediation System Multi-Year Program. Topics discussed include: management systems; waste volume, transfer and evaporation management; transition of 200 East and West areas; ferricyanide, volatile organic vapor, and flammable gas management; waste characterization; retrieval from SSTs and DSTs; heat management; interim storage; low-level and high-level radioactive waste management; and tank farm closure

  5. Does groundwater enhance evaporative cooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouholahnejad, E.

    2015-12-01

    Evaporation is a key process in land-climate interactions, not only because it directly regulates the hydrological cycle, but also because it contributes to the Earth's energy balance. Due to its feedbacks on large-scale water processes and its impact on the dynamics of the atmosphere, it has been considered as a driver of droughts and heatwaves1-3. While evaporation from ocean surfaces is likely to increase with rising temperatures, it is unclear whether evapotranspiration from land surfaces could similarly increase, due to possible limitations imposed by soil moisture and vegetation physiology4. Observations suggest that groundwater (hereafter GW) has an important role in hydrological budgets and soil moisture variability in many regions, supplying moisture for evapotranspiration during dry seasons5, 6. Although modeling studies suggest that GW is often close enough to the surface to interact with the atmosphere7, 8, the soil water storage is often underestimated by land surface models. This is most likely due to neglecting the lateral movement of water from topographically higher altitudes to valley bottoms and its convergence close to the land surface, as well as the upward movement of water in the capillary fringe.The focus of this study is to understand where and when GW may significantly enhance the availability of soil water for evapotranspiration. We also quantified the potential contribution of GW to evapotranspiration in the areas where GW is a major supply. We used the global network of eddy covariance observations9 (FLUXNET) along with global modeled GW depth10 and GLEAM ET model estimates11 to address the current gap in modelling ET due to neglecting GW supply. Having identified areas where GW is tightly coupled with the atmosphere through evaporation processes, the study provides the basis to examine the "air conditioning effect" of GW and test the idea if GW enhances evaporation to the extent that leads to a cooler temperatures and wetter climates.

  6. Water Evaporation in Swimming Baths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    This paper is publishing measuring results from models and full-scale baths of the evaporation in swimming baths, both public baths and retraining baths. Moreover, the heat balance of the basin water is measured. In addition the full-scale measurements have given many experiences which are repres...... are represented in instructions for carrying out and running swimming baths. If you follow the instructions you can achieve less investments, less heat consumption and a better comfort to the bathers....

  7. 49 CFR 179.101 - Individual specification requirements applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to pressure tank car tanks. 179.101 Section 179.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT... tank car tanks. Editorial Note: At 66 FR 45186, Aug. 28, 2001, an amendment published amending a table...

  8. 49 CFR 179.301 - Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-unit tank car tanks. 179.301 Section 179.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.301 Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) In...

  9. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.500 Section 179.500 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks. ...

  10. Experimental results on evaporation waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana Otero, Jose; Parra Fabian, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    A liquid contained in a vertical glass tube is suddenly depressurized from a high initial pressure down to one for which the stable state is vapour, so vaporization sets off at the free surface. For large enough evaporation rates, the planar vapour-liquid interface is Darrieus-Landau unstable [1], leading to the interface surface rippling close to the instability threshold. Further increasing the initial to final pressure ratio brings about evaporation waves [2,3], in which a highly corrugated front propagates downwards into the liquid. A new experimental method is presented as well as some experimental results obtained by tracking the evolution of the front with a high speed camera. In addition, a number of new phenomena related to the dynamics of bubbles growth at the walls has been uncovered. In particular, a new mode of propagation of the evaporation front is found. In this mode the front originates from below the interface, so the propagation is upwards against gravity with a curved but smooth front.[4pt] [1] F. J. Higuera, Phys. Fluids, V. 30, 679 (1987).[0pt] [2] J.E.Shepherd and B.Sturtevant, J.Fluid Mech., V.121,379 (1982).[0pt] [3] P.Reinke and G.Yadigaroglu, Int.J.Multiph. Flow, V.27,1487 (2001).

  11. Local behaviour of evaporating stars and black holes around the total evaporation event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayos, F; Torres, R

    2010-01-01

    Many models in which the object under study loses all its mass have appeared in the literature. This can be found from evaporating stars to incipient black holes, all the way to evaporating black holes. In this paper we try a semiclassical study of these evaporating models centred on the evaporating event itself. We analyse their common properties, behaviours and possibilities. Specifically, we pay special attention to the evaporating models as a means of avoiding singularities during the collapse. In the case of any pre-existing non-spacelike curvature singularity, we show that these models tend to evaporate it. Finally, we introduce a new class of evaporating black holes.

  12. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-04-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. It is probable that tank 241-C-112 exceeds the 1,000 g-mol inventory criteria established for the Ferrocyanide USQ; however, extensive energetic analysis of the waste has determined a maximum exothermic value of -9 cal/g dry waste. This value is substantially below any levels of concern (-75 cal/g). In addition, an investigation of potential mechanisms to generate concentration levels of radionuclides high enough to be of concern was performed. No credible mechanism was postulated that could initiate the formation of such concentration levels in the tank. Tank 241-C-112 waste is a complex material made up primarily of water and inert salts. The insoluble solids are a mixture of phosphates, sulfates, and hydroxides in combination with aluminum, calcium, iron, nickel, and uranium. Disodium nickel ferrocyanide and sodium cesium nickel ferrocyanide probably exist in the tank; however, there appears to have been significant degradation of this material since the waste was initially settled in the tank.

  13. TESTING OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS ACTUAL WASTE TANK 5F AND TANK 12H SLUDGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; King, W.

    2011-08-22

    Forty three of the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have internal structures that hinder removal of the last approximately five thousand gallons of waste sludge solely by mechanical means. Chemical cleaning can be utilized to dissolve the sludge heel with oxalic acid (OA) and pump the material to a separate waste tank in preparation for final disposition. This dissolved sludge material is pH adjusted downstream of the dissolution process, precipitating the sludge components along with sodium oxalate solids. The large quantities of sodium oxalate and other metal oxalates formed impact downstream processes by requiring additional washing during sludge batch preparation and increase the amount of material that must be processed in the tank farm evaporator systems and the Saltstone Processing Facility. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) was identified as a potential method for greatly reducing the impact of oxalate additions to the SRS Tank Farms without adding additional components to the waste that would extend processing or increase waste form volumes. In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate an alternative to the baseline 8 wt. % OA chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. The baseline OA technology results in the addition of significant volumes of oxalate salts to the SRS tank farm and there is insufficient space to accommodate the neutralized streams resulting from the treatment of the multiple remaining waste tanks requiring closure. ECC is a promising alternative to bulk OA cleaning, which utilizes a more dilute OA (nominally 2 wt. % at a pH of around 2) and an oxalate destruction technology. The technology is being adapted by AREVA from their decontamination technology for Nuclear Power Plant secondary side scale removal. This report contains results from the SRNL small scale testing of the ECC process

  14. A science think tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, F.

    1999-01-01

    A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning

  15. Fuel Tank Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    subcomponents, (Left wing box/Central wing box/Right wing box) assembled together with high strenght fasteners in the interfacing ribs. (FIG. 10). Each...especially on large tanks, and is seldom used nowadays for RAF aircraft. On the other hand , forced air ventilation, which involves blowing a large volume of...reliant on skilled manpower and basic hand tools. 16. Once the old sealant has been removed, the surface must be prepared to receive the new sealant. At

  16. Evaporator Development for an Evaporative Heat Pipe System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Leigh C.

    2004-01-01

    As fossil fuel resources continue to deplete, research for alternate power sources continues to develop. One of these alternate technologies is fuel cells. They are a practical fuel source able to provide significant amounts of power for applications from laptops to automobiles and their only byproduct is water. However, although this technology is over a century old and NASA has been working with it since the early 1960 s there is still room for improvement. The research I am involved in at NASA's Glenn Research Center is focusing on what is called a regenerative fuel cell system. The unique characteristic of this type of system is that it used an outside power source to create electrolysis of the water it produces and it then reuses the hydrogen and oxygen to continue producing power. The advantage of this type of system is that, for example, on space missions it can use solar power to recharge its gas supplies between periods when the object being orbited blocks out the sun. This particular system however is far from completion. This is because of the many components that are required to make up a fuel cell that need to be tested individually. The specific part of the system that is being worked on this summer of 2004 is the cooling system. The fuel cell stack, that is the part that actually creates the power, also produces a lot of heat. When not properly cooled, it has been known to cause fires which, needless to say are not conducive to the type of power that is trying to be created. In order to cool the fuel cell stack in this system we are developing a heat pipe cooling system. One of the main components of a heat pipe cooling system is what is known as the evaporator, and that is what happens to be the part of the system we are developing this summer. In most heat pipe systems the evaporator is a tube in which the working fluid is cooled and then re-circulated through the system to absorb more heat energy from the fuel cell stack. For this system, instead

  17. Dynamic simulation of the in-tank precipitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, T.; Shanahan, K.L.; Gregory, M.V.; Walker, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the High-Level Waste Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility was designed to decontaminate the radioactive waste supernate by removing cesium as precipitated cesium tetraphenylborate. A dynamic computer model of the ITP process was developed using SPEEDUP TM software to provide guidance in the areas of operation and production forecast, production scheduling, safety, air emission, and process improvements. The model performs material balance calculations in all phase (solid, liquid, and gas) for 50 key chemical constituents to account for inventory accumulation, depletion, and dilution. Calculations include precipitation, benzene radiolytic reactions, evaporation, dissolution, adsorption, filtration, and stripping. To control the ITP batch operation a customized FORTRAN program was generated and linked to SPEEDUP TM simulation This paper summarizes the model development and initial results of the simulation study

  18. Chemical characterization of SRP waste tank sludges and supernates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Donnan, M.Y.; Okamoto, B.Y.

    1979-08-01

    Most high-level liquid wastes at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are byproducts from plutonium and enriched uranium recovery processes. The high-level liquid wastes generated by these separations processes are stored in large, underground, carbon-steel tanks. The liquid wastes consist of: supernate (an aqueous solution containing sodium, nitrate, nitrite, hydroxyl, and aluminate ions), sludge (a gelatinous material containing insoluble components of the waste, such as ferric and aluminum hydroxides, and mercuric and manganese oxides), and salt cake (crystals, such as sodium nitrate, formed by evaporation of water from supernate). Analyses of SRP wastes by laser-Raman spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, spark-source mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, colorimetry, ion chromatography, and various other wet-chemical and radiochemical methods are discussed. These analyses are useful in studies of waste tank corrosion and of forms for long-term waste storage

  19. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable.

  20. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable

  1. Putting the "vap" into evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the spirit of the Special Issue of HESS to which it contributes, this paper documents the origin and development of the science of natural evaporation from land surfaces over the last 30–35 years, since the symposium A View from the Watershed was held to commemorate the opening of the new Institute of Hydrology (IH building in 1973. Important subsequent technical progress includes the ability to measure routinely the diurnal cycle of near-surface meteorological variables using automatic weather stations, and of surface energy and momentum exchanges using automated implementations of the Bowen Ratio/Energy Budget technique and the Eddy Correlation technique, along with the capability to estimate the "fetch" for which these measurements apply. These improvements have been complemented by new methods to measure the separate components of evaporation, including: the interception process using randomly relocated below-canopy gauges, transpiration fluxes from individual leaves/shoots using porometers and from plants/plant components using stem-flow gauges and soil evaporation using micro-lysimeters and soil moisture depletion methods. In recent years progress has been made in making theory-based area-average estimates of evaporation using scintillometers, and model-based area-average estimates by assembling many streams of relevant data into Land Data Assimilation Systems. Theoretical progress has been made in extending near-surface turbulence theory to accommodate the effect of the "excess" boundary layer resistance to leaf-to-air transfer of energy and mass fluxes relative to that for momentum, and to allow for observed shortcoming in stability factors in the transition layer immediately above vegetation. Controversy regarding the relative merits of multi-layer model and "big leaf" representations of whole-canopy exchanges has been resolved in favour of the latter approach. Important gaps in the theory of canopy-atmosphere interactions have

  2. Evaporative oxidation treatability test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act that requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity where available off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed wastes. DOE-AL manages operations at nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment capacity to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste not only must address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. On the basis of recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) are evaporative oxidation, thermal desorption, and treated wastewater evaporation. Rust Geotech, the DOE-GJPO prime contractor, was assigned to design and fabricate mobile treatment units (MTUs) for these three technologies and to deliver the MTUs to selected DOE-AL sites. To conduct treatability tests at the GJPO, Rust leased a pilot-scale evaporative oxidation unit from the Clemson Technical Center (CTC), Anderson, South Carolina. The purpose of this report is to document the findings and results of tests performed using this equipment.

  3. Evaporative oxidation treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act that requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity where available off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed wastes. DOE-AL manages operations at nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment capacity to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste not only must address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. On the basis of recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) are evaporative oxidation, thermal desorption, and treated wastewater evaporation. Rust Geotech, the DOE-GJPO prime contractor, was assigned to design and fabricate mobile treatment units (MTUs) for these three technologies and to deliver the MTUs to selected DOE-AL sites. To conduct treatability tests at the GJPO, Rust leased a pilot-scale evaporative oxidation unit from the Clemson Technical Center (CTC), Anderson, South Carolina. The purpose of this report is to document the findings and results of tests performed using this equipment

  4. Characterization of the BVEST waste tanks located at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Meeks, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    During the fall of 1996 there was a major effort to sample and analyze the Active Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL which include the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST). The characterization data summarized in this report was needed to address waste processing options, address concerns dealing with the performance assessment (PA) data for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), evaluate the waste characteristics with respect to the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for WIPP and Nevada Test Site (NTS), address criticality concerns, and meet DOT requirements for transporting the waste. This report discusses the analytical characterization data for the supernatant and sludge in the BVEST waste tanks W-21, W-22, and W-23. The isotopic data presented in this report supports the position that fissile isotopes of uranium and plutonium were denatured as required by the administrative controls stated in the ORNL LLLW waste acceptance criteria (WAC). In general, the BVEST sludge was found to be hazardous based on RCRA characteristics and the transuranic alpha activity was well above the 100 nCi/g limit for TRU waste. The characteristics of the BVEST sludge relative to the WIPP WAC limits for fissile gram equivalent, plutonium equivalent activity, and thermal power from decay heat were estimated from the data in this report and found to be far below the upper boundary for any of the remote-handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) requirements for disposal of the waste in WIPP

  5. Characterization of the MVST waste tanks located at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Meeks, A.M.

    1996-12-01

    During the fall of 1996 there was a major effort to sample and analyze the Active Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL which include the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST). The characterization data summarized in this report was needed to address waste processing options, address concerns of the performance assessment (PA) data for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), evaluate the characteristics with respect to the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for WIPP and Nevada Test Site (NTS), address criticality concerns, and meet DOT requirements for transporting the waste. This report only discusses the analytical characterization data for the MVST waste tanks. The isotopic data presented in this report support the position that fissile isotopes of uranium and plutonium were ``denatured`` as required by administrative controls. In general, MVST sludge was found to be both hazardous by RCRA characteristics and the transuranic alpha activity was well about the limit for TRU waste. The characteristics of the MVST sludge relative to the WIPP WAC limits for fissile gram equivalent, plutonium equivalent activity, and thermal power from decay heat, were estimated from the data in this report and found to be far below the upper boundary for any of the remote-handled transuranic waste requirements for disposal of the waste in WIPP.

  6. Design of steel cylindrical tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Hlastec, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with the area of steel shell structures. Presented is the design process of steel cylindrical tanks using Eurocode standards. I dealt with the plastic limit states and stability limit state of steel shell structures. A program for the calculation of cylindrical steel tanks for the limit state of strength and stability is made in Matlab. The focus of this work is on understanding the design process of cylindrical steel tanks and creating a computer program in Matlab. Create...

  7. Behavior of ruthenium in the case of shutdown of the cooling system of HLLW storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, M.; Mercier, J.P.; Gue, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The consequences of the failure of the cooling system of fission product storage tanks over a variable period were investigated as part of the safety analysis of the La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plant. Due to the considerable heat release, induced by the fission products, a prolonged shutdown of the tank cooling system could cause the progressive evaporation of the solutions to dryness, and culminate in the formation of volatile species of ruthenium and their release in the tank venting circuit. To determine the fraction of ruthenium likely to be transferred from the storage tanks in volatile or aerosol form during the failure, evaporation tests were conducted by evaporating samples of actual nitric acid solutions of fission products, obtained on the laboratory scale after the reprocessing of several kilograms of MOX fuels irradiated to 30,000 MWday.t -1 . A distillation apparatus was designed to operate with small volume solution samples, reproducing the heating conditions existing in the reprocessing plant within a storage tank for fission products. The main conclusions drawn from these experiments are as follows: - ruthenium is only volatilized in the final phase of evaporation, just before desiccation, - for a final temperature limited to 160 0 C, the total fraction of volatilized ruthenium reaches 12%, in the presence of H 2 0, HN0 3 , N0 x and 0 2 , the volatilized ruthenium recombines mainly in the form of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrates, or decomposes into ruthenium oxide on the walls of the apparatus. Assuming a heating power density of 10 W/liter of concentrate, and a perfectly adiabatic storage system, the minimum time required to reach dryness can be estimated at 90 h, allowing substantial time to take action to restore a cooling source

  8. Behavior of ruthenium in the case of shutdown of the cooling system of HLLW storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, M.; Mercier, J.P.; Gue, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The consequences of the failure of the cooling system of fission product storage tanks over a variable period were investigated as part of the safety analysis of the La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plant. Due to the considerable heat release, induced by the fission products, a prolonged shutdown of the tank cooling system could cause the progressive evaporation of the solutions to dryness, and culminate in the formation of volatile species of ruthenium and their release in the tank venting circuit. To determine the fraction of ruthenium likely to be transferred from the storage tanks in volatile or aerosol form during the failure, evaporation tests were conducted by evaporating samples of actual nitric acid solutions of fission products, obtained on the laboratory scale after the reprocessing of several kilograms of MOX fuels irradiated to 30,000 MW day·t -1 . A distillation apparatus was designed to operate with small-volume solution samples, reproducing the heating conditions existing in the reprocessing plant within a storage tank for fission products. The main conclusions drawn from these experiments are as follows: ruthenium is only volatilized in the final phase of evaporation, just before desiccation; for a final temperature limited to 160 degree C, the total fraction of volatilized ruthenium reaches 12%; in the presence of H 2 O, HNO 3 , NO x and O 2 , the volatilized ruthenium recombines mainly in the form of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrates, or decomposes into ruthenium oxide (probably RuO 2 ) on the walls of the apparatus. Assuming a heating power density of 10 W/liter of concentrate, and a perfectly adiabatic storage system, the minimum time required to reach dryness can be estimated at 90 h, allowing substantial time to take action to restore a cooling source

  9. 242-A Evaporator crystallizer facility integrated annual safety appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report provides the results of the Fiscal Year (FY) 1991 Annual Integrated Safety Appraisal of the 242-A Evaporator Crystallizer Facility in the Hanford 200 East Area. The appraisal was conducted in December 1990 and January 1991, by the Waste Tank Safety Assurance (WTSA) organizations in conjunction with Radiological Engineering, Criticality Safety, Packaging and Shipping Safety, Emergency Preparedness, Environmental Compliance, and Quality Assurance. Reports of these eight organizations are presented as Sections 2 through 7 of this report. The purpose of the appraisal was to verify that the 242-A Evaporator meets US Department of Energy (DOE) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) requirements and current industry standards of good practice for the areas being appraised. A further purpose was to identify areas in which program effectiveness could be improved. In accordance with the guidance of WHC Management Requirements and Procedures (MRP)5.6, previously identified deficiencies which are being resolved by line management were not repeated as Findings or Observations unless progress or intended disposition was considered to be unsatisfactory

  10. Development of smart solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar tanks. A smart solar tank is a tank in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated...... by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand the volume is large, in periods with a small hot-water demand the volume is small. Based on measurements and calculations the advantage of smart SDHW systems is visualised....

  11. Do Fish Enhance Tank Mixing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Laursen, Jesper; Craig, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    The design of fish rearing tanks represents a critical stage in the development of optimal aquaculture systems, especially in the context of recirculating systems. Poor hydrodynamics can compromise water quality, waste management and the physiology and behaviour of fish, and thence, production...... to determine the impact of fish presence upon tank hydrodynamics, Rhodamine fluorometry was employed to examine mixing within a recirculating aquaculture system. Two different methods were compared, traditional, outlet-based measurements and a technique that employed in-tank data acquisition. Circular tanks...

