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Sample records for nutriture affect cognition

  1. How Affectively-Based and Cognitively-Based Attitudes Drive Intergroup Behaviours: The Moderating Role of Affective-Cognitive Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Dovidio, John; Wang, Erping

    2013-01-01

    The moderating role of affective-cognitive consistency in the effects of affectively-based and cognitively-based attitudes on consummatory and instrumental behaviors was explored using two experimental studies in the intergroup context. Study 1 revealed that affectively-based attitudes were better predictors than cognitively-based attitudes regardless of affective-cognitive consistency for consummatory behaviors (e.g., undergraduates’ supportive behaviors toward government officials). Study 2, which investigated task groups’ supportive behaviors toward an immediate supervisory group, found that for these instrumental behaviors cognitively-based attitudes were better predictors than affectively-based attitudes only when affective-cognitive consistency was high. The present research also examined the mechanism by which affective-cognitive consistency moderates the relative roles of affectively-based and cognitively-based attitudes in attitude-behavior consistency. Results indicated that attitude-behavior consistency is eroded primarily because of the weaker relationship of affective or cognitive components to behaviors than to general attitudes. The reciprocal implications of research on attitudes and work on intergroup relations are considered. PMID:24244751

  2. Facial affect processing and depression susceptibility: cognitive biases and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistricky, Steven L; Ingram, Rick E; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2011-11-01

    Facial affect processing is essential to social development and functioning and is particularly relevant to models of depression. Although cognitive and interpersonal theories have long described different pathways to depression, cognitive-interpersonal and evolutionary social risk models of depression focus on the interrelation of interpersonal experience, cognition, and social behavior. We therefore review the burgeoning depressive facial affect processing literature and examine its potential for integrating disciplines, theories, and research. In particular, we evaluate studies in which information processing or cognitive neuroscience paradigms were used to assess facial affect processing in depressed and depression-susceptible populations. Most studies have assessed and supported cognitive models. This research suggests that depressed and depression-vulnerable groups show abnormal facial affect interpretation, attention, and memory, although findings vary based on depression severity, comorbid anxiety, or length of time faces are viewed. Facial affect processing biases appear to correspond with distinct neural activity patterns and increased depressive emotion and thought. Biases typically emerge in depressed moods but are occasionally found in the absence of such moods. Indirect evidence suggests that childhood neglect might cultivate abnormal facial affect processing, which can impede social functioning in ways consistent with cognitive-interpersonal and interpersonal models. However, reviewed studies provide mixed support for the social risk model prediction that depressive states prompt cognitive hypervigilance to social threat information. We recommend prospective interdisciplinary research examining whether facial affect processing abnormalities promote-or are promoted by-depressogenic attachment experiences, negative thinking, and social dysfunction.

  3. Affective and cognitive decision-making in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Jansen, Brenda R J; Visser, Ingmar; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents demonstrate impaired decision-making in emotionally arousing situations, yet they appear to exhibit relatively mature decision-making skills in predominantly cognitive, low-arousal situations. In this study we compared adolescents' (13-15 years) performance on matched affective and cognitive decision-making tasks, in order to determine (1) their performance level on each task and (2) whether performance on the cognitive task was associated with performance on the affective task. Both tasks required a comparison of choice dimensions characterized by frequency of loss, amount of loss, and constant gain. Results indicated that in the affective task, adolescents performed sub-optimally by considering only the frequency of loss, whereas in the cognitive task adolescents used relatively mature decision rules by considering two or all three choice dimensions. Performance on the affective task was not related to performance on the cognitive task. These results are discussed in light of neural developmental trajectories observed in adolescence.

  4. Positive affect and cognitive control: approach-motivation intensity influences the balance between cognitive flexibility and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya; Wang, Zhenhong

    2014-05-01

    In most prior research, positive affect has been consistently found to promote cognitive flexibility. However, the motivational dimensional model of affect assumes that the influence of positive affect on cognitive processes is modulated by approach-motivation intensity. In the present study, we extended the motivational dimensional model to the domain of cognitive control by examining the effect of low- versus high-approach-motivated positive affect on the balance between cognitive flexibility and stability in an attentional-set-shifting paradigm. Results showed that low-approach-motivated positive affect promoted cognitive flexibility but also caused higher distractibility, whereas high-approach-motivated positive affect enhanced perseverance but simultaneously reduced distractibility. These results suggest that the balance between cognitive flexibility and stability is modulated by the approach-motivation intensity of positive affective states. Therefore, it is essential to incorporate motivational intensity into studies on the influence of affect on cognitive control.

  5. Oxytocin and Social Cognition in Affective and Psychotic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, M. Mercedes; Mahon, Katie; Russo, Manuela; Ungar, Allison K.; Burdick, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Impairments in social cognition are now recognized as core illness features in psychotic and affective disorders. Despite the significant disability caused by social cognitive abnormalities, treatments for this symptom dimension are lacking. Here, we describe the evidence demonstrating abnormalities in social cognition in schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder, as well as the neurobiology of social cognition including the role of oxytocin. We then review clinical trials of oxytocin administration in psychotic and affective disorders and the impact of this agent on social cognition. To date, several studies have demonstrated that oxytocin may improve social cognition in schizophrenia; too few studies have been conducted in affective disorders to determine the effect of oxytocin on social cognition in these disorders. Future work is needed to clarify which aspects of social cognition may be improved with oxytocin treatment in psychotic and affective disorders. PMID:25153535

  6. Cognitive biases can affect moral intuitions about cognitive enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucius eCaviola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research into cognitive biases that impair human judgment has mostly been applied to the area of economic decision-making. Ethical decision-making has been comparatively neglected. Since ethical decisions often involve very high individual as well as collective stakes, analyzing how cognitive biases affect them can be expected to yield important results. In this theoretical article, we consider the ethical debate about cognitive enhancement (CE and suggest a number of cognitive biases that are likely to affect moral intuitions and judgments about CE: status quo bias, loss aversion, risk aversion, omission bias, scope insensitivity, nature bias, and optimistic bias. We find that there are more well-documented biases that are likely to cause irrational aversion to CE than biases in the opposite direction. This suggests that common attitudes about CE are predominantly negatively biased. Within this new perspective, we hope that subsequent research will be able to elaborate this hypothesis and develop effective de-biasing techniques that can help increase the rationality of the public CE debate and thus improve our ethical decision-making.

  7. Affect, Reason, and Persuasion: Advertising Strategies That Predict Affective and Analytic-Cognitive Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Arjun; Buck, Ross

    1995-01-01

    Develops and tests hypotheses concerning the relationship of specific advertising strategies to affective and analytic cognitive responses of the audience. Analyses undergraduate students' responses to 240 advertisements. Demonstrates that advertising strategy variables accounted substantially for the variance in affective and analytic cognition.…

  8. The impact of affective and cognitive focus on attitude formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den; Manstead, A.S.R.; Pligt, J. van der; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of unobtrusive affective and cognitive focus on attitude formation. To induce focus, participants worked on a word-search puzzle consisting of either affective (e.g., emotion) or cognitive (e.g., reasoning) words. They then read positive and negative affective and cognitive

  9. Changing exercise through targeting affective or cognitive attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mark; Rhodes, Ryan E; Morris, Ben; McEachan, Rosemary; Lawton, Rebecca

    2011-02-01

    Two studies investigated the impact of affective and cognitive messages compared to a no-message control on self-reported exercise. Students (Study 1, N = 383 and Study 2, N = 197) were randomly allocated to one of the three conditions (control - no message, affective message or cognitive message). Participants completed questionnaire measures tapping components of the theory of planned behaviour in relation to exercise and reported their level of exercise (3 weeks later). In Study 2, measures of need for affect (NFA) and need for cognition (NFC) were also completed. Results showed that affective messages consistently produced greater increases in self-reported level of exercise than the other conditions. In both studies, this effect was partly mediated by affective attitude change. Study 2 indicated these effects to be significantly stronger among those high in NFA or low in NFC. These findings indicate the value of affective messages that target affective attitudes in changing exercise behaviour.

  10. The cognitive/affective distinction of job insecurity: Validation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    emotional exhaustion were also gathered from employees in a variety of South African ... the cognitive and affective dimensions of job insecurity could be distinguished ...... from the perception of an external reality, whereas the affective response represents an internal .... 'Differentiating cognitive and affective job insecurity: ...

  11. AFFECTIVE GUIDANCE OF INTELLIGENT AGENTS: How Emotion Controls Cognition1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L.; Palmer, Janet E.

    2008-01-01

    Emotions and moods color cognition. In this article, we outline how emotions affect judgments and cognitive performance of human agents. We argue that affective influences are due, not to the affective reactions themselves, but to the information they carry about value, a potentially useful finding for creators of artificial agents. The kind of influence that occurs depends on the focus of the agent at the time. When making evaluative judgments, for example, agents may experience positive affect as a positive attitude toward a person or object. But when an agent focuses on a cognitive task, positive affect may act like performance feedback, with positive affect giving a green light to cognitive, relational processes. By contrast, negative affect tends to inhibit relational processing, resulting in a more perceptual, stimulus-specific processing. One result is that many textbook phenomena from cognitive psychology occur readily in happy moods, but are inhibited in sad moods. PMID:19255620

  12. Physics education students’ cognitive and affective domains toward ecological phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napitupulu, N. D.; Munandar, A.; Redjeki, S.; Tjasyono, B.

    2018-05-01

    Environmental education is become prominent in dealing with natural phenomena that occur nowadays. Studying environmental physics will lead students to have conceptual understanding which are importent in enhancing attitudes toward ecological phenomena that link directry to cognitive and affective domains. This research focused on the the relationship of cognitive and affective domains toward ecological phenomena. Thirty-seven Physics Education students participated in this study and validated sources of data were collected to eksplore students’ conceptual understanding as cognitive domain and to investigate students’ attitudes as affective domain. The percentage of cognitive outcome and affective outcome are explore. The features of such approaches to environmental learning are discussion through analysis of contribution of cognitive to develop the attitude ecological as affective outcome. The result shows that cognitive domains do not contribute significantly to affective domain toward ecological henomena as an issue trend in Central Sulawesi although students had passed Environmental Physics instruction for two semester. In fact, inferior knowledge in a way actually contributes to the attitude domain caused by the prior knowledge that students have as ombo as a Kaili local wisdom.

