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Sample records for nw spain seawater

  1. 3-Way pattern-recognition of PAHs from Galicia (NW Spain) seawater samples after the Prestige's wreck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grueiro-Noche, G. [Dept. Analytical Chemistry, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Andrade, J.M., E-mail: andrade@udc.e [Dept. Analytical Chemistry, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Muniategui-Lorenzo, S. [Dept. Analytical Chemistry, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Lopez-Mahia, P.; Prada-Rodriguez, D. [Dept. Analytical Chemistry, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); University Institute of Environment, University of A Coruna, Lians, Oleiros 15179 (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    In November 2002 the oil tanker 'Prestige' released 65 000 tons of a heavy fuel oil throughout the Galician coastline (NW Spain), causing extensive damage to marine life, natural resources and economic activities at Northern Portugal, Spain and SW France. To evaluate the impact of the oil spill on the aquatic system, 30 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including alkylated derivatives, were analyzed in seawater on five different sampling campaigns from 2002 to 2004. Sampling was made along the Galician continental shelf. In each station three samples were collected at three different depths (surface, mid-depth and bottom). Four different approaches for 3-way analyses (Catenated-PCA, Matrix-Augmented Principal Components Analysis, Parallel Factor Analysis and Procrustes rotation) have been used to asses the major sources of PAHs into the seawater. They revealed two main pollution patterns: one related to oil spillages and discharge of petroleum products, and another more associated with a diffuse anthropogenic origin. - Oil- and anthropogenic-related sources of PAHs were found in a survey program in Galicia after the Prestige wreck, the latter being more relevant as time went by.

  2. Epidemiology of neosporosis in dairy cattle in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Warleta, Marta; Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; Carro-Corral, Carmen; Cortizo-Mella, Javier; Mezo, Mercedes

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive study of neosporosis in dairy cattle in Galicia (NW Spain) included: (1) a comparative study of three serological techniques for detection of Neospora caninum antibodies (direct agglutination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence); (2) a cross-sectional serological survey in which 276 herds and 5,196 animals were tested; (3) a study of N. caninum antibody dynamics; (4) the isolation of viable tachyzoites of N. caninum. Data were analysed to determine the risk factors associated with the infection. A total of 219 herds (79.3%) and 816 heads of cattle (15.7%) were found to be seropositive. Seropositivity was higher on farms with dogs than on farms without dogs, and there was a negative correlation between the size of the herds and seroprevalence. Co-infection with Toxoplasma gondii increased the risk of seropositivity. Cows infected with N. caninum were 5.3 times more likely to abort than non-infected cows. The dynamics study showed an increase in anti-N. caninum antibody titres during the third trimester of pregnancy. Viable tachyzoites were isolated from brain samples. These results indicate that the economic impact of N. caninum is high in Galicia, and therefore, the inclusion of control measures for neosporosis in the official control health programmes is strongly recommended.

  3. Micromorphology of a weathered granite near the Ría de Arosa (NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisdom, E.B.A.

    1966-01-01

    A detailed study has been made of several weathering profiles on the late-Hercynian Caldas de Reyes granite, NW-Spain. The field examination has been complemented by laboratory studies of large thin sections of hardened weathered material in conjunction with X-ray diffraction analyses. Three groups

  4. GC determination of fatty acids in green beans grown in Galicia (N.W. Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    López Hernández, J.; González-Castro, M. J.; Simal-Lozano, J.; Vázquez-Blanco, M. E.; Vázquez-Orderiz, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    The concentrations of lauric, myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidic acids in green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in Galicia (N.W. Spain) were determinated by capillary gas chromatography (GC). Palmitic acid was the most abundant fatty acid component (113 mg/100 g. of lyophilizate; 35.2% of total fatty acid content), followed by linolenic acid (23.1%) and linoleic acid (21.6%).

    Se determinaron, mediante croma...

  5. Analysis of the slaughterhouses in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugallo, Pastora M Bello; Andrade, Laura Cristóbal; de la Torre, María Agrelo; López, Rosa Torres

    2014-05-15

    In the last five years, slaughterhouses in Galicia have been producing more than 350,000 tonnes of carcass per year (Ministry of Environmental and Marine and Rural Media (MARM), 2013). The main environmental problems derived from this economic activity are the high consumption of water, the generation of waste water with a high organic load and the intensive use of energy (electricity and fuel) (European Commission, 2005). In this region of Spain, there are seventy-one slaughterhouses but only 10 to 15% of them have a carcass production capacity exceeding 50 tonnes per day (Casares et al., 2006), consequently needing an environmental permit according to the requirements set by the IPPC (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control) Directive (European Commission, 2008). The slaughterhouses can be specialized in one livestock type, such as pigs, cattle, sheep, goats or rabbits, or they can be polyvalent. In 2009, the most important meat productions were from porcine, poultry and bovine, as they represented 96% of total production in Spain (AICE, 2011). This paper presents a general view of this important sub-sector (according to the Spanish CNAE, National Classification of Economical Activities) of the food and drinking industry in Galicia. The work considers general information about the activity, an exhaustive description of the industrial process (including preliminary operations, processing, final and auxiliary operations), environmental aspects about consumption and emission levels, and finally a proposal of technique candidates to be BAT (best available techniques) for each process stage. This structure has permitted to obtain an inventory of pollution prevention and control techniques, as well as qualitative data of incomes and outcomes of consumptions and emissions respectively. The methodology, which has already been used in previous works (Barros et al., 2008), has been proved to be appropriate to optimize the process considering environmental factors as

  6. An Operational Coastal Forecasting System in Galicia (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balseiro, C. F.; Carracedo, P.; Pérez, E.; Pérez, V.; Taboada, J.; Venacio, A.; Vilasa, L.

    2009-09-01

    The Galician coast (NW Iberian Peninsula coast) and mainly the Rias Baixas (southern Galician rias) are one of the most productive ecosystems in the world, supporting a very active fishing and aquiculture industry. This high productivity lives together with a high human pressure and an intense maritime traffic, which means an important environmental risk. Besides that, Harmful Algae Blooms (HAB) are common in this area, producing important economical losses in aquiculture. In this context, the development of an Operational Hydrodynamic Ocean Forecast System is the first step to the development of a more sophisticated Ocean Integrated Decision Support Tool. A regional oceanographic forecasting system in the Galician Coast has been developed by MeteoGalicia (the Galician regional meteorological agency) inside ESEOO project to provide forecasts on currents, sea level, water temperature and salinity. This system is based on hydrodynamic model MOHID, forced with the operational meteorological model WRF, supported daily at MeteoGalicia . Two grid meshes are running nested at different scales, one of ~2km at the shelf scale and the other one with a resolution of 500 m at the rias scale. ESEOAT (Puertos del Estado) model provide salinity and temperature fields which are relaxed at all depth along the open boundary of the regional model (~6km). Temperature and salinity initial fields are also obtained from this application. Freshwater input from main rivers are included as forcing in MOHID model. Monthly mean discharge data from gauge station have been provided by Aguas de Galicia. Nowadays a coupling between an hydrological model (SWAT) and the hydrodynamic one are in development with the aim to verify the impact of the rivers discharges. The system runs operationally daily, providing two days of forecast. First model verifications had been performed against Puertos del Estado buoys and Xunta de Galicia buoys network along the Galician coast. High resolution model results

  7. Pleistocene glacial evolution of Fuentes Carrionas (Cantabrian Range, NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellitero, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    Fuentes Carrionas is a massif situated at the N of Spain, between Castilla y Leon and Cantabria regions. It is the second highest mountain massif of the Cantabrian Range after Picos de Europa, with peaks over 2500 m.a.s.l. and valleys well over 1000 m.a.s.l. Fuentes Carrionas was glaciated during Quaternary, and even during the Holocene and as far as Little Ice Age the presence of glaciers, or at least permafrost is controversial. Results from glacial geomorphology analysis of Fuentes Carrionas Massif are presented. Based on the interpretation of glacial landforms, glacial evolution since the Last Glacial Maximum until Pleistocene deglaciation is described. Four different glacial equilibrium phases are identified, the last one divided into two pulsations. Deglaciation process took place between 36 ka BP and 11 ka BP. Local Last Glacial Maximum is dated back to 36-38 ka. BP, therefore earlier than LGM. Glaciers reached 15 km. long and occupied valleys down to 1250 m.a.s.l. during this phase. By European LGM (20-18 ka.BP) glaciers had substantially retreated to fronts about 1700 m.a.s.l. A final stage with two marked pulsations shows only small glaciers located at cirques above 2000 m.a.s.l. and, finally, only small cirque glaciers at North and Northeast orientation above 2200 m.a.s.l. Both these phases have been correlated to Oldest and Younger Dryas, although no dates have been done yet. A palaeoenvironmental reconstruction is proposed, based on ELA (Equilibrium Line Altitude) rise. ELA has been calculated with the AAR method and 0.67 ratio. This reconstruction shows that temperatures ranged between 9°C and 10°C lower than present ones at the end of Pleistocene, depending on a precipitations variation between 30% higher and 20% lower than current ones. Further research will focus on these retreat phases, especially on Younger Dryas identification and reconstruction for this site and the rest of Cantabrian Range.

  8. Pollen loads of eucalypt and other pollen types in birds in NW Spain

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    María Calviño-Cancela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the amount of pollen of eucalypt and pollen of other types for birds captured in two bird ringing stations for 14 months (March 2014 to April 2015 in NW Spain. Common and latin names of all birds species captured, together with the number of captured individuals (N, prevalence of eucalypt pollen (percentage of individuals with eucalypt pollen and of pollen of other types and average pollen loads per individual for eucalypt and other pollen types is presented. See [1] for further information and discussion.

  9. Soil erosion influenced by wildfire and pre-fire plantation method in NW Spain

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    Fernández Filgueira, Cristina; Vega Hidalgo, José Antonio; Fonturbel Lliteras, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    Erosion is a major concern in areas affected by high-severity wildfires. Soil characteristics associated with past forestry management can play a significant role in post-wildfire soil loss through increments in soil erodibility or as a result of sediment exhaustion. In areas such as NW Spain where there is a long history of intensive land use, this factor may be critical for explaining soil loss after wildfire. The objective of this study was to determine whether plantation method can significantly influence soil loss in the first year after wildfire in a P. sylvestris plantation affected wildfire in NW Spain. For these purpose, we measured hillslope-scale sediment production rates and site characteristics during the first year after wildfire in 30 plots. Treatments consisted in pre-fire ploughing+ wildfire, plantation holes+ wildfire and no preparation method+wildfire. Soil burn severity was high as average. During the first year following fire, soil losses varied from 0.9 t/ha in the ploughed areas to 4.6 t/ha in the plantation wholes. The treatment with no terrain preparation yielded 3.0 t/ha during the same period of time. These results suggest that pre-fire ploughed areas are not a priority for soil erosion risk mitigation after wildfire. The study was funded by the National Institute of Agricultural Research of Spain (INIA) through project RTA2014-00011-C06-02, cofunded by FEDER and the Plan de Mejora e Innovación Forestal de Galicia (2010-2020) and INDITEX.

  10. The macroinfauna of the Galician sandy beaches (NW Spain) affected by the Prestige oil-spill.

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    Junoy, J; Castellanos, C; Viéitez, J M; de la Huz, M R; Lastra, M

    2005-05-01

    Eighteen sandy beaches were sampled along the 1659 km of the Galician coast (NW Spain) six months after the Prestige oil-spill to study the impact of the fuel and the clean-up activities on the macroinfauna community. A transect was extended at each beach, from above the drift line to below the swash line at five sampled levels; at each level six 0.05 m2 replicates were taken to a depth of 30 cm and sieved through a 1mm mesh, and the organisms collected and preserved. Results were compared with previous data obtained using the same procedures. The macroinfauna was numerically dominated by the amphipod Pontocrates arenarius, the isopod genus Eurydice, the polychaete Scolelepis squamata, and the amphipod Talitrus saltator. As a result of the Prestige oil-spill and the clean-up activities, beach populations were reduced, with Eurydice and S. squamata as the most affected taxa.

  11. A spatio-temporal landslide inventory for the NW of Spain: BAPA database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Pablo; Domínguez-Cuesta, María José; Mora García, Manuel Antonio; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat

    2017-09-01

    A landslide database has been created for the Principality of Asturias, NW Spain: the BAPA (Base de datos de Argayos del Principado de Asturias - Principality of Asturias Landslide Database). Data collection is mainly performed through searching local newspaper archives. Moreover, a BAPA App and a BAPA website (http://geol.uniovi.es/BAPA) have been developed to obtain additional information from citizens and institutions. Presently, the dataset covers the period 1980-2015, recording 2063 individual landslides. The use of free cartographic servers, such as Google Maps, Google Street View and Iberpix (Government of Spain), combined with the spatial descriptions and pictures contained in the press news, makes it possible to assess different levels of spatial accuracy. In the database, 59% of the records show an exact spatial location, and 51% of the records provided accurate dates, showing the usefulness of press archives as temporal records. Thus, 32% of the landslides show the highest spatial and temporal accuracy levels. The database also gathers information about the type and characteristics of the landslides, the triggering factors and the damage and costs caused. Field work was conducted to validate the methodology used in assessing the spatial location, temporal occurrence and characteristics of the landslides.

  12. Radiocaesium activity concentrations in macrofungi from Galicia (NW Spain): Influence of environmental and genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M A; Alonso, J; Melgar, M J

    2015-05-01

    Radiocaesium ((137)Cs) is an artificial radionuclide that can be captured from the soil through the mycelium of fungi. However, in Spain there are few data on its presence in edible mushrooms. (137)Cs activity concentrations were determined using 54 samples of wild and cultivated mushrooms and 18 samples of soil, all of them collected in Galicia (NW Spain) during 2010. Samples were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy with a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The average activity concentration of (137)Cs in wild mushrooms was 249.2Bqkg(-1) dry weight (dw) and about 24.9Bqkg(-1) fresh weight (fw). Genetic factors (species) influenced the uptake of (137)Cs, highlighting Hydnum repandum as the greatest accumulator of all wild species (1016.4Bqkg(-1) dw), while cultivated species showed much lower levels (1.6Bqkg(-1) fw). Accumulation was also favored by fungal mycorrhizal ecology, whose mycelium was distributed in contaminated soil horizons. The mean levels detected in soils were 14Bqkg(-1) fw. Although some species behaved as bioexclusors of radiocaesium, the transfer factors (TF) suggest that mushrooms preferentially bioaccumulate (137)Cs. No sample reached the limit of 600Bqkg(-1) fw (about 6000Bqkg(-1) dw) indicated in the European legislation. In conclusion, the consumption of mushrooms harvested from the investigated areas poses no toxicological risk to human health due to radiocaesium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Updating the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (NW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iribarren, Diego; Vazquez-Rowe, Ian; Hospido, Almudena; Moreira, Maria Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2011-01-01

    Recent life cycle assessment studies have revealed the relevance of cooling agent leakage when assessing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions generated by fishing vessel operations. The goal of this communication is to update the carbon footprinting of the Galician fishing activity (NW Spain) by including the GHG emissions from cooling agent leakage. Results proved the relevant role played by refrigerants regarding their contribution to the carbon footprint of fishing activities. Thus, an overall increase of 13% was found when comparing the final global carbon footprint for the Galician fishing activity with previous calculations that did not include these emissions. Nevertheless, further efforts should be made in order to provide robust data in this respect. - Research Highlights: → Updated calculation of GHG emissions relating to the Galician fishing activity. → Lump sum of the carbon footprints for Galician fishing activities: 888,620 t CO 2 e/y. → Offshore fishing was the main contributor, ahead of deep-sea and coastal fishing. → Cooling agent leakage generated an overall increase of 13% in GHG emissions.

  14. Short- versus long-term radon detectors: a comparative study in Galicia, NW Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruano-Ravina, A. [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, C/San Francisco s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Galician Agency for Health Technology Assessment, Galician Health Service, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica, CIBERESP (Spain)], E-mail: mralbert@usc.es; Castro-Bernardez, M. [Epidemiology Department, Directorate-General for Public Health, Galician Regional Authority (Spain); Sande-Meijide, M. [Preventive Medicine Unit, Ourense Hospital Complex, Galician Health Service (Spain); Vargas, A. [Energy Techniques Institute, Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain); Barros-Dios, J.M. [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, C/San Francisco s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica, CIBERESP (Spain); Preventive Medicine Unit, Santiago de Compostela University Hospital, Galician Health Service (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    As reported in previous studies, Galicia (NW Spain) is an area of high radon concentrations. This study was sought to analyze the correlation between short-term (activated carbon) and long-term (alpha particle track) detectors in this geographic area, and ascertain whether there were differences in their readings that might be influenced by other variables. A comparison study, as part of a case-control study was designed in which two detectors, one of each type, were placed in the selected homes. A total of 391 homes yielded readings with both detectors. The results indicated that there was a relatively good correlation between both types of monitors (correlation coefficient 0.608; p < 0.001). The highest correlations between both detectors were observed for unventilated homes, coastal sites, and the oldest buildings. Short-term and long-term detectors do not show a similar performance in all settings or situations. It is advisable to use long-term detectors whenever possible.

  15. Short- versus long-term radon detectors: a comparative study in Galicia, NW Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruano-Ravina, A.; Castro-Bernardez, M.; Sande-Meijide, M.; Vargas, A.; Barros-Dios, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    As reported in previous studies, Galicia (NW Spain) is an area of high radon concentrations. This study was sought to analyze the correlation between short-term (activated carbon) and long-term (alpha particle track) detectors in this geographic area, and ascertain whether there were differences in their readings that might be influenced by other variables. A comparison study, as part of a case-control study was designed in which two detectors, one of each type, were placed in the selected homes. A total of 391 homes yielded readings with both detectors. The results indicated that there was a relatively good correlation between both types of monitors (correlation coefficient 0.608; p < 0.001). The highest correlations between both detectors were observed for unventilated homes, coastal sites, and the oldest buildings. Short-term and long-term detectors do not show a similar performance in all settings or situations. It is advisable to use long-term detectors whenever possible

  16. Hydrochemical characterization of a mine water geothermal energy resource in NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo, C; Ordóñez, A; Garcia-Ordiales, E; Álvarez, R; Roqueñi, N; Cienfuegos, P; Peña, A; Burnside, N M

    2017-01-15

    Abandoned and flooded mine networks provide underground reservoirs of mine water that can be used as a renewable geothermal energy source. A complete hydrochemical characterization of mine water is required to optimally design the geothermal installation, understand the hydraulic behavior of the water in the reservoir and prevent undesired effects such as pipe clogging via mineral precipitation. Water pumped from the Barredo-Figaredo mining reservoir (Asturias, NW Spain), which is currently exploited for geothermal use, has been studied and compared to water from a separate, nearby mountain mine and a river that receives mine water discharge and partially infiltrates into the mine workings. Although the hydrochemistry was altered during the flooding process, the deep mine waters are currently near neutral, net alkaline, high metal waters of Na-HCO 3 type. Isotopic values suggest that mine waters are closely related to modern meteoric water, and likely correspond to rapid infiltration. Suspended and dissolved solids, and particularly iron content, of mine water results in some scaling and partial clogging of heat exchangers, but water temperature is stable (22°C) and increases with depth, so, considering the available flow (>100Ls -1 ), the Barredo-Figaredo mining reservoir represents a sustainable, long-term resource for geothermal use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk factors associated with honey bee colony loss in apiaries in Galicia, NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranzazu Meana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was carried out in Galicia, NW Spain, in order to estimate the magnitude of honey bee colony losses and to identify potential risk factors involved. A total of 99 samples from 99 apiaries were collected in spring using simple random sampling. According to international guidelines, the apiaries were classified as affected by colony loss or asymptomatic. Each sample consisted of worker bees, brood and comb-stored pollen. All worker bees and brood samples were analysed individually in order to detect the main honey bee pathogens. Moreover, the presence of residues of the most prevalent agrotoxic insecticides and acaricides was assessed in comb-stored pollen. The general characteristics of the apiaries and sanitary information regarding previous years was evaluated through questionnaires, while the vegetation surrounding the apiaries sampled was assessed by palynological analysis of comb-stored pollen. The colony loss prevalence was 53.5% (CI95%=43.2-63.9 and Nosema ceranae was found to be the only risk factor strongly associated with colony loss. The decision tree also pointed out the impact of the Varroa mite presence while variables such as apiary size, the incorrect application of Varroa mite treatments, and the presence of Acarapis woodi and Kashmir bee virus (KBV were identified as possible co-factors.

  18. Anticlockwise p-t path of granulites from the Monte Castelo gabbro (Ordenes Complex, NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abati, J.; Arenas, R.; Martínez Catalán, J. R.; Díaz García, F.

    2003-04-01

    The study of mafic and aluminous granulites from the Monte Castelo Gabbro (Órdenes Complex, NW Spain) reveals an anticlockwise P-T path that we interpret as related with the tectonothermal activity in a magmatic arc, probably an island arc. The P-T path obtained is based on the detailed study of the mineral assemblage succession and the textural relationships of the aluminous granulites, and its comparison with an appropriate petrogenetic grid, as well as on thermobarometric calculations performed from the chemical compositions of the minerals of the previous assemblages. The granulites are highly heterogeneous, with distinct compositional domains that may alternate even at thin section scale. Garnets are generally idiomorphic to subidiomorphic, and in certain domains of the aluminous granulites they show overgrowths forming xenomorphic coronas around a more or less idiomorphic core. Both types of garnets show an important Ca enrichment at crystal rims, which, together with the other mineralogical and textural characteristics, is compatible with a pressure increase with low T variation. P-T estimations indicate a peak of T > 800 C and P = 9.5 Kbar, attained after a significant increase in pressure that took place at high temperatures (in the sillimanite field). We suggest that this kind of trajectory, probably anticlockwise, is only compatible with a terrane heated by an intense magmatic activity after or during tectonic crustal thickening (magmatic injection at the base and/or into the crust), which is characteristic of magmatic arcs.

  19. GC determination of fatty acids in green beans grown in Galicia (N.W. Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Hernández, J.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of lauric, myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidic acids in green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. grown in Galicia (N.W. Spain were determinated by capillary gas chromatography (GC. Palmitic acid was the most abundant fatty acid component (113 mg/100 g. of lyophilizate; 35.2% of total fatty acid content, followed by linolenic acid (23.1% and linoleic acid (21.6%.

    Se determinaron, mediante cromatografía gaseosa, las concentraciones de ácidos láurico, mirístico, palmítico, palmitoleico, esteárico, oieico, linoleico, linolénico y araquídico en judías verdes producidas en Galicia (N.O. España. El ácido palmítico fue el más abundante (113 mg/100 g. de liofilizado; 35,2% del contenido total de ácidos grasos, seguido por los ácidos linolénico (23,1% y linoleico (21,6%.

  20. Mapping monthly rainfall data in Galicia (NW Spain using inverse distances and geostatistical methods

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    P. Sande-Fouz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, results from three different interpolation techniques based on Geostatistics (ordinary kriging, kriging with external drift and conditional simulation and one deterministic method (inverse distances for mapping total monthly rainfall are compared. The study data set comprised total monthly rainfall from 1998 till 2001 corresponding to a maximum of 121 meteorological stations irregularly distributed in the region of Galicia (NW Spain. Furthermore, a raster Geographic Information System (GIS was used for spatial interpolation with a 500×500 m grid digital elevation model. Inverse distance technique was appropriate for a rapid estimation of the rainfall at the studied scale. In order to apply geostatistical interpolation techniques, a spatial dependence analysis was performed; rainfall spatial dependence was observed in 33 out of 48 months analysed, the rest of the rainfall data sets presented a random behaviour. Different values of the semivariogram parameters caused the smoothing in the maps obtained by ordinary kriging. Kriging with external drift results were according to former studies which showed the influence of topography. Conditional simulation is considered to give more realistic results; however, this consideration must be confirmed with new data.

  1. A Minchinia mercenariae-like parasite infects cockles Cerastoderma edule in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramilo, A; Abollo, E; Villalba, A; Carballal, M J

    2018-01-01

    The cockle Cerastoderma edule fishery has traditionally been the most important shellfish species in terms of biomass in Galicia (NW Spain). In the course of a survey of the histopathological conditions affecting this species in the Ria of Arousa, a haplosporidan parasite that had not been observed in Galicia was detected in one of the most productive cockle beds of Galicia. Uni- and binucleate cells and multinucleate plasmodia were observed in the connective tissue mainly in the digestive area, gills and gonad. The parasite showed low prevalence, and it was not associated with abnormal cockle mortality. Molecular identification showed that this parasite was closely related to the haplosporidan Minchinia mercenariae that had been reported infecting hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria from the Atlantic coast of the United States. The molecular characterization of its SSU rDNA region allowed obtaining a fragment of 1,796 bp showing 98% homology with M. mercenariae parasite. Phylogenetic analysis supported this identification as this parasite was clustered in the same clade as M. mercenariae from the United States and other M. mercenariae-like sequences from the UK, with bootstrap value of 99%. The occurrence of M. mercenariae-like parasites infecting molluscs outside the United States is confirmed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Aetiology and epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis cases in Galicia (NW Spain), 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abal-Fabeiro, J L; Maside, X; Llovo, J; Bartolomé, C

    2015-10-01

    Cryptosporidium infects millions of people worldwide causing acute gastroenteritis, but despite its remarkable epidemiological and economic impact, information on the epidemiological trends of human cryptosporidiosis is still scarce in most countries. Here we investigate a panel of 486 cases collected in Galicia (NW Iberian Peninsula) between 2000 and 2008, which sheds new light on the epidemiology in this region of the South Atlantic European façade. Incidence rates in Galicia are one order of magnitude higher than those reported in other regions of Spain, suggesting that this parasite remains largely underdiagnosed in this country, and are also larger than those typical of other European countries with available data. Two species dominate our dataset, Cryptosporidium hominis (65%) and C. parvum (34%). The sex ratio of patients infected by either species was 0·5, but C. hominis was significantly more common in younger males. C. parvum infections were more acute and required more specialized medical attention, which suggests a differential adaptation of each species to human hosts. The parasites display strong seasonal and geographical variation. C. parvum incidence peaked during summer and was mainly detected in rural areas while C. hominis infections were more frequent in autumn and exhibited a more even geographical distribution. Such differences probably reflect their distinct sources of infection - C. parvum is mainly zoonotic and C. hominis anthroponotic - and the effects of climatic variables, like temperature and rainfall.

  3. Factors Controlling the Metal Levels in Headwater Stream Draining an Agroforestry Catchment (Galicia, NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palleiro, Laura; Rodríguez-Blanco, M. Luz; Mercedes Taboada-Castro, M.; Taboada-Castro, M. Teresa

    2016-10-01

    Concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn (dissolved and particulate), suspended sediment, dissolved organic carbon, and pH and discharge were determined during a 3-year period in a stream water of an agroforestry catchment in Galicia (NW Spain). The objective of this study is to investigate the role of these variables in the control of dissolved and particulate concentrations of each metal in the stream water. The soils in the catchment are developed on metamorphic schist. Stream water samples were collected at the catchment outlet every 15 days and more frequently with increased stream flows. Metal concentrations were measured by ICP- MS. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the possible associations between metals and the four variables under consideration. Stepwise multiple regressions were applied to determine which predictor variables have the strongest influences on controlling concentrations of each metal in the stream. The results showed that metal concentrations were relatively low (Fe > Al > Mn > Zn > Cu), but particulate metals were predominant over those dissolved. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the most important variable to explain dissolved concentrations for Al, Fe and Cu was the dissolved organic carbon, whereas the suspended sediment was for dissolved Zn and the discharge was for dissolved Mn. The suspended sediment was also a good predictor of particulate metal levels.

  4. Heavy metal sedimentary record in a Galician Ria (NW Spain): background values and recent contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobelo-García, Antonio; Prego, Ricardo

    2003-10-01

    Two long sediment cores were sampled at the Ferrol Ria (Galicia, NW Spain) and the heavy metal (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn) concentrations measured in order to (i) state accurate background values providing baseline relationships with respect to a reference element and (ii) to investigate the recent metal contamination trends. Background values were found to agree well with the world average values for granite/schists-genisses rocks. However, Cu, Co, Pb and Zn were found to be lower than those previously reported as background values for the Galician Rias. Results emphasize the importance of using baseline relationships with respect to a normalizing element in order to reduce the scattering of data and to allow an accurate statement of background values. The distribution of metals in the cores showed an evident enrichment in the surface layers belonging to the industrial era. Normalized enrichment factors (NEF) for copper and zinc are in the order of 3-5 (certain/severe contamination) in the surface sediments, decreasing with depth. Lead contamination has decreased in the recent years from NEF of 3-7 down to a NEF of 2 (i.e. moderate contamination), probably due to the introduction of unleaded gasolines. Chromium, cobalt and nickel NEFs were always in the <1-2 range indicating null/low contamination by these metals.

  5. Updating the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iribarren, Diego; Vazquez-Rowe, Ian, E-mail: ian.vazquez@rai.usc.es; Hospido, Almudena; Moreira, Maria Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2011-03-15

    Recent life cycle assessment studies have revealed the relevance of cooling agent leakage when assessing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions generated by fishing vessel operations. The goal of this communication is to update the carbon footprinting of the Galician fishing activity (NW Spain) by including the GHG emissions from cooling agent leakage. Results proved the relevant role played by refrigerants regarding their contribution to the carbon footprint of fishing activities. Thus, an overall increase of 13% was found when comparing the final global carbon footprint for the Galician fishing activity with previous calculations that did not include these emissions. Nevertheless, further efforts should be made in order to provide robust data in this respect. - Research Highlights: {yields} Updated calculation of GHG emissions relating to the Galician fishing activity. {yields} Lump sum of the carbon footprints for Galician fishing activities: 888,620 t CO{sub 2}e/y. {yields} Offshore fishing was the main contributor, ahead of deep-sea and coastal fishing. {yields} Cooling agent leakage generated an overall increase of 13% in GHG emissions.

  6. Characterization of abrasion surfaces in rock shore environments of NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feal-Pérez, Alejandra; Blanco-Chao, Ramón

    2013-04-01

    Despite the recent upsurge in rock coast research, many aspects of abrasion and their relationships to other processes remain poorly understood. In this paper, mechanisms subsumed under the general term abrasion were investigated at the beaches of Oia and Sartaña along the Galician coast of NW Spain, in particular at the micro- to meso-scale (mm-cm). Relationships between abrasion and mechanical rock strength served to explore feedbacks between weathering and abrasion on rock coasts, based on measurements of rock surface strength by means of the Equotip (Proceq) method, and stereomicroscope analyses of rock surfaces undergoing varying degrees of abrasion. The results suggest that (1) abrasion along near-vertical rock surfaces leads to a decrease in rock strength with elevation above the top of the basal sediment layer, (2) abrasion processes encompass two different modes, namely, the wave-induced sweeping and dragging of sand and gravel, and the projection of clasts against rock surfaces, each mode depending predominantly on the grain size of the abrasive agent, and (3) the two abrasion modes produce different rock surfaces whose roughness is strongly influenced by the properties of diverse minerals, in particular fracture and cleavage.

  7. Effects of climate variability on irrigation scheduling in white varieties of Vitis vinifera of NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Emma M.; Trigo-Córdoba, Emiliano; Bouzas-Cid, Yolanda; Fandiño, María; Rey, Benjamín J.; Mirás-Avalos, Jose M.; Cancela, Javier J.

    2014-05-01

    Inter-annual climate variability, in particular the temporal distribution of rainfall is regarded as a critical factor to obtain an optimal irrigation management on crops, being more marked their relevance in Atlantic climates. The presence of precision irrigation systems in Vitis vinifera (L.) has created the need to understand the physiological effects on plant, and vineyard soils, together with production and quality parameters, to achieve and adequate irrigation management. This trial was performed on two relevant white grapevine varieties from Galicia (NW-Spain), cv. `Albariño` (D.O. Rías Baixas and Ribeiro) and cv. `Godello` (D.O. Valdeorras and D.O. Monterrei) during the 2012 and 2013 seasons. Two treatments were established following a completely randomized block design with four replications (7 plants each). The treatments were rainfed (R) and surface drip irrigation (DI), these last one was not applied in DO Monterrei during 2012. Irrigation was initiated when an average value of 400 cumulative degree days was reached, ending 15 days before the harvest. Different bioclimatic indices were calculated to characterize each season and location: Cool night index (CI); Heliothermal index (HI), which corresponds to Huglin's heliothermal index; and Winkler index. To assess the water status of the vines leaf (Ψmid) and stem (Ψstem) water potentials were measured at noon. Finally, production and qualitative data were collected for each treatment. No differences between DOs were observed for 'Godello' cultivar in bioclimatic indices within the Geoviticulture MCC system (Tonietto and Carboneau, 2004), indicating temperate warm-temperate (HI) and very cool nights (CI). For the Winkler index, cv. Godello is within the region I, near the region II in the case of D.O. Valdeorras in both years. In the case of 'Albariño', warmer nights were observed in DO Rías Baixas compared with DO Ribeiro, whereas the opposite was found for the thermal index. Leaf water potential

  8. Irrigation effects on soil attributes and grapevine performance in a 'Godello' vineyard of NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño, María; Trigo-Córdoba, Emiliano; Martínez, Emma M.; Bouzas-Cid, Yolanda; Rey, Benjamín J.; Cancela, Javier J.; Mirás-Avalos, Jose M.

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation systems are increasingly being used in Galician vineyards. However, a lack of information about irrigation management can cause a bad use of these systems and, consequently, reductions in berry quality and loss of water resources. In this context, experiences with Galician cultivars may provide useful information. A field experiment was carried out over two seasons (2012-2013) on Vitis vinifera (L.) cv. 'Godello' in order to assess the effects of irrigation on soil attributes, grapevine performance and berry composition. The field site was a commercial vineyard located in A Rúa (Ourense-NW Spain). Rain-fed vines (R) were compared with two irrigation systems: surface drip irrigation (DI) and subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). Physical and chemical characteristics of soil were analyzed after installing irrigation systems at the beginning of each season, in order to assess the effects that irrigation might have on soil attributes. Soil water content, leaf and stem water potentials and stomatal conductance were periodically measured over the two seasons. Yield components including number of clusters, yield per plant and cluster average weight were taken. Soluble solids, pH, total acidity and amino acids contents were measured on the grapes at harvest. Pruning weight was also recorded. Soil attributes did not significantly vary due to the irrigation treatments. Stem water potentials were significantly lower for R plants on certain dates through the season, whereas stomatal conductance was similar for the three treatments in 2013, while in 2012 SDI plants showed greater stomatal conductance values. SDI plants yielded more than those R due to both a greater number of clusters per plant and to heavier clusters. Pruning weight was significantly higher in SI plants. Berry composition was similar for the three treatments except for the amino acids content, which was higher under SDI conditions. These results may be helpful for a sustainable management of irrigation

  9. Use of dogs as indicators of metal exposure in rural and urban habitats in NW Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Alonso, M. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Patoloxia Animal, Facultade de Veterinaria, 27002 Lugo (Spain)]. E-mail: mlalonso@usc.es; Miranda, M. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Ciencias Clinicas Veterinarias, Facultade de Veterinaria, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Garcia-Partida, P. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Patologia Animal II, Facultad de Veterinaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cantero, F. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Patoloxia Animal, Facultade de Veterinaria, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Hernandez, J. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Patoloxia Animal, Facultade de Veterinaria, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Benedito, J.L. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Patoloxia Animal, Facultade de Veterinaria, 27002 Lugo (Spain)

    2007-01-01

    Many different species have been used in environmental biomonitoring studies in diverse habitats including forest, farmland, and urban and sub-urban areas. However, there is little information on domestic animals living in rural or urban habitats and exposed to the same pollutants as the human population. In this connection, pets could prove to be good indicators of human metal exposure since they closely share the same environment as their owners, and are therefore exposed, at least in part, to the same pollutants. The present study investigated toxic metal exposure in dogs in NW Spain and compared metal exposures between dogs from rural and urban habitats, considering the influence of diet, sex and age. Samples of liver and kidney from 57 male and female dogs, aged between 6 months and 18 years, were collected after euthanasia at veterinary clinics. Samples were acid-digested and metal concentrations determined by ICP-MS. Geometric mean concentrations of metals in the liver and kidney ({mu}g/kg wet weight) were 12.6 and 15.9 for arsenic, 58.0 and 175 for cadmium, 32.7 and 53.4 for mercury, and 57.7 and 23.1 respectively. Hepatic lead concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in dogs fed commercial diets than dogs fed home-made feed (32%) or a mixture of commercial and home-made feeds (95%). Mercury concentrations in the kidney were significantly higher (3-fold, p < 0.05) in dogs from urban areas than in dogs from rural areas. Cadmium levels in kidney were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in females (67%) and increased with age (p < 0.001). Although no human samples were obtained in this study and no direct correlations between dogs and human metal exposure have been conducted, given our results pets could be suggested as surrogate indicators of human metal exposure.

  10. Use of dogs as indicators of metal exposure in rural and urban habitats in NW Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Alonso, M.; Miranda, M.; Garcia-Partida, P.; Cantero, F.; Hernandez, J.; Benedito, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Many different species have been used in environmental biomonitoring studies in diverse habitats including forest, farmland, and urban and sub-urban areas. However, there is little information on domestic animals living in rural or urban habitats and exposed to the same pollutants as the human population. In this connection, pets could prove to be good indicators of human metal exposure since they closely share the same environment as their owners, and are therefore exposed, at least in part, to the same pollutants. The present study investigated toxic metal exposure in dogs in NW Spain and compared metal exposures between dogs from rural and urban habitats, considering the influence of diet, sex and age. Samples of liver and kidney from 57 male and female dogs, aged between 6 months and 18 years, were collected after euthanasia at veterinary clinics. Samples were acid-digested and metal concentrations determined by ICP-MS. Geometric mean concentrations of metals in the liver and kidney (μg/kg wet weight) were 12.6 and 15.9 for arsenic, 58.0 and 175 for cadmium, 32.7 and 53.4 for mercury, and 57.7 and 23.1 respectively. Hepatic lead concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in dogs fed commercial diets than dogs fed home-made feed (32%) or a mixture of commercial and home-made feeds (95%). Mercury concentrations in the kidney were significantly higher (3-fold, p < 0.05) in dogs from urban areas than in dogs from rural areas. Cadmium levels in kidney were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in females (67%) and increased with age (p < 0.001). Although no human samples were obtained in this study and no direct correlations between dogs and human metal exposure have been conducted, given our results pets could be suggested as surrogate indicators of human metal exposure

  11. Empirical rainfall thresholds for the triggering of landslides in Asturias (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Pablo; Luís Zêzere, José; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María; Mora García, Manuel Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall-triggered landslides are common and widespread phenomena in Asturias, a mountainous region in the NW of Spain where the climate is characterized by average annual precipitation and temperature values of 960 mm and 13.3°C respectively. Different types of landslides (slides, flows and rockfalls) frequently occur during intense rainfall events, causing every year great economic losses and sometimes human injuries or fatalities. For this reason, its temporal forecast is of great interest. The main goal of the present research is the calculation of empirical rainfall thresholds for the triggering of landslides in the Asturian region, following the methodology described by Zêzere et al., 2015. For this purpose, data from 559 individual landslides collected from press archives during a period of eight hydrological years (October 2008-September 2016) and gathered within the BAPA landslide database (http://geol.uniovi.es/BAPA) were used. Precipitation data series of 37 years came from 6 weather stations representative of the main geographical and climatic conditions within the study area. Applied methodology includes: (i) the definition of landslide events, (ii) the reconstruction of the cumulative antecedent rainfall for each event from 1 to 90 consecutive days, (iii) the estimation of the return period for each cumulated rainfall-duration condition using Gumbel probability distribution, (iv) the definition of the critical cumulated rainfall-duration conditions taking into account the highest return period, (v) the calculation of the thresholds considering both the conditions for the occurrence and non-occurrence of landslides. References: Zêzere, J.L., Vaz, T., Pereira, S., Oliveira, S.C., Marqués, R., García, R.A.C. 2015. Rainfall thresholds for landslide activity in Portugal: a state of the art. Environmental Earth Sciences, 73, 2917-2936. doi: 10.1007/s12665-014-3672-0

  12. Identifying environmental and geochemical variables governing metal concentrations in a stream draining headwaters in NW Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto-Varela, F.; Rodríguez-Blanco, M.L.; Taboada-Castro, M.M.; Taboada-Castro, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • All metals occur in association with suspended sediment. • DOC and SS appeared to influence the partitioning of metals. • The SS was a good predictor of particulate metal levels. • The most important variable to explain storm-event K D for Al and Fe is DOC. • Enrichment factor values suggest a natural origin for the particulate metals. - Abstract: Headwater stream, draining from a rural catchment in NW Spain, was sampled during baseflow and storm-event conditions to investigate the temporal variability in dissolved and particulate Al, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations and the role of discharge (Q), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and suspended sediment (SS) in the transport of dissolved and particulate metals. Under baseflow and storm-event conditions, concentrations of the five metals were highly variable. The results of this study reveal that all metal concentrations are correlated with SS. DOC and SS appeared to influence both the metal concentrations and the partitioning of metals between dissolved and particulate. The SS was a good predictor of particulate metal levels. Distribution coefficients (K D ) were similar between metals (4.72–6.55) and did not change significantly as a function of discharge regime. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis reveals that the most important variable to explain storm-event K D for Al and Fe is DOC. The positive relationships found between metals, in each fraction, indicate that these elements mainly come from the same source. Metal concentrations in the stream were relatively low

  13. Post-orogenic exhumation history of a Variscan mid-crustal basement in Galicia (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, Rene; Alvarez-Marrón, Joaquina; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Stuart, Finlay; Castañeda-Zarauz, A.

    2010-05-01

    The present study aims to quantify the complex post-orogenic history of cooling, denudation, and long-term landscape evolution of a mid-crustal section of Variscan basement in Galicia (NW Spain). We use apatite fission-track and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronological techniques combined with time-temperature (t-T) path modelling using the software code HeFTy©. The topography is characterized by an extensive, low relief area at ~500 m elevation in central Galicia, and a WNW-ESE ridge that reaches up to 1000 m to the North. The area experienced two major tectonic events since the end of the Variscan orogeny in the Late Palaeozoic: 1) continental break-up and Mesozoic rifting leading to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean and the Bay of Biscay, and 2) limited convergence between Iberia and Eurasia since Middle Eocene times. Apatite fission-track ages range from 68.1 ± 5.0 Ma to 174.5 ± 7.7 Ma and apatite (U-Th)/He ages range from 73.6 ± 5.4 to 147.1 ± 16.6 Ma. Age-elevation plots and t-T path modelling suggest a tectonothermal evolution with faster exhumation associated to faulting during Mesozoic rifting. In particular, two major fault systems trending WNW-ESE and NNE-SSW, the As Pontes and the Lugo faults respectively separate areas with the fastest exhumation around 115 Ma from areas with overall slow exhumation since 200-150 Ma. A landscape of subdued topography in central Galicia was acquired prior to Eocene convergence. The higher elevation areas along the northern ridge formed since Middle Eocene times due to fault reactivation and minor exhumation occurred along the fault escarpment.

  14. Skill Assessment of An Hybrid Technique To Estimate Quantitative Precipitation Forecast For Galicia (nw Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, A.; Taboada, J. J.

    Precipitation is the most obvious of the weather elements in its effects on normal life. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) is generally used to produce quantitative precip- itation forecast (QPF) beyond the 1-3 h time frame. These models often fail to predict small-scale variations of rain because of spin-up problems and their coarse spatial and temporal resolution (Antolik, 2000). Moreover, there are some uncertainties about the behaviour of the NWP models in extreme situations (de Bruijn and Brandsma, 2000). Hybrid techniques, combining the benefits of NWP and statistical approaches in a flexible way, are very useful to achieve a good QPF. In this work, a new technique of QPF for Galicia (NW of Spain) is presented. This region has a percentage of rainy days per year greater than 50% with quantities that may cause floods, with human and economical damages. The technique is composed of a NWP model (ARPS) and a statistical downscaling process based on an automated classification scheme of at- mospheric circulation patterns for the Iberian Peninsula (J. Ribalaygua and R. Boren, 1995). Results show that QPF for Galicia is improved using this hybrid technique. [1] Antolik, M.S. 2000 "An Overview of the National Weather Service's centralized statistical quantitative precipitation forecasts". Journal of Hydrology, 239, pp:306- 337. [2] de Bruijn, E.I.F and T. Brandsma "Rainfall prediction for a flooding event in Ireland caused by the remnants of Hurricane Charley". Journal of Hydrology, 239, pp:148-161. [3] Ribalaygua, J. and Boren R. "Clasificación de patrones espaciales de precipitación diaria sobre la España Peninsular". Informes N 3 y 4 del Servicio de Análisis e Investigación del Clima. Instituto Nacional de Meteorología. Madrid. 53 pp.

  15. Estimation of the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, Diego; Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Hospido, Almudena; Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2010-10-15

    The food production system as a whole is recognized as one of the major contributors to environmental impacts. Accordingly, food production, processing, transport and consumption account for a relevant portion of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with any country. In this context, there is an increasing market demand for climate-relevant information regarding the global warming impact of consumer food products throughout the supply chains. This article deals with the assessment of the carbon footprint of seafood products as a key subgroup in the food sector. Galicia (NW Spain) was selected as a case study. The analysis is based on a representative set of species within the Galician fishing sector, including species obtained from coastal fishing (e.g. horse mackerel, Atlantic mackerel, European pilchard and blue whiting), offshore fishing (e.g. European hake, megrim and anglerfish), deep-sea fishing (skipjack and yellowfin tuna), extensive aquaculture (mussels) and intensive aquaculture (turbot). The carbon footprints associated with the production-related activities of each selected species were quantified following a business-to-business approach on the basis of 1year of fishing activity. These individual carbon footprints were used to calculate the carbon footprint for each of the different Galician fisheries and culture activities. Finally, the lump sum of the carbon footprints for coastal, offshore and deep-sea fishing and extensive and intensive aquaculture brought about the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (i.e., capture and culture). A benchmark for quantifying and communicating emission reductions was then provided, and opportunities to reduce the GHG emissions associated with the Galician fishing activity could be prioritized. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (NW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iribarren, Diego; Vazquez-Rowe, Ian; Hospido, Almudena; Moreira, Maria Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2010-01-01

    The food production system as a whole is recognized as one of the major contributors to environmental impacts. Accordingly, food production, processing, transport and consumption account for a relevant portion of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with any country. In this context, there is an increasing market demand for climate-relevant information regarding the global warming impact of consumer food products throughout the supply chains. This article deals with the assessment of the carbon footprint of seafood products as a key subgroup in the food sector. Galicia (NW Spain) was selected as a case study. The analysis is based on a representative set of species within the Galician fishing sector, including species obtained from coastal fishing (e.g. horse mackerel, Atlantic mackerel, European pilchard and blue whiting), offshore fishing (e.g. European hake, megrim and anglerfish), deep-sea fishing (skipjack and yellowfin tuna), extensive aquaculture (mussels) and intensive aquaculture (turbot). The carbon footprints associated with the production-related activities of each selected species were quantified following a business-to-business approach on the basis of 1 year of fishing activity. These individual carbon footprints were used to calculate the carbon footprint for each of the different Galician fisheries and culture activities. Finally, the lump sum of the carbon footprints for coastal, offshore and deep-sea fishing and extensive and intensive aquaculture brought about the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (i.e., capture and culture). A benchmark for quantifying and communicating emission reductions was then provided, and opportunities to reduce the GHG emissions associated with the Galician fishing activity could be prioritized.

  17. Characterization of yeasts isolated from artisanal short-ripened cows' cheeses produced in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, M R; Fernández-Otero, C; Rodríguez-Alonso, P; Fernández-No, I C; Garabal, J I; Centeno, J A

    2016-02-01

    A total of 143 presumptive yeast isolates were obtained from the predominant microflora of 21 short-ripened starter-free raw cow's milk cheeses made in Galicia (NW Spain), and the following 68 isolates were identified by both genotyping and sequencing methods: Yarrowia lipolytica (21 isolates), Kluyveromyces lactis (18), Debaryomyces hansenii (11), Pichia guilliermondii (11), Pichia fermentans (4) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (3). Of these, Y. lipolytica and K. lactis displayed the strongest extracellular proteolytic activity on skim milk agar, and none of the D. hansenii isolates showed any activity on this medium. Y. lipolytica also displayed the highest lipolytic activity on Tween 80 and on tributyrin. This species, which was characterized by production of butanoic acid, free fatty acid esters and sulfur compounds in pasteurized whole milk, was responsible for rancid and cheesy flavors. K. lactis mainly produced acetaldehyde, ethanol, branched chain aldehydes and alcohols, and acetic acid esters, which were responsible for alcoholic, fruity and acetic notes. The volatile profiles of D. hansenii were rather limited and characterized by high levels of methyl ketones. Most of the yeast isolates were described as tryptamine producers, although low concentrations of histamine were produced by five Y. lipolytica and two P. fermentans isolates. We conclude that selected Y. lipolytica strains could be used as adjunct cultures in the manufacture of Arzúa-Ulloa and Tetilla cheeses, and selected K. lactis strains could be used as co-starters in the manufacture of acid curd Cebreiro cheese, thus contributing to the sensory quality and typicality of the cheeses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coastal Human Actions on Natural Morph-dynamics around RIA of FOZ (NW Spain). Risk Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, J. Javier; Veiga, Efren M.; Rodriguez, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    This work approaches the natural littoral processes and their changes induced by human activities around the Cantabrian RIA of FOZ (Galicia, NW Spain). Ria is a specific Spanish term for referring the estuary figured on the sea flooded mouth of a river valley. Although located in Galicia the RIA of FOZ is a Cantabrian Ria. The "Cantabrian rias" clearly differ from the "Galician rias" in their lower degree of tectonic complexity, in their smaller dimensions and in their more advanced current state of infilling (Diez, 1996). While Galician is a Pacific coast Cantabrian was generated as a mainly Atlantic coast. The sedimentary deposits of the Cantabrian rias are mainly from marine origin, being from fluvial origin (Asensio, 1979) just the finest components. The predominant Cantabrian littoral transport goes eastwards and, as consequence of it, the sedimentary littoral spits closing the mouths in coasts normally grow in the same sense. But there are many cases, like in the Ria of Foz, where the spit progresses in an apparent westwards atypical way. This work shows that it is due to combined wind wave phenomena of refraction, diffraction and reflection, which will be detailed. But the human activities interfere in these natural processes. Different port constructions have been made in the Ria of Foz from 1931 to 1977. Their final effects in the morph-dynamics obligate to introduce one construction for regenerate the spit in 1986. The performance, effectiveness and impact of all these port constructions are studied in detail and what are their influences in natural processes for finally applying this knowledge in risks management. Keywords: Rias, Littoral processes, Coastal morph-dynamics, Human induced driving, Risk management.

  19. Estimation of the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iribarren, Diego; Vazquez-Rowe, Ian; Hospido, Almudena; Moreira, Maria Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo, E-mail: diego.iribarren@rai.usc.es [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The food production system as a whole is recognized as one of the major contributors to environmental impacts. Accordingly, food production, processing, transport and consumption account for a relevant portion of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with any country. In this context, there is an increasing market demand for climate-relevant information regarding the global warming impact of consumer food products throughout the supply chains. This article deals with the assessment of the carbon footprint of seafood products as a key subgroup in the food sector. Galicia (NW Spain) was selected as a case study. The analysis is based on a representative set of species within the Galician fishing sector, including species obtained from coastal fishing (e.g. horse mackerel, Atlantic mackerel, European pilchard and blue whiting), offshore fishing (e.g. European hake, megrim and anglerfish), deep-sea fishing (skipjack and yellowfin tuna), extensive aquaculture (mussels) and intensive aquaculture (turbot). The carbon footprints associated with the production-related activities of each selected species were quantified following a business-to-business approach on the basis of 1 year of fishing activity. These individual carbon footprints were used to calculate the carbon footprint for each of the different Galician fisheries and culture activities. Finally, the lump sum of the carbon footprints for coastal, offshore and deep-sea fishing and extensive and intensive aquaculture brought about the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (i.e., capture and culture). A benchmark for quantifying and communicating emission reductions was then provided, and opportunities to reduce the GHG emissions associated with the Galician fishing activity could be prioritized.

  20. Two year study of swash zone suprabenthos of two Galician beaches (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo-Madrid, Rubén; Martínez-Vázquez, Juan M.; Viéitez, José M.; Junoy, Juan

    2013-10-01

    The suprabenthos is considered a major food resource for some fish and birds. Moreover, it plays a key role in the food chain and in nutrient regeneration in the surf zone. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that regulate this fauna and the differences between the suprabenthic groups, to study the possibility of seasonal variations and to compare these results with those of other studies conducted in Europe. A study and geographical comparison was conducted of the temporal patterns of the suprabenthos in the swash zone at two sandy beaches on the NE Atlantic coast (Altar and Ladeira beaches) in the NW of Spain. The study was carried out from September 2005 to August 2007 (24 months). To study the fauna, 60 m2 was sampled monthly with a suprabenthic sledge, and a total of 101 species belonging to Peracarida and Decapoda were recorded. Total densities ranged from 0.42 ind·m- 2 to 178.75 ind·m- 2. Ladeira beach showed higher densities and species richness than Altar beach, and the biocoenosis showed a different dynamic over the 24 months and between years and locations. These results indicate that there is no clear seasonality in the dynamic of suprabenthic species, although the variance of Peracarida orders was explained in diverse degree by environmental variables. The environmental models implemented explained between 27.7% and 93.8% of the faunal data, and hydrodynamic factors and daily global irradiance were selected as the best factors to explain the temporal variations.

  1. Mastitis diagnosis in ten Galician dairy herds (NW Spain) with automatic milking systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, A.; Pereira, J.M.; Amiama, C.; Bueno, J.

    2015-07-01

    Over the last few years, the adoption of automatic milking systems (AMS) has experienced significant increase. However, hardly any studies have been conducted to investigate the distribution of mastitis pathogens in dairy herds with AMS. Because quick mastitis detection in AMS is very important, the primary objective of this study was to determine operational reliability and sensibility of mastitis detection systems from AMS. Additionally, the frequency of pathogen-specific was determined. For this purpose, 228 cows from ten farms in Galicia (NW Spain) using this system were investigated. The California Mastitis Test (CMT) was considered the gold-standard test for mastitis diagnosis and milk samples were analysed from CMT-positive cows for the bacterial examination. Mean farm prevalence of clinical mastitis was 9% and of 912 milk quarters examined, 23% were positive to the AMS mastitis detection system and 35% were positive to the CMT. The majority of CMT-positive samples had a score of 1 or 2 on a 1 (lowest mastitis severity) to 4 (highest mastitis severity) scale. The average sensitivity and specificity of the AMS mastitis detection system were 58.2% and 94.0% respectively being similar to other previous studies, what could suggest limitations for getting higher values of reliability and sensibility in the current AMSs. The most frequently isolated pathogens were Streptococcus dysgalactiae (8.8%), followed by Streptococcus uberis (8.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (3.3%). The relatively high prevalence of these pathogens indicates suboptimal cleaning and disinfection of teat dipping cups, brushes and milk liners in dairy farms with AMS in the present study. (Author)

  2. Long-term deforestation in NW Spain: linking the Holocene fire history to vegetation change and human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaal, Joeri; Carrión Marco, Yolanda; Asouti, Eleni; Martín Seijo, Maria; Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; Costa Casáis, Manuela; Criado Boado, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    The Holocene fire regime is thought to have had a key role in deforestation and shrubland expansion in Galicia (NW Spain) but the contribution of past societies to vegetation burning remains poorly understood. This may be, in part, due to the fact that detailed fire records from areas in close proximity to archaeological sites are scarce. To fill this gap, we performed charcoal analysis in five colluvial soils from an archaeological area (Campo Lameiro) and compared the results to earlier studies from this area and palaeo-ecological literature from NW Spain. This analysis allowed for the reconstruction of the vegetation and fire dynamics in the area during the last ca 11 000 yrs. In the Early Holocene, Fabaceae and Betula sp. were dominant in the charcoal record. Quercus sp. started to replace these species around 10 000 cal BP, forming a deciduous forest that prevailed during the Holocene Thermal Maximum until ˜5500 cal BP. Following that, several cycles of potentially fire-induced forest regression with subsequent incomplete recovery eventually led to the formation of an open landscape dominated by shrubs (Erica sp. and Fabaceae). Major episodes of forest regression were (1) ˜5500-5000 cal BP, which marks the mid-Holocene cooling after the Holocene Thermal Maximum, but also the period during which agropastoral activities in NW Spain became widespread, and (2) ˜2000-1500 cal BP, which corresponds roughly to the end of the Roman Warm Period and the transition from the Roman to the Germanic period. The low degree of chronological precision, which is inherent in fire history reconstructions from colluvial soils, made it impossible to distinguish climatic from human-induced fires. Nonetheless, the abundance of synanthropic pollen indicators (e.g. Plantago lanceolata and Urtica dioica) since at least ˜6000 cal BP strongly suggests that humans used fire to generate and maintain pasture.

  3. Marteilia sp. and other parasites and pathological conditions in Solen marginatus populations along the Galician coast (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M; Darriba, S; Rodríguez, R; López, C

    2015-01-15

    This paper reports the results of the survey developed after the first detection of protozoan Marteilia sp. infection of the grooved razor shell Solen marginatus (Pulteney, 1799) from Galicia (NW Spain) in 2006. Furthermore, we analysed other parasites and pathological conditions found in grooved razor shell populations throughout this survey, such as metacercariae of trematodes, prokaryotic infections and disseminated neoplasms, some of which could cause moderate or severe damage to the host depending on the intensity of infection. A total of 17 natural beds distributed along the Galician coast were analysed, and Marteilia sp. was detected in 6 of them with low prevalence, moderate intensity and no negative effects over the populations.

  4. Gene flow and genetic structure in the Galician population (NW Spain according to Alu insertions

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    Diéguez Lois

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most recent Alu insertions reveal different degrees of polymorphism in human populations, and a series of characteristics that make them particularly suitable genetic markers for Human Biology studies. This has led these polymorphisms to be used to analyse the origin and phylogenetic relationships between contemporary human groups. This study analyses twelve Alu sequences in a sample of 216 individuals from the autochthonous population of Galicia (NW Spain, with the aim of studying their genetic structure and phylogenetic position with respect to the populations of Western and Central Europe and North Africa, research that is of special interest in revealing European population dynamics, given the peculiarities of the Galician population due to its geographical situation in western Europe, and its historical vicissitudes. Results The insertion frequencies of eleven of the Alu elements analysed were within the variability range of European populations, while Yb8NBC125 proved to be the lowest so far recorded to date in Europe. Taking the twelve polymorphisms into account, the GD value for the Galician population was 0.268. The comparative analyses carried out using the MDS, NJ and AMOVA methods reveal the existence of spatial heterogeneity, and identify three population groups that correspond to the geographic areas of Western-Central Europe, Eastern Mediterranean Europe and North Africa. Galicia is shown to be included in the Western-Central European cluster, together with other Spanish populations. When only considering populations from Mediterranean Europe, the Galician population revealed a degree of genetic flow similar to that of the majority of the populations from this geographic area. Conclusion The results of this study reveal that the Galician population, despite its geographic situation in the western edge of the European continent, occupies an intermediate position in relation to other European populations in

  5. Gene flow and genetic structure in the Galician population (NW Spain) according to Alu insertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Tito A; Fariña, José; Diéguez, Lois Pérez; Lodeiro, Rosa

    2008-12-02

    The most recent Alu insertions reveal different degrees of polymorphism in human populations, and a series of characteristics that make them particularly suitable genetic markers for Human Biology studies. This has led these polymorphisms to be used to analyse the origin and phylogenetic relationships between contemporary human groups. This study analyses twelve Alu sequences in a sample of 216 individuals from the autochthonous population of Galicia (NW Spain), with the aim of studying their genetic structure and phylogenetic position with respect to the populations of Western and Central Europe and North Africa, research that is of special interest in revealing European population dynamics, given the peculiarities of the Galician population due to its geographical situation in western Europe, and its historical vicissitudes. The insertion frequencies of eleven of the Alu elements analysed were within the variability range of European populations, while Yb8NBC125 proved to be the lowest so far recorded to date in Europe. Taking the twelve polymorphisms into account, the GD value for the Galician population was 0.268. The comparative analyses carried out using the MDS, NJ and AMOVA methods reveal the existence of spatial heterogeneity, and identify three population groups that correspond to the geographic areas of Western-Central Europe, Eastern Mediterranean Europe and North Africa. Galicia is shown to be included in the Western-Central European cluster, together with other Spanish populations. When only considering populations from Mediterranean Europe, the Galician population revealed a degree of genetic flow similar to that of the majority of the populations from this geographic area. The results of this study reveal that the Galician population, despite its geographic situation in the western edge of the European continent, occupies an intermediate position in relation to other European populations in general, and Iberian populations in particular. This

  6. Perceptions and Acceptance of Desalinated Seawater for Irrigation: A Case Study in the Níjar District (Southeast Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Aznar-Sánchez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of increasing demand for irrigation water—but, at the same time, with the constraints in the supply from traditional resources—desalinated seawater has been recognized as one of the alternative sources of water to increase the supply for agricultural irrigation. However, its use among farmers has not yet started to expand. Policy makers need to understand what is causing the low acceptance levels of farmers, and how their attitudes could be improved. This is the first study that has conducted an analysis of farmers’ perceptions and acceptance of the use of desalinated seawater for irrigation. The study is based on collected data from a survey completed by farmers in southeastern Spain who do not use desalinated seawater. The main results indicate that desalinated seawater as a water supply source has the lowest acceptance level for farmers. Barriers for its use are price, the need for additional fertilization, and the perception that it would negatively affect the yield and crop quality. The farmers’ general level of knowledge about the impact of using desalinated seawater in agriculture is extremely low. Furthermore, farmers consider it a priority that their startup investment should be subsidized and that water prices should be reduced. Based on the study findings, this paper makes recommendations for the decision-making process in order to improve farmers’ acceptance levels.

  7. Identification of flood events inside karst cavities: Fria Cave (Asturias - NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Lemos, Saul; Stoll, Heather

    2013-04-01

    Fluvial records may be well preserved in subterranean karst drainage networks and fluvial deposits cemented in speleothems may provide good chronology of past flood events. In several karst systems in Asturias (NW. Spain), moments of extreme precipitation events produce deposits from flood events in the bed and walls of caves which we propose are also recorded in the calcium carbonate stalagmites growing in the cave. The final stretch of the studied cave (Fria Cave), with a development of 360 m in length, intersects a small perennial stream which in our observation has maintained a minimum discharge of about 0.022 m3/s but periodically overflows into the vadose cave passage. Immediately after a flood overflow event, water marks and foam detritus are visible at various levels on the cave walls and corresponding to heights of bottlenecks in overflow drainage through the cave passage. Flood events deposit sand on terraces on the cave wall and move large volumes of sand in the cave bed. These extreme events leave a long-term record in i) wall coloration or water marks on the cave walls; and ii) detrital particles preserved as inclusions inside the stalagmites. Throughout this cave, it is possible to recognize chromatic changes in the walls, such as manganese oxide stains, which coincide with one of the water marks left during a recent flood event. The most salient manganese oxide on the walls rises up to 1.5 m measured from the thalweg and we interpreted it as the result of a frequent process of wetting - drying related to frequent flooding of the cave. Since 3-4 ka, drapery flowstone has been deposited over this oxide coating in some parts of the cave and the drapery remains free of oxide coating. We interpret this as indicating a reduction in the frequency and/or duration of flooding to this height, coincident with a regional drying trend in late Holocene. Stalagmites growing in the bed of the cave appear to trap fluvial sediments like sand or silts particles, which

  8. Carboniferous calcareous algae and their associations in the San Emiliano and Lois-Ciguera Formations (Prov. León, NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rácz, L.