  12. 46 CFR 153.266 - Tank linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.266 Tank linings. A tank lining must be: (a) At least as elastic as the tank material; and (b) Applied or attached to the tank as recommended by the lining manufacturer. Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment ...

  13. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at least...

  14. 46 CFR 154.420 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.420 Section 154.420 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.420 Tank design. (a) The structure of an integral tank must meet the deep tank scantling standards...

  15. 46 CFR 154.439 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.439 Section 154.439 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type A § 154.439 Tank design. An independent tank type A must meet the deep tank standard of the...

  16. Towards a sharp-interface volume-of-fluid methodology for modeling evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Raessi, Mehdi

    2017-11-01

    In modeling evaporation, the diffuse-interface (one-domain) formulation yields inaccurate results. Recent efforts approaching the problem via a sharp-interface (two-domain) formulation have shown significant improvements. The reasons behind their better performance are discussed in the present work. All available sharp-interface methods, however, exclusively employ the level-set. In the present work, we develop a sharp-interface evaporation model in a volume-of-fluid (VOF) framework in order to leverage its mass-conserving property as well as its ability to handle large topographical changes. We start with a critical review of the assumptions underlying the mathematical equations governing evaporation. For example, it is shown that the assumption of incompressibility can only be applied in special circumstances. The famous D2 law used for benchmarking is valid exclusively to steady-state test problems. Transient is present over significant lifetime of a micron-size droplet. Therefore, a 1D spherical fully transient model is developed to provide a benchmark transient solution. Finally, a 3D Cartesian Navier-Stokes evaporation solver is developed. Some preliminary validation test-cases are presented for static and moving drop evaporation. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the Department of Defense, Tank and Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center, under Award Number DEEE0007292.

  17. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  18. Tank closure reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  19. Tank closure reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-01-01

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr 90 , the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel

  20. New models for droplet heating and evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Sazhin, Sergei S.

    2013-02-01

    A brief summary of new models for droplet heating and evaporation, developed mainly at the Sir Harry Ricardo Laboratory of the University of Brighton during 2011-2012, is presented. These are hydrodynamic models for mono-component droplet heating and evaporation, taking into account the effects of the moving boundary due to evaporation, hydrodynamic models of multi-component droplet heating and evaporation, taking and not taking into account the effects of the moving boundary, new kinetic models of mono-component droplet heating and evaporation, and a model for mono-component droplet evaporation, based on molecular dynamics simulation. The results, predicted by the new models are compared with experimental data and the prehctions of the previously developed models where possible. © 2013 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

  1. Wetting and evaporation of binary mixture drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefiane, Khellil; David, Samuel; Shanahan, Martin E R

    2008-09-11

    Experimental results on the wetting behavior of water, methanol, and binary mixture sessile drops on a smooth, polymer-coated substrate are reported. The wetting behavior of evaporating water/methanol drops was also studied in a water-saturated environment. Drop parameters (contact angle, shape, and volume) were monitored in time. The effects of the initial relative concentrations on subsequent evaporation and wetting dynamics were investigated. Physical mechanisms responsible for the various types of wetting behavior during different stages are proposed and discussed. Competition between evaporation and hydrodynamic flow are evoked. Using an environment saturated with water vapor allowed further exploration of the controlling mechanisms and underlying processes. Wetting stages attributed to differential evaporation of methanol were identified. Methanol, the more volatile component, evaporates predominantly in the initial stage. The data, however, suggest that a small proportion of methanol remained in the drop after the first stage of evaporation. This residual methanol within the drop seems to influence subsequent wetting behavior strongly.

  2. Tank Waste Remediation System Tank Waste Analysis Plan. FY 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, C.S.; Dove, T.H.

    1994-01-01

    This documents lays the groundwork for preparing the implementing the TWRS tank waste analysis planning and reporting for Fiscal Year 1995. This Tank Waste Characterization Plan meets the requirements specified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, better known as the Tri-Party Agreement

  3. 49 CFR 179.100 - General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.100 Section 179.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100 General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks. ...

  4. 49 CFR 179.103 - Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.103 Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks. (a) In addition to the applicable...

  5. 49 CFR 179.102 - Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.102 Section 179.102 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102 Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks. (a) In addition to...

  6. 33 CFR 157.146 - Similar tank design: Inspections on U.S. tank vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Similar tank design: Inspections on U.S. tank vessels. 157.146 Section 157.146 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 157.146 Similar tank design: Inspections on U.S. tank vessels. (a) If a U.S. tank vessel has tanks...

  7. Sessile Drop Evaporation and Leidenfrost Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Mozumder; M. R. Ullah; A. Hossain; M. A. Islam

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Quenching and cooling are important process in manufacturing industry for controlling the mechanical properties of materials, where evaporation is a vital mode of heat transfer. Approach: This study experimentally investigated the evaporation of sessile drop for four different heated surfaces of Aluminum, Brass, Copper and Mild steel with a combination of four different liquids as Methanol, Ethanol, Water and NaCl solution. The time of evaporation for the droplet on the hot...

  8. Expressions for the evaporation of sessile liquid droplets incorporating the evaporative cooling effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yilin; Ma, Liran; Xu, Xuefeng; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-12-15

    The evaporation along the surface of pinned, sessile droplets is investigated numerically by using the combined field approach. In the present model, the evaporative cooling at the droplet surface which leads to a reduction in the evaporation is taken into account. Simple, yet accurate analytical expressions for the local evaporation flux and for the total evaporation rate of sessile droplets are obtained. The theoretical analyses indicate that the reduction in the evaporation becomes more pronounced as the evaporative cooling number Ec increases. The results also reveal that the variation of total evaporation rate with contact angle will change its trend as the intensity of the evaporative cooling changes. For small values of Ec, the total evaporation rate increases with the contact angle, the same as predicted by Deegan et al. and by Hu and Larson in their isothermal models in which the evaporative cooling is neglected. Contrarily, when the evaporative cooling effect is strong enough, the total evaporation rate will decrease as the contact angle increases. The present theory is corroborated experimentally, and found in good agreement with the expressions proposed by Hu and Larson in the limiting isothermal case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. DETERMINATION OF THE COMPOSITION AND YIELD OF "CHEESE TYPE PRATO" OBTAINED FROM MILK CONCENTRATE BY VACUUM EVAPORATION

    OpenAIRE

    Perrone, Ítalo Tuler; Pereira, João Pablo Fortes; Magalhães, Fernando Antônio Resplande; Costa Júnior, Luiz Carlos Gonçalves; Paula, Júnio César Jacinto de; Sobral, Denise

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the composition and yield of “cheese type Prato” made from milk concentrated by vacuum evaporation. Was employed in the experiment of a single vacuum evaporator effect and stainless steel tanks with capacity up to 200 liters of milk in the Laboratory of the Institute of Dairy Technology Cândido Tostes / EPAMIG. The physico-chemical performed to milk, whey and cheese were the determinations of fat, protein, lactose, ash and moisture. For the analysi...

  10. Continuous Brine Evaporation Cartridge, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A microgravity-compatible Continuous Brine Evaporation Cartridge (CBEC) is proposed for greater than 95% water recovery from highly contaminated wastewater without...

  11. Preliminary safety criteria for organic watch list tanks at the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, A.B.; Stewart, J.L.; Turner, O.A.; Plys, M.G.; Malinovic, B.; Grigsby, J.M.; Camaioni, D.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Samuels, W.O.; Toth, J.J.

    1995-11-01

    Condensed-phase, rapid reactions of organic salts with nitrates/nitrites in Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste single-shell tanks could lead to structural failure of the tanks resulting in significant releases of radionuclides and toxic materials. This report establishes appropriate preliminary safety criteria to ensure that tank wastes will be maintained safe. These criteria show that if actual dry wastes contain less than 1.2 MJ/kg of reactants reaction energy or less 4.5 wt % of total organic carbon, then the waste will be safe and will not propagate if ignited. Waste moisture helps to retard reactions; when waste moisture exceeds 20 wt %, rapid reactions are prevented, regardless of organic carbon concentrations. Aging and degradation of waste materials has been considered to predict the types and amounts to organic compounds present in the waste. Using measurements of 3 waste phases (liquid, salt cake, and sludge) obtained from tank waste samples analyzed in the laboratory, analysis of variance (ANOVA) models were used to estimate waste states for unmeasured tanks. The preliminary safety criteria are based upon calorimetry and propagation testing of likely organic compounds which represent actual tank wastes. These included sodium salts of citrate, formate, acetate and hydroxyethylethylenediaminetricetate (HEDTA). Hot cell tests of actual tank wastes are planned for the future to confirm propagation tests performed in the laboratory. The effects of draining liquids from the tanks which would remove liquids and moisture were considered because reactive waste which is too dry may propagate. Evaporation effects which could remove moisture from the tanks were also calculated. The various ways that the waste could be heated or ignited by equipment failures or tank operations activities were considered and appropriate monitoring and controls were recommended

  12. Preliminary safety criteria for organic watch list tanks at the Hanford site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, A.B.; Stewart, J.L.; Turner, O.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Plys, M.G.; Malinovic, B. [Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Grigsby, J.M. [G & P Consulting, Inc. (United States); Camaioni, D.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Samuels, W.O.; Toth, J.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Portland, OR (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Condensed-phase, rapid reactions of organic salts with nitrates/nitrites in Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste single-shell tanks could lead to structural failure of the tanks resulting in significant releases of radionuclides and toxic materials. This report establishes appropriate preliminary safety criteria to ensure that tank wastes will be maintained safe. These criteria show that if actual dry wastes contain less than 1.2 MJ/kg of reactants reaction energy or less 4.5 wt % of total organic carbon, then the waste will be safe and will not propagate if ignited. Waste moisture helps to retard reactions; when waste moisture exceeds 20 wt %, rapid reactions are prevented, regardless of organic carbon concentrations. Aging and degradation of waste materials has been considered to predict the types and amounts to organic compounds present in the waste. Using measurements of 3 waste phases (liquid, salt cake, and sludge) obtained from tank waste samples analyzed in the laboratory, analysis of variance (ANOVA) models were used to estimate waste states for unmeasured tanks. The preliminary safety criteria are based upon calorimetry and propagation testing of likely organic compounds which represent actual tank wastes. These included sodium salts of citrate, formate, acetate and hydroxyethylethylenediaminetricetate (HEDTA). Hot cell tests of actual tank wastes are planned for the future to confirm propagation tests performed in the laboratory. The effects of draining liquids from the tanks which would remove liquids and moisture were considered because reactive waste which is too dry may propagate. Evaporation effects which could remove moisture from the tanks were also calculated. The various ways that the waste could be heated or ignited by equipment failures or tank operations activities were considered and appropriate monitoring and controls were recommended.

  13. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  14. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, William R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  15. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  16. Modelling of baffled stirred tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, H.; Lahtinen, M. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The three-dimensional flow field of a baffled stirred tank has been calculated using four different turbulence models. The tank is driven by a Rushton-type impeller. The boundary condition for the impeller region has been given as a source term or by calculating the impeller using the sliding mesh technique. Calculated values have been compared with measured data. (author)

  17. Solitons in a wave tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M.; Smith, H.; Scott, Alwyn C.

    1984-01-01

    A wave tank experiment (first described by the nineteenth-century engineer and naval architect John Scott Russell) relates a linear eigenvalue problem from elementary quantum mechanics to a striking feature of modern nonlinear wave theory: multiple generation of solitons. The tank experiment...

  18. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula o...

  19. Surplus yeast tank failing catastrophically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2016-01-01

    GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air...

  20. Solitons in a wave tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, M.; Smith, H.; Scott, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    A wave tank experiment (first described by the nineteenth-century engineer and naval architect John Scott Russell) relates a linear eigenvalue problem from elementary quantum mechanics to a striking feature of modern nonlinear wave theory: multiple generation of solitons. The tank experiment is intended for lecture demonstrations. 19 references, 6 figures

  1. Full-Scale Testing Technology Maturation Of A Thin Film Evaporator For High-Level Liquid Waste Management At Hanford - 12125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedeschi, A.R.; Corbett, J.E.; Wilson, R.A.; Larkin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Simulant testing of a full-scale thin-film evaporator system was conducted in 2011 for technology development at the Hanford tank farms. Test results met objectives of water removal rate, effluent quality, and operational evaluation. Dilute tank waste simulant, representing a typical double-shell tank supernatant liquid layer, was concentrated from a 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.5 using a 4.6 m 2 (50 ft 2 ) heated transfer area Rototherm(reg s ign) evaporator from Artisan Industries. The condensed evaporator vapor stream was collected and sampled validating efficient separation of the water. An overall decontamination factor of 1.2E+06 was achieved demonstrating excellent retention of key radioactive species within the concentrated liquid stream. The evaporator system was supported by a modular steam supply, chiller, and control computer systems which would be typically implemented at the tank farms. Operation of these support systems demonstrated successful integration while identifying areas for efficiency improvement. Overall testing effort increased the maturation of this technology to support final deployment design and continued project implementation.

  2. Entropy Budget for Hawking Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alonso-Serrano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blackbody radiation, emitted from a furnace and described by a Planck spectrum, contains (on average an entropy of 3 . 9 ± 2 . 5 bits per photon. Since normal physical burning is a unitary process, this amount of entropy is compensated by the same amount of “hidden information” in correlations between the photons. The importance of this result lies in the posterior extension of this argument to the Hawking radiation from black holes, demonstrating that the assumption of unitarity leads to a perfectly reasonable entropy/information budget for the evaporation process. In order to carry out this calculation, we adopt a variant of the “average subsystem” approach, but consider a tripartite pure system that includes the influence of the rest of the universe, and which allows “young” black holes to still have a non-zero entropy; which we identify with the standard Bekenstein entropy.

  3. In-tank photo analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorvick, C.A.; Baird, D.B.; Heasler, P.G.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents an analysis performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) of photographs showing the interior of a single shell tank (SST) at the Hanford site. This report shows that in-tank photos can be used to create a plan-view map of the waste surface inside a tank, and that measuring the elevation of the waste surface from the photos is possible, but not accurate enough to be useful at this time. In-tank photos were acquired for Tanks BX111 and T111. The BX111 photos were used to create the waste surface map and to measure the waste surface elevation. T111 photos were used to measure the waste surface elevation. Uncertainty analyses of the mapping and surface elevation are included to show the accuracy of the calculations for both methods

  4. Hanford site waste tank characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the on-going work in the characterization of the Hanford-Site high-level waste tanks. The waste in these tanks was produced as part of the nuclear weapons materials processing mission that occupied the Hanford Site for the first 40 years of its existence. Detailed and defensible characterization of the tank wastes is required to guide retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal technology development, to address waste stability and reactivity concerns, and to satisfy the compliance criteria for the various regulatory agencies overseeing activities at the Hanford Site. The resulting Tank Characterization Reports fulfill these needs, as well as satisfy the tank waste characterization milestones in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order

  5. Hanford site waste tank characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the on-going work in the characterization of the Hanford-Site high-level waste tanks. The waste in these tanks was produced as part of the nuclear weapons materials processing mission that occupied the Hanford Site for the first 40 years of its existence. Detailed and defensible characterization of the tank wastes is required to guide retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal technology development, to address waste stability and reactivity concerns, and to satisfy the compliance criteria for the various regulatory agencies overseeing activities at the Hanford Site. The resulting Tank Characterization Reports fulfill these needs, as well as satisfy the tank waste characterization milestones in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order.

  6. Tank waste technical options report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomer, K.D.; Baker, S.K.; Boldt, A.L.; Galbraith, J.D.; Garfield, J.S.; Golberg, C.E.; Higley, B.A.; Johnson, L.J.; Kupfer, M.J.; Marusich, R.M.; Parazin, R.J.; Praga, A.N.; Reddick, G.W.; Reddick, J.A.; Slaathaug, E.J.; Swanson, L.M.; Waldo, T.L.; Worcester, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    This document, Tank Waste Technical Options Report, assesses technologies that can be applied to treat and dispose of all Hanford Site tank waste including the cesium and strontium capsules. This effort continues the single-shell tank systems engineering work that began at the urging of a National Academy of Science subpanel. The study develops data on specific technologies that are combined to form alternativesfor waste treatment and disposal. These alternatives are defined and evaluated in the Tank Waste Decision Analysis Report. Both studies are an integral part of the Tank Waste Remediation System goal of defininga new technical strategy in 1993. The engineering work represented in this document will also serve as data for the environmental impact statement support document

  7. Intrinsic Evaporative Cooling by Hygroscopic Earth Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra R. Rempel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The phase change of water from liquid to vapor is one of the most energy-intensive physical processes in nature, giving it immense potential for cooling. Diverse evaporative cooling strategies have resulted worldwide, including roof ponds and sprinklers, courtyard fountains, wind catchers with qanats, irrigated green roofs, and fan-assisted evaporative coolers. These methods all require water in bulk liquid form. The evaporation of moisture that has been sorbed from the atmosphere by hygroscopic materials is equally energy-intensive, however, yet has not been examined for its cooling potential. In arid and semi-arid climates, hygroscopic earth buildings occur widely and are known to maintain comfortable indoor temperatures, but evaporation of moisture from their walls and roofs has been regarded as unimportant since water scarcity limits irrigation and rainfall; instead, their cool interiors are attributed to well-established mass effects in delaying the transmission of sensible gains. Here, we investigate the cooling accomplished by daily cycles of moisture sorption and evaporation which, requiring only ambient humidity, we designate as “intrinsic” evaporative cooling. Connecting recent soil science to heat and moisture transport studies in building materials, we use soils, adobe, cob, unfired earth bricks, rammed earth, and limestone to reveal the effects of numerous parameters (temperature and relative humidity, material orientation, thickness, moisture retention properties, vapor diffusion resistance, and liquid transport properties on the magnitude of intrinsic evaporative cooling and the stabilization of indoor relative humidity. We further synthesize these effects into concrete design guidance. Together, these results show that earth buildings in diverse climates have significant potential to cool themselves evaporatively through sorption of moisture from humid night air and evaporation during the following day’s heat. This finding

  8. Washing water treatment process for UF6 cylinder by adjusting evaporation technology in a low temperature and low pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki-tae; Ju, Young-jong; Cho, Nam-chan; Kim, Yun-kwan; Jin, Chang-suk

    2016-01-01

    The liquid waste is treated in this procedure; 1) Add NaOH to the liquid waste and filter the mixture with a screen. 2) Screened residue is dried and then stored in a uranium storage. 3) liquid part is moved to a storage tank and radioactivity is measured in the liquid. 5) If the concentration of radioactivity is lower than corresponding regulation limit, the liquid moved to a reaction tank and evaporated with additional low concentration HF in 105℃. 6) Radioactivity of distillate is measured and the value is lower than regulation, it is treated with a thermal decomposition process and discharged to the atmosphere in gas state. 7) Solid waste produced in the evaporation step is managed as solid nuclear waste. The treatment procedure mentioned above has disadvantageous points, producing large amount of solid waste as well as, high energy and chemical consumption. In this study, liquid waste from a real scaled cylinder wash process is applied to evaporation system to confirm feasibility of the application of evaporation and, to reduce waste production and energy consumption. Liquid radioactive wastewater from a real scaled UF6 cylinder wash process was applied to evaporation treatment system. Radioactive concentration in gross alpha was removed 99.9% in the evaporation system. And the concentration in distillate was lower than the discharge regulation. Removal of U-235 was 99.9% in the process. And 15 other kinds of radionuclides in the raw wastewater were removed completely. Secondary waste production of the evaporation system is 15g/L

  9. Numerical Investigation of Microgravity Tank Pressure Rise Due to Boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, Sonya; Ibrahim, Mounir; Kartuzova, Olga; Kassemi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control self-pressurization in cryogenic storage tanks is essential for NASAs long-term space exploration missions. Predictions of the tank pressure rise in Space are needed in order to inform the microgravity design and optimization process. Due to the fact that natural convection is very weak in microgravity, heat leaks into the tank can create superheated regions in the liquid. The superheated regions can instigate microgravity boiling, giving rise to pressure spikes during self-pressurization. In this work, a CFD model is developed to predict the magnitude and duration of the microgravity pressure spikes. The model uses the Schrage equation to calculate the mass transfer, with a different accommodation coefficient for evaporation at the interface, condensation at the interface, and boiling in the bulk liquid. The implicit VOF model was used to account for the moving interface, with bounded second order time discretization. Validation of the models predictions was carried out using microgravity data from the Tank Pressure Control Experiment, which flew aboard the Space Shuttle Mission STS-52. Although this experiment was meant to study pressurization and pressure control, it underwent boiling during several tests. The pressure rise predicted by the CFD model compared well with the experimental data. The ZBOT microgravity experiment is scheduled to fly on February 2016 aboard the ISS. The CFD model was also used to perform simulations for setting parametric limits for the Zero-Boil-Off Tank (ZBOT) Experiments Test Matrix in an attempt to avoid boiling in the majority of the test runs that are aimed to study pressure increase rates during self-pressurization. *Supported in part by NASA ISS Physical Sciences Research Program, NASA HQ, USA

  10. Theoretical study of solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    different heat storage types is compared. Design/methodology/approach - The thermal performance of Low flow bikini solar combisystems and high flow tank-in-tank solar combisystems is calculated with the simulation program TRNSYS. Two different TRNSYS models based on measurements were developed and used...