  13. The role of affect and cognition in health decision making.

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    Keer, Mario; van den Putte, Bas; Neijens, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Both affective and cognitive evaluations of behaviours have been allocated various positions in theoretical models of decision making. Most often, they have been studied as direct determinants of either intention or overall evaluation, but these two possible positions have never been compared. The aim of this study was to determine whether affective and cognitive evaluations influence intention directly, or whether their influence is mediated by overall evaluation. A sample of 300 university students filled in questionnaires on their affective, cognitive, and overall evaluations in respect of 20 health behaviours. The data were interpreted using mediation analyses with the application of path modelling. Both affective and cognitive evaluations were found to have significantly predicted intention. The influence of affective evaluation was largely direct for each of the behaviours studied, whereas that of cognitive evaluation was partially direct and partially mediated by overall evaluation. These results indicate that decisions regarding the content of persuasive communication (affective vs. cognitive) are highly dependent on the theoretical model chosen. It is suggested that affective evaluation should be included as a direct determinant of intention in theories of decision making when predicting health behaviours.

  14. The Relationship between Negative Affect and Reported Cognitive Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha W. Payne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to expand our understanding of the range of negative affect associated with reported problems with everyday functions and activities, measured by the cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ. Evidence from previous research indicates that individuals meeting criteria for mood disorders, such as major depression or seasonal affective disorder, experience cognitive deficits in memory and attention that can lead to problems with everyday activities reported in the CFQ. The Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS was used to assess potential correlations with a wider range of negative emotions. Findings for a sample of 129 college students revealed that negative affective experiences were significantly correlated with failures of memory and attention on the CFQ (fear = .41, hostility = .38, sadness = .28, and guilt = .43. Conversely, positive affect was negatively correlated with distractibility (r=−.21. Additional affective scales on the PANAS (e.g., shyness and fatigue were also associated with higher reports of cognitive failures. The results provide converging evidence of a relationship between negative affective experiences and reported frequency of problems on the cognitive failures questionnaire.

  15. [Cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome secondary to a cerebellar tumour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Carral, J; Carreras-Sáez, I; García-Peñas, J J; Fournier-Del Castillo, C; Villalobos-Reales, J

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome is characterized by disturbances of executive function, impaired spatial cognition, linguistic difficulties, and personality change. The case of an 11 year old boy is presented, with behavior problems, learning difficulties and social interaction problems. In the physical examination he had poor visual contact, immature behavior, reduced expressive language and global motor disability with gait dyspraxia, with no defined cerebellar motor signs. In the neuropsychological evaluation he has a full scale overall intellectual quotient of 84, with signs of cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. A tumour affecting inferior cerebellar vermis was observed in the magnetic resonance imaging, which had not significantly grown during 5 years of follow up. The cerebellum participates in controlling cognitive and affective functions. Cerebellar pathology must be considered in the differential diagnosis of children with cognitive or learning disorder with associated behavioral and emotional components. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. The radiotherapy affects the cognitive processes; La radiotherapie affecte la cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-10-15

    Researchers from the medical center of the free university of Amsterdam report that the radiotherapy can hinder the cognitive functions of patients affected by cerebral tumors treated after a surgery. Even low dose radiation could contribute in their opinion, to the progressive cognitive decline of patients suffering of low grade gliomas, the most commune cerebral tumor. To get these conclusions, 65 patients, whom half of them received a radiotherapy, had a neurological and psychological evaluation twelve years after their treatment. Results: 53% of patients treated by radiotherapy present disorders of attention, memory, execution and speed of information treatment against 27% of these ones that received an only surgery. The researchers conclude to the necessity to take into account this risk in the choice of treatment, or even to avoid radiotherapy in this precise case. (N.C.)

  17. Affective and cognitive reactivity to mood induction in chronic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhn, Anne; Sterzer, Philipp; Haack, Friderike H; Köhler, Stephan

    2018-03-15

    Chronic depression (CD) is strongly associated with childhood maltreatment, which has been proposed to lead to inefficient coping styles that are characterized by abnormal affective responsiveness and dysfunctional cognitive attitudes. However, while this notion forms an important basis for psychotherapeutic strategies in the treatment of CD, there is still little direct empirical evidence for a role of altered affective and cognitive reactivity in CD. The present study therefore experimentally investigated affective and cognitive reactivity to two forms of negative mood induction in CD patients versus a healthy control sample (HC). For the general mood induction procedure, a combination of sad pictures and sad music was used, while for individualized mood induction, negative mood was induced by individualized scripts with autobiographical content. Both experiments included n = 15 CD patients versus n = 15 HC, respectively. Interactions between affective or cognitive reactivity and group were analyzed by repeated measurements ANOVAs. General mood induction neither revealed affective nor cognitive reactivity in the patient group while the control group reported the expected decrease of positive affect [interaction (IA) affective reactivity x group: p = .011, cognitive reactivity x group: n.s.]. In contrast, individualized mood induction specifically increased affective reactivity (IA: p = .037) as well as the amount of dysfunctional cognitions in patients versus controls (IA: p = .014). The experiments were not balanced in a crossover design, causal conclusions are thus limited. Additionally, the differences to non-chronic forms of depression are still outstanding. The results suggest that in patients with CD, specific emotional activation through autobiographical memories is a key factor in dysfunctional coping styles. Psychotherapeutic interventions aimed at modifying affective and cognitive reactivity are thus of high relevance in the treatment of CD. Copyright

  18. The Impact of Cognitive-Affective Content on Advertising Messages in Consumer Attitudes and Behavioral Intentions: The Dual Cognitive-Affective Model (DMAC)-Edición Única

    OpenAIRE

    Valdéz García, Carlos G.

    2005-01-01

    In advertising, two important theoretical approaches, cognitive and affective, explain how consumer attitudes and behavioral intentions are affected by message content. However, the effects of cognitive and affective content in a single advertising message in consumer attitudes and behaviors have been understudied. In vi this research, using the theoretical constructs of cognitive and affective approaches to explore the effects of their interaction in advertising messages wa...

  19. The effect of erythropoietin on cognition in affective disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Caroline Vintergaard; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V

    2016-01-01

    impairment predicted treatment-efficacy. Pearson correlations were used to assess associations between objective and subjective cognition, quality of life and socio-occupational capacity. EPO improved speed of complex cognitive processing across affective disorders at weeks 9 and 14 (p≤0.05). In EPO......-efficacy and (III) if cognitive improvement correlates with better subjective cognitive function, quality of life and socio-occupational capacity. Patients with unipolar or bipolar disorder were randomized to eight weekly EPO (N=40) or saline (N=39) infusions. Cognition, mood, quality of life and socio...... improvement correlated with reduced cognitive complaints but not with quality of life or socio-occupational function. As the analyses were performed post-hoc, findings are only hypothesis-generating. In conclusion, pro-cognitive effects of EPO occurred across affective disorders. Neuropsychological screening...

  20. Cognitive and affective matching effects in persuasion: an amplification perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Joshua J; Tormala, Zakary L; Rucker, Derek D

    2011-11-01

    Past research suggests that cognitive and affective attitudes are more open to change toward cognitive and affective (i.e., matched) persuasive attacks, respectively. The present research investigates how attitude certainty influences this openness. Although an extensive literature suggests that certainty generally reduces an attitude's openness to change, the authors explore the possibility that certainty might increase an attitude's openness to change in the context of affective or cognitive appeals. Based on the recently proposed amplification hypothesis, the authors posit that high (vs. low) attitude certainty will boost the resistance of attitudes to mismatched attacks (e.g., affective attitudes attacked by cognitive messages) but boost the openness of attitudes to matched attacks (e.g., affective attitudes attacked by affective messages). Two experiments provide support for this hypothesis. Implications for increasing the openness of attitudes to both matched and mismatched attacks are discussed.

  1. Cognitive and Affective Empathy as Predictors of Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined cognitive and affective empathy as predictors of proactive and reactive aggression. This study also explored whether levels of cognitive and affective empathy differed among children who use proactive and reactive aggression. Cognitive and affective empathy were measured by the Basic Empathy Scale (Jolliffe & Farrington,…

  2. Affective processing in bilingual speakers: disembodied cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    A recent study by Keysar, Hayakawa, and An (2012) suggests that "thinking in a foreign language" may reduce decision biases because a foreign language provides a greater emotional distance than a native tongue. The possibility of such "disembodied" cognition is of great interest for theories of affect and cognition and for many other areas of psychological theory and practice, from clinical and forensic psychology to marketing, but first this claim needs to be properly evaluated. The purpose of this review is to examine the findings of clinical, introspective, cognitive, psychophysiological, and neuroimaging studies of affective processing in bilingual speakers in order to identify converging patterns of results, to evaluate the claim about "disembodied cognition," and to outline directions for future inquiry. The findings to date reveal two interrelated processing effects. First-language (L1) advantage refers to increased automaticity of affective processing in the L1 and heightened electrodermal reactivity to L1 emotion-laden words. Second-language (L2) advantage refers to decreased automaticity of affective processing in the L2, which reduces interference effects and lowers electrodermal reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. The differences in L1 and L2 affective processing suggest that in some bilingual speakers, in particular late bilinguals and foreign language users, respective languages may be differentially embodied, with the later learned language processed semantically but not affectively. This difference accounts for the reduction of framing biases in L2 processing in the study by Keysar et al. (2012). The follow-up discussion identifies the limits of the findings to date in terms of participant populations, levels of processing, and types of stimuli, puts forth alternative explanations of the documented effects, and articulates predictions to be tested in future research.