    1965-01-01

    This study of the calcareous algae in the limestone deposits of the two formations (San Emiliano and Lois-Ciguera) in NW Spain is based on field observations and microscopical study. It was possible in the field to divide almost all the limestone members into smaller units on the basis of physical,

  9. Fingerprinting petroleum hydrocarbons in plankton and surface sediments during the spring and early summer blooms in the Galician coast (NW Spain) after the Prestige oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, N; Ortiz, L; Gilcoto, M; Varela, M; Bayona, J M; Groom, S; Alvarez-Salgado, X A; Albaigés, J

    2006-12-01

    Plankton samples (20-350 microm and >350 microm) collected at three transects along the Galician coast (NW Spain) were analysed for individual aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons by GC-MS. Sample collection was performed in April-July 2003, after the Prestige oil spill (November 2002), to determine whether the hydrocarbons released into the water column as a consequence of the spill were accumulated by the planktonic communities during the subsequent spring and early summer blooms. Surface sediments were also collected to assess the presence of the spilled oil, removed from the water column by downward particle transport. Plankton concentrations of PAHs (Sigma14 parent components) were in the range of 25-898 ng g(-1)dw, the highest values being close to coastal urban areas. However, the individual distributions were highly dominated by alkyl naphthalenes and phenanthrenes, paralleling those in the water dissolved fraction. The detailed study of petrogenic molecular markers (e.g. steranes and triterpanes, and methyl phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes) showed the occurrence of background petrogenic pollution but not related with the Prestige oil, with the possible exception of the station off Costa da Morte in May 2003, heavily oiled after the accident. The dominant northerly wind conditions during the spring and early summer 2003, which prevented the arrival of fresh oil spilled from the wreck, together with the heavy nature of the fuel oil, which was barely dispersed in seawater, and the large variability of planktonic cycles, could be the factors hiding the acute accumulation of the spilled hydrocarbons. Then, with the above exception, the concentrations of PAHs found in the collected samples, mostly deriving from chronic pollution, can be considered as the reference values for the region.

  10. Heavy metal and arsenic content in seabirds affected by the Prestige oil spill on the Galician coast (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, Marcos [Toxicology Area, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (UEX), Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)]. E-mail: marcospl@unex.es; Cid, Francisco [Toxicology Area, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (UEX), Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain); Oropesa, Ana Lourdes [Toxicology Area, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (UEX), Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain); Fidalgo, Luis Eusebio [Rof Codina Clinical Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (USC), Estrada da Granxa s/n. 27003 Lugo (Spain); Ana Lopez Beceiro [Rof Codina Clinical Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (USC), Estrada da Granxa s/n. 27003 Lugo (Spain); Soler, Francisco [Toxicology Area, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (UEX), Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2006-04-15

    Seabirds are top consumers in marine foodchains which offer opportunities to detect and assess the toxicological effects of different inorganic elements on the marine ecosystem. In order to provide baseline data concerning trace element levels in seabird species from NW Spain, zinc, copper, arsenic, chromium, lead, cadmium and mercury concentrations were analyzed in liver of three different seabird species (common guillemot, Atlantic puffin and razorbill) affected by the Prestige oil spill in September 2002 on the Galician coast. In general, with the exception of mercury, levels of all the analyzed elements were similar or lower in comparison with those reported for the same species in other Atlantic areas, and did not exceed levels indicative of increased environmental exposure.

  11. Weathering processes under various moisture conditions in a lignite mine spoil from As Pontes (N.W. Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seoane, S.; Leiros, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Processes contributing to acid release/consumption during weathering of a lignite mine spoil (2.3% w/w S as sulfides) from As Pontes (N.W. Spain) were studied under three moisture conditions (at field capacity or under alternate wetting-drying or forced percolation), which were simulated in laboratory experiments. Oxidation of sulfides to sulfates was favoured under all three moisture conditions, releasing most acid in spoil kept at field capacity. Hydroxysulfates formed in spoil kept at field capacity or under alternate wetting-drying conditions, thereby contributing to acid release. Acid consumption by dissolution of clay minerals, especially micas, was favoured under all three moisture conditions, but was particularly intense in spoil at field capacity. Dissolution of aluminium oxides was also favoured under all the moisture conditions studied. 27 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Heavy metal and arsenic content in seabirds affected by the Prestige oil spill on the Galician coast (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Marcos; Cid, Francisco; Oropesa, Ana Lourdes; Fidalgo, Luis Eusebio; López Beceiro, Ana; Soler, Francisco

    2006-04-15

    Seabirds are top consumers in marine foodchains which offer opportunities to detect and assess the toxicological effects of different inorganic elements on the marine ecosystem. In order to provide baseline data concerning trace element levels in seabird species from NW Spain, zinc, copper, arsenic, chromium, lead, cadmium and mercury concentrations were analyzed in liver of three different seabird species (common guillemot, Atlantic puffin and razorbill) affected by the Prestige oil spill in September 2002 on the Galician coast. In general, with the exception of mercury, levels of all the analyzed elements were similar or lower in comparison with those reported for the same species in other Atlantic areas, and did not exceed levels indicative of increased environmental exposure.

  13. Spatial variability of potential pollutants in a vineyard of the Ribeiro D.O. (Galicia-NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Irene; Vidal-Vázquez, Eva; Paz-González, Antonio; Lado, Marcos

    2015-04-01

    The Ribeiro is one of the five wine growing D.O. in the region of Galicia (NW Spain). Wine making is the most important economic activity in the area, and in the last years, the total area covered with vineyards has steadily increased. Some common farming activities related to wine growing, including fertilization or the application of fungicides, can result in an increase of the concentrations of several elements in the soil and contribute to its degradation. At the same time, soil properties can vary between cultivated plots, or even within a specific plot, the spatial variability of some properties, including pollutants, can be highly significant. Thus, the objective of the present work was to study the concentrations of different elements and their variability in a vineyard soil of the Ribeiro D.O. Sixty five samples separated by 80 cm each were collected along a transect from the topsoil (0-20 cm) of a vineyard located in the EVEGA experimental station in Leiro (Galicia-NW Spain). Samples were transported to the laboratory, air-dried, and sieved through a 2-mm-mesh sieve. Several soil properties, including macro and micronutrients, and heavy metals were measured using DTPA as extractant. Results showed that available Fe and Mn concentrations were high or very high, possibly due to the strongly-acid soil pH. An overfertilization with P was observed, which can contribute to the eutrophication of nearby water bodies. Available Zn concentrations fluctuated between medium and high, and available Cu showed a high concentration (CuDTPA 25,69 g kg-1), possibly resulting from the sustained application of fungicides including Cu in their composition. In general, the variability of the measured properties was medium or low.

  14. BAPA Database: a Landslide Inventory in the Principality of Asturias (NW Spain) by Using Press Archives and Free Cartographic Servers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, P.; Domínguez-Cuesta, M. J.; Jiménez-Sánchez, M.; Mora García, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Due to its geological and climatic conditions, landslides are very common and widespread phenomena in the Principality of Asturias (NW of Spain), causing economic losses and, sometimes, human victims. In this scenario, temporal prediction of instabilities becomes particularly important. Although previous knowledge indicates that rainfall is the main trigger, the lack of data hinders the proper temporal forecast of landslides in the region. To resolve this deficiency, a new landslide inventory is being developed: the BAPA (Base de datos de Argayos del Principado de Asturias-Principality of Asturias Landslide Database). Data collection is mainly performed through the gathering of local newspaper archives, with special emphasis on the registration of spatial and temporal information. Moreover, a BAPA App and a BAPA website (http://geol.uniovi.es/BAPA) have been developed to easily obtain additional information from authorities and private individuals. Presently, dataset covers the period 1980-2015, registering more than 2000 individual landslide events. Fifty-two per cent of the records provide accurate dates, showing the usefulness of press archives as temporal records. The use of free cartographic servers, such as Google Maps, Google Street View and Iberpix (Government of Spain), combined with the spatial descriptions and photographs contained in the press releases, makes it possible to determine the exact location in fifty-eight per cent of the records. Field work performed to date has allowed the validation of the methodology proposed to obtain spatial data. In addition, BAPA database contain information about: source, typology of landslides, triggers, damages and costs.

  15. Spatial distribution of human-caused forest fires in Galicia (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. L. Chas-Amil; J. Touza; P. Prestemon

    2010-01-01

    It is crucial for fire prevention policies to assess the spatial patterns of human-started fires and their relationship with geographical and socioeconomic aspects. This study uses fire reports for the period 1988-2006 in Galicia, Spain, to analyze the spatial distribution of human-induced fire risk attending to causes and underlying motivations associated with fire...

  16. First observation on neustonic plastics in waters off NW Spain (spring 2013 and 2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago, Jesus; Henry, Maryvonne; Galgani, François

    2015-10-01

    This paper examines the presence and distribution of plastic particles in waters off the NW Spanish Atlantic coast. A pilot sampling program was initiated in 2013 to study the presence of plastic particles in surface waters. A total of 41 neuston samples were collected using a manta trawl fitted with a 333 μm mesh (21 samples in 2013 and 20 samples in 2014). Several types of plastic particles were observed in 95% of the stations. A total of 1463 plastic microparticles (5 mm and plastic particles is urgently needed in order to compare results between regions and to ensure coherence in the implementation of the MSFD. This aspect is also important at a worldwide scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection and quantification of Sapovirus in bivalve molluscs from Galicia (NW Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus L Romalde

    2014-06-01

    SaV was detected in 30 of the 168 samples (17,85%. There was no significant difference between the two Rías in terms of detections, although it was observed a seasonality increment of positive samples from November 2011 until April 2012 in both Rías due to the rainy season and the decrease of seawater temperature. Total quantification ranged between 103 and 105 copies of viral RNA/g of digestive tissue (c/g, being mussels the specie with lower main quantification (3,1 x 104 c/g and clams the species with higher medium rates (2,0 x 105 c/g. This represents the first study out of Japan in which human Sapovirus was detected and quantified into human food intended for consumption.

  18. Towards a trawling-affected sediment budget on the Galician shelf (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, F. J.; Hanebuth, T. J.

    2013-05-01

    This case study uses vessel monitoring data in conjunction with multiple sedimentological and geochemical proxies on sediment cores to quantify the effect of bottom trawling on a source-to-sink budget analysis of a late Holocene mid-shelf mudbelt. The long-term effect of bottom trawling on seafloor sediments is largely unknown and the existing studies are contradictive. This is particularly surprising as mud depocenters on shelves are of great economic and environmental interest because they represent areas where fishing and other ground disturbing activities have high impacts, and the associated ecosystems hold one of the highest biodiversity. The Galician Mudbelt, exemplary for many other mudbelts worldwide, is located on the open and narrow continental shelf of NW Iberia and is widely affected by chronic (continuous and intensive) commercial bottom trawling. In this study we present the results from 2.800 km of seismo-acoustic data used to calculate a high-resolution isopach map that represents the Late Holocene (Galician shelf. We present here our first calculations. While previous studies show that shelfal mud depocenters represent a major sink for sediments on shelves little is known about the effect trawling has on sediment flux calculations. This study aims to contribute rare quantitative data from a high-energy shelf environment that helps develop a more in depth understanding of the significance of bottom trawling towards material fluxes. Such an analysis may hold serious implications for a better understanding of ecosystem shifts and thus be of economic interest to fisheries.

  19. Assessment and Management of the Geomorphological Heritage of Monte Pindo (NW Spain: A Landscape as a Symbol of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Costa-Casais

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the granite mountain known as Monte Pindo (627 m above sea level in the Autonomous Community of Galicia (NW Spain. This territory is included in the area classified as “Costa da Morte” in the “Politica de Ordenación Litoral” (POL (Coastal Planning Policy for the region of Galicia. This coastal unit, located between “Rías Baixas” and “Cape Fisterra” has great potential for demonstrating geological processes and its geomorphological heritage is characterized by a high degree of geodiversity of granite landforms. The main objective of our work is to assess the geomorphological heritage of the site, thus revealing its wide geodiversity. We shall analyze and highlight: its scientific value, developing an inventory of granite landforms; its educational valuel and its geotouristic potential. It must be ensured that the Administration understands that natural diversity is composed of both geodiversity and biodiversity. Only then will the sustainable management of Monte Pindo become possible by integrating natural and cultural heritage values. The goal is to ensure that Monte Pindo and its immediate surroundings become a geopark with the aim of promoting local development projects based on the conservation and valorization of its geological heritage.

  20. Leucine, starch and bicarbonate utilization by specific bacterial groups in surface shelf waters off Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teira, E; Hernando-Morales, V; Guerrero-Feijóo, E; Varela, M M

    2017-06-01

    The capability of different bacterial populations to degrade abundant polymers, such as algal-derived polysaccharides, or to utilize preferentially polymers over monomers, remains largely unknown. In this study, microautoradiography was combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) to evaluate the ability of Bacteroidetes, SAR11, Roseobacter spp., Gammaproteobacteria and SAR86 cells to use bicarbonate, leucine and starch under natural light conditions at two locations in shelf surface waters off NW Spain. The percentage of cells incorporating bicarbonate was relatively high (mean 32% ± 4%) and was positively correlated with the intensity of solar radiation. The proportion of cells using starch (mean 56% ± 4%) or leucine (mean 47% ± 4%) was significantly higher than that using bicarbonate. On average, SAR11, Roseobacter spp. and Gammaproteobacteria showed a similarly high percentage of cells using leucine (47%-65% of hybridized cells) than using starch (51%-64% of hybridized cells), while Bacteroidetes and SAR86 cells preferentially used starch (53% of hybridized cells) over leucine (34%-40% of hybridized cells). We suggest that the great percentage of bacteria using starch is related to a high ambient availability of polymers associated to algal cell lysis, which, in turn, weakens the short-term coupling between phytoplankton release and bacterial production. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Water Resources Response to Changes in Temperature, Rainfall and CO2 Concentration: A First Approach in NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Arias

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the diverse responses of water resources to climate change and high concentrations of CO2 is crucial for the appropriate management of natural ecosystems. Despite numerous studies on the impact of climate change on different regions, it is still necessary to evaluate the impact of these changes at the local scale. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was used to evaluate the potential impact of changes in temperature, rainfall and CO2 concentration on water resources in a rural catchment in NW Spain for the periods 2031–2060 and 2069–2098, using 1981–2010 as a reference period. For the simulations we used compiled regional climate models of the ENSEMBLES project for future climate input data and two CO2 concentration scenarios (550 and 660 ppm. The results showed that changes in the concentration of CO2 and climate had a significant effect on water resources. Overall, the results suggest a decrease in streamflow of 16% for the period 2031–2060 (intermediate future and 35% by the end of the 21st century as a consequence of decreasing rainfall (2031–2060: −6%; 2069–2098: −15% and increasing temperature (2031–2060: 1.1 °C; 2069–2098: 2.2 °C.

  2. Histological survey of symbionts and other conditions of pod razor clam Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Maite; Darriba, Susana; Rodríguez, Rosana; López, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to carry out a survey of parasites and other conditions affecting pod razor clam populations, Ensis siliqua, in two beds from Galicia (NW Spain). In Galicia, the production of E. siliqua has increased in recent years due to the development of specific plans for its exploitation, however few and quite recent pathological studies have been carried out in this species. The results of this study showed the presence of different protozoa as the more prevalent group, especially Nematopsis sp. gregarines, unidentified branchial protozoa, renal coccidia and Trichodina sp. ciliates. Larval stages of trematodes and neoplastic disorders were also observed with lower prevalences. Furthermore, an ultrastructural analysis of two types of unidentified basophilic inclusions, both found in the digestive gland, revealed the presence of icosahedral viral particles and prokaryotic organisms, respectively. None of the parasites detected in E. siliqua from this study was notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the majority of the symbionts and conditions observed in their tissues did not cause host damage. Nevertheless, parasites like bucephalid digenean sporocysts, viral inclusions, prokaryotic infections, disseminated neoplasm or germinoma detected in some samples could cause moderate or severe damage to the host depending on the intensity of infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. From Hillforts to Saints: Sun Tropoi and Patterns of Christianization in NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintela, Marco V. García; García, A. César González; Veiga, Yolanda Seoane

    2015-05-01

    We present three Iron Age landscapes in the province of Ourense (northwest Spain), consisting of a hill fort with an acropolis used for religious purposes, and an "extra-urban" location used for ritual functions. Both locations are associated with the solstices, corroborating the validity of considering them jointly in each case, and the three cases jointly as a model. In the three locations, the oldest Christian saints and festivals we are able to identify re-use the dates of the solstices, and others, marked by Iron Age monuments. These observations open the way for research in several directions: the definition of religious landscapes from the Iron Age; the reason why there is not a 'Roman landscape'; the relationship between the Indo-European legacy and the introduction of Christianity; and the relationship between local calendars and the Celtic, Julian and Gregorian 'cultural' calendars.

  4. Large-scale spatial variation in mercury concentrations in cattle in NW Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Alonso, M.; Benedito, J.L.; Miranda, M.; Fernandez, J.A.; Castillo, C.; Hernandez, J.; Shore, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    This study quantifies the spatial scale over which major point and diffuse sources of anthropogenic mercury emission affect mercury accumulation by cattle in northwest Spain. - Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic environmental contaminant and man-made emissions account for between a quarter and a third of total atmospheric levels. Point discharges, particularly coal-burning power stations, are major sources of atmospheric Hg and can result in marked spatial variation in mercury deposition and subsequent uptake by biota. The aims of this study were to quantify the extent to which major point and diffuse sources of atmospheric Hg emissions affected accumulation of Hg by biota throughout Galicia and Asturias, two of the major regions in northwest Spain. We did this by relating renal Hg concentrations in locally reared cattle (n=284) to the proximity of animals to point and diffuse sources of Hg emissions. Mercury residues in calf kidneys ranged between non-detected and 89.4 μg/kg wet weight. Point discharges from coal-fired power plants in Galicia had the most dominant impact on Hg accumulation by calves in Galicia, affecting animals throughout the region and explaining some two-thirds of the variation in renal residues between animals located directly downwind from the plants. The effects of more diffuse emission sources on Hg accumulation in calves were not distinguishable in Galicia but were detected in cattle from neighbouring Asturias. The impact of both point and diffuse sources in elevating environmental levels of bioavailable Hg and subsequent accumulation by cattle extended to approximately 140-200 km downwind from source

  5. Air quality modeling in the Oviedo urban area (NW Spain) by using multivariate adaptive regression splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, P J García; Antón, J C Álvarez; Vilán, J A Vilán; García-Gonzalo, E

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this research work is to build a regression model of air quality by using the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique in the Oviedo urban area (northern Spain) at a local scale. To accomplish the objective of this study, the experimental data set made up of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), and dust (PM10) was collected over 3 years (2006-2008). The US National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) establishes the limit values of the main pollutants in the atmosphere in order to ensure the health of healthy people. Firstly, this MARS regression model captures the main perception of statistical learning theory in order to obtain a good prediction of the dependence among the main pollutants in the Oviedo urban area. Secondly, the main advantages of MARS are its capacity to produce simple, easy-to-interpret models, its ability to estimate the contributions of the input variables, and its computational efficiency. Finally, on the basis of these numerical calculations, using the MARS technique, conclusions of this research work are exposed.

  6. Infection of Manila clams Ruditapes philippinarum from Galicia (NW Spain) with a Mikrocytos-like parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramilo, Andrea; Iglesias, David; Abollo, Elvira; González, Mar; Darriba, Susana; Villalba, Antonio

    2014-07-24

    The name 'microcells' is frequently used to refer to small-sized unicellular stages of molluscan parasites of the genera Bonamia (Rhizaria, Haplosporidia) and Mikrocytos (Rhizaria). Histological examination of Manila clams Ruditapes philippinarum revealed microcells in the connective tissue of adductor muscle, foot, mantle, gills, siphon and visceral mass. The clams had been collected from 4 beds on the coast of Galicia, Spain. The prevalence of these microcells ranged from 73 to 93% in surface clams and from 3 to 33% in buried clams. However, the detection of brown ring disease signs in clams from every bed prevented us from making the assumption that the microcells alone were responsible for clam mortality. PCR assays using primer pairs designed to detect Bonamia spp. and haplosporidians gave negative results, whereas positive results were obtained with primers for the genus Mikrocytos. A consensus sequence of 1670 bp of the ribosomal gene complex of the microcells was obtained. It contained a section of the 18S region, the whole first internal transcribed spacer, the 5.8S region, the second internal transcribed spacer and a section of the 28S region. Comparison of this sequence with those of M. mackini infecting Crassostrea gigas and Mikrocytos sp. infecting Ostrea edulis showed that the microcells of Galician clams were the most divergent among the compared parasites. This is the first report of a Mikrocytos-like parasite infecting Manila clams. Care must be taken to avoid the spread of this parasite through Manila clam transfers.

  7. Low prevalence of Aichi virus in molluscan shellfish samples from Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadulla, E; Varela, M F; Romalde, J L

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to detect and quantify Aichi virus (AiV) in shellfish from three estuaries in Galicia, the main producer of molluscs in Europe. A total of 249 shellfish samples were analysed using a reverse transcription-quantitative PCR procedure. AiV was detected in 15 of 249 (6·02%) samples. Ría de Ares-Betanzos showed the highest prevalence (11·1%), followed by Ría do Burgo (3·7%) and Ría de Vigo, (2·56%). AiV quantifications ranged from nonquantifiable (under the limit of quantification of the method) to 6·9 × 10 3 RNAc per g DT, with a mean value of 1·9 × 10 2 RNAc per g DT. Results obtained indicated that the prevalence of this enteric virus in the studied area is considerably lower than those of other enteric viruses, such as Norovirus, Sapovirus, HAV or HEV. This is the first study that detects the presence of AiV in shellfish from authorized harvesting areas in Spain. Further studies with clinical samples are needed to determine the potential risk of AiV for human health in Galicia. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. The seed bank in Pinus stand regeneration in NW Spain after wildfire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Calvo

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Cantabrian area (northwest Spain Pinus stands occupy many of the original shrub communities that have been considered unproductive. These Pinus stands represent the vegetation which is most affected by fire. Regeneration after fire may occur in different ways: by resprouting or by germination or both. Germination was the only regeneration mechanism in Pinus species that appeared in these areas. The aim of this study is to determine the role of the soil seed bank in regeneration in this type of ecosystem. In order to carry out the study, three communities dominated by Pinus sylvestris which had suffered wildfires were chosen. In each of the three experimental sites of Pinus sylvestris stands the seed bank composition and above-ground vegetation were studied. The results allowed three species groups in the seed bank to be differentiated: those favoured by fire, amongst which some hardseeds, mainly belonging to Cistaceae and Leguminosae, were found; another group formed by outsider or opportunist species from outside the community and which used anemochory as their main dispersion mechanism; and the third group formed by those negatively affected, amongst which were species using vegetative resprout as the main regeneration mechanism. The species of greatest quantitative importance in the seed bank was Erica australis. In general, anemochorous species were predominant in the soil seed bank. During the first stages of succession chamaephytes were dominant and in the two years after fire therophytes were. No great similarity was observed between the bank composition and field vegetation from a qualitative viewpoint, due to differences in the presence of seeds of outsider plants in the bank and to the significance of the resprouting species in the field.

  9. The 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive and the Flooding of the Brown Coal Meirama Open Pit (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.

    2009-04-01

    Coal mining in Galicia (NW Spain) has been an important activity which came to an end in December, 2007. Hence, for different reasons, the two large brown coal mines in Galicia (the As Pontes mine, run by ENDESA GENERACIÓN, and the Meirama mine, owned by Lignitos de Meirama, S.A., LIMEISA), have started closure procedures, both of which are considering the flooding of the mine pits to create two large lakes (~8 km2 in As Pontes and ~2 km2 in Meirama). They will be unique in Galicia, a nearly lake-free territory. An important point to consider as regards the flooding of the lignite mine pits in Galicia is how the process of the creation of a body of artificial water will adapt to the strict legal demands put forth in the Water Framework Directive. This problem has been carefully examined by different authors in other countries and it raises the question of the need to adapt sampling surveys to monitor a number of key parameters -priority substances, physical and chemical parameters, biological indicators, etc.- that cannot be overlooked. Flooding, in both cases consider the preferential entrance into the mine holes of river-diverted surface waters, in detriment of ground waters in order to minimize acidic inputs. Although both mines are located in the same hydraulic demarcation (i.e. administrative units that, in Spain, are in charge of the public administration and the enforcement of natural water-related laws) the problems facing the corresponding mine managers are different. In the case of Meirama, the mine hole covers the upper third part of the Barcés river catchment, which is a major source of water for the Cecebre reservoir. That reservoir constitutes the only supply of drinking water for the city of A Coruña (~250.000 inhabitants) and its surrounding towns. In this contribution we will discuss how mine managers and the administration have addressed the uncertainties derived from the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the particular case of

  10. The wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) as secondary reservoir of Fasciola hepatica in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; Manga-González, M Yolanda; Peixoto, Raquel; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Valero, M Adela

    2013-12-06

    Fasciolosis is an emerging or reemerging human and animal disease in numerous parts of the world. In Galicia (NW, Spain), the wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main wild ungulate in terms of abundance and distribution. Its population has continuously increased over the past decades and this population growth has been accompanied by a reduction of habitats, so that the wild boar populations encroach more and more frequently onto agricultural lands. The increase of the interface area between livestock and the wild boars frequently involves the sharing of pastures and water sources, so that the circulation of common pathogens is propitiated. This is the first report concerning the importance of the wild boar as a possible reservoir of Fasciola hepatica infection in Spain. Livers from 358 hunted wild boars were analyzed showing that 11.2% were parasitized by F. hepatica, with burdens ranging from 1 to 14 flukes (mean=2.3). Fecal analysis demonstrated that 40.0% of parasitized animals shed F. hepatica eggs with a mean excretion of 6.1 eggs per gram of feces (epg). The presence of coproantigens analyzed by MM3-COPRO ELISA was positive in 62.9% of infected wild boars. After incubation, the percentage of hatched eggs ranged between 41.0% and 90.0% suggesting that the wild boar is very likely to contribute to the environmental contamination with viable parasite eggs. Comparative morphometric data were obtained using a computer image analysis system (CIAS) on the basis of standardized measurements. F. hepatica from cattle, sheep and wild boars from the same geographical area presents a similar body development and gravidity. Our study shows for the first time that the F. hepatica uterus from the wild boar presents an intermediate size between that found in primary reservoir hosts such as cattle and sheep, i.e., the individual potential egg output capacity of the wild boar does not greatly differ from that detected in Galician livestock. These results show that F. hepatica in

  11. Evaluation of the flukicide treatment policy for dairy cattle in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; Ubeira, Florencio M

    2008-11-07

    Fasciola hepatica infection is an important cause of lost productivity in livestock worldwide. Effective control of fasciolosis is difficult, especially in milking cows, which can only be treated during dry periods, a control strategy that has not been yet evaluated. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the effect of the type of flukicide treatment on the prevalence and intensity of infection in dairy cattle from Galicia, an area where fasciolosis is endemic and which is also the main milk-producing region in Spain. Faecal samples were taken from 5188 dairy cows on 275 randomly selected farms for measurement of the concentration of F. hepatica coproantigens by a monoclonal antibody based immunoassay (MM3-COPRO ELISA). On the same day as the sampling, each farm owner/manager was questioned about the types of treatment used on the farm. Three groups of farms were considered according to the fasciolicide treatment: (A) flukicides were not used, (B) an anthelmintic effective against mature stages of flukes was used (albendazole or netobimin) and (C) a fasciolicide effective against immature and mature stages was used (triclabendazole: TCBZ). Results indicated that 16.0% (832/5188) cows from 61.1% (168/275) herds were infected by F. hepatica. The mean coproantigen concentration in infected herds was 13.0ng/ml (range 0.9-112.6ng/ml). The highest individual concentration recorded was 496.6ng/ml. Herd and within-herd prevalences of F. hepatica were similar in all three groups, but surprisingly, individual prevalence and antigen concentration were higher in Group C (p25% was very high in all three groups, and no significant differences were observed. In contrast, the percentage of herds with mean antigen concentrations >20ng/ml was significantly lower (p<0.05) in Groups A and B (14.4% and 14.9%, respectively) than in Group C (50.0%). The proportion of herds that exceeded both limits (25% for prevalence and/or 20ng/ml for coproantigen concentration) was also

  12. Checklist of the benthic marine and brackish Galician algae (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara, Ignacio

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an annotated checklist of the benthic marine and brackish algae of the Galician coasts (Spain based on literature records and new collections. This checklist includes 618 species: 118 Cyanophyta, 296 Rhodophyta, 127 Ochrophyta, and 77 Chlorophyta. The number of specific, infraspecific taxa, and stages is 643: 121 Cyanophyta, 309 Rhodophyta, 135 Ochrophyta, and 79 Chlorophyta. Hyella caespitosa var. nitida, Calothrix fasciculata, Gracilariopsis longissima, Compsonema minutum, and Sphacelaria tribuloides are new records for Galicia, and there are also some new provincial records. We state the presence of each species for Lugo (Lu, A Coruña (Co, and Pontevedra (Po provinces. The number of species found in Galicia is high, since 85% of the species recorded for the warm-temperate NE Atlantic Ocean grow in Galicia. Biogeographical comments comparing the Galician data with the neighboring areas of Britain and Ireland, Basque coast, Portugal, southern Iberian Peninsula, Canary Islands and Atlantic coast of Morocco are given. Finally, we present lists of cold-temperate, warm-temperate, Lusitanic Province endemics, and alien species growing in Galicia.Se presenta una lista comentada de las especies de algas bentónicas marinas y salobres de la costa de Galicia (España basada en citas bibliográficas y nuevos datos de los autores. La lista contiene 618 especies: 118 Cyanophyta, 296 Rhodophyta, 127 Ochrophyta y 77 Chlorophyta. El número de taxa específicos e infraespecíficos asciende a 643: 121 Cyanophyta, 309 Rhodophyta, 135 Ochrophyta y 79 Chlorophyta. Hyella caespitosa var. nitida, Calothrix fasciculata, Gracilariopsis longissima, Compsonema minutum y Sphacelaria tribuloides son nuevas citas para Galicia, y algunas nuevas citas provinciales. Para cada especie se especifica su presencia en las provincias de Lugo (Lu, A Coruña (Co y Pontevedra (Po. El número de especies encontradas en Galicia es elevado, ya que se conocen el 85% de las

  13. Speciation and solubility control of aluminium in soils developed from slates of the River Sor watershed (Galicia, NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Sanjurjo, M.J.; Alvarez, E.; Garcia-Rodeja, E. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola

    1998-04-01

    Soil aluminium chemistry was studied in the Sor Watershed (Galicia, NW Spain) which lies within a 20 km radius from the As Pontes 1400 MW lignite-fuelled power plants. The Al species in the solid and liquid phases were studied in eight soils developed from slates in a watershed subjected to acid deposition. From soil solution data the mechanisms possibly controlling Al solubility are also discussed. The soils are acidic, organic matter rich and with an exchange complex saturated with Al. In the solid phase, more than 75% of non-crystalline Al was organo-Al complexes, mostly highly stable. In the soil solutions, monomeric inorganic Al forms were predominant and fluoro-Al complexes were the most abundant species, except in soil solutions of pH {lt} 4.8 and Al L/F ratio {gt} 3, in which Al{sup 3+} predominated and sulphato-Al complexes were relatively abundant. The most stable phases were kaolinite, gibbsite and non-crystalline Al hydroxides. In most samples, Al solubility was controlled by Al-hydroxides. Only in a few cases (solutions of pH 4-5, Al{sup 3+} activity {gt} 40 {mu}mol L{sup -1} and SO{sub 4} content {gt} 200 {mu}mol L{sup -1}), Al-sulphates such as jurbanite also could exert some control over Al solubility. In addition to these minerals, a possible role of organo-Al complex or the influence of adsorption reactions of sulphate is considered, especially for samples with very low Al{sup 3+} content ({lt} 0.5 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). 51 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Distribution and spatial trends of PCBs in commercial scallops from Galician littoral (NW, Spain). Possible influence of biometric parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Mouteira, A

    2012-04-01

    Levels and profiles of 10 individual congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied in 3 species of commercial scallops (Pecten maximus, Chlamys varia, and Chlamys opercularis) from several Rías in Galician littoral (NW, Spain). ΣPCBs levels ranged from 2.21 to 41.0 ng/g wet weight for P. maximus, from 13.9 to 24.9 ng/g wet weight for C. varia, and from 1.58 to 24.3 ng/g wet weight for C. opercularis. The possible influence between biometric parameters (lipid content, condition index, and shell size) and PCBs levels were studied using statistical analysis (ANOVA). No relationship between biometric parameters could be established in the studied samples. Multivariate analysis showed there were differences in bioaccumulation of some PCBs congeners. Principal component analysis classifies clearly the 3 studied Rías (Ría de Ferrol, Ría de Arousa, and Ría de Vigo) taking into account PCBs levels found in the shellfish. We investigated levels and profiles of 10 congeners of PCBs in 3 commercial scallop species from the Galician littoral zone. The influence of 3 biometric parameters on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels was also studied in order to assess results from the monitoring programs of production areas. According to PCBs levels, geographical differences were observed in commercial scallops from the 3 studied estuarine bays (Ría de Ferrol, Ría de Arousa, and Ría de Vigo). © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Potential Impact of Climate Change on Suspended Sediment Yield in NW Spain: A Case Study on the Corbeira Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Luz Rodríguez-Blanco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil losses and the subsequent sediment delivery constitute significant environmental threats. Climate change is likely to have an impact on the availability of water and therefore on sediment yield in catchments. In this context, quantifying the sediment response to an increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change is of utmost importance to the proper management of rural catchments. However, quantitative assessment of climate change impact remains a complex task. In this study, the potential medium (2031–2060 and long-term (2069–2098 impacts of projected changes of temperature, rainfall and CO2 concentration on sediment yield in a small rural catchment located in NW Spain were evaluated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model. Climate change scenarios were created using future climate data projected by regional climate models from the ENSEMBLES project and two CO2 concentration scenarios (550 and 660 ppm. The results showed that climate change would have a noticeable impact on suspended sediment if the forecast temperature, rainfall and CO2 concentration changes included in this study were met. Overall, suspended sediment is expected to decrease (2031–2060: −11%, 2069–2098: −8% compared to the baseline period (1981–2010, mainly due to decreased streamflow. However, an increase in sediment transport in winter is predicted, possibly associated with increased erosion in cultivated areas (11%–17%, suggesting that, at this time of the year, the effect of soil detachment prevails over sediment transport capacity. Consequently, management practices aimed at reducing soil erosion in cultivated areas should be carried out, because these are the main source of sediment in the study area.

  16. Arsenic, cadmium and lead in fresh and processed tuna marketed in Galicia (NW Spain): Risk assessment of dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Ricardo; García, M Ángeles; Alonso, Julián; Melgar, M Julia

    2018-01-29

    Currently, metal bioaccumulation in fish is increasing and is a cause of concern due to toxicity. Total arsenic, cadmium and lead concentrations in fresh and processed tuna (110 samples) marketed in Galicia (NW Spain) were determined by ICP-MS spectrometry. The average concentrations of As and Cd, 3.78 and 0.024 mg kg -1 w.w., respectively, in fresh tuna were statistically significantly higher than those in processed tuna (p  natural > pickled sauce. Of the two species studied in canned tuna, Thunnus alalunga showed statistically significant higher levels both for As 1.28 mg kg -1 (p < 0.001) and Pb 0.013 mg kg -1 (p = 0.0496) than Thunnus albacares. No samples surpassed the limits set by the EU for Cd and Pb. The limit for As in fish has not been established, but the arsenic contents in fresh tuna reported here are important, as they are among the highest reported in the literature. Considering public health in children and adults with respect to the investigated metals, the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) did not exceed the tolerable intakes. No chronic systemic risk was found since all the target hazard quotients (THQs-TTHQs) were far below 1 (critical value), and the carcinogenic risk (CR) for As did not exceed the acceptable value of 10 -5 . Thus, tuna consumption in the Galician diet does not pose a risk for different population groups in terms of these studied metals/metalloids. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Oyster parasites Bonamia ostreae and B. exitiosa co-occur in Galicia (NW Spain): spatial distribution and infection dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramilo, Andrea; González, Mar; Carballal, María J; Darriba, Susana; Abollo, Elvira; Villalba, Antonio

    2014-07-24

    Bonamiosis constrains the flat oyster industry worldwide. The protistan species Bonamia ostreae had been considered solely responsible for this disease in Europe, but the report of B. exitiosa infecting Ostrea edulis 5 yr ago in Galicia (NW Spain), and subsequently in other European countries, raised the question of the relevance of each species in bonamiosis. The spatial distribution of B. exitiosa and B. ostreae in Galicia was addressed by sampling 7 natural O. edulis beds and 3 culture raft areas, up to 3 times in the period 2009 to 2010. B. ostreae infected flat oysters in every natural bed and every raft culture area. True B. exitiosa infections (histological diagnosis) were detected in every raft culture area but only in 2 natural beds, i.e. in 4 rías. PCR-positive results for B. exitiosa were recorded in 4 out of 5 beds where true infections were not found, thus the occurrence of B. exitiosa in those 4 beds cannot be ruled out. Additionally, 4 cohorts of hatchery-produced oyster spat were transferred to a raft to analyse Bonamia spp. infection dynamics through oyster on-growing. The highest percentages of oysters PCR-positive for both Bonamia spp. were recorded in the first months of on-growing; other peaks of PCR-positive diagnosis were successively lower. Differences in the percentage of PCR-positive cases and in the prevalence of true infection between B. exitiosa and B. ostreae through on-growing were not significant. Our results support that B. exitiosa is adapted to infect O. edulis in the Galician marine ecosystem.

  18. Accumulation trends of petroleum hydrocarbons in commercial shellfish from the Galician coast (NW Spain) affected by the Prestige oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas, L; Franco, M A; Soriano, J A; González, J J; Ortiz, L; Bayona, J M; Albaigés, J

    2009-04-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in three species of commercial shellfish, namely razor shells (Ensis arcuatus and Ensis siliqua), goose barnacle (Pollicipes cornucopia) and sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), living in different habitats and exhibiting different feeding behaviors. The samples were collected monthly, from January 2003 to October 2004, in three stations of the Galicia coast (NW Spain), following the Prestige oil spill, with the aim of assessing their response to the spill and, therefore, their suitability for monitoring purposes. The aliphatic fractions were mostly dominated by biogenic hydrocarbons, reflecting the diet composition of the organisms and their low metabolic capacity. The presence of oil was assessed by the determination of chemical markers. The analysis of the aromatic fractions revealed the occurrence of 3-6 ring parent and alkylated PAHs, consistent with a mixed petrogenic-pyrolytic origin, with the common feature of the predominance of chrysene in all samples collected after the spill. However, the distributions exhibited both temporal and interspecies variations. The PAH concentrations (Sigma13) increased significantly after the spill and decreased 6-7 months later close to background levels for the region. One year after the accident, the median values were: 58 microg/kg for razor shells, 26 microg/kg for barnacles, and 25 microg/kg for sea urchins. The temporal evolution of the PAH concentrations along the survey period was used to estimate loss rates for bioavailable PAHs in barnacles and sea urchins after the spill. Half-life values were in the order of 30 and 60 d, respectively. The results of the study demonstrate that barnacles can be suitable species for oil spill monitoring.

  19. Historical Biogeography of the Marine Snail Littorina saxatilis Inferred from Haplotype and Shell Morphology Evolution in NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Terencia; Saura, María; Rolán-Alvarez, Emilio; Quesada, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    The marine snail Littorina saxatilis exhibits extreme morphological variation between and within geographical regions and represents an excellent model for assessing local adaptation. Previous studies support the hypothesis of parallel evolution in sympatry of two morphologically different ecotypes (named as RB and SU) that co-inhabit different habitats from Galician rocky shores (NW Spain), and which are interrupted by sheltered areas inhabited by a different morph never studied before (named as SRB). Here, we use morphological and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data to test hypotheses on the origin and diversification of SRB snails and to assess their evolutionary relationships with RB and SU ecotypes. Our results show that the SRB morph displays the largest size and shell elongation and the smallest relative shell aperture, representing an extreme type of the RB vs. SU polymorphism, which has been linked to adaptation to sheltered ecological factors. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the SRB morph shares ancestry with RB and SU ecotypes, rejecting the hypothesis that the SRB morph marks relict populations from which these ecotypes evolved in Galician coasts. Our data support that genetic differentiation among SRB, RB and SU morphs results from a general pattern of restricted gene flow and isolation by distance linked to the colonization of Galician coasts by two independent mtDNA lineages, rather than from a random fragmentation of the initial distributional range. Therefore, the confinement of distinct lineages to specific geographical areas denote evident limits to the distances these snails can disperse. Morphological analysis indicates no association between mtDNA lineage and a specific morphotype, and suggests the independent gain of convergent morphological patterns within each mtDNA lineage in populations occupying contrasting habitats following the colonization of Galician coasts. PMID:27513934

  20. Assessment of the soil water content temporal variations in an agricultural area of Galicia (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestas-Valero, Roger Manuel; Miras-Avalos, Jose Manuel; Paz-González, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The direct and continuous assessment of the temporal variation on soil water content is of paramount importance for agricultural practices and, in particular, for the management of water resources. Soil water content is affected by many factors such as topography, particle size, clay and organic matter contents, and tillage systems. There are several techniques to measure or estimate soil water content. Among them, Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) stands out. It is based on measuring the dielectrical constant of the soil environment. This technique allows to describe water dynamics in time and space, to determine the main patterns of soil moisture, the water uptake by roots, the evapotranspiration and the drainage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the daily variation of soil water content in the root-influenced zone in plots devoted to maize and grassland as a function of the soil water volumetric content. The studied site is located in an experimental field of the Centre for Agricultural Research (CIAM) in Mabegondo located in the province of A Coruña, Spain (43°14'N, 8°15'W; 91 masl). The study was carried out from June 2008 to September 2009 in a field devoted to maize (Zea mays, L.) and another field devoted to grassland. The soil of these sites is silt-clay textured. Long-term mean annual temperature and rainfall figures are 13.3 °C and 1288 mm, respectively. During the study period, maize crop was subjected to conventional agricultural practices. A weekly evaluation of the phenological stage of the crop was performed. An EnviroSCAN FDR equipment, comprising six capacitance sensors, was installed in the studied sites following the manufacturer's recommendations, thus assuring a proper contact between the probe and the soil. Soil water content in the root-influenced zone (40 cm depth in grassland and 60 cm depth in maize were considered) was hourly monitored in 20 cm ranges (0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, and 40-60 cm) using FDR. Evaluations were

  1. Prokaryotic abundance, activitiy and community composition in relation to the quality of dissoved organic matter in the deep waters off the Galician Coast (NW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero-Feijóo, E. (Elisa); Nieto-Cid, M (Maria del Mar); álvarez-Salgado, X.A. (Xosé-Antón); et al.; Varela-Rozados, M. (Marta)

    2014-01-01

    We have simultaneously studied the abundance, activity and prokaryotic community structure in relation to the quality of oceanic dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the meso- and bathypelagic waters off the Galician Coast (NW Spain, from 43ºN, 9ºW to 43ºN, 15ºW).Distint water masses were identified based on their physical and chemical characteristics. While prokaryotic heterotrophic production decreased from the euphotic layer to the bathypelagic waters by two orders of magnitude, prokaryotic a...

  2. Application of specific extraction chromatographic methods to the Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd isotope study of geological samples: The Hombreiro-Santa Eulalia Granite (Lugo, NW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Zalduegui, J. F.; Pin, C.; Aranguren, A.; Gil Ibarguchi, José Ignacio

    1996-01-01

    The analytical application to geological samples of three new chromatographic resins, TRU-Spec ®, Sr-Spec ® and LN-Spec ®) has been investigated. Seven samples of the Hombreiro massif (Lugo, NW Spain) have been studied, that yield a Rb-Sr age of 298 ±5 Ma (SrQ = 0.7086, MSWD = 7.64) for the magma crystallization. Sm-Nd data results for the same massif give eNd values dose to -2 at 300 Ma. This suggests that the origin of the magma might be related to the partial melting of immature sediments,...

  3. Reforestation and land use change as drivers for a decrease of avalanche damage in mid-latitude mountains (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, Cristina; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Sánchez-Posada, Covadonga; Pereira, Susana; Oliva, Marc; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2017-06-01

    Natural conditions that explain the triggering of snow avalanches are becoming better-known, but our understanding of how socio-environmental changes can influence the occurrence of damaging avalanches is still limited. This study analyses the evolution of snow avalanche damage in the Asturian Massif (NW Spain) between 1800 and 2015, paying special attention to changes in land-use and land-cover patterns. A damage index has been performed using historical sources, photointerpretation and fieldwork-based data, which were introduced in a GIS and processed by means of statistical analysis. Mapping allowed connecting spatiotemporal variations of damage and changes in human-environment interactions. The total number of victims was 342 (192 dead and 150 injured). Results show stability in the number of avalanches during the study period, but a progressive decrease in the damage per avalanche. Changes in land use explain the evolution of damage and its spatial/temporal behaviour. The role played by vegetation cover is at the root of this process: damage was the highest during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when a massive deforestation process affected the protective forest. This deforestation was the result of demographic growth and intensive grazing, disentailment laws and emerging coal mining. Since the mid-20th century, the transformation of a traditional land-management system based on overexploitation into a system based on land marginalization and reforestation, together with the decline of deforestation due to industrial and legal causes, resulted in the decrease of avalanches that affected settlements (mostly those released below the potential timberline). The decrease of damage has been sharper in the western sector of the Asturian Massif, where oak deforestation was very intense in the past and where lithology allows for a more successful ecological succession at present. Taking into account that reforestation can be observed in mountain environments of

  4. Support Vector Machine-based method for predicting Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms in coastal waters (Galician rias, NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Vilas, Luis; Spyrakos, Evangelos; Torres Palenzuela, Jesus M.; Pazos, Yolanda

    2014-05-01

    Phytoplanktonic blooms in the coastal embayments (rias) at the NW part of Spain were mentioned for the first time in 1918 and since then they have been associated numerous times with negatives impacts to a very important economic activity in the area, mussel production. In this study, eight years of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. abundance and associated meteorological and oceanographic data were used to develop and validate support vector machine (SVM) models for the prediction of these diatoms. SVM were used to identify presence/below low detection limit, bloom/no bloom conditions of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and finally to predict blooms due to these diatoms in the coastal systems of the Galician rias. The best SVM models were selected on the basis of C and γ parameters and their performance was evaluated in terms of accuracy and kappa statistics (κ). Regarding the presence/below low detection limit, bloom/no bloom models the best results in the validation dataset were achieved using all the variables: ria code, day of the year, temperature, salinity, upwelling indices and bloom occurrence in previous weeks. The best performing models were also tested in an independent dataset from the study area, where they showed high overall accuracy (78.53-82.18%), κ values (0.77-0.81) and true positive rates (62.60-78.18). In these models the bloom occurrence in previous weeks was identified as a key parameter to the prediction performance. In this paper, toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms could not be predicted due to limited information on toxin concentration and species composition. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that the approach followed here is capable for high predictive performance which could be of great aid in the monitoring of algal blooms and offer valuable information to the local shellfish industry. The reliable prediction of categorical Pseudo-nitzschia abundances using variables that are operationally determined or short-term predicted could provide early warning of

  5. Tracing Late Holocene Warm Periods in the Galician Continental Margin (NW Spain): Detrital Control vs. Early Diagenetic Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, K.; Rey, D.; Rubio, B.; Vilas, F.

    2007-12-01

    The sediments of the Galician continental margin (NW Spain) exhibit great but variable degrees of early diagenetic dissolution of magnetic minerals. This process completely erases any detrital magnetic signal at time-scales that range from about 1,000 years to less than 50 years in the highly productive estuarine-like environment of the Galician Rias Baixas. The more open marine conditions encountered in the adjoining continental shelf exhibit however a significantly different behavior. The singular balance between early diagenetic dissolution and lower sedimentation rates allows partial and variable preservation of the also variable detritally controlled magnetic inputs. In this context it is possible to reconstruct the recent environmental history of the area attending to the changes in the concentration of magnetically-interesting iron oxides. High-resolution magnetic and geochemical measurements carried out in 6 cores from the continental self evidenced the occurrence of correlatable peaks of magnetic mineral concentration that were interpreted as periods of enhanced detrital input. Magnetically depleted sediments were related to lower detrital input and/or to enhanced productivity that intensified the reductive conditions. The magnetic concentration peaks occurred within the Medieval (MWP) and Roman Warm Periods. Similar concentrations of hematite in the MWP and the RWP suggest that the lower concentration-dependent magnetic properties in the RWP are most likely caused by a greater degree of dissolution of magnetic detrital oxides due to a longer exposure to reducing conditions. These features could be traced over all the studied area, despite the great heterogeneity of the shelf sediments. This highlights the potential of magnetic properties as proxies of paleoenvironmental conditions in areas of similar complexity. This approach can be used as a rapid and cost-effective tool to screen large areas in the search for suitable settings for more precise, but time

  6. Isotopic identification of natural vs. anthropogenic lead sources in marine sediments from the inner Ria de Vigo (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Iglesias, P., E-mail: palvarez@uvigo.es [Department of Marine Geosciences and Land Use Management, Faculty of Marine Sciences, University of Vigo (Spain); Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico Instrumental, C.A.C.T.I., Universidad de Vigo (Spain); Rubio, B., E-mail: brubio@uvigo.es [Department of Marine Geosciences and Land Use Management, Faculty of Marine Sciences, University of Vigo (Spain); Millos, J., E-mail: jmillos@uvigo.es [Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico Instrumental, C.A.C.T.I., Universidad de Vigo (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    San Simon Bay, the inner part of the Ria de Vigo (NW Spain), an area previously identified as highly polluted by Pb, was selected for the application of Pb stable isotope ratios as a fingerprinting tool in subtidal and intertidal sediment cores. Lead isotopic ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on extracts from bulk samples after total acid digestion. Depth-wise profiles of {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios showed, in general, an upward decrease for both intertidal and subtidal sediments as a consequence of the anthropogenic activities over the last century, or centuries. Waste channel samples from a nearby ceramic factory showed characteristic Pb stable isotope ratios different from those typical of coal and petrol. Natural isotope ratios from non-polluted samples were established for the study area, differentiating sediments from granitic or schist-gneiss sources. A binary mixing model employed on the polluted samples allowed estimating the anthropogenic inputs to the bay. These inputs represented between 25 and 98% of Pb inputs in intertidal samples, and 9-84% in subtidal samples, their contributions varying with time. Anthropogenic sources were apportioned according to a three-source model. Coal combustion-related emissions were the main anthropogenic source Pb to the bay (60-70%) before the establishment of the ceramic factory in the area (in the 1970s) which has since constituted the main source (95-100%), followed by petrol-related emissions. The Pb inputs history for the intertidal area was determined for the 20th century, and, for the subtidal area, the 19th and 20th centuries. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb stable isotope ratios were applied to study Pb sources in coastal sediments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb isotopic ratios were determined for pre-pollution and for industrial samples. Black

  7. Effects of the sequence wildfire-harvesting-coppice sprout selection on nutrient export via streamfloe in a small E. globulus watershed in Galicia (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, C.; Vega, J. A.; Bara, S.; Alonso, M.; Fonturbel, T.

    2011-07-01

    An experimental study was carried out between 1987 and 1999, to assess the effect of the sequence wildfire-clear felling-coppice sprout selection thinning, on stream flow nutrient export in a Eucalyptus globulus Labill. watershed in Galicia (NW Spain). The effects of such a sequence on nutrient export via stream flow had not been previously evaluated. A wildfire in 1989 caused a significant increase in nutrient exports in stream flow during the following two years. No significant effect was observed the third year after wildfire. After clear felling in 1992, inputs via precipitation compensated for nutrient exports in stream flow, except for K the first year following harvest and NO{sub 3}- during the three years after this operation. Coppice sprout selection thinning in 1995 had less effect on nutrient exports than wildfire or harvest. The results presented here could may help in evaluating the effects of current intensive forest management and perturbations that affect eucalypt stands in NW Spain. (Author) 39 refs.

  8. EucaTool®, a cloud computing application for estimating the growth and production of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Galicia (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rojo-Alboreca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To present the software utilities and explain how to use EucaTool®, a free cloud computing application developed to estimate the growth and production of seedling and clonal blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Galicia (NW Spain.Area of study: Galicia (NW Spain.Material and methods: EucaTool® implements a dynamic growth and production model that is valid for clonal and non-clonal blue gum plantations in the region. The model integrates transition functions for dominant height (site index curves, number of stems per hectare (mortality function and basal area, as well as output functions for tree and stand volume, biomass and carbon content.Main results: EucaTool® can be freely accessed from any device with an Internet connection, from http://app.eucatool.com. In addition, useful information about the application is published on a related website: http://www.eucatool.com.Research highlights: The application has been designed to enable forest stakeholders to estimate volume, biomass and carbon content of forest plantations from individual trees, diameter classes or stand data, as well as to estimate growth and future production (indicating the optimal rotation age for maximum income by measurement of only four stand variables: age, number of trees per hectare, dominant height and basal area.Keywords: forest management; biomass; seedling; clones; blue gum; forest tool.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA of pre-last glacial maximum red deer from NW Spain suggests a more complex phylogeographical history for the species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rey de la Iglesia, Alba; Grandal-d'Anglade, Aurora; Campos, Paula

    2017-01-01

    The major climatic oscillations that characterized the Quaternary had a great influence on the evolution and distribution of several species. During cold periods, the distribution of temperate-adapted species became fragmented with many surviving in southern refugia (Iberian, Italian, and Balkan...... Peninsulas). Red deer was one of the species that contracted its original range to southern refugia. Currently, two main lineages have been described for the species: western and eastern. We have analyzed fossils pre-dating the last glacial maximum (LGM) from Liñares cave (NW Spain) that belongs...... to the peripheral range of the western clade, and fossils from the Danish Holocene belonging to the central part of the same clade. Phylogenetic analyses place our samples in the western clade. However, some specimens from Liñares represent an early split in the tree along with other pre-LGM western samples from...

  10. Chromium in marine sediment samples from the Ria de Arousa (Galicia, NW of Spain): analysis of the total content in slurries by ETAAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazos-Capeans, P.; Barciela-Alonso, M.C.; Bermejo-Barrera, A.; Bermejo-Barrera, P

    2004-10-25

    The study attempts to measure the total chromium content in sediments of all the Ria de Arousa (Galicia, NW Spain). The method was developed by analysing slurries by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The metal determination was carried out optimising the electrothermal programme and the concentration of magnesium nitrate as a chemical modifier. What was aimed to be achieved is a general explanation of the chromium content along the estuary because there could be a chromium sink in this marine environment. Results obtained were between 43.4{+-}1.7 {mu}g g{sup -1} and 184.6{+-}26.9 {mu}g g{sup -1} from the end of the Ulla river to the Atlantic Ocean, most of them higher than the background reference levels.

  11. Age and growth of the sword razor clam Ensis arcuatus in the Ría de Pontevedra (NW Spain): Influence of environmental parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Otero, A.; Gaspar, M. B.; Macho, G.; Vázquez, E.

    2014-01-01

    The sword razor clam Ensis arcuatus is the most important commercial species of razor clam in Spain, and its fishery in the Ría de Pontevedra (Galicia, NW Spain) is the most productive. Despite the economic importance of this species, information on its biology is scarce. This study reports shell morphometric relationships, age, and growth rates of E. arcuatus in three fishing beds in the Ría de Pontevedra (Brensa, Bueu and Ons, located in respectively the inner, middle and outer zones of the ria), providing the first estimates of growth parameters for the species in the Iberian Peninsula. Growth was estimated by examination of surface growth rings and internal shell microgrowth patterns (acetate peel technique) that proved to be the most suitable method for growth estimate. Growth of E. arcuatus was slower in Bueu (L∞ = 140.4, k = 0.40) followed by Brensa (L∞ = 151.91, k = 0.40) and Ons (L∞ = 172.7, k = 0.33), and the clams reached commercial size in 1.7, 2.3 and 2.8 years in Ons, Brensa and Bueu, respectively. The differences in growth between sites in relation to environmental parameters are evaluated and the implications for the razor clam fishery are discussed.

  12. Babesia microti-like piroplasm (syn. Babesia vulpes) infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in NW Spain (Galicia) and its relationship with Ixodes hexagonus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Rocío; López-Beceiro, Ana María; Montoya, Ana; Barrera, Juan Pedro; Ortega, Nieves; Gálvez, Rosa; Marino, Valentina; González, Julia; Olmeda, Ángeles Sonia; Fidalgo, Luis Eusebio; Miró, Guadalupe

    2018-03-15

    Piroplasmosis is caused by several species of protozoa such as the Babesia microti-like piroplasm (Bml), an emerging blood protozoan also known as Theileria annae or Babesia vulpes. Infection by Bml was first reported in dogs in Spain where it is endemic today. Recently, a high prevalence of Bml has been increasingly detected in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in European countries. The objective of this study was to determine infection levels of this parasite in foxes from Galicia, NW Spain, and ticks species infestation in these carnivores, where they are so far unknown. Samples of blood, spleen and ticks (if present) were taken from 237 hunted red foxes in the Galicia region. Blood smears were prepared for direct parasite observation, and spleen and tick samples were examined by nested PCR. Prevalences of Bml infection in Galician red foxes were estimated at 72% (171/237) by PCR and 38.23% (26/68) by direct observation. Among 837 ticks collected, the main tick identified was Ixodes hexagonus (present in 82.4% of the foxes) followed by Ixodes ricinus (12.3%), Dermacentor reticulatus (12.3%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (3.5%). From 34 foxes testing positive for Bml, 616 ticks were collected: positive Bml PCR results were obtained in 55.6% (227/408) of ticks collected from 9 foxes, while the 208 ticks from the remaining 25 infected foxes returned negative PCR results. Given that canine piroplasmosis is endemic in this area, our observations point to the red fox as the main reservoir for Bml infection and the high proportion of I. hexagonus among ticks collected from red foxes suggests its likely role as vectors of B. microti-like piroplasm in this region. Further studies are needed for a better understanding of the link between the wild and domestic life cycles of this piroplasm. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Accounting for time-dependent changes in GHG emissions in the Ribeiro appellation (NW Spain): Are land use changes an important driver?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva-Rey, Pedro; Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Otero, Marta; Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The environmental profile of a wine appellation was assessed for a 20 year period. • LUCs and LCA methods were linked to assess the GHG emissions in the appellation. • Winegrowing operations and land use were monitored up to the gate of the winery. • Different trends were found depending on the period assessed. • Demographic and social changes triggered changes in the carbon stocks. - Abstract: Land use changes (LUCs) constitute a crucial source of environmental impact in production systems, which are mostly associated with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This circumstance is especially important for the agricultural sector, since these imply an important proportion of the total GHG emissions occurring worldwide. Wine and grape production is a key sector in Spain, representing the largest surface area at European level. In the past decades, important wine related LUCs have been observed due to changes in farming methods/type, number of Denominations of Origin, and the establishment of larger wineries that have enhanced exports. The current study presents a temporally based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study of the Ribeiro appellation in NW Spain, in which the gradual changes in the land use, as well as the technological improvements are analyzed in detail in order to understand how the environmental profile of this specific wine producing area has shifted in the past two decades (i.e., from 1990 to 2009). On the one hand, phenomena such as afforestation and agricultural intensification are analyzed throughout the appellation to estimate the impact due to GHG emissions linked to LUCs, based on IPCC standards. On the other hand, trends linked to technological improvements, operational changes, such as changes in the use and management of plant protection agents or fertilizers or the change in the energy sources for machinery on the vineyards, were assessed in detail

  14. Phenolic Composition and Color of Single Cultivar Young Red Wines Made with Mencia and Alicante-Bouschet Grapes in AOC Valdeorras (Galicia, NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Revilla

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Single cultivar wines made with two different red grape cultivars from AOC Valdeorras (Galicia, NW Spain, Mencia and Alicante Bouschet, were studied with the aim of determining their color and phenolic composition. Two sets of analyses were made on 30 wine samples of 2014 vintage, after malolactic fermentation took place, to evaluate several physicochemical characteristics from these wines related to color and polyphenols. Several parameters related with color and the general phenolic composition of wines (total phenols index, color intensity, hue, total anthocyans, total anthocyanins, colored anthocyanins, chemical age index, and total tannins were determined by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Those analyses revealed that Alicante Bouschet wines presented, in general, a higher content of polyphenols and a more intense color than Mencia wines. Using HPLC-DAD, five anthocyanin monoglucosides and nine acylated anthocyanins were identified in both types of wine; each type of wine showed a distinctive anthocyanin fingerprint, as Alicante Bouschet wines contained a higher proportion of cyanidin-derived anthocyanins. Multivariate statistic studies were performed to both datasets to explore relationships among variables and among samples. These studies revealed relationships among several variables considered, and were capable to group the samples in two different classes using principal component analysis (PCA.

  15. Distribution patterns of Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta from seagrass (Zostera marina and Z. noltei meadows in the Ensenada de O Grove (Galicia, NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Quintas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the distribution and composition of the syllid fauna inhabiting seagrass meadows in the Ensenada de O Grove (NW Spain. Samples were collected on muddy sediments colonized by either Zostera marina L., Zostera noltei Hornemann or by a mixed meadow with both species. Syllids were dominant (13340 individuals; 37% of total polychaete abundance, including 22 species (12 genera. The mixed meadows housed the highest number of species and the Z. noltei meadow had practically no syllids. The dominant species were Exogone naidina, Parapionosyllis elegans, Parexogone hebes and Prosphaerosyllis campoyi ( > 80% of total abundance. Carnivores (mainly species of Parapionosyllis, Amblyosyllis, and Streptosyllis were dominant, especially in muddy sand with either Z. marina or Z. noltei and sandy mud with a mixed meadow. The most important abiotic variables for explaining the composition and distribution of the syllid fauna were bottom water salinity, sorting coefficient and carbonate content. The highest number of species was recorded at sites with a high salinity and carbonate content and the lowest at sites with a high sorting coefficient.

  16. Temporal trends in mercury concentrations in raptor flight feathers stored in an environmental specimen bank in Galicia (NW Spain) between 2000 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Seoane, Rita; Varela, Zulema; Carballeira, Alejo; Aboal, Jesús R; Fernández, J Ángel

    2017-03-01

    Temporal trends in Hg concentrations were investigated in primary flight feathers from 319 specimens of three birds of prey: P7 in the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), P6 in the common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and P5 in the tawny owl (Strix aluco). The samples were stored in a regional environmental specimen bank and belonged to specimens which died between 2000 and 2013 in Galicia (NW Spain). We would expect to see a decline in Hg concentrations across the study period, as data of atmospheric emissions show a gradual reduction of this pollutant in Europe in the last two decades. The study did not reveal any temporal pattern in Hg concentrations of feathers in any of the three species for the study period, may be due to the persistence of Hg in the environment, but showed a low level of contamination by this metal in the study area. In addition, the results show high intra-specific, as well as, inter-annual and inter-specific variability in data, mainly attributed to the level of exposure of the raptors to this pollutant and to the biomagnification process of Hg through food chains. These findings indicate that the high variability can be a limiting factor in the use of raptors for biomonitoring temporal patterns of Hg, but nevertheless, the technique provides qualitative information about the amount of Hg that reach the top of the terrestrial food chains.

  17. Perkinsus olseni and P. chesapeaki detected in a survey of perkinsosis of various clam species in Galicia (NW Spain) using PCR-DGGE as a screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramilo, Andrea; Pintado, José; Villalba, Antonio; Abollo, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    A survey on perkinsosis was performed involving 15 locations scattered along the Galician coast (NW Spain) and four clam species with high market value (Ruditapes decussatus, Ruditapes philippinarum, Venerupis corrugata and Polititapes rhomboides). The prevalence of Perkinsus parasites was estimated by PCR using genus-specific primers. The highest percentage of PCR-positive cases for perkinsosis corresponded to clams R. decussatus and V. corrugata, while lower values were detected in R. philippinarum and no case was found in P. rhomboides. The discrimination of Perkinsus species was performed by PCR-RFLP and by a new PCR-DGGE method developed in this study. Perkinsus olseni was identified in every clam species, except in P. rhomboides, using both PCR-DGGE and PCR-RFLP. Additionally, Perkinsus chesapeaki was only detected by PCR-DGGE infecting two Manila clams R. philippinarum from the same location, reporting the first case in Galicia. P. chesapeaki identification was further confirmed by in situ hybridisation assay and phylogenetic analysis of ITS region and LSU rDNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A novel paramyxean parasite, Marteilia octospora n. sp. (Cercozoa) infecting the Grooved Razor Shell clam Solen marginatus from Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Maite; López, Carmen; Lee, Ren-Shiang; Rodríguez, Rosana; Darriba, Susana

    2016-03-01

    Protozoan parasites of the genus Marteilia have been detected in marine bivalves and other invertebrates around the world, associated in some cases with mass mortalities. The present paper reports the characterization of the Marteilia sp. protozoan infecting the digestive gland of the Grooved Razor Shell clam (Solen marginatus) from Galicia (NW Spain), proposing a novel species in the genus: Marteilia octospora n. sp. Morphological and molecular techniques were used for the description of this parasite. Tissue imprints were essential in the study to confirm the presence of 8 spores per sporangium, a number never reported in other species from this genus. An ultrastructural study revealed that the size and number of dense granules, free in the mature sporangia, were quite different from granules in other Marteilia spp. Another morphological difference is the absence of a layer of concentric membranes found surrounding the mature spore in other species. In addition, concentric membranous structures observed in the different stages of the parasite have never been mentioned in other species of genus Marteilia. Moreover, molecular analysis of the rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) showed differences with the sequences available for other Marteilia spp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spatial and temporal trends of petroleum hydrocarbons in wild mussels from the Galician coast (NW Spain) affected by the Prestige oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, J A; Viñas, L; Franco, M A; González, J J; Ortiz, L; Bayona, J M; Albaigés, J

    2006-10-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in tissues of wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Galicia coast (NW Spain) in order to assess the extent of the environmental impact caused by the Prestige oil spill (November 13, 2002). Three sampling campaigns were carried out in February, June and November 2003 at 24 stations along the Galicia coast, from La Guardia (Pontevedra) to Ribadeo (Lugo). The spatial distribution of PAHs found in the first sampling period, clearly revealed the central area (Costa da Morte) as the most affected by the oil spill. In these stations, concentrations up to 7780 microg/kg dw of the sum of 13 parent PAHs were found 2-3 months after the spill. Molecular parameters within the aliphatic and aromatic fractions confirmed the presence of the Prestige oil in these samples. The levels markedly decreased at most of the stations in the second sampling and recovered to levels found before the spill in November 2003, 1 year after the accident (29-279 microg/kg dw, av. 133+/-83 microg/kg dw). However, a certain increase was observed in some sites which could be related to the remobilization of oil residues from still unclean intertidal spots or sediments due to the winter marine weather conditions.