  11. Tank farms hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ''Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001'' as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process

  12. Shadow mask evaporation through monolayer modified nanostencils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolbel, M.; Tjerkstra, R.W.; Brugger, J.P.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Nijdam, W.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David

    2002-01-01

    Gradual clogging of the apertures of nanostencils used as miniature shadow masks in metal evaporations can be reduced by coating the stencil with self-assembled monolayers (SAM). This is quantified by the dimensions (height and volume) of gold features obtained by nanostencil evaporation as measured

  13. Sequence crystallization during isotherm evaporation of southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Algerian's natural brine sampled from chott Baghdad may be a source of mineral salts with a high economic value. These salts are recoverable by simple solar evaporation. Indeed, during isothermal solar evaporation, it is possible to recover mineral salts and to determine the precipitation sequences of different ...

  14. Evaporation experiments and modelling for glass melts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpt, J.A.C. van; Beerkens, R.G.C.

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory test facility has been developed to measure evaporation rates of different volatile components from commercial and model glass compositions. In the set-up the furnace atmosphere, temperature level, gas velocity and batch composition are controlled. Evaporation rates have been measured

  15. Advanced evaporator technology progress report FY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, D.; Hutter, J.C.; Leonard, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the work that was completed in FY 1992 on the program open-quotes Technology Development for Concentrating Process Streams.close quotes The purpose of this program is to evaluate and develop evaporator technology for concentrating radioactive waste and product streams such as those generated by the TRUEX process. Concentrating these streams and minimizing the volume of waste generated can significantly reduce disposal costs; however, equipment to concentrate the streams and recycle the decontaminated condensates must be installed. LICON, Inc., is developing an evaporator that shows a great deal of potential for this application. In this report, concepts that need to be incorporated into the design of an evaporator operated in a radioactive environment are discussed. These concepts include criticality safety, remote operation and maintenance, and materials of construction. Both solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are needed to design an effective process for concentrating process streams. Therefore, literature surveys were completed and are summarized in this report. A model that is being developed to predict vapor phase compositions is described. A laboratory-scale evaporator was purchased and installed to study the evaporation process and to collect additional data. This unit is described in detail. Two new LICON evaporators are being designed for installation at Argonne-East in FY 1993 to process low-level radioactive waste generated throughout the laboratory. They will also provide operating data from a full-sized evaporator processing radioactive solutions. Details on these evaporators are included in this report

  16. Advanced evaporator technology progress report FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, D.; Hutter, J.C.; Leonard, R.A. [and others

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the work that was completed in FY 1992 on the program {open_quotes}Technology Development for Concentrating Process Streams.{close_quotes} The purpose of this program is to evaluate and develop evaporator technology for concentrating radioactive waste and product streams such as those generated by the TRUEX process. Concentrating these streams and minimizing the volume of waste generated can significantly reduce disposal costs; however, equipment to concentrate the streams and recycle the decontaminated condensates must be installed. LICON, Inc., is developing an evaporator that shows a great deal of potential for this application. In this report, concepts that need to be incorporated into the design of an evaporator operated in a radioactive environment are discussed. These concepts include criticality safety, remote operation and maintenance, and materials of construction. Both solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are needed to design an effective process for concentrating process streams. Therefore, literature surveys were completed and are summarized in this report. A model that is being developed to predict vapor phase compositions is described. A laboratory-scale evaporator was purchased and installed to study the evaporation process and to collect additional data. This unit is described in detail. Two new LICON evaporators are being designed for installation at Argonne-East in FY 1993 to process low-level radioactive waste generated throughout the laboratory. They will also provide operating data from a full-sized evaporator processing radioactive solutions. Details on these evaporators are included in this report.

  17. Supporting document for the Southeast Quadrant historical tank content estimate report for SY-tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Consort, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Southeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground double-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East and West Areas. This report summarizes historical information such as waste history, temperature profiles, psychrometric data, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance are included. Components of the data management effort, such as Waste Status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layer Model, Supernatant Mixing Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates which generate these tank content estimates, are also given in this report

  18. Modelling refrigerant distribution in microchannel evaporators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Wiebke; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian

    2009-01-01

    of the refrigerant distribution is carried out for two channels in parallel and for two different cases. In the first case maldistribution of the inlet quality into the channels is considered, and in the second case a non-uniform airflow on the secondary side is considered. In both cases the total mixed superheat...... out of the evaporator is kept constant. It is shown that the cooling capacity of the evaporator is reduced significantly, both in the case of unevenly distributed inlet quality and for the case of non-uniform airflow on the outside of the channels.......The effects of refrigerant maldistribution in parallel evaporator channels on the heat exchanger performance are investigated numerically. For this purpose a 1D steady state model of refrigerant R134a evaporating in a microchannel tube is built and validated against other evaporator models. A study...

  19. Drop evaporation and triple line dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobac, Benjamin; Brutin, David; Gavillet, Jerome; Université de Provence Team; Cea Liten Team

    2011-03-01

    Sessile drop evaporation is a phenomenon commonly came across in nature or in industry with cooling, paintings or DNA mapping. However, the evaporation of a drop deposited on a substrate is not completely understood due to the complexity of the problem. Here we investigate, with several nano-coating of the substrate (PTFE, SiOx, SiOc and CF), the influence of the dynamic of the triple line on the evaporation process. The experiment consists in analyzing simultaneously the motion of the triple line, the kinetics of evaporation, the internal thermal motion and the heat and mass transfer. Measurements of temperature, heat-flux and visualizations with visible and infrared cameras are performed. The dynamics of the evaporative heat flux appears clearly different depending of the motion of the triple line

  20. Water evaporation on highly viscoelastic polymer surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Gang; Severtson, Steven J

    2012-07-03

    Results are reported for a study on the evaporation of water droplets from a highly viscoelastic acrylic polymer surface. These are contrasted with those collected for the same measurements carried out on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). For PDMS, the evaporation process involves the expected multistep process including constant drop area, constant contact angle, and finally a combination of these steps until the liquid is gone. In contrast, water evaporation from the acrylic polymer shows a constant drop area mode throughout. Furthermore, during the evaporation process, the drop area actually expands on the acrylic polymer. The single mode evaporation process is consistent with formation of wetting structures, which cannot be propagated by the capillary forces. Expansion of the drop area is attributed to the influence of the drop capillary pressure. Furthermore, the rate of drop area expansion is shown to be dependent on the thickness of the polymer film.

  1. Controlling water evaporation through self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Kevin; Liebi, Marianne; Heimdal, Jimmy; Pham, Quoc Dat; Sparr, Emma

    2016-09-13

    Water evaporation concerns all land-living organisms, as ambient air is dryer than their corresponding equilibrium humidity. Contrarily to plants, mammals are covered with a skin that not only hinders evaporation but also maintains its rate at a nearly constant value, independently of air humidity. Here, we show that simple amphiphiles/water systems reproduce this behavior, which suggests a common underlying mechanism originating from responding self-assembly structures. The composition and structure gradients arising from the evaporation process were characterized using optical microscopy, infrared microscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering. We observed a thin and dry outer phase that responds to changes in air humidity by increasing its thickness as the air becomes dryer, which decreases its permeability to water, thus counterbalancing the increase in the evaporation driving force. This thin and dry outer phase therefore shields the systems from humidity variations. Such a feedback loop achieves a homeostatic regulation of water evaporation.

  2. Sloshing impact in roofed tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uras, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A large number of high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks exists in various tank farms. Seismic activities at those locations may cause significant sloshing in HLW tanks. These tanks are covered to avoid any spilling during large amplitude earthquakes. However, large amplitude sloshing may result in impact on the cover or the roof of the tank. Hence, a better understanding of the impact phenomenon is necessary to assess the safety of the tanks currently in existence, and to establish design guidelines for future designs. A pressure based formulation is derived to model sloshing impact in roofed tanks. It is incorporated into Argonne's in-house finite element code FLUSTR-ANL. A numerical test case with a harmonic input excitation is studied. The simulation results indicate that linear behavior is preserved beyond the first impact, and some mesh distortion is observed following a stronger second impact. During the impact, the displacement of the contacting surface nodes remains constant, and the velocities are reduced to zero. An identification of impacting nodes is possible from the dynamic pressures induced in surface elements

  3. Sloshing impact in roofed tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uras, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A large number of high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks exists in various tank farms. Seismic activities at those locations may cause significant sloshing in HLW tanks. These tanks are covered to avoid any spilling during large amplitude earthquakes. However, large amplitude sloshing may result in impact on the cover or the roof of the tank. Hence, a better understanding of the impact phenomenon is necessary to assess the safety of the tanks currently in existence, and to establish design guidelines for future designs. A pressure based formulation is derived to model sloshing impact in roared tanks. It is incorporated into Argonne's in-house finite element code FLUSTR-ANL. A numerical test case with a harmonic input excitation is studied. The simulation results indicate that linear behavior is preserved beyond the first impact, and some mesh distortion is observed following a stronger second impact. During the impact, the displacement of the contacting surface nodes remains constant, and the velocities are reduced to zero. An identification of impacting nodes is possible from the dynamic pressures induced in surface elements

  4. Evaporational losses under different soil moisture regimes and atmospheric evaporativities using tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, P.; Chaudhary, T.N.; Mookerji, P.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium as tracer was used in a laboratory study to estimate the contribution of moisture from different soil depths towards actual soil water evaporation. Results indicated that for comparable amounts of free water evaporation (5 cm), contribution of moisture from 70-80 cm soil layer towards total soil moisture loss through evaporation increased nearly 1.5 to 3 folds for soils with water table at 90 cm than without water table. Identical initial soil moistures were exposed to different atmospheric evaporativities. Similarly, for a given initial soil moisture status, upward movement of moisture from 70-80 cm soil layer under low evaporativity was nearly 8 to 12 times that of under high evaporativity at 5 cm free water evaporation value. (author). 6 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  5. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakestraw, L.D.

    1994-11-15

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks.

  6. Tank characterization report for single shell tank 241-SX-108

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggers, R.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-11

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in tank 241-SX-108. This report supports the requirements of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44-09.

  7. Tank characterization report for single shell tank 241-S-107

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.

    1996-09-19

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-S-107. This report supports the requirements of Tri- Party Agreement Milestone M-44-09.

  8. Tank SY-102 waste retrieval assessment: Rheological measurements and pump jet mixing simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Shekarriz, R.; Recknagle, K.P.

    1996-09-01

    Wastes stored in Hanford Tank 241-SY-102 are planned to be retrieved from that tank and transferred to 200 East Area through the new pipeline Replacement Cross Site Transfer System (RCSTS). Because the planned transfer of this waste will use the RCSTS, the slurry that results from the mobilization and retrieval operations must meet the applicable waste acceptance criteria for this system. This report describes results of the second phase (the detailed assessment) of the SY-102 waste retrieval study, which is a part of the efforts to establish a technical basis for mobilization of the slurry, waste retrieval, and slurry transport. Hanford Tank 241-SY-102 is located in the SY Tank Farm in the Hanford Site's 200 West Area. It was built in 1977 to serve as a feed tank for 242-S Evaporator/Crystallizer, receiving supernatant liquid from S, SX, T, and U tank farms. Since 1981, the primary sources of waste have been from 200 West Area facilities, e.g., T-Plant decontamination operations, Plutonium Finishing Plant operations, and the 222-S Laboratory. It is the only active-service double-shell tank (DST) in the 200 West Area and is used as the staging tank for cross-site transfers to 200 East Area DSTs. The tank currently stores approximately 470 kL (125 kgal) of sludge wastes from a variety of sources including the Plutonium Finishing Plant, T-Plant, and the 222-S Laboratory. In addition to the sludge, approximately twice this amount (about 930 kL) of dilute, noncomplexed waste forms a supernatant liquid layer above the sludge

  9. Results of Hg speciation testing on tanks 30, 32, and 37 depth samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-11-30

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team. The twelfth shipment of samples was designated to include 3H evaporator system Tank 30, 32, and 37 depth samples. The Tank 30 depth sample (HTF-30-15-70) was taken at 190 inches from the tank bottom and the Tank 32 depth sample (HTF-32-15-68) was taken at 89 inches from the tank bottom and both were shipped to SRNL on June 29, 2015 in an 80 mL stainless steel dip bottles. The Tank 37 surface sample (HTF-37-15-94) was taken around 253.4 inches from the tank bottom and shipped to SRNL on July 21, 2015 in an 80 mL stainless steel dip bottle. All samples were placed in the SRNL Shielded Cells and left unopened until intermediate dilutions were made on July 24, 2015 using 1.00 mL of sample diluted to 100.00 mL with deionized H2O. A 30 mL Teflon® bottle was rinsed twice with the diluted tank sample and then filled leaving as little headspace as possible. It was immediately removed from the Shielded Cells and transferred to refrigerated storage where it remained at 4 °C until final dilutions were made on October 20. A second portion of the cells diluted tank sample was poured into a shielded polyethylene bottle and transferred to Analytical Development for radiochemical analysis data needed for Hazardous Material Transportation calculations.

  10. A comparison between wet canopy evaporation estimated by stable isotope ratios of water and canopy interception measured by water balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeki; Hattori, Shohei; Uemura, Ryu

    2017-04-01

    Some papers proved that canopy interception is proportional to rainfall not only on a rain event basis but also on an hourly basis (e.g. Murakami, 2006, J. Hydrol.; Saito et al., 2013, J. Hydrol.). However, theoretically, evaporation does not depend on rainfall amount. These results are enigmatic and we need to reevaluate wet canopy evaporation. We measured gross rainfall and net rainfall in a plastic Christmas tree stand with a height of 165 cm placed on a 180-cm square tray as described in Murakami and Toba (2013, Hydrol. Res. Lett.). The measurement was conducted outside under natural rainfall. We also estimated wet canopy evaporation using stable isotope ratios of water. During a rain event, we manually sampled gross and net rainwater on an hourly basis. Evaporation was calculated using the difference between the δ18O (or δ2H) values in gross and net rainfall using isotope fractionation factor. Total gross rainfall in a target rain event in October, 2014, was 28.0 mm and net rainfall (discharge from the tray) was 22.7 mm, i.e. canopy interception was 5.3 mm (18.9% of gross rainfall). The δ18O (or δ2H) value in net rainfall was higher than that in gross rainfall because of fractionation by evaporation on wet canopy surface. Hourly evaporation calculated by the values of δ18O varied from 2% to 24% of gross rainfall, and the weighted average by hourly gross rainfall was 5.2% of gross rainfall. Further, we estimated rainfall interception using a tank model (Yoshida et al., 1993) assuming constant evaporation rate, i.e. 20% of gross rainfall. Total net rainfall calculated by the model was 23.1 mm, i.e. calculated canopy interception was 4.9 mm (17.5% of gross rainfall). Then, keeping the parameters of the model, we simulated net rainfall using hourly surface evaporation obtained by the δ18O values. Calculated net rainfall was 25.6 mm, i.e. wet canopy evaporation was only 2.4 mm (8.6% of gross rainfall). So far, possible explanation of the discrepancy between

  11. Behaviour of ruthenium in the case of shutdown of the cooling system of HLLW storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, M.; Gue, J.P.; Mercier, J.P.

    1990-12-01

    The consequences of the failure of the cooling system of fission product storage tanks over a variable period were investigated as part of the safety analysis of the La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plant. Due to the considerable heat release, induced by the fission products, a prolonged shutdown of the tank cooling system could cause the progressive evaporation of the solutions to dryness, and culminate in the formation of volatile species of ruthenium and their release in the tank venting circuit. To determine the fraction of ruthenium likely to be transferred from the storage tanks in volatile or aerosol form during the failure, evaporation tests were conducted by evaporating samples of actual nitric acid solutions of fission products, obtained on the laboratory scale after the reprocessing of several kilograms of MOX fuels irradiated to 30.000 MW day ·t -1 . A distillation apparatus was designed to operate with small-volume solution samples, reproducing the heating conditions existing in the reprocessing plant within a storage tank for fission products. The main conclusions drawn from these experiments are as follows: - ruthenium is only volatilized in the final phase of evaporation, just before desiccation, - for a final temperature limited to 160 deg. C, the total fraction of volatilized ruthenium reaches 12%, - in the presence of H 2 O, HNO 3 , NO x and O 2 , the volatilized ruthenium recombines mainly in the form of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrates, or decomposes into ruthenium oxide (probably RuO 2 ) on the walls of the apparatus. Assuming a heating power density of 10 W/liter of concentrate, and a perfectly adiabatic storage system, the minimum time required to reach dryness can be estimated at 90 h, allowing substantial time to take action to restore a cooling source. It is probable that, in an industrial storage tank, the heat losses from the tank and the offgas discharge ducts will cause recondensation and internal reflux, which will commensurately delay

  12. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford tank initiative: Applications to the AX Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balsley, S.D.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Borns, D.J.; McKeen, R.G.

    1998-07-01

    A combined engineering and geochemistry approach is recommended for the stabilization of waste in decommissioned tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm, Hanford, WA. A two-part strategy of desiccation and gettering is proposed for treatment of the in-tank residual wastes. Dry portland cement and/or fly ash are suggested as an effective and low-cost desiccant for wicking excess moisture from the upper waste layer. Getters work by either ion exchange or phase precipitation to reduce radionuclide concentrations in solution. The authors recommend the use of specific natural and man-made compounds, appropriately proportioned to the unique inventory of each tank. A filler design consisting of multilayered cementitous grout with interlayered sealant horizons should serve to maintain tank integrity and minimize fluid transport to the residual waste form. External tank soil contamination is best mitigated by placement of grouted skirts under and around each tank, together with installation of a cone-shaped permeable reactive barrier beneath the entire tank farm. Actinide release rates are calculated from four tank closure scenarios ranging from no action to a comprehensive stabilization treatment plan (desiccant/getters/grouting/RCRA cap). Although preliminary, these calculations indicate significant reductions in the potential for actinide transport as compared to the no-treatment option

  13. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford tank initiative: Applications to the AX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsley, S.D.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Borns, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McKeen, R.G. [Alliance for Transportation Research, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    A combined engineering and geochemistry approach is recommended for the stabilization of waste in decommissioned tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm, Hanford, WA. A two-part strategy of desiccation and gettering is proposed for treatment of the in-tank residual wastes. Dry portland cement and/or fly ash are suggested as an effective and low-cost desiccant for wicking excess moisture from the upper waste layer. Getters work by either ion exchange or phase precipitation to reduce radionuclide concentrations in solution. The authors recommend the use of specific natural and man-made compounds, appropriately proportioned to the unique inventory of each tank. A filler design consisting of multilayered cementitous grout with interlayered sealant horizons should serve to maintain tank integrity and minimize fluid transport to the residual waste form. External tank soil contamination is best mitigated by placement of grouted skirts under and around each tank, together with installation of a cone-shaped permeable reactive barrier beneath the entire tank farm. Actinide release rates are calculated from four tank closure scenarios ranging from no action to a comprehensive stabilization treatment plan (desiccant/getters/grouting/RCRA cap). Although preliminary, these calculations indicate significant reductions in the potential for actinide transport as compared to the no-treatment option.