  3. Organizational citizenship behavior and workplace deviance: the role of affect and cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kibeom; Allen, Natalie J

    2002-02-01

    To investigate the role of affect and cognitions in predicting organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and workplace deviance behavior (WDB), data were collected from 149 registered nurses and their coworkers. Job affect was associated more strongly than were job cognitions with OCB directed at individuals, whereas job cognitions correlated more strongly than did job affect with OCB directed at the organization. With respect to WDB, job cognitions played a more important role in prediction when job affect was represented by 2 general mood variables (positive and negative affect). When discrete emotions were used to represent job affect, however, job affect played as important a role as job cognition variables, strongly suggesting the importance of considering discrete emotions in job affect research.

  4. Hot Temperatures, Hostile Affect, Hostile Cognition, and Arousal: Tests of a General Model of Affective Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Used a general model of affective aggression to generate predictions concerning hot temperatures. Results indicated that hot temperatures produced increases in hostile affect, hostile cognition, and physiological arousal. Concluded that hostile affect, hostile cognitions, and excitation transfer processes may all increase the likelihood of biased…

  5. Stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAMPEAU, SERGE; LIBERZON, ISRAEL; MORILAK, DAVID; RESSLER, KERRY

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the major discussion points of a symposium on stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes, which was held during the 2010 workshop on the neurobiology of stress (Boulder, CO, USA). The four discussants addressed a number of specific cognitive and affective factors that are modulated by exposure to acute or repeated stress. Dr David Morilak discussed the effects of various repeated stress situations on cognitive flexibility, as assessed with a rodent model of attentional set-shifting task, and how performance on slightly different aspects of this test is modulated by different prefrontal regions through monoaminergic neurotransmission. Dr Serge Campeau summarized the findings of several studies exploring a number of factors and brain regions that regulate habituation of various autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to repeated audiogenic stress exposures. Dr Kerry Ressler discussed a body of work exploring the modulation and extinction of fear memories in rodents and humans, especially focusing on the role of key neurotransmitter systems including excitatory amino acids and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Dr Israel Liberzon presented recent results on human decision-making processes in response to exogenous glucocorticoid hormone administration. Overall, these discussions are casting a wider framework on the cognitive/affective processes that are distinctly regulated by the experience of stress and some of the brain regions and neurotransmitter systems associated with these effects. PMID:21790481

  6. Affect and Cognition in Attitude Formation toward Familiar and Unfamiliar Attitude Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Giesen, Roxanne I.

    2015-01-01

    At large attitudes are built on earlier experience with the attitude object. If earlier experiences are not available, as is the case for unfamiliar attitude objects such as new technologies, no stored evaluations exist. Yet, people are still somehow able to construct attitudes on the spot. Depending on the familiarity of the attitude object, attitudes may find their basis more in affect or cognition. The current paper investigates differences in reliance on affect or cognition in attitude formation toward familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. In addition, individual differences in reliance on affect (high faith in intuition) or cognition (high need for cognition) are taken into account. In an experimental survey among Dutch consumers (N = 1870), we show that, for unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, people rely more on affect than cognition. For familiar attitude objects where both affective and cognitive evaluations are available, high need for cognition leads to more reliance on cognition, and high faith in intuition leads to more reliance on affect, reflecting the influence of individually preferred thinking style. For people with high need for cognition, cognition has a higher influence on overall attitude for both familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. On the other hand, affect is important for people with high faith in intuition for both familiar and unfamiliar attitude objects and for people with low faith in intuition for unfamiliar attitude objects; this shows that preferred thinking style is less influential for unfamiliar objects. By comparing attitude formation for familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, this research contributes to understanding situations in which affect or cognition is the better predictor of overall attitudes. PMID:26517876

  7. Affect and Cognition in Attitude Formation toward Familiar and Unfamiliar Attitude Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Giesen, Roxanne I; Fischer, Arnout R H; van Dijk, Heleen; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2015-01-01

    At large attitudes are built on earlier experience with the attitude object. If earlier experiences are not available, as is the case for unfamiliar attitude objects such as new technologies, no stored evaluations exist. Yet, people are still somehow able to construct attitudes on the spot. Depending on the familiarity of the attitude object, attitudes may find their basis more in affect or cognition. The current paper investigates differences in reliance on affect or cognition in attitude formation toward familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. In addition, individual differences in reliance on affect (high faith in intuition) or cognition (high need for cognition) are taken into account. In an experimental survey among Dutch consumers (N = 1870), we show that, for unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, people rely more on affect than cognition. For familiar attitude objects where both affective and cognitive evaluations are available, high need for cognition leads to more reliance on cognition, and high faith in intuition leads to more reliance on affect, reflecting the influence of individually preferred thinking style. For people with high need for cognition, cognition has a higher influence on overall attitude for both familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. On the other hand, affect is important for people with high faith in intuition for both familiar and unfamiliar attitude objects and for people with low faith in intuition for unfamiliar attitude objects; this shows that preferred thinking style is less influential for unfamiliar objects. By comparing attitude formation for familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, this research contributes to understanding situations in which affect or cognition is the better predictor of overall attitudes.

  8. Development of cognitive and affective control networks and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Bhoomika R; Vijay, Nivita; Mishra, Shreyasi

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control and decision making are two important research areas in the realm of higher-order cognition. Control processes such as interference control and monitoring in cognitive and affective contexts have been found to influence the process of decision making. Development of control processes follows a gradual growth pattern associated with the prolonged maturation of underlying neural circuits including the lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and the medial prefrontal cortex. These circuits are also involved in the control of processes that influences decision making, particularly with respect to choice behavior. Developmental studies on affective control have shown distinct patterns of brain activity with adolescents showing greater activation of amygdala whereas adults showing greater activity in ventral prefrontal cortex. Conflict detection, monitoring, and adaptation involve anticipation and subsequent performance adjustments which are also critical to complex decision making. We discuss the gradual developmental patterns observed in two of our studies on conflict monitoring and adaptation in affective and nonaffective contexts. Findings of these studies indicate the need to look at the differences in the effects of the development of cognitive and affective control on decision making in children and particularly adolescents. Neuroimaging studies have shown the involvement of separable neural networks for cognitive (medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate) and affective control (amygdala, ventral medial prefrontal cortex) shows that one system can affect the other also at the neural level. Hence, an understanding of the interaction and balance between the cognitive and affective brain networks may be crucial for self-regulation and decision making during the developmental period, particularly late childhood and adolescence. The chapter highlights the need for empirical investigation on the interaction between the different aspects

  9. Social cognition in schizophrenia: cognitive and affective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Ido; Leiser, David; Levine, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Social cognition refers to how people conceive, perceive, and draw inferences about mental and emotional states of others in the social world. Previous studies suggest that the concept of social cognition involves several abilities, including those related to affect and cognition. The present study analyses the deficits of individuals with schizophrenia in two areas of social cognition: Theory of Mind (ToM) and emotion recognition and processing. Examining the impairment of these abilities in patients with schizophrenia has the potential to elucidate the neurophysiological regions involved in social cognition and may also have the potential to aid rehabilitation. Two experiments were conducted. Both included the same five tasks: first- and second-level false-belief ToM tasks, emotion inferencing, understanding of irony, and matrix reasoning (a WAIS-R subtest). The matrix reasoning task was administered to evaluate and control for the association of the other tasks with analytic reasoning skills. Experiment 1 involved factor analysis of the task performance of 75 healthy participants. Experiment 2 compared 30 patients with schizophrenia to an equal number of matched controls. Results. (1) The five tasks were clearly divided into two factors corresponding to the two areas of social cognition, ToM and emotion recognition and processing. (2) Schizophrenics' performance was impaired on all tasks, particularly on those loading heavily on the analytic component (matrix reasoning and second-order ToM). (3) Matrix reasoning, second-level ToM (ToM2), and irony were found to distinguish patients from controls, even when all other tasks that revealed significant impairment in the patients' performance were taken into account. The two areas of social cognition examined are related to distinct factors. The mechanism for answering ToM questions (especially ToM2) depends on analytic reasoning capabilities, but the difficulties they present to individuals with schizophrenia are due

  10. The cerebellum: its role in language and related cognitive and affective functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Hyo Jung; Paquier, Philippe; Verhoeven, Jo; Mariën, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The traditional view on the cerebellum as the sole coordinator of motor function has been substantially redefined during the past decades. Neuroanatomical, neuroimaging and clinical studies have extended the role of the cerebellum to the modulation of cognitive and affective processing. Neuroanatomical studies have demonstrated cerebellar connectivity with the supratentorial association areas involved in higher cognitive and affective functioning, while functional neuroimaging and clinical studies have provided evidence of cerebellar involvement in a variety of cognitive and affective tasks. This paper reviews the recently acknowledged role of the cerebellum in linguistic and related cognitive and behavioral-affective functions. In addition, typical cerebellar syndromes such as the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS) and the posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) will be briefly discussed and the current hypotheses dealing with the presumed neurobiological mechanisms underlying the linguistic, cognitive and affective modulatory role of the cerebellum will be reviewed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Thinking versus feeling: differentiating between cognitive and affective components of perceived cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; Lechner, Lilian; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased recognition of affect in guiding probability estimates, perceived risk has been mainly operationalised in a cognitive way and the differentiation between rational and intuitive judgements is largely unexplored. This study investigated the validity of a measurement instrument differentiating cognitive and affective probability beliefs and examined whether behavioural decision making is mainly guided by cognition or affect. Data were obtained from four surveys focusing on smoking (N=268), fruit consumption (N=989), sunbed use (N=251) and sun protection (N=858). Correlational analyses showed that affective likelihood was more strongly correlated with worry compared to cognitive likelihood and confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a two-factor model of perceived likelihood instead of a one-factor model (i.e. cognition and affect combined). Furthermore, affective likelihood was significantly associated with the various outcome variables, whereas the association for cognitive likelihood was absent in three studies. The findings provide support for the construct validity of the measures used to assess cognitive and affective likelihood. Since affective likelihood might be a better predictor of health behaviour than the commonly used cognitive operationalisation, both dimensions should be considered in future research.