  20. Subtle tissue and sex-dependent proteome variation in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) populations of the Galician coast (NW Spain) raised in a common environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasaral-Şahin, Şebnem; Romero, Mónica R; Cueto, Rosa; González-Lavín, Nerea; Marcos, Manuel; Diz, Angel P

    2015-12-01

    The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is one of the most important marine resources for aquaculture in Europe, and Galicia (NW Spain) is the EU's leading region for production. Variation in environmental and ecological factors exists in Northern and Southern estuaries of this region, and natural selection could have modulated genetic variation among populations with adaptation to local conditions as the driving force. Results from a previous genetic study using neutral markers suggested subtle genetic differentiation between mussel populations from both estuarine areas. In this new study, mussel samples from Northern and Southern estuaries were brought into a common environment to test for proteome differences due to genetic and permanent non-genetic effects in populations from both estuarine areas, using both foot and mantle border tissues. Because the sex of the mussels was determined through histological tests, sex-specific effects were also examined. Evidence of subtle differences in the foot proteome, dependent on mussel sex, were detected between populations from both estuaries. These differences were more marked for female samples. No evidence of proteome differences was found for the factors estuaries and sex in mantle border tissue. Candidate proteins with a potential role in local adaptation were identified and point to molecular functions that might be involved in responses to different stressors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Spatial and temporal trends of petroleum hydrocarbons in wild mussels from the Galician coast (NW Spain) affected by the Prestige oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano, J.A.; Vinas, L.; Franco, M.A.; Gonzalez, J.J. [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo, Cabo Estai- Canido. 36200 Vigo (Spain); Ortiz, L.; Bayona, J.M.; Albaiges, J. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, CID-CSIC, Jordi Girona Salgado, 18-26, 08034-Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in tissues of wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Galicia coast (NW Spain) in order to assess the extent of the environmental impact caused by the Prestige oil spill (November 13, 2002). Three sampling campaigns were carried out in February, June and November 2003 at 24 stations along the Galicia coast, from La Guardia (Pontevedra) to Ribadeo (Lugo). The spatial distribution of PAHs found in the first sampling period, clearly revealed the central area (Costa da Morte) as the most affected by the oil spill. In these stations, concentrations up to 7780 {mu}g/kg dw of the sum of 13 parent PAHs were found 2-3 months after the spill. Molecular parameters within the aliphatic and aromatic fractions confirmed the presence of the Prestige oil in these samples. The levels markedly decreased at most of the stations in the second sampling and recovered to levels found before the spill in November 2003, 1 year after the accident (29-279 {mu}g/kg dw, av. 133+/-83 {mu}g/kg dw). However, a certain increase was observed in some sites which could be related to the remobilization of oil residues from still unclean intertidal spots or sediments due to the winter marine weather conditions. (author)

  2. Microsatellite variation in Donax trunculus from the Iberian Peninsula, with particular attention to Galician estuaries (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantón, A.; Arias-Pérez, A.; Freire, R.; Fernández-Pérez, J.; Nóvoa, S.; Méndez, J.

    2017-10-01

    Genetic variation and population structure information is essential for conservation and stock management policies. The wedge clam Donax trunculus is an important fishing resource in the Iberian Peninsula and in some areas, such as the northwestern Spain, wild stocks have decreased greatly. Despite this, information is mainly from the southwestern Atlantic to the northwestern Mediterranean of the Iberian Peninsula. In this study, fifteen microsatellite loci were examined at 17 localities along the Iberian Peninsula to characterize its genetic diversity and population structure. Particular attention was paid to the northwestern Atlantic area, and to test if the pattern previously described for this species is confirmed when localities distributed across the Atlantic coast are included and different microsatellite markers are used. All localities displayed similar allelic richness values and heterozygosity levels but when genetic diversity levels were compared among groups of localities, tests were significant and samples from the northwestern area (Galicia) showed the lowest values. The analysis of population structure indicated that localities from the Atlantic coast are genetically homogeneous although some samples showed significant pairwise Fst values. These values were low and Bayesian analysis of genetic differentiation did not show a consistent structure along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. However, Atlantic samples were genetically different from those located in Mediterranean coast, which may be explained by the existence of the Almeria-Oran front. Moreover, Fuengirola, locality situated in the Alboran Sea between the Strait of Gibraltar and Mediterranean Sea, showed significant differences from all remaining localities included in the study. Overall, the data showed the existence of genetic homogeneity along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula and support the three management units (Atlantic Ocean, the Alboran Sea and the northwestern

  3. Age and Origin of the Eastern Galicia Magnetic Anomaly (NW Spain): Constraints on the Understanding of the Central Iberian Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayarza, P.; Martinez-Catalan, J. R.; Villalain, J. J.; Alvarez Lobato, F.; Durán-Oreja, M.; Joven Romero, P.

    2016-12-01

    The EGMA (Eastern Galicia Magnetic Anomaly) is the most intense anomaly of the Iberian Massif. It overlaps the Lugo-Sanabria extensional dome, suggesting a link with it. However, models of the anomaly, all based on low resolution aeromagnetic data, do not establish a relationship between magnetization and tectonics. Surprisingly, a closer look into this dataset shows that magnetic anomalies defining the Central-Iberian Arc bend also coincide with extensional gneiss domes. In this regard, Ayarza and Martínez Catalán (2007) suggested that the source of the EGMA were migmatites and inhomogeneous granites outcropping in the northern Lugo dome, but did not inferred any process as source of the anomaly. In 2015-16, a high resolution (2x2 km) magnetic land survey over a 750 km2 area was carried out in the N of the Lugo dome. In addition, magnetic rocks were sampled in order to characterize their mineralogy and anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibily (AMS).The resulting map shows that the anomaly maxima coincide with outcropping extensional detachments. These structures are related to igneous rocks produced by crustal melting during the thermal event that triggered the extension. However, detachments also affect metasediments that, in these areas, show high magnetic susceptibilities. Similarly, 2D models indicate that the magnetization is concentrated on these detachments and AMS exhibits planar anisotropy coincident with that of the extensional structures. Finally, rockmag studies indicate that multi-domain magnetite is the main magnetic mineral although a younger remanence has been addressed to hematite. These results constrain the models about the origin of the EGMA and the rest of the anomalies defining the Central Iberian Arc. We suggest that the former was developed during thermal and extensional events (E1 and E2: 330-300 Ma) that followed crustal thickening during the Variscan collision in present NW Iberia. These events developed thermal gneiss domes and

  4. Organic petrology and geochemistry of the Carboniferous coal seams from the Central Asturian Coal Basin (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piedad-Sanchez, Noe; Martinez, Luis; Izart, Alain; Elie, Marcel [UMR G2R/7566, Geologie et Gestion des Ressources Minerales et Energetiques, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy 1, BP-239, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex 54506 (France); Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), C/ Francisco Pintado Fe, 26, Ap. Co., 73, Oviedo 33011 (Spain); Keravis, Didier [Institut des Sciences de la Terre (ISTO), CNRS-Universite d' Orleans, Batiment Geosciences, BP 6759, Orleans 45067 (France)

    2004-03-23

    This paper presents for the first time a petrological and geochemical study of coals from the Central Asturian Coal Basin (North Spain) of Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian), mainly of Moscovian, age. A paleoenvironmental approach was used, taking into account both petrographic and organic geochemical studies. Vitrinite reflectance (R{sub r}) ranges from 0.5% to 2.5%, which indicates a high volatile bituminous to semianthracite and anthracite coal rank. The coal samples selected for paleoenvironmental reconstruction are located inside the oil-gas-prone phase, corresponding to the interval between the onset of oil generation and first gas generation and efficient expulsion of oil. This phase is represented by coals that have retained their hydrocarbon potential and also preserved biomarker information. Paleodepositional reconstruction based on maceral and petrographic indices points to a swamp environment with vitrinite-rich coal facies and variable mineral matter content. The gelification index (GI) and groundwater influence index (GWI) indicate strong gelification and wet conditions. The biomarkers exhibit a high pristane/phytane ratio, suggesting an increase in this ratio from diagenetic processes, and a high diterpanes ratio. This, in turn, would seem to indicate a high swamp water table and a humid climate. The maximum point of coal accumulation occurred during the regressive part of the Late Moscovian sequence and in the most humid climate described for this period of time in the well-known coal basins of Europe and North America.

  5. Applying physical input-output tables of energy to estimate the energy ecological footprint (EEF) of Galicia (NW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carballo Penela, Adolfo; Sebastian Villasante, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, the achievement of sustainable development constitutes an important constraint in the design of energy policies, being necessary the development of reliable indicators to obtain helpful information about the use of energy resources. The ecological footprint (EF) provides a referential framework for the analysis of human demand for bioproductivity, including energy issues. In this article, the theoretical bases of the footprint analysis are described by applying input-output tables of energy to estimate the Galician energy ecological footprint (EEF). It is concluded that the location of highly polluting industries in Galicia makes the Galician EEF quite higher than more developed regions of Spain. The relevance of the outer component of the Galician EEF is also studied. First, available information seems to indicate that the energy incorporated to the trading of manufactured goods would notably increase the Galician consumption of energy. On the other hand, the inclusion of electricity trade in the EEF analysis, including an adjustment, following the same philosophy as with manufactured goods is proposed. This adjustment would substantially reduce the Galician EEF, as the exported electricity widely exceeds the imported one

  6. Applying physical input-output tables of energy to estimate the energy ecological footprint (EEF) of Galicia (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carballo Penela, Adolfo; Sebastian Villasante, Carlos [Fisheries Economics and Natural Resources Research Group, Department of Applied Economics, University of Santiago de Compostela, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Avenida Burgo das Nacions s/n. CP. 15782 Santiago de Compostela, A Coruna Galicia (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    Nowadays, the achievement of sustainable development constitutes an important constraint in the design of energy policies, being necessary the development of reliable indicators to obtain helpful information about the use of energy resources. The ecological footprint (EF) provides a referential framework for the analysis of human demand for bioproductivity, including energy issues. In this article, the theoretical bases of the footprint analysis are described by applying input-output tables of energy to estimate the Galician energy ecological footprint (EEF). It is concluded that the location of highly polluting industries in Galicia makes the Galician EEF quite higher than more developed regions of Spain. The relevance of the outer component of the Galician EEF is also studied. First, available information seems to indicate that the energy incorporated to the trading of manufactured goods would notably increase the Galician consumption of energy. On the other hand, the inclusion of electricity trade in the EEF analysis, including an adjustment, following the same philosophy as with manufactured goods is proposed. This adjustment would substantially reduce the Galician EEF, as the exported electricity widely exceeds the imported one. (author)

  7. 2-D seismic modeling of the Variscan foreland thrust and fold belt crust in NW Spain from ESCIN-1 deep seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallastegui, J.; Pulgar, J. A.; Alvarez-Marrón, J.

    1997-01-01

    The foreland thrust and fold belt (Cantabrian Zone) of the Variscan Belt in NW Spain and the transition to the hinterland (Westasturian-Leonese Zone) was the location of a seismic experiment in 1991. The seismic reflection profile (ESCIN-1) is 140 km long and runs in an E-W direction. The interpretation and seismic modeling of the main reflective interfaces in the profile were made integrating available geological and geophysical data including surface geology, deep seismic reflection data from ESCIN-1, transmission velocities from a borehole, refraction and laboratory data. The geological and velocity model of the crust was tested obtaining synthetic seismograms and can be correlated with surface geology. The velocity model images the main crustal structures interpreted from ESCIN-1. The basal detachment of the foreland thrust and fold belt dips gently from 12 km in the easternmost part of the profile to 16 km in the transition to the hinterland to the west. A new interpretation is proposed for the structure above the basal detachment in the eastern end of the profile, where the basal detachment, at a depth of 12 km, is duplicated at 6.5 km by a N-dipping Alpine thrust that also duplicates part of the basement. In the western part, two deep reflective bands dip westward and the most conspicuous one can be followed from 16-27 km depth. The two bands, previously interpreted as crustal ramps, join a reflective lower crust that is located between 25 and 29 km and fades westwards. A reflective Moho interpreted at the base of the reflective lower crust dips and fades in the same direction from 30-34 km.

  8. The use of water marks mapping to understand flood overflow events inside karstic cavities: Cueva Fría and Cueva Rosa (Asturias, NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Lemos, Saúl; Stoll, Heather M.

    2014-05-01

    Several karst systems in Asturias (NW Spain) present evidence of fluvial deposits cemented in speleothems that may provide good chronology of past flood events inside the caves. This flood record is under research in two karstic caves of this region, Cueva Fría and Cueva Rosa, which have in common the presence of a perennial stream inside the cave and a low gradient of the cave passage. Immediately after a flood overflow event, water marks, foam and detritus are visible at different heights on the cave walls and correspond to heights of bottlenecks in overflow drainage through the cave passage. Flood events also deposit sand and gravel on terraces on the cave wall and move large volumes of sand in the cave bed. We have noted that detrital particles (like sand or silt particles) are preserved as inclusions inside the stalagmites and that their abundance inside coeval stalagmites decreases as altitude and distance from the perennial stream increase, supporting its fluvial affinity. However, not all the stalagmites that contain detrital particles are located close to the perennial streams. In this work, we have mapped the water marks preserved in the cave walls to reconstruct water levels associated to flood overflow events of different magnitude. We have found that water mark correlation along the cave passage is very useful to define the hydrological behaviour and flood model of the cave during these extreme events. The water mark mapping and correlation have been also useful to prove that during periods of high rainfall, the movement of the sand-bars inside the cave can cover partially or completely active stalagmites, facilitating the cementation process and trapping abundant detrital material inside the stalagmite carbonate. 14C and U/Th dating of the stalagmites can provide a chronology for the detrital rich layers, so that the abundance of fluvial material in the stalagmites can reveal periods of enhanced vs. reduced flooding in the cave over the past several

  9. Spatial and temporal variations of trace element distribution in soils and street dust of an industrial town in NW Spain: 15years of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, A; Álvarez, R; De Miguel, E; Charlesworth, S

    2015-08-15

    Extensive spatial and temporal surveys, over 15 years, have been conducted in soil in urban parks and street dusts in one of the most polluted cities in western Europe, Avilés (NW Spain). The first survey was carried out in 1996, and since then monitoring has been undertaken every five years. Whilst the sampling site is a relatively small town, industrial activities (mainly the steel industry and Zn and Al metallurgy) and other less significant urban sources, such as traffic, strongly affect the load of heavy metals in the urban aerosol. Elemental tracers have been used to characterise the influence of these sources on the composition of soil and dust. Although PM10 has decreased over these years as a result of environmental measures undertaken in the city, some of the "industrial" elements still remain in concentrations of concern for example, up to 4.6% and 0.5% of Zn in dust and soil, respectively. Spatial trends in metals such as Zn and Cd clearly reflect sources from the processing industries. The concentrations of these elements across Europe have reduced over time, however the most recent results from Avilés revealed an upward trend in concentration for Zn, Cd, Hg and As. A risk assessment of the soil highlighted As as an element of concern since its cancer risk in adults was more than double the value above which regulatory agencies deem it to be unacceptable. If children were considered to be the receptors, then the risk nearly doubles from this element. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Short communication. Effect of forage source (grazing vs. silage) on conjugated linoleic acid content in milk fat of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from Galicia (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca-Fernandez, A. I.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A.; Vazquez-Yanez, O. P.; Fernandez-Casado, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different feeding proportions of forage ?grazing vs. silage? on milk fatty acids (FA) profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of autumn calving Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 61) at CIAM (Galicia, NW Spain). Three treatments (S, 100% silage; G/S, 50% grazing + 50% silage; G, 100% grazing) were set and milk FA profile of dairy cows was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The G group showed a decrease in short (p < 0.05) and medium chain FA (p < 0.001), with an increase in long chain FA (p < 0.001) in comparison to the G/S and S groups, which showed the lowest levels (p < 0.001) of mono- and polyunsaturated FA. The CLA content in milk fat increased (p < 0.001) linearly in relation to the increased proportion of fresh grass in the diet of dairy cows from 0.49 and 0.82 to 1.14 g/100 g FA for the treatments S, G/S and G, respectively. During spring and summer, the levels of CLA were three times higher (p < 0.001, +0.76 g/100 g FA) in milk from dairy cows at the G group than in cows at the S group and twice higher (p < 0.001, +0.40 g/100 g FA) than in cows at the G/S group. High proportion of grass in the diet of cows increased CLA content, with the highest levels of unsaturated FA and the lowest levels of saturated FA, increasing the added value of milk on grazing systems using available farm resources. (Author) 20 refs.

  11. Cockle Cerastoderma edule fishery collapse in the Ría de Arousa (Galicia, NW Spain) associated with the protistan parasite Marteilia cochillia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Antonio; Iglesias, David; Ramilo, Andrea; Darriba, Susana; Parada, José M; No, Edgar; Abollo, Elvira; Molares, José; Carballal, María J

    2014-04-23

    The highest shellfishery catch in Galicia (NW Spain) has traditionally been cockle Cerastoderma edule. The shellfish bed located in Lombos do Ulla (Ría de Arousa) used to be among those with the highest cockle production; however, cockle mortality rate increased sharply in this bed in April 2012, reaching 100% in May 2012. Salinity and temperature were discounted as potential causes of the mortality. Marteiliosis, which was first detected in February 2012 and reached 100% prevalence in April 2012, was identified as the most probable cause. Marteiliosis had never been detected in Galician cockles, but extensive surveillance of the Galician coast in May to July 2012 detected marteiliosis in most cockle beds of the Ría de Arousa, whereas it was not found in other rías; 2 mo later, the cockle catch in the Ría de Arousa became negligible. Examination of the aetiological agent of marteiliosis with light and transmission electron microscopy supported its assignation to the genus Marteilia; morphological features showed similarity, but not complete identity, with the recently described species M. cochillia Carrasco et al., 2013. Regarding its molecular characterisation, a consensus sequence of 4433 bp containing a partial sequence of the intergenic spacer region, the complete 18S rRNA gene and a partial sequence of the first internal transcribed spacer region was obtained. The obtained sequences were compared with those available for Marteilia spp. and other Paramyxida. Molecular data support that this parasite corresponds to the species M. cochillia, and a PCR assay was designed for its specific diagnosis. The association of huge cockle mortality with M. cochillia infection urges extreme caution to avoid spreading this disease.

  12. Pectenotoxin-2 in single-cell isolates of Dinophysis caudata and Dinophysis acuta from the Galician Rías (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisa Fernández, M; Reguera, Beatriz; González-Gil, Sonsoles; Míguez, Aúrea

    2006-10-01

    Dinophysis acuta and Dinophysis caudata are seasonal components of the dinoflagellate community in the Galician Rías Bajas (NW Spain). These species can be the main contributors to the occurrence of Lipophilic Shellfish Toxins (LST) in September-October, leading to prohibition of harvesting in an area of intensive mariculture (250 x 10(3)t of cultured mussels, 60 x 10(3)t of other shellfish in natural banks, per year). Previous analyses of okadaic acid (OA) and related toxins in these two species by HPLC revealed significant amounts of OA and DTX2 in D. acuta, but only trace amounts of OA in D. caudata cells, and led to the erroneous conclusion that the contribution of the latter species to autumn LST events was negligible. Recent analyses by LC-MS/MS of individually picked cells of D. acuta and D. caudata have shown that both species may have high levels of PTX2 (up to 30 pg and 130 pg cell(-1), respectively) and that this toxin can be the dominant toxin during toxic outbreaks associated with Dinophysis spp. Although the quick conversion of PTX2 to PTX-2SA in mussels may reduce the risks for human health, these results have important implications for monitoring programmes. The complex toxin profile of shellfish exposed to Dinophysis spp. populations should be taken into account when making decisions on the toxin control methods to be used as the basis of the programme. Conclusive toxicological studies are required to elucidate the public health relevance of the different PTXs derivatives and to provide the scientific basis for regulations.

  13. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppo, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on nuclear export activities in Spain, as elsewhere, which occur in a political, economic, and technological context. The factors operating the process are not always explicitly related in the public and the private sectors, nor between these sectors, by the relevant decision makers. A redefinition of Spain's policies in the nuclear sector has been going on since at least 1984, when a new energy plan was legislated by the newly elected Socialist government. It would be accurate to suggest that this process remains dynamic and not fully completed for policy purposes. This condition has resulted from the fact that Spain underwent a crucial political regime change from dictatorship to parliamentary democracy about a decade ago, with the transition to democracy only recently consolidated. Moreover, no policy in regard to nuclear nonproliferation existed during the Franco regime. Instead, Spain's official position was to maintain the right to preserve a nuclear option for national defense. However, this option was not developed into a concerted program to develop a nuclear military capability

  14. Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  15. Seawater intrusion barrier and artificial recharge in the deltaic Llobregat aquifer (Barcelona, Spain); La barrera hidraulica contra la intrusion marina y la recarga artificial en el acuifero del Llobregat (Barcelona, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortuno Gobern, F.; Ninerola Pla, J. M.; Armenter Ferrando, J. L.; Molinero Huguet, J.

    2009-07-01

    The main aquifer of the Llobregat Delta (Barcelona, Spain) is affected by seawater intrusion processes since 1970. The Catalan Water Agency is currently promoting several actions of enhanced aquifer recharge, including the construction of a positive hydraulic barrier in order to stop the advance of the seawater intrusion. Such a positive hydraulic barrier works by injecting reclaimed water in 14 wells. This is the first time that a project of this type is performed in Spain, and it is also pioneer in Europe. The positive hydraulic barrier produces the rise of the groundwater head near the coast and avoids seawater penetration inland. The injected reclaimed water comes from the WWTP of the Baix Llobregat after passing through several treatments (ultrafiltration, osmosis and disinfection). The pilot phase of the project has been working during the last 2 years, showing highly positive results. Substantial improvement of the groundwater quality has been observed in wells surrounding the injection points and no clogging has been appeared. The second phase of the project is currently under construction. (Author) 13 refs.

  16. Geology and mineralogy of the Au-As (Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu-Sb polymetallic deposit of Valiña-Azúmara (Lugo, NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Abad, I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Valiña-Azúmara is a polymetallic Au-As (Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu-Sb deposit, located in the province of Lugo (NW Spain, that was mined for arsenic at the beginning of the 20th century. The mineralization is hosted in a Variscan thrust fault with a dip direction of N247-261ºE, and N-S and NE-SW Late-Variscan faults. These structures are hosted in black slates, Cambrian in age. To a lesser extent, the mineralization also occurs disseminated within narrow, weakly silicified and sericited selvages. Mineralization is divided into two hypogene stages. The first consists of quartz, calcite, rutile, sericite, arsenopyrite and pyrite. Two types of pyrite (Py-I and Py-II are defined according to their chemical and textural characteristics. Py-II occurs as overgrowth of previous Py-I crystals. Py-II is As-rich (≤1.7 wt.% and often contains traces of Te, Zn, Cu, Bi, Sb and Au. The mineralized drill core sections show a significant correlation between Au and As. This is due to Au occurring as invisible Au within the Py-II grains, with contents of up to 176 ppm. The Au/As ratios of Py-II indicate that Au was deposited as Au1+, as solid solution within the pyrite structure. The second stage of mineralization is enriched in Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu-Sb, replacing the first stage, and consists of quartz, calcite, chlorite, sphalerite, jamesonite, Ag-rich tetrahedrite, freibergite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite and galena. Although jamesonite shows traces of Ag, the Cu-Ag sulfosalts are the main carriers of the Ag mineralization in the deposit, with contents that vary from 13.7 to 23.9 wt.% of Ag. In the most superficial levels of the area, secondary Fe oxide and hydroxide, scorodite and anglesite developed due to the oxidation of the ore.Valiña-Azúmara es un yacimiento filoniano de Au-As (Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu-Sb situado en la provincia de Lugo (NO España, que fue explotado por arsénico a principios del siglo XX. La mineralización se encuentra encajada en un cabalgamiento Varisco de direcci

  17. The role of tectonic inheritance in the morphostructural evolution of the Galicia continental margin and adjacent abyssal plains from digital bathymetric model (DBM) analysis (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro, A.; Jané, G.; Llave, E.; López-Martínez, J.; Bohoyo, F.; Druet, M.

    2017-09-01

    The identification of recent major tectonic structures in the Galicia continental margin and adjacent abyssal plains was carried out by means of a quantitative analysis of the linear structures having bathymetric expression on the seabed. It was possible to identify about 5800 lineaments throughout the entire study area, of approximately 271,500 km2. Most lineaments are located in the Charcot and Coruña highs, in the western sector of the Galicia Bank, in the area of the Marginal Platforms and in the northern sector of the margin. Analysis of the lineament orientations shows a predominant NE-SW direction and three relative maximum directions: NW-SE, E-W and N-S. The total length of the lineaments identified is over 44,000 km, with a mode around 5000 m and an average length of about 7800 m. In light of different tectonic studies undertaken in the northwestern margin of the Iberian Peninsula, we establish that the lineaments obtained from analysis of the digital bathymetric model of the Galicia continental margin and adjacent abyssal plains would correspond to fracture systems. In general, the orientation of lineaments corresponds to main faults, tectonic structures following the directions of ancient faults that resulted from late stages of the Variscan orogeny and Mesozoic extension phases related to Triassic rifting and Upper Jurassic to Early Cretaceous opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. The N-S convergence between Eurasian and African plates since Palaeogene times until the Miocene, and NW-SE convergence from Neogene to present, reactivated the Variscan and Mesozoic fault systems and related physiography.

  18. Analysis of causes of the eventual increment in climatic episodies in the period 2004-2014 and the consequences on the coast of Galicia (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Lopez, Fernando; Diez, Javier; Veiga, Efren

    2015-04-01

    In recent years has observed an increase in atmospheric and marine events on the coast of Galicia (Spain) which have caused economic losses and human lives; and also an alarm in the population. This work analyse the consequences in order temporal and geographical; and the possible causes and influences which can motivate the presence of these events and their consequences. This work also proposes a strategy to prevent such events and to limit their effects. The generating criteria proposed is a rating system of security, in such way that the society by itself generates the trends for improvement. Keywords: Security, Civil engineering, Marine constructions, Realibility, Insurance, Prevention forensic engineering

  19. Characterizing the Eastern Galicia Magnetic Anomaly (NW Spain): Origin of the mineralization and implications on the age of the Central Iberian Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayarza, Puy; Ramón Martínez Catalán, Jose; José Villalaín, Juan; Alvarez Lobato, Fernando; Durán Oreja, Manuela; de Prada Galende, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    The EGMA (Eastern Galicia Magnetic Anomaly) is the most conspicuous anomaly of the Central Iberian Arc. It coincides with the Lugo-Sanabria extensional dome, a structure developed during the final stages of Variscan deformation in the NW Iberian Massif, where important crustal thickening triggered overheating and extension of the crust. In fact, every extensional dome at the Central Iberian Arc is also coincident with a, less intense but equally important, magnetic anomaly. The bend featured by these anomalies is one of key attributes of the aforementioned arc. As yet, models of the EGMA, all based on low resolution aeromagnetic data, have not established a relationship between magnetization and tectonics. Ayarza and Martínez Catalán (2007) suggested that the source of the EGMA were syntectonic igneous rocks outcropping at the northern Lugo-Sanabria dome, but did not inferred any process as source of the mineralization. A high resolution (2x2 km) magnetic land survey carried out recently at the northern part of the dome has shed some light on this issue. The new magnetic anomaly map shows that the maxima coincide with identified extensional detachments and not with the center of the dome. These structures are often related to migmatites and inhomogeneous granites produced by crustal melting during the thermal event that triggered the extension. However, detachments also affect metasediments that, in these areas, show high magnetic susceptibilities. 2D models also indicate that the magnetization is concentrated along detachments and AMS studies show a planar anisotropy coincident with that of these extensional structures. Finally, rockmag studies indicate that multi-domain magnetite is the main magnetic mineral. A younger, probably Cretaceous, remanence has been addressed to hematite. These results constrain the models about the origin of the EGMA and probably that of the rest of anomalies defining the Central Iberian Arc. We suggest they developed during thermal

  20. Noninvasive heavy metal pollution assessment by means of Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) hair from Galicia (NW Spain): a comparison with invasive samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Moreno, David; de la Casa Resino, Irene; Fidalgo, Luis E; Llaneza, Luis; Soler Rodríguez, Francisco; Pérez-López, Marcos; López-Beceiro, Ana

    2013-12-01

    The current study represents the first investigation of the suitability of wolf hair as indicator tissue for metal exposure and accumulation within NW Spanish ecosystems. Dead animals, which were not specifically killed for these purposes, were necropsied, and further toxicological analyses were performed in order to establish the heavy metal content (Pb, Cd, and Zn) in liver, kidney, and hair, by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Two different factors, gender and age, were considered in order to determine their influence on heavy metal accumulation. Mean liver, kidney and hair concentrations of both toxic element, Cd (0.528, 2.692, and 0.026 ppm) and Pb (4.108, 0.031, and 0.196 ppm) considered on a dry weight basis, were situated below the established as acute toxicity levels for mammals. The highest concentrations were quantified for Zn, with means ranging from a maximum in hair samples (150.9 ppm) to a minimum in kidney samples (25.81 ppm). When the variable of gender and age were considered, female and adult wolves had higher concentrations of Cd in all the considered organs, although differences were only statistically significant for kidney. Neither the sex nor the age had a significant effect on Pb and Zn concentrations. A significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) was identified between hair and liver Pb concentrations, as well as between hair and kidney Cd concentrations, thus suggesting the interest of the noninvasive sample for future ecotoxicological biomonitoring studies.

  1. Sources and timing of anthropogenic pollution in the Ensenada de San Simon (inner Ria de Vigo), Galicia, NW Spain: an application of mixture-modelling and nonlinear optimization to recent sedimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, Richard J. [Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.howarth@ucl.ac.uk; Evans, Graham [Southampton Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Croudace, Ian W. [Southampton Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Cundy, Andrew B. [Southampton Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-20

    The Ensenada de San Simon is the inner part of the Ria de Vigo, one of the major mesotidal rias of the Galician coast, NW Spain. The geochemistry of its bottom sediments can be accounted for in terms of both natural and anthropogenic sources. Mixture-modelling enables much of the Cr, Ni, V, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations of the bottom and subaqueous sediments to be explained by sediment input from the river systems and faecal matter from manmade mussel rafts. The compositions and relative contributions of additional, unknown, sources of anomalous heavy-metal concentrations are quantified using constrained nonlinear optimization. The pattern of metal enrichment is attributed to: material carried in solution and suspension in marine water entering the Ensenada from the polluted industrial areas of the adjacent Ria de Vigo; wind-borne urban dusts and/or vehicular emissions from the surrounding network of roads and a motorway road-bridge over the Estrecho de Rande; industrial and agricultural pollution from the R. Redondela; and waste from a former ceramics factory near the mouth of the combined R. Oitaben and R. Verdugo. Using {sup 137}Cs dating, it is suggested that heavy metal build-up in the sediments since the late 1970s followed development of inshore fisheries and introduction of the mussel rafts (ca. 1960) and increasing industrialisation.

  2. Effect of outplanting time on commercial cultivation of kelp Laminaria saccharina at the southern limit in the Atlantic coast, N.W. Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteiro, César; Freire, Óscar

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the influence of the outplanting time on the cultivation of the kelp Laminaria saccharina in the northwestern Spain, close to its southern limit of distribution in the North Atlantic coast. We compared two L. saccharina cultures outplanted in February and December. We found that the starting time of outplanting affects to the yield and the substantiality value, as well as the growth rate. The yield, the substantiality value and the growth rates of L. saccharina sporophytes obtained for the trial outplanted in December were significantly higher than those in February. These results can be mainly explained by the effect of temperature on the growth of L. saccharina sporophytes during cultivation. On the other hand, our results show that even in the southern limit of distribution of L. saccharina, the cultivation of this species was very profitable in high yield and quality.

  3. Trace metal distribution in the Arosa estuary (N.W. Spain): The application of a recently developed sequential extraction procedure for metal partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamaria-Fernandez, Rebeca [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Cave, Mark R. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hill, Steve J. [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: SJHill@plymouth.ac.uk

    2006-01-31

    A study of the trace metal distribution in sediment samples from the Galician coast (Spain) has been performed. A multielement extraction method optimised via experimental design has been employed. The method uses centrifugation to pass the extractant solution at varying pH, through the sediment sample. The sequential leaches were collected and analysed by ICP-AES. Chemometric approaches were utilised to identify the composition of the physico-chemical components in order to characterise the sample. The samples collected at different sites could be classified according to their differences in metal bio-availability and important information regarding element distribution within the physico-chemical components is given. The method has proved to be a quick and reliable way to evaluate sediment samples for environmental geochemistry analysis. In addition, this approach has potential as fast screening method for the bio-availability of metals in the environment.

  4. Large genomic rearrangements of BRCA1 and BRCA2 among patients referred for genetic analysis in Galicia (NW Spain): delimitation and mechanism of three novel BRCA1 rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachal, Laura; Blanco, Ana; Santamariña, Marta; Carracedo, Angel; Vega, Ana

    2014-01-01

    In the Iberian Peninsula, which includes mainly Spain and Portugal, large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) of BRCA1 and BRCA2 have respectively been found in up to 2.33% and 8.4% of families with hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (HBOC) that lack point mutations and small indels. In Galicia (Northwest Spain), the spectrum and frequency of BRCA1/BRCA2 point mutations differs from the rest of the Iberian populations. However, to date there are no Galician frequency reports of BRCA1/BRCA2 LGRs. Here we used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to screen 651 Galician index cases (out of the 830 individuals referred for genetic analysis) without point mutations or small indels. We identified three different BRCA1 LGRs in four families. Two of them have been previously classified as pathogenic LGRs: the complete deletion of BRCA1 (identified in two unrelated families) and the deletion of exons 1 to 13. We also identified the duplication of exons 1 and 2 that is a LGR with unknown pathogenicity. Determination of the breakpoints of the BRCA1 LGRs using CNV/SNP arrays and sequencing identified them as NG_005905.2:g.70536_180359del, NG_005905.2:g.90012_97270dup, and NC_000017.10:g.41230935_41399840delinsAluSx1, respectively; previous observations of BRCA1 exon1-24del, exon1-2dup, and exon1-13del LGRs have not characterized them in such detail. All the BRCA1 LGRs arose from unequal homologous recombination events involving Alu elements. We also detected, by sequencing, one BRCA2 LGR, the Portuguese founder mutation c.156_157insAluYa5. The low frequency of BRCA1 LGRs within BRCA1 mutation carriers in Galicia (2.34%, 95% CI: 0.61-7.22) seems to differ from the Spanish population (9.93%, 95% CI: 6.76-14.27, P-value = 0.013) and from the rest of the Iberian population (9.76%, 95% CI: 6.69-13.94, P-value = 0.014).

  5. Ultrastructural description of new Rickettsia-like organisms in the commercial abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Gastropoda: Haliotidae) from the NW of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Carlos; Conchas, Ramón F; Tajdari, Jessica; Montes, Jaime

    2006-08-30

    Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs) were found in the commercially farmed abalone Haliotis tuberculata in the northwestern region of the Atlantic Coast of Spain and are described from light and transmission electron microscopy observations. The RLOs measured approximately 1.6 x 0.9 microm and were found in intracytoplasmic, spherical to ellipsoidal vacuoles (up to 8 microm) in the epithelial cells of the digestive diverticulae. The morphological ultrastructure of these organisms was typically prokaryotic, including a plasmalemma and a thin Gram-negative type cell wall. Several ultrastructural changes were observed in the epithelial cells of the host containing the RLOs. The nuclei became pycnotic and several basophilic dense inclusions appeared in the cytoplasm. In addition, the host cell appeared lysed and was ruptured in advanced stages of infection. It was impossible to ascertain whether the RLOs are responsible for this disease, as a haplosporidian infection was also present. We can only conclude that the presence of RLOs simultaneously with a haplosporidian parasite may contribute to the mortality of the abalone host.

  6. Prevalence of enterovirus and hepatitis A virus in bivalve molluscs from Galicia (NW Spain): inadequacy of the EU standards of microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romalde, J L; Area, E; Sánchez, G; Ribao, C; Torrado, I; Abad, X; Pintó, R M; Barja, J L; Bosch, A

    2002-03-25

    A study of the presence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enterovirus (EV) in shellfish from the northwestern coast of Spain, one of the most important mussel producers in the world, was carried out employing dot-blot hybridization and RT-PCR techniques. In addition, bacterial contamination of the samples was evaluated by Escherichia coli (EC) counts, according to the European Union (EU) standards of shellfish microbiological quality. Shellfish samples included raft-cultured and wild mussels, as well as wild clams and cockles. Bacterial counts showed that the majority of samples (40.8%) could be classified as moderately polluted following the EU standards, and therefore should undergo depuration processes. However, differences in bacterial contamination were observed between cultured mussel and wild shellfish. Thus, percentage of clean samples (<230 EC/100 g shellfish) was clearly higher in cultured mussels (49.1%) than in wild mussels (22.8%) or clams and cockles (10.7%). HAV was detected in 27.4% and EV in 43.9% of the samples that were analyzed. Simultaneous detection of both viral types occurred in 14.1% of the samples. Statistical tests of dependence (chi-square test) showed no relationship either between viral and bacterial contamination, or between the presence of HAV and EV. Comparative analysis of hybridization and RT-PCR for viral detection yielded different results depending on the virus type that was studied, RT-PCR being effective for HAV but not for EV detection. The obtained results reinforce once again the inadequacy of bacteriological standards to assess viral contamination and suggest that although virological analysis of shellfish is possible by molecular techniques, interlaboratory standardization and validation studies are needed before the routine use in monitoring shellfish microbiological safety.

  7. A Seven-Year Major and Trace Element Study of Rain Water in the Barcés River Watershed, A Coruña, NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Jordi; Cereijo-Arango, José Luis; Juncosa-Rivera, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation constitutes an important source of soluble materials to surface waters and, in areas where they are diluted precipitation (either dry or wet) it can be the most relevant solute source. Certain trace elements may have a limited natural availability in soils and rocks although they can be important with respect the operation of different biogeochemical cycles, for the computation of local/regional atmospheric pollutant loads or from the global mass budget. In the present study we report the results obtained in a long-lasting (December 2008-December 2015) monitoring survey of the chemical composition of bulk precipitation as monthly-integrated samples taken at the headwaters of the Barcés river watershed (A Coruña, Spain). This location was selected based on the necessity of quantification of the chemical composition and elemental loads associated with the different water types (stream water, ground water and precipitation) contributing to the flooding of the Meirama lake. Available data includes information on meteorological parameters (air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, total and PAR radiation and precipitation) as well as a wide bundle of physico-chemical (pH, redox, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Mn, Fe, NH4, Cs, Rb, Ba, Zn, Cu, Sb, Ni, Co, Cr, V, Cd, Ag, Pb, Se, Hg, Ti, Sn, U, Mo, F, Cl, Br, SO4, NO3, NO2, Al, As, PO4, SIO2, B, O2, DIC, DOC) and isotopic (18Ov-smow and 2Hv-smow) constituents. The average pH of local precipitation is 5.6 (n=65) which is consistent with the expected value for natural, unpolluted rain water. Most of the studied elements (eg. Na, Ca, K, Mg, SiO2, etc.) shows significant increases in their concentration in the dry period of the year. That points towards a more significant contribution of dry deposition in these periods compared with the wet ones. The average electrical conductivity is about 67 S/cm while the average chloride

  8. Validation and application of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based method for the assessment of the co-occurrence of mycotoxins in maize silages from dairy farms in NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnac, Thierry; Latorre, Alicia; Fernández Lorenzo, Bruno; Llompart, Maria

    2016-12-01

    The first objective of this study was the validation of an efficient multi-analyte method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of mycotoxins in maize silage, by reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-HESI-MS/MS). A simple liquid/solid extraction was performed either with clean-up on Mycospin 400 columns or without any clean-up. Almost all the target mycotoxins showed highly-suppressed signals in the presence of a matrix, emphasising the need to quantitate mycotoxins by means of matrix-matched calibrations. An alternative validation method based on ISO 11843 and on a single factor balanced design was implemented. The achieved average recoveries from spiked samples at three levels ranged from 60% to 122% with relative standard deviations (rsd) below 11%. Limits of Detection (LODs) and Limits of Quantification (LOQs) were between 0.02-17.1 µg kg -1 and 0.06-57 µg kg -1 . The calculated repeatability and within-lab reproducibility ranged from 5.2 to 23.2% and from 7.2 to 23.9%, respectively. Finally, the decision limit and detection capacity, CCα and CCβ, were calculated for all mycotoxins having regulated/recommended contents in feed. The validated method was applied to 148 samples collected over two years in 19 dairy farms from Galicia (NW Spain). Of the analysed samples, 62% contained at least one mycotoxin. Zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins B1 and B2, roquefortine C, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, enniatins B and B1, andrastin A, marcfortine A, verruculogen and mycophenolic acid were quantified, the highest average detection frequency being for enniatin B (51%). DON, mycophenolic acid and ZEA plus metabolites (α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol) were the most abundant mycotoxins.

  9. Wave energy potential in Galicia (NW Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Gregorio; López, Mario; Carballo, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    harsh wave climate; in this work its potential for energy production is assessed based on three-hourly data from a third generation ocean wave model (WAM) covering the period 1996 - 2005. Taking into account the results of this assessment along with other relevant considerations such as the location...... of ports, navigation routes, and fishing and aquaculture zones, an area is selected for wave energy exploitation. The transformation of the offshore wave field as it propagates into this area is computed by means of a nearshore wave model (SWAN) in order to select the optimum locations for a wave farm. Two...

  10. Chemical speciation of dissolved lead in polluted environments. A case of study: the Pontevedra Ria (NW Spain); Especiacion quimica del plomo disuelto en ambientes contaminados. Caso de estudio: la Ria de Pontevedra (NO de Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobelo-Garcia, A.; Prego, R. [Grupo de Biogeoquimica Marina, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas IIM-CSIC, Vigo (Spain); Nieto, O. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Vigo, Vigo (Spain)

    2003-10-15

    Chemical speciation of dissolved lead was determined at four sampling sites in the Pontevedra Ria (NW Spain) by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) with a HMDE. Sampling location was chosen due to its evident anthropogenic influence: one sample was taken in the Lerez River mouth (2.2-salinity) and other three samples were taken in the surroundings of the village of Marin (salinity 30-32). Lead concentrations were 0.64 nM (river sample) and 4.8-21.9 nM (saline samples). Speciation results showed that organic chelates of lead, 88-95% of total dissolved lead, are the dominant species of the metal even at these high concentrations. Two types of lead organic complexing ligands were detected in all samples. The river water sample showed the presence of a strong ligand with a concentration of {approx} 7 nM with a conditional stability constant of K'{sub P}b-L1 {>=} 10{sup 1}1.1, and a weaker ligand (K'{sub P}b-L2 = 10{sup 8}.2) with a concentration of 53.4 nM. The three saline samples showed similar behavior: a strong ligand (K'{sub P}b-L1 {approx} 10{sup 8}.6) with concentration ranging from 33.0 to 53.5 nM, and a weaker complexing ligand (K'{sub P}b-L2 {approx} 10{sup 7}.5) with concentration ranging from 32.6 to 50.5 nM. All lead-organic ligand complexes (except the strong complex in the river water sample) showed labile behavior in the time scale of the technique. [Spanish] La especiacion quimica del plomo disuelto se llevo a cabo en cuatro estaciones de muestreo en la Ria Pontevedra (NO de Espana) utilizando la tecnica de voltametria de redisolucion anodica de pulso diferencial (DPASV) con un HMDE. La zona de muestreo fue elegida en base a su clara influencia antropogenica: se tomo una muestra en la desembocadura del Rio Lerez (salinidad 2.2) y las otras tres se tomaron en las proximidades de la Villa de Marin (salinidad 30-32). Las concentraciones de plomo obtenidas fueron de 0.64 nM (muestra de agua dulce) y 4.8-2.9 n

  11. Fire history and climate variability during the Mid-Late Holocene in the Picos de Europa (Cantabrian Mountains, NW Spain), based on sedimentary sequence of Belbín

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Oliva, Marc; Lopes, Vera; Cruces, Anabela; Conceição Freitas, Maria; Janeiro, Ana; López-Sáez, José Antonio; García-Hernández, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    The environmental changes during the last millennia in the Mediterranian Region (including the Cantabrian Mountains in the NW part of the Iberian Peninsula) are partially related to fire activity, generated by early human societies for grazing purposes. Fire activity has mostly been reconstructed based on the analysis of pollen, spores and other macro- and microscopic organic remains, such as charcoal particles. However, new techniques (as the analysis of micro-scale frost weathering of quartz grains), can provide further information about the magnitude and intensity of fire as a landscape modeler. The purpose of this work was to analyze a sedimentary sequence collected from Belbín depression in the Western Massif of the Picos de Europa (Cantabrian Mountains, NW Spain) by using an innovative multi-proxy approach, in order to reconstruct the fire history in this area. The Picos de Europa Mountains constitute the highest and most extensive massif in the Cantabrian Mountains. This area encloses three different massifs separated by deep gorges carved by four rivers (Dobra, Cares, Duje and Deva). The Western Massif is the largest of the three units (137 km2). The Picos de Europa are essentially composed by Carboniferous limestones. This mountain area was heavily glaciated during the Last Glaciation, though the post-glacial environmental evolution is still poorly understood. Within the Western Massif, the mid-altitude area of Belbín is a karstic depression dammed by a lateral moraine generated by Enol Glacier during the Last Glaciation. Between 23 and 8 ky cal BP this depression was a lake that became progressively infilled with sediments, and nowadays it is occupied by grasslands (Ruiz-Fernández et al., 2016). In order to study the environmental changes during the Mid-Late Holocene in this massif, a 182 cm-long sequence was retrieved in the Belbín area. The core was subsampled every centimeter in the top most superficial 60 cm. The laboratory analyses were: 1

  12. The effects of a winter upwelling on biogeochemical and planktonic components in an area close to the Galician Upwelling Core: The Sound of Corcubión (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Manuel; Álvarez-Ossorio, Ma Teresa; Bode, Antonio; Prego, Ricardo; Bernárdez, Patricia; Garcia-Soto, Carlos

    2010-10-01

    To study the biogeochemical response and the coupling plankton-benthos to an unusual winter upwelling event a cruise was carried out in February 2005 in the Sound of Corcubión, near Cape Finisterre (NW Iberian Peninsula), the Galician upwelling core. This area represents the northern boundary of the Eastern North Atlantic Upwelling System (ENAUS). The spatial distribution of plankton assemblages (phytoplankton and zooplankton), chlorophyll, physical and chemical parameters as well as diatom distribution in surface sediments, were studied in a total of 17 stations in the Sound. The upwelling processes caused an important accumulation of water in the inner Sound and near the Cape. This accumulation zone must be persistent through the upwelling events in the area, including those of summer, as indicated by the diatoms' distribution in the sediment. Unlike the summer upwelling events, the main effect of winter upwelling in the area is the increase in solar radiation due to the persistent clear skies. In this season nutrient supply is not critical due to water column mixing. The meteorological conditions were equivalent to those of early spring. As a result, both phyto- and zooplankton species assemblages were typical of spring blooms in Galician coasts. The bloom lasted for up to 6 days, as estimated from the availability and uptake of nitrogen forms. Winter blooms represented ca. 20% of total annual phytoplankton biomass, and 30% of the average biomass during summer upwelling, in the period 1997-2007, as estimated from the analysis of both, in situ and satellite derived chlorophyll.

  13. Seawater predesalination with electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, A.H.; Saakes, M.; Bruning, H.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Post, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The suitability of ED for seawater desalination was investigated and we quantified the energy losses that play a role in electrodialysis. The combination of electrodialysis (ED) and brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) is presented as an alternative desalination strategy for seawater reverse

  14. Impact of seawater [Ca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mewes, A.; Langer, G.; Thoms, S.; Nehrke, G.; Reichart, G.J.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Bijma, J.

    2015-01-01

    Mg / Ca ratios in foraminiferal tests are routinely used as paleotemperature proxies, but on long timescales, they also hold the potential to reconstruct past seawater Mg / Ca. The impact of both temperature and seawater Mg / Ca on Mg incorporation in Foraminifera has been quantified by a number of

  15. Nature/culture/seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place in anthropological categories of "nature" and "culture." Seawater as nature appears as potentiality of form and uncontainable flux; it moves faster than culture - with culture frequently figured through land-based metaphors - even as culture seeks to channel water's (nature's) flow. Seawater as culture manifests as a medium of pleasure, sustenance, travel, disaster. I argue that, although seawater's qualities in early anthropology were portrayed impressionistically, today technical, scientific descriptions of water's form prevail. For example, processes of globalization - which may also be called "oceanization" - are often described as "currents," "flows," and "circulations." Examining sea-set ethnography, maritime anthropologies, and contemporary social theory, I propose that seawater has operated as a “theory machine” for generating insights about human cultural organization. I develop this argument with ethnography from the Sargasso Sea and in the Sea Islands. I conclude with a critique of appeals to water's form in social theory.

  16. Breoghania corrubedonensis gen. nov. sp. nov., a novel alphaproteobacterium isolated from a Galician beach (NW Spain) after the Prestige fuel oil spill, and emended description of the family Cohaesibacteraceae and the species Cohaesibacter gelatinilyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Sara; Vila, Joaquim; María Nieto, José; Urdiain, Mercedes; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; Grifoll, Magdalena

    2010-10-01

    A Gram-negative bacterium designated UBF-P1(T) was isolated from an enrichment culture established in nutrient supplemented artificial sea water with pyrene as a carbon source, and inoculated with a marine fuel oil-degrading consortium obtained from a sand sample collected from the beach of Corrubedo (A Coruña, Galicia, Spain) after the Prestige accidental oil spill. Phylogenetic analysis based on the almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequence affiliated strain UBF-P1(T) with the family Cohaesibacteraceae, Cohaesibacter gelatinilyticus (DSM 18289(T)) being the closest relative species with 92% sequence similarity. Cells were irregular rods, motile, strictly aerobic, catalase and oxidase positive. Ubiquinone 10 was the major respiratory lipoquinone. The major polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine (PME), and phosphatidylcholine (PC). The major fatty acids detected were C(18:1)ω7c, C(19:0) cycloω8c, and C(16:0). The G+C content of strain UBF-P1(T) was 63.9 mol%. The taxonomic comparison with the closest relative based on genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics supported that strain UBF-P1(T) could be classified as a novel genus and species, for which the name Breoghania corrubedonensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this new taxon is UBF-P1(T) (CECT 7622, LMG 25482, DSM 23382). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Stable isotope ratio (13C/12C) mass spectrometry to evaluate carbon sources and sinks: changes and trends during the decomposition of vegetal debris from eucalyptus clone plantations (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, I.; Cabaneiro, A.

    2014-02-01

    Vegetal debris is known to participate in key soil processes such as the formation of soil organic matter (OM), also being a potential source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. However, its contribution to the isotopic composition of both the soil OM and the atmospheric carbon dioxide is not clear yet. Hence, the main objective of the present research is to understand the isotopic 13C changes and trends that take place during the successive biodegradative stages of decomposing soil organic inputs. By incubating bulk plant tissues for several months under laboratory controlled conditions, the kinetics of the CO2 releases and shifts in the 13C natural abundance of the solid residues were investigated using litter samples coming from forest plantations with a different clone (Anselmo: 1st clonal generation attained by morphological selection and Odiel: 2nd clonal generation genetically obtained) of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. developed over granitic or schistic bedrocks and located in northwestern Spain. Significant isotopic variations with time were observed, probably due to the isotopically heterogeneous composition of these complex substrates in conjunction with the initial selective consumption of more easily degradable 13C-differentiated compounds during the first stages of the biodegradation, while less available or recalcitrant litter components were decomposed at later stages of biodegradation, generating products that have their own specific isotopic signatures. These results, which significantly differ depending on the type of clone, suggest that caution must be exercised when interpreting carbon isotope studies (at natural abundance levels) since perturbations associated with the quality or chemical composition of the organic debris from different terrestrial ecosystems can have an important effect on the carbon stable isotope dynamics.

  18. SRB seawater corrosion project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozack, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of 2219 aluminum when exposed to seawater was characterized. Controlled corrosion experiments at three different temperatures (30, 60 and 100 C) and two different environments (seawater and 3.5 percent salt solution) were designed to elucidate the initial stages in the corrosion process. It was found that 2219 aluminum is an active catalytic surface for growth of Al2O3, NaCl, and MgO. Formation of Al2O3 is favored at lower temperatures, while MgO is favored at higher temperatures. Visible corrosion products are formed within 30 minutes after seawater exposure. Corrosion characteristics in 3.5 percent salt solution are different than corrosion in seawater. Techniques utilized were: (1) scanning electron microscopy, (2) energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and (3) Auger electron spectroscopy.

  19. Uranium from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, D.; Folkendt, M.

    1982-09-21

    A novel process for recovering uranium from seawater is proposed and some of the critical technical parameters are evaluated. The process, in summary, consists of two different options for contacting adsorbant pellets with seawater without pumping the seawater. It is expected that this will reduce the mass handling requirements, compared to pumped seawater systems, by a factor of approximately 10/sup 5/, which should also result in a large reduction in initial capital investment. Activated carbon, possibly in combination with a small amount of dissolved titanium hydroxide, is expected to be the preferred adsorbant material instead of the commonly assumed titanium hydroxide alone. The activated carbon, after exposure to seawater, can be stripped of uranium with an appropriate eluant (probably an acid) or can be burned for its heating value (possible in a power plant) leaving the uranium further enriched in its ash. The uranium, representing about 1% of the ash, is then a rich ore and would be recovered in a conventional manner. Experimental results have indicated that activated carbon, acting alone, is not adequately effective in adsorbing the uranium from seawater. We measured partition coefficients (concentration ratios) of approximately 10/sup 3/ in seawater instead of the reported values of 10/sup 5/. However, preliminary tests carried out in fresh water show considerable promise for an extraction system that uses a combination of dissolved titanium hydroxide (in minute amounts) which forms an insoluble compound with the uranyl ion, and the insoluble compound then being sorbed out on activated carbon. Such a system showed partition coefficients in excess of 10/sup 5/ in fresh water. However, the system was not tested in seawater.

  20. The Esla Nappe, Cantabrian Mountains (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rupke, J.

    1965-01-01

    In the southern slopes of the Cantabrian mountains (prov. León NW Spain) a miogeosynclinal and non-metamorphic series, 2—3 km thick, of Precambrian to Carboniferous age has been studied. Four main stratigraphic and tectonic units have been recognized: 1. Northern fracture zone of Las Salas, 2.

  1. Bilans d'éléments minéraux dans de petits bassins versants forestiers de Galice (NW Espagne)

    OpenAIRE

    Dambrine , Etienne ,; Vega , José; Taboada , Teresa; Rodriguez , Luis; Fernandez , Cristina; Macias , Felipe; Gras , José

    2000-01-01

    International audience; Budgets of mineral elements in small forested catchments in Galicia (NW Spain). In order to assess the sustainability of mineral supply to fast growing Eucalyptus globulus and Pinus pinaster stands in Galice (NW Spain), we calculated (input-output) nutrient budgets in three small catchments: the Castrove and Jabali catchments with eucalyptus on a base poor granite and the Arcos catchment with pine on granodiorite. In each catchment, the annual drainage output was lower...

  2. Columbus's Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Jose Manuel Nieto

    1991-01-01

    Describes fifteenth-century Spain's tendencies that proved central to the Columbian enterprise: experience as a conquering and colonizing kingdom, interest in Atlantic expansion, and missionary inclination. Argues that Columbus's arrival in Spain came at the perfect time in Spanish history. Stresses Spain's long history of religious war, conquest,…

  3. Better Buildings NW Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Kevin [Toledo-Lucas County Port Authority, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Districts or ESIDs and what is nationally known as Property Assessed Clean Energy or PACE districts and PACE financing. The project methodology followed the identify, develop, implement, monitor and measure format. These districts began in Toledo and adjoining areas and are expanding to TLCPA’s 28 county financing agency geographic footprint. What began as the Toledo Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement Corporation is now doing business as the Northwest Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement District recognizing it expansion into creating and financing other districts in NW Ohio. The program has been sought out as an advisor by major communities and states in the process of developing similar legislation and programs and has become one of the largest most successful PACE energy improvement and financing districts in the US. The program and the energy district focused on transforming energy use, delivery, conservation and renewable energy as “options of first choice”. The significant energy savings paid for many of the improvements and created a financially viable program well beyond the grant period. The program has become a model within the State of Ohio and Nationally on how to implement and finance projects in broad energy districts including how to evolve and integrate several financing methodologies. It is a unique utilization of revolving loan funds and energy bond pooling with revenue backing primarily from energy improvement special assessments on commercial properties along with some power purchase agreement (PPA) and loan agreement revenue. The program has also incorporated Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, State of Ohio Energy Loans (SEP), utility rebates, solar and renewable energy certificates, renewable tax incentives and grants, and owner funded equity as additional program leverage and funding. Other keys to this success have been a continual simplification and refinement of the application and documentation process to make funding available easily and

  4. Uranium extraction from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koske, P.H.; Ohlrogge, K.; Denzinger, H.

    1982-01-01

    Besides basic considerations about the problem of Uranium extraction from seawater system studies on process engineering and marine technology approaches are presented. In addition the present and future developments in the Federal Republic of Germany are discussed in somewhat more detail. (orig.) [de

  5. Efecto de la escorrentía sobre la carga de sedimentos en sus­pensión y fósforo en un arroyo de cabecera de una cuenca ru­ral (NO España Effect of runoff on suspended sediment and phosphorus loading in a headwater stream of a rural catchment (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Rodríguez-Blanco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la carga de sedimentos en suspensión (SS y fósforo (P durante even­tos de lluvia-escorrentía en un arroyo de ca­becera, que drena una cuenca rural ubicada en Galicia (NO España. Asimismo, se trató de conocer las principales fuentes de SS y P exportados. Se observaron acusadas dife­rencias en la carga de SS y P entre eventos, lo cual se asocia con el volumen de esco­rrentía, así como con el desarrollo de surcos y cárcavas efímeras en parcelas de cultivo bien conectadas con la red de drenaje. La carga de SS osciló entre 0,8 y 21,0 t mientras que la de P varió entre 2,5 y 20,0 kg. El fósforo parti­culado (PP mostró relaciones significativas con los SS, lo que indica el origen erosivo de una parte importante de P, especialmente considerando que el PP supone más de un 80% del P exportado en cada evento.This work examines the suspended sedi­ment (SS and phosphorus (P load during rainfall-runoff events in a headwater stream which drains a rural catchment located in Galicia (NW Spain. Another objective is to know the major sources of SS and P ex­ported. Important differences in the SS and P load between events were found, which is associated with the runoff volume, as well as to develop of rills and ephemeral gullies in cultivated fields well connected to the drainage network. The SS load ranged be­tween 0.8 and 21.0 t, while the P load varied between 2.5 and 20.0 kg. The particulate phosphorus (PP showed significant rela­tionship with SS, which indicates the ero­sive origin of P, especially considering that PP means more 80% of P exported each event.

  6. Chemical petrology of polymetamorphic ultramafic rocks from Galicia, NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, P.

    1970-01-01

    The investigated polymetamorphic peridotites occur associated with metabasic rocks in several complexes of probably Precambrian age in the northern part of the Hesperian massif (Iberian peninsula). Spinel-clinopyroxene-, spinel-pargasite-, spinel-hornblende- and chlorite-amphibole-peridotites,

  7. The chrysotile of asbestos occurrencesin the Mellid area, NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvez, J.A.; Crespo, V.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is based on field data collected during a basic survey of mining exploration carried out by the authors for the Instituto Geologico y Minero de España. The investigated area belongs to the southeastern part of the Ordenes Complex and is mainly composed of metabasites and ultramafic rocks.

  8. The Palaeozoic strata near Moeche in Galicia, NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer Mohr, van der C.G.

    1976-01-01

    Coral fragments, crinoidal debris and foraminifers found in limestone beds near Moeche (Galicia) are evidence of a Devonian-Silurian age for the strata in the greenschist facies belt around Cabo Ortegal, hitherto considered on the Spanish 1:200,000 map-La Coruña Hoja 1 (IGME), to be Precambrian in

  9. Uranium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-12-01

    The report concerns the possibilities of extracting uranium from seawater using either 'tidal' and 'pumped' schemes. It was decided to undertake an initial exercise on the pumped scheme. It was to take into account not only the direct energy requirements, but also the indirect energy inputs needed to produce the capital equipment, operating materials, etc. The report begins with a discussion of the technique of energy accounting, and the merits and limitations of the two principal approaches are compared. These are: 'Process Analysis' (or 'Energy Cost of Materials') and 'Input-Output Analysis' (or 'Energy Cost of Money'). A comparison is made between the energy cost of the tidal and pumped schemes, by both methods of analysis. A 'Best Estimate' is compiled calling on both methods, and this indicates that on an energy cost basis the pumped scheme is three times as expensive as the tidal scheme. Intermediate schemes are feasible, however. There is some evidence that the energy cost of an ore refining process with an initial concentration of 0.007% would be of the same order as that of the pumped seawater scheme. The energy cost of generating electricity using seawater uranium in an SGHWR is compared with the present UK generating system as a whole. (U.K.)

  10. Chlorine-36 in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argento, David C.; Stone, John O.; Keith Fifield, L.; Tims, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    Natural cosmogenic 36 Cl found in seawater originates from spallation of atmospheric 40 Ar, capture of secondary cosmic-ray neutrons by dissolved 35 Cl, and river runoff which contains 36 Cl produced in situ over the surface of the continents. The long residence time of chloride in the ocean and long half-life of 36 Cl compared to the oceanic mixing time should result in a homogenous 36 Cl/Cl ratio throughout the ocean. Production by neutron capture in the course of nuclear weapons testing should be insignificant averaged over the oceans as a whole, but may have led to regions of elevated 36 Cl concentration. Previous attempts to measure the 36 Cl/Cl ratio of seawater have been hindered by interferences, contamination, or insufficient analytic sensitivity. Here we report preliminary measurements on seawater samples, which demonstrate that the 36 Cl/Cl ratio is 0.5 ± 0.3 x 10 -15 , in reasonable agreement with calculated contributions from the sources listed above.