  14. Technical safety appraisal of the Hanford Tank Farm Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkerhoff, L.C.

    1989-05-01

    This report presents the results of one in a series of TSAs being conducted at DOE nuclear operations by the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health, Office of Safety Appraisals. TSAs are one of the initiatives announced by the Secretary of Energy on September 18, 1985, to enhance the DOE environment, safety and health program. This report provides the results of a TSA of the Tank Farm in the 200 East and 200 West Areas located on the Hanford site. The appraisal was conducted by a team of experts assembled by the DOE Office of Safety Appraisals and was conducted during onsite visits of March 20--24 and April 3--14, 1989. At the Tank Farm, the processing of spent reactor fuels to recover the useful radioactive products is accompanied by the production of radioactive waste. Because many of these wastes will retain radioactivity for many years, they must be safely handled, contained, and disposed with regard to protection of the environment, employees, and the public. Dilute low-level waste and five year ''cooled'' aging wastes are pumped to an evaporator for concentration. The radioactive liquid and solid wastes are stored in underground carbon steel tanks ranging in capacity from 55,000 to over one million gallons

  15. Fundamental study on migration and accumulation of solute in unsaturated zone of soil column by evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kuniaki; Fukuhara, Teruyuki; Munakata, Masahiro; Bories, S.

    1990-01-01

    The evaporation from soil surface and solute migration in an unsaturated zone above the groundwater are studied experimentally and theoretically. The experimental apparatus used in this study consists of a wind tube, soil column, groundwater feeding tank and a set of measurement equipments. The vertical profiles of solute concentration, temperature and water content along soil column, and the evaporation rate from soil surface are measured for different wind velocities. The analytical solutions of governing equations at the steady state are developed for solute migration in coupling with heat transport and moisture movement. The comparison between analytical solutions and experimental results shows an excellent agreement. The results describe that the solute migration depends upon not only vertical movement of moisture but also a depth of capillary fringe. (author)

  16. 242-A evaporator safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides a revised safety analysis for the upgraded 242-A Evaporator (the Evaporator). This safety analysis report (SAR) supports the operation of the Evaporator following life extension upgrades and other facility and operations upgrades (e.g., Project B-534) that were undertaken to enhance the capabilities of the Evaporator. The Evaporator has been classified as a moderate-hazard facility (Johnson 1990). The information contained in this SAR is based on information provided by 242-A Evaporator Operations, Westinghouse Hanford Company, site maintenance and operations contractor from June 1987 to October 1996, and the existing operating contractor, Waste Management Hanford (WMH) policies. Where appropriate, a discussion address the US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders applicable to a topic is provided. Operation of the facility will be compared to the operating contractor procedures using appropriate audits and appraisals. The following subsections provide introductory and background information, including a general description of the Evaporator facility and process, a description of the scope of this SAR revision,a nd a description of the basic changes made to the original SAR

  17. 242-A evaporator safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL, T.A.

    1999-05-17

    This report provides a revised safety analysis for the upgraded 242-A Evaporator (the Evaporator). This safety analysis report (SAR) supports the operation of the Evaporator following life extension upgrades and other facility and operations upgrades (e.g., Project B-534) that were undertaken to enhance the capabilities of the Evaporator. The Evaporator has been classified as a moderate-hazard facility (Johnson 1990). The information contained in this SAR is based on information provided by 242-A Evaporator Operations, Westinghouse Hanford Company, site maintenance and operations contractor from June 1987 to October 1996, and the existing operating contractor, Waste Management Hanford (WMH) policies. Where appropriate, a discussion address the US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders applicable to a topic is provided. Operation of the facility will be compared to the operating contractor procedures using appropriate audits and appraisals. The following subsections provide introductory and background information, including a general description of the Evaporator facility and process, a description of the scope of this SAR revision,a nd a description of the basic changes made to the original SAR.

  18. 49 CFR 229.217 - Fuel tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tank. 229.217 Section 229.217 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.217 Fuel tank. (a) External fuel tanks. Locomotives equipped with external fuel tanks shall, at a minimum...

  19. 46 CFR 154.446 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.446 Section 154.446 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type B § 154.446 Tank design. An independent tank type B must meet the calculations under § 154...

  20. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  1. Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DANNA, M.A.

    2003-10-24

    The TSRs define the acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and controls to ensure safe operation during authorized activities, for facilities within the scope of the Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis (DSA), in parallel with the DSA.

  2. High-heat tank safety issue resolution program plan. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this program plan is to provide a guide for selecting corrective actions that will mitigate and/or remediate the high-heat waste tank safety issue for single-shell tank 241-C-106. The heat source of approximately 110,000 Btu/hr is the radioactive decay of the stored waste material (primarily 90 Sr) inadvertently transferred into the tank in the later 1960s. Currently, forced ventilation, with added water to promote thermal conductivity and evaporation cooling, is used for heat removal. The method is very effective and economical. At this time, the only viable solution identified to permanently resolve this safety issue is the removal of heat-generating waste in the tank. This solution is being aggressively pursued as the only remediation method to this safety issue, and tank 241-C-106 has been selected as the first single-shell tank for retrieval. The current cooling method and other alternatives are addressed in this program as means to mitigate this safety issue before retrieval. This program plan has three parts. The first part establishes program objectives and defines safety issue, drivers, and resolution criteria and strategy. The second part evaluates the high-heat safety issue and its mitigation and remediation methods and other alternatives according to resolution logic. The third part identifies major tasks and alternatives for mitigation and resolution of the safety issue. A table of best-estimate schedules for the key tasks is also included in this program plan

  3. CSER 94-004: Criticality safety of double-shell waste storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.A.

    1994-09-22

    This criticality safety evaluation covers double-shell waste storage tanks (DSTs), double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs), vault tanks, and the 242-A Evaporator located in the High Level Waste (HLW) Tank Farms on the Hanford Site. Limits and controls are specified and the basis for ensuring criticality safety is discussed. A minimum limit of 1,000 is placed upon the solids/plutonium mass ratio in incoming waste. The average solids/Pu mass ratio over all waste in tank farms is estimated to be about 74,500, about 150 times larger than required to assure subcriticality in homogeneous waste. PFP waste in Tank-102-SY has an estimated solids/Pu mass ratio of 10,000. Subcriticality is assured whenever the plutonium concentration is less than 2.6 g. The median reported plutonium concentration for 200 samples of waste solids is about 0.01 g (0.038 g/gal). A surveillance program is proposed to increase the knowledge of the waste and provide added assurance of the high degree of subcriticality.

  4. 242-A Evaporator/Liquid Effluent Retention Facility data quality objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Bargen, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of data quality objectives (DQO) is to determine the most cost effective methods of gathering the essential data necessary to make decisions to support successful operation of the facility. The essential data is defined by such information as sample amount, sample location, required analyses, and how sampling and analyses are performed. Successful operation is defined as meeting the campaign objectives while operating within established requirements. This DQO document addresses that portion of the system from 242-A Evaporator candidate feed tanks through discharge of process condensate to the Liquid Effluent Retention of Facility (LERF). Later revisions will incorporate and integrate the entire system, including the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF)

  5. Theory of evapotranspiration. 2. Soil and intercepted water evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Budagovskyi, Anatolij Ivanovič; Novák, Viliam

    2011-01-01

    Evaporation of water from the soil is described and quantified. Formation of the soil dry surface layer is quantitatively described, as a process resulting from the difference between the evaporation and upward soil water flux to the soil evaporating level. The results of evaporation analysis are generalized even for the case of water evaporation from the soil under canopy and interaction between evaporation rate and canopy transpiration is accounted for. Relationships describing evapotranspi...

  6. Low-temperature field evaporation of Nb3Sn compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksenofontov, V.A.; Kul'ko, V.B.; Kutsenko, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Investigation results on field evaporation of superconducting Nb 3 Sn compound wth A15 lattice are presented. Compound evaporation is shown to proceed in two stages. Evaporation field and ionic composition of evaporating material are determined. It is found out that in strong electric fields compound surface represents niobium skeleton, wich does not form regular image. Comparison of ion-microscopic and calculated images formed by low-temperature field evaporation indicates to possibility of sample surface reconstruction after preferable tin evaporation

  7. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....10b(a)(2), or § 157.10c(c)(2) desires a Coast Guard approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank...

  8. 33 CFR 157.147 - Similar tank design: Inspections on foreign tank vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Similar tank design: Inspections on foreign tank vessels. 157.147 Section 157.147 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 157.147 Similar tank design: Inspections on foreign tank vessels. (a) If a foreign tank vessel has...

  9. 49 CFR 173.315 - Compressed gases in cargo tanks and portable tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... qualified assembly, repair, maintenance, or requalification facility. The cargo tank need not be cleaned and... the cargo tank. If the vehicle engine is supplied fuel from the cargo tank, enough fuel in excess of... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed gases in cargo tanks and portable tanks...

  10. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-07-16

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  11. Light geodesics near an evaporating black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, Thiago, E-mail: thiago.barbosa@unige.ch; Monteiro, Fernando, E-mail: fernando.monteiro@unige.ch

    2015-10-16

    Quantum effects imply that an infalling observer cannot cross the event horizon of an evaporating black hole, even in her proper time. The Penrose diagram of an evaporating black hole is different from the one usually reported in the literature. We show that before the observer can cross the horizon the black hole disappears. Possible observational consequences are discussed. - Highlights: • We calculate the in-falling light geodesics in an evaporating black hole. • For our calculation we use a non-static metric called Vaydia metric. • We show that in-falling light cannot cross the event horizon. • In this case there is no information paradox.

  12. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 ± 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  13. Towards a rational definition of potential evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Lhommel

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of potential evaporation is defined on the basis of the following criteria: (i it must establish an upper limit to the evaporation process in a given environment (the term 'environment' including meteorological and surface conditions, and (ii this upper limit must be readily calculated from measured input data. It is shown that this upper limit is perfectly defined and is given by the Penman equation, applied with the corresponding meteorological data (incoming radiation and air characteristics measured at a reference height and the appropriate surface characteristics (albedo, roughness length, soil heat flux. Since each surface has its own potential evaporation, a function of its own surface characteristics, it is useful to define a reference potential evaporation as a short green grass completely shading the ground. Although the potential evaporation from a given surface is readily calculated from the Penman equation, its physical significance or interpretation is not so straightforward, because it represents only an idealized situation, not a real one. Potential evaporation is the evaporation from this surface, when saturated and extensive enough to obviate any effect of local advection, under the same meteorological conditions. Due to the feedback effects of evaporation on air characteristics, it does not represent the 'real' evaporation (i.e. the evaporation which could be physically observed in the real world from such an extensive saturated surface in these given meteorological conditions (if this saturated surface were substituted for an unsaturated one previously existing. From a rigorous standpoint, this calculated potential evaporation is not physically observable. Nevertheless, an approximate representation can be given by the evaporation from a limited saturated area, the dimension of which depends on the height of measurement of the air characteristics used as input in the Penman equation. If they are taken at a height

  14. WTP Pilot-Scale Evaporation Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    QURESHI, ZAFAR

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the design, assembly, and operation of a Pilot-Scale Evaporator built and operated by SRTC in support of Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) Project at the DOE's Hanford Site. The WTP employs three identical evaporators, two for the Waste Feed and one for the Treated LAW. The Pilot-Scale Evaporator was designed to test simulants for both of these waste streams. The Pilot-Scale Evaporator is 1/76th scale in terms of evaporation rates. The basic configuration of forced circulation vacuum evaporator was employed. A detailed scaling analysis was performed to preserve key operating parameters such as basic loop configuration, system vacuum, boiling temperature, recirculation rates, vertical distances between important hardware pieces, reboiler heat transfer characteristics, vapor flux, configuration of demisters and water spray rings. Three evaporation test campaigns were completed. The first evaporation run used water in order to shake down the system. The water runs were important in identifying a design flaw that inhibited mixing in the evaporator vessel, thus resulting in unstable boiling operation. As a result the loop configuration was modified and the remaining runs were completed successfully. Two simulant runs followed the water runs. Test 1: Simulated Ultrafiltration Recycles with HLW SBS, and Test 2: Treated AN102 with Envelop C LAW. Several liquid and offgas samples were drawn from the evaporator facility for regulatory and non-regulatory analyses. During Test 2, the feed and the concentrate were spiked with organics to determine organic partitioning. The decontamination factor (DF) for Test 1 was measured to be 110,000 (more than the expected value of 100,000). Dow Corning Q2-3183A antifoam agent was tested during both Tests 1 and 2. It was determined that 500 ppm of this antifoam agent was sufficient to control the foaminess to less than 5 per cent of the liquid height. The long-term testing (around 100 hours of operation) did not show any

  15. Thermocapillary flow about an evaporating meniscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G. R.; Chung, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    The steady motion and thermal behavior of an evaporating superheated liquid in a small cavity bounded by isothermal sidewalls is examined. Scaling analyses and a two-dimensional finite element model are used to investigate the influence of thermocapillarity, buoyancy, and temperature-dependent mass flux on flowfield, interfacial heat transfer, and meniscus morphology. Numerical investigations indicate the existence of two counter-rotating cells symmetric about the cavity center. Results also show that evaporation tends to counteract this circulation by directing flow toward the hotter sidewalls. Although thermocapillarity and evaporation yield different flowfield distributions, both effects tend to increase interfacial temperature and heat transfer.

  16. Corrosion testing in flash tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, S.J.; Stead, N.J.

    1999-07-01

    As kraft pulp mills adopt modified cooking processes, an increasing amount of corrosion of carbon steel digester systems is being encountered. Many mills have had severe corrosion in the flash tanks, in particular, the first ({number{underscore}sign}1) flash tank. The work described in this report was aimed at characterizing the corrosion. Coupons of carbon steel, several stainless steels and titanium were exposed at two mills. At mill A, identical sets of coupons were exposed in the {number{underscore}sign}1 and {number{underscore}sign}2 flash tank. At mill B, three identical sets of coupons were placed in flash tank {number{underscore}sign}1. The results of the exposures showed that both carbon steel and titanium suffered high rates of general corrosion, while the stainless steels suffered varying degrees of localized attack. The ranking of the resistance of corrosion in the flash tank was the same ranking as would be expected in a reducing acid environment. In the light of the coupon results, organic acids is concluded to be the most likely cause of corrosion of the flash tanks.

  17. A dynamic simulation model of the Savannah River High Level Waste Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, M.V.; Shanahan, K.L.; Hang, T.

    1993-01-01

    A detailed, dynamic simulation model of a 51-tank high level radioactive waste storage and processing complex is being developed using SPEEDUP TM software. The initial model represents mass transfer, evaporation, precipitation, and sludge washing unit operation processes in about one-third of the tank farm complex through the solution of more than of 1000 coupled differential and algebraic equations, Eight discrete chemical constituents are tracked throughout the unit operations. The model is built upon FORTRAN both automatically generated by SPEEDUP TM to represent continuous processes, and custom-tailored by ourselves to control batched unit operations. The current model requires under 4 CPU seconds per simulated day on a VAX 8810. Strategies have been developed for expanding the model to the full tank farm complex

  18. Tank Waste Transport Stability: Summary of Slurry and Salt-Solution Studies for FY 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2002-06-07

    Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.

  19. Grout and Glass Performance in Support of Stabilization/Solidification of the MVST Tank Sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Spence, R.D.

    1998-11-01

    Wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collected, evaporated, and stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) pending treatment for disposal. The waste separates into two phases: sludge and supematant. Some of the supematant from these tanks has been decanted, solidified into a grout, and stored for disposal as a solid low-level waste. The sludges in the tank bottoms have been accumulating ,for several years. Some of the sludges contain a high amount of gamma activity (e.g., `37CS concentration range of 0.01 3-11 MBq/g) and contain enough transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes to be classified as TRU wastes. Some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough in the available total constituent analysis for the MVST sludge to be classified as RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges are presumed to be mixed TRU waste.

  20. Characterization of the corrosion behavior of the carbon steel liner in Hanford Site single-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantatmula, R.P.; Schwenk, E.B.; Danielson, M.J.

    1994-06-01

    Six safety initiatives have been identified for accelerating the resolution of waste tank safety issues and closure of unreviewed safety questions. Safety Initiative 5 is to reduce safety and environmental risk from tank leaks. Item d of Safety Initiative 5 is to complete corrosion studies of single-shell tanks to determine failure mechanisms and corrosion control options to minimize further degradation by June 1994. This report has been prepared to fulfill Safety Initiative 5, Item d. The corrosion mechanisms that apply to Hanford Site single-shell tanks are stress corrosion cracking, pitting/crevice corrosion, uniform corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, and microbiologically influenced corrosion. The corrosion data relevant to the single-shell tanks dates back three decades, when results were obtained from in-situ corrosion coupons in a few single-shell tanks. Since that time there have been intertank transfers, evaporation, and chemical alterations of the waste. These activities have changed the character and the present composition of the waste is not well characterized. All conclusions and recommendations are made in the absence of relevant laboratory experimental data and tank inspection data. The report attempts to identify the failure mechanisms by a literature survey of carbon steel data in environments similar to the single-shell tank wastes, and by a review of the work performed at the Savannah River Site where similar wastes are stored in similar carbon steel tanks. Based on these surveys, and in the absence of data specific to Hanford single-shell tanks, it may be concluded that the single-shell tanks identified as leakers failed primarily by stress corrosion cracking due to the presence of high nitrate/low hydroxide wastes and residual stresses. In addition, some failures may be attributed to pitting under crevices in low hydroxide locations

  1. Influence of Evaporation on Soap Film Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champougny, Lorène; Miguet, Jonas; Henaff, Robin; Restagno, Frédéric; Boulogne, François; Rio, Emmanuelle

    2018-03-02

    Although soap films are prone to evaporate due to their large surface to volume ratio, the effect of evaporation on macroscopic film features has often been disregarded in the literature. In this work, we experimentally investigate the influence of environmental humidity on soap film stability. An original experiment allows to measure both the maximum length of a film pulled at constant velocity and its thinning dynamics in a controlled atmosphere for various values of the relative humidity [Formula: see text]. At first order, the environmental humidity seems to have almost no impact on most of the film thinning dynamics. However, we find that the film length at rupture increases continuously with [Formula: see text]. To rationalize our observations, we propose that film bursting occurs when the thinning due to evaporation becomes comparable to the thinning due to liquid drainage. This rupture criterion turns out to be in reasonable agreement with an estimation of the evaporation rate in our experiment.

  2. Denton E-beam Evaporator #2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: E-Beam Evap 2This is an electron gun evaporator for the deposition of metals and dielectrics thin films. Materials available are: Ag, Al, Au,...

  3. Lattice-Boltzmann simulations of droplet evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo

    2014-09-04

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. We study the utility and validity of lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulations to explore droplet evaporation driven by a concentration gradient. Using a binary-fluid lattice-Boltzmann algorithm based on Cahn-Hilliard dynamics, we study the evaporation of planar films and 3D sessile droplets from smooth solid surfaces. Our results show that LB simulations accurately reproduce the classical regime of quasi-static dynamics. Beyond this limit, we show that the algorithm can be used to explore regimes where the evaporative and diffusive timescales are not widely separated, and to include the effect of boundaries of prescribed driving concentration. We illustrate the method by considering the evaporation of a droplet from a solid surface that is chemically patterned with hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes. This journal is

  4. Denton E-beam Evaporator #1

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: E-Beam Evap 1This is a dual e-beam/thermal evaporator for the deposition of metal and dielectric thin films. Materials available are: Ag, Al,...