  12. Rostro-caudal and dorso-ventral gradients in medial and lateral prefrontal cortex during cognitive control of affective and cognitive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm, Christoffer; Liberg, Benny; Wiberg-Kristoffersen, Maria; Aspelin, Peter; Msghina, Mussie

    2013-04-01

    Characterizing the anatomical substrates of major brain functions such as cognition and emotion is of utmost importance to the ongoing efforts of understanding the nature of psychiatric ailments and their potential treatment. The aim of our study was to investigate how the brain handles affective and cognitive interferences on cognitive processes. Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation was performed on healthy individuals, comparing the brain oxygenation level dependent activation patterns during affective and cognitive counting Stroop tasks. The affective Stroop task activated rostral parts of medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and rostral and ventral parts of lateral PFC, while cognitive Stroop activated caudal parts of medial PFC and caudal and dorsal parts of lateral PFC. Our findings suggest that the brain may handle affective and cognitive interference on cognitive processes differentially, with affective interference preferentially activating rostral and ventral PFC networks and cognitive interference activating caudal and dorsal PFC networks. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  13. Childhood trauma and cognitive function in first-episode affective and non-affective psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Monica; Dazzan, Paola; Fisher, Helen L; Morgan, Craig; Morgan, Kevin; Reichenberg, Abraham; Zanelli, Jolanta; Fearon, Paul; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Robin M; Pariante, Carmine M

    2011-06-01

    A history of childhood trauma is reportedly more prevalent in people suffering from psychosis than in the general population. Childhood trauma has also been linked to cognitive abnormalities in adulthood, and cognitive abnormalities, in turn, are one of the key clinical features of psychosis. Therefore, this study investigated whether there was a relationship between childhood trauma and cognitive function in patients with first-episode psychosis. The potential impact of diagnosis (schizophrenia or affective psychosis) and gender on this association was also examined. Data were available for 138 first-episode psychosis patients and 138 geographically-matched controls recruited from a catchment area based organisation. History of childhood trauma was obtained using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Cognitive function was assessed through a comprehensive and standardised neuropsychological test battery. A history of childhood trauma was associated with worse cognitive performances, predominantly in affective psychoses, and in male patients. No association between a history of childhood trauma and cognition was found amongst female patients, or female controls. The results need replication, but underline the necessity of investigating biological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying these subjects' sensitivity to the negative effect of childhood stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Default, Cognitive, and Affective Brain Networks in Human Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0491 TITLE: Default, Cognitive, and Affective Brain Networks in Human Tinnitus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jennifer R...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Default, Cognitive and Affective Brain Networks in Human Tinnitus 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Tinnitus is a major health problem among those currently and formerly in military

  15. Mediation, moderation, and context: Understanding complex relations among cognition, affect, and health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Ellis, Erin M; Hall, Marissa G; Moss, Jennifer L; Lillie, Sarah E; Brewer, Noel T; Klein, William M P

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have historically treated cognition and affect as separate constructs in motivating health behaviour. We present a framework and empirical evidence for complex relations between cognition and affect in predicting health behaviour. Main Outcome, Design and Results: First, affect and cognition can mediate each other's relation to health behaviour. Second, affect and cognition can moderate the other's impact. Third, context can change the interplay of affect and cognition. Fourth, affect and cognition may be indelibly fused in some psychological constructs (e.g. worry, anticipated regret and reactance). These four propositions in our framework are not mutually exclusive. Examination of the types of complex relations described here can benefit theory development, empirical testing of theories and intervention design. Doing so will advance the understanding of mechanisms involved in regulation of health behaviours and the effectiveness of interventions to change health behaviours.

  16. The Influence of Affective States Varying in Motivational Intensity on Cognitive Scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie eHarmon-Jones

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We review a program of research that has suggested that affective states high in motivationally intensity (e.g., enthusiasm, disgust narrow cognitive scope, whereas affective states low in motivationally intensity (e.g., joy, sadness broaden cognitive scope. Further supporting this interpretation, indices of brain activations, derived from human electroencephalography, suggest that the motivational intensity of the affective state predicts the narrowing of cognitive scope. Finally, research suggests that the relationship between emotive intensity and cognitive scope is bi-directional, such that manipulated changes in cognitive scope influence early brain activations associated with emotive intensity. In the end, the review highlights how emotion can impair and improve certain cognitive processes.

  17. Childhood trauma and cognitive function in first-episode affective and non-affective psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aas, Monica

    2011-06-01

    A history of childhood trauma is reportedly more prevalent in people suffering from psychosis than in the general population. Childhood trauma has also been linked to cognitive abnormalities in adulthood, and cognitive abnormalities, in turn, are one of the key clinical features of psychosis. Therefore, this study investigated whether there was a relationship between childhood trauma and cognitive function in patients with first-episode psychosis. The potential impact of diagnosis (schizophrenia or affective psychosis) and gender on this association was also examined.

  18. Affective Primacy vs. Cognitive Primacy: Dissolving the Debate

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Vicky Tzuyin; Hagoort, Peter; Casasanto, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    When people see a snake, they are likely to activate both affective information (e.g., dangerous) and non-affective information about its ontological category (e.g., animal). According to the Affective Primacy Hypothesis, the affective information has priority, and its activation can precede identification of the ontological category of a stimulus. Alternatively, according to the Cognitive Primacy Hypothesis, perceivers must know what they are looking at before they can make an affective judg...

  19. Cognitive Factors Affecting Freeze-like Behavior in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Michael W; Pocknell, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary research on survival-related defensive behaviors has identified physiological markers of freeze/flight/fight. Our research focused on cognitive factors associated with freeze-like behavior in humans. Study 1 tested if an explicit decision to freeze is associated with the psychophysiological state of freezing. Heart rate deceleration occurred when participants chose to freeze. Study 2 varied the efficacy of freezing relative to other defense options and found "freeze" was responsive to variations in the perceived effectiveness of alternative actions. Study 3 tested if individual differences in motivational orientation affect preference for a "freeze" option when the efficacy of options is held constant. A trend in the predicted direction suggested that naturally occurring cognitions led loss-avoiders to select "freeze" more often than reward-seekers. In combination, our attention to the cognitive factors affecting freeze-like behavior in humans represents a preliminary step in addressing an important but neglected research area.

  20. Affect perception across cultures: the role of cognitive mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan B Engelmann

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite consistently documented cultural differences in the perception of facial expressions of emotion, the role of culture in shaping cognitive mechanisms that are central to affect perception has received relatively little attention in past research. We review recent developments in cross-cultural psychology that provide particular insights into the modulatory role of culture on cognitive mechanisms involved in interpretations of facial expressions of emotion through two distinct routes: display rules and cognitive styles. Investigations of affect intensity perception have demonstrated that facial expressions with varying levels of intensity of positive affect are perceived and categorized differently across cultures. Recent findings indicating high levels of differentiation between intensity levels of facial expressions among American participants, as well as deviations from clear categorization of high and low intensity expressions in Japanese and Russian participants, suggest that display rules shape mental representations of emotions, such as intensity levels of emotion prototypes. Furthermore, a series of recent studies using eye tracking as a proxy for overt attention during face perception has identified culture-specific cognitive styles, such as the propensity to attend to very specific features of the face. Together, these results suggest a cascade of cultural influences on cognitive mechanisms involved in interpretations of facial expressions of emotion, whereby cultures impart specific behavioral practices that shape the way individuals process information from the environment. These cultural influences lead to differences in cognitive style, such as attentional biases and emotion prototypes, which partially account for the gradient of cultural agreements and disagreements obtained in past investigations.

  1. Cognitive subtypes in non-affected siblings of schizophrenia patients: characteristics and profile congruency with affected family members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, P.J.; Alizadeh, BZ; Aleman, A.; van den Heuvel, E.R.; Bruggeman, R.; Cahn, W.; de Haan, L.; Kahn, R.; Krabbendam, L.; Linzen, D.; Myin-Germeys, I.; van Os, J; Wiersma, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Although cognitive subtypes have been suggested in schizophrenia patients, similar analyses have not been carried out in their non-affected siblings. Subtype classification may provide more insight into genetically driven variation in cognitive function. We investigated cognitive

  2. Cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions affecting physical functioning: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murer Kurt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments that are similar to cognitive impairments seen in aging. The aim was to identify potentially promising methods that might be used in future intervention type studies for older adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted for the Medline/Premedline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. The search was focused on older adults over the age of 65. To increase the number of articles for review, we also included those discussing adult patients with neurological impairments due to trauma, as these cognitive impairments are similar to those seen in the aging population. The search was restricted to English, German and French language literature without any limitation of publication date or restriction by study design. Cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions were defined as dual-tasking, virtual reality exercise, cognitive exercise, or a combination of these. Results 28 articles met our inclusion criteria. Three articles used an isolated cognitive rehabilitation intervention, seven articles used a dual-task intervention and 19 applied a computerized intervention. There is evidence to suggest that cognitive or motor-cognitive methods positively affects physical functioning, such as postural control, walking abilities and general functions of the upper and lower extremities, respectively. The majority of the included studies resulted in improvements of the assessed functional outcome measures. Conclusions The current evidence on the

  3. Nutritional Factors Affecting Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Scott, Tammy; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis. Conversely, many dietary components such as curcumin, resveratrol, blueberry polyphenols, sulforaphane, salvionic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and diets enriched with polyphenols and PUFAs, as well as caloric restriction, physical exercise, and learning, have been shown to induce neurogenesis in adult brains. Although many of the underlying mechanisms by which nutrients and dietary factors affect adult neurogenesis have yet to be determined, nutritional approaches provide promising prospects to stimulate adult neurogenesis and combat neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the role of nutritional factors in modifying adult neurogenesis and their potential to preserve cognitive function during aging. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Affective Primacy vs. Cognitive Primacy: Dissolving the Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Vicky Tzuyin; Hagoort, Peter; Casasanto, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    When people see a snake, they are likely to activate both affective information (e.g., dangerous) and non-affective information about its ontological category (e.g., animal). According to the Affective Primacy Hypothesis, the affective information has priority, and its activation can precede identification of the ontological category of a stimulus. Alternatively, according to the Cognitive Primacy Hypothesis, perceivers must know what they are looking at before they can make an affective judgment about it. We propose that neither hypothesis holds at all times. Here we show that the relative speed with which affective and non-affective information gets activated by pictures and words depends upon the contexts in which stimuli are processed. Results illustrate that the question of whether affective information has processing priority over ontological information (or vice versa) is ill-posed. Rather than seeking to resolve the debate over Cognitive vs. Affective Primacy in favor of one hypothesis or the other, a more productive goal may be to determine the factors that cause affective information to have processing priority in some circumstances and ontological information in others. Our findings support a view of the mind according to which words and pictures activate different neurocognitive representations every time they are processed, the specifics of which are co-determined by the stimuli themselves and the contexts in which they occur.