  11. Perchlorate in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelango, P. Kalyani; Tian Kang; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2006-01-01

    There has been no reliable published data on the presence of perchlorate in seawater. Seaweeds are among the most important plant life in the ocean and are good sources of iodine and have been widely used as food and nutritional supplement. Perchlorate is known to inhibit the transport of iodide by the sodium iodide symporter (NIS), present e.g., in the thyroid and mammary glands. With perchlorate being increasingly detected in drinking water, milk and various other foods, increasing the iodide intake through inexpensive natural supplements may be an attractive solution for maintaining iodine assimilation. We report here measurable concentrations of perchlorate in several samples of seawater (detectable in about half the samples analyzed). We also report the iodide and perchlorate concentrations of 11 different species of seaweed and the corresponding bioconcentration factors (BCF) for perchlorate and iodide, relative to the seawater from which they were harvested. All seaweed samples came from the same region, off the coast of Northeastern Maine. Concentrations of iodide and perchlorate in four seawater samples collected from the region near harvest time were 30 ± 11 and 0.16 ± 0.084 μg l -1 , respectively. Concentrations of both iodide and perchlorate varied over a wide range for different seaweed species; iodide ranging from 16 to 3134 mg kg -1 and perchlorate from 0.077 to 3.2 mg kg -1 . The Laminaria species had the highest iodide concentration; Laminaria digitata is the seaweed species most commonly used in the kelp tablets sold in health food stores. Our sample of L. digitata contained 3134 ± 15 mg iodide/kg dry weight. The BCF varied widely for different species, with Laminaria species concentrating iodide preferentially over perchlorate. The iodide BCF (BCF i ) to perchlorate BCF (BCF p ) quotient ranged from 0.66 to 53; L. digitata and L. saccarina having a BCF i /BCF p value of 45 and 53, respectively, far greater than a simple anion exchange process

  12. Microbial control of seawater by microfiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Soler T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent scientific literature presents seawater as a potential aid to solve a variety of health diseases in animals and human beings because by means of its mineral and trace elements content. In Colombia, Nicaragua and Spain it is collected in a natural way from de shore and drunk; however, this can represent a health risk because of the problems related to chemical and microbiological contamination. Microbial control of seawater allows the improvement of its microbiological quality. Objective: to compare the efficiency of three microbial control methods: microfiltration, solar exposition and quarantine. Methodology: 30 samples were collected in 20-liter high density polyethylene containers in three different places in the Colombian Atlantic coast. Results: 15 samples out of 30 showed the presence of bacteria such as E. coli and halophiles bacteria like Vibrio and Aeromonas. Microfiltration through ceramic filters of 0.5 µm produces disinfection in 100% of the samples but the quarantine for five months and solar disinfection are effective in 66 and 21% respectively. The latter requires certain weather conditions to achieve disinfection and it only allows managing small quantities of water. Dicussion: Considering chemical contamination in some places which cannot be controlled through disinfection methods, the collection of water offshore in clean places is suggested and then microfiltration treatment should be performed.

  13. Corrosion in seawater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrikson, S.

    1988-01-01

    Highly alloyed stainless steels have been exposed to natural chlorinated and chlorine-free seawater at 35 deg. C. Simulated tube-tubesheet joints, weld joints and galvanic couples with titanium, 90/10 CuNi and NiAl bronze were tested and evaluated for corrosion. The corrosion rates of various anode materials - zinc, aluminium and soft iron - were also determined. Finally the risk of hydrogen embrittlement of tubes of ferritic stainless steels and titanium as a consequence of cathodic protection was studied. An attempt was also made to explain the cracking mechanism of the ferritic steels by means of transmission electron microscopy. One important conclusion of the project is that chlorinated seawater is considerably more corrosive to stainless steels than chlorine-free water, whereas chlorination reduces the rate of galvanic corrosion of copper materials coupled to stainless steels. Hydrogen embrittlement of ferritic stainless steels and titanium as a consequence of cathodic protection of carbon steel or cast iron in the same structure can be avoided by strict potentiostatic control of the applied potential. (author)

  14. Effect of different seawater Mg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mewes, A.; Langer, G.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Bijma, J.; Reichart, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium, incorporated in foraminiferal calcite (Mg/CaCC), is used intensively to reconstruct past seawater temperatures but, in addition to temperature, the Mg/CaCC of foraminiferal tests also depends on the ratio of Mg and Ca in seawater (Mg/CaSW). The physiological mechanisms responsible for

  15. Focus: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Historically, Spain's nuclear program has had its share of successes and challenges. The country currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity and accounting for more than a third of Spain's electricity generation. Yet four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed due to a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at one reactor in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, Spain opted to continue the moratorium and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. The current nuclear facilities will continue to operate, and the government will continue to pursue advanced reactor research, and expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe

  16. Fuel Production from Seawater and Fuel Cells Using Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo

    2017-11-23

    Seawater is the most abundant resource on our planet and fuel production from seawater has the notable advantage that it would not compete with growing demands for pure water. This Review focuses on the production of fuels from seawater and their direct use in fuel cells. Electrolysis of seawater under appropriate conditions affords hydrogen and dioxygen with 100 % faradaic efficiency without oxidation of chloride. Photoelectrocatalytic production of hydrogen from seawater provides a promising way to produce hydrogen with low cost and high efficiency. Microbial solar cells (MSCs) that use biofilms produced in seawater can generate electricity from sunlight without additional fuel because the products of photosynthesis can be utilized as electrode reactants, whereas the electrode products can be utilized as photosynthetic reactants. Another important source for hydrogen is hydrogen sulfide, which is abundantly found in Black Sea deep water. Hydrogen produced by electrolysis of Black Sea deep water can also be used in hydrogen fuel cells. Production of a fuel and its direct use in a fuel cell has been made possible for the first time by a combination of photocatalytic production of hydrogen peroxide from seawater and dioxygen in the air and its direct use in one-compartment hydrogen peroxide fuel cells to obtain electric power. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Extraction of uranium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko

    1982-01-01

    70 % of the earth surface is covered by sea, and the total quantity of seawater is 1.4 x 10 18 m 3 . More than 70 elements are contained in seawater, but only salt, magnesium, gypsum and bromine with relatively high concentration have been utilized so far. The uranium concentration in seawater is as low as 3 ppb, but as the total amount, 4 billion tons are dissolved in seawater. The estimated uranium deposit on land which can be mined at the cost below $130/kg is 2.6 million tons, and its depletion may come by the end of this century. Only ion exchange method is usable as the economically feasible method of extracting uranium from natural water, and the enrichment factor must be more than 10 5 . FThe research on uranium extraction from water performed so far is reviewed. In the Government Industrial Research Institute, Shikoku, it was found that the compound adsorbent of titanium-activated carbon was excellent for the purpose, and by this method, it successfully extracted 0.7 g of uranium from seawater in 1978. The adsorption method is considered to be most easily realizable in view of the rate of recovery of uranium, easy handling, the stability in seawater and so on. The present status and future prospect of the research on uranium extraction from seawater are reported. (Kako, I.)

  18. Hydrothermal Dolomites in the Early Albian (Cretaceous Platform Carbonates (NW Spain: Nature and Origin of Dolomites and Dolomitising Fluids Dolomies hydrothermales présentes dans les carbonates de la plate-forme albienne précoce (Crétacé; NO de l’Espagne : nature et origine des dolomies et des fluides dolomitisants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah M.M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study documents the temporal and lateral variation in petrographic and geochemical signatures of fault-related dolomite bodies in the Ranero and El-Moro areas (Karrantza valley, Cantabrian mountains; NW Spain. These dolomite bodies are hosted in Albian carbonates, which were deposited in the Basque-Cantabrian Basin as a result of an intense rift-related subsidence with associated faulting along various orientations. Fluid circulations generated replacive and cement dolomites, paragenetically followed by various calcite cements. Petrography, mineralogical and geochemical investigations (XRD, ICP, XRF, stable and Sr isotopes helped in distinguishing hydrothermal stages. Two major dolomite facies were observed according to their Fe-content. Early dolomites are ferroan and replace limestone more significantly than the later, non ferroan dolomites. Dolomites are generally stoichiometric (49.76 to 51.59 M% CaCO3 and exhibit a broad range of depleted δ18O values (–18.7 to –10.5‰ V-PDB, which may indicate multiphase dolomitisation and/or different degrees of recrystallisation. Decreasing δ18O values correlate with decreasing Fe content in dolomites. In the Ranero area, dolomites show less slightly depleted δ13C values (–0.15 to +2.13‰ V-PDB relative to the host limestone δ13C signature, while these values are substantially more depleted in El-Moro area (down to –2.18‰ V-PDB. Hydrothermal calcites predating dolomitisation show less depleted δ18O values (–14.15 to –12.1‰ V-PDB than postdolomitisation calcite (–18.1‰ V-PDB. Sr isotope data suggest that the fluids interacted with siliciclastic lithologies (sandstone, shale. The dolomite fabric is variably altered through dedolomitisation and cataclastic deformation. Dolomitisation occurred in at least two main episodes. A first episode of pervasive ferroan dolomitisation probably resulted from compactional dewatering of basinal fluids from the nearby Basque trough and

  19. Adsorption of uranium in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobuke, Yoshiaki

    1988-01-01

    Among the metal resources dissolved in seawater, elements which are considered to bring the additional value by extraction are listed. At present, the industrialization of the extraction of rare components is not expected except sodium and magnesium. In order to make it feasible, the scientific principle for solving extremely low concentration and the competition of coexisting ions, and the establishment of the peculiar molecule resognition of respective metal ions are necessary first of all. Based on these, the support of the engineering technique for handling enormous quantity of seawater is necessary. In this report, the recent research and development of the extraction of uranium in seawater are described, and the problems to be solved are pointed out. In the oxidizing atmosphere on the earth, uranium exists in the form of uranium dioxide, but under the existence of carbonic acid, stable carbonic acid complex is formed, and it was confirmed that this is uniformly dissolved in the sea worldwide. The concentration is as very low as 3.3 ppb, but the total amount is about 4 billion tons. The general problems in the extraction of uranium in seawater, the molecular design of the adsorbent for extracting uranium in seawater, amidoxime resin and the fibers, the search for the engineering techniques of extracting uranium in seawater, desorbing process and the adsorption system of fiber adsorbent are described. (Kako, I.)

  20. Neodymium isotopic variations in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepgras, D.J.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    New data for the direct measurement of the isotopic composition of neodymium in Atlantic Ocean seawater are compared with previous measurements of Pacific Ocean seawater and ferromanganese sediments from major ocean basins. Data for Atlantic seawater are in excellent agreement with Nd isotopic measurements made on Atlantic ferromanganese sediments and are distinctly different from the observed compositions of Pacific samples. These results clearly demonstrate the existence of distinctive differences in the isotopic composition of Nd in the waters of the major ocean basins and are characteristic of the ocean basin sampled. The average epsilonsub(N)sub(d)(0) values for the major oceans as determined by data from seawater and ferromanganese sediments are as follows: Atlantic Ocean, epsilonsub(N)sub(d)(0) approx. equal to - 12 +- 2; Indian Ocean, epsilonsub(N)sub(d)(0) approx. equal to - 8 +- 2; Pacific Ocean, epsilonsub(N)sub(d)(0) approx. equal to -3 +- 2. These values are considerably less than epsilonsub(N)sub(d)(0) value sources with oceanic mantle affinities indicating that the REE in the oceans are dominated by continental sources. The difference in the absolute abundance of 143 Nd between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans corresponds to approx. 10 6 atoms 143 Nd per gram of seawater. The correspondence between the 143 Nd/ 144 Nd in seawater and in the associated sediments suggests the possible application of this approach to paleo-oceanography. (orig./HAE)

  1. Recovery of uranium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotsu, Takahiro; Takagi, Norio; Katoh, Shunsaku

    1995-01-01

    Present status of the development of chelating adsorbents for the recovery of uranium from seawater is outlined with emphasis on the research by the author. Uranium is estimated to exist as stable tri (carbonate) uranylate (6) ion in seawater in a very low concentration. The adsorbent for uranium from seawater in a very low concentration. The adsorbent for uranium from seawater should have high selectivity and affinity for uranium around pH 8. The required characteristics for uranium adsorbent are examined. Various chelating adsorbents have been proposed for the uranium adsorbent and their structures are discussed. Amidoxime type adsorbents have the highest adsorbing power for uranium among the adsorbents hitherto developed and fibrous amidoxime adsorbents are most promising for the practical application. Synthesis, structure and suitable shape of the amidoxime adsorbents are discussed. Uranium adsorption behavior and the amount of saturated adsorption are examined theoretically based on the complexation of an amidoxime monomer and the formula for the adsorption equiliburium is derived. The adsorption and recovery process for uranium from seawater is composed of adsorption, desorption, separation and concentration and finally, uranium is recovered as the yellow cake. A floating body mooring system is proposed by Nobukawa. (T.H.)

  2. Seawater desalination with nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear power helps reduce costs for energy-intensive processes such as seawater desalination. A new generation of innovative small and medium nuclear power plants could co-generate electricity and potable water from seawater, both safely and at competitive prices in today's market. The IAEA provides technical support to Member States facing water shortage problems, on assessing the viability of nuclear power in seawater desalination. The support, usually channelled through national Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, can take several forms, ranging from educational training and technical advice on feasibility studies to design and safety review of demonstration projects. The IAEA offers a software tool (DEEP) that can be used to evaluate the economics of the different desalination and heat source configurations, including nuclear and fossil options

  3. Seawater transport during coral biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Alexander C.; Adkins, Jess F.; Erez, Jonathan

    2012-05-01

    Cation transport during skeletal growth is a key process controlling metal/calcium (Me/Ca) paleoproxy behavior in coral. To characterize this transport, cultured corals were transferred into seawater enriched in the rare earth element Tb3 + as well as stable isotopes of calcium, strontium, and barium. Subsequent NanoSIMS ion images of each coral skeleton were used to follow uptake dynamics. These images show a continuous region corresponding to new growth that is homogeneously enriched in each tracer. Isotope ratio profiles across the new growth boundary transition rapidly from natural abundance ratios to a ratio matching the enriched culture solution. The location of this transition is the same for each element, within analytical resolution. The synchronous incorporation of all these cations, including the dissimilar ion terbium, which has no known biological function in coral, suggests that: (1) there is cation exchange between seawater and the calcifying fluid, and (2) these elements are influenced by similar transport mechanisms consistent with direct and rapid seawater transport to the site of calcification. Measured using isotope ratio profiles, seawater transport rates differ from place to place on the growing coral skeleton, with calcifying fluid turnover times from 30 min to 5.7 h. Despite these differences, all the elements measured in this study show the same transport dynamics at each location. Using an analytical geochemical model of biomineralization that includes direct seawater transport we constrain the role of active calcium pumping during calcification and we show that the balance between seawater transport and precipitation can explain observed Me/Ca variability in deep-sea coral.

  4. Neodymium isotopic variations in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepgras, D. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    Direct measurement of the isotopic composition of Nd in the Atlantic agree with the Nd content in ferromanganese sediments and differ from the observed amounts in the Pacific samples. These data indicate the existence of distinctive differences in the isotopic composition of Nd in the waters of major oceans; the average values determined from seawater and ferromanganese sediments are considerably lower than in sources with oceanic mantle affinities showing that the REE in the oceans is dominated by continental sources. The Nd isotopic variations in seawater are applied to relate the residence time of Nd and mixing rates between the oceans.

  5. Faraday's Law and Seawater Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, R.

    2010-01-01

    Using Faraday's law, one can illustrate how an electromotive force generator, directly utilizing seawater motion, works. The conceptual device proposed is rather simple in its components and can be built in any high school or college laboratory. The description of the way in which the device generates an electromotive force can be instructive not…

  6. Occurrence of seawater intrusion overshoot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, L.K.; Bakker, M.; Werner, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    A number of numerical modeling studies of transient sea level rise (SLR) and seawater intrusion (SI) in flux-controlled aquifer systems have reported an overshoot phenomenon, whereby the freshwater-saltwater interface temporarily extends further inland than the eventual steady state position.

  7. Candidate insect vectors of apple proliferation in Northwest Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Mi?arro, Marcos; Somoano, Aitor; Moreno, Ar?nzazu; Garc?a, Roc?o Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The apple proliferation (AP) disease is spread mostly by two psyllids. Each species plays a predominant role as AP vector that changes regionally. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify the AP vectors in each region where the disease is present. This research aimed at identifying the psyllid community in apple orchards from Asturias (NW Spain) and studying their possible role in AP transmission. Yellow sticky traps were used to monitor psyllid community in five cider-apple orchards during ...

  8. NW CSC annual report fiscal year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbal, Gustavo A.

    2013-01-01

    The Northwest Climate Science Center (NW CSC) was established in 2010 as one of eight regional Climate Science Centers created by the Department of the Interior (DOI). The NW CSC encompasses Washing-ton, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana and has overlapping boundaries with three Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs): the Great Northern, the Great Basin, and the North Pacific. With guidance from its Executive Stakeholder Advisory Committee (ESAC), the NW CSC and its partner LCCs are addressing the highest priority regional climate science needs of Northwest natural and cultural resource managers. Climate Science Centers tap into the scientific expertise of both the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and academic institutions. The NW CSC is supported by an academic consortium with the capacity to generate climate science and tools in a coordinated fashion, serving stakeholders across the Northwest region. This consortium is primarily represented by Oregon State University (OSU), the University of Id-ho (UI), and the University of Washington (UW). The academic consortium and USGS provide capabilities in climate science, ecology, impacts and vulnerability assessment, modeling, adaptation planning, and advanced information technology, all necessary to address and respond to climate change in the Northwest. University members also recruit and train graduate students and early-career scientists. This Annual Report summarizes progress for the goals set out in the NW CSC Strategic Plan for 2012-2015 (http://www.doi.gov/csc/northwest/upload/Northwest-CSC-Strategic-Plan.cfm) and the NW CSC Work-plan for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 (October 1, 2012 through September 30, 2013). The report follows the structure of the Strategic Plan, which describes the five core services (Executive, Science, Data, Communications, and Education and Training) provided by the NW CSC in support of the stated vision: Our Vision: To become nationally recognized as a best-practice model for the provision

  9. Cesium, iodine and tritium in NW Pacific waters - a comparison of the Fukushima impact with global fallout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povinec, P. P.; Aoyama, M.; Biddulph, D.

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide impact of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident on the distribution of radionuclides in seawater of the NW Pacific Ocean is compared with global fallout from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Surface and water column samples collected during the Ka’imikai-o-Kanaloa ......Radionuclide impact of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident on the distribution of radionuclides in seawater of the NW Pacific Ocean is compared with global fallout from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Surface and water column samples collected during the Ka......’imikai-o-Kanaloa (KOK) international expedition carried out in June 2011 were analyzed for 134Cs, 137Cs, 129I and 3H. The 137Cs, 129I and 3H levels in surface seawater offshore Fukushima varied between 0.002–3.5 Bq L−1, 0.01–0.8 μBq L−1, and 0.05–0.15 Bq L−1, respectively. At the sampling site about 40 km from...... the coast, where all three radionuclides were analyzed, the Fukushima impact on the levels of these three radionuclides represents an increase above the global fallout background by factors of about 1000, 50 and 3, respectively. The water column data indicate that the transport of Fukushima...

  10. Self-assembled monolayer-based immunoassays for okadaic acid detection in seawater as monitoring tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Sandra; Toldrà, Anna; Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita; Andree, Karl B; Ferreres, Laura; Campbell, Katrina; Elliott, Christopher T; O'Sullivan, Ciara K; Pazos, Yolanda; Diogène, Jorge; Campàs, Mònica

    2018-02-01

    Rapid and cost-effective methods to monitor the presence of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in seawater samples in an easy and reliable manner are required to protect human health and avoid economic losses to shellfish industry. Immunoassays for the detection of okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 and dinophysistoxin-2 are developed by immobilising OA on self-assembled monothiols or dithiols in an ordered and oriented way, providing an effective limit of detection of ∼1 ng OA equiv./mL seawater. The immunoassays are applied to the analysis of the particulate fraction of seawater samples from two Catalan harbours (NW Mediterranean) and samples collected periodically from the Galician Rias (E Atlantic), as well as a reference mussel sample. Results are in agreement with LC-MS/MS and the certified values. OA concentration in seawater correlates with Dinophysis cell abundance, with a 1-2 weeks lag. The immunoassays provide powerful high-throughput analytical methods potentially applicable as alternative monitoring tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lower Devonian Brachiopods and Stratigraphy of North Palencia (Cantabrian Mountains, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnekamp, J.G.

    1965-01-01

    A continuous sequence of Devonian sediments is exposed in the northern part of the province of Palencia (NW-Spain), on the southern slope of the Cantabrian Mountains. This study concerns the stratigraphy and paleontology of the Lower Devonian formations. At the base of the sequence a clastic

  12. Freshwater to seawater transitions in migratory fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Michael P. Wilkie,

    2012-01-01

    The transition from freshwater to seawater is integral to the life history of many fishes. Diverse migratory fishes express anadromous, catadromous, and amphidromous life histories, while others make incomplete transits between freshwater and seawater. The physiological mechanisms of osmoregulation are widely conserved among phylogenetically diverse species. Diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater develop osmoregulatory mechanisms for different environmental salinities. Freshwater to seawater transition involves hormonally mediated changes in gill ionocytes and the transport proteins associated with hypoosmoregulation, increased seawater ingestion and water absorption in the intestine, and reduced urinary water losses. Fishes attain salinity tolerance through early development, gradual acclimation, or environmentally or developmentally cued adaptations. This chapter describes adaptations in diverse taxa and the effects of salinity on growth. Identifying common strategies in diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater will reveal the ecological and physiological basis for maintaining homeostasis in different salinities, and inform efforts to conserve and manage migratory euryhaline fishes.

  13. Rapid determination of 90Sr in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlotskaya, F.I.; Moskin, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    A method for determining 90 Sr in seawater that is based on direct isolation and radiochemical purification of daughter 90 Y is proposed. The analysis time is 6-8 h. The chemical yield of the Y-carrier during the 90 Sr determination from 35 liters of seawater varies in the range 37-69%. The analysis uncertainty is 90 Sr from seawater and subsequent isolation of 90 Y

  14. Cesium, iodine and tritium in NW Pacific waters - a comparison of the Fukushima impact with global fallout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinec, P. P.; Aoyama, M.; Biddulph, D.; Breier, R.; Buesseler, K.; Chang, C. C.; Golser, R.; Hou, X. L.; Ješkovský, M.; Jull, A. J. T.; Kaizer, J.; Nakano, M.; Nies, H.; Palcsu, L.; Papp, L.; Pham, M. K.; Steier, P.; Zhang, L. Y.

    2013-08-01

    Radionuclide impact of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident on the distribution of radionuclides in seawater of the NW Pacific Ocean is compared with global fallout from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Surface and water column samples collected during the Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa (KOK) international expedition carried out in June 2011 were analyzed for 134Cs, 137Cs, 129I and 3H. The 137Cs, 129I and 3H levels in surface seawater offshore Fukushima varied between 0.002-3.5 Bq L-1, 0.01-0.8 μBq L-1, and 0.05-0.15 Bq L-1, respectively. At the sampling site about 40 km from the coast, where all three radionuclides were analyzed, the Fukushima impact on the levels of these three radionuclides represents an increase above the global fallout background by factors of about 1000, 50 and 3, respectively. The water column data indicate that the transport of Fukushima-derived radionuclides downward to the depth of 300 m has already occurred. The observed 137Cs levels in surface waters and in the water column are compared with predictions obtained from the ocean general circulation model, which indicates that the Kuroshio Current acts as a southern boundary for the transport of the radionuclides, which have been transported from the Fukushima coast eastward in the NW Pacific Ocean. The 137Cs inventory in the water column is estimated to be about 2.2 PBq, what can be regarded as a lower limit of the direct liquid discharges into the sea as the seawater sampling was carried out only in the area from 34 to 37° N, and from 142 to 147° E. About 4.6 GBq of 129I was deposited in the NW Pacific Ocean, and 2.4-7 GBq of 129I was directly discharged as liquid wastes into the sea offshore Fukushima. The total amount of 3H released and deposited over the NW Pacific Ocean was estimated to be 0.1-0.5 PBq. These estimations depend, however, on the evaluation of the total 137Cs activities released as liquid wastes directly into the sea, which should improve when more data are

  15. Cesium, iodine and tritium in NW Pacific waters – a comparison of the Fukushima impact with global fallout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Povinec

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide impact of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident on the distribution of radionuclides in seawater of the NW Pacific Ocean is compared with global fallout from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Surface and water column samples collected during the Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa (KOK international expedition carried out in June 2011 were analyzed for 134Cs, 137Cs, 129I and 3H. The 137Cs, 129I and 3H levels in surface seawater offshore Fukushima varied between 0.002–3.5 Bq L−1, 0.01–0.8 μBq L−1, and 0.05–0.15 Bq L−1, respectively. At the sampling site about 40 km from the coast, where all three radionuclides were analyzed, the Fukushima impact on the levels of these three radionuclides represents an increase above the global fallout background by factors of about 1000, 50 and 3, respectively. The water column data indicate that the transport of Fukushima-derived radionuclides downward to the depth of 300 m has already occurred. The observed 137Cs levels in surface waters and in the water column are compared with predictions obtained from the ocean general circulation model, which indicates that the Kuroshio Current acts as a southern boundary for the transport of the radionuclides, which have been transported from the Fukushima coast eastward in the NW Pacific Ocean. The 137Cs inventory in the water column is estimated to be about 2.2 PBq, what can be regarded as a lower limit of the direct liquid discharges into the sea as the seawater sampling was carried out only in the area from 34 to 37° N, and from 142 to 147° E. About 4.6 GBq of 129I was deposited in the NW Pacific Ocean, and 2.4–7 GBq of 129I was directly discharged as liquid wastes into the sea offshore Fukushima. The total amount of 3H released and deposited over the NW Pacific Ocean was estimated to be 0.1–0.5 PBq. These estimations depend, however, on the evaluation of the total 137Cs activities released as liquid wastes directly into the sea, which

  16. Sorption isolation of strontium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramenko, V.A.; Zheleznov, V.V.; Kaplun, E.V.; Sokol'nitskaya, T.A.; Yukhkam, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Sorption isolation of strontium from seawater is considered and prospects of use of selective adsorbents for purification of seawater or liquid radioactive wastes mixed with seawater from 90 Sr are discussed. Comparative analysis of sorptive properties of adsorbents of different nature is done. It is shown that sorption-reagent materials developed by authors can to afford effective separation of 90 Sr from seawater. Possible mechanism of strontium sorption by these adsorbents is considered. The prospect of their use for purification of liquid radioactive wastes from strontium is shown [ru

  17. Recovery of lithium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, Kenta; Miyai, Yoshitaka; Katoh, Shunsaku; Abe, Mitsuo.

    1989-01-01

    Lithium has been used for air conditioners, aluminum refining, ceramics, organic metal compounds, batteries and many other uses. Besides, attention is paid as the aluminum-lithium alloys as aircraft materials, and the raw materials for large capacity batteries and nuclear fusion reactors for the future. The amount of lithium resources has been estimated as 14 million tons, and is relatively abundant, but when the future increase of demand is considered, it is not necessarily sufficient. Japan lacks lithium resources, and the stable ensuring of the resources has become an important problem. Seawater contains lithium by 170 μg/l, and its total amount reaches 230 billion tons. The process of recovering lithium from seawater, geothermal water and natural gas brine has been actively researched since 10 years ago centering around Japan. At present, the search for the adsorbent that effectively collects lithium is the main subject. Also the recovery by coprecipitation has been investigated basically. The inorganic adsorbent for lithium is classified into aluminum type, compound antimonic acid type, layered compound type, ion sieve oxide type and others. Their lithium adsorption performance and adsorption mechanism are different remarkably, therefore, these of each group are described. (K.I.) 70 refs

  18. Chemical effect on ozone deposition over seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface layer resistance plays an important role in determining ozone deposition velocity over seawater. Recent studies suggest that surface layer resistance over sea-water is influenced by wind-speed and chemical interaction at the air-water interface. Here, we investigate the e...

  19. In situ chemisorption of radiocesium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, D.R.; Casso, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    A novel approach to in situ extraction of Cs radionuclides from seawater is described which offers many advantages over previous methods. Cesium (stable and radioactive) is partially stripped from seawater as it passes in series through a tandem cartridge consisting of twin beds of ion exchange resin impregnated with cupric ferrocyanide. It is demonstrated that, when seawater passes through this cartridge at a constant flow-rate, collection efficiencies of each bed are the same, allowing the calculation of the seawater Cs nuclide concentration. The cartridge is made of inexpensive, readily available, PVC pipe fittings and is easily deployed under various field conditions. Procedures are described for resin preparation and desorption and radiochemical purification of the collected Cs. Thousands of liters of seawater can be stripped of Cs in this way, permitting substantial improvement in the sensitivity of measurement of 134 Cs and 137 Cs. (Auth.)

  20. Colloidal nature of radionuclides in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, I.

    1976-01-01

    There is considerable doubt that equilibrium calculations, i.e., employing solubility products and complex-ion stability constants, are valid for the submicro concentrations of radionuclides in seawater. The existence of radiocolloids should be expected in seawater. The great tendency of radiocolloids to adsorb onto finely divided hydrous oxides makes their formation of significance in seawater, especially for artificial radionuclides. The subject of radiocolloid formation is reviewed in this chapter. It is shown that the 226 Ra/ 230 Th/U relationship found in seawater can be explained from the fact that the tendencies of these elements to form radiocolloids in seawater should decrease in order thorium greater than radium much greater than uranium. This explanation is much simpler than the prevailing oceanographic one. The theories for radiocolloid formation are discussed. The recent theory of Jones and Healy for the adsorption of hydrolyzable metal ions onto hydrous oxides is reviewed briefly, and its relevance to radiocolloid formation is pointed out

  1. Colloidal nature of radionuclides in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, I.

    1976-01-01

    There is considerable doubt that equilibrium calculations, i.e., employing solubility products and complex-ion stability constants, are valid for the submicro concentrations of radionuclides in seawater. The existence of radiocolloids should be expected in seawater. The great tendency of radiocolloids to adsorb onto finely-divided hydrous oxides makes their formation of significance in seawater, especially for artificial radionuclides. The subject of radiocolloid formation is reviewed in this chapter. It is shown that the 226 Ra/ 230 Th/U relationship found in seawater can be explained from the fact that the tendencies of these elements to form radiocolloids in seawater should decrease in order thorium > radium much greater than uranium. This explanation is much simpler than the prevailing oceanographic one. The theories for radiocolloid formation are discussed. The recent theory of Jones and Healy for the adsorption of hydrolyzable metal ions onto hydrous oxides is reviewed briefly, and its relevance to radiocolloid formation is pointed out

  2. Development of radioactive seawater monitors, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Masanori

    1989-01-01

    Applicability of some adsorptive materials to monitoring of radioactive seawater is generalized. Studied techniques that allow utilization of adsorptive materials in monitoring radioactive seawater are the substitute methods using sampled seawater or indicator plants such as gulfweed and the method using adsorptive materials for continuous monitoring of underwater radioactivity, the method using them for field measurement of under water radioactivity from a boat, and the method using an adsorptive material moored underwater for integration monitoring of underwater radioactivity. Selected adsorptive materials that were judged suitable for monitoring radioactive seawater is the one composed of some kind of adsorptive compound (manganese dioxide or ferrocyan cobalt potassium) fixed to crylic cellulose. This adsorptive material permits selective scavenging radioactive Cs, Mn, Co, Zn, Ce, Fe, Ru, Ra Th, Pu and Am from seawater. (aurhor)

  3. Automated nutrient analyses in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

    1981-02-01

    This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

  4. AD1995: NW Europe's hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glennie, K.; Hurst, A.

    1996-01-01

    This volume concerns itself with wide-ranging aspects of the upstream hydro-carbon industry over the whole of NW Europe. As such, the book contrasts with many thematic volumes by presenting a broad range of topics side-by-side. One section of the book looks back at the history of geological exploration and production, and provides an overview of hydrocarbon exploration across NW Europe. Another section covers the state of the art in hydrocarbon exploration and production. This includes an update on computer-based basin modelling overpressure systems, innovations in reservoir engineering and reserve estimation, 3D seismic and the geochemical aspects of secondary migration. The final section of the book takes a look into the future. This covers the remaining hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea, managing risk in oil field development, oil field economics, and pollution and the environment. It is the editors' hope that several key areas of NW Europe's upstream oil industry have been usefully summarized in the volume. (Author)

  5. 'Rare biosphere' bacteria as key phenanthrene degraders in coastal seawaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauret, Caroline; Séverin, Tatiana; Vétion, Gilles; Guigue, Catherine; Goutx, Madeleine; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Conan, Pascal; Fagervold, Sonja K; Ghiglione, Jean-François

    2014-11-01

    By coupling DNA-SIP and pyrosequencing approaches, we identified Cycloclasticus sp. as a keystone degrader of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) despite being a member of the 'rare biosphere' in NW Mediterranean seawaters. We discovered novel PAH-degrading bacteria (Oceanibaculum sp., Sneathiella sp.) and we identified other groups already known to possess this function (Alteromonas sp., Paracoccus sp.). Together with Cycloclasticus sp., these groups contributed to potential in situ phenanthrene degradation at a rate >0.5 mg l(-1) day(-1), sufficient to account for a considerable part of PAH degradation. Further, we characterized the PAH-tolerant bacterial communities, which were much more diverse in the polluted site by comparison to unpolluted marine references. PAH-tolerant bacteria were also members of the rare biosphere, such as Glaciecola sp. Collectively, these data show the complex interactions between PAH-degraders and PAH-tolerant bacteria and provide new insights for the understanding of the functional ecology of marine bacteria in polluted waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Present status of uranium extraction from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusakabe, Katsuki; Morooka, Shigeharu

    1993-01-01

    For the research on the extraction of uranium from seawater, various processes have been examined, but the most promising process is adsorption. Its key point is the performance of the adsorbent. The system as compact as possible, in which a large quantity of seawater effectively contacts with the adsorbent, must be constructed economically. As the inorganic adsorbent, titanium oxide is the best, but organic amidoxime is superior to it. The present state of the development of the adsorbent, the rate of adsorption of the adsorbenbt, the seawater uranium adsorption system and the experiment in Imari Bay are reported. (K.I.)

  7. Seawater circulating system in an aquaculture laboratory

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    The note gives an account, for the first time in India, of an Aquaculture Laboratory with open type seawater circulating system developed at the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India. Besides describing the details of the system...

  8. Experimental studies on urea degradation in seawater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajendran, A.; Joseph, T.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    The rate of urea degradation in seawater was studied under various conditions and the kinetics of urea degradation was evaluated. Urea decomposition experiments showed that the rates and quantity of ammonium oxidation were slower in the relatively...

  9. Integration of thermal energy and seawater desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Runya; Lin, Hu [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Xie, Lixin; Liu, Jie [School of Chemical Engineering and technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Han, Wei [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Energy and freshwater shortage are the bottlenecks restricting China's economic development. The integration of energy utilization system and seawater desalination is considered as an innovative technology enabling efficient simultaneous use of middle or low temperature thermal energy and supply freshwater. Three feasible approaches to integrate seawater desalination with energy utilization system are presented in this paper, including combinations of the desalination process with a Combined Cooling Heating and Power system (CCHP), a power plant, or a solar thermal utilization system. In addition, the feasibility and advantages of a seawater desalination system combined with a power plant are described. The findings indicate that combining seawater desalination with industrial processes is a feasible and promising way to solve the problems of the lack of freshwater and low efficient use of low temperature thermal energy in coastland areas. (author)

  10. Uranium preconcentration from seawater using adsorptive membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sadananda; Pandey, A.K.; Manchanda, V.K.; Athawale, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium recovery from bio-aggressive but lean feed like seawater is a challenging problem as it requires in situ preconcentration of uranium in presence of huge excess of competing ions with fast sorption kinetics. In our laboratory, widely used amidoxime membrane (AO-membrane) was evaluated for uranium sorption under seawater conditions. This study indicated that AO-membrane was inherently slow because of the complexation chemistry involved in transfer of U(VI) from (UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ) 4 - to AO sites in membrane. In order to search better options, several chemical compositions of membrane were scanned for their efficacy for uranium preconcentration from seawater, and concluded that EGMP-membrane offers several advantages over AO-membrane. In this paper, the comparison of EGMP-membrane with AO-membrane for uranium sorption under seawater conditions has been reviewed. (author)

  11. The Geologic History of Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, H. D.

    2003-12-01

    Aristotle proposed that the saltness of the sea was due to the effect of sunlight on water. Robert Boyle took strong exception to this view and - in the manner of the Royal Society - laid out a program of research in the opening paragraph of his Observations and Experiments about the Saltness of the Sea (1674) (Figure 1): (20K)Figure 1. Title page of Robert Boyle's Tracts consisting of Observations about the Saltness of the Sea and other essays (1674). The Cause of the Saltness of the Sea appears by Aristotle's Writings to have busied the Curiosity of Naturalists before his time; since which, his Authority, perhaps much more than his Reasons, did for divers Ages make the Schools and the generality of Naturalists of his Opinion, till towards the end of the last Century, and the beginning of ours, some Learned Men took the boldness to question the common Opinion; since when the Controversie has been kept on foot, and, for ought I know, will be so, as long as ‘tis argued on both sides but by Dialectical Arguments, which may be probable on both sides, but are not convincing on either. Wherefore I shall here briefly deliver some particulars about the Saltness of the Sea, obtained by my own trials, where I was able; and where I was not, by the best Relations I could procure, especially from Navigators.Boyle measured and compiled a considerable set of data for variations in the saltness of surface seawater. He also designed an improved piece of equipment for sampling seawater at depth, but the depths at which it was used were modest: 30 m with his own instrument, 80 m with another, similar sampler. However, the younger John Winthrop (1606-1676), an early member of the Royal Society, an important Governor of Connecticut, and a benefactor of Harvard College, was asked to collect seawater from the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean during his crossing from England to New England in the spring of 1663. The minutes of the Royal Society's meeting on July 20, 1663, give the

  12. Extracting Minerals from Seawater: An Energy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bardi, U.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of recovering minerals from seawater has been proposed as a way of counteracting the gradual depletion of conventional mineral ores. Seawater contains large amounts of dissolved ions and the four most concentrated metal ones (Na, Mg, Ca, K) are being commercially extracted today. However, all the other metal ions exist at much lower concentrations. This paper reports an estimate of the feasibility of the extraction of these metal ions on the basis of the energy needed. In most cas...

  13. Greening Drylands with Seawater Easily and Naturally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2017-03-01

    The sun and sea are inexhaustible sources of energy and water that could be used to transform drylands into more viable ecosystems. A sustainable and cost-effective approach is proposed for greening drylands and restoring wildlife and biodiversity in deserts using seawater desert-houses (or movable seawater ponds) that could offer important environmental advantages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Actual and future trends of extreme values of temperature for the NW Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, J.; Brands, S.; Lorenzo, N.

    2009-09-01

    It is now very well established that yearly averaged temperatures are increasing due to anthropogenic climate change. In the area of Galicia (NW Spain) this trend has also been determined. The main objective of this work is to assess actual and future trends of different extreme indices of temperature, which are of curcial importance for many impact studies. Station data for the study was provided by the CLIMA database of the regional government of Galicia (NW Spain). As direct GCM-output significantly underestimates the variance of daily surface temperature variables in NW Spain, these variables are obtained by applying a statistical downscaling technique (analog method), using 850hPa temperature and mean sea level pressure as combined predictors. The predictor fields have been extracted from three GCMs participating in the IPCC AR4 under A1, A1B and A2 scenarios. The definitions of the extreme indices have been taken from the joint CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) This group has defined a set of standard extreme values to simplify intercomparisons of data from different regions of the world. For the temperatures in the period 1960-2006, results show a significant increase of the number of days with maximum temperatures above the 90th percentile. Furthermore, a significant decrease of the days with maximum temperatures below the 10th percentile has been found. The tendencies of minimum temperatures are reverse: less nights with minimum temperatures below 10th percentile, and more with minimum temperatures above 90th percentile. Those tendencies can be observed all over the year, but are more pronounced in summer. We have also calculated the relationship between the above mentioned extreme values and different teleconnection patterns appearing in the North Atlantic area. Results show that local tendencies are associated with trends of EA (Eastern Atlantic) and SCA (Scandinavian) patterns. NAO (North Atlantic

  15. Famennian ostracods from the Istanbul zone (Gebze, Kocaeli, NW Turkey) and their paleogeographical relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazik, Atike; Çapkinoǧlu, Şenol; Şeker, Emine

    2012-11-01

    Famennian (Late Devonian) ostracods of the Thuringian Mega-Assemblage were recovered for the first time from three incomplete sections of the Ayineburnu Member of the Büyükada Formation in the Denizliköy area (Gebze, NW Turkey), which were sampled for conodonts. Conodont faunas define an interval extending from the Upper rhomboidea? or Lower marginifera Zone into the Middle expansa Zone of the standard Upper Devonian conodont zonation. The ostracod faunas found here consist of species mainly with thin-walls, long spines and often smooth surfaces such as Rectonaria, Tricornina, Orthonaria, Triplacera, Beckerhealdia, Timorhealdia, Bohemina, Paraberounella and Acratia. These taxa indicate faunal relationship with Thuringia and the Rhenish Massif in Germany, the Cantabrian Mountains and Pyrenees in Spain, Holy Cross Mountains in Poland, North Africa and China.

  16. Energy Made in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz del Arbol, M.

    2011-01-01

    Spain is the first country in Europe and the second worldwide in installed thermoelectric solar power, the second place in Europe and fourth worldwide in wind energy. Moreover, Spain is the second country in photovoltaic energy so in Europe as in the World.

  17. Radiolytic removal of trihalomethane in chlorinated seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajamohan, R.; Rajesh, Puspalata; Venugopalan, V.P.; Rangarajan, S.; Natesan, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Biofouling is one of the major operational problems in seawater cooling systems. It is controlled by application of chlorine based biocides in the range of 0.5-2.0 mg L -1 . The bromide in seawater reacts with the added chlorine and forms hypobromous acid. The brominated residual biocides react with natural organic matter present in the seawater, resulting in the formation of trihalomethanes (THM) such as bromoform (CHBr 3 ), dibromochloromethane (CHBr 2 Cl) bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl 2 ). Though THMs represent a small fraction of the added chlorine, they are relatively more persistent than residual chlorine, and hence pose a potential hazard to marine life because of their reported mutagenicity. There have been few reports on removal of THMs from chlorinated seawater. In this work, the efficacy of gamma irradiation technique for the removal of THMs from chlorine-dosed seawater was investigated. Experiments were carried out using seawater collected from Kalpakkam. Irradiation study was conducted in chlorinated (1, 3, and 5 mg L -1 of Cl 2 ) seawater by applying various dosages (0.4-5.0 kGy) of gamma radiation using a 60 Co Gamma Chamber 5000. Bromoform showed a faster rate of degradation as compared to other halocarbons like bromodichloromethane and dibromochloromethane. This shows the change in total THM concentration with variation in the radiation dose and initial Cl 2 dosing. When the percentage degradation of all the three trihalomethane species was compared with applied doses, it was found that the maximum reduction occurred at a dose of 2.5 kGy. The reduction was almost similar for all the three doses (1, 3, 5 ppm of Cl 2 ) used for chlorination. With a further increase in radiation dose to 5.0 kGy, a slight increase in reduction was observed

  18. Technical note: Examining ozone deposition over seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Golam; Kang, Daiwen; Foley, Kristen; Schwede, Donna; Gantt, Brett; Mathur, Rohit

    2016-09-01

    Surface layer resistance plays an important role in determining ozone deposition velocity over sea-water and can be influenced by chemical interactions at the air-water interface. Here, we examine the effect of chemical interactions of iodide, dimethylsulfide, dissolved organic carbon, and bromide in seawater on ozone deposition. We perform a series of simulations using the hemispheric Community Multiscale Air Quality model for summer months in the Northern Hemisphere. Our results suggest that each chemical interaction enhances the ozone deposition velocity and decreases the atmospheric ozone mixing ratio over seawater. Iodide enhances the median deposition velocity over seawater by 0.023 cm s-1, dissolved organic carbon by 0.021 cm s-1, dimethylsulfide by 0.002 cm s-1, and bromide by ∼0.0006 cm s-1. Consequently, iodide decreases the median atmospheric ozone mixing ratio over seawater by 0.7 ppb, dissolved organic carbon by 0.8 ppb, dimethylsulfide by 0.1 ppb, and bromide by 0.02 ppb. In a separate model simulation, we account for the effect of dissolved salts in seawater on the Henry's law constant for ozone and find that it reduces the median deposition velocity by 0.007 cm s-1 and increases surface ozone mixing ratio by 0.2 ppb. The combined effect of these processes increases the median ozone deposition velocity over seawater by 0.040 cm s-1, lowers the atmospheric ozone mixing ratio by 5%, and slightly improves model performance relative to observations.

  19. Metagenomic Sequence of Prokaryotic Microbiota from an Intermediate-Salinity Pond of a Saltern in Isla Cristina, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Ana B.; León, María José; Vera, Blanca; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Ventosa, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Marine salterns are artificial multipond systems designed for the commercial production of salt by evaporation of seawater. We report here the metagenomic sequence of the prokaryotic microbiota of a pond with intermediate salinity (21% total salts) of a saltern located in Isla Cristina, Huelva, southwest Spain.

  20. Metagenomic sequence of prokaryotic microbiota from an intermediate-salinity pond of a saltern in isla cristina, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ana B; León, María José; Vera, Blanca; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Ventosa, Antonio

    2014-02-13

    Marine salterns are artificial multipond systems designed for the commercial production of salt by evaporation of seawater. We report here the metagenomic sequence of the prokaryotic microbiota of a pond with intermediate salinity (21% total salts) of a saltern located in Isla Cristina, Huelva, southwest Spain.

  1. [The effect of hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater for nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis mice model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhifeng; Xu, Yu; Ou, Jin; Xiang, Rong; Tao, Zezhang

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater for nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis mice model, and explore the possible mechanism of nasal irrigation with seawater in treatment of allergic rhinitis. We used Der pl to make allergic rhinitis model of BALB/c mice, and divided them into three groups randomly. Nasal irrigation with hypertonic seawater (HS) or isotonic seawater (IS) in the treatment group 1-14 days after modeling, and black control (BC) group was given no treatment after modeling. Normal control (NC) group was given no treatment, the number of rubs and sneezings in each group were counted in 30 min after the last nasal irrigation. Mice were then killed 24 h after the last therapy. The noses of mice from each group were removed and fixed, then the slices were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, the others were observed by transmission electron microscope. Mice with hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater were significantly improved in rubs and sneezings compared to the black control group (P 0. 05); Ciliated columnar epithelium cells in mucosal tissues of HS group and IS group were arranged trimly, better than that in the black control group. Morphology and microstructure in nasal mucosal of HS group was closer to the normal group than in IS group. The injury of nasal mucosa ciliated epithelium was significantly improved by nasal irrigation with hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater, and the former is better than the latter, the mechanism of nasal irrigation with seawater in treatment of allergic rhinitis may rely on repairing the injured nasal mucosa ciliated epithelium, thereby the symptoms of nasal was reduced.

  2. Rapid determination of radiostrontium in seawater samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Utsey, Robin C.

    2013-03-12

    A new method for the determination of radiostrontium in seawater samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of strontium and yttrium isotopes in seawater samples for measurement. The new SRNL method employs a novel and effective pre-concentration step that utilizes a blend of calcium phosphate with iron hydroxide to collect both strontium and yttrium rapidly from the seawater matrix with enhanced chemical yields. The pre-concentration steps, in combination with rapid Sr Resin and DGA Resin cartridge separation options using vacuum box technology, allow seawater samples up to 10 liters to be analyzed. The total 89Sr + 90Sr activity may be determined by gas flow proportional counting and recounted after ingrowth of 90Y to differentiate 89Sr from 90Sr. Gas flow proportional counting provides a lower method detection limit than liquid scintillation or Cerenkov counting and allows simultaneous counting of samples. Simultaneous counting allows for longer count times and lower method detection limits without handling very large aliquots of seawater. Seawater samples up to 6 liters may be analyzed using Sr Resin for 89Sr and 90Sr with a Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) of 1-10 mBq/L, depending on count times. Seawater samples up to 10 liters may be analyzed for 90Sr using a DGA Resin method via collection and purification of 90Y only. If 89Sr and other fission products are present, then 91Y (beta energy 1.55 MeV, 58.5 day half-life) is also likely to be present. 91Y interferes with attempts to collect 90Y directly from the seawater sample without initial purification of Sr isotopes first and 90Y ingrowth. The DGA Resin option can be used to determine 90Sr, and if 91Y is also present, an ingrowth option with using DGA

  3. Seawater Chemistry and the Advent of Biocalcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, S. T. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA; Lowenstein, T K. [State University of New York, Binghamton; Horita, Juske [ORNL

    2004-01-01

    Major ion compositions of primary fluid inclusions from terminal Proterozoic (ca. 544 Ma) and Early Cambrian (ca. 515 Ma) marine halites indicate that seawater Ca{sup 2+} concentrations increased approximately threefold during the Early Cambrian. The timing of this shift in seawater chemistry broadly coincides with the 'Cambrian explosion,' a brief drop in marine {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values, and an increase in tectonic activity, suggesting a link between the advent of biocalcification, hydrothermal mid-ocean-ridge brine production, and the composition of seawater. The Early Cambrian surge in oceanic [Ca{sup 2+}] was likely the first such increase following the rise of metazoans and may have spurred evolutionary changes in marine biota.

  4. Extracting Minerals from Seawater: An Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Bardi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of recovering minerals from seawater has been proposed as a way of counteracting the gradual depletion of conventional mineral ores. Seawater contains large amounts of dissolved ions and the four most concentrated metal ones (Na, Mg, Ca, K are being commercially extracted today. However, all the other metal ions exist at much lower concentrations. This paper reports an estimate of the feasibility of the extraction of these metal ions on the basis of the energy needed. In most cases, the result is that extraction in amounts comparable to the present production from land mines would be impossible because of the very large amount of energy needed. This conclusion holds also for uranium as fuel for the present generation of nuclear fission plants. Nevertheless, in a few cases, mainly lithium, extraction from seawater could provide amounts of metals sufficient for closing the cycle of metal use in the economy, provided that an increased level of recycling can be attained.

  5. Seawater bicarbonate removal during hydrothermal circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskurowski, G. K.; Seewald, J.; Sylva, S. P.; Reeves, E.; Lilley, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    High temperature fluids sampled at hydrothermal vents represent a complex alteration product of water-rock reactions on a multi-component mixture of source fluids. Sources to high-temperature hydrothermal samples include the 'original' seawater present in the recharge limb of circulation, magmatically influenced fluids added at depth as well as any seawater entrained during sampling. High-temperature hydrothermal fluids are typically enriched in magmatic volatiles, with CO2 the dominant species, characterized by concentrations of 10's-100's of mmol/kg (1, 2). Typically, the high concentration of CO2 relative to background seawater bicarbonate concentrations (~2.3 mmol/kg) obscures a full analysis of the fate of seawater bicarbonate during high-temperature hydrothermal circulation. Here we present data from a suite of samples collected over the past 15 years from high-temperature hydrothermal vents at 9N, Endeavour, Lau Basin, and the MAR that have endmember CO2 concentrations less than 10 mmol/kg. Using stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements these samples provide a unique opportunity to examine the balance between 'original' seawater bicarbonate and CO2 added from magmatic sources. Multiple lines of evidence from multiple hydrothermal settings consistently points to the removal of ~80% of the 'original' 2.3 mmol/kg seawater bicarbonate. Assuming that this removal occurs in the low-temperature, 'recharge' limb of hydrothermal circulation, this removal process is widely occurring and has important contributions to the global carbon cycle over geologic time. 1. Lilley MD, Butterfield DA, Lupton JE, & Olson EJ (2003) Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in hydrothermal vent chemistry. Nature 422(6934):878-881. 2. Seewald J, Cruse A, & Saccocia P (2003) Aqueous volatiles in hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: temporal variability following earthquake activity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216(4):575-590.

  6. Floating plant can get uranium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A floating plant has been designed to extract uranium from seawater using solid adsorbents. Ore is removed from the adsorbent material by means of a solvent and concentrated in ion exchangers. Seawater is supplied to the adsorbent inside by wave energy and is based on the principle that waves will rush up a sloping plane that is partly submerged and fill a reservoir to a level higher than the still water level in the sea. The company projects that an offshore plant for recovering 600 tons of uranium/yr would comprise 22 floating concrete units, each measuring 430 x 75 meters

  7. The nuclear energy in the seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno A, J.; Flores E, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    In general, the hydric resources of diverse regions of the world are insufficient for to satisfy the necessities of their inhabitants. Among the different technologies that are applied for the desalination of seawater are the distillation processes, the use of membranes and in particular recently in development the use of the nuclear energy (Nuclear Desalination; System to produce drinkable water starting from seawater in a complex integrated in that as much the nuclear reactor as the desalination system are in a common location, the facilities and pertinent services are shared, and the nuclear reactor produces the energy that is used for the desalination process). (Author)

  8. Biofouling control of industrial seawater cooling towers

    KAUST Repository

    Albloushi, Mohammed

    2017-11-01

    The use of seawater in cooling towers for industrial applications has much merit in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries due to the scarcity and availability of fresh water. Seawater make-up in cooling towers is deemed the most feasible because of its unlimited supply in coastal areas. Such latent-heat removal with seawater in cooling towers is several folds more efficient than sensible heat extraction via heat exchangers. Operational challenges such as scaling, corrosion, and biofouling are a major challenge in conventional cooling towers, where the latter is also a major issue in seawater cooling towers. Biofouling can significantly hamper the efficiency of cooling towers. The most popular methods used in cooling treatment to control biofouling are disinfection by chlorination. However, the disadvantages of chlorination are formation of harmful disinfection byproducts in the presence of high organic loading and safety concerns in the storage of chlorine gas. In this study, the research focuses on biofouling control in seawater cooling towers by investigating two different approaches. The first strategy addresses the use of alternative oxidants (i.e. ozone micro-bubbles and chlorine dioxide) in treatment of cooling towers. The second strategy investigates removing nutrients in seawater using granular activated carbon filter column and ultrafiltration to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Laboratory bench-scale tests in terms of temperature, cycle of concentration, dosage, etc. indicated that, at lower oxidant dosages (total residual oxidant (TRO) equivalent = 0.1 mg/l Cl2), chlorine dioxide had a better disinfection effect than chlorine and ozone. The performance of oxidizing biocides at pilot scale, operating at assorted conditions, showed that for the disinfectants tested, ozone could remove 95 % bioactivity of total number of bacteria and algae followed by chlorine dioxide at 85%, while conventional chlorine dosing only gave 60% reduction in bioactivities

  9. INES in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzuela, J.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the INES activities in Spain addressing the following issues: applicability; rating procedure; public information; activities in 1997; events above level 0 (October 1996 - September 1997); difficulties

  10. Molecular Gastronomy in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    García-Segovia, Purificación; Garrido, María Dolores; Vercet Tormo, Antonio; Arboleya, Juan Carlos; FISZMAN DAL SANTO, SUSANA; Martínez Monzó, Javier; Laguarda, Sergio; Palacios, Victor; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientificand technological universe in the culinary area. Nowadays, this is a well-established discipline in Spain, with a number of research groups covering related topics, several companies commercializing appliances and additives worl...

  11. Biologically mediated dissolution of volcanic glass in seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staudigel, H.; Chastain, R.A.; Yayanos, A.; Davies, G.R.; Verdurmen, E.; Schiffman, P.; Bourcier, R.; de Baar, H.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the effects of biological mediation on the dissolution of basaltic glass in seawater. Experiments with typical seawater microbial populations were contrasted with a sterile control, and reactions were monitored chemically and isotopically. Biologically mediated experiments produce twice

  12. Alpine tectonic wedging and crustal delamination in the Cantabrian Mountains (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallastegui, Jorge; Pulgar, Javier A.; Gallart, Josep

    2016-07-01

    The Cantabrian Mountains have been interpreted as a Paleozoic basement block uplifted during an Alpine deformation event that led to the partial closure of the Bay of Biscay and the building of the Pyrenean range in the Cenozoic. A detailed interpretation of deep seismic reflection profile ESCIN-2 and the two-dimensional seismic modelling of the data allowed us to construct a N-S geological cross section along the southern border of the Cantabrian Mountains and the transition to the Duero Cenozoic foreland basin, highlighting the Alpine structure. The proposed geological cross section has been constrained by all geophysical data available, including a 2-D gravity model constructed for this study as well as refraction and magnetotelluric models from previous studies. A set of south-vergent thrusts dipping 30 to 36° to the north, cut the upper crust with a ramp geometry and sole in the boundary with the middle crust. These thrusts are responsible for the uplift and the main Alpine deformation in the Cantabrian Mountains. A conspicuous reflective Moho shows that the crust thickens northwards from the Duero basin, where subhorizontal Moho is 32 km deep, to 47 km in the northernmost end of ESCIN-2, where Moho dips to the north beneath the Cantabrian Mountains. Further north, out of the profile, Moho reaches a maximum depth of 55 km, according to wide-angle/refraction data. ESCIN-2 indicates the presence of a tectonic wedge of the crust of the Cantabrian margin beneath the Cantabrian Mountains, which is indented from north to south into the delaminated Iberian crust, forcing its northward subduction.

  13. Spatio-temporal variability of inorganic and organic nutrients in five Galician rias (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Doval

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of inorganic (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and silicate and organic (dissolved organic carbon nutrients in five Galician rias (Vigo, Pontevedra, Arousa, Muros and Ares-Betanzos was assessed by considering average values for the upwelling and downwelling periods. Inner stations were significantly different from middle and outer stations, especially during the downwelling period. Spatial differences between the five rías, tested by means of a multivariate analysis, were found in both periods. The behaviour of inorganic and organic nutrient variables was also significantly different between periods with and without shellfish harvesting closures due to the occurrence of toxic phytoplankton species.

  14. March 1, 2005 Daylight Fireball Over Galicia (NW of Spain) and Minho (N. Portugal)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Docobo, J. A.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J.M.; Borovička, Jiří; Tamazian, V.; Fernandes, V.A.; Llorca, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 102, 1-4 (2008), s. 537-542 ISSN 0167-9295. [Meteoroids 2007. Barcelona, 11.06.2007-15.06.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : meteors * meteoroids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.033, year: 2008

  15. Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone, microporous, is partially cemented by dolomite, 27% (bulk porosity), ii) the ochre and fine-grained stone, microporous, with smectite, 30% (bulk porosity), iii) the medium-grained stone, 38% (bulk porosity). Main components for all three varieties: Quartz (up to 60%), feldspars, 2:1 layered silicates (smectites), palygorskite-type fibrous silicates, and small amounts of micaceous minerals (illite/mica).

  16. Life cycle assessment of European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus) consumption. A case study for Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Villanueva-Rey, Pedro; Hospido, Almudena; Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2014-03-15

    European pilchard or sardines (Sardina pilchardus) are an attractive raw material to extract from Iberian waters, since they constitute a cheap source of protein and they are a popular product among consumers. This has led to a wide range of final products available for consumers to purchase based on this single raw material. Therefore, this study presents a cross-product environmental assessment using life cycle assessment of three different final products based on sardine landings: canned sardines, fresh sardines and European hake caught by using sardine as bait. In addition, the products were followed throughout their entire life cycle, considering different cooking methods for each final product. Results showed high variability in environmental impacts, not only between the three final products, but also when one single product was cooked in different ways, highlighting the importance that the consumption phase and other post-landing stages may have on the final environmental profile of seafood. Results are then analysed regarding relevant limitations and uncertainties, as well as in terms of the consumer and policy implications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Geology of the Leonides between the Bernesga and Porma rivers, Cantabrian Mountains, NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, H.J.

    1968-01-01

    A stratigraphic analysis of the Lower Palaeozoic in the Bernesga-Porma area revealed relatively stable shelf conditions in the miogeosynclinal part of a geosyncline located further to the south (fig. 5). The Caledonian period might be represented by the synsedimentary volcanism (dolerites and

  18. Tectonic analysis of Lechada and Curavacas synclines, Yuso basin, León, NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savage, J.F.

    1967-01-01

    The structures along the southern boundary of the flysch-filled Yuso Basin bear witness to continuous epeirogenic activity during the Upper Carboniferous. The Carda\\u0148o Line foems the boundary proper but other structures, somewhat similar to this fundamental feature e.g. the Pe\\u0148a Prieta

  19. Demographic status and genetic tagging of endangered capercaillie in NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán-Luis, María; Fameli, Alberto; Blanco-Fontao, Beatriz; Fernández-Gil, Alberto; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rolando; Quevedo, Mario; Mirol, Patricia; Bañuelos, María-José

    2014-01-01

    Counting rare and elusive animals and evaluating their demographic status, are fundamental yet challenging aspects of population ecology and conservation biology. We set out to estimate population size (Nc), genetic effective population size (Ne gen), sex ratio, and movements based on genetic tagging for the threatened Cantabrian capercaillie. We used 9 microsatellite loci to genotype 134 droppings collected at 34 display areas during the breeding season. Using genetic capture-mark-recapture, we estimated 93 individuals (Nc, 95% CI: 70-116) in an area of about 500 km2, with sex ratio biased towards males (1∶1.6). Estimated Ne gen (35.5) was 38% of Nc, notably higher than the published average in wild populations. This capercaillie population is small and well within concern in terms of population viability. By genetic tagging, we detected mostly short movements; just a few males were recaptured between contiguous display areas. Non-invasive surveys of endangered populations have a great potential, yet adequate sample size and location are key to obtain reliable information on conservation status.

  20. Excursions in the catazonal rock complexes of the polyorogenic terrain of Cabo Ortegal (NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, D.E.

    1967-01-01

    This excursion program anticipates the publication of a PhD. thesis (Vogel, in preparation) in this periodical and is intended as a guide to those points at Cabo Ortegal, that are readily accessible, well exposed and of general petrological interest. The described localities are indicated on a small

  1. Forest fire impact on the hydrological response in small catchment of NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Canceio-González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological studies were carried out in two catchments (burnt and unburned, to determine the processes related to the streamflow changes and the possible effects on the runoff coefficients produced by a forest fire in the summer of 2007, which affected 50% of the area of one of the catchments. Comparative analysis of the changes in the monthly streamflow values revealed that during the wettest months, the runoff was higher in the burnt catchment during the first two years, and was very similar in both catchments during the third year. Calculation of the annual runoff coefficient confirmed these findings and showed that the differences between the coefficients in the catchments were negligible in the final year. In both cases, this can be explained by regeneration of the vegetation after fire.

  2. Fermentation kinetics and chemical characterisation of vino tostado, a traditional sweet wine from Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Sandra; Salgado, José M; Rivas, Beatriz; Torrado, Ana M; Domínguez, José M

    2010-01-15

    Grapes after harvesting are air dried and pressed in order to concentrate sugars, acids and flavour compounds to produce vino tostado (toasted wine), a wine with intense aroma and flavour notes and high residual sugar concentration. In order to get a better knowledge of the difficulties involved, several fermentations were conducted at 12 and 28 degrees C using 0, 15 and 30 g hL(-1) ammonium sulfate and 0, 25 and 50 g hL(-1) exogenous commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. bayanus) to study the kinetics of sugar consumption and ethanol, acetic acid and glycerol production. Fermentation kinetic parameters were calculated and metal concentrations and antioxidant activity were analysed. The spontaneous fermentation at 12 degrees C and all fermentations conducted with the commercial yeast gave vino tostado of adequate quality, while the spontaneous fermentation at 28 degrees C was sluggish. High-temperature fermentations led to sweeter wines with higher volumetric productivities, although low-temperature fermentations produced better wines in terms of higher glycerol and lower acetic acid levels. Fructose was the only sugar to be consumed during spontaneous fermentations, while both glucose and fructose were consumed during fermentations of the inoculated musts, with preference for each monosaccharide depending on temperature. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Petrology of an eclogite- and pyrigarnite-bearing polymetamorphic rock complex at Cabo Ortegal, NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, D.E.