  5. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachel Landry

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related sub-tasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these sub-tasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these sub-tasks were derived from the original intent

  6. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Landry

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related subtasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these subtasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these subtasks were derived from the original

  7. 2005 Annual Operations Report for INTEC Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Shanklin

    2006-01-01

    This annual operations report describes the requirements followed and activities conducted to inspect, monitor, and maintain the items installed during performance of the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This report describes inspection and monitoring activities for the surface-sealed areas within the tank farm, concrete-lined ditches and culverts in and around the tank farm, the lift station, and the lined evaporation pond. These activities are intended to assure that the interim action is functioning adequately to meet the objectives stated in the Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision for the Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, (DOE/ID-10660) and as amended by the agreement to resolve dispute, which was effective in February 2003

  8. 2006 Annual Operations Report for INTEC Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. E. Shanklin

    2007-01-01

    This annual operations report describes the requirements followed and activities conducted to inspect, monitor, and maintain the items installed during performance of the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This report covers the time period from January 1 through December 31, 2006, and describes inspection and monitoring activities for the surface-sealed areas within the tank farm, concrete-lined ditches and culverts in and around the tank farm, the lift station, and the lined evaporation pond. These activities are intended to assure that the interim action is functioning adequately to meet the objectives stated in the Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision for the Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action (DOE/ID-10660) as described in the Group 1 Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan (DOE/ID-10772)

  9. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford Tank Initiative: Applications to the AX tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-11-03

    This report investigates five technical areas for stabilization of decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the Hanford Site AX Farm. The investigations are part of a preliminary evacuation of end-state options for closure of the AX Tanks. The five technical areas investigated are: (1) emplacement of cementations grouts and/or other materials; (2) injection of chemicals into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing); (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks; (4) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur; and (5) combined geochemical and hydrological modeling. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five areas. Detailed cost-benefit analyses of the technologies are not provided. This investigation was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, during FY 1997 by tank Focus Area (EM-50) funding.

  10. High level waste storage tanks 242-A evaporator S/RID phase II assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biebesheimer, E.

    1996-09-27

    This document, the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) Phase 2 Assessment Report for the subject facility, represents the results of a Performance Assessment to determine whether procedures containing S/RID requirements are fully implemented by field personnel in the field. It contains a summary report and three attachments; an assessment schedule, performance objectives, and assessments for selected functional areas.

  11. High level waste storage tanks 242-A evaporator standards/requirement identification document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biebesheimer, E.

    1996-01-01

    This document, the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RIDS) for the subject facility, represents the necessary and sufficient requirements to provide an adequate level of protection of the worker, public health and safety, and the environment. It lists those source documents from which requirements were extracted, and those requirements documents considered, but from which no requirements where taken. Documents considered as source documents included State and Federal Regulations, DOE Orders, and DOE Standards

  12. Rate control for electron gun evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellingerhout, A.J.G.; Janocko, M.A.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Mooij, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Principles for obtaining high-quality rate control for electron gun evaporation are discussed. The design criteria for rate controllers are derived from this analysis. Results are presented which have been obtained with e-guns whose evaporation rate is controlled by a Wehnelt electrode or by sweeping of the electron beam. Further improvements of rate stability can be obtained by improved design of e-guns and power supplies

  13. Spheroid droplets evaporation of water solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misyura S.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Droplet film boiling on a horizontal heating surface was studied experimentally. The heat transfer coefficient of droplet water solution in the spheroidal state decreases with a rise of wall overheating and spheroid diameter. Evaporation of small spheroid (diameter d 20 mm. At the evaporation of large spheroids a spheroid shape changes in time that significantly affect coefficients of generalizing curves that use dimensionless numbers.

  14. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2010-06-21

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2009 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2009 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per LWO-LWE-2008-00423, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2009, were completed. All Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2009 met the requirements of C-ESG-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 1, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.4. UT inspections were performed on Tank 29 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00559, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2009, Waste Tank 29. Post chemical cleaning UT measurements were made in Tank 6 and the results are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00560, Tank Inspection NDE Results Tank 6, Including Summary of Waste Removal Support Activities in Tanks 5 and 6. A total of 6669 photographs were made and 1276 visual and video inspections were performed during 2009. Twenty-Two new leaksites were identified in 2009. The locations of these leaksites are documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.4. Fifteen leaksites at Tank 5 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Five leaksites at Tank 6 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Two new leaksites were identified at Tank 19 during waste removal activities. Previously documented leaksites were reactivated at Tanks 5 and 12 during waste removal activities. Also, a very small amount of additional leakage from a previously identified leaksite at Tank 14 was observed.

  15. Experiments of superfluid 4He evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balibar, S.; Buechner, J.; Castaing, B.; Laroche, C.; Libchaber, A.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the evaporation of superfluid 4 He using the heat-pulse technique, is presented; working at low temperature, 0.1 0 K, the phonon and the roton fluids are decoupled. We observed atoms evaporated by a phonon second-sound pulse between 0.4 and 0.6 0 K. The temperature dependence of the signal is interpreted by a simple model where one phonon of energy E emits one atom of energy E - E 0 (E 0 = 7.15 0 K is the atomic binding energy in the liquid). At lower temperature, down to 0.1 0 K, a ballistic-phonon regime is observed, associated with no detected evaporation. Concerning rotons, we observe well-defined signals due to atoms evaporated by them. Analyzing the arrival time as a function of the liquid path, we propose an evaporation process such as one roton of energy E emits one atom of energy E - e 0 . This leads to a minimum kinetic energy of 1.5 0 K for the evaporated atoms, effectively observed. An estimation of the roton mean free path is deduced and a maximum roton velocity of 160 +- 10 m sec -1 is observed

  16. Evaporation of nanofluid droplets on hydrophilic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dong Hwan; Lee, Seong Hyuk

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the evaporation characteristics and wetting dynamics of nanofluid droplets on hydrophilic surfaces. The evaporation processes of Al 2 O 3 nanofluid droplets are visualized for different liquid volumes and particle concentrations, and the in-situ measured total evaporation time, contact radius, and contact angle are presented by using a digital image analysis technique. In addition, the measurements are compared with the theoretical estimation of total evaporation time and the edge shrinking velocities are measured for examining the formation of nanoparticles strains. It is found that the measured initial contact angles decreases as the volume fraction of nanofluid increases, resulting in the decrease in the center-height of droplet, and the total evaporation time decreases with increase in the volume fraction of nanofluid. In particular, the rapid increase in the droplet edge shrinking velocity near a last stage of evaporation can be observed, and it would affect some inward movement of nanoparticles suspended in a base fluid.

  17. Estimating soil water evaporation using radar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ali M.; Scott, H. D.; Waite, W. P.; Asrar, G.

    1988-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to evaluate the application of radar reflectivity as compared with the shortwave reflectivity (albedo) used in the Idso-Jackson equation for the estimation of daily evaporation under overcast sky and subhumid climatic conditions. Soil water content, water potential, shortwave and radar reflectivity, and soil and air temperatures were monitored during three soil drying cycles. The data from each cycle were used to calculate daily evaporation from the Idso-Jackson equation and from two other standard methods, the modified Penman and plane of zero-flux. All three methods resulted in similar estimates of evaporation under clear sky conditions; however, under overcast sky conditions, evaporation fluxes computed from the Idso-Jackson equation were consistently lower than the other two methods. The shortwave albedo values in the Idso-Jackson equation were then replaced with radar reflectivities and a new set of total daily evaporation fluxes were calculated. This resulted in a significant improvement in computed soil evaporation fluxes from the Idso-Jackson equation, and a better agreement between the three methods under overcast sky conditions.

  18. Droplet evaporation on a soluble substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailleur, Alexandra; Pirat, Christophe; Colombani, Jean; CNES Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Stains left by evaporated droplets are ubiquitous in everyday life as well as in industrial processes. Whatever the composition of the evaporating liquid (colloidal suspensions, biological fluids...), the stains are mostly constituted by a deposit at the periphery of the dried drop, similar to a coffee stain (Deegan, 1997). All these studies have been carried with non-reacting solids. In this presentation, we focus on the behavior of a pure-water droplet evaporating on a soluble substrate which is more complex, since three phenomena are strongly interacting: the dissolution of the substrate, the diffusion/convection of the dissolved species into the drop and the evaporation of the liquid. NaCl and KCl single crystals have been chosen for this experimental study as they are fast-dissolving solids. We have observed that the dissolution induces a pinning of the triple line from the beginning of the evaporation, leading to a decrease of the contact angle in time. At the end of the evaporation, a peripheral deposit is always formed, proof of an outward flow inside the drop (coffee-ring effect). The authors would like to thank the CNES for the financial support.

  19. Water droplet evaporation from sticky superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonchan; Kim, Wuseok; Lee, Sanghee; Baek, Seunghyeon; Yong, Kijung; Jeon, Sangmin

    2017-07-01

    The evaporation dynamics of water from sticky superhydrophobic surfaces was investigated using a quartz crystal microresonator and an optical microscope. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) layers with different pore sizes were directly fabricated onto quartz crystal substrates and hydrophobized via chemical modification. The resulting AAO layers exhibited hydrophobic or superhydrophobic characteristics with strong adhesion to water due to the presence of sealed air pockets inside the nanopores. After placing a water droplet on the AAO membranes, variations in the resonance frequency and Q-factor were measured throughout the evaporation process, which were related to changes in mass and viscous damping, respectively. It was found that droplet evaporation from a sticky superhydrophobic surface followed a constant contact radius (CCR) mode in the early stage of evaporation and a combination of CCR and constant contact angle modes without a Cassie-Wenzel transition in the final stage. Furthermore, AAO membranes with larger pore sizes exhibited longer evaporation times, which were attributed to evaporative cooling at the droplet interface.

  20. Snap evaporation of droplets on smooth topographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gary G; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Élfego; Le Lirzin, Youen; Nourry, Anthony; Orme, Bethany V; Pradas, Marc; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo

    2018-04-11

    Droplet evaporation on solid surfaces is important in many applications including printing, micro-patterning and cooling. While seemingly simple, the configuration of evaporating droplets on solids is difficult to predict and control. This is because evaporation typically proceeds as a "stick-slip" sequence-a combination of pinning and de-pinning events dominated by static friction or "pinning", caused by microscopic surface roughness. Here we show how smooth, pinning-free, solid surfaces of non-planar topography promote a different process called snap evaporation. During snap evaporation a droplet follows a reproducible sequence of configurations, consisting of a quasi-static phase-change controlled by mass diffusion interrupted by out-of-equilibrium snaps. Snaps are triggered by bifurcations of the equilibrium droplet shape mediated by the underlying non-planar solid. Because the evolution of droplets during snap evaporation is controlled by a smooth topography, and not by surface roughness, our ideas can inspire programmable surfaces that manage liquids in heat- and mass-transfer applications.

  1. Accelerated evaporation of water on graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Rongzheng; Shi, Guosheng

    2017-03-29

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the evaporation of nanoscale volumes of water on patterned graphene oxide is faster than that on homogeneous graphene oxide. The evaporation rate of water is insensitive to variation in the oxidation degree of the oxidized regions, so long as the water film is only distributed on the oxidized regions. The evaporation rate drops when the water film spreads onto the unoxidized regions. Further analysis showed that varying the oxidation degree observably changed the interaction between the outmost water molecules and the solid surface, but the total interaction for the outmost water molecules only changed a very limited amount due to the correspondingly regulated water-water interaction when the water film is only distributed on the oxidized regions. When the oxidation degree is too low and some unoxidized regions are also covered by the water film, the thickness of the water film decreases, which extends the lifetime of the hydrogen bonds for the outmost water molecules and lowers the evaporation rate of the water. The insensitivity of water evaporation to the oxidation degree indicates that we only need to control the scale of the unoxidized and oxidized regions for graphene oxide to regulate the evaporation of nanoscale volumes of water.

  2. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  3. EVAPORATION FORM OF ICE CRYSTALS IN SUBSATURATED AIR AND THEIR EVAPORATION MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    ゴンダ, タケヒコ; セイ, タダノリ; Takehiko, GONDA; Tadanori, SEI

    1987-01-01

    The evaporation form and the evaporation mechanism of dendritic ice crystals grown in air of 1.0×(10)^5 Pa and at water saturation and polyhedral ice crystals grown in air of 4.0×10 Pa and at relatively low supersaturation are studied. In the case of dendritic ice crystals, the evaporation preferentially occurs in the convex parts of the crystal surfaces and in minute secondary branches. On the other hand, in the case of polyhedral ice crystals, the evaporation preferentially occurs in the pa...

  4. Identification of single-shell tank in-tank hardware obstructions to retrieval at Hanford Site Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, R.A.

    1994-10-01

    Two retrieval technologies, one of which uses robot-deployed end effectors, will be demonstrated on the first single-shell tank (SST) waste to be retrieved at the Hanford Site. A significant impediment to the success of this technology in completing the Hanford retrieval mission is the presence of unique tank contents called in-tank hardware (ITH). In-tank hardware includes installed and discarded equipment and various other materials introduced into the tank. This paper identifies those items of ITH that will most influence retrieval operations in the arm-based demonstration project and in follow-on tank operations within the SST farms

  5. 241-AW Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.; Reeploeg, Gretchen E.

    2013-11-19

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for the 241-AW tank farm. The construction history of the 241-AW tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AW tank farm, the fourth double-shell tank farm constructed, similar issues as those with tank 241-AY-102 construction occured. The overall extent of similary and affect on 241-AW tank farm integrity is described herein.

  6. 241-AY-101 Tank Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.

    2013-08-26

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tank 241-AY-101. The construction history of tank 241-AY-101 has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In tank 241-AY-101, the second double-shell tank constructed, similar issues as those with tank 241-AY-102 construction reoccurred. The overall extent of similary and affect on tank 241-AY-101 integrity is described herein.

  7. 241-AP Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.; Reeploeg, Gretchen E.

    2014-04-04

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for the 241-AP tank farm. The construction history of the 241-AP tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AP tank farm, the sixth double-shell tank farm constructed, tank bottom flatness, refractory material quality, post-weld stress relieving, and primary tank bottom weld rejection were improved.

  8. Simultaneous spreading and evaporation: recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Sergey; Trybala, Anna; Rubio, Ramon G; Kovalchuk, Nina; Starov, Victor; Velarde, Manuel G

    2014-04-01

    The recent progress in theoretical and experimental studies of simultaneous spreading and evaporation of liquid droplets on solid substrates is discussed for pure liquids including nanodroplets, nanosuspensions of inorganic particles (nanofluids) and surfactant solutions. Evaporation of both complete wetting and partial wetting liquids into a nonsaturated vapour atmosphere are considered. However, the main attention is paid to the case of partial wetting when the hysteresis of static contact angle takes place. In the case of complete wetting the spreading/evaporation process proceeds in two stages. A theory was suggested for this case and a good agreement with available experimental data was achieved. In the case of partial wetting the spreading/evaporation of a sessile droplet of pure liquid goes through four subsequent stages: (i) the initial stage, spreading, is relatively short (1-2 min) and therefore evaporation can be neglected during this stage; during the initial stage the contact angle reaches the value of advancing contact angle and the radius of the droplet base reaches its maximum value, (ii) the first stage of evaporation is characterised by the constant value of the radius of the droplet base; the value of the contact angle during the first stage decreases from static advancing to static receding contact angle; (iii) during the second stage of evaporation the contact angle remains constant and equal to its receding value, while the radius of the droplet base decreases; and (iv) at the third stage of evaporation both the contact angle and the radius of the droplet base decrease until the drop completely disappears. It has been shown theoretically and confirmed experimentally that during the first and second stages of evaporation the volume of droplet to power 2/3 decreases linearly with time. The universal dependence of the contact angle during the first stage and of the radius of the droplet base during the second stage on the reduced time has been

  9. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  10. Mixing Suspensions in Slender Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rieger

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial suspension mixing processes are carried out both in standard tanks (H/D =1 and in the tanks with height H/D > 1. When only one impeller is used in such slender tanks, it may be difficult to produce a suspension of desired homogeneity. Hence it may be necessary to install a larger number of impellers on the shaft.The aim of this study was to explain the mechanism of suspension formation in slender tanks (H/D = 2 with an increased number of impellers. On the basis of the solid bed height on the tank bottom, the position of the suspension - water interface and the concentration profile of solid particles in the suspension (standard deviation of solid body concentration the operation of the impellers was estimated and conclusions were drawn on how and at what distance from each other to install them were presented.The location of the upper, highest impeller appeared to be specially significant. On the basis of this study it is recommended to locate the upper impeller so that its distance from the free liquid surface is less than 0.8 D. It was found that such a position of the highest impeller was also advantageous from the energy point of view.

  11. Optical inspections of research reactor tanks and tank components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Hammer, J.

    1988-01-01

    By the end of 1987 worldwide there were 326 research reactors in operation, 276 of them operating more than 10 years, and 195 of them operating more than 20 years. The majority of these reactors are swimming-pool type or tank type reactors using aluminium as structural material. Although aluminium has prooven its excellent properties for reactor application in primary system, it is however subjected to various types of corrosion if it gets into contact with other materials such as mild steel in the presence of destilled water. This paper describes various methods of research reactor tank inspections, maintenance and repair possibilities. 9 figs. (Author)

  12. Treated LAW Feed Evaporation: Physical and Solubility Determination (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephs, JE.

    2003-01-01

    Evaporation is employed in several places in the Waste Treatment Plant pretreatment process to minimize the volume of waste that must be treated in down-stream vitrification processes. Evaporation is the first unit process in pretreatment (Waste Feed Evaporators), applied before LAW vitrification (Treated Feed Evaporator), and concentrates ion exchange eluate (Cs Eluate Evaporator) prior to HLW vitrification. The goal of the Treated Feed Evaporation process is removal of the maximum water content without producing additional insoluble solids. Prior testing of evaporation systems for process feed was completed to support compliance with regulatory permits and to prepare a model of the evaporation system. These tests also indicated a marked tendency for foaming in the WTP evaporators. To date, evaporation testing and modeling have focused on the Treated feed and Cs eluate evaporation systems. This has been the first work performed that investigates evaporation of secondary-waste recycle streams in the Treated LAW Feed Evaporator. Secondary-waste recycles from the LAW off- gas scrubbing system have been the major contributors to the overall Treated Feed Evaporator recycle volume. Experience from Savannah River Site operations suggests that the introduction of silica- laden recycles to an evaporator along with high-sodium treated LAW can significantly increase the likelihood of forming sodium-alumina-silicate precipitates upon concentration. Furthermore, there is considerable interest on the part of the WTP project to evaluate the potential of projected evaporator feed and concentrate blends to produce sodium aluminosilicate precipitates

  13. first tank of Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    This was the first tank of the linear accelerator Linac1, the injection system for the Proton Synchrotron, It ran for 34 years (1958 - 1992). Protons entered at the far end and were accelerated between the copper drift tubes by an oscillating electromagnetic field. The field flipped 200 million times a second (200 MHz) so the protons spent 5 nanoseconds crossing a drift tube and a gap. Moving down the tank, the tubes and gaps had to get longer as the protons gained speed. The tank accelerated protons from 500 KeV to 10 MeV. Linac1 was also used to accelerate deutrons and alpha particles for the Intersecting Storage Rings and oxygen and sulpher ions for the Super Proton Synchrotron heavy ion programme.

  14. Estimation model for evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles based on thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Hiroo; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Kokuryo, Kazuo; Okada, Megumi; Funakubo, Chikage; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2018-03-15

    In this study, we conducted seven-day diurnal breathing loss (DBL) tests on gasoline vehicles. We propose a model based on the theory of thermodynamics that can represent the experimental results of the current and previous studies. The experiments were performed using 14 physical parameters to determine the dependence of total emissions on temperature, fuel tank fill, and fuel vapor pressure. In most cases, total emissions after an apparent breakthrough were proportional to the difference between minimum and maximum environmental temperatures during the day, fuel tank empty space, and fuel vapor pressure. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using a Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer and Flame Ionization Detector (GC-MS/FID) to determine the Ozone Formation Potential (OFP) of after-breakthrough gas emitted to the atmosphere. Using the experimental results, we constructed a thermodynamic model for estimating the amount of evaporative emissions after a fully saturated canister breakthrough occurred, and a comparison between the thermodynamic model and previous models was made. Finally, the total annual evaporative emissions and OFP in Japan were determined and compared by each model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Passive cooling of water at night in uninsulated open tank in hot arid areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Ahmed Hamza H.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates experimentally and analytically the natural cooling of water at night in an uninsulated open tank by evaporation, convection and sky radiation in hot arid areas. In addition, the feasibility of using the obtained cooled water for human thermal comfort inside buildings is studied. The experimental results showed that for a tank having an open surface area of 1 m 2 and a depth of 0.5 m, by the ends of nights, the water temperature values ranged from 17.2 to 18.9 deg. C, while at the beginnings of nights, the water temperatures ranged from 23.8 to 27.1 deg. C. The evaporative and convective mass transfer cooling portions ranged from 38.7% to 57.4% of the total net cooling. The percentage of water lost from the tank, including the evaporated convective mass transfer cooling portions at different nights ranged from 2.5% to 4.13%. The model results were validated by measured values and good agreement prevailed. The analytical results showed that as the water depth in the open tank varied from 0.2 to 0.6 m, the net cooling of the water ranged from 10.53 to 19.7 MJ/m 2 with temperature values ranging from 14.3 to 18.7 deg. C. The results indicate that the naturally cooled water final temperature and cooling energy results are feasible for use for human thermal comfort inside buildings through radiant ceiling cooling panels systems in hot arid areas

  16. Putting evaporators to work: wiped film evaporator for high level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierks, R.D.; Bonner, W.F.