  5. Affective Primacy vs. Cognitive Primacy: Dissolving the debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky T. Lai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available When people see a snake, they are likely to activate both affective information (e.g., dangerous and non-affective information about its ontological category (e.g., animal. According to the Affective Primacy Hypothesis, the affective information has priority, and its activation can precede identification of the ontological category of a stimulus. Alternatively, according to the Cognitive Primacy Hypothesis, perceivers must know what they are looking at before they can make an affective judgment about it. We propose that neither hypothesis holds at all times. Here we show that the relative speed with which affective and non-affective information gets activated by pictures and words depends upon the contexts in which stimuli are processed. Results illustrate that the question of whether affective information has processing priority over ontological information (or vice versa is ill posed. Rather than seeking to resolve the debate over Cognitive vs. Affective Primacy in favor of one hypothesis or the other, a more productive goal may be to determine the factors that cause affective information to have processing priority in some circumstances and ontological information in others. Our findings support a view of the mind according to which words and pictures activate different neurocognitive representations every time they are processed, the specifics of which are co-determined by the stimuli themselves and the contexts in which they occur.

  6. Developmental and Neurological Implications for Relating Cognition and Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, William M.

    Elements of a theory relating cognition and affect are outlined. The theory is heavily based upon neuroscience research regarding the hemispheric lateralization of various cognitive processes and emotions; specific examples are provided. Developmental research on intelligence as well as theories of intrinsic motivation, are also discussed.…

  7. Cognitive-Affective Dimensions of Female Orgasm: The Role of Automatic Thoughts and Affect During Sexual Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Inês M; Laan, Ellen T M; Nobre, Pedro J

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive-affective factors contribute to female sexual dysfunctions, defined as clinically significant difficulties in the ability to respond sexually or to experience sexual pleasure. Automatic thoughts and affect presented during sexual activity are acknowledged as maintenance factors for these difficulties. However, there is a lack of studies on the influence of these cognitive-affective dimensions regarding female orgasm. To assess the role of automatic thoughts and affect during sexual activity in predicting female orgasm occurrence and to investigate the mediator role of these variables in the relation between sexual activity and orgasm occurrence. Nine hundred twenty-six sexually active heterosexual premenopausal women reported on frequency of sexual activities and frequency of orgasm occurrence, cognitive factors, and social desirability. Participants completed the Sexual Modes Questionnaire-Automatic Thoughts Subscale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Socially Desirable Response Set. Multiple linear regressions and mediation analyses were performed, controlling for the effect of covariates such as social desirability, sociodemographic and medical characteristics, and relationship factors. The main outcome measurement was orgasm frequency as predicted and mediated by automatic thoughts and affect experienced during sexual activities. The presence of failure thoughts and lack of erotic thoughts during sexual activity significantly and negatively predicted female orgasm, whereas positive affect experienced during sexual activity significantly and positively predicted female orgasm. Moreover, negative automatic thoughts and positive affect during sexual activity were found to mediate the relation between sexual activity and female orgasm occurrence. These data suggest that the cognitive aspects of sexual involvement are critical to enhancing female orgasm experience and can aid the development of strategies that contemplate the central role

  8. Affective cognition: Exploring lay theories of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Desmond C; Zaki, Jamil; Goodman, Noah D

    2015-10-01

    Humans skillfully reason about others' emotions, a phenomenon we term affective cognition. Despite its importance, few formal, quantitative theories have described the mechanisms supporting this phenomenon. We propose that affective cognition involves applying domain-general reasoning processes to domain-specific content knowledge. Observers' knowledge about emotions is represented in rich and coherent lay theories, which comprise consistent relationships between situations, emotions, and behaviors. Observers utilize this knowledge in deciphering social agents' behavior and signals (e.g., facial expressions), in a manner similar to rational inference in other domains. We construct a computational model of a lay theory of emotion, drawing on tools from Bayesian statistics, and test this model across four experiments in which observers drew inferences about others' emotions in a simple gambling paradigm. This work makes two main contributions. First, the model accurately captures observers' flexible but consistent reasoning about the ways that events and others' emotional responses to those events relate to each other. Second, our work models the problem of emotional cue integration-reasoning about others' emotion from multiple emotional cues-as rational inference via Bayes' rule, and we show that this model tightly tracks human observers' empirical judgments. Our results reveal a deep structural relationship between affective cognition and other forms of inference, and suggest wide-ranging applications to basic psychological theory and psychiatry. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Positive and negative affect, depression, and cognitive processes in the Cognition in the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (Co-STAR) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhauer, Suzanne C; Legault, Claudine; Bandos, Hanna; Kidwell, Kelley; Costantino, Joseph; Vaughan, Leslie; Avis, Nancy E; Rapp, Steve; Coker, Laura H; Naughton, Michelle; Naylor, Cecile; Terracciano, Antonio; Shumaker, Sally

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between positive and negative affect, depressive symptoms, and cognitive performance. The sample consisted of 1479 non-demented, postmenopausal women (mean age = 67 years) at increased risk of breast cancer enrolled in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project's Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene. At each annual visit, women completed a standardized neuropsychological battery and self-report measures of affect and depression. Data from three visits were used in linear mixed models for repeated measures using likelihood ratio tests. Separate analyses were performed to relate positive/negative affect and depression to each cognitive measure. Higher positive affect was associated with better letter fluency (p = .006) and category fluency (p negative affect was associated with worse global cognitive function (p negatively associated with verbal knowledge (p = .004), figural memory (p positive affect and increased verbal fluency and between depressive symptoms and decreased memory. The most novel finding shows that negative affect is related to decreased global cognition and visuospatial ability. Overall, this research in a large, longitudinal sample supports the notion that positive affect is related to increases and negative affect to decreases in performance on distinct cognitive measures.

  10. Hearts and Minds: The Priority of Affective versus Cognitive Factors in Person Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kari; Hippel, William von

    1995-01-01

    In two experiments, affect-based and cognition-based attitudes toward a person were induced by varying sequence of affective and cognitive information presented to subjects while holding content constant. Results indicated affect-based attitudes were most effectively changed by affective persuasive appeals, whether these appeals were produced by…

  11. Cognitive dysfunction, affective states and vulnerability to nicotine addiction: a multifactorial perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Forget

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although smoking prevalence has declined in recent years, certain subpopulations continue to smoke at disproportionately high rates and show resistance to cessation treatments. Individuals showing cognitive and affective impairments such as emotional distress and deficits in attention, memory and inhibitory control, particularly in the context of psychiatric conditions such as ADHD, schizophrenia and mood disorders, are at higher risk for tobacco addiction. Nicotine has been shown to improve cognitive and emotional processing in some conditions, including during tobacco abstinence. Self-medication of cognitive deficits or negative affect has been proposed to underlie high rates of tobacco smoking among people with psychiatric disorders. However, pre-existing cognitive and mood disorders may also influence the development and maintenance of nicotine dependence, by biasing nicotine-induced alterations in information processing and associative learning, decision making, and inhibitory control. Here we discuss the potential forms of contribution of cognitive and affective deficits to nicotine addiction-related processes, by reviewing major clinical and preclinical studies investigating either the pro-cognitive and therapeutic action of nicotine or the putative primary role of cognitive and emotional impairments in addiction-like features.

  12. Affective and Cognitive Verbal Theory of Mind in Schizophrenia: Results From a Novel Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okruszek, Łukasz; Piejka, Aleksandra; Szczepocka, Ewa; Wysokiński, Adam; Pluta, Agnieszka

    2018-03-01

    Impairments of Theory of Mind (ToM) have been repeatedly demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). However, only a handful of studies have explored deficits in affective and cognitive subcomponents of ToM. Thus, this study aims to examine affective and cognitive ToM abilities in SCZ by using a novel, verbal paradigm. Twenty-four SCZ and 22 healthy comparison subjects (HC) completed a battery of tasks, which consisted of: (i) Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool for Schizophrenia (B-CATS), (ii) three well-established tasks measuring social cognitive abilities, and (iii) original tasks which assess ability to infer cognitive and affective mental states based on everyday verbal social interactions. In line with previous findings, SCZ were outperformed by HC in all tasks. However, the interaction effect of the group and the task showed that cognitive (as opposed to affective) ToM was more profoundly impaired in patients with SCZ. It is proposed that in SCZ group cognitive ToM is more impaired as it involves more effortful reflective processes, while affective ToM, which is more automatic and based on reflexive processes, may differentiate patients from healthy comparison subjects to a lesser extent. (JINS, 2018, 24, 305-309).