    1967-01-01

    At Cabo Ortegal, paragneisses are found in association with amphibolites, metagabbros, amphibolized eclogites, amphibolized (plagio) pyrigarnites, and serpentinized ultrabasic rocks. On the basis of petrographical and chemical evidence, their geological history was reconstructed as follows:

  4. Cadmium in edible mushrooms from NW Spain: Bioconcentration factors and consumer health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, M Julia; Alonso, Julián; García, M Angeles

    2016-02-01

    Mushrooms do not constitute a significant portion of the human diet, but the consumption of wild and cultivated mushrooms has become increasingly in recent years. Some species accumulate high levels of toxic metals, both in unpolluted and polluted areas. In this study, we examined the accumulation capacity of cadmium in edible mushrooms in relation to certain factors and their possible toxicological implications. Cadmium concentrations were determined by an ICP-MS spectrometer in 238 samples of the fruiting bodies of 28 wild and cultivated growing edible mushrooms species and the underlying soil. The hymenophore (H) and the rest of the fruiting body (RFB) were analysed separately. The highest mean cadmium concentration (mg/kg dry weight) was found in Agaricus macrosporus (52.9 in H and 28.3 in RFB). All mushroom species accumulated cadmium in relation to the underlying soils. There were statistically significant differences between the hymenophore and the rest of the fruiting body (p mushrooms is not a toxicological risk as far as cadmium content is concerned, although the species A. macrosporus should not be consumed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PCBs in Rain Water, Streams and a Reservoir in a Small Catchment of NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Martín, Jordi; Cereijo-Arango, José Luis; García-Morrondo, David; Juncosa-Rivera, Ricardo; Cillero-Castro, Carmen; Muñoz-Ibáñez, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) constitute a significant environmental concern due to its persistence, tendency to bio-accumulate, acknowledged toxicity and ubiquity. In the present study, a small water catchment (~100 km2) inclusive of a two-tailed water supply reservoir (Abegondo-Cecebre) has been monitored between 2009 and 2014. Sampling stations include: a) one precipitation gauge used to collect monthly-integrated bulk precipitation (25 samples); b) seven streams (95 samples); c) five surface and one bottom points within the reservoir (104 samples); d) five points for sediment sampling in two surveys (spring and summer; 10 samples). All the water samples as well as the leachates of sediment washing have been analyzed for their concentration in 6 marker PCB (congeners 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) and 12 dioxin-like PCB (congeners 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, 169 and 189) compounds. The average concentration of PCBtot in the bulk precipitation during the sampling period is ~406 pg/L although a very significant decrease has occurred since the end of 2011 (~800 pg/L) to the end of 2014 (~60 pg/L). Likewise, the mean concentration of PCBtot in the stream water samples is 174 pg/L and a similar reduction in the concentration of PCBtot is also acknowledged for the same period of time (~250 pg/L before the end of 2011 and ~30 pg/L after then). Reservoir surface water has a PCBtot concentration of ~234 pg/L which, according to its sampling time (2010-2011) is consistent with the measured stream waters. However, deep reservoir water reveals an average concentration which is higher than the corresponding top water (~330 pg/L) but significantly smaller than the water-leached sediments (~860 pg/L). The available data suggest that up to a 30% of PCBs associated with precipitation becomes sequestered by the soil/sediment system while no significant change takes place during the transfer of water from the stream to the reservoir system, at least in surface. However, deep reservoir water is enriched in PCBs what is likely due to exchange reactions with the already enriched reservoir sediments. Significant differences are also observed between the PCBtot concentrations of the sediment samples taken in spring (lower) and summer (higher) as well as in connection with the different organic carbon and metal content present in the two tails of the reservoir.

  6. Geology of the Luna-Sil region, Cantabrian Mountains (NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, van den W.J.

    1969-01-01

    After a late-Precambrian folding, clastic deposits, partly continental, spread out over the region during the Lower Cambrian; later, marine intercalations became more abundant when upper Lower Cambrian marine sediments were deposited. This sedimentation continued until the Upper Carboniferous and

  7. Structural petrology of an area near Santiago de Compostela (NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuuren, van A.

    1970-01-01

    The area around Santiago de Compostela has been subjected to petrological and structural investigations. The rocks present in the mapped area have been divided into two complexes (the Ordenes Complex and the Complex of Santiago de Compostela) on the basis of their petrography, structure and grade of

  8. Commented checklist of marine fishes from the Galicia Bank seamount (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañon, Rafael; Arronte, Juan Carlos; Rodriguez-Cabello, Cristina; Piñeiro, Carmen-Gloria; Punzon, Antonio; Serrano, Alberto

    2016-01-21

    A commented checklist containing 139 species of marine fishes recorded at the Galician Bank seamount is presented. The list is based on nine prospecting and research surveys carried out from 1980 to 2011 with different fishing gears. The ichthyofauna list is diversified in 2 superclasses, 3 classes, 20 orders, 62 families and 113 genera. The largest family is Macrouridae, with 9 species, followed by Moridae, Stomiidae and Sternoptychidae with 7 species each. The trachichthyd Hoplostethus mediterraneus and the morid Lepidion lepidion were the most abundant species. Biogeographically, the Atlantic group, with 113 species (81.3%) is the best represented, followed by the Lusitanian one with 17 species (12.2%). Data on species abundance, as number of individuals caught, size and depth are reported. Habitat, distribution and vulnerability status are commented. Moreover, biometric data and meristic counts are also reported for several species. The results obtained showing a high fish biodiversity and a sensible number of threatened species, strongly support the future declaration of the Galicia Bank as a Marine Protected Area.

  9. Volumetric facies analysis of a Late Holocene mudbelt environment on the Galician shelf (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, F. K. J.; Hanebuth, T. J. J.; Schwenk, T.

    2012-04-01

    This case study uses geographically dense, shallow-seismic data from the Galician continental shelf in order to quantify the sedimentary volume of a confined mudbelt depocenter. Mud depocenters on shelves are of particular economic and environmental interest because they represent areas where fishing and other ground disturbing activities are most intense and ecosystems hold some of the highest biodiversities. Also, up until now, studies of sedimentary shelf systems have mainly focused on the temporal and special development of sedimentary facies in relation to sea-level changes while little is known about the sedimentary budgets and fluxes that control these systems. Budget analyses of sedimentary shelf environments are, difficult to accomplish and only very few studies exist to this date that have attempted this due to the required high geographic density of shallow-seismic reflection profiles and sediment cores to calculate sedimentary volumes in an adequate accuracy. In this study we use 1500 km of new (May, 2011) shallow-seismic (PARASOUND) data in conjunction with multiple sediment cores to calculate a high-resolution isopach map that represents the Late Holocene (Galician coast. This is especially noteworthy in the wake of urbanization of watershed areas and associated higher erosion rates and consequent higher riverine sedimentary load. While previous studies show that shelfal mud depocenters represent a major sink for sediments on shelves little is known about their importance for global material flux calculations. This study contributes rare quantitative data from a high-energy shelf environment that helps develop a more in depth understanding of their significance within global material fluxes. In addition, a high resolution spatial record of this modern mudbelt will enable researchers to analyze future seasonal or annual shifts of material pathways and spatial distribution and volume of this facies. Such an analysis may hold serious implications for a better understanding of ecosystem shifts and thus be of economic interest to fisheries.

  10. The geology of the region to the southeast of Lugo (N.W. Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dozy, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    The area described comprises the SE plunging extension of the anticlinorium of Mondoñedo-Lugo-Sarria and several structural units to the NE of it. The stratigraphy compares with that of neighbouring areas. Certain new observations have been made regarding the west flank of the East Galician-West

  11. Acetylcholinesterase activity in seabirds affected by the Prestige oil spill on the Galician coast (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, Ana-Lourdes; Pérez-López, Marcos; Hernández, David; García, Jesús-Pablo; Fidalgo, Luis-Eusebio; López-Beceiro, Ana; Soler, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    In November 2002, the tanker Prestige broke in two and sank at the bottom of the ocean spilling about 70,000 t of fuel oil, which reached the coast of Galicia. It was considered the largest spill in maritime history, greatly affecting marine and related avian species. The spilled fuel oil contained high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many species were affected and were found dead, although ongoing research is still being carried out on the sublethal effects. In this sense, little is known about the action of PAHs on Cholinesterase activity in seabirds. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to provide more information on the neurotoxicity of fuel oil on the seabirds most affected by the Prestige accident: common guillemot, Atlantic puffin and razorbill. On the other hand, data on normal values of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were obtained to supply non-exposed values in seabirds. The oil spill produced a clear inhibitory effect on brain AChE activity in common guillemot (16%, p< or =0.01) and razorbill (22%, p< or =0.01), but not in Atlantic puffin (4%). Physiological levels of brain AChE, expressed in nmol acetylcholine hydrolysed min(-1) mg(-1) protein were similar in non-exposed common guillemot (388.6+/-95.0) and Atlantic puffin (474.0+/-60.7), however, razorbill values were higher (644.6+/-66.9).

  12. Mobility of sulphate in experimentally acidified soils from Galicia (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino, A.; Garcia-Rodeja, E. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Eda`fologia y Quimica Agricola

    1996-02-01

    Retention of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was investigated in Galician soils throughout an intense regime of acidification. Experiments consisted of the addition of an H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution (pH 2.7) to columns of 6 soils of contrasting properties over 1,2 or 5 months. Leachates were obtained continuously throughout the experiment for analysis, and analysis made of the solid fractions after 1, 2 or 5 months. The greatest capacities for retention of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} were found in soil developed from serpentine and micaschist; the lowest in soils from granite, slate and sandy sediments. The surface horizons, especially those rich in organic matter, displayed low retention of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The amount of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} adsorbed throughout the experiment depended on the content of crystalline forms of Fe and with the Fe and Al extracted with dithionite-citrate. The low retention of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in the organic horizons and the slightly negative relation with the organic matter suggest an inhibitory effect of the organic matter on the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} retention process. Results of the study show that, under conditions of moderate acidity, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} retention occurs in the form of adsorption; in strongly acidic conditions, the precipitation of aluminium-sulphate minerals may provide an additional retention mechanism. 41 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Some preliminary results of petrological work in Galicia (N.W. Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tex, den E.

    1961-01-01

    The Spanish region of Galicia is situated in the extreme north-western part of the country due North of Portugal and West of Asturias. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and by the Bay of Biscay to the North (see fig. 1). The area under investigation concerns the western provinces of

  14. Parameterization and quantification of recharge in crystalline fractured bedrocks in Galicia-Costa (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Raposo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying groundwater recharge in crystalline rocks presents great difficulties due to the high heterogeneity of the underground medium (mainly, due to heterogeneity in fracture network, which determines hydraulic parameters of the bedrock like hydraulic conductivity or effective porosity. Traditionally these rocks have been considered to have very low permeability, and their groundwater resources have usually been neglected; however, they can be of local importance when the bedrock presents a net of well-developed fractures. The current European Water Framework Directive requires an efficient management of all groundwater resources; this begins with a proper knowledge of the aquifer and accurate recharge estimation. In this study, an assessment of groundwater resources in the Spanish hydrologic district of Galicia-Costa, dominated by granitic and metasedimentary rocks, was carried out. A water-balance modeling approach was used for estimating recharge rates in nine pilot catchments representatives of both geologic materials. These results were cross-validated with an independent technique, i.e. the chloride mass balance (CMB. A relation among groundwater recharge and annual precipitation according to two different logistic curves was found for both granites and metasedimentary rocks, thus allowing the parameterization of recharge by means of only a few hydrogeological parameters. Total groundwater resources in Galicia-Costa were estimated to be 4427 hm3 yr−1. An analysis of spatial and temporal variability of recharge was also carried out.

  15. Mesoscale spatial variability in seawater cavitation thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikov, N. P.; Elistratov, V. P.

    2017-03-01

    The paper presents the spatial variability of cavitation thresholds and some hydrological and hydrochemical parameters of seawater in the interfrontal zone of the Pacific Subarctic Front, in the Drake Passage, and in the equatorial part of the Pacific Ocean, measured in the near-surface layer to a depth of 70 m.

  16. Stability of phosphorus species in seawater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; Somasundar, K.; Rajendran, A.

    couples in acidic and basic solutions, respectively, in anoxic conditions. H sub(3) PO sub(4)/H sub(4) P sub(2) O sub(6) and H sub(3) PO sub(2)/P super(0) are the important reducing couples in seawater. HPO and H PO are the stable ones in oxic and anoxic...

  17. Concentration of uranium in seawater by flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Toru; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    1986-01-01

    A method has been developed for the concentration of uranium in seawater by precipitation flotation-carbonate extraction-ion flotation. Uranium in seawater was coprecipitated with hydrated iron (III) oxide by adjusting the pH to 5.5 after addition of 1.0 x 10 -3 mol/l of iron (III) and agitating for 1 hr, and the precipitate was floated with 1.0 x 10 -5 mol/l of sodium oleate and 5.0 x 10 -5 mol/l of sodium lauryl sulfate by bubbling nitrogen through the seawater for 15 min. Uranium was extracted from the precipitate scum at the yield of 89 % with 100 ml of 1.8 % of ammonium carbonate solution by agitating for 2 hr, and floated with 1.2 x 10 -3 mol/l of cetylpyridinium chloride by bubbling nitrogen through the extract diluted 5-fold for 30 min in the recovery of about 100 %. The fairly selective recovery of uranium was obtained from 4 l of seawater at the yield of 87 % throughout the entire process. (author)

  18. Durability of high performance concrete in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad Hussain Memon; Salihuddin Radin Sumadi; Rabitah Handan

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a report on the effects of blended cements on the durability of high performance concrete (HPC) in seawater. In this research the effect of seawater was investigated. The specimens were initially subjected to water curing for seven days inside the laboratory at room temperature, followed by seawater curing exposed to tidal zone until testing. In this study three levels of cement replacement (0%, 30% and 70%) were used. The combined use of chemical and mineral admixtures has resulted in a new generation of concrete called HPC. The HPC has been identified as one of the most important advanced materials necessary in the effort to build a nation's infrastructure. HPC opens new opportunities in the utilization of the industrial by-products (mineral admixtures) in the construction industry. As a matter of fact permeability is considered as one of the fundamental properties governing the durability of concrete in the marine environment. Results of this investigation indicated that the oxygen permeability values for the blended cement concretes at the age of one year are reduced by a factor of about 2 as compared to OPC control mix concrete. Therefore both blended cement concretes are expected to withstand in the seawater exposed to tidal zone without serious deterioration. (Author)

  19. Technical note: Examining ozone deposition over seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface layer resistance plays an important role in determining ozone deposition velocity over sea-water and can be influenced by chemical interactions at the air-water interface. Here, we examine the effect of chemical interactions of iodide, dimethylsulfide, dissolved organic c...

  20. Weathering on land and transport of chromium to the ocean in a subtropical region (Misiones, NW Argentina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Robert; Poiré, Daniel G.; Frei, Karin Margarita

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the pathway of chromium from its mobilization on land and along its riverine transport in a subtropical region of South America (Misiones Province, Argentina), in an attempt to link Cr stable isotope compositions recently measured in seawater with signals prevailing in rivers......; this is essentially due to the affinity of REE and U, but not Cr with secondary phosphates which form during weathering processes. Smaller tributaries in NW Argentina to the Paraná River (second largest river in South America) carry dissolved Cr in the order of 0.7–1.4 ppb (13–27 nM) with δ53Cr values of + 0.2 to + 0...

  1. Extraction of uranium from seawater with magnesium hydroxide precipitate depositing from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujinaga, Taitiro; Kuwamoto, Tooru; Nakayama, Eiichiro; Isshiki, Kenji

    1984-01-01

    Magnesium hydroxide precipitate depositing from alkalized seawater was used as an adsorbent for the extraction of uranium from seawater. Calcium hydroxide was a suitable alkali because the adsorption of uranium was enhanced in the presence of calcium ion. Uranium was adsorbed quantitatively with magnesium hydroxide precipitate when an adequate amount of calcium hydroxide was added to precipitate 80 to 90 % of magnesium ion in seawater. More than 80 % of adsorbed uranium was eluted from the precipitate with 1 to 3 M ammonium carbonate solution, in which the precipitate was hardly dissolved at all. With this method about 11 mg of uranium was collected as uranyl salt from 6,000 l of natural seawater. The recovery throughout all processes was about 70 % (author)

  2. Hydraulic barrier against seawater intrusion in the main aquifer of Delta del Llobregat; Barrera hidraulica contra la intrusion marina en el acuifero principal del Delta del Llobregat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortuno Gobern, F.; Ninerola Pla, J. M.; Fraile, J.; Juarez, I.; Molinero Huguet, J.; Arcos, D.; Pitarch, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    The main aquifer of Delta del Llobregat (Barcelona, Spain) is affected by seawater intrusion from 1970. For stopping its advance, the Catalan Water Agency is carrying out the construction of a positive hydraulic barrier through the injection of water in 14 wells. This is the first project of these characteristic that it is carried out in Spain and pioneer in Europe. The barrier elevates the groundwater level of the aquifer near the coast and avoids that the seawater penetrates inland, using reclaimed water of Baix Llobregat WWTP with several treatments. The first phase brings already more than 2 years of functioning, with highly positive results since a substantial improvement of the quality of the groundwater has been observed. The second phase is at present under construction. (Author)

  3. Low thermal emissivity surfaces using AgNW thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Elisa; Bhatt, Rajendra; Liu, Anping; Gupta, Mool C.

    2017-12-01

    The properties of silver nanowire (AgNW) films in the optical and infrared spectral regime offer an interesting opportunity for a broad range of applications that require low-emissivity coatings. This work reports a method to reduce the thermal emissivity of substrates by the formation of low-emissivity AgNW coating films from solution. The spectral emissivity was characterized by thermal imaging with an FLIR camera, followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In a combined experimental and simulation study, we provide fundamental data of the transmittance, reflectance, haze, and emissivity of AgNW thin films. Emissivity values were finely tuned by modifying the concentration of the metal nanowires in the films. The simulation models based on the transfer matrix method developed for the AgNW thin films provided optical values that show a good agreement with the measurements.

  4. Potential Effects of Desalinated Seawater on Arteriosclerosis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Zhang, Li Xia; Zhang, Shao Ping; Kong, Jian; Zhi, Hong; Zhang, Ming; Lu, Kai; Zhang, Hong Wei

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the potential risk of arteriosclerosis caused by desalinated seawater, Wistar rats were provided desalinated seawater over a 1-year period, and blood samples were collected at 0, 90, 180, and 360 days. Blood calcium, magnesium, and arteriosclerosis-related indicators were investigated. Female rats treated with desalinated seawater for 180 days showed lower magnesium levels than the control rats (P seawater for 360 days (P seawater, and no increase in risk of arteriosclerosis was observed. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  5. Preventing erosive risks after wildfire in Spain: advances and gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Filgueira, Cristina; Vega Hidalgo, José A.; Fontúrbel Lliteras, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    Galicia (NW Spain) is one of the most wildfire-affected areas in Western Europe and where the highest soil losses following fire are recorded in the Iberian Peninsula. During the last decade, mitigation of hydrological and erosive risk has been an important objective for researchers and forest managers. For this reason, research carried out has focused on three main issues: i) the development of operational tools to prioritize post-fire soil stabilization actions, based on soil burn severity indicators and remote sensed information, and testing of their ability to reflect degradation risk in relevant soil properties and subsequent soil erosion, ii) the development and testing of different soil stabilization treatments and their effectiveness for reducing erosion, following their application at broad scale, under the specific environmental conditions of Galicia and iii) the assessment of the performance of current erosion models as well as the development of empirical models to predict post-fire soil losses. On the other hand, the use of forest resources is an essential component of the regional incomes in NW Spain and consequently there is a pressing necessity for investigation on techniques suitable for reconciling soil conservation and sustainable use of those resources. In the framework of wildfire impacts this involve many and complex challenges. This scenario contrast with most of the Iberian Peninsula under Mediterranean influence where salvage logging is not a priority. As in other regions, post-fire hydrologic and erosive risk modeling, including threatened resources vulnerability evaluation is also a capital research need, particularly in a climate change context where dramatic changes in drivers such as precipitation, evapotranspiration and fire regime are expected. The study was funded by the National Institute of Agricultural Research of Spain (INIA) through project RTA2014-00011-C06-02, cofunded by FEDER and the Plan de Mejora e Innovación Forestal de

  6. Spain's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Spain currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity, contributing about one-third of all electricity generated in Spain. Four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed as the result of a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at Vandellos 1 in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, which was sent to the Spanish Parliament on July 25, 1991, Spain opted to continue the nuclear moratorium that began in 1984 and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. Under the new plan, nuclear power's share of Spain's total installed electrical generating capacity will fall from about 17 percent in 1990, to approximately 14 percent by the end of the century, as only the current nuclear facilities will continue to operate and no new nuclear plants will be built. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe. To supply the existing reactors, the government is supporting a major expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry

  7. Environmental boundaries of marine cladoceran distributions in the NW Mediterranean: Implications for their expansion under global warming

    KAUST Repository

    Atienza, Dacha

    2016-08-10

    We studied the horizontal and vertical distributions of marine cladocerans across the Catalan Sea shelf (NW Mediterranean) in July and September 2003, and in June and July 2004. At the seasonal scale, Penilia avirostris appears first in June in the southern region, where temperatures are warmer, and its populations develop northward during the summer. Evadne-Pseudevadne did not show a clear pattern, likely because several species were pooled. In 2003 successive heat waves affecting southwestern Europe resulted in surface seawater temperatures about 2 °C higher than usual across the whole study region. These high temperatures were associated with much lower abundance of P. avirostris. Overall, the mesoscale distributions of cladocerans were associated with the presence of low salinity, productive and stratified waters of continental origin, and negatively linked to the intrusion of offshore waters. On the vertical scale P. avirostris was located within or above the thermocline, whereas Evadne-Pseudevadne was much shallower; no evidence of diel migration was detected in either group. Our study provides new insights regarding the environmental limits for marine cladocerans in the NW Mediterranean; in the particular case of P. avirostris that knowledge can define the likely boundaries of its new distributions as it expands poleward under climate change. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Worst in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotarelo, P. [Ecologistas en Accion (Spain)

    2004-09-01

    The As Pontes coal-fired power plant in northwest Spain is the largest single emitter of sulphur dioxide in the 'old' EU15. The plant is also among the largest emitters of nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the region, according to the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register). But Spain has also several other large emitters of air pollutants. The Andorra which is located in the province of Teruel is one of them. The Andorra power plant emitted 209,148 tones of SO{sub 2} in 2002 which makes it the second largest single emitter of SO{sub 2} in the EU15. It also emitts large quantities of NOx. Also in the northwest of Spain, the Composilla and La Robla power plants are the SO{sub 2} and NOx emitters.

  9. Application of solar energy in desalting seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Asghar [Darwish Al Gobaisi, Ali M El-Nashar, International Centre for Water and Energy Systems (ICWES), ABU DHABI (United Arab Emirates)

    2008-07-01

    Several regions on the Earth are now in the grip of freshwater scarcity with less than 1000 cu.m. available per year per capita. To overcome this situation, desalting seawater and/or brackish water has become a necessity. In the AGCC countries, almost the entire supply of freshwater depends upon desalting seawater. However, desalination as currently practiced on large scale depends entirely on the combustion of fossil fuels which, in turn, results into pollution of air and affects the global climate adversely. Hence, sustainability of the desalination industry very much depends upon the application of renewable energy such as solar to minimize the environmental impact. This can be applied in several ways. (orig.)

  10. Layered metal sulfides capture uranium from seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Manolis J; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2012-10-03

    Uranium is the main source for nuclear energy but also one of the most toxic heavy metals. The current methods for uranium removal from water present limitations, such as narrow pH operating range, limited tolerance to high salt concentrations, or/and high cost. We show here that a layered sulfide ion exchanger K(2)MnSn(2)S(6) (KMS-1) overcomes these limitations and is exceptionally capable in selectively and rapidly sequestering high (ppm) as well as trace (ppb) quantities of UO(2)(2+) under a variety of conditions, including seawater. KMS-1 can efficiently absorb the naturally occurring U traces in seawater samples. The results presented here reveal the exceptional potential of sulfide-based ion-exchangers for remediating of uranium-containing wastes and groundwater and for extracting uranium from the sea.

  11. Radiochemical determination of cesium-137 in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, I.I.L.; Munita, C.S.; Paiva, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    Seawater samples were collected from the Atlantic Ocean, in the vicinity of Ubatuba (Sao Paulo State - Brazil), acidified to pH 1 and stored in polyethylene containers. Cesium was precipitated with ammonium phospho molybdate (AMP), synthesized in our laboratory. The elements potassium and rubidium present in the seawater are also coprecipitated by AMP and adequate decontamination of the cesium is made by preparing a column by mixing Cs-137 AMP precipitate and asbestos. The interfering elements were eluted with 1.0 M ammonium nitrate solution whereas cesium was eluted with 1.0 M sodium hydroxide solution. Cesium was reprecipitated by acidifying the solution with concentrated hydrochloric acid. The overall chemical yield of cesium was of 75%. (author)

  12. Process for enriching uranium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitkamp, D.; Inden, P.

    1982-01-01

    In selective elutriation of uranium deposited on titanium oxide hydrate by carbonate solution, only uranium should be dissolved from the absorption material forming carbonate compounds, without the deposited ballast ions, above all of magnesium, calcium and sodium being elutriated. The uranium elutriation according to the invention is therefore carried out in the presence of these ballast ions in the same concentrations as those in seawater. The carbonate concentration can only be raised as far as the solubility product of the basic magnesium carbonate permits, so that magnesium remains in the solution, as well as carbonate, in the concentration present in seawater. One must accept the absence of calcium ions in the elutriation solution, as their solubility product with carbonate is considerably less than that for magnesium. (orig./PW) [de

  13. Quality assurance in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villate, J.

    1980-01-01

    The first part of this lecture is devoted to present the energy program in Spain and the three generations of nuclear plants. The evolution of QA is outlined pointing out how IAEA Codes of Practice on QA is now a requirement and also how USA regulations, codes and standards have constituted, up to now, the main framework to develop QA activities in Spain. A general idea is given of the Spanish program of courses to qualify the personnel to be involved in QA tasks in nuclear power plants. Finally a general scheme is given, emphasizing the three main aspects: design, procurement and fabrication; construction (QA on site). (orig./RW)

  14. Spain investigates PLEX options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia, F.

    1990-01-01

    Spain's nuclear generation capacity will be reduced by some 6000MWe by the year 2015 if decommissioning of the units currently in operation takes place at the end of their 40-year design life. Bearing this in mind, in 1988 the Santa Maria de Garona BWR and the Jose Cabrera PWR were chosen by their respective owners as reference units for plant life extension (PLEX) activities. These plants are the oldest of their types operating in Spain and PLEX programmes were already under way. (author)

  15. C, Sr and Sr isotopic composition on probable vendian- tommotian carbonate sequences in Nw Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sial, A. N.; Ferreira, V.P; Toselli, A.J.; Acenolaza, F.G; Pimentel, M.M; Parada, M.A; Alonso, R.N

    2001-01-01

    C-isotope stratigraphy is one of the most powerfool tools in Precambrian chronostratigraphy, especially when sediments lack recognizable animal fossils. The δ 13 C secular variation curves for marine carbonates in the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian interval show strong positive-negative excursions, several of them interpreted as the stratigraphic position of ancient ice ages (Hoffman et al. 1998). The Sr isotope composition of the seawater for this age interval is characterized by a continuous increase of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr that is interrupted, several times, by sharp rises, which represent important changes in the Earth history (Montanez et al. 2000). Only limited data on the behavior of C and Sr isotopes in carbonates are available in South America. We examine here carbonate sequences from the Argentine Precordillera, San Juan province, and from other carbonate sequences in NW Argentina that could be, potentially, proxies for the Precambrian-Cambrian transition. We have studied their δ 13 C and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr chemostratigraphy and compare it to global C and Sr isotope secular variation curves for this time span. This study aims to improve the relatively coarse stratigraphic resolution provided only by the study of the fossil record in some of the carbonate successions under consideration (au)

  16. Composition and timing of carbonate vein precipitation within the igneous basement of the Early Cretaceous Shatsky Rise, NW Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldmacher, J.; Li, S.; Hauff, F. F.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C.; Yu, S.; Zhao, S.; Rausch, S.

    2013-12-01

    Shatsky Rise is an Early Cretaceous large igneous province located in the NW Pacific ca. 1500 km east of Japan and is the third-largest oceanic plateau on Earth (after Ontong Java and Kerguelen). Numerous calcium carbonate veins were recovered from the igneous basement of Shatsky Rise during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 324 (Sager et al., 2010). The chemical (Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca) and isotopic (87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, δ18O, δ13C) compositions of these veins were determined to constrain the timing of vein formation and to provide valuable data for the reconstruction of past seawater composition. A dominant control of seawater chemistry on calcite composition is evident for most investigated vein samples with varying compositional contribution from the basaltic basement. The Sr/Ca ratio of the vein calcite is positively correlated with Mg/Ca and with δ18O, indicating warmer/colder precipitation temperatures with decreasing/increasing Sr/Ca (and Mg/Ca) ratios, respectively. Distinctly higher formation temperatures (as inferred from oxygen isotope ratios) indicative of hydrothermal vein formation are only observed at one site (Site U1350, drilled into the central part of Shatsky Rise). The highest 87Sr/86Sr ratios (least basement influence) of vein samples at each drill site range form 0.707264 to 0.707550 and are believed to best reflect contemporaneous Early Cretaceous seawater composition. In principle, age information can be deduced by correlating these ratios with the global seawater Sr isotope evolution. Since the Sr isotopic composition of seawater has fluctuated three times between the early and mid Cretaceous (McArthur et al., 2001) no unambiguous precipitation ages can be constrained by this method and vein precipitation could have occurred at any time between ˜80 and 140 Ma. However, based on combined chemical and isotopic data and correlations of vein composition with formation depth and inferred temperature, we argue for a rather early

  17. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2015-12-30

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region.

  18. The Index of Refraction of Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    the three temper- atures. By integrating these linear gradients, we recovered the index of refrection dependence on pressure, at each of the three...U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Technical Information Service AD-A024 800 The Index of Refraction of Seawater Scripps Institution of...or Government Reports NTIS reports are distributed in the SAIM Announcements and Index categories, or to program. You will receive a notice in your the

  19. Photothermal Membrane Distillation for Seawater Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politano, Antonio; Argurio, Pietro; Di Profio, Gianluca; Sanna, Vanna; Cupolillo, Anna; Chakraborty, Sudip; Arafat, Hassan A; Curcio, Efrem

    2017-01-01

    Thermoplasmonic effects notably improve the efficiency of vacuum membrane distillation, an economically sustainable tool for high-quality seawater desalination. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes filled with spherical silver nanoparticles are used, whose size is tuned for the aim. With the addition of plasmonic nanoparticles in the membrane, the transmembrane flux increases by 11 times, and, moreover, the temperature at the membrane interface is higher than bulk temperature. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Seawater desalination using renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalogirou, S.A. [Higher Technical Inst., Nicosia, Cyprus (Greece). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The origin and continuation of mankind is based on water. Water is one of the most abundant resources on earth, covering three-fourths of the planet's surface. However, about 97% of the earth's water is salt water in the oceans, and a tiny 3% is fresh water. This small percentage of the earth's water - which supplies most of human and animal needs - exists in ground water, lakes and rivers. The only nearly inexhaustible sources of water are the oceans, which, however, are of high salinity. It would be feasible to address the water-shortage problem with seawater desalination; however, the separation of salts from seawater requires large amounts of energy which, when produced from fossil fuels, can cause harm to the environment. Therefore, there is a need to employ environmentally-friendly energy sources in order to desalinate seawater. After a historical introduction into desalination, this paper covers a large variety of systems used to convert seawater into fresh water suitable for human use. It also covers a variety of systems, which can be used to harness renewable energy sources; these include solar collectors, photovoltaics, solar ponds and geothermal energy. Both direct and indirect collection systems are included. The representative example of direct collection systems is the solar still. Indirect collection systems employ two sub-systems; one for the collection of renewable energy and one for desalination. For this purpose, standard renewable energy and desalination systems are most often employed. Only industrially-tested desalination systems are included in this paper and they comprise the phase change processes, which include the multistage flash, multiple effect boiling and vapour compression and membrane processes, which include reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. The paper also includes a review of various systems that use renewable energy sources for desalination. Finally, some general guidelines are given for selection of

  1. Drinking water in Cuba and seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses-Ruiz, E.; Turtos-Carbonell, L.M.; Oviedo-Rivero, I.

    2004-01-01

    The lack of drinking water has become a problem at world level because, in many places, supplies are very limited and, in other places, their reserves have been drained. At the present time there are estimated to be around two thousand million people that don't have drinking water for several reasons, such as drought, contamination and the presence of saline waters not suitable for human consumption. Because of the human need for water, they have always taken residence in areas where the supply was guaranteed, sometimes impeding the exploitation of other areas that can be economically very interesting. However, this resource is usually very close and in abundance in the form of seawater but its salinity makes it unusable for many basic requirements. Humanity has been forced, therefore, to take into consideration the possibilities of the economic treatment of seawater. Cuba has regions where the supplies of drinking water are scarce and others where the lack of this resource limits economic exploitation. The present work is approached with regard to the situation of hydro resources in Cuba, it includes: a description of the main hydrographic basins of the country; the contamination levels of the waters and the measures for mitigation; analysis of the supplies and demand for drinking water and its quality; regulatory aspects. The state of seawater desalination in Cuba is also included and the possibility of its realisation using nuclear energy and the advantages that this would bring is evaluated. (author)

  2. 60Co levels in the seawater regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Mitsuo

    1983-01-01

    In order to assess the contribution from nuclear power facilities to the 60 Co levels in seawater regions, it is essential to grasp the background values of 60 Co. The following matters are described: 60 Co sources and the respective inputs; nuclear test fallout and nuclear power plants; the 60 Co levels in overseas countries; the 60 Co levels in Japan; the 60 Co levels from nuclear power plants in Fukui prefecture. In the seawater regions around Japan, there have been numerous instances of 60 Co detection; several pCi/kg of dry earth in sea bottom earth and about 1 pCi/kg of raw material in marine life can be considered as the background levels due to nuclear test fallout and nuclear-powered submarines. In the seawater regions of Fukui prefecture, the 60 Co levels appreciably exceeded the above background due to the nuclear power plants, which are insignificant concerning the radiation exposure of the local people. (Mori, K.)

  3. Drinking water in Cuba and seawater desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses-Ruiz, E. [CUBAENERGIA, Playa, Havana (Cuba)]. E-mail: emeneses@cien.energia.inf.cu; Turtos-Carbonell, L.M.; Oviedo-Rivero, I. [CUBAENERGIA, Playa, Havana (Cuba)

    2004-07-01

    The lack of drinking water has become a problem at world level because, in many places, supplies are very limited and, in other places, their reserves have been drained. At the present time there are estimated to be around two thousand million people that don't have drinking water for several reasons, such as drought, contamination and the presence of saline waters not suitable for human consumption. Because of the human need for water, they have always taken residence in areas where the supply was guaranteed, sometimes impeding the exploitation of other areas that can be economically very interesting. However, this resource is usually very close and in abundance in the form of seawater but its salinity makes it unusable for many basic requirements. Humanity has been forced, therefore, to take into consideration the possibilities of the economic treatment of seawater. Cuba has regions where the supplies of drinking water are scarce and others where the lack of this resource limits economic exploitation. The present work is approached with regard to the situation of hydro resources in Cuba, it includes: a description of the main hydrographic basins of the country; the contamination levels of the waters and the measures for mitigation; analysis of the supplies and demand for drinking water and its quality; regulatory aspects. The state of seawater desalination in Cuba is also included and the possibility of its realisation using nuclear energy and the advantages that this would bring is evaluated. (author)

  4. Sierra Nevada (Granada, Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilgado, José D.; Enghoff, Henrik; Tinaut, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Millipedes (Diplopoda), with a few notable exceptions, are poor dispersers, showing a very high degree of endemicity, not the least in mountains. The first samplings of the Mesovoid Shallow Substratum (MSS) of the higher altitudes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Baetic System, Southern Spain) have...

  5. Molecular gastronomy in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Segovia, P.; Garrido, M. D.; Vercet, A.

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientific and technological universe...

  6. Chemical speciation of trace metals in seawater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Katsumi

    2006-08-01

    The recent development of the chemical speciation of trace metals in seawater is described. The speciation studies reveal that metal ion complexation is one of the most important processes in seawater; especially, most bioactive trace metals, such as Fe(III) and Cu, exist as complexes with ligands in dissolved organic matter. The organic ligands in seawater are characterized with metal ions selected by the HSAB concept. A strong organic ligand, which originates from marine microorganisms, is classified as a hard base including carboxylates. The free organic ligand concentrations in seawater are buffered by complexation with excess amounts of Ca and Mg in seawater. The chemical equilibrium model suggested that the concentrations of bioactive free metal ions are at an optimal level to activities of marine microorganisms. For chemical speciation, it is important to have a better understanding of the ecological roles of trace metals in seawater.

  7. Conceptual design on uranium recovery plant from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshiaki; Okugawa, Katsumi; Sugihara, Yutaka; Matsumura, Tsuyoshi

    1999-01-01

    Uranium containing in seawater is extremely low concentration, which is about 3 mg (3 ppb) per 1 ton of seawater. Recently, a report on development of a more effective collector of uranium in seawater (a radiation graft polymerization product of amidoxime onto polyethylene fiber) was issued by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In this paper, an outline design of a uranium recovery plant from seawater was conducted on a base of the collector. As a result of cost estimation, the collection cost of seawater uranium using this method was much higher than that of uranium mine on land and described in the Red Book for mineral uranium cost. In order to make the seawater uranium cost comparable to the on-land uranium cost, it is necessary to establish comprehensive efforts in future technical development, such as development in absorption property of uranium with the collector, resolution method using less HCl, and so forth. (G.K.)

  8. Seawater desalination. Conventional and renewable energy processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipollina, Andrea; Micale, Giorgio; Rizzuti, Lucio (eds.) [Univ. degli Studi, Palermo (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali

    2009-07-01

    A growing proportion of the world's population is dependent on Seawater Desalination as a source of fresh water for both potable and civil use. One of the main drawbacks of conventional desalination technologies is the substantial energy requirement, which is facing cost increases in the global energy market. ''Seawater Desalination'' presents an overview of conventional and non-conventional technologies, with a particular focus on the coupling of renewable energies with desalination processes. The first section of this book presents, in a technical but reader-friendly way, an overview of currently-used desalination processes, from thermal to membrane processes, highlighting the relevant technical features, advantages and disadvantages, and development potential. It also gives a rapid insight into the economic aspects of fresh water production from seawater. The second section of the book presents novel processes which use Renewable Energies for fresh water production. From the first solar still evaporators, which artificially reproduced the natural cycle of water, technology has progressed to develop complex systems to harness energy from the sun, wind, tides, waves, etc. and then to use this energy to power conventional or novel desalination processes. Most of these processes are still at a preliminary stage of development, but some are already being cited as examples in remote areas, where they are proving to be valuable in solving the problems of water scarcity. A rapid growth in these technologies is foreseen in the coming years. This book provides a unique foundation, within the context of present and future sustainability, for professionals, technicians, managers, and private and public institutions operating in the area of fresh water supply. (orig.)

  9. CO{sub 2} neutral seawater desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutchkov, N. [Water Globe Consulting, Stamford, CT (United States)

    2009-07-15

    This article described the development of a seawater desalination project in Carlsbad, California, which is collocated with the Encina Power Generation Station that currently uses seawater from the Pacific Ocean for once-through cooling. The Carlsbad project is being developed as a public-private partnership between Poseidon Resources and 8 local utilities and municipalities. When completed in 2012, this project will supply 6 to 8 per cent of the drinking water in San Diego County and will be the largest seawater desalination plant in the United States. The total plant carbon footprint of the facility will depend on how much electricity is used and what sources are used to generate the electricity. It has been estimated that the total carbon footprint for the Carlsbad project is 61,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) per year and is based on desalination plant power use of 3.57 KWh/m{sup 3} of produced drinking water and on a greenhouse gas emission factor of 248.4 kg of CO{sub 2} per MWh of electricity used for the project. The plant will be located on a site that is occupied by an abandoned fuel storage tank. Reclaiming the land will produce a smaller imprint on the environment than if an undisturbed site were used. A rooftop photovoltaic system will be used for solar power generation. Approximately 2,100 tons of CO{sub 2} per year will be used to condition the freshwater for corrosion protection. This article reviewed the project feasibility, its environmental impact, site selection, pilot testing, and preliminary design estimate. 3 figs.

  10. Corrosion and Protection of Metal in the Seawater Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiangyu; Gao, Lili; Cui, Zhendong; Yin, Jianhua

    2018-01-01

    Seawater desalination develops rapid for it can solve water scarcity efficiently. However, corrosion problem in the seawater desalination system is more serious than that in normal water. So, it is important to pay attention to the corrosion and protection of metal in seawater desalination. The corrosion characteristics and corrosion types of metal in the seawater desalination system are introduced in this paper; In addition, corrosion protect methods and main influencing factors are stated, the latest new technologies about anti-corrosion with quantum energy assisted and magnetic inhibitor are presented.

  11. Influence of seawater on swelling characteristics of bentonite buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naoi, Yutaka; Komine, Hideo; Yasuhara, Kazuya; Murakami, Satoshi; Momose, Kazuo; Sakagami, Takeharu

    2005-01-01

    A high level radioactive waste disposal facility may be built on a coastal area. Therefore, it is important to investigate the influence of seawater on bentonite buffer material. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of seawater on the swelling pressure and swelling deformation characteristics of five typical kinds of bentonites. This experimental work clarified the relations between the influence grade of seawater and compaction density, type of exchangeable-cation, montmorillonite content of the bentonite, and vertical pressure condition. Based on experimental results, a specification for the buffer material which can overcome the influence of seawater was defined. (author)

  12. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian

    2016-04-01

    / thalasoterapy. Black Sea ecosystem restoration - Certainties and Uncertainties: Pressure on the Danube and other rivers has decreased, chemical discharges have decreased obviously, and yet there appear phenomena of water flowering - "red waters", hypoxia is still present at times and there is mass mortality of fish and other benthic organisms. Why? Signs of recovery should be considered cautiously and uncertainties may be resolved only in a longer time by increasing our scientific efforts. The results of the EU FP7 Project PERSEUS led to the identification of three important issues that should be resolved in order to achieve good environmental status: • Applying an adaptive management to increase the resilience of the ecosystems and to diminish the vulnerability of biodiversity; • Necessity of participative approach by stakeholders; • Identifying and obtaining adequate financial support for new R-D-I projects. Who are the actors in addressing and implementing the actions? • Academic educational and research institutions for adequate working condition; • More specialists trained for taxonomic groups; • Reasonable diversity of coordinating specialists, capable team leaders / satisfactory work packages; • Attracting NGO members towards nature conservation issues; • Resonable stakeholders committed to environmental issues. Studying the results of researches carried out by GeoEcoMar on the Romanian Black Sea coast in recent years, the author concluded that the major problems hampering progress towards a good ecosystem in NW Bent Black Sea are: • lack of diversity in the fields of research, both in theoretical and applied realms; • structural and functional consequences of ecological pressures and the disordered state of the ecosystems in the periods of paroxysmal eutrophication / pollution at the end of the 20th Century; • scarcity of data and knowledge on the Social-Economic System; • high costs of the new marine technology used directly in the sea and

  13. Mortality of fecal bacteria in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Lara, J.; Menon, P.; Servais, P.; Billen, G.

    1991-01-01

    The authors propose a method for determining the mortality rate for allochthonous bacteria released in aquatic environments without interference due to the loss of culturability in specific culture media. This method consists of following the disappearance of radioactivity from the trichloracetic acid-insoluble fraction in water samples to which [ 3 H]thymidine-prelabeled allochthonous bacteria have been added. In coastal seawater, they found that the actual rate of disappearance of fecal bacteria was 1 order of magnitude lower than the rate of loss of culturability on specific media. Minor adaptation of the procedure may facilitate assessment of the effect of protozoan grazing and bacteriophage lysis on the overall bacterial mortality rate

  14. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Matsunaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region.

  15. Enhancement of Extraction of Uranium from Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Dietz, Travis [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Tsinas, Zois [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Tomaszewski, Claire [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Pazos, Ileana M. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Nigliazzo, Olga [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Li, Weixing [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Adel-Hadadi, Mohamad [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Barkatt, Aaron [Univ. of Palermo (Italy)

    2016-04-01

    Even at a concentration of 3 μg/L, the world’s oceans contain a thousand times more uranium than currently know terrestrial sources. In order to take advantage of this stockpile, methods and materials must be developed to extract it efficiently, a difficult task considering the very low concentration of the element and the competition for extraction by other atoms in seawater such as sodium, calcium, and vanadium. The majority of current research on methods to extract uranium from seawater are vertical explorations of the grafting of amidoxime ligand, which was originally discovered and promoted by Japanese studies in the late 1980s. Our study expands on this research horizontally by exploring the effectiveness of novel uranium extraction ligands grafted to the surface of polymer substrates using radiation. Through this expansion, a greater understanding of uranium binding chemistry and radiation grafting effects on polymers has been obtained. While amidoxime-functionalized fabrics have been shown to have the greatest extraction efficiency so far, they suffer from an extensive chemical processing step which involves treatment with powerful basic solutions. Not only does this add to the chemical waste produced in the extraction process and add to the method’s complexity, but it also significantly impacts the regenerability of the amidoxime fabric. The approach of this project has been to utilize alternative, commercially available monomers capable of extracting uranium and containing a carbon-carbon double bond to allow it to be grafted using radiation, specifically phosphate, oxalate, and azo monomers. The use of commercially available monomers and radiation grafting with electron beam or gamma irradiation will allow for an easily scalable fabrication process once the technology has been optimized. The need to develop a cheap and reliable method for extracting uranium from seawater is extremely valuable to energy independence and will extend the quantity of

  16. SMRS and seawater desalination using nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, T.; Gasparini, M.; Juhn, P. E. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2002-04-15

    It is quite obvious that the per capita consumption of energy in densely populated developing countries will increase substantially. The World Energy Council has estimated that the demand for electricity will triple over the next half century. Nuclear power is a proven technology, which has penetrated into the electricity supply market in a number of countries. Nearly ten thousand reactor-years of operating experience have been accumulated over the past five decades. In view of the growing demand in developing countries, interests in deploying Small and Medium size Reactors (SMRs) including innovative concepts are strongly pursued on the national and international levels. Freshwater is another essential element for human existence and has no alternatives. Many countries suffering from or foreseeing freshwater shortage are getting non-conventional water resources using seawater desalination technology or considering deploying it. Increasing demands in the developing world are being intensified both in energy and in freshwater. In many developing countries, the option of combining nuclear energy with seawater desalination is being explored to tackle these two problems. The desalination of seawater using nuclear energy is a feasible option to meet the growing demand for potable water. Several demonstration programs of nuclear desalination are in progress to confirm its technical and economical viability under country-specific conditions. Many of these applications are looking at SMRs in various reactor lines. This paper gives a brief overview of the prospects of SMRs and its particular application to seawater desalination as well as the IAEA's support activities to facilitate demonstration of nuclear desalination. Energy and water are essential elements in human existence. To secure them safely, economically and environment-friendly is essential in maintaining sustainable development. While the energy issue is mainly from what source it can be obtained, the water

  17. Seawater desalination using reusable type small PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, Y. [Institute of Engineering Mechanics and Systems, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Minato, A. [Planning Division, Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry, Komae-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Shimamura, K. [Nuclear Systems Engineering Department, Nuclear Energy Systems Engineering Center, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)]. E-mail: shimamura@atom.hq.mhi.co.jp

    2003-07-01

    Demand for seawater desalination is increasing, especially in regions such as the Middle East and North Africa, where populations are growing at a high annual rate. If such demand is met by fossil fuel energy, the influence on the environment, such as global warming, cannot be disregarded. Since these regions are behind in their preparedness of social capital infrastructure, such as power transfer grids, small reactors are considered to be more suitable for introduction than the large reactors found commonly in developed countries. Therefore, a small reusable PWR with mid-range pressure and temperature services, which does not require on-site refuelling, was devised for seawater desalination. In a small reusable PWR, spent fuel is taken out together with the reactor vessel and refuelled on the exterior fuel exchange base prepared independently. Thus, the safeguards against nuclear proliferation increase at a plant site because the lid of the reactor vessel is never opened at the site, in principle. The reactor vessel will be transported from the plant site to a fuel exchange base under stipulated conditions within a transportation cask after a long (about six years) operation. Since fuel handling facilities at the site become unnecessary through centralisation at a fuel exchange base, initial plant construction costs are reduced. In addition, the reactor vessel is reused until its service life has expired. This examination was based on the marine reactor of the experimental nuclear ship, Mutsu, after it had been applied for land use: at a lowered, midrange pressure and temperature service, in theory. It is possible to produce fresh water through reverse osmosis (RO) membrane pressure-rising seawater by a steam turbine driven pump. Using the method of driving a desalination unit high-pressure pump directly by low-pressure steam generated from the heating reactor, fresh water can be produced efficiently. Furthermore, operating at reduced pressure makes it possible

  18. Enhancement of Extraction of Uranium from Seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad; Dietz, Travis; Tsinas, Zois; Tomaszewski, Claire; Pazos, Ileana M.; Nigliazzo, Olga; Li, Weixing; Adel-Hadadi, Mohamad; Barkatt, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Even at a concentration of 3 @@g/L, the world@@@s oceans contain a thousand times more uranium than currently know terrestrial sources. In order to take advantage of this stockpile, methods and materials must be developed to extract it efficiently, a difficult task considering the very low concentration of the element and the competition for extraction by other atoms in seawater such as sodium, calcium, and vanadium. The majority of current research on methods to extract uranium from seawater are vertical explorations of the grafting of amidoxime ligand, which was originally discovered and promoted by Japanese studies in the late 1980s. Our study expands on this research horizontally by exploring the effectiveness of novel uranium extraction ligands grafted to the surface of polymer substrates using radiation. Through this expansion, a greater understanding of uranium binding chemistry and radiation grafting effects on polymers has been obtained. While amidoxime-functionalized fabrics have been shown to have the greatest extraction efficiency so far, they suffer from an extensive chemical processing step which involves treatment with powerful basic solutions. Not only does this add to the chemical waste produced in the extraction process and add to the method@@@s complexity, but it also significantly impacts the regenerability of the amidoxime fabric. The approach of this project has been to utilize alternative, commercially available monomers capable of extracting uranium and containing a carbon-carbon double bond to allow it to be grafted using radiation, specifically phosphate, oxalate, and azo monomers. The use of commercially available monomers and radiation grafting with electron beam or gamma irradiation will allow for an easily scalable fabrication process once the technology has been optimized. The need to develop a cheap and reliable method for extracting uranium from seawater is extremely valuable to energy independence and will extend the quantity of

  19. Effects of seawater mixing on the mobility of trace elements in acid phosphogypsum leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaslioti, Evgenia-Maria; Pérez-López, Rafael; Parviainen, Annika; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Nieto, José M; Marchesi, Claudio; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Garrido, Carlos J

    2018-02-01

    This research reports the effects of pH increase on contaminant mobility in phosphogypsum leachates by seawater mixing, as occurs with dumpings on marine environments. Acid leachates from a phosphogypsum stack located in the Estuary of Huelva (Spain) were mixed with seawater to achieve gradually pH7. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Cr, Pb and U in mixed solutions significantly decreased with increasing pH by sorption and/or precipitation processes. Nevertheless, this study provides insight into the high contribution of the phosphogypsum stack to the release of other toxic elements (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Sb) to the coastal areas, as 80-100% of their initial concentrations behaved conservatively in mixing solutions with no participation in sorption processes. Stable isotopes ruled out connexion between different phosphogypsum-related wastewaters and unveiled possible weathering inputs of estuarine waters to the stack. The urgency of adopting effective restoration measures in the study area is also stressed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isla, M.

    1984-01-01

    The 'Plan Energetico Nacional de 1983' (1983 National Energy Program)(PEN-83) was approved recently by the Spanish Government and presented to the 'Cortes Espanolas' (Spanish Parliament) in May 1984. The PEN-83 is being discussed at present in the Parliament and it is possible that some modifications be introduced, but expectedly will be rather limited and minor. PEN-83 covers the period 1983-1992. It includes a comparative analysis of the evolution and situation in OECD countries and in Spain. In Spain the offer, supply and consumption of primary energy and of the interrelation with other economic indicators, such as the gross domestic product, inflation rate and unemployment compared with that of the industrialized OECD countries, has shown a much lower capability to adapt its structure to the energy price increases

  1. Snakebite poisoning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Pinillos Echeverría, Miguel Ángel; Rey Pecharromán, José Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.

  2. Transitional Justice in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Payero López

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to evaluate Spanish transitional justice policy. The aspects of transitional justice put forward by L. Joinet –truth, justice and reparation– will frame this analysis. Firstly, the main deficiencies of this policy will be pointed out. Secondly, some measures to be adopted in Spain will be suggested. Their implementation would mean that international standards on the protection of human rights, as agreed within the specialized literature, would be met.

  3. The strontium isotopic composition of seawater, and seawater-oceanic crust interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spooner, E.T.C.

    1976-01-01

    The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of seawater strontium (0.7091) is less than the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of dissolved strontium delivered to the oceans by continental run-off (approximately 0.716). Isotope exchange with strontium isotopically lighter oceanic crust during hydrothermal convection within spreading oceanic ridges can explain this observation. In quantitative terms, the current 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of seawater (0.7091) may be maintained by balancing the continental run-off flux of strontium (0.59 x 10 12 g/yr) against a hydrothermal recirculation flux of 3.6 x 10 12 g/yr, during which the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of seawater drops by 0.0011. A concomitant mean increase in the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of the upper 4.5 km of oceanic crust of 0.0010 (0.7029-0.7039) should be produced. This required 87 Sr enrichment has been observed in hydrothermally metamorphosed ophiolitic rocks from the Troodos Massif, Cyprus. The post-Upper Cretaceous increase in the strontium isotopic composition of seawater (approximately 0.7075-0.7091) covaries smoothly with inferred increase in land area. This suggests that during this period the main factor which has caused variability in the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of seawater strontium could have been variation in the magnitude of the continental run-off flux caused by variation in land area. Variations in land area may themselves have been partly a consequence of variations in global mean sea-floor spreading rate. (Auth.)

  4. Post-Mesozoic Rapid Increase of Seawater Mg/Ca due to Enhanced Mantle-Seawater Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Ligi; Enrico Bonatti; Marco Cuffaro; Daniele Brunelli

    2013-01-01

    The seawater Mg/Ca ratio increased significantly from ~ 80?Ma to present, as suggested by studies of carbonate veins in oceanic basalts and of fluid inclusions in halite. We show here that reactions of mantle-derived peridotites with seawater along slow spreading mid-ocean ridges contributed to the post-Cretaceous Mg/Ca increase. These reactions can release to modern seawater up to 20% of the yearly Mg river input. However, no significant peridotite-seawater interaction and Mg-release to the ...

  5. Corrosion of barrier materials in seawater environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, J.H.; Soo, P.

    1995-07-01

    A brief review has been carried out on the performance of barrier materials for low-level radioactive wastes in seawater environments. The environments include those for shallower coastal waters as well as the deep ocean (down to 3800 m). The review is mainly focused on metallic materials since they are the most common for seawater service and they have the largest data base. Information from the literature is usually pertinent to shallower coastal locations, but there is a valuable source of corrosion data obtained from several studies of metallic specimens exposed to ocean-bed conditions. In addition, the corrosion of carbon steel barriers has been evaluated for actual waste containers that were retrieved from previously-used disposal sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Of the metallic materials studied, carbon steel showed the least corrosion resistance. Failure by non-uniform attack in a typical waste container could occur in as little as 25 y in some ocean environments ` Penetration by local attack, such as pitting and crevice corrosion resistance was also observed for more expensive materials such as low-alloy steels, stainless steels, titanium alloys, zirconium alloys, copper alloys, nickel alloys, aluminum alloys, and lead alloys.

  6. Corrosion of barrier materials in seawater environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.H.; Soo, P.

    1995-07-01

    A brief review has been carried out on the performance of barrier materials for low-level radioactive wastes in seawater environments. The environments include those for shallower coastal waters as well as the deep ocean (down to 3800 m). The review is mainly focused on metallic materials since they are the most common for seawater service and they have the largest data base. Information from the literature is usually pertinent to shallower coastal locations, but there is a valuable source of corrosion data obtained from several studies of metallic specimens exposed to ocean-bed conditions. In addition, the corrosion of carbon steel barriers has been evaluated for actual waste containers that were retrieved from previously-used disposal sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Of the metallic materials studied, carbon steel showed the least corrosion resistance. Failure by non-uniform attack in a typical waste container could occur in as little as 25 y in some ocean environments ' Penetration by local attack, such as pitting and crevice corrosion resistance was also observed for more expensive materials such as low-alloy steels, stainless steels, titanium alloys, zirconium alloys, copper alloys, nickel alloys, aluminum alloys, and lead alloys

  7. Hydrogeology of the basalts in the Uruguayan NW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausman, A.; Fernandez, A.

    1967-01-01

    This work is about the hydrogeological aspects in the NW Uruguayan basaltic area. The results of this research are the main geological, morphological and hydrogeological aspects of the area as well as the characteristics and the color of the basalt and sandstones

  8. Montane pollen from the Tertiary of NW. Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, J.

    1966-01-01

    In NW. Borneo thick series of Tertiary sediments occur which are rich in fossil pollen and spores. The majority of these plant microfossils were derived from the various types of tropical lowland vegetation such as mangrove (Muller, 1964), mixed peat swamp forest and mixed Dipterocarp forest. Some

  9. Hydrogeological map of Kabo Sheet 80NW topographical sheet 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A hydro geological mapping of the Federal Surveys of Nigeria, Kabo Sheet 80 NW, on scale 1:50,000 were made with areal coverage of 729Km2 on the Crystalline Basement Complex, and the hydrogeoogical maps produced are maps of depth to the water table and maps of configuration peak of dry season and wet ...

  10. Corrosion of mild steel, copper and brass in crude oil / seawater mixture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi, S.; Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    Mild steel, copper and brass coupons were introduced in natural seawater containing varying amount of crude oil. Mild steel showed higher rate of corrosion in seawater containing oil and lower corrosion rate in natural as well as artificial seawater...

  11. Investigation of groundwater-seawater interactions: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwoarminta, A.; Moosdorf, N.; Delinom, R. M.

    2018-02-01

    This paper is to review how to investigate the interactions between groundwater and seawater. Those interactions divide into two, which are submarine groundwater discharge and seawater intrusion. This investigation is important because the interactions can give impact to coastal aquifer and marine ecosystem. On land, fresh groundwater is vulnerable to seawater disturbance. Coastal aquifer is under pressure from abstraction caused by population, industry, and agriculture. The pumping can induce seawater intrusion and land subsidence. Then in marine, seawater mixes with freshwater and it decreases salinity. Low salinity will influence marine ecosystem. The ecosystem will be disturbed by groundwater discharge if that water is contaminated. Based on the argue investigation of groundwater-seawater interactions is important and must be accurate because the results are used for coastal water management. To investigate the interactions data, i.e., lithology, pumping tests, hydrochemical data, sea level rise estimates, precipitation data, geophysics, environmental isotopes, and drilling information, should be compiled. The interaction can feed a model to determine how much groundwater extraction happening on coastal areas to prevent seawater intrusion and land subsidence. Water resources management on coasts should consider groundwater-seawater interactions.

  12. Numerical modelling of seawater intrusion in Shenzhen (China ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A fairly good fitness between the observed and computed values was obtained by a manual trial-and-error method. ... controlling seawater intrusion in such coastal aquifer systems. 1. Introduction. Seawater intrusion constitutes a ..... reveals that FEFLOW is an effective and robust simulation tool for studying variable-density.

  13. Simulation of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers: Some typical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is generally three dimensional (3-D) in nature. In the literature, there is a general lack of reported results on 3-D simulations. This paper presents some typical example simulations of 3-D seawater intrusion process for a specified hypothetical study area. The simulation results presented ...

  14. Stainless steels for seawater desalination plants; Nichtrostende Staehle fuer Meerwasserentsalzungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlig, G. [ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Krefeld (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Seawater desalination plants can be used to produce drinking water with low chloride concentrations. Stainless steels are an elementary component of the various process technologies in such plants. Due to growing demand for drinking water - especially in the Arabian states, but also in southern Europe - seawater desalination plants represent a very interesting area of application with increasing economic importance for stainless steels. (orig.)

  15. Modelling of a transmembrane evaporation module for desalination of seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guijt, C.M.; Racz, I.G.; van Heuven, Jan Willem; Reith, T.; de Haan, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    Transmembrane evaporation (often called membrane distillation) carried out in a countercurrent flow module, in which incoming cold seawater is heated by the condensing product water flow, is a promising technology for low-cost seawater desalination. This paper presents a model for preliminary design

  16. Degradation of riverine dissolved organic matter by seawater bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rochelle-Newall, E.J.; Pizay, M-D.; Middelburg, J.J.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Gattuso, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The functional response of a seawater bacterial community transplanted into freshwater dissolved organic matter (DOM) was investigated together with the response of natural populations of bacteria to size-fractioned natural source water. Seawater bacteria were incubated over a period of 8 d in

  17. Progress in recovery technology for uranium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugo, Takanobu; Saito, Kyoichi.

    1994-01-01

    By the facts that the research group in Japan improved the performance of amidoxime resin which is the adsorbent for collecting seawater uranium, proposed the method of mooring floating bodies utilizing sea current and waves as the adsorption system, and further, verified the results of laboratory basic experiment by marine experiment, the technology of collecting seawater uranium has progressed. After the oil crisis, various countries started the research on seawater uranium, but only Japan has continued the systematic study up to now. In this report, the research on seawater uranium collection carried out so far is summarized, and the characteristics of the adsorbent which was synthesized by radiation graft polymerization and the results of the uranium collection test using coastal seawater are reported. In seawater of 1 m 3 , the uranium of 3.3 mg is dissolved in the form of uranyl tricarbonate complex ions. In the total quantity of seawater, the dissolved uranium amounts to about 4.6 billion tons, about 1000 times of the uranium resources on land. The research on seawater uranium collection and the performance of uranium adsorption of synthesized amidoxime fibers are reported. (K.I.)

  18. Biodegradation of phenanthrene in artificial seawater by using free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and related aromatic compounds. This paper reports the domestication of strain Sphingomonas sp. GY2B in artificial seawater (AS) and the immobilization of the strain onto rice straw. Results showed that adding 85% artificial seawater had very low impact on the growth and phenanthrene degradation ability of strain GY2B ...

  19. Inhibition of Sodium Benzoate on Stainless Steel in Tropical Seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seoh, S. Y.; Senin, H. B.; Nik, W. N. Wan; Amin, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    The inhibition of sodium benzoate for stainless steel controlling corrosion was studied in seawater at room temperature. Three sets of sample have been immersed in seawater containing sodium benzoate with the concentrations of 0.3M, 0.6M and 1.0M respectively. One set of sample has been immersed in seawater without adding any sodium benzoate. It was found that the highest corrosion rate was observed for the stainless steel with no inhibitor was added to the seawater. As the concentration of sodium benzoate being increased, the corrosion rate is decreases. Results show that by the addition of 1.0M of sodium benzoate in seawater samples, it giving ≥ 90% efficiencies

  20. Analysis of seawater flow through optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández López, Sheila; Carrera Ramírez, Jesús; Rodriguez Sinobar, Leonor; Benitez, Javier; Rossi, Riccardo; Laresse de Tetto, Antonia

    2015-04-01

    The relation between sea and coastal aquifer is very important to the human populations living in coastal areas. The interrelation involves the submarine ground water discharge of relatively fresh water to the sea and the intrusion of sea water into the aquifer, which impairs the quality of ground water. The main process in seawater intrusion is managed by fluid-density effects which control the displacement of saline water. The underlain salinity acts as the restoring force, while hydrodynamic dispersion and convection lead to a mixing and vertical displacement of the brine. Because of this, a good definition of this saltwater-freshwater interface is needed what is intimately joined to the study of the movements (velocity fields) of fresh and salt water. As it is well known, the flow of salt water studied in seawater intrusion in stationary state, is nearly null or very low. However, in the rest of cases, this flux can be very important, so it is necessary its study to a better comprehension of this process. One possible manner of carry out this analysis is through the data from optical fiber. So, to research the distribution and velocity of the fresh and saltwater in the aquifer, a fiber optic system (OF) has been installed in Argentona (Baix Maresme, Catalonia). The main objective is to obtain the distributed temperature measurements (OF-DTS) and made progress in the interpretation of the dynamic processes of water. For some applications, the optical fiber acts as a passive temperature sensor but in our case, the technique Heated Active Fiber Optic will be used. This is based on the thermal response of the ground as a heat emission source is introduced. The thermal properties of the soil, dependent variables of soil water content, will make a specific temperature distribution around the cable. From the analyzed data we will deduce the velocity field, the real objective of our problem. To simulate this phenomenon and the coupled transport and flow problem

  1. Proteolytic enzymes in seawater: contribution of prokaryotes and protists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Y.; Suzuki, S.