    1976-01-01

    At Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, a pilot scale, wiped film evaporator was tested for concentrating high level liquid wastes from Purex-type nuclear fuel recovery processes. The concentrates produced up to 60 wt-percent total solids; and the simplicity of operation and design of the evaporator gave promise for low maintenance and high reliability

  17. Artificial weathering of oils by rotary evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieldhouse, B.; Hollebone, B.P.; Singh, N.R.; Tong, T.S.; Mullin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil weathering has a considerable affect on the behaviour, impact and ultimate fate of an oil spill. As such, efforts have been made to study weathering as a whole using bench-scale procedures. The studies are generally divided into individual processes where the effect of other major processes are introduce as an amended sample input rather than a concurrent process. The weathering process that has the greatest effect immediately following an oil spill is evaporation, particularly for lighter oils. The rotary evaporator apparatus offers a convenient means of producing artificially weathered oil for laboratory studies. This paper reported on a study that examined the representativeness of samples obtained by this method compared to pan evaporation and the impact of changes to the apparatus or method parameters on sample chemistry. Experiments were performed on Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend no. 5 in a rotary evaporator under varying conditions of temperature and air flow at ambient pressure using 2 apparatus. The rate of mass loss increased with temperature and air flow rate as expected, but the quantitative relationships could not be defined from the data due to contributions by other uncontrolled factors. It was concluded that the rotary evaporator is not suited for evaporation rate studies, but rather for producing samples suitable for use in other studies. Chemical analysis showed that the relative abundance distributions of target n-alkane hydrocarbons varied with the degree of weathering of an oil in a consistent manner at ambient pressure, regardless of the temperature, rate of air exchange or other factors related to the apparatus and procedure. The composition of the artificially weathered oil was also consistent with that from an open pan simulation of a weathered oil slick. Loss of water content varied with the conditions of evaporation because of the differential rates of evaporation due to relative humidity considerations. It was concluded that weathering

  18. Tank calibration; Arqueacao de tanques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Ana [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This work relates the analysis of the norms ISO (International Organization for Standardization) for calibration of vertical cylindrical tanks used in fiscal measurement, established on Joint Regulation no 1 of June 19, 2000 between the ANP (National Agency of Petroleum) and the INMETRO (National Institute of Metrology, Normalization and Industrial Quality). In this work a comparison between norms ISO and norms published by the API (American Petroleum Institute) and the IP (Institute of Petroleum) up to 2001 was made. It was concluded that norms ISO are wider than norms API, IP, and INMETRO methods in the calibration of vertical cylindrical tanks. (author)

  19. Mathematical modeling of wiped-film evaporators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerfeld, J.T.

    1976-05-01

    A mathematical model and associated computer program were developed to simulate the steady-state operation of wiped-film evaporators for the concentration of typical waste solutions produced at the Savannah River Plant. In this model, which treats either a horizontal or a vertical wiped-film evaporator as a plug-flow device with no backmixing, three fundamental phenomena are described: sensible heating of the waste solution, vaporization of water, and crystallization of solids from solution. Physical property data were coded into the computer program, which performs the calculations of this model. Physical properties of typical waste solutions and of the heating steam, generally as analytical functions of temperature, were obtained from published data or derived by regression analysis of tabulated or graphical data. Preliminary results from tests of the Savannah River Laboratory semiworks wiped-film evaporators were used to select a correlation for the inside film heat transfer coefficient. This model should be a useful aid in the specification, operation, and control of the full-scale wiped-film evaporators proposed for application under plant conditions. In particular, it should be of value in the development and analysis of feed-forward control schemes for the plant units. Also, this model can be readily adapted, with only minor changes, to simulate the operation of wiped-film evaporators for other conceivable applications, such as the concentration of acid wastes

  20. Uranium concentration monitor manual, secondary intermediate evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Slice, R.W.; Strittmatter, R.B.

    1985-08-01

    This manual describes the design, operation, and measurement control procedures for the automated uranium concentration monitor on the secondary intermediate evaporator at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The nonintrusive monitor provides a near-real time readout of uranium concentration in the return loop of time recirculating evaporator for purposes of process monitoring and control. A detector installed near the bottom of the return loop is used to acquire spectra of gamma rays from the evaporator solutions during operation. Pulse height analysis of each spectrum gives the information required to deduce the concentration of uranium in the evaporator solution in near-real time. The visual readout of concentration is updated at the end of every assay cycle. The readout includes an alphanumeric display of uranium concentration and an illuminated, colored LED (in an array of colored LEDs) indicating whether the measured concentration is within (or above or below) the desired range. An alphanumeric display of evaporator solution acid molarity is also available to the operator. 9 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Evaporation rate of water in hydrophobic confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sumit; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2012-03-20

    The drying of hydrophobic cavities is believed to play an important role in biophysical phenomena such as the folding of globular proteins, the opening and closing of ligand-gated ion channels, and ligand binding to hydrophobic pockets. We use forward flux sampling, a molecular simulation technique, to compute the rate of capillary evaporation of water confined between two hydrophobic surfaces separated by nanoscopic gaps, as a function of gap, surface size, and temperature. Over the range of conditions investigated (gaps between 9 and 14 Å and surface areas between 1 and 9 nm(2)), the free energy barrier to evaporation scales linearly with the gap between hydrophobic surfaces, suggesting that line tension makes the predominant contribution to the free energy barrier. The exponential dependence of the evaporation rate on the gap between confining surfaces causes a 10 order-of-magnitude decrease in the rate when the gap increases from 9 to 14 Å. The computed free energy barriers are of the order of 50 kT and are predominantly enthalpic. Evaporation rates per unit area are found to be two orders of magnitude faster in confinement by the larger (9 nm(2)) than by the smaller (1 nm(2)) surfaces considered here, at otherwise identical conditions. We show that this rate enhancement is a consequence of the dependence of hydrophobic hydration on the size of solvated objects. For sufficiently large surfaces, the critical nucleus for the evaporation process is a gap-spanning vapor tube.

  2. Think Tank Initiative and Think Tank Fund Peer Exchanges | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    -foster strong relations among the participants and their organizations through collaborative projects in comparative policy research and organizational development issues; -conduct a comparative study on the barriers to think tank collaboration; and, -evaluate this approach as a useful method to improve and encourage ...

  3. Tank 241-BY-103 Tank Characterization Plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BY-103

  4. Tank 241-C-103 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-103

  5. Tank waste remediation system tank waste retrieval risk management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimper, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    This Risk Management Plan defines the approach to be taken to manage programmatic risks in the TWRS Tank Waste Retrieval program. It provides specific instructions applicable to TWR, and is used to supplement the guidance given by the TWRS Risk Management procedure

  6. The Politics of Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    In the 21st century, think tanks have become more than a buzzword in European public discourse. They now play important roles in the policy-making process by providing applied research, building networks and advocating policies. The book studies the development of think tanks and contemporary...... consequences in the United Kingdom, Germany, Denmark and at the EU-level. A Continental think tank tradition in which the state plays a pivotal role and an Anglo-American tradition which facilitates interaction in public policy on market-like terms have shaped the development of think tanks. On the basis...... of a typology of think tanks, quantitative data and interviews with think tank practitioners, the interplay between state and market dynamics and the development of different types of think tanks is analysed. Although think tanks develop along different institutional trajectories, it is concluded that the Anglo...

  7. Technical requirements specification for tank waste retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamberd, D.L.

    1996-09-26

    This document provides the technical requirements specification for the retrieval of waste from the underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. All activities covered by this scope are conducted in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission.

  8. Lightweight, Composite Cryogenic Tank Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm has developed and qualified strong, all-composite LOX tanks for launch vehicles. Our new 42-inch diameter tank design weighs 486 lbs and burst without...

  9. AX Tank Farm ancillary equipment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  10. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SAMPLING OF TANK 18 IN F TANK FARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shine, G.

    2009-12-14

    Representative sampling is required for characterization of the residual floor material in Tank 18 prior to operational closure. Tank 18 is an 85-foot diameter, 34-foot high carbon steel tank with nominal operating volume of 1,300,000 gallons. It is a Type IV tank, and has been in service storing radioactive materials since 1959. Recent mechanical cleaning of the tank removed all mounds of material. Anticipating a low level of solids in the residual material, Huff and Thaxton [2009] developed a plan to sample the material during the final clean-up process while it would still be resident in sufficient quantities to support analytical determinations in four quadrants of the tank. Execution of the plan produced fewer solids than expected to support analytical determinations in all four quadrants. Huff and Thaxton [2009] then restructured the plan to characterize the residual floor material separately in the North and the South regions: two 'hemispheres.' This document provides sampling recommendations to complete the characterization of the residual material on the tank bottom following the guidance in Huff and Thaxton [2009] to split the tank floor into a North and a South hemisphere. The number of samples is determined from a modification of the formula previously published in Edwards [2001] and the sample characterization data for previous sampling of Tank 18 described by Oji [2009]. The uncertainty is quantified by an upper 95% confidence limit (UCL95%) on each analyte's mean concentration in Tank 18. The procedure computes the uncertainty in analyte concentration as a function of the number of samples, and the final number of samples is determined when the reduction in the uncertainty from an additional sample no longer has a practical impact on results. The characterization of the full suite of analytes in the North hemisphere is currently supported by a single Mantis rover sample obtained from a compact region near the center riser. A floor

  11. Isotopic fractionation of soil water during evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopoldo, P.R.; Salati, E.; Matsui, E.

    1974-01-01

    The study of the variation of D/H relation in soil water during evaporation is studied. The isotopic fractionation of soil water has been observed in two soils of light and heavy texture. Soil columns were utilized. Soil water has been extracted in a system operated under low pressure and the gaseous hydrogen was obtained by the decomposition of water through the use of metalic uranium and was analysed in a GD-150 mass spectrometer for its deuterium content. The variation of the delta sub(eta) 0 / 00 value during the evaporation showed that for water held at potentials below 15 atm, the deuterium content of soil water stays practically constant. For water held at potentials higher than 15 atm, corresponding to the third stage of evaporation, there is a strong tendency of a constant increase of delta sub(eta) 0 / 00 of the remaining water [pt

  12. Boiling heat transfer in kettle evaporators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, T.H.; Yao, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    The overall boiling process in a typical kettle evaporator is usually characterized as pool boiling. However, a liquid-vapor mixture flows by the gravity-induced natural circulation in the evaporator bundle is usually observed. The existing design or calculation methods, based upon the information of pool boiling in tube bundles, are inadequate to predict accurately the overall boiling heat transfer of a large bundle. Although some calculation schemes, based upon the flow boiling information, have been reported in reference to predict the overall performance of large bundles, the local heat transfer of a tube in a bundle is still not easy to be deducted from the integral results of the whole bundle. The purpose of this study is to investigate the local boiling phenomena in a uniformly heated tube bundle which is common encountered in kettle evaporators

  13. Advances in direct contact evaporator design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, P.L.C. [Programa de Engenharia Quimica, COPPE/UFRJ, C. P. 68502, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Campos, F.B. [Gerencia de Gas e Energia, CENPES/PETROBRAS, Cidade Universitaria, Q.7, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 21949-900 (Brazil)

    2004-01-01

    Direct contact evaporators are nonisothermal bubble columns where a hot gas, usually obtained by combustion, is used to heat and vaporize the solvent of a given solution that needs to be concentrated. The design of such equipment has been relied on experimental data or on a simplified method that assumes that the gas leaves the evaporator at equilibrium with the liquid phase, giving no information about the necessary bubbling height to attain such equilibrium conditions. Recent advances in the heat and mass transfer processes during the formation and ascension of superheated bubbles together with simple mass and energy balances in the liquid phase and gas distributor system were used to develop a more detailed design procedure. The accuracy of both design procedures are compared to available experimental data in a direct contact evaporator operating in semibatch mode. The new design method agreed well with the experimental data. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Field evaporation test of uranium tailings solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, B.L.; Shepard, T.A.; Stewart, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    A field experiment was performed to observe the effect on evaporation rate of a uranium tailings impoundment pond water as salt concentration of the water increased. The duration of the experiment was long enough to cause maximum salt concentration of the water to be attained. The solution used in the experiment was tailings pond water from an inactive uranium tailings disposal site in the initial stages of reclamation. The solution was not neutralized. The initial pH was about 1.0 decreasing to a salt gel at the end of the test. The results of the field experiment show a gradual and slight decrease in evaporation efficiency. This resulted as salt concentrations increased and verified the practical effectiveness of evaporation as a water removal method. In addition, the physical and chemical nature of the residual salts suggest that no long-term stability problem would likely result due to their presence in the impoundment during or after reclamation

  15. Tank 241-U-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-U-106. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  16. Competitive Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    in opportunity structures that are mediated by historically constituted institutions in knowledge regimes. The paper distinguishes between four different strategies, the authoritative, the collaborative, the agenda-setting and the competitive strategy that are distinguished by the relations think tanks have...

  17. Understanding Think Tank University Relationships

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    pmartin@idrc.ca

    10 Abr 2013 ... Este proyecto procura identificar y lograr una nueva percepción de las maneras en que los think tanks y las universidades han desarrollado ... conclusiones empíricas de los análisis de estudios de caso y contribuye al corpus de conocimiento sobre las relaciones entre el desarrollo de capacidad de los ...

  18. Improved Polyurethane Storage Tank Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    exactly in a 10-inch by 10- inch perfect square, translated directly from the AutoCAD design. Since the pen line was ¼ inch wide and stretch...horizontal and vertical long axis of the tank. Pictures from JUN 2012 and JAN 2014 were compared and analyzed to scale as imported images in AutoCAD

  19. Black hole evaporation in conformal gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambi, Cosimo; Rachwał, Lesław [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, 200433 Shanghai (China); Modesto, Leonardo [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, 1088 Xueyuan Road, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Porey, Shiladitya, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: lmodesto@sustc.edu.cn, E-mail: shilp@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: rachwal@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, 208016 Kanpur (India)

    2017-09-01

    We study the formation and the evaporation of a spherically symmetric black hole in conformal gravity. From the collapse of a spherically symmetric thin shell of radiation, we find a singularity-free non-rotating black hole. This black hole has the same Hawking temperature as a Schwarzschild black hole with the same mass, and it completely evaporates either in a finite or in an infinite time, depending on the ensemble. We consider the analysis both in the canonical and in the micro-canonical statistical ensembles. Last, we discuss the corresponding Penrose diagram of this physical process.

  20. Evaporation-induced assembly of biomimetic polypeptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, Joseph; Junkin, Michael; Cappello, Joseph; Wu Xiaoyi; Wong, Pak Kin

    2008-01-01

    We report an evaporation assisted plasma lithography (EAPL) process for guided self-assembly of a biomimetic silk-elastinlike protein (SELP). We demonstrate the formation of SELP structures from millimeter to submicrometer range on plasma-treatment surface templates during an evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The self-assembly processes at different humidities and droplet volumes were investigated. The process occurs efficiently in a window of optimized operating conditions found to be at 70% relative humidity and 8 μl volume of SELP solution. The EAPL approach provides a useful technique for the realization of functional devices and systems using these biomimetic materials

  1. Do black holes really evaporate thermally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipler, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Raychaudhuri equation is used to analyze the effect of the Hawking radiation back reaction upon a black-hole event horizon. It is found that if the effective stress-energy tensor of the Hawking radiation has negative energy density as expected, then an evaporating black hole initially a solar mass in size must disappear in less than a second. This implies that either the evaporation process, if it occurs at all, must be quite different from what is commonly supposed, or else black-hole event horizons: and hence black holes: do not exist

  2. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shine, E. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-11

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  3. DOUBLE SHELL TANK EMERGENCY PUMPING GUIDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REBERGER, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    This document provides preplanning necessary to expeditiously remove any waste that may leak from the primary tank to the secondary tank for Hanford's 28 DSTs. The strategy is described, applicable emergency procedures are referenced, and transfer routes and pumping equipment for each tank are identified

  4. Double Shell Tank (DST) Emergency Pumping Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOMNOSKE-RAUCH, L.A.

    2000-05-17

    This document provides preplanning necessary to expeditiously remove any waste that may leak from the primary tank to the secondary tank for Hanford's 28 DSTs. The strategy is described, applicable emergency procedures are referenced, and transfer routes and pumping equipment for each tank are identified.

  5. 33 CFR 183.510 - Fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tanks. 183.510 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.510 Fuel tanks. (a) Each fuel tank in a boat must have been tested by its manufacturer under § 183.580 and not leak when...

  6. 7 CFR 58.427 - Paraffin tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paraffin tanks. 58.427 Section 58.427 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....427 Paraffin tanks. The metal tank should be adequate in size, have wood rather than metal racks to...

  7. Elevated Tank Due to Earthquake Even

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotrasová Kamila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Elevated reservoirs are mainly used for storing of variety water. During earthquake activity the fluid exerts impulsive and convective (sloshing effects on the walls and bottom of tank. This paper provides theoretical background for analytical calculating of elevated water tank due to earthquake even and deals with simplified seismic design procedures for elevated tanks.

  8. Tank 241-U-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-U-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-U-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  9. Tank 241-BY-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-106 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-106 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  10. Results of Hg speciation testing on tank 39 and 1Q16 tank 50 samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team.i,ii The seventeenth shipment of samples was designated to include two Tank 39 samples and the 1Q16 Tank 50 Quarterly WAC sample. The surface Tank 39 sample was pulled at 262.1” from the tank bottom, and the depth Tank 39 sample was pulled at 95” from the tank bottom. The 1Q16 Tank 50 WAC sample was drawn from the 1-L variable depth sample received by SRNL.

  11. Tank 241-BY-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  12. Tank 241-TX-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-TX-105 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-TX-105 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  13. Tank 241-TX-118 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-TX-118 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-TX-118 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  14. Tank 241-BY-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-05

    Tank 241-BY-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues{close_quotes}. Tank 241-BY-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution{close_quotes}.