  13. Understanding antigay bias from a cognitive-affective-behavioral perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Kevin A

    2015-01-01

    In general, United States citizens have become increasingly more accepting of lesbians and gay men over the past few decades. Despite this shift in public attitudes, antigay bias remains openly tolerated, accepted, practiced, and even defended by a substantial portion of the population. This article reviews why and how antigay bias persists using a cognitive-affective-behavioral perspective that touches on sociocognitive factors such as prejudice and stereotyping, as well as features unique to antigay bias, such as its concealable nature. The article concludes with a discussion of how understanding modern antigay bias through a cognitive-affective-behavioral lens can be applied to reduce discrimination against gays and lesbians.

  14. Links Among Cognitive Empathy, Theory of Mind, and Affective Perspective Taking by Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalah, Leïla; Caillies, Stéphanie; Anduze, Marion

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the development of the affective, cognitive, and behavioral components of empathy in preschoolers, specifically examining how cognitive empathy is linked to theory of mind and affective perspective taking. Participants were 158 children aged 4-6 years. They listened to narratives and then answered questions about the protagonists' emotions. The affective component was probed with the question, "How do you feel seeing the little girl/boy?"; the cognitive component with the question, "Why do you feel [emotion shared with the character]?"; and the behavioral one with the question, "What would you do if you were next to the little boy/girl [experiencing an emotional scenario]?" Results revealed a developmental sequence in the self-focused attribution of cognitive empathy, and a trend toward a developmental sequence for behavioral empathy, which underwent a slight linear increase between 4 and 6 years old. Affective empathy remained stable. More interestingly, they showed that cognitive empathy is linked to both theory of mind and affective perspective taking.

  15. Experimental Methods in Psychology and Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Habekost, Thomas; Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have always been important in psychology and are as commonly used today as ever due to the dominating position of cognitive research in international psychology. This trend has been further strengthened by recent developments in cognitive neuroscience, where experimental studies are central. Recently, experimental studies within the fi eld of affective neuroscience have also received attention. Notwithstanding, experimental methods remain controversial also in psychology...

  16. Cognitive impairment in the euthymic phase of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A review of studies of cognition in the euthymic phase of unipolar and bipolar affective disorder reveals diverging results. METHODS: The study was designed as a controlled cohort study, with the Danish psychiatric case register of admissions used to identify patients and the Danish...... civil register to identify controls. Patients who were hospitalized between 19 and 25 years ago with an affective diagnosis and who at interviews fulfilled criteria for a primary affective unipolar or bipolar disorder, according to ICD-10, were compared with age- and gender-matched controls. Interviews...... and assessment of the cognitive function were made in the euthymic phase of the disorder. In all, 118 unipolar patients, 28 bipolar patients and 58 controls were included. Analyses were adjusted for differences in the level of education and for subclinical depressive and anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: Patients...

  17. Distinguishing the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes to improve prediction of food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendel, Olivier; Werle, Carolina O C

    2016-09-01

    Eating behaviors largely result from automatic processes. Yet, in existing research, automatic or implicit attitudes toward food often fail to predict eating behaviors. Applying findings in cognitive neuroscience research, we propose and find that a central reason why implicit attitudes toward food are not good predictors of eating behaviors is that implicit attitudes are driven by two distinct constructs that often have diverging evaluative consequences: the automatic affective reactions to food (e.g., tastiness; the affective basis of implicit attitudes) and the automatic cognitive reactions to food (e.g., healthiness; the cognitive basis of implicit attitudes). More importantly, we find that the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes directly and uniquely influence actual food choices under different conditions. While the affective basis of implicit attitude is the main driver of food choices, it is the only driver when cognitive resources during choice are limited. The cognitive basis of implicit attitudes uniquely influences food choices when cognitive resources during choice are plentiful but only for participants low in impulsivity. Researchers interested in automatic processes in eating behaviors could thus benefit by distinguishing between the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Affective and Cognitive Responses to Poetry in the University Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, Kate; Simecek, Karen

    2016-01-01

    In universities, as in mainstream education more widely, cognitive approaches to poetry are often dominant. Far from being irrelevant to the serious study of literature, we argue that eliciting students' affective responses to poetry can deepen their cognitive understanding and analytical skills. Drawing on recent research in psychology on the…

  19. Cognitive and affective perspective-taking in conduct-disordered children high and low on callous-unemotional traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous Xenia

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficits in cognitive and/or affective perspective-taking have been implicated in Conduct-Disorder (CD, but empirical investigations produced equivocal results. Two factors may be implicated: (a distinct deficits underlying the antisocial conduct of CD subgroups, (b plausible disjunction between cognitive and affective perspective-taking with subgroups presenting either cognitive or affective-specific deficits. Method This study employed a second-order false-belief paradigm in which the cognitive perspective-taking questions tapped the character's thoughts and the affective perspective-taking questions tapped the emotions generated by these thoughts. Affective and cognitive perspective-taking was compared across three groups of children: (a CD elevated on Callous-Unemotional traits (CD-high-CU, n = 30, (b CD low on CU traits (CD-low-CU, n = 42, and (c a 'typically-developing' comparison group (n = 50, matched in age (7.5 – 10.8, gender and socioeconomic background. Results The results revealed deficits in CD-low-CU children for both affective and cognitive perspective-taking. In contrast CD-high-CU children showed relative competency in cognitive, but deficits in affective-perspective taking, a finding that suggests an affective-specific defect and a plausible dissociation of affective and cognitive perspective-taking in CD-high-CU children. Conclusion Present findings indicate that deficits in cognitive perspective-taking that have long been implicated in CD appear to be characteristic of a subset of CD children. In contrast affective perspective-taking deficits characterise both CD subgroups, but these defects seem to be following diverse developmental paths that warrant further investigation.

  20. Neural processing associated with cognitive and affective Theory of Mind in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Catherine L; Fontaine, Nathalie M G; Bird, Geoffrey; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Brito, Stephane A De; McCrory, Eamon J P; Viding, Essi

    2012-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to attribute thoughts, intentions and beliefs to others. This involves component processes, including cognitive perspective taking (cognitive ToM) and understanding emotions (affective ToM). This study assessed the distinction and overlap of neural processes involved in these respective components, and also investigated their development between adolescence and adulthood. While data suggest that ToM develops between adolescence and adulthood, these populations have not been compared on cognitive and affective ToM domains. Using fMRI with 15 adolescent (aged 11-16 years) and 15 adult (aged 24-40 years) males, we assessed neural responses during cartoon vignettes requiring cognitive ToM, affective ToM or physical causality comprehension (control). An additional aim was to explore relationships between fMRI data and self-reported empathy. Both cognitive and affective ToM conditions were associated with neural responses in the classic ToM network across both groups, although only affective ToM recruited medial/ventromedial PFC (mPFC/vmPFC). Adolescents additionally activated vmPFC more than did adults during affective ToM. The specificity of the mPFC/vmPFC response during affective ToM supports evidence from lesion studies suggesting that vmPFC may integrate affective information during ToM. Furthermore, the differential neural response in vmPFC between adult and adolescent groups indicates developmental changes in affective ToM processing.

  1. The radiotherapy affects the cognitive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers from the medical center of the free university of Amsterdam report that the radiotherapy can hinder the cognitive functions of patients affected by cerebral tumors treated after a surgery. Even low dose radiation could contribute in their opinion, to the progressive cognitive decline of patients suffering of low grade gliomas, the most commune cerebral tumor. To get these conclusions, 65 patients, whom half of them received a radiotherapy, had a neurological and psychological evaluation twelve years after their treatment. Results: 53% of patients treated by radiotherapy present disorders of attention, memory, execution and speed of information treatment against 27% of these ones that received an only surgery. The researchers conclude to the necessity to take into account this risk in the choice of treatment, or even to avoid radiotherapy in this precise case. (N.C.)

  2. Cognitive-Affective Dimensions of Female Orgasm: The Role of Automatic Thoughts and Affect During Sexual Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavares, Inês M.; Laan, Ellen T. M.; Nobre, Pedro J.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-affective factors contribute to female sexual dysfunctions, defined as clinically significant difficulties in the ability to respond sexually or to experience sexual pleasure. Automatic thoughts and affect presented during sexual activity are acknowledged as maintenance factors for these

  3. AFFECT: Altered-Fidelity Framework for Enhancing Cognition and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Patrick McMahan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new framework for analyzing and designing virtual reality (VR techniques. This framework is based on two concepts—system fidelity (i.e., the degree with which real-world experiences are reproduced by a system and memory (i.e., the formation and activation of perceptual, cognitive, and motor networks of neurons. The premise of the framework is to manipulate an aspect of system fidelity in order to assist a stage of memory. We call it the Altered-Fidelity Framework for Enhancing Cognition and Training (AFFECT. AFFECT provides nine categories of approaches to altering system fidelity to positively affect learning or training. These categories are based on the intersections of three aspects of system fidelity (interaction fidelity, scenario fidelity, and display fidelity and three stages of memory (encoding, implicit retrieval, and explicit retrieval. In addition to discussing the details of our new framework, we show how AFFECT can be used as a tool for analyzing and categorizing VR techniques designed to facilitate learning or training. We also demonstrate how AFFECT can be used as a design space for creating new VR techniques intended for educational and training systems.