    2016-02-01

    Proteolytic enzyme is one of the major catalysts of microbial processing of organic matter in biogeochemical cycle. Here we summarize some of our studies about proteases in seawater, including 1) distribution of protease activities in coastal and oceanic seawater, 2) responses of microbial community and protease activities in seawater to organic matter amending, and 3) possible contribution of heterotrophic protists besides prokaryotes to proteases in seawater, to clarify cleared facts and remaining questions. Activities of aminopeptidases, trypsin-type and chymotrypsin-type proteases were detected from both coastal and oceanic seawater by using MCA-substrate assay. Significant activities were detected from not only particulate (cell-associated) fraction but also dissolved fraction of seawater, especially for trypsin-type and chymotrypsin-type proteases. Hydrolytic enzymes in seawater have been commonly thought to be mainly derived from heterotrophic prokaryotes; however, it was difficult to determine actual source organisms of dissolved enzymes in natural seawater. Our experiment with addition of dissolved protein to subtropical oligotrophic Pacific water showed drastically enhancement of the protease activities especially aminopeptidases in seawater, and the prokaryotic community structure simultaneously changed to be dominant of Bacteroidetes, indicating that heterotrophic bacteria were actually one of the sources of proteases in seawater. Another microcosm experiment with free-living marine heterotrophic ciliate Paranophrys marina together with an associated bacterium showed that extracellular trypsin-type activity was mainly attributed to the ciliate. The protist seemed to work in organic matter digestion in addition to be a grazer. From the results, we propose a system of organic matter digestion by prokaryotes and protists in aquatic environments, although their actual contribution in natural environments should be estimated in future studies.

  2. Post-mesozoic rapid increase of seawater Mg/Ca due to enhanced mantle-seawater interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligi, Marco; Bonatti, Enrico; Cuffaro, Marco; Brunelli, Daniele

    2013-09-25

    The seawater Mg/Ca ratio increased significantly from ~ 80 Ma to present, as suggested by studies of carbonate veins in oceanic basalts and of fluid inclusions in halite. We show here that reactions of mantle-derived peridotites with seawater along slow spreading mid-ocean ridges contributed to the post-Cretaceous Mg/Ca increase. These reactions can release to modern seawater up to 20% of the yearly Mg river input. However, no significant peridotite-seawater interaction and Mg-release to the ocean occur in fast spreading, East Pacific Rise-type ridges. The Mesozoic Pangean superocean implies a hot fast spreading ridge system. This prevented peridotite-seawater interaction and Mg release to the Mesozoic ocean, but favored hydrothermal Mg capture and Ca release by the basaltic crust, resulting in a low seawater Mg/Ca ratio. Continent dispersal and development of slow spreading ridges allowed Mg release to the ocean by peridotite-seawater reactions, contributing to the increase of the Mg/Ca ratio of post-Mesozoic seawater.

  3. Post-Mesozoic Rapid Increase of Seawater Mg/Ca due to Enhanced Mantle-Seawater Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligi, Marco; Bonatti, Enrico; Cuffaro, Marco; Brunelli, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    The seawater Mg/Ca ratio increased significantly from ~ 80 Ma to present, as suggested by studies of carbonate veins in oceanic basalts and of fluid inclusions in halite. We show here that reactions of mantle-derived peridotites with seawater along slow spreading mid-ocean ridges contributed to the post-Cretaceous Mg/Ca increase. These reactions can release to modern seawater up to 20% of the yearly Mg river input. However, no significant peridotite-seawater interaction and Mg-release to the ocean occur in fast spreading, East Pacific Rise-type ridges. The Mesozoic Pangean superocean implies a hot fast spreading ridge system. This prevented peridotite-seawater interaction and Mg release to the Mesozoic ocean, but favored hydrothermal Mg capture and Ca release by the basaltic crust, resulting in a low seawater Mg/Ca ratio. Continent dispersal and development of slow spreading ridges allowed Mg release to the ocean by peridotite-seawater reactions, contributing to the increase of the Mg/Ca ratio of post-Mesozoic seawater. PMID:24067442

  4. [Suicide in Spain today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Olry de Labry-Lima, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Spain presents one of the lowest suicide rates (8.7 per 100,000) but, as well as Ireland, it has also experienced one of the highest rate increases both within Europe and within the world. In our country, it can be observed an increase in the suicide rates from 1975 to 1994, being this increase greater in men than in women. It can also be noted that there was a stabilisation in the following years. Social factors, specially those which have to deal with gender roles and changes in these roles, are the most common explanations. Another possible explanation for the observed increase in mortality due to suicide among young men could be the AIDS epidemic and intravenous drug addiction, that was observed in Spain during the eighties and nineties. Furthermore, we are witnessing an epidemic related to violence against children and women. Literature strongly suggests that child abuse (psychological and sexual) is associated with increased suicide risk in adolescent or adult life. Women experience violence from their intimate partners and have a greater risk of suffering from chronic pain, diverse somatisations, greater substance use like drugs and alcohol, depression and suicide attempt. The association between work precariousness and suicide seems to be due to economic and social and family support factors, which can lead to greater vulnerability to mental health problems. These factors are of great relevance, since Spain presents one of the highest unemployment and temporary employment rates in the European Union. It seems reasonable that, due to the individualism that characterises the contemporary society, its demands and the new role of women in the work market that cause, among others, a greater difficulty in combining work and family life, are factors that could explain the lack of decrease in suicide rates.

  5. Surgery in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trias, M; Targarona, E M; Moral, A; Pera, C

    1998-02-01

    The Iberian Peninsula-the southwestern point of Europe, between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean-was visited and settled in ancient times by a variety of peoples. Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Celts, Greeks, Romans, Visigoths, and Arabs all left their mark on the peninsula, and their cultures blended together to found, among other things, a rich tradition in medicine and surgery. During the Renaissance, the fluid exchange of technical skills and knowledge with the rest of Europe and the emergence of universities ensured the development of a high level of medical expertise. Today, surgery in Spain is at the forefront of innovations in the field.

  6. Energy planning in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina Garcia, J.

    1995-01-01

    This report aims to describe energy planning in Spain. It briefly analyses the three completed national energy plans (Plan Energetico Nacional, PEN). The fourth PEN 1991-2000 is analysed in detail, by reference to its objectives and characteristics and to developments during its first five years in operation. The Ministry of Industry and Energy has updated PEN en 1995, almost halfway through its period, and this is also summarised. Finally, there are some reflections on the future of energy planning. (Author) 46 refs

  7. Adsorption and elution of uranium in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, M.

    1980-01-01

    In Japan, the essentiality of the development of nuclear power generation has become enhanced, and it needs to ensure uranium resources mainly from foreign countries. Though several policies have been taken, extraction of uranium from seawater has been interesting, and some investigations have been carried out mainly by the Metal Mining Agency of Japan since 1975. In this program, selections of chemical processes, adsorption tests mainly with hydrous titanium oxide, elution processes, washing processes, the recovery of eluate by steam stripping or electrodialysis, secondary concentrations of uranium in the eluate by ion exchange or ion flotation, etc., and some tentative cost estimations have been carried out. Some results of the experiments for each unit process will be described

  8. Energy Implications of Seawater Desalination (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, H.; Heberger, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater has traditionally come from rivers, lakes, streams, and groundwater aquifers. As demand increases and climate change alters the location and timing of water supply, these traditional sources are becoming unavailable, more difficult, or increasingly expensive to develop. As a result, many communities are switching to alternative sources of water. Interest in pursuing seawater desalination is high in many coastal communities. In California, for example, 17 plants are proposed for development along the California coast and two in Mexico. Water managers are pursing desalination because is a local supply that can help diversify the water supply portfolio. Additionally, it is a reliable supply, which can be especially valuable during a drought. But removing the salt from seawater is an energy-intensive process that consumes more energy per gallon than most other water supply and treatment options. These energy requirements are key factors that will impact the extent and success of desalination in California. Energy requirements for seawater desalination average about 4.0 kWh per cubic meter (m3) of water produced. By comparison, the least energy-intensive options of local sources of groundwater and surface water require 0 - 0.90 kWh per m3; wastewater reuse, depending on treatment levels, may require from 0.26 - 2.2 kWh per m3. Beyond the electricity required for the desalination facility itself, producing any new source of water, including through desalination, increases the amount of energy required to deliver and use the water produced as well as collect, treat, and dispose of the wastewater generated. Energy is the largest single variable cost for a desalination plant, varying from one-third to more than one-half the cost of produced water. Building a desalination plant may reduce a water utility's exposure to water reliability risks at the added expense of an increase in exposure to energy price risk. In dependent on hydropower, electricity prices tend to

  9. Herbicide Persistence in Seawater Simulation Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Mercurio

    Full Text Available Herbicides are detected year-round in marine waters, including those of the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR. The few previous studies that have investigated herbicide persistence in seawater generally reported half-lives in the order of months, and several studies were too short to detect significant degradation. Here we investigated the persistence of eight herbicides commonly detected in the GBR or its catchments in standard OECD simulation flask experiments, but with the aim to mimic natural conditions similar to those found on the GBR (i.e., relatively low herbicide concentrations, typical temperatures, light and microbial communities. Very little degradation was recorded over the standard 60 d period (Experiment 1 so a second experiment was extended to 365 d. Half-lives of PSII herbicides ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone and tebuthiuron were consistently greater than a year, indicating high persistence. The detection of atrazine and diuron metabolites and longer persistence in mercuric chloride-treated seawater confirmed that biodegradation contributed to the breakdown of herbicides. The shortest half-life recorded was 88 d for growth-regulating herbicide 2,4-D at 31°C in the dark, while the fatty acid-inhibitor metolachlor exhibited a minimum half-life of 281 d. The presence of moderate light and elevated temperatures affected the persistence of most of the herbicides; however, the scale and direction of the differences were not predictable and were likely due to changes in microbial community composition. The persistence estimates here represent some of the first appropriate data for application in risk assessments for herbicide exposure in tropical marine systems. The long persistence of herbicides identified in the present study helps explain detection of herbicides in nearshore waters of the GBR year round. Little degradation of these herbicides would be expected during the wet season with runoff and associated

  10. Herbicide Persistence in Seawater Simulation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Mueller, Jochen F.; Eaglesham, Geoff; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Herbicides are detected year-round in marine waters, including those of the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The few previous studies that have investigated herbicide persistence in seawater generally reported half-lives in the order of months, and several studies were too short to detect significant degradation. Here we investigated the persistence of eight herbicides commonly detected in the GBR or its catchments in standard OECD simulation flask experiments, but with the aim to mimic natural conditions similar to those found on the GBR (i.e., relatively low herbicide concentrations, typical temperatures, light and microbial communities). Very little degradation was recorded over the standard 60 d period (Experiment 1) so a second experiment was extended to 365 d. Half-lives of PSII herbicides ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone and tebuthiuron were consistently greater than a year, indicating high persistence. The detection of atrazine and diuron metabolites and longer persistence in mercuric chloride-treated seawater confirmed that biodegradation contributed to the breakdown of herbicides. The shortest half-life recorded was 88 d for growth-regulating herbicide 2,4-D at 31°C in the dark, while the fatty acid-inhibitor metolachlor exhibited a minimum half-life of 281 d. The presence of moderate light and elevated temperatures affected the persistence of most of the herbicides; however, the scale and direction of the differences were not predictable and were likely due to changes in microbial community composition. The persistence estimates here represent some of the first appropriate data for application in risk assessments for herbicide exposure in tropical marine systems. The long persistence of herbicides identified in the present study helps explain detection of herbicides in nearshore waters of the GBR year round. Little degradation of these herbicides would be expected during the wet season with runoff and associated flood plumes

  11. Nuclear material control in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velilla, A.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Spain is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Spain are presented and the facilities and nuclear materials under these agreements are listed. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  13. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villota, C. de

    2007-01-01

    Carlos Villota. Director of Nuclear Energy of UNESA gave an overview of the Spanish nuclear industry, the utility companies and the relevant institutions. Companies of the nuclear industry include firms that produce heavy components or equipment (ENSA), manufacturers of nuclear fuel (ENUSA), engineering companies, the National Company for Radioactive Waste Management (ENRESA), and nuclear power plants (nine units at seven sites). Nuclear energy is a significant component of the energy mix in Spain: 11% of all energy produced in Spain is of nuclear origin, whilst the share of nuclear energy in the total electricity generation is approximately 23%. The five main players of the energy sector that provide for the vast majority of electricity production, distribution, and supply have formed the Spanish Electricity Industry Association (UNESA). The latter carries out co-ordination, representation, management and promotion tasks for its members, as well as the protection of their business and professional interests. In the nuclear field, UNESA through its Nuclear Energy Committee co-ordinates aspects related to nuclear safety and radiological protection, regulation, NPP operation and R and D. Regarding the institutional framework of the nuclear industry, ENSA, ENUSA and ENRESA are controlled by the national government through the Ministry of Economy and Finance and the Ministry of Science and Technology. All companies of the nuclear industry are licensed by the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITYC), while the regulatory body is the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). It is noteworthy that CSN is independent of the government, as it reports directly to Parliament. (author)

  14. First Results on the Concentration of 137Cs in Seaweed at the South of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjon, G.; Garcia-Leon, M.

    First results on 137Cs in seaweed samples collected along the coast of the South of Spain during 1988 and 1989 are presented in this work. 137Cs was determined by direct HPGe γ-spectrometry. Typical 137Cs levels between 0.6 and 3.1 mBq/g dry weight have been found in a wide variety of seaweed species (Fucus, Ulva, Halopteris, Codium, Corallina, etc.). Such results are in close agreement with activities obtained by another researchers at the coasts of Galicia (NW of Spain). They ranged from 0.7 to 1.7 mBq/g dry weight in Fucus species, and were attributed essentially to fallout. On the other hand, the comparison of our data with others shows that they are, respectively, 10 and 100 times lower than activities found at Sweden after the Chernobyl event, and in the vicinity of Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant…

  15. CFD and CHD in random packing columns with seawater desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Mei-Shan [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). College of Civil Engineering; Wang, Shi-He; Wang, Xiao-Ming [State Power Environmental Protection Research Institute, Nanjing (China); Guo, Ming-Chun [Shanghai Huolin engineering Plastics Co., Ltd., Shanghai (China)

    2013-07-01

    By the volume average method, gas-liquid two-phase flow CFD and CHT model is established to describe the random packing column in seawater desulfurization. By numerical calculation, the flow velocity, porosity distribution, pressure distribution and temperature distribution of seawater are obtained. Pressure loss and the outlet temperature of seawater are compared with experimental data, the prediction results and experimental results are well consistent, is exactly the same trend. Analyzing the results of calculation, a significant ''wall flow'' phenomena was found, and the reason of its formation is that the porosity of filler near the wall is significantly higher than in the middle region. Analyzing the distribution of seawater temperature, it is found that the distribution of seawater temperature is more uniform on the top of column, the seawater temperature near the wall fluctuated and were gradually more uniform towards the center of the column. Along the direction of the column from top to bottom, the seawater temperature gradually decreased, and the degree of fluctuations gradually reduced and basically does not change at half of the column, which indicated that the heat exchange between the gas and liquid has been basically completed.

  16. Physico-chemical behavior of radionuclides in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yuichiro; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Honda, Yoshihide; Katsurayama, Kosuke.

    1980-01-01

    To elucidate the physico-chemical states of radionuclides in seawater in relation to uptake by the marine biosphere, the physicochemical behavior of radiocobalt, radioruthenium and radiocerium in seawater was investigated by electrodialysis, high-voltage paper electrophoresis, and also by paper chromatography for nitrosylruthenium complexes. Most of the radiocobalt in seawater behaved as dialytic cations. However, these cationic species were not necessarily simple divalent, because their electrophoretic bands were rather diffuse and showed two peaks temporarily. The electroneutral form also increased with aging in seawater. The radioruthenium in seawater showed relatively a number of well-defined species which could be readily classified into anionic, cationic, electroneutral, colloidal or particulate, non-dialytic and more or less adsorbable species. The radioruthenium in the chloro and nitratonitrosylruthenium complexes occurred mainly electroneutral and anionic species, while nitro and binuclear oxygen-bridged nitratonitrosylruthenium complexes showed dominant anionic species. The hydrolysis of higher nitro and nitratonitrosylruthenium complexes to lower ones was demonstrated with aging in seawater by paper chromatography. The radiocerium in seawater showed initially cationic species. However, the electroneutral and anionic species were revealed with aging by electrodialysis. The radiocerium were strongly adsorbed on filter paper at the starting band in paper electrophoresis, presumably because of the formation of strongly adsorbable or insoluble hydrolytic species or particle formation. (author)

  17. Uranium from Seawater Program Review; Fuel Resources Uranium from Seawater Program DOE Office of Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-07-01

    For nuclear energy to remain sustainable in the United States, economically viable sources of uranium beyond terrestrial ores must be developed. The goal of this program is to develop advanced adsorbents that can extract uranium from seawater at twice the capacity of the best adsorbent developed by researchers at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1.5 mg U/g adsorbent. A multidisciplinary team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the University of Texas at Austin was assembled to address this challenging problem. Polymeric adsorbents, based on the radiation grafting of acrylonitrile and methacrylic acid onto high surface-area polyethylene fibers followed by conversion of the nitriles to amidoximes, have been developed. These poly(acrylamidoxime-co-methacrylic acid) fibers showed uranium adsorption capacities for the extraction of uranium from seawater that exceed 3 mg U/g adsorbent in testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Marine Sciences Laboratory. The essence of this novel technology lies in the unique high surface-area trunk material that considerably increases the grafting yield of functional groups without compromising its mechanical properties. This technology received an R&D100 Award in 2012. In addition, high surface area nanomaterial adsorbents are under development with the goal of increasing uranium adsorption capacity by taking advantage of the high surface areas and tunable porosity of carbon-based nanomaterials. Simultaneously, de novo structure-based computational design methods are being used to design more selective and stable ligands and the most promising candidates are being synthesized, tested and evaluated for incorporation onto a support matrix. Fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic studies are being carried out to improve the adsorption efficiency, the selectivity of uranium over other metals, and the stability of the adsorbents. Understanding

  18. Evaluation of durability of SSCs injected with seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    At the units 1 to 4 in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, seawater was injected into reactor pressure vessels and spent fuel pools in order to cool down nuclear fuel is after the disaster of the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami. Therefore, for fuel cladding tubes exposed to seawater and piping items to pour seawater into a nuclear reactor, it was necessary to evaluate structural integrity under the seawater environment. And then, JNES carried out the safety research of 'Evaluation of Durability of SSCs injected with Seawater' in FY2011. The contents and the results obtained from the search are as follows; (1) For the pipes and nuclear reactor containment vessels, corrosion tests under high temperature seawater at 50degC and 80degC were carried out for the carbon steel that corrosion resistance was less. The data of relationship between a dipping time upto 1,500h and a corrosion rate were obtained as parameters at chloride ion (CI - ) content and the temperature of the seawater. As the results, the corrosion rate was almost 0.1 mm/y for the carbon steel SGV480. No significant influence of CT - content and the temperature of the seawater was confirmed. (2) Corrosion tests were carried out to obtain the relations of time and corrosion under different CI - content conditions for the simulated fuel rod specimens in seawater at 90degC for durations upto 1,200h. As the results, very little corrosion was observed on Zry-2 cladding tube. Brown rust was slightly appeared on the nut made of stainless steel and the lower tie plate made of cast stainless steel. Thinning and corrosion pit were not observed. (author)

  19. Novel Apparatus for Seawater Desalination and Its Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Dong; Kang, Kyung Chan [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A new apparatus for seawater desalination, based on the principle of gas hydrates, is suggested. The equipment continuously produces and pelletizes gas hydrates by a squeezing operation in a dual cylinder unit, which is able to extract pure hydrate pellets from the seawater-containing reactor. Desalination efficiency for each dissolved ion from seawater samples was tested by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and ion chromatography (IC) analysis. This study demonstrates that the suggested method and the stated apparatus may solve the difficulty of separating hydrate crystals from concentrated brine solutions, and therefore may be applied to improve the efficiency of existing desalination processes.

  20. Extraction of uranium from seawater: a few facts

    OpenAIRE

    Guidez Joel; Gabriel Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Although uranium concentration in seawater is only about 3 micrograms per liter, the quantity of uranium dissolved in the world's oceans is estimated to amount to 4.5 billion tonnes of uranium metal (tU). In contrast, the current conventional terrestrial resource is estimated to amount to about 17 million tU. However, for a number of reasons the extraction of significant amounts of uranium from seawater remains today more a dream than a reality. Firstly, pumping the seawater to extract this u...

  1. Hydraulic conductivity of some bentonites in artificial seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, Hideo; Murakami, Satoshi; Yasuhara, Kazuya

    2011-01-01

    A high-level radioactive waste disposal facility might be built in a coastal area in Japan from the viewpoint of feasible transportation of waste. Therefore, it is important to investigate the effects of seawater on a bentonite-based buffer. This study investigated the influence of seawater on hydraulic conductivity of three common sodium-types of bentonite and one calcium-type bentonite by the laboratory experiments. >From the results of laboratory experiment, this study discussed the influence of seawater on hydraulic conductivity of bentonites from the viewpoints of kinds of bentonite such as exchangeable-cation type and montmorillonite content and dry density of bentonite-based buffer. (author)

  2. Sulfate was a trace constituent of Archean seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowe, Sean Andrew; Paris, Guillaume; Katsev, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    In the low-oxygen Archean world (>2400 million years ago), seawater sulfate concentrations were much lower than today, yet open questions frustrate the translation of modern measurements of sulfur isotope fractionations into estimates of Archean seawater sulfate concentrations. In the water column...... Archean seawater sulfate concentrations of less than 2.5 micromolar. At these low concentrations, marine sulfate residence times were likely 10(3) to 10(4) years, and sulfate scarcity would have shaped early global biogeochemical cycles, possibly restricting biological productivity in Archean oceans....

  3. Determination of uranium in seawater by fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Toshi; Kawakubo, Senkichi; Minegishi, Hisako.

    1984-01-01

    A Fluorescence spectrometry for the determination of uranium in seawater has been developed. Anion exchange separation of uranium from seawater followed by preparation of NaF-carbonate cake and by spectrometry for ultraviolet ray excited fluorescence of uranium on the fluoride host provide the trace determinaton of uranium at the subnano gram level. Anion exchange behavior, excitation-emission behavior of the uranium on the host and effects of foreign ions to the fluorescence have been presented. Appling the method to 1 ml of seawater 3 ppb of uranium has been determined. (author)

  4. Numerical Study of Groundwater Flow and Salinity Distribution Cycling Controlled by Seawater/Freshwater Interaction in Karst Aquifer Using SEAWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z.; Hu, B.

    2017-12-01

    The interest to predict seawater intrusion and salinity distribution in Woodville Karst Plain (WKP) has increased due to the huge challenge on quality of drinkable water and serious environmental problems. Seawater intrudes into the conduit system from submarine karst caves at Spring Creek Spring due to density difference and sea level rising, nowadays the low salinity has been detected at Wakulla Spring which is 18 km from coastal line. The groundwater discharge at two major springs and salinity distribution in this area is controlled by the seawater/freshwater interaction under different rainfall conditions: during low rainfall periods, seawater flow into the submarine spring through karst windows, then the salinity rising at the submarine spring leads to seawater further intrudes into conduit system; during high rainfall periods, seawater is pushed out by fresh water discharge at submarine spring. The previous numerical studies of WKP mainly focused on the density independent transport modeling and seawater/freshwater discharge at major karst springs, in this study, a SEAWAT model has been developed to fully investigate the salinity distribution in the WKP under repeating phases of low rainfall and high rainfall periods, the conduit system was simulated as porous media with high conductivity and porosity. The precipitation, salinity and discharge at springs were used to calibrate the model. The results showed that the salinity distribution in porous media and conduit system is controlled by the rainfall change, in general, the salinity distribution inland under low rainfall conditions is much higher and wider than the high rainfall conditions. The results propose a prediction on the environmental problem caused by seawater intrusion in karst coastal aquifer, in addition, provide a visual and scientific basis for future groundwater remediation.

  5. Strontium (Sr) separation from seawater using titanate adsorbents: Effects of seawater matrix ions on Sr sorption behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jungho; Hong, Hye-jin; Ryu, Taegong; Park, In-Su

    2017-04-01

    Strontium (Sr) which has many industrial applications such as ferrite magnet, ceramic, and fire works exists in seawater with the concentration of approximately 7 mg/L. In previous report estimating economic potential on recovery of various elements from seawater in terms of their commercial values and concentrations in seawater, Sr locates upper than approximate break-even line, which implies Sr recovery from seawater can be potentially profitable. Recently, Sr separation from seawater has received great attention in the environmental aspect after Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident which released much amount of radioactive Sr and Cs. Accordingly, the efficient separation of radioactive elements released to seawater has become critical as an important technological need as well as their removal from radioactive wastes. So far, it has been introduced to separate Sr from aqueous media by various methods including solvent extraction, adsorption by solid materials, and ion exchange. Among them, the adsorption technique using solid adsorbents is of great interest for selectively separating Sr from seawater with respect to low concentration level of Sr. In this study, we synthesized titanate nanotube (TiNT) by simple hydrothermal reaction, characterized its physicochemical properties, and systematically evaluated Sr sorption behavior under various reaction conditions corresponding to seawater environment. The synthesized TiNT exhibited the fibril-type nanotube structure with high specific surface area of 260 m2/g. The adsorption of Sr on TiNT rapidly occurred following pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and was in good agreement with Langmuir isotherm model, indicating maximum adsorption capacity of 97 mg/g. Based on Sr uptake and Na release with stoichiometric balance, sorption mechanism of Sr on TiNT was found to be ion-exchange between Na in TiNT lattice and Sr in solution phase, which was also confirmed by XRD and Raman analysis. Among competitive ions, Ca

  6. Sulphide Production and Corrosion in Seawaters During Exposure to FAME Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-12

    communities develop in seawater exposed to alternative diesel fuels, regardless of the origin of the seawater? Does the brine /seawater chemistry, specifi...Bashitialshaaer R, Persson KM, Larson MA. 2009. Esti- mated future production of desalinated seawater in the MENA countries and consequences for the recipi

  7. 76 FR 14953 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Honolulu Seawater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Honolulu Seawater Air Conditioning Project, Honolulu, HI AGENCY... Honolulu Seawater Air Conditioning, LLC to construct a seawater air conditioning system (SWAC) at Kaka`ako... air conditioning system for downtown Honolulu buildings. In order to obtain deep, cold seawater to...

  8. A Synopsis of the Chemical/Physical Properties of Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    workers (1967) of brine processing technology revealed that the following relatively small number of basic methods are actually being used for the...separation of inorganic materials from seawater: adsorption, evaporation, distillation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, precipitation, electrolysis

  9. Ionic potential as a controller of seawater composition

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    Attempts have been made to study whether linear relations exist between ionic potentials (IP) and factors determining their fate in seawater. Various elements have been studied according to the geochemical classification. Lithophilic 1 (L1) elements...

  10. Effect of Groundwater Pumping on Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Sherif

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Many aquifers around the globe are located in coastal areas and are thus subjected to the seawater intrusion phenomenon. The growth of population in coastal areas and the conjugate increase in human, agricultural, and industrial activities have imposed an increasing demand for freshwater. This increase in water demand is often covered by extensive pumping of fresh groundwater, causing subsequent lowering of the water table (or piezometric head and upsetting the dynamic balance between freshwater and saline water bodies. The classical result of such a development is seawater intrusion. This paper presents a review for the seawater intrusion phenomenon in coastal aquifers. The effect of pumping activities on the seawater intrusion in the Nile Delta aquifer of Egypt is investigated. It was concluded that any additional pumping should be located in the middle Delta and avoided in the eastern and western sides of the Delta.

  11. Seawater State Variables in Hatchery and Raceway Tanks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ambient seawater temperature and salinity was recorded on an intermittent basis for comparison with adjusted temperatures used in the aquaculture of bivalves

  12. A quality control procedure for seawater temperature data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ghosh, A; Pankajakshan, T.

    A three level quality check has been developed for seawater temperature data. The standards used in the procedure for the quality check are the characteristic property of vertical temperature distribution, watermass property and a standard...

  13. The future of seawater desalination: energy, technology, and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elimelech, Menachem; Phillip, William A

    2011-08-05

    In recent years, numerous large-scale seawater desalination plants have been built in water-stressed countries to augment available water resources, and construction of new desalination plants is expected to increase in the near future. Despite major advancements in desalination technologies, seawater desalination is still more energy intensive compared to conventional technologies for the treatment of fresh water. There are also concerns about the potential environmental impacts of large-scale seawater desalination plants. Here, we review the possible reductions in energy demand by state-of-the-art seawater desalination technologies, the potential role of advanced materials and innovative technologies in improving performance, and the sustainability of desalination as a technological solution to global water shortages.

  14. An Evaluation of Carbon Steel Corrosion Under Stagnant Seawater Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Jason

    2004-01-01

    Corrosion, of 1020 carbon steel coupons in, natural seawater over a six-month period was more aggressive under stagnant anaerobic conditions than stagnant aerobic conditions as measured by weight loss...

  15. Efficiency of hypertonic and isotonic seawater solutions in chronic rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Čulig

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To compare the efficiency of isotonic and hypertonic seawatersolutions used for nasal lavage and quality of life of the patientswith chronic rhinosinusitis. Methods A random and controlled clinical study was performed. The study included 60 patients with history of chronic rhinosinusitis. At the beginning of the study, each subject was given a Patient Lobook, which needed to be filled ut daily during the 15-day tudy period. There were three visits per each patient during the study. Results Patient Logbook notes showed significant statistical differences inall symptoms in the group of patients using hypertonic seawater solution. However, while the notes showed significant statistical differences in congestion and rhinorrhea, in the group of patients using isotonic seawater solution, other symptoms showed no major changes during the study period. Conclusion Hypertonic seawater solution has been proven to bebetter than isotonic seawater solution in eliminating the symptomsof nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, cough, headache and waking up duringthe night.

  16. Latent Toxicity of Endothall to Anadromous Salmonids During Seawater Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courter, Lauren A; Garrison, Thomas M; Courter, Ian I

    2016-05-01

    Limited evidence exists on the latent effects of toxicant exposure on the seawater adaptability of anadromous salmon and steelhead. It is unclear whether such an effect exists for the widely used and relatively non-toxic herbicide endothall. Coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho), Chinook salmon, O. tshawytscha (Chinook), and anadromous rainbow trout, O. mykiss (steelhead) were subjected to a 10-day seawater challenge following freshwater treatments [0-12 mg acid equivalent (a.e)./L at 96 h]. Mean survival resulted in 82 % (n = 225), 84 % (n = 133), 90 % (n = 73) and 59 % (n = 147) survival for 0, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12 mg a.e./L, respectively. Our results indicate a lower toxicity threshold compared with previously reported acute toxicity results, but higher compared with previous seawater challenge studies. We demonstrate the utility of the seawater challenge assay to accurately define toxic effects of pesticides on salmonids with complex life-histories.

  17. Bather morbidity from recreational exposure to sea-water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Schirnding, YER

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanisation in the coastal areas of South Africa has led to increasing concern about the potential health effects on bathers resulting from exposure to contaminated seawater. Water quality criteria in South Africa are not epidemiologically...

  18. Use of Seawater for Air Conditioning at Waikiki Convention Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    introduction B. History of Seawater Air Conditioning Project Background A. Description of Convention Center Project B. Description of Project Site...intended to present a site specific concep- tual design for Waikiki, Hawaii. B. HISTORY OF SEAWATER AIR CONDITIONING The idea of using natural sources of...used and its properties, with regard to resistir - deformation of failure in tension, buckling, external or internal pressure. Plastic pipelines can

  19. Simultaneous Extraction of Lithium and Hydrogen from Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    water (or fresh water) electrolysis and the brine electrolysis using a solution containing 350 salinity (g salt/kg solution). While electrolysis of...seawater can be carried out either desalination of sea water and followed by the well-established fresh water electrolysis or direct electrolysis of sea...water, the latter seems more attractive because the desalination often employs the reverse osmosis process that not only requires additional cost

  20. International overview of seawater desalination plant by reverse osmosis technology

    OpenAIRE

    Kangwen, Shu

    2012-01-01

    Master's thesis in Environmental technology In a world faced with increased urbanization, population growth, climate change and degradation of water supplies, the importance of a reliable source of technology to provide fresh water emphasizes the importance of seawater desalination. Over the years a variety of seawater desalination methods have been developed throughout the world. The most common technologies available for desalination around the world are membrane reverse osmosis (RO),...

  1. Seawater-softening process through formation of calcite ooids

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. Bakr; W.A. Makled; M.M. Kamel

    2015-01-01

    Conventional water-softening processes usually involve the exchange of Na+ ions for Ca2+ and Mg2+ using commercial or synthesized ion exchangers. The differences in chemical compositions of the ooids can be attributed to the formation in different environments. In this paper, ooid grains form inside assembled semi-pilot softening unit through a continuous chemical process involving reaction between bicarbonate ions and added lime using natural seawater. Our sample of Mediterranean seawater ha...

  2. Calcium extraction from brine water and seawater using oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha, Nadia Chrisayu; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum

    2017-01-01

    Calcium can be extracted not only from rocks but also from natural liquor such as seawater and brine water. In order to extract the calcium from seawater and brine water, oxalic acid was used in this research. Effect of variations of the volume of the oxalic acid at a constant concentration in seawater and brine water to produce calcium was investigated. The concentration of oxalic acid was 100 g/l and the variations of its volume were 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, 40 ml, and 50 ml. The used seawater and brine water were firstly evaporated from 100 ml into 50 ml and then the oxalic acid was added into them with mixing to produce the calcium precipitates. The precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the filtrates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The SEM analysis showed that the precipitates from brine water were consisted of only calcium compound while from seawater sodium one was also found along with calcium compound. The XRD analysis showed that the calcium was present in the form of calcium oxalate for both seawater and brine water. The ICP-OES analysis of the filtrate from seawater precipitation showed that the its calcium content was decreased from 826.20 ppm to 0.04 ppm while from brine water, it decreased from 170.06 ppm to 1.96 ppm. These results showed that both seawater and brine water have the potential to be a raw material for calcium production.

  3. Seawater pretreatment for reverse osmosis: chemistry, contaminants, and coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edzwald, James K; Haarhoff, Johannes

    2011-11-01

    The paper addresses the effects of salinity and temperature on the chemistry of important parameters affecting coagulation pretreatment including the ion product of water, acid-base chemistry, dissolved metal speciation, and precipitation reactions for aluminum and iron coagulants. The ion product of seawater is greater than for freshwaters and affects chemical hydrolysis and metal-hydroxide solubility reactions. Inorganic carbon is the main cause of seawater alkalinity and buffer intensity but borate B(OH)(4)(1-) also contributes. Buffer intensity is an important parameter in assessing coagulation pH adjustment. Mineral particles are relatively unstable in seawater from electrical double layer compression, and when present these particles are easily coagulated. Algal-particle stability is affected by steric effects and algal motility. Dissolved natural organic matter from algae and humic substances causes fouling of RO membranes and pretreatment removal is essential. Aluminum coagulants are not recommended, and not used, because they are too soluble in seawater. Ferric coagulants are preferred and used. The equilibrium solubility of Fe with amorphous ferric hydroxide in seawater is low over a wide range of pH and temperature conditions. Ferric chloride dosing guidelines are presented for various raw seawater quality characteristics. The effect of pH on coagulant dose and the role of buffer intensity are addressed. A dual coagulation strategy is recommended for treating seawater with moderate to high concentrations of algae or seawater with humic matter. This involves a low and constant dose with high charge-density cationic polymers using Fe as the main coagulant where it is varied in response to raw water quality changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mitigating Seawater Desalination Membrane Biofouling using Quorum Sensing Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Katebian, Leda

    2016-01-01

    Coastal seawater desalination using reverse osmosis (RO) membranes has the potential to alleviate water stress in arid regions. However, membrane biofouling, caused by bacterial biofilm formation, is a significant challenge for seawater desalination plants. Biofilm formation is regulated by quorum sensing (QS) pathways where bacteria secrete auto-inducer molecules to communicate with neighboring bacteria to activate biofilm formation. This research investigated the role of the QS system and t...

  5. Phosphate determination in seawater : toward an autonomous electrochemical method

    OpenAIRE

    Jonca, J.; Fernandez, V.L.; Thouron, D.; Paulmier, Aurelien; Graco, M.; Garcon, V.

    2011-01-01

    Initial steps to create an autonomous in situ electrochemical sensor for orthophosphate determination in seawater are presented. First, the optimal conditions to form the molybdophosphate complex in artificial seawater medium were determined by addition of sulphuric acid and sodium molybdate to the solution containing orthophosphate. Secondly, the anodic oxidation of molybdenum to form molybdate ions and protons was used to create the molybdophosphate complex without addition of any liquid re...

  6. Influence of seawater intrusion on microbial communities in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Tatsuya; Kim, Jungman; Kim, Yumi; Nguyen, Son G; Guevarra, Robin B; Kim, Gee Pyo; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater is the sole source of potable water on Jeju Island in the Republic of (South) Korea. Groundwater is also used for irrigation and industrial purposes, and it is severely impacted by seawater intrusion in coastal areas. Consequently, monitoring the intrusion of seawater into groundwater on Jeju is very important for health and environmental reasons. A number of studies have used hydrological models to predict the deterioration of groundwater quality caused by seawater intrusion. However, there is conflicting evidence of intrusion due to complicated environmental influences on groundwater quality. Here we investigated the use of next generation sequencing (NGS)-based microbial community analysis as a way to monitor groundwater quality and detect seawater intrusion. Pristine groundwater, groundwater from three coastal areas, and seawater were compared. Analysis of the distribution of bacterial species clearly indicated that the high and low salinity groundwater differed significantly with respect to microbial composition. While members of the family Parvularculaceae were only identified in high salinity water samples, a greater percentage of the phylum Actinobacteria was predominantly observed in pristine groundwater. In addition, we identified 48 shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with seawater, among which the high salinity groundwater sample shared a greater number of bacterial species with seawater (6.7%). In contrast, other groundwater samples shared less than 0.5%. Our results suggest that NGS-based microbial community analysis of groundwater may be a useful tool for monitoring groundwater quality and detect seawater intrusion. This technology may also provide additional insights in understanding hydrological dynamics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of adsorbents for recovery of uranium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egawa, Hiroaki; Furusaki, Shintaro.

    1987-01-01

    The largest subject for putting the extraction of uranium from seawater in practical use is the development of high performance adsorbents for uranium. In this paper, the way of thinking about the development of adsorbents for extracting uranium from seawater and the recent reports on this subject are described. Next, the research on the adsorbing capacity and adsorbing rate of the adsorbents developed so far is summarized, and the way of thinking about the evaluation of adsorbent performance which is the base of the design of a system for extracting uranium from seawater is explained, taking amidoxime type adsorbent as the example. For Japan where energy resources are scant, the uranium contained in seawater, which is estimated to be about 4.2 billion t, is the most luring important element. Uranium is contained in seawater is very low concentration of 3 ppb, and exists as anion complex salt. In 1960s, the Harwell Atomic Energy Research Establishment in UK found out that titanium oxide hydrate is the most promising as the adsorbent. Also a number of organic absorbents have been developed. In order to bring adsorbents in contact with seawater, pumping, ocean current and wave force are utilized. Adsorbents are in spherical, fiber and film forms, and held as fixed beds and fluidized beds. (Kako, I.) 48 refs

  8. Effects of dissolved species on radiolysis of diluted seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Kuniki; Hanawa, Satoshi; Kasahara, Shigeki; Motooka, Takafumi; Tsukada, Takashi; Muroya, Yusa; Yamashita, Shinichi; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2014-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) experienced seawater injection into the cores and fuel pools as an emergent measure after the accident. After the accident, retained water has been continuously desalinized, and subsequently the concentration of chloride ion (Cl - ) has been kept at a lower level these days. These ions in seawater are known to affect water radiolysis, which causes the production of radiolytic products, such as hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) and molecular oxygen (O 2 ). However, the effects of dissolved ions relating seawater on the production of the stable radiolytic products are not well understood in the diluted seawater. To understand of the production behavior in diluted seawater under radiation, radiolysis calculations were carried out. Production of H 2 is effectively suppressed by diluting by up to vol10%. The concentrations of oxidants (H 2 O 2 and O 2 ) are also suppressed by dilution of dissolved species. The effect of oxidants on corrosion of materials is thought to be low when the seawater was diluted by less than 1 vol% by water. It is also shown that deaeration is one of the effective measure to suppress the concentrations of oxidants at a lower level for any dilution conditions. (author)

  9. Status of technology of uranium recovery from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugo, Takanobu; Saito, Kyoichi.

    1990-01-01

    By bringing the solid material called adsorbent in contact with seawater, uranium can be collected, therefore, the adsorbent to which uranium was adsorbed in seawater can be regarded as the resource of uranium storing. To the adsorbent, also rare metals are concentrated in addition to uranium. From such viewpoint, the development of the technology for collecting seawater uranium is important for the Japanese energy policy. The uranium concentration in seawater is about 3 mg/m 3 and its form of dissolution is uranyl tricarbonate ions. The technology of collecting seawater uranium is the separation technology for extracting the component of very low concentration from the aqueous solution containing many components. The total amount of uranium in the whole oceans reaches about 4 billion t, which is about 1000 times as much as the uranium commercially mined on land. It is the target of the technology to make artificial uranium ore of as high quality as possible quickly. The process of collecting seawater uranium comprises adsorption, desorption, separation and enrichment. As the adsorbents, hydrated titanium oxide and chelate resin represented by amidoxime are promising. The adsorption system is described. (K.I.)

  10. Improvement of seawater booster pump outlet check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuning; Du Yansong; Huang Huimin

    2010-01-01

    Conventional island seawater booster pump set of QNPC 310 MWe unit are very important in the whole circulating cooling system, and the integrate function of seawater booster pump outlet check valve is the foundation of steady operation of the seawater booster pump set. The article mainly introduce that through the analyses to the reason to the problem that the seawater booster pump outlet check valve of QNPC 310 MWe unit appeared in past years by our team, and considering the influence of operation condition and circumstance, the team improve the seawater booster pump outlet check valve from swing check valve to shuttle check valve which operate more appropriately in the system. By the test of continuous practice, we make further modification to the inner structure of shuttle check valve contrapuntally, and therefore we solve the problem in seawater booster pump outlet check valve fundamentally which has troubled the security of system operation in past years, so we realize the aim of technical improvement and ensure that the system operate in safety and stability. (authors)

  11. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The spent fuel management strategy in Spain is presented. The strategy includes temporary solutions and plans for final disposal. The need for R and D including partitioning and transmutation, as well as the financial constraints are also addressed. (author)

  12. The spatial and seasonal variation of trace metals in coastal seawater and soft tissue of Chthamalus montagui around the northwest coast of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Pedro A.; Salgado, Maria Antónia; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2017-06-01

    Metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) were determined in seawaters and soft tissues of Chthamalus montagui from the northwest coast of Portugal during the four seasons of 2011. The main objectives of this work were to assess seasonal and spatial variations of metals in order to detect hot spots of contamination, to establish correlations between metals in coastal seawaters and C. montagui and to calculate metal bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in each season. Metal concentrations in coastal seawaters ranged within Cd: 1.2-35 ng L-1; Cr: 15-87 ng L-1; Mn: 77-1763 ng L-1; Cu: 126-1819 ng L-1; Fe: 430-4048 ng L-1 and Zn: 2889-16867 ng L-1 and in C. montagui ranged for Cd: 0.39-1.98 mg kg-1; Cr: 0.45-3.13 mg kg-1; Cu: 0.93-5.70 mg kg-1; Mn: 2.2-20.4 mg kg-1; Fe: 135-707 mg kg-1 and Zn: 119-782 mg kg-1. Significant spatial and seasonal variations were found between: (i) metal concentrations in seawaters and C. montagui tissues; (ii) the distribution of metal concentrations in C. montagui tissues were Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd and (iii) C. montagui showed higher bioaccumulation factors for Fe and Cd than for Cu, Mn and Zn in all seasons. Regarding the metal concentrations accumulated in C. montagui tissues during each season of 2011, the ecological quality classifications of the NW coast of Portugal varied from "Class I-Unpolluted" to "Class III-Remarkably Polluted".

  13. Shallow Cystoseira (Fucales: Ochrophyta) assemblages thriving in sheltered areas from Menorca (NW Mediterranean): Relationships with environmental factors and anthropogenic pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Marta; Ballesteros, Enric

    2009-10-01

    The distribution of Cystoseira species was studied at 103 coves in the island of Menorca (Balearic Islands, NW Mediterranean). Both geomorphological parameters and anthropogenic pressures were considered in order to investigate which were the main environmental factors explaining their distribution. Several factors contributed to explain the composition of Cystoseira assemblages in the sampled coves being coastal morphology, bottom nature, nutrient concentration in seawater and urbanization level of the coast the most important. The relatively high number of Cystoseira species found in Menorca suggested a general high quality of the environment. However, in southern coves the number and abundance of Cystoseira spp. was reduced compared to the northern ones. This pattern seems to be related both to a higher anthropogenic pressure and to a less favourable geomorphology at southern coves. When strong anthropogenic disturbances were present (proximity to harbour areas), coves were completely devoid of Cystoseira specimens. As historical data is available for some of these sites, we can document the disappearance of some Cystoseira species at these coves, which seems to be related to increased pollution levels. However, as the absence of Cystoseira assemblages can also respond to a lack of a suitable geomorphology, their use as bioindicators of water quality needs of a definition of proper reference sites.

  14. Organic matter recycling in a shallow coastal zone (NW Mediterranean): The influence of local and global climatic forcing and organic matter lability on hydrolytic enzyme activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misic, Cristina; Harriague, Anabella Covazzi

    2008-12-01

    Seawater and sediment were collected on a monthly basis from a shallow (10.5 m depth) coastal site in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean) from November 1993 to December 1994 to determine the main environmental forces that influenced the biogeochemical processes and to study the relationships between the availability and lability of the organic matter (OM) and hydrolytic enzymatic activity. The current direction throughout the sampling year was influenced by the climatic conditions, which showed significant correlations with north atlantic oscillation (NAO) index values. The current generally flowed northwards in spring. This could cause significantly lower transparency values than in the summer, when an eastward current probably reduced the allochthonous input of material from the main local watercourse and contributed to turning the conditions from mesotrophic to oligotrophic. Spring and summer were separated by transitional periods more than by the canonical autumn and winter seasons. These transitions were characterised by a reduction in salinity values and by resuspension caused by water column mixing and a current flowing towards the southwest. The significant inverse correlations of the chlorophyll- a and protein concentrations, bacterial abundance and proteolysis of the bottom seawater and transparency showed the direct influence of resuspension on the organic matter dynamics. Moreover, OM trophic quality influenced the bacterial parameters and the enzymatic activities. The glycolytic β glucosidase and chitinase activities and their bacterial cell-specific hydrolytic rates were higher when substrates such as hydrolysable proteins were available, while they decreased when refractory compounds were abundant. The low leucine aminopeptidase: β glucosidase ratio values observed in the water column were presumably related to the potential ease with which microbes obtained protein-derived materials and energy, the protein hydrolysable fraction being estimated at

  15. Comment on: 'The strontium isotopic composition of seawater and seawater-oceanic crust interaction' by E.T.C. Spooner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brass, G.W.; Turekian, K.L.

    1977-01-01

    Various processes have been proposed as the source of strontium to the oceans but there is no evidence to support the mechanism of release of relatively unradiogenic strontium from deep dea basalts to sea-water. (B.D.)

  16. Mercury distribution in seawater discharged from a coal-fired power plant equipped with a seawater flue gas desulfurization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiyao; Sun, Lumin; Yuan, Dongxing; Yin, Liqian; Chen, Jinsheng; Liu, Yaoxing; Liu, Chengyu; Liang, Ying; Lin, Fangfang

    2011-09-01

    More and more coal-fired power plants equipped with seawater flue gas desulfurization systems have been built in coastal areas. They release large amount of mercury (Hg)-containing waste seawater into the adjacent seas. However, very limited impact studies have been carried out. Our research targeted the distribution of Hg in the seawater, sediment, biota, and atmosphere, and its environmental transportation. Seawater samples were collected from five sites: 1, sea areas adjacent to the power plant; 2, near discharge outlets; 3, the aeration pool of the power plant; and 4 and 5, two reference sites. The total gaseous Hg was determined in situ with a Tekran 2537B. Analyses of total Hg (TM) followed the USEPA methods. In most part of the study area, TM concentrations were close to the reference values and Hg transfer from the seawater into the sediment and biota was not obvious. However, in the aeration pool and near the waste discharge outlets, atmospheric and surface seawater concentrations of TM were much higher, compared with those at a reference site. The concentration ranges of total gaseous Hg and TM in seawater were 3.83-8.60 ng/m(3) and 79.0-198 ng/L near the discharge outlets, 7.23-13.5 ng/m(3) and 186-616 ng/L in the aeration pool, and 2.98-4.06 ng/m(3) and 0.47-1.87 ng/L at a reference point. This study suggested that the Hg in the flue gas desulfurization waste seawater was not only transported and diluted with sea currents, but also could possibly be transferred into the atmosphere from the aeration pool and from the discharge outlets.

  17. Loktanella tamlensis sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Dong

    2012-03-01

    An aerobic, Gram-reaction-negative, chemo-organotrophic bacterium, designated strain SSW-35(T), was isolated from seawater in Jeju, Republic of Korea. Cells were motile, short rods; colonies were circular, smooth, convex, translucent and beige in colour. No diffusible pigment formed on any of the media tested. The bacterium grew at 4-30 °C and pH 7.1-10.1. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the organism was related to members of the genus Loktanella, its closest recognized relatives being Loktanella rosea Fg36(T) (98.1% sequence similarity) and Loktanella maricola DSW-18(T) (97.8%). Levels of 16S rRNA gene similarity between strain SSW-35(T) and other recognized species of the genus Loktanella were all <97%. Polar lipid analysis revealed the presence of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown lipid as major components, as well as small amounts of two unknown phospholipids. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-10. The major cellular fatty acid was C(18:1) (summed feature 7), and the 3-hydroxy fatty acids detected were C(12:1) 3-OH and C(10:0) 3-OH. The genomic DNA G+C content was 55.0 mol%. In DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, the relatedness values between strain SSW-35(T) and the type strains of the phylogenetically closest recognized species were all <11%. On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness, a novel species, Loktanella tamlensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is SSW-35(T) (=KCTC 12722(T)=JCM 14020(T)).

  18. Desalination of Seawater using Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Desalination technologies have been well established since the mid 20th century and are widely deployed in many parts of the world having acute water scarcity problems. The energy for these plants is generally supplied in the form of either steam or electricity largely using fossil fuels. The intensive fuels of fossil fuels raises environmental concerns especially in relation to greenhouse gas emissions. The depleting sources and future price uncertainty of the fossil fuels and their better use for other vital industrial applications is also a factor to be considered for sustainability. The desalination of sea water using nuclear energy is a feasible option to meet the growing demand of potable water. Over 150 reactor-years of operating experience of a nuclear desalination have been accumulated worldwide. Several demonstration programs of nuclear desalination are also in progress to confirm its technical and economic viability under country specific conditions, with the technical coordination or support of IAEA. Recent techno-economic feasibility studies carried out by some Member States indicate the competitiveness of nuclear desalination. This paper presents the salient activities on nuclear desalination in the Agency and in the interested Member states. Economic research on further water cost reduction includes investigation on utilization of waste heat from different reactor types for thermal desalination pre-heat reverse osmosis and hybrid desalination systems. The main challenge for the large scale deployment of nuclear seawater desalination is the lack of infrastructure and the resources in the countries affected by water scarcity problems which are however, interested in adoption of nuclear desalination for the sustainable water resources. Socio-economic and environmental aspects and the public perception are also important factors requiring greater information exchange. (author)

  19. Potential for Great Thrust Earthquakes in NE Colombia & NW Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, R. G.; Mencin, D.

    2013-05-01

    Sixty-five percent of the ≈19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 12±1 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.6±1 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized décollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating

  20. Hysteretic behavior in seawater intrusion in response to discontinuous drought periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salandin, P.; Darvini, G.

    2017-12-01

    The seawater intrusion (SWI) represents a relevant problem for communities living in many coastal regions and in small islands, where the amount of fresh water available for human consumption or irrigation purposes depends on the equilibrium between the natural groundwater recharge from precipitations and the surrounding sea. This issue is exacerbated by climate changes, and, as a consequence, the reduction of natural groundwater recharge and the decrease the seaward flows of fresh water rather than sea level rise, as recently demonstrated by Ketabchi et al. (2016), leads to magnify the seawater intrusion into coastal aquifers. The temporal fluctuation of the fresh water table level are a natural consequence of the interaction of the aquifer with a water body or due to the seasonal replenishment of the water table. The severe and prolonged drought phenomena as that observed in last years in some areas of the Mediterranean, as over the central western Mediterranean basin, Italy and Spain, where a decreasing trend in total precipitation was detected (Alpert et al., 2002) in addition to the rise in temperature, enlarges the variation of the freshwater flux and can magnify the progression of the saline wedge. In the present study we demonstrate that the presence of varying boundary constraints or forcing factors may lead to hysteretic behavior in saltwater intrusion, showing dependence of the saline wedge on historic conditions. Therefore, the dynamic behavior of SWI may depend on both the present and past forcing conditions. To this aim different transient simulations supported by evidences deduced from a physical model are carried out to assess the presence of the hysteretic effects in the SWI phenomenon and to evaluate its influence in the management of the coastal aquifers for both the rational exploitation and the corrected management of water resources. About 70% of the world's population dwells in coastal zones. Therefore the optimal exploitation of fresh

  1. Nuclear power in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakin, Yu.I.

    1977-01-01

    The present states of nuclear power in Spain is shortly surveyed. Data are provided on NPPs currently in operation, under construction, designed and planned. In line with the 10-year ''National programme of electricity supply'' a major and all increasing part of the electricity generation growth is to be ensured by NPPs and to account for more than 50% by the end of the period (1987). Out of the 7 units of NPPs now under construction, 6 units utilize PWR reactors and only 1 unit- a BWR reactor. The roles of private and public sectors are noted. Main characteristics of the ''ENSA'' plant now under construction are provided where components of NPPs with PWR and BWR reactors will be fabricated. Major developments in the fields of mining, milling and extraction of U from lignites, U enrichment, fuel fabrication and spent fuel reprocessing are considered. Measures now taken to improve the licensing procedure, surveillance of NPPs and personnel training are to advance the nuclear power development programme in the country

  2. Influence of glacial meltwater on global seawater δ234U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Carli A.; Aciego, Sarah M.; Sims, Kenneth W. W.; Das, Sarah B.; Sheik, Cody; Stevenson, Emily I.

    2018-03-01

    We present the first published uranium-series measurements from modern Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) runoff and proximal seawater, and investigate the influence of glacial melt on global seawater δ234U over glacial-interglacial (g-ig) timescales. Climate reconstructions based on closed-system uranium-thorium (U/Th) dating of fossil corals assume U chemistry of seawater has remained stable over time despite notable fluctuations in major elemental compositions, concentrations, and isotopic compositions of global seawater on g-ig timescales. Deglacial processes increase weathering, significantly increasing U-series concentrations and changing the δ234U of glacial meltwater. Analyses of glacial discharge from GrIS outlet glaciers indicate that meltwater runoff has elevated U concentrations and differing 222Rn concentrations and δ234U compositions, likely due to variations in subglacial residence time. Locations with high δ234U have the potential to increase proximal seawater δ234U. To better understand the impact of bulk glacial melt on global seawater δ234U over time, we use a simple box model to scale these processes to periods of extreme deglaciation. We account for U fluxes from the GrIS, Antarctica, and large Northern Hemisphere Continental Ice Sheets, and assess sensitivity by varying melt volumes, duration and U flux input rates based on modern subglacial water U concentrations and compositions. All scenarios support the hypothesis that global seawater δ234U has varied by more than 1‰ through time as a function of predictable perturbations in continental U fluxes during g-ig periods.

  3. Impurities Removal in Seawater to Optimize the Magnesium Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha, N. C.; Firdiyono, F.; Sulistiyono, E.

    2017-02-01

    Magnesium extraction from seawater is promising way because magnesium is the second abundant element in seawater and Indonesia has the second longest coastline in the world. To optimize the magnesium extraction, the impurities in seawater need to be eliminated. Evaporation and dissolving process were used in this research to remove the impurities especially calcium in seawater. Seawater which has been evaporated from 100 ml to 50 ml was dissolved with variations solution such as oxalic acid and ammonium bicarbonate. The solution concentration is 100 g/l and it variations are 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, 40 ml and 50 ml. This step will produce precipitate and filtrate then it will be analysed to find out the result of this process. The precipitate was analysed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) but the filtrate was analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP). XRD analysis shows that calcium oxalate and calcium carbonate were formed and ICP analysis shows that the remaining calcium in seawater using oxalic acid is about 0.01% and sodium 0.14% but when using ammonium bicarbonate the remaining calcium is 2.5% and sodium still more than 90%. The results show that both oxalic acid and ammonium bicarbonate can remove the impurities but when using oxalic acid, not only the impurities but also magnesium was precipitated. The conclusion of this research is the best solution to remove the impurities in seawater without precipitate the magnesium is using ammonium bicarbonate.

  4. Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary Clays from Spain and New Zealand: Arsenic Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premović, Pavle I.

    2015-11-01

    Remarkably high arsenic (As) contents have been reported in numerous Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (KPB) clays worldwide including those from Spain (at Caravaca and Agost) and New (N.) Zealand (at Woodside Creek). Two interpretations have been offered to explain this anomaly. The first one suggests that this As was generated by the combustion of fossil fuels (such as crude oil, coal or oil shales) near the Chicxulub impact site and the second interpretation proposes the post-impact combustion of the global biomass at the KPB. Both types of combustion were presumably triggered by the Chicxulub impactor. This report shows that the estimated surface densities of As in Spain and N. Zealand strongly contradict the fossil fuel hydrocarbons/biomass hypotheses. In addition, we also show that previously reported global abundances of As at KPB are greatly overestimated. The high abundances of iron (Fe) in the ejecta layers from Spain and N. Zealand lead us to a working hypothesis that a major fraction of their anomalous As was adsorbed from seawater by the Fe-oxides. These oxides were mainly derived of Fe from the vaporized carbonaceous chondrite impactor. These were originally deposited on the local (topographically high) oxic soils in Spain and N. Zealand and then laterally transported to the KPB sites by the impactinduced surface waters.

  5. Development of analytical techniques of vanadium isotope in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Owens, J. D.; Sarafian, A.; Sen, I. S.; Huang, K. F.; Blusztajn, J.; Nielsen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Vanadium (V) is a transition metal with isotopes of 50V and 51V, and oxidation states of +2, +3, +4 and +5. The average concentration in seawater is 1.9 ppb, which results in a marine residence time of ~50 kyrs. Its various oxidation states make it a potential tool for investigating redox conditions in the ocean and sediments due to redox related changes in the valance state of vanadium. In turn, chemical equilibrium between different oxidation states of V will likely cause isotopic fractionation that can potentially be utilized to quantify past ocean redox states. In order to apply V isotopes as a paleo-redox tracer, it is required that we know the isotopic composition of seawater and the relation to marine sources and sinks of V. We developed a novel method for pre-concentrating V and measuring the isotope ratio in seawater samples. In our method, we used four ion exchange chromatography columns to separate vanadium from seawater matrix elements, in particular titanium and chromium, which both have an isobaric interference on 50V. The first column uses the NOBIAS resin, which effectively separates V and other transition metals from the majority of seawater matrix. Subsequent columns are identical to those utilized when separating V from silicate samples (Nielsen et al, Geostand. Geoanal. Res., 2011). The isotopic composition of the purified V is measured using a Thermo Scientific Neptune multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) in medium resolution mode. This setup resolves all molecular interferences from masses 49, 50, 51, 52 and 53 including S-O species on mass 50. To test the new method, we spiked an open ocean seawater sample from the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) station with 10-25 μg of Alfa Aesar vanadium solution, which has an isotopic composition of δ51V = 0 [where δ51V = 1000 × [(51V/50Vsample - 51V/50VAA)/51V/50VAA]. The average of six spiked samples is -0.03±0.19‰, which is within error of the true

  6. Comparison of techniques for pre-concentrating radium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourquin, M.; Van Beek, P.; Souhaut, M.; Jeandel, C.; Reyss, J.L.; Charette, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the KEOPS project (Kerguelen: compared study of the Ocean and the Plateau in Surface water), we aimed to provide information on the water mass pathways and vertical mixing on the Kerguelen Plateau, Southern Ocean, based on 228 Ra profiles. Because 228 Ra activities are extremely low in this area (∼ 0.1 dpm/100 kg or ∼ 2.10 -18 g kg -1 ), the filtration of large volumes of seawater was required in order to be able to detect it with minimal uncertainty. This challenging study was an opportunity for us to test and compare methods aimed at removing efficiently radium isotopes from seawater. We used Mn-fiber that retains radium and that allows the measurement of all four radium isotopes ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 223 Ra, 224 Ra). First, we used Niskin bottles or the ship's seawater intake to collect large volumes of seawater that were passed onto Mn-fiber in the laboratory. Second, we filled cartridges with Mn-fiber that we placed in tandem on in situ pumps. Finally, we fixed nylon nets filled with Mn-fiber on the frame of in situ pumps to allow the passive filtration of seawater during the pump deployment. Yields of radium fixation on the cartridges filled with Mn-fiber and placed on in situ pumps are ca. 30% when combining the two cartridges. Because large volumes of seawater can be filtered with these pumps, this yields to effective volumes of 177-280 kg (that is, higher than that recovered from fourteen 12-1 Niskin bottles). Finally, the effective volume of seawater that passed through Mn-fiber placed in nylon nets and deployed during 4 h ranged between 125 and 364 kg. Consequently, the two techniques that separate Ra isotopes in situ are good alternatives for pre-concentrating radium from seawater. They can save ship-time by avoiding repeated CTD casts to obtain the large volumes of seawater. This is especially true when in situ pumps are deployed to collect suspended particles. However, both methods only provide 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratios. The

  7. Non‐diluted seawater enhances nasal ciliary beat frequency and wound repair speed compared to diluted seawater and normal saline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnomet, Arnaud; Luczka, Emilie; Coraux, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Background The regulation of mucociliary clearance is a key part of the defense mechanisms developed by the airway epithelium. If a high aggregate quality of evidence shows the clinical effectiveness of nasal irrigation, there is a lack of studies showing the intrinsic role of the different irrigation solutions allowing such results. This study investigated the impact of solutions with different pH and ionic compositions, eg, normal saline, non‐diluted seawater and diluted seawater, on nasal mucosa functional parameters. Methods For this randomized, controlled, blinded, in vitro study, we used airway epithelial cells obtained from 13 nasal polyps explants to measure ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and epithelial wound repair speed (WRS) in response to 3 isotonic nasal irrigation solutions: (1) normal saline 0.9%; (2) non‐diluted seawater (Physiomer®); and (3) 30% diluted seawater (Stérimar). The results were compared to control (cell culture medium). Results Non‐diluted seawater enhanced the CBF and the WRS when compared to diluted seawater and to normal saline. When compared to the control, it significantly enhanced CBF and slightly, though nonsignificantly, improved the WRS. Interestingly, normal saline markedly reduced the number of epithelial cells and ciliated cells when compared to the control condition. Conclusion Our results suggest that the physicochemical features of the nasal wash solution is important because it determines the optimal conditions to enhance CBF and epithelial WRS thus preserving the respiratory mucosa in pathological conditions. Non‐diluted seawater obtains the best results on CBF and WRS vs normal saline showing a deleterious effect on epithelial cell function. PMID:27101776

  8. Non-diluted seawater enhances nasal ciliary beat frequency and wound repair speed compared to diluted seawater and normal saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnomet, Arnaud; Luczka, Emilie; Coraux, Christelle; de Gabory, Ludovic

    2016-10-01

    The regulation of mucociliary clearance is a key part of the defense mechanisms developed by the airway epithelium. If a high aggregate quality of evidence shows the clinical effectiveness of nasal irrigation, there is a lack of studies showing the intrinsic role of the different irrigation solutions allowing such results. This study investigated the impact of solutions with different pH and ionic compositions, eg, normal saline, non-diluted seawater and diluted seawater, on nasal mucosa functional parameters. For this randomized, controlled, blinded, in vitro study, we used airway epithelial cells obtained from 13 nasal polyps explants to measure ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and epithelial wound repair speed (WRS) in response to 3 isotonic nasal irrigation solutions: (1) normal saline 0.9%; (2) non-diluted seawater (Physiomer®); and (3) 30% diluted seawater (Stérimar). The results were compared to control (cell culture medium). Non-diluted seawater enhanced the CBF and the WRS when compared to diluted seawater and to normal saline. When compared to the control, it significantly enhanced CBF and slightly, though nonsignificantly, improved the WRS. Interestingly, normal saline markedly reduced the number of epithelial cells and ciliated cells when compared to the control condition. Our results suggest that the physicochemical features of the nasal wash solution is important because it determines the optimal conditions to enhance CBF and epithelial WRS thus preserving the respiratory mucosa in pathological conditions. Non-diluted seawater obtains the best results on CBF and WRS vs normal saline showing a deleterious effect on epithelial cell function. © 2016 The Authors International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology, published by ARSAAOA, LLC.