  15. Tank 241-BY-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-105 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-105 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  16. Tank 241-C-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-C-104 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-C-104 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  17. Tank 241-BY-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-104 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-104 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  18. Tank 241-BY-112 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-112 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-112 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  19. Tank 241-TX-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-TX-105 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-TX-105 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  20. Tank 241-TX-118 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-TX-118 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-TX-118 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  1. Tank 241-C-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-C-104 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-C-104 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  2. Tank 241-BY-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-104 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-104 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  3. Tank 241-BY-112 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-112 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-112 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  4. Tank 241-BY-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-105 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-105 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  5. Tank 241-BY-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issuesclose quotes. Tank 241-BY-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolutionclose quotes

  6. Tank 241-C-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-C-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues (Osborne and Huckaby 1994). Tank 241-C-108 was vapor sampled in accordance with Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution (Osborne et al., 1994)

  7. Tank 241-BY-103 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-103 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-103 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  8. Tank 241-C-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-C-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-C-108 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  9. Tank 241-BY-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  10. Tank 241-BY-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in ''Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues'' (Osborne and Huckaby 1994). Tank 241-BY-108 was vapor sampled in accordance with ''Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution (Osborne et al., 1994)

  11. External Tank - The Structure Backbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzyn, Kenneth; Pilet, Jeffrey C.; Diecidue-Conners, Dawn; Worden, Michelle; Guillot, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The External Tank forms the structural backbone of the Space Shuttle in the launch configuration. Because the tank flies to orbital velocity with the Space Shuttle Orbiter, minimization of weight is mandatory, to maximize payload performance. Choice of lightweight materials both for structure and thermal conditioning was necessary. The tank is large, and unique manufacturing facilities, tooling, handling, and transportation operations were required. Weld processes and tooling evolved with the design as it matured through several block changes, to reduce weight. Non Destructive Evaluation methods were used to assure integrity of welds and thermal protection system materials. The aluminum-lithium alloy was used near the end of the program and weld processes and weld repair techniques had to be refined. Development and implementation of friction stir welding was a substantial technology development incorporated during the Program. Automated thermal protection system application processes were developed for the majority of the tank surface. Material obsolescence was an issue throughout the 40 year program. The final configuration and tank weight enabled international space station assembly in a high inclination orbit allowing international cooperation with the Russian Federal Space Agency. Numerous process controls were implemented to assure product quality, and innovative proof testing was accomplished prior to delivery. Process controls were implemented to assure cleanliness in the production environment, to control contaminants, and to preclude corrosion. Each tank was accepted via rigorous inspections, including non-destructive evaluation techniques, proof testing, and all systems testing. In the post STS-107 era, the project focused on ascent debris risk reduction. This was accomplished via stringent process controls, post flight assessment using substantially improved imagery, and selective redesigns. These efforts were supported with a number of test programs to

  12. Basis for Selection of a Residual Waste Retrieval System for Gunite and Associated Tank W-9 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.E

    2000-10-23

    Waste retrieval and transfer operations at the Gunite{trademark} and Associated Tanks (GAATs) Remediation Project have been successfully accomplished using the Tank Waste Retrieval System. This system is composed of the Modified Light-Duty Utility Arm, Houdini Vehicle, Waste Dislodging and Conveyance System, Hose Management Arm, and Sludge Conditioning System. GAAT W-9 has been used as a waste-consolidation and batch-transfer tank during the retrieval of sludges and supernatants from the seven Gunite tanks in the North and South tank farms at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Tank W-9 was used as a staging tank for the transfers to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs). A total of 18 waste transfers from W-9 occurred between May 25, 1999, and March 30, 2000. Most of these transfers were accomplished using the PulsAir Mixer to mobilize and mix the slurry and a submersible retrieval-transfer pump to transfer the slurry through the Sludge Conditioning System and the {approx}1-mile long, 2-in.-diam waste-transfer line to the MVSTs. The transfers from W-9 have consisted of low-solids-content slurries with solids contents ranging from {approx}2.8 to 6.8 mg/L. Of the initial {approx}88,000 gal of wet sludge estimated in the GAATs, a total of {approx}60,451 gal have been transferred to the MVSTs via tank W-9 as of March 30, 2000. Once the waste-consolidation operations and transfers from W-9 to the MVSTs are completed, the remaining material in W-9 will be mobilized and transferred to the active waste system, Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tank W-23. Tank W-23 will serve as a batch tank for the final waste transfers from tank W-9 to the MVSTs. This report provides a summary of the requirements and recommendations for the final waste retrieval system for tank W-9, a compilation of the sample analysis data for the sludge in W-9, and brief descriptions of the various waste-retrieval system concepts that were considered for this task. The recommended residual waste retrieval

  13. Tank Waste Transport Stability: Summaries of Hanford Slurry and Salt-Solution Studies in FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2002-07-08

    This report is a collection of summary articles on FY 2000 studies of slurry transport and salt-well pumping related to Hanford tank waste transfers. These studies are concerned with the stability (steady, uninterrupted flow) of tank waste transfers, a subset of the Department of Energy (DOE) Tanks Focus Area Tank (TFA) Waste Chemistry effort. This work is a collaborative effort of AEA Technology plc, the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory at Mississippi State University (DIAL-MSU), the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology at Florida International University (HCET-FIU), Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of this report is to provide, in a single document, an overview of these studies to help the reader identify contacts and resources for obtaining more detailed information and to help promote useful interchanges between researchers and users. Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.

  14. The evaporation of crude oil and petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M. F.

    1996-01-01

    The physics of oil and petroleum evaporation was studied by means of an experimental apparatus. The evaporation was determined by weight loss and recorded on a computer. Examination of the data showed that most oil and petroleum products (those with seven to ten components) evaporate at a logarithmic rate with respect to time, while other petroleum products (those with fewer chemical components) evaporate at a rate which is square root with respect to time. Evaporation of oil and petroleum was not strictly boundary-layer regulated because the typical oil evaporation rate rates do not exceed that of molecular diffusion and thus turbulent diffusion does not increase the evaporation rates. Overall, boundary layer regulation can be ignored in the prediction of oil and petroleum evaporation. The simple equation relating only the logarithm of time (or the square root of time in the case of narrow-cut products) and temperature are sufficient to accurately describe oil evaporation. refs., figs

  15. Evaporative and Convective Instabilities for the Evaporation of a Binary Mixture in a Bilayer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weidong; Narayanan, Ranga

    2006-11-01

    Evaporative convection in binary mixtures arises in a variety of industrial processes, such as drying of paint and coating technology. There have been theories devoted to this problem either by assuming a passive vapor layer or by isolating the vapor fluid dynamics. Previous work on evaporative and convective instabilities in a single component bilayer system suggests that active vapor layers play a major role in determining the instability of the interface. We have investigated the evaporation convection in binary mixtures taking into account the fluid dynamics of both phases. The liquid mixture and its vapor are assumed to be confined between two horizontal plates with a base state of zero evaporation but with linear vertical temperature profile. When the vertical temperature gradient reaches a critical value, the evaporative instability, Rayleigh and Marangoni convection set in. The effects of vapor and liquid depth, various wave numbers and initial composition of the mixture on the evaporative and convective instability are determined. The physics of the instability are explained and detailed comparison is made between the Rayleigh, Marangoni and evaporative convection in pure component and those in binary mixtures.

  16. Use of Multiple Innovative Technologies for Retrieval and Handling of Low-Level Radioactive Tank Wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble-Dial, J.; Riner, G.; Robinson, S.; Lewis, B.; Bolling, D.; Ganapathi, G.; Harper, M.; Billingsley, K.; Burks, B.

    2002-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) successfully implemented an integrated tank waste management plan at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (1), which resulted in the cleanup, removal, or stabilization of 37 inactive underground storage tanks (USTs) since 1998, and the reduction of risk to human health and the environment. The integrated plan helped accelerate the development and deployment of innovative technologies for the retrieval of radioactive sludge and liquid waste from inactive USTs. It also accelerated the pretreatment of the retrieved waste and newly generated waste from ORNL research and development activities to provide for volume and contamination reduction of the liquid waste. The integrated plan included: retrieval of radioactive sludge, contaminated material, and other debris from USTs at ORNL using a variety of robotic and remotely operated equipment; waste conditioning and transfer of retrieved waste to pretreatment facilities and interim, double contained storage tanks; the development and deployment of technologies for pretreating newly generated and retrieved waste transferred to interim storage tanks; waste treatment and packaging for final off-site disposal; stabilization of the inactive USTs that did not meet the regulatory requirements of the Federal Facilities Agreement between the DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the continued monitoring of the active USTs that remain in long-term service. This paper summarizes the successful waste retrieval and tank stabilization operations conducted during two ORNL tank remediation projects (The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project and the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks Remediation Project), the sludge retrieval operations from the active Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks, and pretreatment operations conducted for the tank waste. This paper also provides the status of ongoing activities conducted in preparation

  17. Tank head parameters assessment of influence on tank car boiler stress and strain state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V.Bespalko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the investigation is to estimate such value of a tank head depth wherein the maximum capacity of vehicle is provided and a tank vessel durability meets the requirements. Methodo-logy. The problem solution was carried out with using the finite element analysis program NASTRAN. The finite element model is a tank shell of the railway eight-wheel tank car of model 15-1443. The load was presented as pressure. The value was accepted equal 0,4 MPa. The finite element model strain-stress state was analyzed. The tank head depth changed ranging from 0,2 m to 1,5 m. Findings. The rational tank head depth was 0,47 m from the tank vessel durability condition. This allows to improve the basic tank car parameters. It means to increase the tank vessel volume and to increase the capacity at 0,7 ton. Authors has investigated that an additional increase of the tank vessel volume and the vehicle capacity can be achieved when the tank head sheets thickness as high as 13 mm. In this case it is necessary to recognize that the rational tank head depth is 0,4 m. Tank capacity can be increase at 1 ton. Originality. This paper presents the method of analysis of the tank car volume increase. The tank car volume increase and thus а capacity of vehicle increase allows to improve the car productiveness. Calculations results allow to give the dependence of the maximum equivalent stresses in a tank head which the depth of the one change. Practical value. It is shown that the tank head depth reduction will allow to improve parameters of the existing railway tank when the tank vessel durability meets the requirements. Investigation results can be used when new tank cars are designed.

  18. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AP-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LAMBERT, S.L.

    1999-02-23

    In April 1993, Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-102 was sampled to determine waste feed characteristics for the Hanford Grout Disposal Program. This Tank Characterization Report presents an overview of that tank sampling and analysis effort, and contains observations regarding waste characteristics, expected bulk inventory, and concentration data for the waste contents based on this latest sampling data and information on the history of the tank. Finally, this report makes recommendations and conclusions regarding tank operational safety issues.

  19. Washing water treatment process for UF{sub 6} cylinder by adjusting evaporation technology in a low temperature and low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-tae; Ju, Young-jong; Cho, Nam-chan [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun-kwan; Jin, Chang-suk [Jeontech CO., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The liquid waste is treated in this procedure; 1) Add NaOH to the liquid waste and filter the mixture with a screen. 2) Screened residue is dried and then stored in a uranium storage. 3) liquid part is moved to a storage tank and radioactivity is measured in the liquid. 5) If the concentration of radioactivity is lower than corresponding regulation limit, the liquid moved to a reaction tank and evaporated with additional low concentration HF in 105℃. 6) Radioactivity of distillate is measured and the value is lower than regulation, it is treated with a thermal decomposition process and discharged to the atmosphere in gas state. 7) Solid waste produced in the evaporation step is managed as solid nuclear waste. The treatment procedure mentioned above has disadvantageous points, producing large amount of solid waste as well as, high energy and chemical consumption. In this study, liquid waste from a real scaled cylinder wash process is applied to evaporation system to confirm feasibility of the application of evaporation and, to reduce waste production and energy consumption. Liquid radioactive wastewater from a real scaled UF6 cylinder wash process was applied to evaporation treatment system. Radioactive concentration in gross alpha was removed 99.9% in the evaporation system. And the concentration in distillate was lower than the discharge regulation. Removal of U-235 was 99.9% in the process. And 15 other kinds of radionuclides in the raw wastewater were removed completely. Secondary waste production of the evaporation system is 15g/L.

  20. Tanks focus area. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, J.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management is tasked with a major remediation project to treat and dispose of radioactive waste in hundreds of underground storage tanks. These tanks contain about 90,000,000 gallons of high-level and transuranic wastes. We have 68 known or assumed leaking tanks, that have allowed waste to migrate into the soil surrounding the tank. In some cases, the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in the safest possible condition until their eventual remediation to reduce the risk of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. Science and technology development for safer, more efficient, and cost-effective waste treatment methods will speed up progress toward the final remediation of these tanks. The DOE Office of Environmental Management established the Tanks Focus Area to serve as the DOE-EM's technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation in partnership with the Offices of Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. The Tanks Focus Area is responsible for leading, coordinating, and facilitating science and technology development to support remediation at DOE's four major tank sites: the Hanford Site in Washington State, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in Idaho, Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank. Safety is integrated across all the functions and is a key component of the Tanks Focus Area program

  1. Laboratory Demonstration of the Pretreatment Process with Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Using Actual Hanford Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the bench-scale pretreatment processing of actual tank waste materials through the entire baseline WTP pretreatment flowsheet in an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of the defined leaching processes on actual Hanford tank waste sludge and the potential impacts on downstream pretreatment processing. The test material was a combination of reduction oxidation (REDOX) tank waste composited materials containing aluminum primarily in the form of boehmite and dissolved S saltcake containing Cr(III)-rich entrained solids. The pretreatment processing steps tested included • caustic leaching for Al removal • solids crossflow filtration through the cell unit filter (CUF) • stepwise solids washing using decreasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide with filtration through the CUF • oxidative leaching using sodium permanganate for removing Cr • solids filtration with the CUF • follow-on solids washing and filtration through the CUF • ion exchange processing for Cs removal • evaporation processing of waste stream recycle for volume reduction • combination of the evaporated product with dissolved saltcake. The effectiveness of each process step was evaluated by following the mass balance of key components (such as Al, B, Cd, Cr, Pu, Ni, Mn, and Fe), demonstrating component (Al, Cr, Cs) removal, demonstrating filterability by evaluating filter flux rates under various processing conditions (transmembrane pressure, crossflow velocities, wt% undissolved solids, and PSD) and filter fouling, and identifying potential issues for WTP. The filterability was reported separately (Shimskey et al. 2008) and is not repeated herein.

  2. Simple characterisation of solar DHW tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the project is to compare different methods used for testing small solar domestic hot water tanks. A small hot water tank is tested at three different European laboratories by means of the test methods normally used at the laboratories. The tank is marketed in Denmark.The test carried...... out at the Department for Buildings and Energy compromises determination of the heat loss coefficient for the tank and the heat transfer coefficient for the auxiliary helix. A dynamic test is performed and a simulation model of the tank is made and validated against measured energy quantities...

  3. Tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Information regarding flammable vapors, gases, and aerosols is presented for the purpose of resolving the tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability issue. Analyses of recent vapor and liquid samples, as well as visual inspections of the tank headspace, are discussed in the context of tank dynamics. This document is restricted to issues regarding the flammability of gases, vapors, and an aerosol that may exist in the headspace of tank 241-C-103. While discussing certain information about the organic liquid present in tank 241-C-103, this document addresses neither the potential for, nor consequences of, a pool fire involving this organic liquid; they will be discussed in a separate report

  4. Tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Information regarding flammable vapors, gases, and aerosols is presented for the purpose of resolving the tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability issue. Analyses of recent vapor and liquid samples, as well as visual inspections of the tank headspace, are discussed in the context of tank dynamics. This document is restricted to issues regarding the flammability of gases, vapors, and an aerosol that may exist in the headspace of tank 241-C-103. While discussing certain information about the organic liquid present in tank 241-C-103, this document addresses neither the potential for, nor consequences of, a pool fire involving this organic liquid; they will be discussed in a separate report.

  5. Evaporative cooling of the dipolar hydroxyl radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhl, Benjamin K; Hummon, Matthew T; Yeo, Mark; Quéméner, Goulven; Bohn, John L; Ye, Jun

    2012-12-20

    Atomic physics was revolutionized by the development of forced evaporative cooling, which led directly to the observation of Bose-Einstein condensation, quantum-degenerate Fermi gases and ultracold optical lattice simulations of condensed-matter phenomena. More recently, substantial progress has been made in the production of cold molecular gases. Their permanent electric dipole moment is expected to generate systems with varied and controllable phases, dynamics and chemistry. However, although advances have been made in both direct cooling and cold-association techniques, evaporative cooling has not been achieved so far. This is due to unfavourable ratios of elastic to inelastic scattering and impractically slow thermalization rates in the available trapped species. Here we report the observation of microwave-forced evaporative cooling of neutral hydroxyl (OH(•)) molecules loaded from a Stark-decelerated beam into an extremely high-gradient magnetic quadrupole trap. We demonstrate cooling by at least one order of magnitude in temperature, and a corresponding increase in phase-space density by three orders of magnitude, limited only by the low-temperature sensitivity of our spectroscopic thermometry technique. With evaporative cooling and a sufficiently large initial population, much colder temperatures are possible; even a quantum-degenerate gas of this dipolar radical (or anything else it can sympathetically cool) may be within reach.

  6. Spontaneous evaporation of the acetone drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunin, S. Z.; Nagornov, O. V.

    2017-12-01

    The exact solution of the problem on evaporation of the acetone sessile drop at solid substrate is derived. The solution allows us to analyze the temperature field behavior at various thermodynamic parameters. The Marangoni forces are calculated in explicit form. The solution can be used to check numerical approaches for similar problems.

  7. Characterization of lithium evaporators for LTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Perez, M.; Majeski, R.; Timberlake, J.; Lundberg, D.; Kaita, R.; Arevalo-Torres, B.

    2010-11-01

    The presence of lithium on the internal components of fusion devices has proven to be beneficial for reactor performance. The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) will be the first experimental fusion device operating with a significant portion of its internal surface coated with lithium. One of the key capabilities in the device is the reliable production of lithium films inside the reactor. This task is accomplished with the use of lithium evaporators, specially designed for LTX using resistively heated yttria crucibles. In the present work, results from the operation of one of these evaporators on a separate test stand are presented. Deposition measurements at different power levels were performed using a quartz crystal deposition monitor, and temperature distributions in the evaporator crucible and its content were obtained using an infrared camera and a dip-in thermocouple probe. Modeling of the evaporation cloud was done with the raytracing software OptiCAD, and comparisons between the computations and the temperature and flux measurements were performed, in order to accurately predict spatial lithium deposition rates in different locations of the LTX device.

  8. Transhorizon Radiowave Propagation due to Evaporation Dueting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 1. Transhorizon Radiowave Propagation due to Evaporation Ducting - The Effect of Tropospheric Weather Conditions on VHF and UHF Radio Paths Over the Sea. Salil David Gunashekar D R Siddle E M Warrington. General Article Volume 11 ...

  9. Evaporation Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per

    -scale ventilated room when the emission is fully or partly evaporation controlled. The objective of the present research work has been to investigate the change of emission rates from small-scale experiments to full-scale ventilated rooms and to investigate the influence of the local air velocity field near...

  10. Soil water evaporation and crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

  11. Evaporative Lithography in Open Microfluidic Channel Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Lone, Saifullah

    2017-02-24

    We demonstrate a direct capillary-driven method based on wetting and evaporation of various suspensions to fabricate regular two-dimensional wires in an open microfluidic channel through continuous deposition of micro- or nanoparticles under evaporative lithography, akin to the coffee-ring effect. The suspension is gently placed in a loading reservoir connected to the main open microchannel groove on a PDMS substrate. Hydrophilic conditions ensure rapid spreading of the suspension from the loading reservoir to fill the entire channel length. Evaporation during the spreading and after the channel is full increases the particle concentration toward the end of the channel. This evaporation-induced convective transport brings particles from the loading reservoir toward the channel end where this flow deposits a continuous multilayered particle structure. The particle deposition front propagates backward over the entire channel length. The final dry deposit of the particles is thereby much thicker than the initial volume fraction of the suspension. The deposition depth is characterized using a 3D imaging profiler, whereas the deposition topography is revealed using a scanning electron microscope. The patterning technology described here is robust and passive and hence operates without an external field. This work may well become a launching pad to construct low-cost and large-scale thin optoelectronic films with variable thicknesses and interspacing distances.

  12. Angular momentum gated neutron evaporation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, K.; Kundu, S.; Rana, T.K.; Bhattacharya, C.; Mukherjee, G.; Gohil, M.; Meena, J.K.; Pandey, R.; Pai, H.; Dey, A.; Biswas, M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pandit, D.; Pal, S.; Banerjee, S.R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bandhopadhyay, T.

    2010-01-01

    The inverse level density parameter k (k = A/a, where A is the mass number of the compound nucleus)is investigated as a function of angular momentum by measuring γ-ray fold gated neutron evaporation spectrum in 4 He + 115 In fusion reaction using 35 MeV 4 He ion beam from VECC K130 cyclotron

  13. Transhorizon Radiowave Propagation due to Evaporation Dueting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    waves to propagate beyond the horizon. Over the years, much research has been undertaken to explain the mecha- nism of radiowave propagation in evaporation ducts. Background Theory. The lowest part of the earth's atmosphere is called the tropo- sphere. Typically, the troposphere extends from the surface of the.

  14. Slow evaporation method and enhancement in photoluminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 31 May 2015; accepted 1 February 2016. Abstract. The series of Bi3+ co-doped YPO4 : Eu3+ nanophosphors were successfully synthesized by the slow evaporation method. Bi3+-doped and un-doped YPO4 : Eu3+ phosphors were characterized by using powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared ...

  15. BLEVE blast by expansion-controlled evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, A.C. van den; Voort, M.M. van der; Weerheijm, J.; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a new method to calculate the blast effects originating from an exploding vessel of liquefied gas. Adequate blast calculation requires full knowledge of the blast source characteristics, that is, the release and subsequent evaporation rate of the flashing liquid. Because the

  16. Experiments on Evaporative Emissions in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per

    In many new buildings the indoor air quality is affected by emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from building materials. The emission process may be controlled either by diffusion inside the material or evaporation from the surface but it always involves mass transfer across the boundary...