  4. Cognitive and affective influences on perceived risk of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipins, Lucy A; McCarty, Frances; Hawkins, Nikki A; Rodriguez, Juan L; Scholl, Lawrence E; Leadbetter, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Studies suggest that both affective and cognitive processes are involved in the perception of vulnerability to cancer and that affect has an early influence in this assessment of risk. We constructed a path model based on a conceptual framework of heuristic reasoning (affect, resemblance, and availability) coupled with cognitive processes involved in developing personal models of cancer causation. From an eligible cohort of 16 700 women in a managed care organization, we randomly selected 2524 women at high, elevated, and average risk of ovarian cancer and administered a questionnaire to test our model (response rate 76.3%). Path analysis delineated the relationships between personal and cognitive characteristics (number of relatives with cancer, age, ideas about cancer causation, perceived resemblance to an affected friend or relative, and ovarian cancer knowledge) and emotional constructs (closeness to an affected relative or friend, time spent processing the cancer experience, and cancer worry) on perceived risk of ovarian cancer. Our final model fit the data well (root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.028, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.99, normed fit index (NFI) = 0.98). This final model (1) demonstrated the nature and direction of relationships between cognitive characteristics and perceived risk; (2) showed that time spent processing the cancer experience was associated with cancer worry; and (3) showed that cancer worry moderately influenced perceived risk. Our results highlight the important role that family cancer experience has on cancer worry and shows how cancer experience translates into personal risk perceptions. This understanding informs the discordance between medical or objective risk assessment and personal risk assessment. Published in 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published in 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Conflict adaptation is predicted by the cognitive, but not the affective alexithymia dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel ede Galan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Stimulus-induced response conflict (e.g., in Simon or Stroop tasks is often reduced after conflict trials—the Gratton effect. It is generally assumed that this effect is due to a strengthening of the representation of the current intention or goal, which in turn increases the degree of stimulus and/or response control. Recent evidence suggests that the motivational signal driving the Gratton effect might be affective in nature. If so, individual differences in either the strength of affective signals and/or the ability to interpret such signals might explain individual differences in cognitive-control adjustments as reflected in the Gratton effect. We tested this hypothesis by relating individual sizes of the Gratton effect in a Simon task to scores on the affective and the cognitive dimension of the Bermond/Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ—which we assumed to assess individual differences in affective-signal strength and ability to interpret affective signals, respectively. Results show that the cognitive, but not the affective dimension predicted control adjustment, while the accuracy of heartbeat detection was only (and only weakly related to online control. This suggests that the motivation to fine-tune one’s cognitive-control operations is mediated by, and may depend on one’s ability to interpret one’s own affective signals.

  6. Affective and cognitive meta-bases of attitudes: Unique effects on information interest and persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Ya Hui Michelle; Petty, Richard E; Fabrigar, Leandre R

    2008-06-01

    The authors investigated the predictive utility of people's subjective assessments of whether their evaluations are affect- or cognition driven (i.e., meta-cognitive bases) as separate from whether people's attitudes are actually affect- or cognition based (i.e., structural bases). Study 1 demonstrated that meta-bases uniquely predict interest in affective versus cognitive information above and beyond structural bases and other related variables (i.e., need for cognition and need for affect). In Study 2, meta-bases were shown to account for unique variance in attitude change as a function of appeal type. Finally, Study 3 showed that as people became more deliberative in their judgments, meta-bases increased in predictive utility, and structural bases decreased in predictive utility. These findings support the existence of meta-bases of attitudes and demonstrate that meta-bases are distinguishable from structural bases in their predictive utility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The Impact of Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Cognitive Conflict on Learners' Conceptual Change about Floating and Sinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiachilleos, Stella; Valanides, Nicos; Angeli, Charoula

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cognitive conflict has been identified as an important factor for bringing about students' conceptual change. Researchers draw attention to the need to study not only cognitive factors related to cognitive conflict but affective factors as well. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of cognitive…

  8. Sibsize, Family Environment, Cognitive Performance, and Affective Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    1976-01-01

    Incorporates measures of family environment (parent-child interaction) into research methodology to study the effects of sibsize (family size and birth order) on a child's cognitive performance and affective behavior. Provides tentative support for the confluence model of sibsize influences on children's behaviors. (RL)

  9. When Affect Supports Cognitive Control – A Working Memory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolańczyk Alina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper delineates a study of executive functions (EFs, construed as procedural working memory (WM, from a motivational perspective. Since WM theories and motivation theories are both concerned with purposive activity, the role of implicit evaluations (affects observed in goal pursuit can be anticipated to arise also in the context of cognitive control, e.g., during the performance of the Stroop task. The role of positive and negative affect in goal pursuit consists in controlling attention resources according to the goal and situational requirements. Positive affect serves to maintain goals and means in the scope of attention (EF1, whereas negative affect activates the inhibition of non-functional contents, e.g., distractors and irrelevant objects (resulting in attention disengagement; EF2. Adaptation to conflict proceeds via sequential triggering of negative and positive affect (EF3. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the focus on action or reflection changes the scope of contents subjected to implicit (affective control. Therefore, I suggest that the motivational system, to a large extent, plays the role of the Central Executive. The paper opens a discussion and proposes studies on affective mechanisms of cognitive control.

  10. Psychological biases affecting human cognitive performance in dynamic operational environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Kenichi; Reason, J.

    1999-01-01

    In order to identify cognitive error mechanisms observed in the dynamic operational environment, the following materials were analyzed giving special attention to psychological biases, together with possible cognitive tasks and these location, and internal and external performance shaping factors: (a) 13 human factors analyses of US nuclear power plant accidents, (b) 14 cases of Japanese nuclear power plant incidents, and (c) 23 cases collected in simulator experiments. In the resulting analysis, the most frequently identified cognitive process associated with error productions was situation assessment, and following varieties were KB processes and response planning, all of that were the higher cognitive activities. Over 70% of human error cases, psychological bias was affecting to cognitive errors, especially those to higher cognitive activities. In addition, several error occurrence patterns, including relations between cognitive process, biases, and PSFs were identified by the multivariate analysis. According to the identified error patterns, functions that an operator support system have to equip were discussed and specified for design base considerations. (author)

  11. Organizational identification and the communication of identity: effects of message characteristics on cognitive and affective identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanis, Martin; Beukeboom, Camiel J

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports an experimental study (N= 321) that tests how the cognitive and affective component of organizational identification (OI) can be affected by peripheral characteristics of organizational communication. Results show that adding cues in emails that signal organizational identity, such as the company logo, font, and colour of text, positively affect the cognitive component of OI, but not the affective component. In contrast, a personal focus in the message had a positive effect on the affective, but not on the cognitive component of OI. This study supports the idea that OI is a multi-faceted construct comprising a cognitive and affective component, and that these different components can be affected by different characteristics of organizational email messages. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  12. The Role of Affective and Cognitive Individual Differences in Social Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Antonio; Haddock, Geoffrey; Maio, Gregory R; Wolf, Lukas J; Alparone, Francesca R

    2016-06-01

    Three studies explored the connection between social perception processes and individual differences in the use of affective and cognitive information in relation to attitudes. Study 1 revealed that individuals high in need for affect (NFA) accentuated differences in evaluations of warm and cold traits, whereas individuals high in need for cognition (NFC) accentuated differences in evaluations of competent and incompetent traits. Study 2 revealed that individual differences in NFA predicted liking of warm or cold targets, whereas individual differences in NFC predicted perceptions of competent or incompetent targets. Furthermore, the effects of NFA and NFC were independent of structural bases and meta-bases of attitudes. Study 3 revealed that differences in the evaluation of warm and cold traits mediated the effects of NFA and NFC on liking of targets. The implications for social perception processes and for individual differences in affect-cognition are discussed. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  13. THE HUMAN ACTIVITY AS AFFECTIVE-COGNITIVE UNIT: A HISTORIC-CULTURAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Márcia Martins

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article puts in question the affectional-cognitive unit which sustains the human activity, with the purpose to light incorrectness of approaches which dichotomize reason and emotion. It asserts that such dissociations are founded in theorical-methodological principles which set bounds for explanations about the human psychism, so that the overcoming of referred dualisms puts on as a method matter. For making explicit that assertion, it resorted to Historic-Cultural Psychology, based on that it explains about the psychism as subjective image of objective reality, of Vygotskyan criticisms to Cartesian dualism and the need of a historic-cultural approach on emotion studies, intend to analyzing the human activity as a affective-cognitive unit and the imbricated relations that are waged, within it, among affections, emotions, feelings and thoughts. Once presented the interrelations between emotions and cognitions this exhibition argues that the concepts are necessary as a minimum unit of analysis both of thought and feelings.

  14. Experimental Methods in Psychology and Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    studies are central. Recently, experimental studies within the field of affective neuroscience have also received attention. Notwithstanding, experimental methods remain controversial also in psychology, and one should carefully weigh their advantages against their drawbacks.......Laboratory experiments have always been important in psychology and are as commonly used today as ever due to the dominating position of cognitive research in international psychology. This trend has been further strengthened by recent developments in cognitive neuroscience, where experimental...

  15. Affect or cognition: which is more influencing older adult consumers' loyalty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Deepraj; Mustika, Martina Dwi; Sjabadhyni, Bertina

    2018-04-01

    In studies on consumer behavior science, it is argued that brand affect, consumer satisfaction, and disconfirmation influence brand loyalty. This study aims to investigate whether the interaction of brand affect and cognition predicts brand loyalty in older adult consumers if consumer satisfaction is considered. A group of 344 older adult consumers participated and a mediated moderation analysis of the data was used to test our hypotheses. The results showed that consumer satisfaction increased the relationship between brand affect and brand loyalty in older adult consumers. However, disconfirmation did not influence that relationship. It can be concluded that the loyalty of older adult consumers toward a brand was more likely to be influenced by their affection than their cognition. Therefore, marketers should design products that better satisfy this population group and create loyalty to the product through enhancing affect connections.

  16. Embodied Cognition and the Direct Induction of Affect as a Compliment to Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Pietrzak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We make the case for the possible integration of affect experience induced via embodiment techniques with CBT for the treatment of emotional disorders in clinical settings. Theoretically we propose a possible integration of cognitive behavioural theory, neuroscience, embodied cognition and important processes of client change outcomes such as the therapeutic alliance to enhance client outcomes. We draw from evidence of bidirectional effects between embodiment modes of bottom-up (sensory-motor simulations giving rise to important basis of knowledge and top-down (abstract mental representations of knowledge processes such as CBT in psychotherapy. The paper first describes the dominance and success of CBT for the treatment of a wide range of clinical disorders. Some limitations of CBT, particularly for depression are also outlined. There is a growing body of evidence for the added value of experiential affect-focused interventions combined with CBT. Evidence for the embodied model of cognition and emotion is reviewed. Advantages of embodiment is highlighted as a complimentary process model to deepen the intensity and valence of affective experience. It is suggested that an integrated embodiment approach with CBT enhances outcomes across a wide range of emotional disorders. A description of our embodiment method integrated with CBT for inducing affective experience, emotional regulation, acceptance of unwanted emotions and emotional mastery is given. Finally, the paper highlights the importance of the therapeutic alliance as a critical component of the change process. The paper ends with a case study highlighting some clinical strategies that may aid the therapist to integrate embodiment techniques in CBT that can further explore in future research on affective experience in CBT for a wider range of clinical disorders.