  9. Table Salt from Seawater (Solar Evaporation). What We Take from Our Environment. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Science Education Center.

    This module discusses methods of obtaining table salt from seawater. Topic areas considered include: (1) obtaining salt by solar evaporation of seawater in holes; (2) obtaining salt by boiling seawater in pots; (3) how table salt is obtained from seawater in the Philippines; and (4) methods of making salt by solar evaporation of seawater in the…

  10. Boron Removal in Seawater Reverse Osmosis System

    KAUST Repository

    Rahmawati, Karina

    2011-07-01

    Reverse osmosis successfully proves to remove more than 99% of solute in seawater, providing fresh water supply with satisfied quality. Due to some operational constraints, however, some trace contaminants removal, such as boron, cannot be achieved in one pass system. The stringent criterion for boron from World Health Organization (WHO) and Saudi Arabia local standard (0.5 mg/l) is hardly fulfilled by single pass sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants. Some design processes have been proposed to deal with boron removal, but they are not economically efficient due to high energy and chemical consumption. The objective of this study was to study boron removal by different reverse osmosis membranes in two pH conditions, with and without antiscalant addition. Thus, it was expected to observe the possibility of operating single pass system and necessity to operate two pass system using low energy membrane. Five membrane samples were obtained from two different manufacturers. Three types of feed water pH were used, pH 8, pH 10, and pH 10 with antiscalant addition. Experiment was conducted in parallel to compare membrane performance from two manufacturers. Filtration was run with fully recycle mode for three days. Sample of permeate and feed were taken every 12 hours, and analyzed for their boron and TDS concentration. Membrane samples were also tested for their surface charge. The results showed that boron rejection increases as the feed pH increases. This was caused by dissociation of boric acid to negatively charged borate ion and more negatively charged membrane surface at elevated pH which enhance boron rejection. This study found that single pass reverse osmosis system, with and without elevating the pH, may not be possible to be applied because of two reasons. First, permeate quality in term of boron, does not fulfill WHO and local Saudi Arabia regulations. Second, severe scaling occurs due to operation in alkaline condition, since Ca and Mg concentration are

  11. Seawater calcium isotope ratios across the Eocene-Oligocene transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, E.M.; Paytan, A.; Eisenhauer, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Thomas, E.

    2011-01-01

    During the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT, ca. 34 Ma), Earth's climate cooled significantly from a greenhouse to an icehouse climate, while the calcite (CaCO3) compensation depth (CCD) in the Pacific Ocean increased rapidly. Fluctuations in the CCD could result from various processes that create an imbalance between calcium (Ca) sources to, and sinks from, the ocean (e.g., weathering and CaCO3 deposition), with different effects on the isotopic composition of dissolved Ca in the oceans due to differences in the Ca isotopic composition of various inputs and outputs. We used Ca isotope ratios (??44/40Ca) of coeval pelagic marine barite and bulk carbonate to evaluate changes in the marine Ca cycle across the EOT. We show that the permanent deepening of the CCD was not accompanied by a pronounced change in seawater ??44/40Ca, whereas time intervals in the Neogene with smaller carbonate depositional changes are characterized by seawater ??44/40Ca shifts. This suggests that the response of seawater ??44/40Ca to changes in weathering fluxes and to imbalances in the oceanic alkalinity budget depends on the chemical composition of seawater. A minor and transient fluctuation in the Ca isotope ratio of bulk carbonate may reflect a change in isotopic fractionation associated with CaCO3 precipitation from seawater due to a combination of factors, including changes in temperature and/or in the assemblages of calcifying organisms. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  12. Effect of calcium carbonate saturation of seawater on coral calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattuso, J.-P.; Frankignoulle, M.; Bourge, I.; Romaine, S.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    The carbonate chemistry of seawater is usually not considered to be an important factor influencing calcium-carbonate-precipitation by corals because surface seawater is supersaturated with respect to aragonite. Recent reports, however, suggest that it could play a major role in the evolution and biogeography of recent corals. We investigated the calcification rates of five colonies of the zooxanthellate coral Stylophora pistillata in synthetic seawater using the alkalinity anomaly technique. Changes in aragonite saturation from 98% to 585% were obtained by manipulating the calcium concentration. The results show a nonlinear increase in calcification rate as a function of aragonite saturation level. Calcification increases nearly 3-fold when aragonite saturation increases from 98% to 390%, i.e., close to the typical present saturation state of tropical seawater. There is no further increase of calcification at saturation values above this threshold. Preliminary data suggest that another coral species, Acropora sp., displays a similar behaviour. These experimental results suggest: (l) that the rate of calcification does not change significantly within the range of saturation levels corresponding to the last glacial-interglacial cycle, and (2) that it may decrease significantly in the future as a result of the decrease in the saturation level due to anthropogenic release of CO2 into the atmosphere. Experimental studies that control environmental conditions and seawater composition provide unique opportunities to unravel the response of corals to global environmental changes.

  13. Seawater-cultured Botryococcus braunii for efficient hydrocarbon extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Furuhashi

    Full Text Available As a potential source of biofuel, the green colonial microalga Botryococcus braunii produces large amounts of hydrocarbons that are accumulated in the extracellular matrix. Generally, pretreatment such as drying or heating of wet algae is needed for sufficient recoveries of hydrocarbons from B. braunii using organic solvents. In this study, the Showa strain of B. braunii was cultured in media derived from the modified Chu13 medium by supplying artificial seawater, natural seawater, or NaCl. After a certain period of culture in the media with an osmotic pressure corresponding to 1/4-seawater, hydrocarbon recovery rates exceeding 90% were obtained by simply mixing intact wet algae with n-hexane without any pretreatments and the results using the present culture conditions indicate the potential for hydrocarbon milking.Seawater was used for efficient hydrocarbon extraction from Botryococcus braunii. The alga was cultured in media prepared with seawater or NaCl. Hydrocarbon recovery rate exceeding 90% was obtained without any pretreatment.

  14. How different is the composition of the fouling layer of wastewater reuse and seawater desalination RO membranes?

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Muhammad

    2014-08-01

    To study the effect of water quality and operating parameters on membrane fouling, a comparative analysis of wastewater (WW) and seawater (SW) fouled reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was conducted. Membranes were harvested from SWRO and WWRO pilot plants located in Vilaseca (East Spain), both using ultrafiltration as pretreatment. The SWRO unit was fed with Mediterranean seawater and the WWRO unit was operated using secondary effluent collected from the municipal wastewater treatment plant. Lead and terminal SWRO and WWRO modules were autopsied after five months and three months of operation, respectively. Ultrastructural, chemical, and microbiological analyses of the fouling layers were performed. Results showed that the WWRO train had mainly bio/organic fouling at the lead position element and inorganic fouling at terminal position element, whereas SWRO train had bio/organic fouling at both end position elements. In the case of WWRO membranes, Betaproteobacteria was the major colonizing species; while Ca, S, and P were the major present inorganic elements. The microbial population of SWRO membranes was mainly represented by Alpha and Gammaproteobacteria. Ca, Fe, and S were the main identified inorganic elements of the fouling layer of SWRO membranes. These results confirmed that the RO fouling layer composition is strongly impacted by the source water quality. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Demand for radiotherapy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Borrás, J M; López-Torrecilla, J; Algara, M; Palacios-Eito, A; Gómez-Caamaño, A; Olay, L; Lara, P C

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the demand for radiotherapy in Spain based on existing evidence to estimate the human resources and equipment needed so that every person in Spain has access to high-quality radiotherapy when they need it. We used data from the European Cancer Observatory on the estimated incidence of cancer in Spain in 2012, along with the evidence-based indications for radiotherapy developed by the Australian CCORE project, to obtain an optimal radiotherapy utilisation proportion (OUP) for each tumour. About 50.5 % of new cancers in Spain require radiotherapy at least once over the course of the disease. Additional demand for these services comes from reradiation therapy and non-melanoma skin cancer. Approximately, 25-30 % of cancer patients with an indication for radiotherapy do not receive it due to factors that include access, patient preference, familiarity with the treatment among physicians, and especially resource shortages, all of which contribute to its underutilisation. Radiotherapy is underused in Spain. The increasing incidence of cancer expected over the next decade and the greater frequency of reradiations necessitate the incorporation of radiotherapy demand into need-based calculations for cancer services planning.

  16. Spore Dispersal Patterns of Fusarium circinatum on an Infested Monterey Pine Forest in North-Western Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Miloň Dvořák; Patrik Janoš; Leticia Botella; Gabriela Rotková; Rafael Zas

    2017-01-01

    The airborne inoculum of Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O’Donnell, the fungal pathogen causing Pine Pitch Canker (PPC), is one of the main means of spread of the disease in forest stands and forest nurseries. Since this world-wide known pathogen was introduced in Europe, its biology in this newly infested area still remains scarcely known. To shed more light on this topic, we set up an experiment on a naturally PPC infested forest of Monterey pine in Galicia (NW Spain) with the following...

  17. The effect of pressure on transition metals in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millero, Frank J.; Huang, Fen

    2011-03-01

    The effect of pressure ( P) on the activity coefficients ( γiP/ γi0) of ions ( i) in seawater can be estimated from the partial molal volumes and compressibilities of the ions in water ( V and κ) and seawater ( V and κ) ln(γ/γ)=(V-V)P/RT-0.5(κ-κ)P/RT where R and T have their normal meaning. One can also use the partial molal volumes and compressibilities of ions to estimate the effect of pressure ( KP/ K0) on ionic equilibria constants M+X=MX,K=[MX]/[M][X] from the changes in the volume for the chemical reaction in seawater

  18. Extraction of uranium from seawater using magnetic adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, H.; Fujita, K.; Nakajima, F.; Ozawa, Y.; Murata, T.

    1981-01-01

    A new process for the extraction of uranium from seawater was developed. In the process, uranium adsorption is effected using powdered magnetic adsorbents; the adsorbents are then separated from seawater using magnetic separation technology. This process is superior to a column method using a granulated hydrous titanium oxide adsorber bed in the following ways: (1) a higher rate of adsorption is realized because smaller particles are used in the uranium adsorption; and (2) blocking, which is inevitable in an adsorber bed, is eliminated. The composite hydrous titanium-iron oxide as a magnetic adsorbent having high uranium adsorption capacity and magnetization can be prepared by adding urea to a mixed solution of titanium sulfate and ferrous sulfate. Adsorption and desoprtion of uranium and the removal of the adsorbent using a small-scale uranium extraction plant (about 15 m 3 /d) is reported, and the feasibility of uranium extraction from seawater by this process is demonstrated. 10 figures

  19. Algal blooms: an emerging threat to seawater reverse osmosis desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2014-08-04

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination technology has been rapidly growing in terms of installed capacity and global application over the last decade. An emerging threat to SWRO application is the seasonal proliferation of microscopic algae in seawater known as algal blooms. Such blooms have caused operational problems in SWRO plants due to clogging and poor effluent quality of the pre-treatment system which eventually forced the shutdown of various desalination plants to avoid irreversible fouling of downstream SWRO membranes. This article summarizes the current state of SWRO technology and the emerging threat of algal blooms to its application. It also highlights the importance of studying the algal bloom phenomena in the perspective of seawater desalination, so proper mitigation and preventive strategies can be developed in the near future. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  20. Reconstruction of secular variation in seawater sulfate concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algeo, T. J.; Luo, G. M.; Song, H. Y.; Lyons, T. W.; Canfield, D. E.

    2014-09-01

    Long-term secular variation in seawater sulfate concentrations ([SO42-]SW) is of interest owing to its relationship to the oxygenation history of Earth's surface environment, but quantitative approaches to analysis of this variation remain underdeveloped. In this study, we develop two complementary approaches for assessment of the [SO42-] of ancient seawater and test their application to reconstructions of [SO42-]SW variation since the late Neoproterozoic Eon (that [SO42-]SW was low during the late Neoproterozoic (that have varied only slightly since 250 Ma. However, Phanerozoic seawater sulfate concentrations may have been drawn down to much lower levels (~ 1-4 mM) during short (≲ 2 Myr) intervals of the Cambrian, Early Triassic, Early Jurassic, and possibly other intervals as a consequence of widespread ocean anoxia, intense MSR, and pyrite burial. The procedures developed in this study offer potential for future high-resolution quantitative analyses of paleoseawater sulfate concentrations.

  1. Mining Critical Metals and Elements from Seawater: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Mamadou S; Kotte, Madhusudhana Rao; Cho, Manki

    2015-08-18

    The availability and sustainable supply of technology metals and valuable elements is critical to the global economy. There is a growing realization that the development and deployment of the clean energy technologies and sustainable products and manufacturing industries of the 21st century will require large amounts of critical metals and valuable elements including rare-earth elements (REEs), platinum group metals (PGMs), lithium, copper, cobalt, silver, and gold. Advances in industrial ecology, water purification, and resource recovery have established that seawater is an important and largely untapped source of technology metals and valuable elements. This feature article discusses the opportunities and challenges of mining critical metals and elements from seawater. We highlight recent advances and provide an outlook of the future of metal mining and resource recovery from seawater.

  2. Analytical calculation of muon intensities under deep sea-water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inazawa, H.; Kobayakawa, K.

    1985-01-01

    The study of the energy loss of high energy muons through different materials, such as rock and sea-water can cast light on characteristics of lepton interactions. There are less ambiguities for the values of atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) in sea-water than in rock. Muon intensities should be measured as fundamental data and as background data for searching the fluxes of neutrino. The average range energy relation in sea-water is derived. The correction factors due to the range fluctuation is also computed. By applying these results, the intensities deep under sea are converted from a given muon energy spectra at sea-level. The spectra of conventional muons from eta, K decays have sec theta enhancement. The spectrum of prompt muons from charmed particles is almost isotropic. The effect of prompt muons is examined.

  3. The research of direct heating solar seawater desalination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Juyuan [Tianjin Univ. of Technology (China); Su Runxi [Tianjin Inst. of Seawater Desalination and Multipurpose Utilization, State Oceanic Administration, TJ (China); Xu Zhibin [Himin Solar Energy Group, SD (China); Cui Mingxian [Tianjin Univ. of Technology, TJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    The new seawater desalination technology of direct heating seawater by solar energy is put forward in this article. The solar energy collector is made of newly developed PPR mill micron material, which makes it corrosion-resistant and hardly deform less than 135 C, so as to guarantee its sealing. This new desalination technology combines flashing with MED, which makes it possible for seawater to be directly heated by solar energy. It also fits solar energy as an unsteady heat source. Besides, the operating conditions which avoid exchanger deposition are presented. Compared with traditional technology, it can save an exchanger, avoid temperature drop of heat exchanger, raise heat efficiency, and increase the production ratio by more than 10%. (orig.)

  4. Los lineamientos deducidos de imagenes de satelite de las zonas cantabrica y astur occidental leonesa (NW de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez, V.

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available The various lineaments deduced from Northwest Spain Landsat imagery can be grouped into four sets: NE-SW to ENE-WSW, NW-SE, E-W and NNE-SSW. Some of them seem to be of structural origin and probably cut very deep through the continental crust as witnessed by their size and by the basic character of some associated igneous rocks. These structures apparently control part of the Au, W, Sn, Sb, Hg, F, Da, Tale, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ca and Ni mineralizations present in the area as well as diverse physiographic and sedimentological features.Del análisis de imágenes Landsat del noroeste de la Península Ibérica se deducen numerosos lineamientos que se pueden reunir en cuatro grupos: NE-SW a ENE-WSW, NW-SE, E-W y NNE-SSW. Algunos de ellos parecen poseer un neto carácter estructural, siendo probable que afecten a zonas muy profundas de la corteza, como lo atestiguan sus dimensiones y la basicidad de determinadas rocas ígneas relacionadas con los mismos. Estas estructuras parecen controlar, además de algunos rasgos fisiográficos y sedimentológicos, parte de las mineralizaciones de Au, W, Sn, Sb, Hg, F, Ba, Talco, Zn, Pb, Cu, Co y Ni que se encuentran en esta zona.

  5. Bi-species imposex monitoring in Galicia (NW Spain) shows contrasting achievement of the OSPAR Ecological Quality Objective for TBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J M; Carro, B; Albaina, N; Couceiro, L; Míguez, A; Quintela, M; Barreiro, R

    2017-01-30

    Imposex is decreasing worldwide after the total ban on tributyltin (TBT) from antifouling paints. In order to assess improvement in the NE Atlantic, the OSPAR Convention designed an Ecological Quality Objective (EcoQO) based on the VDSI (vas deferens sequence index, an agreed measure of imposex) in the rock snail Nucella lapillus; wherever this is not available, the mud snail Nassarius reticulatus was proposed as a proxy. We determined VDSI in Galician populations of rock (n≥34) and mud (n≥18) snails at regular intervals from pre-ban times until 2009 and 2011, respectively. While imposex in the former started decreasing in 2006 and by 2009 the EcoQO had been met in the area, VDSI in the latter was not significantly reduced until 2011 and values contradict such an achievement. This suggests that the OSPAR imposex bi-species scheme may not be of direct application in the current post-ban scenario. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Scale dependence in habitat selection: The case of the endangered brown bear (Ursus arctos) in the Cantabrian Range (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria C. Mateo Sanchez; Samuel A. Cushman; Santiago Saura

    2013-01-01

    Animals select habitat resources at multiple spatial scales. Thus, explicit attention to scale dependency in species-habitat relationships is critical to understand the habitat suitability patterns as perceived by organisms in complex landscapes. Identification of the scales at which particular environmental variables influence habitat selection may be as important as...

  7. The influence of hurricanes upon the quiet depositional conditions in the Lower Emsian La Vid shales of Colle (NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, Jan H.

    1976-01-01

    The author supposes that the fossil content of thin carbonate units in the Upper La Vid shales (Lower Devonian) of Colle was influenced by heavy storms like hurricanes. Apart from microplankton (Cramer, 1964) no fossils are found in the shales. Together with the very well developed fissility of the

  8. Do the eclogites of the Variscan Malpica-Tuy shear zone in NW Spain point to continental subduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Botao; Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2014-05-01

    High-pressure (HP: P > 10 kbar) rocks such as eclogite typically occur in suture zones of collided continental plates in Phanerozoic times. In case of an extended area at the surface of a denuded orogen with HP and even ultrahigh pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks, they are often interpreted as the result of continental subduction. We have tested this idea for the HP-UHP area of the Malpica-Tuy zone of the Variscan orogen, which was formed by the collision of Gondwana and Laurussia. For the test, we have initially studied an eclogite and its surrounding gneiss of this zone in detail. The eclogite contains the assemblage garnet, omphacite, amphibole, rutile, ilmenite, clinozoisite/epidote, quartz, and phengite with Si-contents as high as 3.45 per formula unit (pfu) in inner portions and 3.27-3.35 pfu in rims. Garnet exhibits chemical zonation with Gro25Alm55Pyr15Spe5, Gro29Alm57Pyr13Spe1, and Gro23Alm56Pyr20Spe1 as inner core, mantle, and outermost rim compositions, respectively. The gneiss is a former medium-grained granite now composed of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, biotite, phengite, garnet, clinozoisite/epidote, titanite, apatite and ilmenite. Phengite shows Si contents between 3.40 (core) and 3.00 (rim) pfu. Garnet is chemically zoned with Gro69.6Alm27Pyr0.4Spe3, Gro65.5Alm32.5Pyr0.5Spe1.5, Gro65.7Alm31.7Pyr0.6Spe2, and Gro56.6Alm41.6Pyr1.2Spe0.6 as core, mantle, rim and outermost rim compositions, respectively. P-T pseudosections were calculated with the PERPLEX computer program in the system Na2O-K2O-CaO-FeO-O2-MnO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-TiO2-H2O for the bulk-rock compositions of the studied eclogite and gneiss. These pseudosections were contoured by isopleths of various parameters such as molar fractions of garnet components. Based on this contouring a P-T path was derived that starts at HP conditions for both lithologies. Garnet began to form at 22 kbar and 565°C in the eclogite. Subsequently, the temperatures increased to 585°C and the pressure decreased to 16 kbar. Afterwards, a temperature increase by 100°C occurred at which low-Si phengite, the outermost rim of garnet, Na-pyroxene, amphibole, epidote, quartz, and rutile were in equilibrium. The core of garnet in the gneiss formed at about 11 kbar and 540°C. P-T conditions related to the garnet rim could not be well constrained but range between 14-15 kbar and 610-680°C. These conditions are virtually identical with those of the final stage of the eclogite. The preliminary P-T data suggest that the Malpica-Tuy eclogite underwent HP metamorphism in a subduction zone, but the metagranite did not. Consequently, the idea of continental subduction could be disproved for the study area. The assumed tectonic process after subduction of the eclogite can be subdivided into three stages: (1) the eclogite was exhumed in the environment of a subduction channel; (2) the granite as part of the crustal margin of one of the colliding plates was buried below the other continental crust and came, thus, in contact with the uppermost portion of the subduction channel containing the studied eclogite; (3) both lithologies were then exhumed together in an exhumation channel as defined by Massonne (2012).

  9. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Galicia (NW Spain) on four alternative definitions and association with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, M A; Botana, M A; Cadarso-Suárez, C; Rego-Iraeta, A; Fernández-Mariño, A; Mato, J A; Solache, I; Perez-Fernandez, R

    2009-06-01

    The present study evaluated the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in a representative sample (no.=2860) of adults from the Spanish region of Galicia using the definitions of a) the World Health Organization; b) the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults; c) the European Group for Study of Insulin Resistance; and d) the International Diabetes Federation. In addition, we assess concordance among the different definitions, and the relationships of MS with insulin resistance (IR) as assessed by the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) index. Our results indicate a high prevalence of MS under all 4 definitions. MS prevalence was higher in men than women on all 4 definitions, and increased significantly with body mass index and age. IR was high among subjects with MS, and the HOMA index was a good discriminator of MS and non-MS on all 4 definitions, suggesting that HOMA index may be a useful predictive tool in clinical practice.

  10. Physical and Chemical Limnology of the Abegondo-Cecebre reservoir, A Coruña, NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Jordi; Cereijo-Arango, José Luis; García-Morrondo, David; Cillero-Castro, Carmen; Muñoz-Ibáñez, Andrea; Juncosa-Rivera, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    The Abegondo-Cecebre reservoir was commissioned in 1976. It has a nominal capacity of ~23 hm3 and an actual regulation capacity of 20.6 hm3 (12.9 hm3 in rainy periods, when flood control is necessary). This reservoir constitutes the only source of drinking water for the city of A Coruña and its metropolitan area (~400.000 inhabitants). The reservoir, which is two-tailed, is located downstream the Barcés and Mero rivers (~250 km2) and belongs to the so-called Galician-Coast River Basin district (16,372 km2). The increasing water demand for human consumption and industrial purposes challenges the supply capacity of the system and this is especially acute when, in hydric-stress situations, the availability of water becomes reduced and the water quality is adversely affected by a number of hypolimnetic processes (anoxia, increased metal concentration, etc.) or by episodic algal blooms. Between May 2010 and May 2012, within the context of the LIFE07 ENV/E/000826 Aqua Plann Project, an in-depth study was commissioned by the local water supply managers (EMALCSA). The study encompassed a bathymetry and colmatation characterization as well as a systematic physico-chemical survey via monthly sampling and measurement in selected stations a series of relevant limnological parameters. Surface and bottom reservoir water was sampled in seven representative locations of the system while three of them were used for depth profiling. In addition, five stations were considered for collecting the top layer of the sediments of the reservoir (~20 cm) in two surveys developed in the spring and summer of 2012. The parameters determined, complemented with meteorological information and discharge flows, included temperature, Secchi's depth transparency, PAR radiation, pH, electrical conductivity, redox, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, alkalinity, chlorophyll, phycocyanin, Na, K, Ca, Mg, F, Cl, SO4, NH4, NO3, NO2, PO4, DIC, DOC, particulated organic carbon, Fe, Mn, Al, As, Ba, Be, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn, total P and N, BOD5, 27 plaguicides, 8 HPAs, 23 COVs, 18 PCBs, phenols, detergents, and a 4 indicators of microbial water quality. Based on the previous studies, some relevant morphometric parameters are the following: maximum length: 3627 m; maximum width: 1525 m; maximum depth: 17.2 m; mean depth: 5.9 m; catchment to lake ratio: 64. Based on the bathymetric survey, the reservoir volume lost by sedimentation in its 35 years is about 9.3%. The Abegondo-Cecebre reservoir presents a mesotrophic-eutrophic state. Thermal stratification starts in March and an annual overturn occur in November (monomictic system). Hypolimnetic oxygen depletion is nearly complete (i.e. anoxia) from the beginning of June to mid-end October. Along this period, a number of redox reactions take place in the bottom waters that tend to increase metal and NH4 concentrations, reduce NO3 (and partly SO4) and release P from the sediments.

  11. Chemical composition of phytoplankton and Particulate Organic Matter in the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Ríos

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Elemental (C, H, O, N, Si, P and biochemical composition (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, phosphorus compounds, chlorophyll and opal in particulate organic matter, diatoms, other autotrophs, heterotrophs and detritus from natural plankton were established simultaneously by measuring relatively few components. Using standard techniques in marine chemistry on board ship, it is possible to infer a great deal about the composition and condition of the plankton. In addition, the organic matter content in terms of cell volume was determined for each group of plankton. Variation of chemical composition with depth was also considered. The ratio carbohydrates/lipids (Cbh/Lip was used as an indicator of the chemical quality of the plankton.

  12. Characterization of parent and alkylated PAHs in surface sediments from Ría de Arousa (Galicia, NW Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Pérez-Fernández

    2014-06-01

    Two main conclusions can be drawn, first that a gradient can be observed as sediments get cleaner from the river Ulla mouth to the outer zone of the ría and second that most samples showed a mixed or pyrolitic source and only some locations show a less pyrolitic origin, with some diagenetic contributions.

  13. Toxin composition of the toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima isolated from different locations along the Galician coast (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, I; Fernández, M L; Ramilo, I; Martínez, A

    2001-10-01

    The DSP toxin composition of 19 Prorocentrum lima isolates from different locations of the Galician rias (Vigo and Pontevedra) was investigated by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorimetric detection. Boiling and freeze/thaw/hydrolyse methodology were applied during extraction to detect OA, DTX1, DTX2 and their esterified derivatives. OA and DTX2 were detected in both free and esterified form, the latter always in very low amounts, whilst DTX1 was always present in the free form. This indicate that the hypothesized self-protection mechanism of toxin storage in the less active esterified forms does not seem to apply to DTX1. A slight increase in the toxin concentration per cell was found during growth, although toxin composition did not vary appreciably. Toxin production and toxin profile varied significantly depending on the isolate. Four groups of P. lima were differentiated by cluster analysis according to their toxin composition. It is noteworthy that one of the clusters comprised all the strains collected from one location characterised by its geographical isolation, whereas the other clusters consisted of isolates from different locations. The differences in the toxin profile from P. lima strains and from the DSP contaminated shellfish, together with the very good correlation between Dinophysis spp occurrence and DSP toxicity in shellfish, support that these planktonic species are the main agents responsible for DSP events in Galicia.

  14. Side scan sonar image and geologic interpretation of the Ría de Pontevedra seafloor (Galicia, NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad García-Gil

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution side scan sonar has been used for mapping the seafloor of the Ría de Pontevedra. Four backscatter patterns have been mapped within the Ría: (1 Pattern with isolated reflections, correlated with granite and metamorphic outcrops and located close to the coastal prominence and Ons and Onza Islands. (2 Pattern of strong reflectivity usually located around the basement outcrops and near the coastline and produced by coarse-grained sediment. (3 Pattern of weak backscatter is correlated with fine sand to mud and comprising large areas in the central and deep part of the Ría, where the bottom currents are weak. It is generally featureless, except where pockmarks and anthropogenic features are present. (4 Patches of strong and weak backscatter are located in the boundary between coarse and fine-grained sediments and they are due to the effect of strong bottom currents. The presence of megaripples associated to both patterns of strong reflectivity and sedimentary patches indicate bedload transport of sediment during high energy conditions (storms. Side scan sonar records and supplementary bathymetry, bottom samples and hydrodynamic data reveal that the distribution of seafloor sediment is strongly related to oceanographic processes and the particular morphology and topography of the Ría.

  15. Total contents of arsenic and associated health risks in edible mushrooms, mushroom supplements and growth substrates from Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, M J; Alonso, J; García, M A

    2014-11-01

    The levels of arsenic (As) in the main commercial species of mushrooms present in Galicia, in their growth substrates, and mushroom supplements have been analysed by ICP-MS, with the intention of assessing potential health risks involved with their consumption. The mean concentrations of As in wild and cultivated mushrooms was 0.27mg/kg dw, in mushroom supplements 0.40mg/kg dw, in soils 5.10mg/kg dw, and in growth substrate 0.51mg/kg dw. No significant differences were observed between species, although the species Lactarius deliciosus possessed a slightly more elevated mean concentration (at 0.49mg/kg dw) than the other species investigated. In soils, statistically significant differences (pmushroom supplements, although low, were higher than in wild or cultivated mushrooms. Measured arsenic levels were within the normal range in samples analysed in unpolluted areas. Because of the low As concentrations found in fungi and mushroom supplements from Galicia, and considering the relatively small inclusion of these foods in people's diet, it can be concluded that there is no toxicological risk of arsenic associated with the consumption of the species of mushrooms analysed or at the dosages indicated for mushroom supplements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of cadmium, lead and tin distribution in surface marine sediment samples from Ria de Arousa (NW of Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barciela-Alonso, M.C.; Pazos-Capeans, P.; Regueira-Miguens, M.E.; Bermejo-Barrera, A.; Bermejo-Barrera, P

    2004-10-25

    In this work a study of the Cd, Pb and Sn content in marine surface sediment from the Ria de Arousa has been realised. For this, 21 sediment samples were taken in triplicate, lyophilised and sieved, and the fraction <63 {mu}m was taken for analysis. The samples were prepared in a form of slurries and analysed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentration ranges obtained were 90-990 {mu}g kg{sup -1} Cd, 26.5-91.3 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb and 5.0-20.8 {mu}g g{sup -1} Sn. The highest concentrations of these metals are in the inner part of the Ria, near to the port and urban nucleus such as Vilagarcia or Rianxo, and decrease toward the mouth of the Ria.

  17. Characterization of Galician (N.W. Spain) quality brand potatoes: a comparison study of several pattern recognition techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padín, P M; Peña, R M; García, S; Iglesias, R; Barro, S; Herrero, C

    2001-01-01

    Authenticity is an important food quality criterion and rapid methods to guarantee it are widely demanded by food producers, processors, consumers and regulatory bodies. The objective of this work was to develop a classification system in order to confirm the authenticity of Galician potatoes with a Certified Brand of Origin and Quality (CBOQ) 'Denominación Específica: Patata de Galicia' and to differentiate them from other potatoes that did not have this CBOQ. Ten selected metals were determined by atomic spectroscopy in 102 potato samples which were divided into two categories: CBOQ and non-CBOQ potatoes. Multivariate chemometric techniques, such as cluster analysis and principal component analysis, were applied to perform a preliminary study of the data structure. Four supervised pattern recognition procedures [including linear discriminant analysis (LDA), K-nearest neighbours (KNN), soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) and multilayer feed-forward neural networks (MLF-ANN)] were used to classify samples into the two categories considered on the basis of the chemical data. Results for LDA, KNN and MLF-ANN are acceptable for the non-CBOQ class, whereas SIMCA showed better recognition and prediction abilities for the CBOQ class. A more sophisticated neural network approach performed by the combination of the self-organizing with adaptive neighbourhood network (SOAN) and MLF network was employed to optimize the classification. Using this combined method, excellent performance in terms of classification and prediction abilities was obtained for the two categories with a success rate ranging from 98 to 100%. The metal profiles provided sufficient information to enable classification rules to be developed for identifying potatoes according to their origin brand based on SOAN-MLF neural networks.

  18. An approach to identification and modelling of artificial grounds in urban area from multidisciplinary data (Oviedo, NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando, Luis; Flor-Blanco, Germán; María Díaz-Díaz, Luis; Arias, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    This contribution describes the investigation of changes on urban relief caused by anthropogenic processes in Oviedo (population 215,000), the capital city of Asturias, formerly a Christian kingdom (719-925 AD) located in the north-western Iberian Peninsula. This city is placed on a Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin above a folded Paleozoic basement. Oviedo's subsurface is formed by carbonate and siliciclastic Cretaceous formations, and the overlying fluvial-lacustrine deposits of Paleogene age; the latter are mainly composed of marls, clays and gypsum layers. The urban core, which extends 15 km2, presents an elevation range between 160 to 330 m above mean sea level and the natural slopes reach up 15o in the built-up area. The research involved at first the collection and review of more than 950 borehole logs, presenting the man-made fills an average thickness of 1.9 m with maximum value of 25 m. Then topographic variations that occurred during the period of greatest urban development were analysed through map algebra. The data used to construct Digital Elevation Models (DEM) were provided by 1:5,000 city maps performed since 1869 to the present, all properly georeferenced. The subtraction operations generated Digital Terrain Models representing ground elevation gains and losses during different periods of time, after setting the necessary control points (elevation remains invariant) and corrections in order to avoid altitude deviations between DEMs. The thicknesses estimated for the man-made fills were compared with borehole data to validate the prediction, obtaining good correlations. The GIS-based methodology was complemented by an inspection of the historical evolution of land uses (i.e., using ancient street maps, aerial images interpretation and documentary references since the thirteenth century), and the analysis of all the surficial geological maps that have been published. Man-made grounds were then classified into categories, mainly: (i) earthworks related to urban development; (ii) ground modified by civil engineering; (iii) ground modified by quarrying activities; (iv) dumping sites. Further modified landscapes were studied using more detailed DEMs (up to 1x1 m cell size) to generate isolines maps indicating excavated and filled areas. This research provided valuable information about the distribution, geometry, volume and origin of the main accumulations of man-made fills and excavated areas. Especially noteworthy was the study of topographic changes caused by fills and excavations related to old quarries (extracting limestone, sand and clay). These quarries, abandoned for hundreds of years, are now hardly recognizable due to the growth of the city but have great historical significance. In fact they supplied building stone for some monuments of Oviedo and the Kingdom of Asturias that are included in the World Heritage List of Unesco.

  19. Parasites, pathological conditions and resistance to Marteilia cochillia in lagoon cockle Cerastoderma glaucum from Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballal, María J; Iglesias, David; Darriba, Susana; Cao, Asunción; Mariño, J Carlos; Ramilo, Andrea; No, Edgar; Villalba, Antonio

    2016-12-21

    A histopathological survey revealed parasites and pathological conditions affecting lagoon cockles Cerastoderma glaucum along the Galician coast; serious pathological threats were not detected because the potentially pathogenic conditions (infections with a Marteilia-like parasite and bucephalid sporocysts, disseminated neoplasia and a condition involving large foci of heavy haemocytic reaction) were rare, while more prevalent parasites had negligible or limited pathogeny. Considering that C. edule and C. glaucum are sympatric in some Galician rias, it is remarkable that C. glaucum was not seriously affected by Marteilia cochillia while C. edule suffered an intense outbreak of this parasite associated with massive mortality. Comparison of the digestive gland between cockle species showed co-occurrence of digestive tubules in different phases, with abundant disintegrated tubules, in the case of C. glaucum, while C. edule showed synchronicity and absence of fully disintegrated tubules; these differences could influence their susceptibility to M. cochillia because the main location of this parasite in common cockles is the epithelia of the digestive gland. Moreover, the observation of histological sections through the digestive gland easily allows differentiating the 2 cockle species.

  20. Magnetic properties contribution to the identification and provenance of marine sediments: distal IRD in the Galicia Interior Basin (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Morlote, Maider; Rey, Daniel; Francisco Santos, Jose; Ribeiro, Sara; Bernabeu, Ana; Mohamed, Kais; Heslop, David; Rubio, Belén; Martins, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of using a combined environmagnetic and geochemical approach to the provenance and characterization of distal IRDs occurring during the Last Glacial Period in core CI12PC3 from the Galicia Interior Basin (GIB). Six Heinrich layers (HL1-6) have been identified in the area in base to the detection of distinct populations of exotic magnetic mineral assemblages alien to the local/regional sedimentation environment. Their extension has been determined by Ca/Sr and Si/Sr ratios and their provenance by 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios and FORCs. The sedimentary expression of HL is characterized by the presence of distal Ice Rafted Detritus (IRD). Distal IRD magnetic signatures in the GIB consist of (i) an increase of one order of magnitude in the peak amplitude of magnetic susceptibility from background values, (ii) a general coarsening of the magnetic grain size in a mineral assemblage dominated by titano-magnetites, (iii) FORC distributions pushing towards the coarse MD or PSD component, and (iv) thermomagnetic curves depicting the occurrence of several magnetite phases. These four features are very different from the fine-grained biogenic magnetic assemblages characterized by the combination of lower MS and higher coercivity values that dominate the predominant mixtures of the non-interacting SSD and PSD components in the non-IRD influenced background sedimentation. Our results show that the last 70.000 yr of sedimentation in the GIB were controlled by the relative contribution of local detrital material derived from the Iberian Variscan Chain and IRD alien material from the iceberg melting during the Heinrich Events. They also show two main IRD provenance fields: Europe and Canada. And that the later is more important for for HL1, HL2, HL4 and HL5. FORCs analysis complemented the isotopic information and provided a very unique information, indicating that glacial flour may not always have the same provenance as IRD and that ice-melted derived suspended sediment has its own dynamics and may reach further and/or persists longer than IRD.

  1. Preliminary results of the investigation of the central galician schist area (prov. of Orense and Pontevedra, NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerbeke, van G.L.E.; Hilgen, J.D.; Floor, P.

    1973-01-01

    Probably Lower Paleozoic quartzo-pelitic schists with bands of feldspathic schists, white and black quartzites, graphite schists and amphibolites have been folded twice. Hercynian regional metamorphism led to porphyroblastic growth of chlorite, albite, biotite, garnet, staurolite mainly between F1

  2. Chemical composition of phytoplankton and Particulate Organic Matter in the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos, A. F.; Fraga, F.; Pérez, F. F.; Figueiras, F. G.

    1998-01-01

    Elemental (C, H, O, N, Si, P) and biochemical composition (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, phosphorus compounds, chlorophyll and opal) in particulate organic matter, diatoms, other autotrophs, heterotrophs and detritus from natural plankton were established simultaneously by measuring relatively few components. Using standard techniques in marine chemistry on board ship, it is possible to infer a great deal about the composition and condition of the plankton. In addition, the org...

  3. A national inventory of seawater intrusion vulnerability for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne K. Morgan

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The combination of methods identified areas of highest risk to SWI including unconfined aquifers at Derby (WA and Esperance (WA, and confined aquifers at Esperance (WA and Adelaide (SA. The combination of analytic and qualitative approaches offers a more comprehensive and less subjective seawater intrusion characterization than arises from applying the methods in isolation, thereby imparting enhanced confidence in the outcomes. Importantly, active seawater intrusion conditions occur in many of Australia’s confined coastal aquifers, obviating the use of the analytical solution, and suggesting that offshore groundwater resources provide significant contributions to these systems.

  4. Recent work at MIT on uranium recovery from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Recent work at MIT has confirmed the superiority of fiber-form ion exchange media for uranium recovery from seawater, subject to demonstration of the ability to control fouling by suspended particulate matter. Calculations and laboratory experiments indicate loading rates of several hundred ppm U/day: an order of magnitude faster than for bead-type sorbers in fixed or fluidized beds. A high performance, modular, sorber cartridge/seawater contactor system capable of a lifetime-levelized cost of product in the range 100-150 $/1b U 3 O 8 has been designed. (author)

  5. PSA results and trends for Spain's NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carretero, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Spain regulatory authority CSN demanded performance of PSA for all Spain nuclear power plants. The specific data analysis carried out as a part of the PSA has contributed to the realistic view on the results which could be achieved by the PSA. The main characteristics of the PSA in Spain and PSA trends in the development are presented in the paper

  6. Characteristic roofing slates from Spain: Mormeau and Los Molinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenes Van den Eynde, Victor; Cnudde, Veerle; Cnudde, Jean Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Characteristic roofing slates from Spain: Mormeau and Los Molinos Cardenes1, V., Cnudde1, V., Cnudde1, J.P. 1 Department of Geology and Soil Science, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S8, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. The world's major roofing slate outcrops are found in the NW of Spain, in the Ordovician terrains of the domain of the Truchas Syncline. In this remote area, slate was quarried since ancient times for the use of the inhabitants of the region. Half of a century ago, an industrialization process took place in this area, which began to produce high quality roofing slate for many buildings from Japan to the USA, and especially in Europe. Since then, Spanish slate roofing has been widely used for new buildings and also for restoration of historical buildings. This work revises the occurrence and characteristics of the two most representative grey slate varieties from the Truchas Syncline, Mormeau, a fine-grained slate, and Los Molinos, also a grey slate with a slightly coarser grain. Both slates have a very similar aspect, but Mormeau slate have some iron sulphides on its composition that sometimes forms oxidation spots. Mormeau beds are found at the Middle-Upper Ordovician age Casaio Formation, while Los Molinos beds are located at the Rozadais Formation, of age Upper Ordovician, defined as formation just for the Truchas Syncline domain. Both slates have a high degree of homogeneity on their constructive characteristics, with a typical composition of quartz, mica and chlorites, and a metamorphic degree corresponding to the green schists facies. This work revises the history and characteristics of both slates, that can be considered as lithotypes that can be used as a reference during the prospection of new slate outcrops worldwide. The presented varieties of slate are proposed for their inclusion as Global Heritage Stones.

  7. Laboratory development of Capitella sp. A (Annelida: Capitellidae from a NW Mediterranean fish farm reared under different organic enrichment conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Méndez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The polychaete Capitella sp. A, collected in a NW Mediterranean fish farm (Les Cases d’Alcanar, Tarragona, Spain, was cultured for the first time under experimental conditions with different organically enriched sediments to study the differences in development and growth. The species proved to be dioecious and had lecithotrophic development. Sizes of individuals and duration of the developmental stages varied widely, as in most known species of Capitella. In organically enriched sediments, the juveniles were seen one day after hatching and immature females (i.e. with yellow ovaries after 52 days. Females may reach maturity (i.e. show white intra-coelomic oocytes at about 64 days old, and the species had a life span of 167 days. According to its development, Capitella sp. A differs from all known lecithotrophic species of the genus. The results also proved that organically enrichment enhanced growth and survival, whereas lowering food can cause morphological alterations such as reduced size in male genital spines.

  8. The gas industry in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jego, H.

    1999-01-01

    This short presentation of the Spanish gas industry looks at the industry's different players including Gas Natural, which controls almost all of the gas distribution in Spain. Natural gas, almost all of which is imported, accounts for an ever-growing share in the country's energy balance and has undergone great developments, particularly in industry and in thermal generating plants. (author)

  9. Nonstationary relationship between atmospheric teleconnection patterns and Weather types in NW Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A. M.; Lorenzo, M. N.; Gimeno, L.; Taboada, J. J.

    2009-04-01

    prove that the value of these correlations varies strongly with the time, moving from non significant to statistically significant depending on the selected 30 year period. Gimeno L., de la Torre, L., Nieto, R., García, R., Hernández, E. and Ribera, P. (2003) Changes in the relationship NAO-Northern hemisphere temperature due to solar activity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 206, 15-20. Vicente-Serrano, S. M., and J. I. López-Moreno (2008), Differences in the non-stationary influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on European precipitation under different scenarios of greenhouse gas concentrations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L18710, doi:10.1029/2008GL034832. Jones, P. D. , M. Hulme , K. R. Briffa. (1993) A comparison of Lamb circulation types with an objective classification scheme. Int. J. Climatol. 13: 655- 663. Lorenzo M.N., Taboada J.J. and Gimeno L. 2008. Links between circulation weather types and teleconnection patterns and their influence on precipitation patterns in Galicia (NW Spain). International Journal of Climatology 28(11),1493:1505 DOI: 10.1002/joc.1646.

  10. State-of-art report on the seawater desalination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Young In; Lee, Doo Jung; Chang, Moon Hee

    2000-11-01

    Desalination technologies have been developed over the last 40 years and become a reliable industrial process for water production from sea or blackish water. At present, various desalination processes are available for the effective use of seawater or blackish water as valuable water resources. Since a large amount of energy is required for seawater desalination, the cost of energy is important for desalination. For the regions of severe water shortage, however, desalination is the most economical way of water supply compare to any other alternatives. Currently, water supply by seawater desalination is being increased in the areas of the Caribbean, North African and Middle East. Also, desalination of blackish water is being increased in the south-east region of USA. In general, the distillation process and the membrane technology are used for seawater esalination and the membrane and the electric-dialysis for blackish water. However, the selection of the desalination process is highly dependent on the use of produced water and the local environmental conditions where the desalination plant installed. The local condition is the most important parameters for the selection of the desalination process

  11. Numerical modelling of seawater intrusion in Shenzhen (China ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1. Introduction. Seawater intrusion constitutes a prominent hydro- logical problem in many coastal areas of the world. It is generally defined as the encroachment of saline water into fresh groundwater domains in coastal aquifer settings (Werner and Simmons 2008). This phenomenon will occur when the natural equilib-.

  12. Precipitation softening: a pretreatment process for seawater desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, George M; Zayyat, Ramez M; Al-Hindi, Mahmoud

    2014-02-01

    Reduction of membrane fouling in reverse osmosis systems and elimination of scaling of heat transfer surfaces in thermal plants are a major challenge in the desalination of seawater. Precipitation softening has the potential of eliminating the major fouling and scaling species in seawater desalination plants, thus allowing thermal plants to operate at higher top brine temperatures and membrane plants to operate at a reduced risk of fouling, leading to lower desalinated water costs. This work evaluated the use of precipitation softening as a pretreatment step for seawater desalination. The effectiveness of the process in removing several scale-inducing materials such as calcium, magnesium, silica, and boron was investigated under variable conditions of temperature and pH. The treatment process was also applied to seawater spiked with other known fouling species such as iron and bacteria to determine the efficiency of removal. The results of this work show that precipitation softening at a pH of 11 leads to complete elimination of calcium, silica, and bacteria; to very high removal efficiencies of magnesium and iron (99.6 and 99.2 %, respectively); and to a reasonably good removal efficiency of boron (61 %).

  13. Ion exchange membranes in seawater applications : processes and characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Officiële titel ENG: Ion exchange membranes in seawater applications. Processes and characteristics Officiële titel NL: Ionwisselende membranen in zeewatertoepassingen. Processen en eigenschappen Auteur: A.H.Galama Jaar: 2015 ISBN: 978-94-6257-225-6 Samenvatting Zeewaterontzouting stelt

  14. The density-salinity relation of standard seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hannes; Seitz, Steffen; Hassel, Egon; Wolf, Henning

    2018-01-01

    The determination of salinity by means of electrical conductivity relies on stable salt proportions in the North Atlantic Ocean, because standard seawater, which is required for salinometer calibration, is produced from water of the North Atlantic. To verify the long-term stability of the standard seawater composition, it was proposed to perform measurements of the standard seawater density. Since the density is sensitive to all salt components, a density measurement can detect any change in the composition. A conversion of the density values to salinity can be performed by means of a density-salinity relation. To use such a relation with a target uncertainty in salinity comparable to that in salinity obtained from conductivity measurements, a density measurement with an uncertainty of 2 g m-3 is mandatory. We present a new density-salinity relation based on such accurate density measurements. The substitution measurement method used is described and density corrections for uniform isotopic and chemical compositions are reported. The comparison of densities calculated using the new relation with those calculated using the present reference equations of state TEOS-10 suggests that the density accuracy of TEOS-10 (as well as that of EOS-80) has been overestimated, as the accuracy of some of its underlying density measurements had been overestimated. The new density-salinity relation may be used to verify the stable composition of standard seawater by means of routine density measurements.

  15. A bio-thermic seawater desalination system using halophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finck, C.

    2014-01-01

    A bio-thermic seawater desalination system using halophytes was developed and successfully tested. A greenhouse as part of a test rig, with different sorts of mangroves, was installed. Measurements showed promising results concerning fresh water relative yielding rates up to 1.4 kg/h/m2 (leaf

  16. Simulation of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers: Some typical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    2Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. 208 016, India. e-mail: adas wrpm@yahoo.com; bithin@iitk.ac.in. MS received 1 March 1999; revised 9 April 2001. Abstract. Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is generally three dimensional. (3-D) in nature. In the literature, there is a general lack ...

  17. Adsorption behavior of lithium from seawater using manganese oxide adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajima, Takaaki; Munakata, Kenzo; Uda, Tatsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reactor system is expected to provide the main source of electricity in the future. Large amounts of lithium will be required, dependent on the reactor design concept, and alternative resources should be found to provide lithium inventories for nuclear fusion plants. Seawater has recently become an attractive source of this element and the separation and recovery of lithium from seawater by co-precipitation, solvent extraction and adsorption have been investigated. Amongst these techniques, the adsorption method is suitable for recovery of lithium from seawater, because certain inorganic ion-exchange materials, especially spinel-type manganese oxides, show extremely high selectivity for the lithium ion. In this study, we prepared a lithium adsorbent (HMn 2 O 4 ) by elution of spinel-type lithium di-manganese-tetra-oxide (LiMn 2 O 4 ) and examined the kinetics of the adsorbent for lithium ions in seawater using a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The intermediate, LiMn 2 O 4 , can be synthesized from LiOH·H 2 O and Mn 3 O 4 , from which the lithium adsorbent can subsequently be prepared via acid treatment., The adsorption kinetics become faster and the amount of lithium adsorbed on the adsorbent increases with increasing solution temperature. The thermodynamic values, ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 and ΔS 0 , indicate that adsorption is an endothermic and spontaneous process. (author)

  18. Fugacity analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons between microplastics and seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwang; Chang, Sein; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2017-03-01

    Recently, the accumulation of plastic debris in the marine environment has become a great concern worldwide. Although plastics are biologically and chemically inert, plastic debris has been suspected of causing adverse effects on ecosystems due to the increase in reactivity by size reduction and/or micropollutants associated with plastics. Because of the high sorption capacity of microplastics toward organic micropollutants, it is suspected that microplastics may play roles in the distribution and fate of micropollutants. In order to quantitatively evaluate the "net flow" of environmental contaminants in water-plastic-organism systems, a fugacity analysis was conducted using concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in open oceans and in polyethylene as a representative material of plastic debris. Ratio of fugacity in polyethylene to that in seawater showed a decreasing trend with increasing partition coefficient between polyethylene and seawater (KPE/sw). This indicates that phase equilibrium between polyethylene and seawater is not attained for higher molecular weight PAHs. Disequilibrium of high molecular weight PAHs suggests that transfer from seawater to plastic debris is thermodynamically driven and the role of plastic debris as a vector to transfer them to living organisms would be minimal. However, additives may slowly migrate from plastics into the environment causing potentially serious effects on ecosystems.

  19. Detection of salmonella in shellfish grown in polluted seawater

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kfir, R

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Three bays along the South African coast were studied for the presence of Salmonella spp in seawater, effluent and storm water discharges into the bays and in shellfish harvested at the same sites. The microbial quality of water and shellfish...

  20. Simulation of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers: Some typical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    1Department of Civil Engineering, Regional Engineering College, Durgapur. 713 209, India. 2Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. 208 016, India. e-mail: adas wrpm@yahoo.com; bithin@iitk.ac.in. MS received 1 March 1999; revised 9 April 2001. Abstract. Seawater intrusion in coastal ...

  1. Controlling Biofouling in Seawater Reverse Osmosis Membrane Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhakal, N.

    2017-01-01

    Seawater desalination is a rapidly growing coastal industry that is increasingly threatened by algal blooms. Depending on the severity of algal blooms, desalination systems may be forced to shut down because of clogging and/or poor feed water quality. To maintain stable operation and provide good

  2. Xanthomarina gelatinilytica gen nov., sp nov., isolated from seawater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhumika, V.; Ravinder, K.; Sharma, G.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; AnilKumar, P.

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, yellow-pigmented, non-sporulating, non-motile bacterium, designated strain AK20T, was isolated from seawater collected from Kochi city, Kerala state, India Colonies on marine agar were circular...

  3. Distribution coefficient of plutonium between sediment and seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duursma, E.K.; Parsi, P.

    1974-01-01

    Using plutonium 237 as a tracer, a series of experiments were conducted to determine the distribution coefficient of plutonium onto sediments both under oxic and anoxic conditions, where the plutonium was added to seawater in three different valence states: III, IV and VI

  4. Freeze desalination of seawater using LNG cold energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jian; Zuo, Jian; Lu, Kang-Jia; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2016-10-01

    With the aid of cold energy from regasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG), freeze desalination (FD) is an emerging technology for seawater desalination because of its low energy characteristics and insensitivities to fouling problems. This work aims to investigate the major operating parameters of FD such as coolant temperature, freezing duration, supercooling, seeding, agitation, crystallizer material and subsequent washing procedure on ice production and water quality. It was found that the optimal freezing duration per batch was 1 h for an iron crystallizer and 1.5 h for a glass crystallizer. The optimal coolant temperature should be around -8 °C. The optimal amount of washing water to clean the raw ice was about 50 wt% of the raw ice. Over 50 wt% of the feed could be recovered as raw ice within 1 h, which means an overall ice recovery rate of higher than 25% (of the original seawater), considering the consumption of washing water. Both artificial and real seawater were tested under the optimized conditions. The total dissolved solid in the product ice was around 300 ppm, which met the World Health Organization (WHO) potable water salinity standard of 500 ppm. Therefore, the process parameters optimized in this study can be directly used for the freeze desalination of seawater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Disinfection by-product formation during seawater desalination: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daekyun; Amy, Gary L; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-09-15

    Due to increased freshwater demand across the globe, seawater desalination has become the technology of choice in augmenting water supplies in many parts of the world. The use of chemical disinfection is necessary in desalination plants for pre-treatment to control both biofouling as well as the post-disinfection of desalinated water. Although chlorine is the most commonly used disinfectant in desalination plants, its reaction with organic matter produces various disinfection by-products (DBPs) (e.g., trihalomethanes [THMs], haloacetic acids [HAAs], and haloacetonitriles [HANs]), and some DBPs are regulated in many countries due to their potential risks to public health. To reduce the formation of chlorinated DBPs, alternative oxidants (disinfectants) such as chloramines, chlorine dioxide, and ozone can be considered, but they also produce other types of DBPs. In addition, due to high levels of bromide and iodide concentrations in seawater, highly cytotoxic and genotoxic DBP species (i.e., brominated and iodinated DBPs) may form in distribution systems, especially when desalinated water is blended with other source waters having higher levels of organic matter. This article reviews the knowledge accumulated in the last few decades on DBP formation during seawater desalination, and summarizes in detail, the occurrence of DBPs in various thermal and membrane plants involving different desalination processes. The review also identifies the current challenges and future research needs for controlling DBP formation in seawater desalination plants and to reduce the potential toxicity of desalinated water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Freeze desalination of seawater using LNG cold energy

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Jian

    2016-06-23

    With the aid of cold energy from regasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG), freeze desalination (FD) is an emerging technology for seawater desalination because of its low energy characteristics and insensitivities to fouling problems. This work aims to investigate the major operating parameters of FD such as coolant temperature, freezing duration, supercooling, seeding, agitation, crystallizer material and subsequent washing procedure on ice production and water quality. It was found that the optimal freezing duration per batch was 1 h for an iron crystallizer and 1.5 h for a glass crystallizer. The optimal coolant temperature should be around −8 °C. The optimal amount of washing water to clean the raw ice was about 50 wt% of the raw ice. Over 50 wt% of the feed could be recovered as raw ice within 1 h, which means an overall ice recovery rate of higher than 25% (of the original seawater), considering the consumption of washing water. Both artificial and real seawater were tested under the optimized conditions. The total dissolved solid in the product ice was around 300 ppm, which met the World Health Organization (WHO) potable water salinity standard of 500 ppm. Therefore, the process parameters optimized in this study can be directly used for the freeze desalination of seawater.

  7. Macroporous monoliths for trace metal extraction from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Yanfeng; Mayes, Richard; Gill, Gary A.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Wood, Jordana R.; Binder, Andrew; Brown, Suree; Dai, Sheng

    2015-05-29

    The viability of seawater-based uranium recovery depends on the uranium adsorption rate and capacity, since the concentration of uranium in the oceans is relatively low (3.3 μgL⁻¹). An important consideration for a fast adsorption is to maximize the adsorption properties of adsorbents such as surface areas and pore structures, which can greatly improve the kinetics of uranium extraction and the adsorption capacity simultaneously. Following this consideration, macroporous monolith adsorbents were prepared from the copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and N,N’-methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBAAm) based on a cryogel method using both hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers. The monolithic sorbents were tested with simulated seawater containing a high uranyl concentration (–6 ppm) and the uranium adsorption results showed that the adsorption capacities are strongly influenced by the ratio of monomer to the crosslinker, i.e., the density of the amidoxime groups. The preliminary seawater testing indicates the high salinity content of seawater does not hinder the adsorption of uranium.

  8. State-of-art report on the seawater desalination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Young In; Lee, Doo Jung; Chang, Moon Hee

    2000-11-01

    Desalination technologies have been developed over the last 40 years and become a reliable industrial process for water production from sea or blackish water. At present, various desalination processes are available for the effective use of seawater or blackish water as valuable water resources. Since a large amount of energy is required for seawater desalination, the cost of energy is important for desalination. For the regions of severe water shortage, however, desalination is the most economical way of water supply compare to any other alternatives. Currently, water supply by seawater desalination is being increased in the areas of the Caribbean, North African and Middle East. Also, desalination of blackish water is being increased in the south-east region of USA. In general, the distillation process and the membrane technology are used for seawater esalination and the membrane and the electric-dialysis for blackish water. However, the selection of the desalination process is highly dependent on the use of produced water and the local environmental conditions where the desalination plant installed. The local condition is the most important parameters for the selection of the desalination process.

  9. Contribution of anthropic activities to the seawater pollution at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high toxicity of seawater is due to the presence of lead and cadmium with concentrations exceeding 60 times the normal value (0.015 mg/l). Moreover, the deficit in D.O announces strong biological activities. This wild aggression is related to the industrial discharges in the port area. Keywords: marine pollution; heavy ...

  10. Physiological indices of seawater readiness in postspawning steelhead kelts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Jessica; Moffitt, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Management goals to improve the recovery of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) stocks at risk of extinction include increasing the proportion of postspawning fish that survive and spawn again. To be successful, postspawning steelhead (kelts) migrating downstream to the ocean must prepare physiologically and physically for a seawater transition. We sampled blood, gill filaments, and evaluated the external condition of migrating kelts from an ESA-listed population in the Snake/Columbia River system over two consecutive years to evaluate their physiological readiness for transition to seawater. We chose attributes often considered as measures of preparation for seawater in juveniles, including gill Na+,K+ ATPase activity, plasma electrolytes and hormones to consider factors related to external condition, size and sex. We found kelts in good external condition had plasma profiles similar to downstream-migrating smolts. In addition, we found more than 80% of kelts ranked in good external condition had smolt-like body silvering. We compared measures from migrating kelts with samples obtained from hatchery fish at the time of spawning to confirm that Na+, K+ ATPase activity in kelts was significantly elevated over spawning fish. We found significant differences in gill Na+, K+ ATPase activity in migrating kelts between the years of sampling, but little indication of influence of fish condition. We conclude that the postspawning steelhead sampled exhibited a suite of behaviours, condition and physiology characteristic of fish prepared for successful transition to a seawater environment.

  11. Removal of trihalomethane from chlorinated seawater using gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamohan, R; Natesan, Usha; Venugopalan, V P; Rajesh, Puspalata; Rangarajan, S

    2015-12-01

    Chlorine addition as a biocide in seawater results in the formation of chlorination by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs). Removal of THMs is of importance as they are potential mutagenic and carcinogenic agents. In this context, a study was conducted that used ionizing radiation to remove THMs from chlorinated (1, 3, and 5 mg/L) seawater by applying various dosages (0.4-5.0 kGy) of gamma radiation. Bromoform (BF) showed a faster rate of degradation as compared to other halocarbons such as bromodichloromethane (BDCM) and dibromochloromethane (DBCM). In chlorine-dosed seawater, total irradiation dose of 0.4 to 5 kGy caused percentage reduction in the range of 6.9 to 76.7%, 2.3 to 99.6%, and 45.7 to 98.3% for BDCM, DBCM, and BF, respectively. During the irradiation process, pH of the chlorinated seawater decreased with increase in the absorbed dose; however, no change in total organic carbon (TOC) was observed. The results show that gamma dose of 2.5 kGy was adequate for maximum degradation of THM; but for complete mineralization, higher dose would be required.

  12. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  13. Chemical Characteristics of Seawater and Sediment in the Yap Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, H.; Sun, C.; Yang, G.

    2017-12-01

    In June 2016, seawater samples at sediment-seawater interface and sediment samples were collected by the he Jiaolong, China's manned submersible, at four sampling sites located in the Yap Trench. Seawater samples from different depths of the trench were also collected by CTD. Chemical parameters, including pH, alkanility, concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved and total organic carbon, methane, dimethylsulfoniopropionate, nutrients, carbohydrates, and amino acids were analyzed in the seawater samples. Concentrations of total organic carbon, six constant elements and nine trace elements were determined in the sediment samples. All the vertical profiles of the chemical parameters in the seawater have unique characteristics. Our resluts also showed that the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) was between 4500 m and 5000 m in the trench. The hadal sediment at 6500 m depth under the CCD line was siliceous ooze favored for the burial of orgaic carbon, attributed to accumulation of surface sediment by gravity flow. The abyssal sediment at the 4500 m depth was calcareous ooze. Various microfossils, such as discoasters and diatoms, were identified in different sediment layers of the sediment samples.Based on the ratios of Fe/Al and Ti/Al, and the correlation between different elements, the sediment in the Yap Trench were derived from biogenic, terrestrial, volcanic and autogenic sources. The ratios of Ni/Co and V/Cr showed that the deposition environment of the trench should be oxidative, arributed to inflow of the Antractic bottom oxygen-rich seawater.The high concentraiont of Ca in the sediment from the station 371-Yap-S02 below 4 cm depth indicated that there was no large-scale volcanic eruption in the research area and the volcanic materials in the sediment might orginated from the Mariana Volcanic Arc, and the Carolyn Ridge has been slowly sinking on the east side of the trench due to plate subduction. This study is the first systematic study of

  14. Extraction of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen from Seawater and Hydrocarbon Production Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    extracted from the acidified seawater. Optionally, the ion exchange reaction can be conducted under conditions which produce hydrogen as well as carbon dioxide . The carbon dioxide and hydrogen may be used to produce hydrocarbons....acidification of seawater by subjecting the seawater to an ion exchange reaction to exchange H.sup. ions for Na.sup. ions. Carbon dioxide may be

  15. Adsorption and desorption of phosphate on limestone in experiments simulating seawater intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absorption and desorption of phosphorus on a large block of limestone was investigated using deionized water (DIW) and seawater. The limestone had a high affinity to adsorb phosphorus in DIW. Phosphate adsorption was significantly less in seawater, and more phosphorus was desorbed in the seawate...