  17. Isotope Fractionation of Water During Evaporation Without Condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappa, Christopher D.; Drisdell, Walter S.; Smith, Jared D.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2005-01-01

    The microscopic events engendering liquid water evaporation have received much attention over the last century, but remain incompletely understood. We present measurements of isotope fractionation occurring during free molecular evaporation from liquid microjets and show that the isotope ratios of evaporating molecules exhibit dramatic differences from equilibrium vapor values, strong variations with the solution deuterium mole fraction, and a clear temperature dependence. These results indicate the existence of an energetic barrier to evaporation and that the evaporation coefficient of water is less than unity. These new insights into water evaporation promise to advance our understanding of the processes that control the formation and lifetime of clouds in the atmosphere.

  18. High temperature evaporation of titanium, zirconium and hafnium carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.I.; Rempel', A.A.

    1991-01-01

    Evaporation of cubic nonstoichiometric carbides of titanium, zirconium and hafnium in a comparatively low-temperature interval (1800-2700) with detailed crystallochemical sample certification is studied. Titanium carbide is characterized by the maximum evaporation rate: at T>2300 K it loses 3% of sample mass during an hour and at T>2400 K titanium carbide evaporation becomes extremely rapid. Zirconium and hafnium carbide evaporation rates are several times lower than titanium carbide evaporation rates at similar temperatures. Partial pressures of metals and carbon over the carbides studied are calculated on the base of evaporation rates

  19. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of evaporation products

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2017-01-18

    Advances in space-based observations have provided the capacity to develop regional- to global-scale estimates of evaporation, offering insights into this key component of the hydrological cycle. However, the evaluation of large-scale evaporation retrievals is not a straightforward task. While a number of studies have intercompared a range of these evaporation products by examining the variance amongst them, or by comparison of pixel-scale retrievals against ground-based observations, there is a need to explore more appropriate techniques to comprehensively evaluate remote-sensing-based estimates. One possible approach is to establish the level of product agreement between related hydrological components: for instance, how well do evaporation patterns and response match with precipitation or water storage changes? To assess the suitability of this "consistency"-based approach for evaluating evaporation products, we focused our investigation on four globally distributed basins in arid and semi-arid environments, comprising the Colorado River basin, Niger River basin, Aral Sea basin, and Lake Eyre basin. In an effort to assess retrieval quality, three satellite-based global evaporation products based on different methodologies and input data, including CSIRO-PML, the MODIS Global Evapotranspiration product (MOD16), and Global Land Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM), were evaluated against rainfall data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) along with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) water storage anomalies. To ensure a fair comparison, we evaluated consistency using a degree correlation approach after transforming both evaporation and precipitation data into spherical harmonics. Overall we found no persistent hydrological consistency in these dryland environments. Indeed, the degree correlation showed oscillating values between periods of low and high water storage changes, with a phase difference of about 2–3 months

  20. Evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Katsuhiro; Hiramatsu, Muneyuki; Hino, Tomonori; Otake, Takuma; Okamoto, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hiroki; Honma, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Norimichi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the molar mass of gasoline. • We proposed an evaporation model assuming a 2-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE. • We predicted the change in the vapor pressure of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation. • The vapor pressures were measured and compared as a means of verifying the model. • We presented the method for predicting flash points of the ETBE-blended gasoline. - Abstract: To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, production of gasoline blended with ethyl tert-buthyl ether (ETBE) is increasing annually. The flash point of ETBE is higher than that of gasoline, and blending ETBE into gasoline will change the flash point and the vapor pressure. Therefore, it is expected that the fire hazard caused by ETBE-blended gasoline would differ from that caused by normal gasoline. The aim of this study was to acquire the knowledge required for estimating the fire hazard of ETBE-blended gasoline. Supposing that ETBE-blended gasoline was a two-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE, we developed a prediction model that describes the vapor pressure and flash point of ETBE-blended gasoline in an arbitrary ETBE blending ratio. We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the relation between molar mass of gasoline and mass loss fraction. We measured the changes in the vapor pressure and flash point of gasoline by blending ETBE and evaporation, and compared the predicted values with the measured values in order to verify the prediction model. The calculated values of vapor pressures and flash points corresponded well to the measured values. Thus, we confirmed that the change in the evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation could be predicted by the proposed model. Furthermore, the vapor pressure constants of ETBE-blended gasoline were obtained by the model, and then the distillation curves were

  1. Adiabatic burst evaporation from bicontinuous nanoporous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichilmann, Sachar; Rücker, Kerstin; Haase, Markus; Enke, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Evaporation of volatile liquids from nanoporous media with bicontinuous morphology and pore diameters of a few 10 nm is an ubiquitous process. For example, such drying processes occur during syntheses of nanoporous materials by sol–gel chemistry or by spinodal decomposition in the presence of solvents as well as during solution impregnation of nanoporous hosts with functional guests. It is commonly assumed that drying is endothermic and driven by non-equilibrium partial pressures of the evaporating species in the gas phase. We show that nearly half of the liquid evaporates in an adiabatic mode involving burst-like liquid-to-gas conversions. During single adiabatic burst evaporation events liquid volumes of up to 107 μm3 are converted to gas. The adiabatic liquid-to-gas conversions occur if air invasion fronts get unstable because of the built-up of high capillary pressures. Adiabatic evaporation bursts propagate avalanche-like through the nanopore systems until the air invasion fronts have reached new stable configurations. Adiabatic cavitation bursts thus compete with Haines jumps involving air invasion front relaxation by local liquid flow without enhanced mass transport out of the nanoporous medium and prevail if the mean pore diameter is in the range of a few 10 nm. The results reported here may help optimize membrane preparation via solvent-based approaches, solution-loading of nanopore systems with guest materials as well as routine use of nanoporous membranes with bicontinuous morphology and may contribute to better understanding of adsorption/desorption processes in nanoporous media. PMID:25926406

  2. Evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Katsuhiro, E-mail: okamoto@nrips.go.jp [National Research Institute of Police Science, 6-3-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0882 (Japan); Hiramatsu, Muneyuki [Yamanashi Prefectural Police H.Q., 312-4 Kubonakajima, Isawa-cho, Usui, Yamanashi 406-0036 (Japan); Hino, Tomonori; Otake, Takuma [Metropolitan Police Department, 2-1-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8929 (Japan); Okamoto, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hiroki; Honma, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Norimichi [National Research Institute of Police Science, 6-3-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0882 (Japan)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the molar mass of gasoline. • We proposed an evaporation model assuming a 2-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE. • We predicted the change in the vapor pressure of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation. • The vapor pressures were measured and compared as a means of verifying the model. • We presented the method for predicting flash points of the ETBE-blended gasoline. - Abstract: To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, production of gasoline blended with ethyl tert-buthyl ether (ETBE) is increasing annually. The flash point of ETBE is higher than that of gasoline, and blending ETBE into gasoline will change the flash point and the vapor pressure. Therefore, it is expected that the fire hazard caused by ETBE-blended gasoline would differ from that caused by normal gasoline. The aim of this study was to acquire the knowledge required for estimating the fire hazard of ETBE-blended gasoline. Supposing that ETBE-blended gasoline was a two-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE, we developed a prediction model that describes the vapor pressure and flash point of ETBE-blended gasoline in an arbitrary ETBE blending ratio. We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the relation between molar mass of gasoline and mass loss fraction. We measured the changes in the vapor pressure and flash point of gasoline by blending ETBE and evaporation, and compared the predicted values with the measured values in order to verify the prediction model. The calculated values of vapor pressures and flash points corresponded well to the measured values. Thus, we confirmed that the change in the evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation could be predicted by the proposed model. Furthermore, the vapor pressure constants of ETBE-blended gasoline were obtained by the model, and then the distillation curves were

  3. Low consumption air conditioning. Desiccation and evaporation; Climatisation basse consommation. Dessication et evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This technical note recalls the principle of air treatment by desiccation and evaporative cooling and gives some cost and performance indications about this technique. An example of realization is presented. (J.S.)

  4. THE USE OF POROUS CERAMICS FOR EVAPORATIVE AND EVAPORATIVE – VAPOR –COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheban D.N.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural evaporative cooling is one of technical solutions of problem of energy efficiency in air conditioning systems. The use of evaporative cooling in the first combined cooling stage allows reducing the load on the condenser of the cooling machine due to reducing of the condensing temperature. This combination allows the use of this type of system in any climatic conditions, including regions with small water resources. Multi-porous ceramic structure is used in evaporative air coolers and water coolers in this case. The objective of this paper is to show advantages of the using of porous ceramic as a working attachment, and to show advantages of the proposed scheme of compression-evaporation systems in comparison with standard vapor compression systems. Experimental research proved the fact, that in the film mode cooling efficiency of air flow is between EA=0,6÷0,7 and is slightly dependent of water flow. For countries with hot and dry climate where reserves of water are limited, it is recommended to use cyclical regime with EA≈0,65 value, or to use channel regime with a value of EA≈0,55. This leads to considerable energy savings. It has been determined, that combined air conditioning system is completely closed on the consumption of water at the parameters of the outside air equal to tA =32ºC and XA>13g/kg (in system with direct evaporative cooling machine, and tA=32ºC and XA>12g/kg (in system with indirect evaporative cooling machine. With these parameters, the cost of water in evaporative cooling stage can be fully compensated by condensate from the evaporator chiller.

  5. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment

  6. Evaluation of waste temperatures in AWF tanks for bypass mode operation of the 702-AZ ventilation system (Project W-030)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, K.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the results of thermal hydraulic analysis performed to provide data in support of Project W-030 to startup new 702-AZ Primary Ventilation System. During the startup of W-030 system, the ventilation system will be operating in bypass mode. In bypass made of operation, the system is capable of supplying 1000 cfm total flow for all four AWF doubleshell tanks. The design of the W-030 system is based on the assumption that both the recirculation loop of the primary ventilation system and the secondary ventilation which provides cooling would be operating. However, during the startup neither the recirculation system nor the secondary ventilation system will be operating. A minimum flow of 100 cfm is required to prevent any flammable gas associated risk. The remaining 600 cfm flow can be divided among the four tanks as necessary to keep the peak sludge temperatures below the operating temperature limit. For the purpose of determining the minimum flow required for cooling each tank, the thermal hydraulic analysis is performed to predict the peak sludge temperatures in AY/AZ tanks under different ventilation flows. The heat load for AZ farm tanks is taken from characterization reports and for the AY farm tanks, the heat load was estimated by thermal analysis using the measured waste temperatures and the waste liquid evaporation rates. The tank 241-AZ-101 and the tank 241-AZ-102 have heat loads of 241,600 and 199,500 Btu/hr respectively. The tank 241-AY-101 and tank 241-AY-102 have heat loads of 41,000 and 33,000 Btu/hr respectively. Using the ambient meteorological conditions of temperature and relative humidity for the air and tank, some soil surface and the sludge levels reported in recent documents, the peak sludge and supernatant temperatures were predicted for various primary ventilation flows ranging from 100 to 400 cfm for AZ tanks and 100 and 150 cfm for AY tanks. The results of these thermal hydraulic analyses are presented. Based on the

  7. Reactor tank UT acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    The SRS reactor tanks are constructed of type 304 stainless steel, with 0.5 inch thick walls. An ultrasonic (UT) in-service inspection program has been developed for examination of these tanks, in accordance with the ISI Plan for the Savannah River Production Reactors Process Water System (DPSTM-88-100-1). Prior to initiation of these inspections, criteria for the disposition of any indications that might be found are required. A working group has been formed to review available information on the SRS reactor tanks and develop acceptance criteria. This working group includes nationally recognized experts in the nuclear industry. The working group has met three times and produced three documents describing the proposed acceptance criteria, the technical basis for the criteria and a proposed initial sampling plan. This report transmits these three documents, which were prepared in accordance with the technical task plan and quality assurance plan for this task, task 88-001-A- 1. In addition, this report summarizes the acceptance criteria and proposed sampling plan, and provides further interpretation of the intent of these three documents where necessary

  8. CRITICAL ASSUMPTIONS IN THE F-TANK FARM CLOSURE OPERATIONAL DOCUMENTATION REGARDING WASTE TANK INTERNAL CONFIGURATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hommel, S.; Fountain, D.

    2012-03-28

    The intent of this document is to provide clarification of critical assumptions regarding the internal configurations of liquid waste tanks at operational closure, with respect to F-Tank Farm (FTF) closure documentation. For the purposes of this document, FTF closure documentation includes: (1) Performance Assessment for the F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (hereafter referred to as the FTF PA) (SRS-REG-2007-00002), (2) Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Closure of F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (DOE/SRS-WD-2012-001), (3) Tier 1 Closure Plan for the F-Area Waste Tank Systems at the Savannah River Site (SRR-CWDA-2010-00147), (4) F-Tank Farm Tanks 18 and 19 DOE Manual 435.1-1 Tier 2 Closure Plan Savannah River Site (SRR-CWDA-2011-00015), (5) Industrial Wastewater Closure Module for the Liquid Waste Tanks 18 and 19 (SRRCWDA-2010-00003), and (6) Tank 18/Tank 19 Special Analysis for the Performance Assessment for the F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (hereafter referred to as the Tank 18/Tank 19 Special Analysis) (SRR-CWDA-2010-00124). Note that the first three FTF closure documents listed apply to the entire FTF, whereas the last three FTF closure documents listed are specific to Tanks 18 and 19. These two waste tanks are expected to be the first two tanks to be grouted and operationally closed under the current suite of FTF closure documents and many of the assumptions and approaches that apply to these two tanks are also applicable to the other FTF waste tanks and operational closure processes.

  9. Evaporation over the Arabian Sea during two contrasting monsoons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Sadhuram, Y.

    Monthly mean surface fields of different meteorological parameters and evaporation are studied for the 1979 (poor monsoon) and 1983 (good monsoon) monsoon seasons over the Arabian Sea, in order to understand the role of evaporation on the Indian...

  10. Clustered field evaporation of metallic glasses in atom probe tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemp, J.; Gerstl, S.S.A.; Löffler, J.F.; Schönfeld, B.

    2016-01-01

    Field evaporation of metallic glasses is a stochastic process combined with spatially and temporally correlated events, which are referred to as clustered evaporation (CE). This phenomenon is investigated by studying the distance between consecutive detector hits. CE is found to be a strongly localized phenomenon (up to 3 nm in range) which also depends on the type of evaporating ions. While a similar effect in crystals is attributed to the evaporation of crystalline layers, CE of metallic glasses presumably has a different – as yet unknown – physical origin. The present work provides new perspectives on quantification methods for atom probe tomography of metallic glasses. - Highlights: • Field evaporation of metallic glasses is heterogeneous on a scale of up to 3 nm. • Amount of clustered evaporation depends on ion species and temperature. • Length scales of clustered evaporation and correlative evaporation are similar.

  11. Life Extension of Aging High Level Waste (HLW) Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Double Shell Tanks (DSTs) play a critical role in the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex, and therefore activities are underway to protect and better understand these tanks. The DST Life Extension Program is focused on both tank life extension and on evaluation of tank integrity. Tank life extension activities focus on understanding tank failure modes and have produced key chemistry and operations controls to minimize tank corrosion and extend useful tank life. Tank integrity program activities have developed and applied key technologies to evaluate the condition of the tank structure and predict useful tank life. Program results to date indicate that DST useful life can be extended well beyond the original design life and allow the existing tanks to fill a critical function within the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex. In addition the tank life may now be more reliably predicted, facilitating improved planning for the use and possible future replacement of these tanks

  12. Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, description of operations for 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-02-25

    The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTS) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operations (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for tanks 241-AP-102 (AP-102) and 241-AP-104 (AP-104). This DOO will provide a basis for the detailed design of the Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AP-102 and AP-104 and establishes test criteria for the RCS. The test criteria will be used during qualification testing and acceptance testing to verify operability.

  13. Hydrothermal waves in evaporating sessile drops (APS 2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Brutin, D.; Rigollet, F.; LeNiliot, C.

    2009-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video was submitted to the Gallery of Fluid Motion for the 2009 APS Division of Fluid Dynamics Meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Drop evaporation is a simple phenomena but still unclear concerning the mechanisms of evaporation. A common agreement of the scientific community based on experimental and numerical work evidences that most of the evaporation occurs at the triple line. However, the rate of evaporation is still empirically predicted due to the lack of knowledge o...

  14. 241-AZ Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Gunter, Jason R.; Venetz, Theodore J.

    2013-07-30

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102. The construction history of the 241-AZ tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AZ tank farm, the second DST farm constructed, both refractory quality and tank and liner fabrication were improved.

  15. 241-SY Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Gunter, Jason R.; Venetz, Theodore J.

    2013-07-25

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tanks 241-SY-101, 241-SY-102, and 241-SY-103. The construction history of the 241-SY tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank 241-AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank 241-AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-SY tank farm, the third DST farm constructed, refractory quality and stress relief were improved, while similar tank and liner fabrication issues remained.

  16. Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State has the most diverse and largest amount of highly radioactive waste of any site in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored in large underground tanks since 1944. A Tank Waste Remediation System Program has been established within the DOE to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Waste Management 1993 Symposium Papers and Viewgraphs covered the following topics: Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Overview; Tank Waste Retrieval Issues and Options for their Resolution; Tank Waste Pretreatment - Issues, Alternatives and Strategies for Resolution; Low-Level Waste Disposal - Grout Issue and Alternative Waste Form Technology; A Strategy for Resolving High-Priority Hanford Site Radioactive Waste Storage Tank Safety Issues; Tank Waste Chemistry - A New Understanding of Waste Aging; Recent Results from Characterization of Ferrocyanide Wastes at the Hanford Site; Resolving the Safety Issue for Radioactive Waste Tanks with High Organic Content; Technology to Support Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Objectives

  17. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2012-06-21

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2011 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2011 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per SRR-LWE-2011-00026, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2011, were completed. Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2011 met the requirements of C-ESR-G-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 3, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.6. UT inspections were performed on Tanks 25, 26 and 34 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2011-00495, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2011, Waste Tanks 25, 26, 34 and 41. A total of 5813 photographs were made and 835 visual and video inspections were performed during 2011. A potential leaksite was discovered at Tank 4 during routine annual inspections performed in 2011. The new crack, which is above the allowable fill level, resulted in no release to the environment or tank annulus. The location of the crack is documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.6.

  18. Receipt and processing of RBOF/RRF liquid waste in H-Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Receiving Basin for Off-Site Fuels/Resin Regeneration Facility (RBOF/RRF) currently generates approximately 50,000 gallons of wastewater per month. This waste is sent to the 211-H General Purpose (GP) evaporator and/or the 241-H Tank Farm (HTF). The primary criteria for selecting the destination of the waste are solids content and radioactively.The waste is typically sent to the GP evaporator if it has low solids content and low activity. Currently, approximately 70% of the waste water produced at RBOF/RRF meets the criteria for acceptance by the GP evaporator. In June 1993, High Level Waste Engineering opened a Technical Issue (TI) related to processing of RBOF/RRF directly through the 1H Cesium Removal Column (CRC) to the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). In March 1994, additional emphasis was placed on this effort after it was determined that the 1H evaporator had a failed tube bundle. As a result, The TI was expanded to include evaluations of methods to increase the acceptance rate of wastewater at the GP (i.e., to ensure that the 70% of RBOF/RRF wastewater that currently meets the GP acceptance criteria is actually processed at the GP). Since March 1994, waste receipts from RBOF/RRF have averaged less than the 30,000 gallons/month allotted in the HLW System Plan. In addition, the RBOF/RRF waste sent to HTF has successfully been processed through the 2H evaporator. Based on this progress, no additional effort should be expended to reduce the amount of RBOF/RRF sent to HTF, either by increasing the criteria for acceptance of RBOF/RRF waste at the GP evaporator or by evaluating alternate treatment options (such as processing through the 1H CRC or installing treatment equipment in the RBOF/RRF)

  19. Comparison of diurnal dynamics in evaporation rate between bare ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This ensures the two soil columns attaining the similar initial conditions for subse- quent evaporation measurements. 2.3 Soil evaporation measurements and calculation. Soil evaporation measurements were carried out between September 2 and 7, 2014 (hereafter Day 1 to 6) at SDRES. The sand soil microlysimeter and.

  20. Model for predicting the quantity of water evaporated during oven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Model for calculating the quantity of water that evaporated during oven drying of Otamiri clay has been derived. The model; j = exp ((In1/2.9206)18) showed that the quantity of water that evaporated during the drying process was dependent on the drying time, the evaporation surface being constant. It was found that the ...