  16. Investigation of Uranium Extraction from Seawater by Electrosorption Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Aznan Fazli; Yim, Mansung

    2014-01-01

    The uranium recovery from seawater reported that the cost of extracting uranium using amidoxime based adsorbent material was about 10 times higher than that of the conventional uranium mining. This high cost is mainly due to the poor adsorbent performance and high production cost. Recently, porous carbon material (e. g. activated carbon, mesoporous carbon) received attention due to its high efficiency in absorbing uranium. The cumulative efficiency for activated carbon fibers (ACF) was reported to be 600 g-Uranium / kg-ACF. However, this materials were only tested in uranium solution with different uranium species at high concentration. While the interesting performance was found for porous carbon under different conditions, the ability of porous carbon materials in seawater has never been tested. Therefore, the objective of this research is to study the performance of porous carbon materials in absorbing uranium ions from seawater. Adsorption process involves two adsorption mechanism either by physical sorption onto adsorbent material or by ion exchange mechanism. In order to increase the selectivity of uranium ions to be adsorbed by the adsorbent (activated carbon electrode), electrosorption approach has been applied in this research. This preliminary research has demonstrated the utility of activated carbon electrode as a candidate material to adsorb uranium ions from seawater, and the results shows that it has good performance of adsorbing uranium in the presence of competing ions. The performance of activated carbon electrode at 300 minutes of was 3.3 g-U/kg-Ads, which is not the maximum adsorbent capacity. If the electrosorption period is extended, the activated carbon performance might be higher than 3.3 g-U/kg-Ads. However, further investigation such as on various positive voltage potential, pH effect, temperature effect are needed in order to study the performance of activated carbon electrode in absorbing uranium from seawater

  17. Continental fragmentation and the strontium isotopic evolution of seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric, H.; Jean Pascal, C.

    2008-12-01

    The time evolution of the strontium isotopic composition of seawater over the last 600 million years has the form of an asymmetric trough. The values are highest in the Cambrian and recent and lowest in the Jurassic. Superimposed on this trend are a number of smaller oscillations. The mechanisms responsible for these global isotopic fluctuations are subject to much debates. In order to get a quantitative picture of the changing paleogeography, we have characterized land-ocean distributions over Late Proterozoic to Phanerozoic times from measurement of perimeters and areas of continental fragments, based on paleomagnetic reconstructions. These measurements served to calculate geophysically constrainted breakup and scatter indexes of continental land masses from 0 to 1100 Ma (Cogne and Humler, 2008). Both parameters (strontium isotopic ratios of seawater and continental fragmentation indexes) are obviously highly correlated during the last 600 Ma. Low continental dispersion (that is large continental land masses) are associated with low seawater strontium isotopic ratios (that is when the continental inputs to oceans are minimum) and high continental dispersion (that is relatively small and widely distributed continents) with high seawater strontium isotopic ratios (that is when the continental input to ocean is maximum). Importantly, this first order evolution appears to conflict with the common idea of mountains erosion as a source for radiogenic strontium to oceans because high strontium isotopic ratios in seawater correspond to period of maximum dispersion of continents and not with period of general collisions. At first glance, it would seem that continental erosion increases with the degree of continental dispersion. Models showing that continental precipitation increases when continental masses are smaller and more widely dispersed and/or the length of continental margins available for rivers to carry continental material to oceans are thus favoured in order

  18. Corrosion-free solar collectors for thermally driven seawater desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, M.; Koschikowski, J.; Rommel, M. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Seawater desalination can be carried out by a variety of techniques, some of which are thermally driven at operating temperatures in the range of 60 to 80 deg. C. At this temperature level, these systems can be supplied by thermal energy gained from solar collectors. In order to increase the efficiency of such systems and simultaneously reduce costs, a heat exchanger between the collector loop and the desalination unit can be omitted if the seawater flows directly through the collectors. Since hot seawater is very aggressive, this configuration requires corrosion-free solar collectors. We developed selectively coated prototype collectors which fulfil this requirement. They will be installed in a pilot plant in Pozo Izquierdo, Gran Canaria, which will produce about 600 litres of desalinated water per day. This international project is funded by the European Commission DG XII, within the JOULE programme. The main task was to find materials which are resistant to seawater and can withstand temperatures up to 200 deg. C, which can occur under stagnation conditions. Moreover, it had to be ensured that it was possible to apply a selective coating on the absorber in order to increase the efficiency. A further limitation was given by the aim for the resulting water costs. After investigating different materials and collector designs, we developed a prototype consisting of an array of selectively coated glass tubes mounted in a conventional flat-plate collector housing. The efficiency was increased by adding a specially shaped reflector. The design was developed by carrying out both various optical and thermal simulations and indoor as well as outdoor tests. We obtained an appropriate collector which fulfilled the technical and economical requirements set by the special task of desalinating seawater. In-situ measurements at the test site in Gran Canaria will be carried out to gain more information about the long-term collector performance. (au)

  19. Radiation-induced reactions of Cl-, CO32-, and Br- in seawater, - Model calculation of gamma radiolysis of seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Kuniki; Hanawa, Satoshi; Kasahara, Shigeki; Muroya, Yusa; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2012-09-01

    Gamma-radiolysis of seawater has been simulated to estimate the concentrations of radiolysis products. Although gas products such as H 2 , O 2 and H 2 O 2 in irradiated pure water quickly attain the steady state with very low concentrations, the products in seawater monotonically increase with dose. It was found that H 2 is produced almost linearly with dose, and corresponding G-value was 4.4 x 10 -8 mol J -1 . As similar result was obtained from the calculation of 8 x 10 -4 mol dm -3 NaBr solution, the origin of the linear increase in seawater was attributable to be the reactions of Br - . According to the sensitivity analysis, three reactions, 1: Br - + ·OH → BrOH· - , 2: BrOH· - → Br - + ·OH, and 3: BrOH· - → Br· + OH - , determined the concentrations of the products. The presence of Cl - and HCO 3 - in seawater hardly affected the concentrations of the radiolysis products. Oxyanions derived from Cl - and Br - were not obtained at observable concentration. (authors)

  20. Coral calcifying fluid pH is modulated by seawater carbonate chemistry not solely seawater pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, S; Tambutté, E; Carpenter, R C; Edmunds, P J; Evensen, N R; Allemand, D; Ferrier-Pagès, C; Tambutté, S; Venn, A A

    2017-01-25

    Reef coral calcification depends on regulation of pH in the internal calcifying fluid (CF) in which the coral skeleton forms. However, little is known about calcifying fluid pH (pH CF ) regulation, despite its importance in determining the response of corals to ocean acidification. Here, we investigate pH CF in the coral Stylophora pistillata in seawater maintained at constant pH with manipulated carbonate chemistry to alter dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration, and therefore total alkalinity (A T ). We also investigate the intracellular pH of calcifying cells, photosynthesis, respiration and calcification rates under the same conditions. Our results show that despite constant pH in the surrounding seawater, pH CF is sensitive to shifts in carbonate chemistry associated with changes in [DIC] and [A T ], revealing that seawater pH is not the sole driver of pH CF Notably, when we synthesize our results with published data, we identify linear relationships of pH CF with the seawater [DIC]/[H + ] ratio, [A T ]/ [H + ] ratio and [[Formula: see text

  1. Determining the Henry's Law constants of THMs in seawater by means of purge-and-trap gas chromatography (PT-GC): the influence of seawater as sample matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bevia, Francisco; Fernandez-Torres, Maria J

    2010-01-01

    The influence of seawater salts as salting out agents on the purge-and-trap gas chromatography (PT-GC) determination of trihalomethanes (THMs) was studied. This is particularly important since seawater is chlorinated when used as a cooling agent in coastal nuclear power stations. The chlorination produces unwanted THMs as by-products. A PT-GC apparatus was used to determine the Henry's Law constant of each THM, with seawater as the sample matrix.

  2. Development of Novel Sorbents for Uranium Extraction from Seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wenbin; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    As the uranium resource in terrestrial ores is limited, it is difficult to ensure a long-term sustainable nuclear energy technology. The oceans contain approximately 4.5 billion tons of uranium, which is one thousand times the amount of uranium in terrestrial ores. Development of technologies to recover the uranium from seawater would greatly improve the uranium resource availability, sustaining the fuel supply for nuclear energy. Several methods have been previously evaluated including solvent extraction, ion exchange, flotation, biomass collection, and adsorption; however, none have been found to be suitable for reasons such as cost effectiveness, long term stability, and selectivity. Recent research has focused on the amidoxime functional group as a promising candidate for uranium sorption. Polymer beads and fibers have been functionalized with amidoxime functional groups, and uranium adsorption capacities as high as 1.5 g U/kg adsorbent have recently been reported with these types of materials. As uranium concentration in seawater is only ~3 ppb, great improvements to uranium collection systems must be made in order to make uranium extraction from seawater economically feasible. This proposed research intends to develop transformative technologies for economic uranium extraction from seawater. The Lin group will design advanced porous supports by taking advantage of recent breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology and incorporate high densities of well-designed chelators into such nanoporous supports to allow selective and efficient binding of uranyl ions from seawater. Several classes of nanoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs), meta-organic frameworks (MOFs), and covalent-organic frameworks (COFs), will be synthesized. Selective uranium-binding liagnds such as amidoxime will be incorporated into the nanoporous materials to afford a new generation of sorbent materials that will be

  3. Development of Novel Sorbents for Uranium Extraction from Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wenbin [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-08

    As the uranium resource in terrestrial ores is limited, it is difficult to ensure a long-term sustainable nuclear energy technology. The oceans contain approximately 4.5 billion tons of uranium, which is one thousand times the amount of uranium in terrestrial ores. Development of technologies to recover the uranium from seawater would greatly improve the uranium resource availability, sustaining the fuel supply for nuclear energy. Several methods have been previously evaluated including solvent extraction, ion exchange, flotation, biomass collection, and adsorption; however, none have been found to be suitable for reasons such as cost effectiveness, long term stability, and selectivity. Recent research has focused on the amidoxime functional group as a promising candidate for uranium sorption. Polymer beads and fibers have been functionalized with amidoxime functional groups, and uranium adsorption capacities as high as 1.5 g U/kg adsorbent have recently been reported with these types of materials. As uranium concentration in seawater is only ~3 ppb, great improvements to uranium collection systems must be made in order to make uranium extraction from seawater economically feasible. This proposed research intends to develop transformative technologies for economic uranium extraction from seawater. The Lin group will design advanced porous supports by taking advantage of recent breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology and incorporate high densities of well-designed chelators into such nanoporous supports to allow selective and efficient binding of uranyl ions from seawater. Several classes of nanoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs), meta-organic frameworks (MOFs), and covalent-organic frameworks (COFs), will be synthesized. Selective uranium-binding liagnds such as amidoxime will be incorporated into the nanoporous materials to afford a new generation of sorbent materials that will be

  4. Impediment to Symbiosis Establishment between Giant Clams and Symbiodinium Algae Due to Sterilization of Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Takeo; Yamada, Hideaki; Inoue, Ken; Iwai, Kenji; Hatta, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    To survive the juvenile stage, giant clam juveniles need to establish a symbiotic relationship with the microalgae Symbiodinium occurring in the environment. The percentage of giant clam juveniles succeeding in symbiosis establishment (“symbiosis rate”) is often low, which is problematic for seed producers. We investigated how and why symbiosis rates vary, depending on whether giant clam seeds are continuously reared in UV treated or non treated seawater. Results repeatedly demonstrated that symbiosis rates were lower for UV treated seawater than for non treated seawater. Symbiosis rates were also lower for autoclaved seawater and 0.2-µm filtered seawater than for non treated seawater. The decreased symbiosis rates in various sterilized seawater suggest the possibility that some factors helping symbiosis establishment in natural seawater are weakened owing to sterilization. The possible factors include vitality of giant clam seeds, since additional experiments revealed that survival rates of seeds reared alone without Symbiodinium were lower in sterilized seawater than in non treated seawater. In conclusion, UV treatment of seawater was found to lead to decreased symbiosis rates, which is due possibly to some adverse effects common to the various sterilization techniques and relates to the vitality of the giant clam seeds. PMID:23613802

  5. Spain: foreign relations and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    The subject of the position of Spain in the world (through history, recent times, and today) has been described by scholars and casual observers by a combination of qualifiers. It is considered paradoxical, unique and influential, riddled with isolation an d ambition, resulting in frustration and success. In any event, Spain’s record in modern times has to be considered as below its potential in historical terms, geographical position, culture and world presence through migr...

  6. Spain; Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) Update for Spain. Although there is a core of strong banks that are well managed and appear resilient to further shocks, vulnerabilities remain. Substantial progress has been made in reforming the former savings banks, and the most vulnerable institutions have either been resolved or are being restructured. Recent measures address the most problematic part of banks’ portfolios. Moving ahead, a further restru...

  7. Influence of the paleogeographic evolution on the groundwater salinity in a coastal aquifer. Cabo de Gata aquifer, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos, A.; Sola, F.; Yechieli, Y.; Pulido-Bosch, A.

    2018-02-01

    The groundwater of the Cabo de Gata detritic aquifer, in southeastern Spain, exhibit salinities of between 70-726 mmol/L of Cl- (brackish-salt to hypersaline waters). We have investigated the causes of the high salinity anomaly, which at certain points exceeds that of present-day seawater (600 mmol/L). Two hypotheses are considered as possible sources for the saline water: (1) The deeper, more saline groundwater date back to an old marine intrusion that occurred at the end of the last Ice Age (14-17 ka), when seawater salinity was higher than in the present day. This hypothesis is supported by the values of 14C measured in this water (∼6-10 pmc), which indicate old water of up to 17 ka. However, the values of 18O and 2H are lower than would be expected. (2) The water is the result of mixing between fresh groundwater and seawater. The latter explanation agrees well with the low values of 18O and 2H. This mixture is later subject to evaporation, explaining its high salinity. Hydrogeochemical modelling was carried out for the most saline samples, assuming such mixing between freshwater and seawater followed by evaporation, and the results show a very good agreement between the measured and simulated values. According to the model calculation, the original mixture contained approximately 60% seawater and its volume subsequently was reduced through evaporation by around 30%. This mixing and evaporation could occur during the Flandrian Transgression (6000-8000 y), when this area accommodated a coastal lagoon.

  8. Modification of Optical Properties of Seawater Exposed to Oil Contaminants Based on Excitation-Emission Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baszanowska, E.; Otremba, Z.

    2015-10-01

    The optical behaviour of seawater exposed to a residual amount of oil pollution is presented and a comparison of the fluorescence spectra of oil dissolved in both n-hexane and seawater is discussed based on excitation-emission spectra. Crude oil extracted from the southern part of the Baltic Sea was used to characterise petroleum properties after contact with seawater. The wavelength-independent fluorescence maximum for natural seawater and seawater artificially polluted with oil were determined. Moreover, the specific excitation-emission peaks for natural seawater and polluted water were analysed to identify the natural organic matter composition. It was found that fluorescence spectra identification is a promising method to detect even an extremely low concentration of petroleum residues directly in the seawater. In addition, alien substances disturbing the fluorescence signatures of natural organic substances in a marine environment is also discussed.

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clementines from Spain. 319.56-34 Section 319.56-34... Clementines from Spain. Clementines (Citrus reticulata) from Spain may only be imported into the United States... agreement. Clementines from Spain may be imported only if the Government of Spain or its designated...

  10. The 11 May 2011 earthquake at Lorca (SE Spain viewed in a structural-tectonic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. M. Vissers

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Lorca earthquake of 11 May 2011 in the Betic Cordillera of SE Spain occurred almost exactly on the Alhama de Murcia fault, a marked fault that forms part of a NE-SW trending belt of faults and thrusts. The fault belt is reminiscent of a strike-slip corridor, but recent structural studies have provided clear evidence for reverse motions on these faults. Focal mechanisms of the main earthquake, but also of a foreshock, are strikingly consistent with structural observations on the Alhama de Murcia fault. This strengthens the conclusion that, rather than a strike-slip fault, the fault is at present a contractional fault with an oblique reverse sense of motion, presumably in response to the NW-directed motion of Africa with respect to Europe.

  11. CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Necker, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) conducted at 2 sites around Necker in the NW...

  12. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Necker, NW Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at Necker in the NW...

  13. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the NW...

  14. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Maro Reef in the NW...

  15. Population genetic structure of Orchesella cincta (Collembola; Hexapoda) in NW Europe, as revealed by microsatellite markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurff, van der A.W.G.; Gols, R.; Ernsting, G.; Straalen, van N.M.

    2005-01-01

    We studied genetic variation and population differentiation in the springtail Orchesella cincta L. An earlier approach, using allozymes, revealed extremely low variation among and within populations from NW Europe. Microsatellite marker analysis showed higher genetic variation than allozymes, and

  16. CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Lisianski, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) conducted at 9 sites around Lisianski in the NW...

  17. Methane emissions from the upwelling area off Mauritania (NW Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kock

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Coastal upwelling regions have been identified as sites of enhanced CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. The coastal upwelling area off Mauritania (NW Africa is one of the most biologically productive regions of the world's ocean but its CH4 emissions have not been quantified so far. More than 1000 measurements of atmospheric and dissolved CH4 in the surface layer in the upwelling area off Mauritania were performed as part of the German SOPRAN (Surface Ocean Processes in the Anthropocene study during two cruises in March/April 2005 (P320/1 and February 2007 (P348. During P348 enhanced CH4 saturations of up to 200% were found close to the coast and were associated with upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water. An area-weighted, seasonally adjusted estimate yielded overall annual CH4 emissions in the range from 1.6 to 2.9 Gg CH4. Thus the upwelling area off Mauritania represents a regional hot spot of CH4 emissions but seems to be of minor importance for the global oceanic CH4 emissions.

  18. Method for estimating admixture content in seawater using operative spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostovtseva, V. V.; Konovalov, B. V.; Goncharenko, I. V.; Khlebnikov, D. V.

    2017-07-01

    The paper discusses spectra of the radiance coefficient of the sea surface measured in the open ocean and in coastal waters, and different kinds of these spectra corresponding to the water types are revealed. The focus is the method of measuring the radiance coefficient from a moving ship with a hyperspectral spectrophotometer. The results of studying a water area of Russia's Black Sea coast at river mouths are presented. A new calibration method that can process measurement results taking into account the impact of cloudiness and wind has been proposed and tested. The concentrations of the main admixtures in natural seawater in the studied water area are estimated according to the obtained spectra; these estimates are compared to the results of direct analysis of water samples. It has been shown that the method of remote measurement of the sea radiance coefficient from on board a ship makes it possible to obtain operative maps of the spatial distribution of the main seawater admixtures.

  19. The Separation and Isotopic Analysis Seawater Cu and Zn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermin, J.; Vance, D.; Archer, C.; Statham, P. J.

    2004-12-01

    Many transition metals are key micronutrients and their concentration profiles in the oceans often show nutrient-like patterns, with strong surface depletions and deep enrichments1. In addition, their biological usage has been shown to induce isotopic fractionations2 so that the precise and accurate analysis of their isotope systems in seawater has potential applications in tracing metal micronutrient usage in the past ocean. The analytical challenges involved in realising this goal are, however, considerable, given the low concentrations of transition metals in seawater and the requirement to extract small amounts from large samples at low blank and with no artificial isotopic fractionation. Here we present a method for the separation an analysis of Cu and Zn isotopes that is applicable to 0.1-5 L samples of seawater. Trace metals were concentrated from seawater using a Chelex-100 ion-exchange column3 and further purified and separated from each other using a small anion column4,5. All isotopic analyses were performed on a ThermoFinnigan Neptune instrument at the University of Bristol. The main requirements for precise and accurate isotopic analyses are a low contribution from analytical blank and the robust correction for analytical mass discrimination. Our blanks allow the analysis of seawater samples of 50-250 mL for Cu, samples of about 100 mL for Zn in the deep oceans and for Zn-depleted open ocean surface water samples of around 5L. The correction for mass discrimination is most readily considered as two components - that occurring during the chemical separation procedure in response to non-100% yields and that occurring in the mass spectrometer. Correction of all mass discrimination throughout the procedure is most robustly done for Zn and Fe using a double-spike that is added prior to any chemical treatment. This approach has been tested using standard-doped seawater samples that had previously been stripped of their metal contents using the Chelex column

  20. Durability of Geopolymer Lightweight Concrete Infilled LECA in Seawater Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, R. A.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Yahya, Z.; Hamid, M. S. A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes a development of lightweight concrete using lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA) in fly ash (FA) based geopolymer immersed in seawater. The objective of this research is to compare the performance of geopolymer concrete (GPC) with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete infilled lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA) in seawater exposure. Geopolymer concrete is produced by using alkaline activator to activate the raw material, FA. The highest compressive strength of this study is 42.0 MPa at 28 days and 49.8 MPa at 60 days. The density for this concrete is in the range of 1580 kg/m3 to 1660 kg/m3. The result for water absorption is in the range of 6.82% to 14.72%. However, the test results of weight loss is in the range between 0.30% to 0.43%.

  1. Desalting seawater and brackish waters: 1981 cost update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, S.A.

    1982-08-01

    This is the fourth in a series of desalting cost update reports. Cost data are reported for desalting seawater by various distillation systems and by reverse osmosis. Costs of desalting four brackish waters, representative of those found in the United States by both reverse osmosis and electrodialysis are also given. Cost data are presented parametrically as a function of energy cost and plant size. The cost of desalting seawater by distillation has increased by 40% during the past two years, while desalting by reverse osmosis has increased by about 36% during the same period. Brackish water desalting by reverse osmosis has only increased by about 12%, and brackish water desalting by electrodialysis is up by 40%. Again, the continued increase in energy costs has had a major impact on all desalination systems

  2. Monitoring of uranium isotopes in seaweeds and seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, Balram; Mehendarge, S.T.; Baburajan, A.; Rao, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the concentration of uranium in seawater and different types of seaweed found along the coast line of Tarapur marine environment. The seaweeds are the trend indicators of heavy metals and radionuclides present in the aquatic environment. Seaweeds also serve as a food to the marine organisms and thus can enter the human being through food chain. The higher concentration of uranium in seafood may have radiological impact on human health. The Tarapur Atomic Power Station is adjoined to the sea and has a rocky surface area, which act as a good dwelling for the growth and survival of marine biota. In present study, separation and measurements were made to determine the uranium concentration in seaweed seawater at Tarapur coastal environment

  3. Recovery of uranium from seawater by immobilized tannin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, T.; Nakajima, A.

    1987-01-01

    Tannin compounds having multiple adjacent hydroxy groups have an extremely high affinity for uranium. To prevent the leaching of tannins into water and to improve the adsorbing characteristics of these compounds, the authors tried to immobilize tannins. The immobilized tannin has the most favorable features for uranium recovery; high selective adsorption ability to uranium, rapid adsorption rate, and applicability in both column and batch systems. The immobilized tannin can recover uranium from natural seawater with high efficiency. About 2530 μg uranium is adsorbed per gram of this adsorbent within 22 h. Depending on the concentration in seawater, an enrichment of up to 766,000-fold within the adsorbent is possible. Almost all uranium adsorbed is easily desorbed with a very dilute acid. Thus, the immobilized tannin can be used repeatedly in the adsorption-desorption process

  4. Performance of OTEC Heat Exchanger Materials in Tropical Seawaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Basse, Jorn

    1985-03-01

    The corrosion of several aluminum alloys in flowing Hawaiian surface seawater and water from 600 m depth for exposure periods up to three years has been studied. The alloys tested in cold water were Alclad (7072) 3003 and 3004; and bare 3004 and 5052). All show some pitting. Pit growth is slow, and pits do not penetrate the cladding. In the warm water, only uniform corrosion has been found. All alloys corrode at the same, low rate of˜3 μm/year after an initial short period of more rapid corrosion. This behavior is closely linked to the formation of a protective inorganic scale film on the surface. It consists of precipitated scale minerals from the seawater and aluminum corrosion products. The results indicate that OTEC evaporator heat exchangers constructed of aluminum alloys should have acceptable service lives.

  5. NW-trending fault structures. A key factor to uranium mineralization in Egongshan volcanic basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanliang

    1996-01-01

    Influenced by the Tancheng-Lujiang fault system, the NW-trending fault structures in Egongshan basin are characterized by tensile-shearing, NE-dipping and dextrorotaty down slipping, having an obvious control over three uranium deposits and the overwhelming majority of uranium occurrences, and are the key factors to uranium mineralization. The study on the NW-trending fault structures is of practical significance in ore prospecting in Egongshan basin and other areas

  6. Dispersion of brine discharge from seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Torquemada, Yolanda; González-Correa, José Miguel; Loya-Fernández, Angel; Ferrero-Vicente, Luis Miguel; Díaz Valdés, Marta; Sánchez-Lizaso, José Luis

    2008-01-01

    Desalination of seawater has been considered as a potential solution for the water shortage problem in coastal areas and the number of projected and constructed desalination plants has significantly increased in recent years. The challenge of the desalination industry is to produce new water resources without increasing the pressure on the marine environment. Environmental impact of SWRO desalination plants is mainly associated with the discharge into the sea of the brine produced. To estimat...

  7. Atmospheric and marine controls on aerosol iron solubility in seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, A.R.; Croot, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The fraction of atmospherically deposited iron which dissolves in seawater, or becomes available to phytoplankton for growth, is a key determinant of primary productivity in many open ocean regions. As such this parameter plays an important part in the global oceanic cycles of iron and carbon, and yet the factors that control iron dissolution from aerosol are very poorly understood. In this manuscript we seek to synthesise the available knowledge of these factors, which operate in the atmos...

  8. Understanding Marine Biocorrosion: Experiments with Artificial and Natural Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-04

    9781782421252.3.329 Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Corrosion . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Understanding marine biocorrosion...many years there has been a debate over the preferred laboratory medium for studying marine corrosion , i.e., natural or artifi cial seawater (Dexter...study of microbiologically infl uenced marine corrosion (MIMC) and the consideration of nutrients for microorganisms. Recent MIMC investigations have

  9. Examining the economics of seawater desalination using the DEEP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This Technical Document presents analysis of the results of the study initiated by the IAEA on comparison of costs of nuclear and fossil fuel energy sources coupled with selected seawater desalination processes, including regional studies and sensitivity analysis. The economical modelling was performed with use of the Desalination Economic Evaluation Program code (DEEP) released in 1998 which incorporated the latest advances in economic modelling and technological changes in both desalination and reactor technologies

  10. Impacts of seawater desalination brine on coastal environments

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Karen Lykkebo

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial water resources are scarce in arid and semi-arid regions of the world and increasing demands for water worldwide are adding additional pressures on limited water resources. Seawater desalination provides a reliable source of potable water. The process of desalination creates a high-salinity byproduct that is discharged back into the coastal environment by various methods (pipes, diffusers, channels). The brine effluent is often mixed with chemicals used at the desalination facilit...

  11. Corrosion-free solar collectors for thermally driven seawater desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, M.; Koschikowski, J.; Rommel, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    Seawater desalination can be carried out by a variety of techniques, some of which are thermally driven at operating temperatures in the range of 70 to 120{sup o}C. At this temperature level, these systems can be supplied with thermal energy gained from solar flat-plate collectors. In order to increase the efficiency of such systems and simultaneously reduce costs, a heat exchanger between the collector loop and the desalination unit can be omitted if the seawater flows directly through the collector absorbers. Since hot seawater is very aggressive, this configuration requires corrosion-free absorbers. We developed collectors which fulfil this requirement. They were installed in a pilot plant in Pozo lzquierdo, Gran Canaria, which produces about 600 l of drinking water per day. The main task was to find materials which are resistant to seawater and can withstand stagnation temperatures up to 200{sup o}C, out of which appropriate absorber constructions had to be developed. Moreover, it had to be ensured that it was possible to apply a selective coating on the absorber. A further limitation was given by the aim for the resulting water costs. After investigating different materials and collector designs, we developed a prototype consisting of an array of selectively coated glass tubes mounted in a conventional flat-plate collector housing. The efficiency was increased by adding a specially shaped reflector. The design was developed by carrying out various optical and thermal simulations, and indoor as well as outdoor tests. We obtained appropriate collectors which fulfil the technical and economical requirements. Finally, first results of the in-situ measurements in Gran Canaria will be presented. (author)

  12. A new physical barrier system for seawater intrusion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoulhalik, Antoifi; Ahmed, Ashraf; Hamill, G. A.

    2017-06-01

    The construction of subsurface physical barriers is one of various methods used to control seawater intrusion (SWI) in coastal aquifers. This study proposes the mixed physical barrier (MPB) as a new barrier system for seawater intrusion control, which combines an impermeable cutoff wall and a semi-permeable subsurface dam. The effect of the traditionally-used physical barriers on transient saltwater wedge dynamics was first explored for various hydraulic gradients, and the workability of the MPB was thereafter thoroughly analysed. A newly developed automated image analysis based on light-concentration conversion was used in the experiments, which were completed in a porous media tank. The numerical code SEAWAT was used to assess the consistency of the experimental data and examine the sensitivity of the performance of the barriers to various key parameters. The results show that the MPB induced a visible lifting of the dense saline flux upward towards the outlet by the light freshwater. This saltwater lifting mechanism, observed for the first time, induced significant reduction to the saline water intrusion length. The use of the MPB yielded up to 62% and 42% more reduction of the saltwater intrusion length than the semi-permeable dam and the cutoff wall, respectively. The performance achieved by the MPB with a wall depth of 40% of the aquifer thickness was greater than that of a single cutoff wall with a penetration depth of 90% of the aquifer thickness (about 13% extra reduction). This means that the MPB could produce better seawater intrusion reduction than the traditionally used barriers at even lower cost.

  13. Easily fabricated and lightweight PPy/PDA/AgNW composites for excellent electromagnetic interference shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Gu, Fu-Qiang; Ni, Li-Juan; Liang, Kun; Marcus, Kyle; Liu, Shu-Li; Yang, Fan; Chen, Jin-Ju; Feng, Zhe-Sheng

    2017-11-30

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) containing nanoscale conductive fillers have been widely studied for their potential use in various applications. In this paper, polypyrrole (PPy)/polydopamine (PDA)/silver nanowire (AgNW) composites with high electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding performance, good adhesion ability and light weight are successfully fabricated via a simple in situ polymerization method followed by a mixture process. Benefiting from the intrinsic adhesion properties of PDA, the adhesion ability and mechanical properties of the PPy/PDA/AgNW composites are significantly improved. The incorporation of AgNWs endows the functionalized PPy with tunable electrical conductivity and enhanced EMI shielding effectiveness (SE). By adjusting the AgNW loading degree in the PPy/PDA/AgNW composites from 0 to 50 wt%, the electrical conductivity of the composites greatly increases from 0.01 to 1206.72 S cm -1 , and the EMI SE of the composites changes from 6.5 to 48.4 dB accordingly (8.0-12.0 GHz, X-band). Moreover, due to the extremely low density of PPy, the PPy/PDA/AgNW (20 wt%) composites show a superior light weight of 0.28 g cm -3 . In general, it can be concluded that the PPy/PDA/AgNW composites with tunable electrical conductivity, good adhesion properties and light weight can be used as excellent EMI shielding materials.

  14. Identification of Corrosion Products Due to Seawater and Fresh Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismelseed, A.; Elzain, M.; Yousif, A.; Al Rawas, A.; Al-Omari, I. A.; Widatallah, H.; Rais, A.

    2004-12-01

    Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed on corrosion products extracted from the inner surface of two different metal tubes used in a desalination plant in Oman. One of the tubes corroded due to the seawater while the second was corroded due to fresh water. The corrosion products thus resulted due to seawater were scrapped off in to two layers, the easily removable rust from the top is termed outer surface corrosion product and the strongly adhered rust as internal corrosion product. The Mössbauer spectra together with the XRD pattern of the outer surface showed the presence of magnetite (Fe3O4), akaganeite (β-FeOOH), lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH), goethite (α-FeOOH) and hematite (Fe2O3). The inner surface however showed the presence of akaganite, goethite, and magnetite. On the other hand, the corrosion products due to the fresh water showed only the presence of goethite and magnetite. The mechanism of the corrosion process will be discussed based on the significant differences between the formation of the iron components of the corrosion products due to seawater and the fresh water.

  15. Tapered optical fiber sensor for chemical pollutants detection in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irigoyen, Maite; Sánchez-Martin, Jose Antonio; Bernabeu, Eusebio; Zamora, Alba

    2017-04-01

    Three tapered silica optical fibers, uncoated and coated with metallic (Al or Cu) and dielectric layers (TiO2), are employed to determine the presence of oil and Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS from now on) in water, by means of the measurement of their spectral transmittance. With our experimental assembly, the presence of oil and HNS spills can be detected employing the three different kinds of tapers, since the complete range of refractive indices of the pollutants (1.329-1.501) is covered with these tapers. The most suitable spectral range to detect the presence of a chemical pollutant in seawater has been identified and a complete spectral characterization of the three types of optical fiber tapers has been carried out. The results obtained show that, in general terms, these devices working together can be employed for the early detection of oil and HNS spills in seawater in a marine industrial environment. These sensors have many advantages, such as its low cost, its simplicity and versatility (with interesting properties as quick response and repeatability), and especially that they can be self-cleaned with seawater in motion.

  16. Does chlorination of seawater reverse osmosis membranes control biofouling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Tariq; Hong, Pei-Ying; Nada, Nabil; Croue, Jean Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Biofouling is the major problem of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes used for desalting seawater (SW). The use of chlorine is a conventional and common practice to control/prevent biofouling. Unlike polyamide RO membranes, cellulose triacetate (CTA) RO membranes display a high chlorine tolerance. Due to this characteristic, CTA membranes are used in most of the RO plants located in the Middle East region where the elevated seawater temperature and water quality promote the risk of membrane biofouling. However, there is no detailed study on the investigation/characterization of CTA-RO membrane fouling. In this investigation, the fouling profile of a full-scale SWRO desalination plant operating with not only continuous chlorination of raw seawater but also intermittent chlorination of CTA-RO membranes was studied. Detailed water quality and membrane fouling analyses were conducted. Profiles of microbiological, inorganic, and organic constituents of analysed fouling layers were extensively discussed. Our results clearly identified biofilm development on these membranes. The incapability of chlorination on preventing biofilm formation on SWRO membranes could be assigned to its failure in effectively reaching throughout the different regions of the permeators. This failure could have occurred due to three main factors: plugging of membrane fibers, chlorine consumption by organics accumulated on the front side fibers, or chlorine adaptation of certain bacterial populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of fuel costs on seawater desalination options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methnani, Mabrouk

    2007-01-01

    Reference estimates of seawater desalination costs for recent mega projects are all quoted in the range of US$0.50/m 3 . This however does not reflect the recent trends of escalating fossil fuel costs. In order to analyze the effect of these trends, a recently updated version of the IAEA Desalination Economic Evaluation Program, DEEP-3, has been used to compare fossil and nuclear seawater desalination options, under varied fuel cost and interest rate scenarios. Results presented for a gas combined-cycle and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor design, show clear cost advantages for the latter, for both Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) and Reverse Osmosis (RO). Water production cost estimates for the Brayton cycle nuclear option are hardly affected by fuel costs, while combined cycle seawater desalination costs show an increase of more than 40% when fuel costs are doubled. For all cases run, the nuclear desalination costs are lower and if the current trend in fossil fuel prices continues as predicted by pessimist scenarios and the carbon tax carried by greenhouse emissions is enforced in the future, the cost advantage for nuclear desalination will be even more pronounced. Increasing the interest rate from 5 to 8% has a smaller effect than fuel cost variations. It translates into a water cost increase in the range of 10-20%, with the nuclear option being the more sensitive. (author)

  18. Preliminary design studies on a nuclear seawater desalination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibisono, A. F.; Jung, Y. H.; Choi, J.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, J. I.; Jeong, Y. H.; No, H. C. [KAIST, Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    Seawater desalination is one of the most promising technologies to provide fresh water especially in the arid region. The most used technology in seawater desalination are thermal desalination (MSF and MED) and membrane desalination (RO). Some developments have been done in the area of coupling the desalination plant with a nuclear reactor to reduce the cost of energy required in thermal desalination. The coupling a nuclear reactor to a desalination plant can be done either by using the co-generation or by using dedicated heat from a nuclear system. The comparison of the co-generation nuclear reactor with desalination plant, dedicated nuclear heat system, and fossil fueled system will be discussed in this paper using economical assessment with IAEA DEEP software. A newly designed nuclear system dedicated for the seawater desalination will also be suggested by KAIST (Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology) research team and described in detail within this paper. The suggested reactor system is using gas cooled type reactor and in this preliminary study the scope of design will be limited to comparison of two cases in different operating temperature ranges. (authors)

  19. Application of nanofiltration to separate strontium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Yusuke; Maeda, Yasushi; Tsuzuki, Shintaro; Das, Supriyo; Jove, Elbir; Beardsley, Scott; Parker, Garth; Rosenberg, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Removal of radioactive substances from the seawater in the port has now been one of the most critical issues in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. To solve the issues, nanofiltration (NF) process was evaluated to selectively separate strontium (Sr) ion from the seawater. Four (4) types of NF membranes were examined to evaluate fundamental Sr removal capability and also evaluate other alkali earth metals, magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) ion removal by a flat sheet membrane test with controlled operating conditions (flux, temperature, and pH). It was found that Sr can be rejected more than 90% by a certain type of NF membrane. It was also found that Mg and Ca removal rate is similar with Sr removal and it is difficult to separate Sr from Mg and Ca in the seawater. When evaluating the effect of flux, temperature, and pH for the removal of the above divalent ions, it was found that higher flux, lower temperature, and lower pH result in higher divalent cation rejection rates, which follow the theory of the membrane chemistry. The single element test and pilot test with six elements in series were also conducted with one type of NF membrane. It was confirmed that the same Mg, Ca, and Sr removal is achieved by the single element test as flat sheet membrane test result. As per the pilot test result, it was found that 2 pass system is required to achieve more than 99% Sr decontamination rate in the actual plant. (author)

  20. Fission product separation from seawater by electrocoagulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagaki, T.; Hoshino, T.; Sambommatsu, Y.; Yano, K.; Takeuchi, M.; Igarashi, T.; Suzuki, T.

    2013-01-01

    At the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, seawater was urgently injected into the reactor core. Therefore a large amount of seawater containing highly radioactive fission products (FP) accumulated and its treatment has been a serious problem. FP such as Cs, Sr and I in water are generally removed by an ion exchanger such as zeolite and separated with column or chemical precipitation methods. An alternative electrocoagulation method, which efficiently separates fine particles from the liquid phase without a chemical reagent is expected to be part of a useful separation system that can reduce the amount of waste, decrease processing time and simplify the process. In this study, powdered adsorbents, such as ferrocyanide and zeolite, were added to seawater containing simulated FP, and the electrocoagulation effect with Al alloy electrodes were investigated. More than 99 % of Cs and 90 % of I were removed by potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate(II) and silver zeolite, respectively. Sedimentation was promoted by electrocoagulation and addition of an inorganic cohesion promoter further increased the sedimentation rate. Moreover, rapid dissolution reaction with heating of the aggregation substance was not observed, so the thermal risk of aqueous processing of it would be low. In addition, thermal analyses showed that the electrocoagulation process did not lead to thermal decomposition. Therefore, if the electrocoagulation method is applied to a decontamination system, it has the potential to thermally stabilize and reduce waste. (author)

  1. Selective uptake of manganese in seawater by hybrid microcapsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzumaki, Takenori; Yan, Wu; Mimura, Hitoshi; Niibori, Yuichi

    2008-01-01

    The selective separation and recovery of low concentrated elements in seawater are very important subjects for the advancement of environmental monitoring. Selective uptake of manganese from seawater was carried out by using two kinds of microcapsules (MCs) including activated carbon (AC) and insoluble tannin (T). The adsorbents, AC and T, having affinity for manganese, were enclosed into MCs (ACMS, TMC) by sol-gel method using matrices of biopolymer (calcium alginate gel polymer, CaALG). The uptake properties and selectivity of Mn 2+ (1 ppm) for MCs were examined by batch method. Relatively large uptake percentages of Mn 2+ above 80% were obtained within 1 h, and the uptake percentage above 80% was kept at pH 3-6. The uptake order was found to be T, AC, CaALG > ACMC, TMC. The uptake of Mn 2+ decreased with increasing Na + ion concentration. This tendency depends on the swelling property of CaALG; it tends to solate in the presence of highly concentrated Na + ions. The manganese ions were adsorbed on CaALG, ACMC and TMC from seawater containing 1,000 ppm Mn 2+ . ACMC and TMC had selectivity to Mn 2+ , and, especially, the matrices of CaALG also had an excellent uptake and selectivity properties. (author)

  2. Membrane-based seawater desalination: Present and future prospects

    KAUST Repository

    Amy, Gary L.

    2016-10-20

    Given increasing regional water scarcity and that almost half of the world\\'s population lives within 100 km of an ocean, seawater represents a virtually infinite water resource. However, its exploitation is presently limited by the significant specific energy consumption (kWh/m) required by conventional desalination technologies, further exasperated by high unit costs ($/m) and environmental impacts including GHG emissions (g CO-eq/m), organism impingement/entrainment through intakes, and brine disposal through outfalls. This paper explores the state-of-the-art in present seawater desalination practice, emphasizing membrane-based technologies, while identifying future opportunities in step improvements to conventional technologies and development of emerging, potentially disruptive, technologies through advances in material science, process engineering, and system integration. In this paper, seawater reverse osmosis (RO) serves as the baseline conventional technology. The discussion extends beyond desalting processes into membrane-based salinity gradient energy production processes, which can provide an energy offset to desalination process energy requirements. The future membrane landscape in membrane-based desalination and salinity gradient energy is projected to include ultrahigh permeability RO membranes, renewable-energy driven desalination, and emerging processes including closed-circuit RO, membrane distillation, forward osmosis, pressure retarded osmosis, and reverse electrodialysis according various niche applications and/or hybrids, operating separately or in conjunction with RO.

  3. Enteric neuroplasticity in seawater-adapted European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorteni, C; Clavenzani, P; De Giorgio, R; Portnoy, O; Sirri, R; Mordenti, O; Di Biase, A; Parmeggiani, A; Menconi, V; Chiocchetti, R

    2014-01-01

    European eels live most of their lives in freshwater until spawning migration to the Sargasso Sea. During seawater adaptation, eels modify their physiology, and their digestive system adapts to the new environment, drinking salt water to compensate for the continuous water loss. In that period, eels stop feeding until spawning. Thus, the eel represents a unique model to understand the adaptive changes of the enteric nervous system (ENS) to modified salinity and starvation. To this purpose, we assessed and compared the enteric neuronal density in the cranial portion of the intestine of freshwater eels (control), lagoon eels captured in brackish water before their migration to the Sargasso Sea (T0), and starved seawater eels hormonally induced to sexual maturity (T18; 18 weeks of starvation and treatment with standardized carp pituitary extract). Furthermore, we analyzed the modification of intestinal neuronal density of hormonally untreated eels during prolonged starvation (10 weeks) in seawater and freshwater. The density of myenteric (MP) and submucosal plexus (SMP) HuC/D-immunoreactive (Hu-IR) neurons was assessed in wholemount preparations and cryosections. The number of MP and SMP HuC/D-IR neurons progressively increased from the freshwater to the salty water habitat (control > T0 > T18; P neuroplasticity as indicated by the increasing number of HuC/D-IR MP and SMP neurons, a mechanism likely contributing to maintaining the body homeostasis of this fish in extreme conditions. PMID:24433383

  4. Growth of Bacillus methanolicus in seawater-based media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komives, Claire F; Cheung, Louis Yip-Yan; Pluschkell, Stefanie B; Flickinger, Michael C

    2005-02-01

    Bacillus methanolicus has been proposed as a biocatalyst for the low cost production of commodity chemicals. The organism can use methanol as sole carbon and energy source, and it grows aerobically at elevated temperatures. Methanol can be made available from off-shore conversion of natural gas to methanol, through gas-to-liquid technology. Growth of the organism in seawater-based medium would further reduce the costs of chemical production performed near an off-shore natural gas source. The growth of strain PB1 (ATCC 51375) in shake flask experiments with trypticase soy broth medium showed minimal salt-inhibition at the concentration of NaCl in seawater. The ability of B. methanolicus PB1 to grow in Pacific Ocean water using methanol as a carbon and energy source was also tested. Following a simple adaptation procedure, PB1 was able to grow on methanol in semi-defined medium with 100% seawater with good growth yields and similar growth rates compared with those achieved on media prepared in deionized water.

  5. Liquid chromatographic determination of uranium in seawater with coulometric detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekoya, Chiaki; Takata, Yoshinori

    1980-01-01

    A method of the separation with anion-exchange chromatography and of the coulometric detection of uranium in seawater was investigated. The size of the separation column used was 9 mm in inside diameter and 100 mm in length, and strong basic anion-exchange resin (Hitachi No. 2632) of carbonate form was packed in the column. A concentrator with two mini-columns in which the same resin was packed was applied for the preconcentration of uranium in seawater containing 20 g of potassium thiocyanate and 10 ml of hydrochloric acid per liter. Good result was obtained when a mixed solution of sodium carbonate (0.12 mol/l), sodium bicarbonate (0.08 mol/l), sodium bisulfite (0.03 mol/l) and sodium chloride (0.5 mol/l) was used as an eluent for the separation of uranium from vanadium. Sodium bisulfite was of use for dropping the background current based on an electrochemical reduction of dissolved oxygen. Sodium bicarbonate acted as an eliminator of an unknown peak by its bufferise effect. The optimum working electrode potential for the detection was -1.45 V vs. ferri-ferrocyanide. The detection limit was 3.2 x 10 -10 mol (80 ngU). The coefficient of variation at 3.0 ppb was about 4% (n=5) for seawater analysis. And the analysis time was approximately 1.5 hours. (author)

  6. Does Chlorination of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Membranes Control Biofouling?

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Muhammad Tariq

    2015-04-01

    Biofouling is the major problem of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes used for desalting seawater (SW). The use of chlorine is a conventional and common practice to control/prevent biofouling. Unlike polyamide RO membranes, cellulose triacetate (CTA) RO membranes display a high chlorine tolerance. Due to this characteristic, CTA membranes are used in most of the RO plants located in the Middle East region where the elevated seawater temperature and water quality promote the risk of membrane biofouling. However, there is no detailed study on the investigation/characterization of CTA-RO membrane fouling. In this investigation, the fouling profile of a full–scale SWRO desalination plant operating with not only continuous chlorination of raw seawater but also intermittent chlorination of CTA-RO membranes was studied. Detailed water quality and membrane fouling analyses were conducted. Profiles of microbiological, inorganic, and organic constituents of analysed fouling layers were extensively discussed. Our results clearly identified biofilm development on these membranes. The incapability of chlorination on preventing biofilm formation on SWRO membranes could be assigned to its failure in effectively reaching throughout the different regions of the permeators. This failure could have occurred due to three main factors: plugging of membrane fibers, chlorine consumption by organics accumulated on the front side fibers, or chlorine adaptation of certain bacterial populations.

  7. Uranium from seawater research. Final progress report, FY 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzekowski, J.; Driscoll, M.J.; Best, F.R.

    1982-09-01

    During the FY 1982 campaign 14 new ion exchange resin formulations, prepared by the Rohm and Haas Company, were tested by MIT at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The best of these chelating resins was again of the acrylic amidoxime type; it picked up approximately 100 ppM uranium in seven days' exposure to seawater, which represents a factor of better than two improvement over the seven-day results for the best FY 1981 candidate (which saturated at roughly 100 ppM U after 30 days' exposure). Saturation was not reached and, within experimental accuracy, uranium accumulated at a constant rate over the seven-day period; it is speculated that a useful capacity of over 300 ppM U would be achieved. All resins of the styrenic amidoxime type were found to be an order of magnitude lower in their effective capacity for uranium in seawater than the best of the acrylic forms. Particle size effects, which were found to be less than expected from theoretical computations of both fluid and solid side mass transfer resistance, can not account for this difference. Scanning electron microscope examination by R and H scientists of ion exchange resin beads from beds subjected to seawater flow for 30 days in MIT's WHOI columns showed that the internal pores of the macro-reticular-type resins become filled with debris (of undetermined nature and effect) during exposure

  8. Seawater desalination using small and medium light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimamura, Kazuo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Water is an essential substance for sustaining human life. As Japan is an island country, surrounded by the sea and having abundant rainfall, there is no scarcity of water in daily life except during abnormally dry summers or after disasters such as earthquakes. Consequently, there is hardly any demand for seawater desalination plants except on remote islands, Okinawa and a part of Kyushu. However, the IAEA has forecast a scarcity of drinking water in developing countries at the beginning of the 21st century. Further, much more irrigation water will be required every year to prevent cultivated areas from being lost by desertification. If developing countries were to produce such water by seawater desalination using current fossil fuel energy technology, it would cause increased air pollution and global warming. This paper explains the concept of seawater desalination plants using small and medium water reactors (hereinafter called 'nuclear desalination'), as well as important matters regarding the export nuclear desalination plants to developing countries. (author)

  9. Influence of fuel costs on seawater desalination options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Methnani, Mabrouk [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5, Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-02-15

    Reference estimates of seawater desalination costs for recent mega projects are all quoted in the range of US$0.50/m{sup 3}. This however does not reflect the recent trends of escalating fossil fuel costs. In order to analyze the effect of these trends, a recently updated version of the IAEA Desalination Economic Evaluation Program, DEEP-3, has been used to compare fossil and nuclear seawater desalination options, under varied fuel cost and interest rate scenarios. Results presented for a gas combined-cycle and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor design, show clear cost advantages for the latter, for both Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) and Reverse Osmosis (RO). Water production cost estimates for the Brayton cycle nuclear option are hardly affected by fuel costs, while combined cycle seawater desalination costs show an increase of more than 40% when fuel costs are doubled. For all cases run, the nuclear desalination costs are lower and if the current trend in fossil fuel prices continues as predicted by pessimist scenarios and the carbon tax carried by greenhouse emissions is enforced in the future, the cost advantage for nuclear desalination will be even more pronounced. Increasing the interest rate from 5 to 8% has a smaller effect than fuel cost variations. It translates into a water cost increase in the range of 10-20%, with the nuclear option being the more sensitive. (author)

  10. Marshes on the Move: Testing effects of seawater intrusion on ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Northeastern United States is a hotspot for sea level rise (SLR), subjecting coastal salt marshes to erosive loss, shifts in vegetation communities, and altered biogeochemistry due to seawater intrusion. Salt marsh plant community zonation is driven by tradeoffs in stress tolerance and interspecific interactions. As seawater inundates progressively higher marsh elevations, shifts in marsh vegetation communities landward may herald salt marsh “migration”, which could allow continuity of marsh function and ecosystem service provision. To elucidate possible effects of seawater intrusion on marsh-upland edge plant communities, a space-for-time approach was replicated at two Rhode Island salt marshes. At each site, peat blocks (0.5 m x 0.5 m x 0.5 m, n=6) with intact upland-marsh edge vegetation were transplanted downslope into the regularly-inundated mid-marsh. Procedural controls (n=3) were established at each elevation by removing and replacing peat blocks, and natural controls (n=3) consisted of undisturbed plots. During peak productivity, each plot was assessed for species composition, percent cover and average height. Results demonstrate stunting of marsh-upland edge vegetation in response to increased inundation, and the beginnings of colonization of the transplanted plots by salt marsh species. The extent of colonization differed between the two sites, suggesting that site-specific factors govern vegetation responses to increased inundation.

  11. Recovery of uranium from seawater. 14. System arrangements for the recovery of uranium from seawater by spherical amidoxime chelating resins utilizing natural seawater motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egawa, Hiroaki; Kabay, Nalan; Shuto, Taketomi; Jyo, Akinori

    1993-01-01

    In order to evaluate performances of lightly cross-linked highly porous amidoxime resins in uranium-adsorption systems utilizing natural seawater motions, uranium uptake by the resins from seawater was studied by different approaches, such as simulated sea current exposure tests, towing trials, and/or mooring trials. In general, the efficiency of uranium uptake became higher with a decrease in the thickness of packing layers, indicating important roles of fluidization of the resin particles. On the basis of these fundamental data, mooring tests in the natural sea current were designed and conducted. By mooring flat adsorption beds (base area 260 cm 2 , height 3.0 cm) packed with 780 ml of the resin for 40 h, promising uranium uptake as high as 44 mg/kg of resin (9.9 mg/l of resin) was achieved under sea conditions in which the velocity of sea currents and the vertical velocity of waves were 5.5-49.7 cm/s and 3.4-27 cm/s, respectively

  12. Extraction of uranium from seawater: a few facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidez Joel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although uranium concentration in seawater is only about 3 micrograms per liter, the quantity of uranium dissolved in the world's oceans is estimated to amount to 4.5 billion tonnes of uranium metal (tU. In contrast, the current conventional terrestrial resource is estimated to amount to about 17 million tU. However, for a number of reasons the extraction of significant amounts of uranium from seawater remains today more a dream than a reality. Firstly, pumping the seawater to extract this uranium would need more energy than what could be produced with the recuperated uranium. Then if trying to use existing industrial flow rates, as for example on a nuclear power plant, it appears that the annual possible quantity remains very low. In fact huge quantities of water must be treated. To produce the annual world uranium consumption (around 65,000 tU, it would need at least to extract all uranium of 2 × 1013 tonnes of seawater, the volume equivalent of the entire North Sea. In fact only the great ocean currents are providing without pumping these huge quantities, and the idea is to try to extract even very partially this uranium. For example Japan, which used before the Fukushima accident about 8,000 tU by year, sees about 5.2 million tU passing every year, in the ocean current Kuro Shio in which it lies. A lot of research works have been published on the studies of adsorbents immersed in these currents. Then, after submersion, these adsorbents are chemically treated to recuperate the uranium. Final quantities remain very low in comparison of the complex and costly operations to be done in sea. One kilogram of adsorbent, after one month of submersion, yields about 2 g of uranium and the adsorbent can only be used six times due to decreasing efficiency. The industrial extrapolation exercise made for the extraction of 1,200 tU/year give with these values a very costly installation installed on more than 1000 km2 of sea with a

  13. Development of an Assessment Procedure for Seawater Intrusion Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi Ting, F.; Yih Chi, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Pingtung Plain is one of the areas with extremely plentiful groundwater resources in Taiwan. Due to that the application of the water resource is restricted by significant variation of precipitation between wet and dry seasons, groundwater must be used as a recharge source to implement the insufficient surface water resource during dry seasons. In recent years, the coastal aquaculture rises, and the over withdrawn of groundwater by private well results in fast drop of groundwater level. Then it causes imbalance of groundwater supply and leads to serious seawater intrusion in the coastal areas. The purpose of this study is to develop an integrated numerical model of groundwater resources and seawater intrusion. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), MODFLOW and MT3D models were applied to analyze the variation of the groundwater levels and salinity concentration to investigate the correlation of parameters, which are used to the model applications in order to disposal saltwater intrusion. The data of groundwater levels, pumping capacity and hydrogeological data to were collected to build an integrated numerical model. Firstly, we will collect the information of layered aquifer and the data of hydrological parameters to build the groundwater numerical model at Pingtung Plain, and identify the amount of the groundwater which flow into the sea. In order to deal with the future climate change conditions or extreme weather conditions, we will consider the recharge with groundwater model to improve the seawater intrusion problem. The integrated numerical model which describes that seawater intrusion to deep confined aquifers and shallow unsaturated aquifers. Secondly, we will use the above model to investigate the weights influenced by different factors to the amount area of seawater intrusion, and predict the salinity concentration distribution of evaluation at coastal area of Pingtung Plain. Finally, we will simulate groundwater recharge/ injection at the coastal

  14. Endothelial Semaphorin 7A Promotes Inflammation in Seawater Aspiration-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minlong Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of seawater aspiration-induced acute lung injury (ALI. Although several studies have shown that Semaphorin 7A (SEMA7A promotes inflammation, there are limited reports regarding immunological function of SEMA7A in seawater aspiration-induced ALI. Therefore, we investigated the role of SEMA7A during seawater aspiration-induced ALI. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were underwent seawater instillation. Then, lung samples were collected at an indicated time for analysis. In addition, rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (RPMVECs were cultured and then stimulated with 25% seawater for indicated time point. After these treatments, cells samples were collected for analysis. In vivo, seawater instillation induced lung histopathologic changes, pro-inflammation cytokines release and increased expression of SEMA7A. In vitro, seawater stimulation led to pro-inflammation cytokine release, cytoskeleton remodeling and increased monolayer permeability in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α inhibited the seawater induced increase expression of SEMA7A. Meanwhile, knockdown of SEMA7A by specific siRNA inhibited the seawater induced aberrant inflammation, endothelial cytoskeleton remodeling and endothelial permeability. These results suggest that SEMA7A is critical in the development of lung inflammation and pulmonary edema in seawater aspiration-induced ALI, and may be a therapeutic target for this disease.

  15. Experimental study of composition and influence factors on fouling of stainless steel and copper in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dazhang; Liu, Jianhua; E, Xiaoxue; Jiang, Linlin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An increase of seawater temperature deteriorates the fouling and corrosion. • The main compositions of crystals are Mg(OH) 2 , Al(OH) 3 and their complex compounds. • The images of the seawater fouling on stainless steel and copper were shown in the paper. • A higher heat flux and A higher Reynolds number are prone to crystallization fouling accumulation in seawater. - Abstract: Metals and alloys are easily fouled in marine environment. It is a big problem for heat exchangers using cooling seawater in power plants or ships. In the paper, a seawater-fouling dynamic test device was built to investigate the composition and influence factors on fouling of stainless steel and copper in the cooling seawater system. Moreover, the static trials were performed to study the fouling and corrosion of stainless steel and copper in marine environment. The experimental results show that the seawater fouling of stainless steel is crystallization fouling, and the main elements of fouling are magnesium and aluminum. In addition, the results show that the seawater fouling of copper is corrosion fouling. In the dynamic experiments, the effects of heat flux and Reynolds number on stainless steel fouling were studied. The results show that higher heat flux and higher Reynolds number of seawater lead to the accumulation of seawater fouling.

  16. Endothelial Semaphorin 7A promotes inflammation in seawater aspiration-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minlong; Wang, Li; Dong, Mingqing; Li, Zhichao; Jin, Faguang

    2014-10-28

    Inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of seawater aspiration-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Although several studies have shown that Semaphorin 7A (SEMA7A) promotes inflammation, there are limited reports regarding immunological function of SEMA7A in seawater aspiration-induced ALI. Therefore, we investigated the role of SEMA7A during seawater aspiration-induced ALI. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were underwent seawater instillation. Then, lung samples were collected at an indicated time for analysis. In addition, rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (RPMVECs) were cultured and then stimulated with 25% seawater for indicated time point. After these treatments, cells samples were collected for analysis. In vivo, seawater instillation induced lung histopathologic changes, pro-inflammation cytokines release and increased expression of SEMA7A. In vitro, seawater stimulation led to pro-inflammation cytokine release, cytoskeleton remodeling and increased monolayer permeability in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α inhibited the seawater induced increase expression of SEMA7A. Meanwhile, knockdown of SEMA7A by specific siRNA inhibited the seawater induced aberrant inflammation, endothelial cytoskeleton remodeling and endothelial permeability. These results suggest that SEMA7A is critical in the development of lung inflammation and pulmonary edema in seawater aspiration-induced ALI, and may be a therapeutic target for this disease.

  17. Concentration of enteric virus indicator from seawater using granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Jiemin; Gutierrez, Miguel; Goodridge, Lawrence; Janes, Marlene

    2014-02-01

    Fecal contamination of shellfish growing seawater with enteric viruses is often associated with human outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Male specific bacteriophage MS2 is correlated with those of enteric viruses in a wide range of water environments and has been used widely as a surrogate for pathogenic waterborne viruses. Since viruses in contaminated water are usually at low levels, the development of methods to concentrate viruses from water is crucial for detection purposes. In the present study, granular activated carbon was evaluated for concentration of MS2 from artificial seawater, and different parameters of the seawater were also compared. Recovery of MS2 from warm seawater (37°C) was found to be significantly greater than from cold seawater (4 and 20°C), and even greater than from fresh water (4, 20 and 37°C); the difference between seawater and fresh water became less profound when the temperatures of both were below 37°C. Although not of statistical significance, recovery of MS2 from low salinity seawater (10 and 20 parts per thousand, ppt) was greater than from high salinity seawater (30 and 40ppt). One gram of granular activated carbon was able to extract 6-log plaque forming units (PFU) of MS2 from 500ml seawater at 37°C. This study demonstrated that granular activated carbon can concentrate an enteric virus indicator from shellfish growing seawater effectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. New Technologies for Seawater Desalination Using Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    As seawater desalination technologies are rapidly evolving and more States are opting for dual purpose integrated power plants (i.e. cogeneration), the need for advanced technologies suitable for coupling to nuclear power plants and leading to more efficient and economic nuclear desalination systems is obvious. The Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) New Technologies for Seawater Desalination using Nuclear Energy was organized in the framework of the Technical Working Group on Nuclear Desalination (TWG-ND). The TWGND was established in 2008 with the purpose of advising the IAEA Deputy Director General and promoting the exchange of technical information on national programmes in the field of seawater desalination using nuclear energy. This CRP project was conducted within the Nuclear Power Technology Development Section of the IAEA. It was launched in 2009 and completed by 2011, with research proposals received from nine Member States: Algeria, Egypt, France, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, the Syrian Arab Republic, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The project aimed to review innovative technologies for seawater desalination which could be coupled to main types of existing nuclear power plant. Such coupling is expected to help making nuclear desalination safer and more economical, and hence more attractive for newcomer States interested in nuclear desalination. The project also aimed to collect ideas and suggestions necessary to update the IAEA desalination economic evaluation program (DEEP) software to become more robust and versatile. The specific objectives of the project were the introduction of innovative technologies and their economic viability, which could help make nuclear desalination a globally viable option for the safe and sustainable production of fresh water. The technologies under scrutiny in this CRP involve the low temperature horizontal tube multi-effect distillation, heat recovery systems using heat pipe based heat exchangers

  19. Firewood Resource Management in Different Landscapes in NW Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela V. Morales

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems, their components, processes and functions are all subject to management by human populations, with the purpose of adapting the environments to make them more habitable and ensuring the availability and continuity of subsistence resources. Although a lot of work has been carried out on resources of alimentary or medicinal interest, little has been done on associating processes of domestication with firewood extraction, a practice considered to be destructive of the environment. In the arid steppe of NW Patagonia, inhabited and managed for different purposes for a long time by Mapuche-Tehuelche communities, the gathering of combustible plant species has up to the present time played a crucial role in cooking and heating, and work is required to achieve sustainability of this resource. In this study we evaluate whether environments with less landscape domestication are more intensively used for firewood gathering. Using an ethnobiological approach, information was obtained through participant observation, interviews and free listing. The data were examined using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Twenty-eight firewood species are gathered, both native (75% and exotic (25%. The supply of firewood mainly depends on gathering from the domesticated (10 species, semi-domesticated (17 species and low human intervention landscapes (17 species. In contrast to our hypothesis, average use intensity is similar in all these landscapes despite their different levels of domestication. That is, the different areas are taken advantage of in a complementary manner in order to satisfy the domestic demand for firewood. Neither do biogeographic origin or utilitarian versatility of collected plants vary significantly between the different landscape levels of domestication. Our results show that human landscape domestication for the provision of firewood seems to be a socio-cultural resilient practice, and shed new light on the role of culture in

  20. A study of petroleum system in Chuhuangkeng anticline, NW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiang, S.; Tsai, L. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Since energy demand is still increasing in the world, the exploration of unconventional fossil fuel becomes more and more important today. Miaoli area of the NW Western Foothill Belt, Taiwan, had been a major oil and gas producing field in the past, important oil/gas producing structures include Tiechenshen, Chinshui and Chuhuangkeng anticline. The reservoir rocks of unconventional resources need to be examined to illustrate the remaining hydrocarbon potential of Chuhuangkeng anticline. A standard evaluation procedure for assessing integrated geochemical parameters can thus be established. In this study, we combine various geochemical parameters including TOC, porosity, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, vitrinite reflectance measurement to assess the HC potential of shale gas reservoirs. The results show that Wuchishan and Mushan Formations possess the best hydrocarbon potential in Chuhuangkeng anticline. The maturation of Wuchishan and Mushan Formations are both in oil window (Ro of Wuchishan formation =1.7% , Ro of Mushan =1.01~1.53% ). The maturation of Shitih Formation barely reached oil window, however the shallower depth and less exploration cost are the advantages of Shitih Formation. Moreover, Wuchishan Formation is a dry gas field and Mushan Formation is a condensate gas field. The results of porosity show that there are secondary porosity existed in Mushan Formation which provides the extra storage space for hydrocarbon. Additionally, Piling Shale is a good cap rock on top of Mushan formation, it further benefits the conservation of oil and gas in Mushan Formation. In conclude, Mushan Formation is the most potential HC target in future shale gas exploration.