  17. Embodied Cognition and the Direct Induction of Affect as a Compliment to Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Tania; Lohr, Christina; Jahn, Beverly; Hauke, Gernot

    2018-02-26

    We make the case for the possible integration of affect experience induced via embodiment techniques with CBT for the treatment of emotional disorders in clinical settings. Theoretically we propose a possible integration of cognitive behavioural theory, neuroscience, embodied cognition and important processes of client change outcomes such as the therapeutic alliance to enhance client outcomes. We draw from evidence of bidirectional effects between embodiment modes of bottom-up (sensory-motor simulations giving rise to important basis of knowledge) and top-down (abstract mental representations of knowledge) processes such as CBT in psychotherapy. The paper first describes the dominance and success of CBT for the treatment of a wide range of clinical disorders. Some limitations of CBT, particularly for depression are also outlined. There is a growing body of evidence for the added value of experiential affect-focused interventions combined with CBT. Evidence for the embodied model of cognition and emotion is reviewed. Advantages of embodiment is highlighted as a complimentary process model to deepen the intensity and valence of affective experience. It is suggested that an integrated embodiment approach with CBT enhances outcomes across a wide range of emotional disorders. A description of our embodiment method integrated with CBT for inducing affective experience, emotional regulation, acceptance of unwanted emotions and emotional mastery is given. Finally, the paper highlights the importance of the therapeutic alliance as a critical component of the change process. The paper ends with a case study highlighting some clinical strategies that may aid the therapist to integrate embodiment techniques in CBT that can further explore in future research on affective experience in CBT for a wider range of clinical disorders.

  18. Affective and cognitive empathy in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eMazza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The broad construct of empathy incorporates both cognitive and affective dimensions. Recent evidence suggests that the subjects with Autistic Spectrum disorder (ASD show a significant impairment in empathic ability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cognitive and affective components of empathy in adolescents with ASD compared to controls. Fifteen adolescents with ASD and fifteen controls underwent paper and pencil measures and a computerized Multifaceted Empathy Test. All measures were divided into Mentalizing and Experience sharing abilities. Adolescents with ASD compared to controls showed deficits in all mentalizing measures: they were incapable of interpreting and understanding the mental and emotional states of other people. Instead, in the sharing experience measures, the adolescents with ASD were able to empathize with the emotional experience of other people when they express emotions with positive valence, but were not able to do so when the emotional valence is negative. These results were confirmed by the computerized task. In conclusion, our results suggest that adolescents with ASD show a difficulty in cognitive empathy, whereas the deficit in affective empathy is specific for the negative emotional valence.

  19. The drive to control : how affect and motivation regulate cognitive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, Hendrik van

    2012-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis aimed to investigate how affect and motivation impact cognitive control, in terms of both behavior and brain activation. Six out of the eight empirical studies found support for indirect effects on cognitive control, as measured with sequential trial-to-trial

  20. Searching for Affective and Cognitive Restoration: Examining the Restorative Effects of Casual Video Game Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Michael A; Sweetman, Richard; Sosa, Alejandra E; Smither, Janan A; McConnell, Daniel S

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the effects of a passive break, relaxation activity, and casual video game on affect, stress, engagement, and cognitive performance. Reducing stress and improving cognitive performance is critical across many domains. Previous studies investigated taking a break, relaxation techniques, or playing a game; however, these methods have not been compared within a single experiment. Participants completed a baseline affective and cognitive assessment (ACA), which included the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, shortened version of the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire, and backward digit-span. Next, participants completed a vigilance task, followed by another ACA. Participants were then assigned at random to complete a break or relaxation activity or play a casual video game, followed by a final ACA. Participants who played the casual video game exhibited greater engagement and affective restoration than the relaxation condition. The break condition slightly decreased affect and prevented cognitive restoration. Playing a casual video game even briefly can restore individuals' affective abilities, making it a suitable activity to restore mood in response to stress. However, future research is needed to find activities capable of cognitive restoration. Many activities in life require sustained cognitive demand, which are stressful and decrease performance, especially for workers in performance-critical domains. Our research suggests some leisure activities are better than others for restoring fatigued affective processes.

  1. The Relationship Between Empathy and Reading Fiction: Separate Roles for Cognitive and Affective Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stansfield

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that both life-time experience of reading fiction and the extent to which a reader feels ‘transported’ by the narrative are associated with empathy. This study examined these relationships further by delineating empathy into cognitive and affective components. Thirty-three participants were tested on prior exposure to fiction, transportation, and different measures of cognitive empathy, affective empathy and helping tendency. The results revealed that exposure to fiction was associated with trait cognitive, but not affective, empathy, while the experience of being transported was associated with story-induced affective empathy. Story-induced affective empathy was also associated with helping tendency. The results are discussed by considering implications for relationships between reactions to fictional worlds and reactions to real-world behaviours.

  2. Impaired cognition and decision-making in bipolar depression but no 'affective bias' evident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsztein, J S; Michael, A; Underwood, B R; Tempest, M; Sahakian, B J

    2006-05-01

    Depression is usually the predominant affective state in bipolar disorder. There are few studies, with discrepant views, examining the extent of cognitive impairment in patients with bipolar depression. To our knowledge, there are no previous studies examining decision-making ability or whether there is an affective attentional bias in bipolar depression. We ascertained 24 depressed bipolar I patients from acute psychiatric hospital wards and out-patient clinics and 26 age- and IQ-matched healthy controls. Using computerized tests we evaluated their performance on 'neutral' (non-emotional) cognitive tasks (i.e. memory, attention and executive function) and on novel tasks of emotional cognition (i.e. the decision-making task and the affective go/no-go task). Accuracy measures were significantly impaired on tests of visual and spatial recognition and attentional set-shifting in bipolar depression compared with age- and IQ-matched controls. The quality of decision-making was also significantly impaired in the patients. A mood-congruent attentional bias for 'sad' targets was not evident on the affective go/no-go task. We found widespread evidence of significant cognitive impairment and impaired quality of decision-making in symptomatically severe depressed bipolar patients. This cognitive impairment may contribute to difficulties with daily living, decision-making and the ability to engage and comply with psychological and drug treatments.

  3. The moderating effects of aging and cognitive abilities on the association between work stress and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jinshil; Sliwinski, Martin J; Almeida, David M; Smyth, Joshua M; Scott, Stacey B

    2018-05-01

    Given that the association between work stress and negative affect can exacerbate negative health and workplace outcomes, it is important to identify the protective and risk factors that moderate this association. Socioemotional aging and cognitive abilities might influence how people utilize emotion regulation skills and engage in practical problem solving to manage their work stress. The aim of this study is to examine whether age and cognitive abilities independently and interactively moderate the association between work-related stress and negative affect. A diverse working adult sample (N = 139, age 25-65, 69% of females) completed a cross-sectional survey that assessed chronic work stress, negative affect, and fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities. Results from regression analyses suggested that both fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities, but not age, moderated the association between work stress and negative affect. Further, we found that crystallized cognition had a stronger attenuating effect on the work stress-negative affect association for older compared to younger workers. The moderating effect of fluid cognition was invariant across age. Our findings demonstrate that cognitive abilities are an important personal resource that might protect individuals against the negative impacts of work stress and negative affect. Although the role that fluid cognition plays in work stress-negative affect association is comparably important for both younger and older workers, crystallized cognition might play a more valuable role for older than younger workers.

  4. Affect or cognition: which is more influencing older adult consumers' loyalty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepraj Kaur

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In studies on consumer behavior science, it is argued that brand affect, consumer satisfaction, and disconfirmation influence brand loyalty. This study aims to investigate whether the interaction of brand affect and cognition predicts brand loyalty in older adult consumers if consumer satisfaction is considered. A group of 344 older adult consumers participated and a mediated moderation analysis of the data was used to test our hypotheses. The results showed that consumer satisfaction increased the relationship between brand affect and brand loyalty in older adult consumers. However, disconfirmation did not influence that relationship. It can be concluded that the loyalty of older adult consumers toward a brand was more likely to be influenced by their affection than their cognition. Therefore, marketers should design products that better satisfy this population group and create loyalty to the product through enhancing affect connections. Keywords: Business, Psychology

  5. Appraisals to affect: Testing the integrative cognitive model of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmier-Claus, Jasper E; Dodd, Alyson; Tai, Sara; Emsley, Richard; Mansell, Warren

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive models have suggested that extreme appraisals of affective states and maladaptive affect regulation strategies are important in the development of bipolar symptomatology. Little is known about the pathway by which these appraisals and behaviours interact in the formation of activated and depressed affective states. This study tested the predictions that (1) ascent behaviours mediate the relationship between positive appraisals of activated mood and activation; and (2) descent behaviours mediate the relationship between negative appraisals of activated mood and depression. A total of 52 individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar I or II disorder (confirmed by structured interview) completed biweekly assessments of affect regulation behaviours and mood for 4 weeks. Positive and negative appraisals of affective states were assessed at baseline through the Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Prediction Inventory. Multilevel mediation analysis was used to explore the data. Ascent behaviours partially mediated the relationship between positive appraisals of activated mood and activation. Descent behaviours, but not negative appraisals of activated mood, predicted levels of depression indicating the absence of a mediation effect. The results suggest that positive appraisals of activated mood can escalate activation in individuals with bipolar disorder. Such appraisals may be inherently rewarding and reinforcing directly elevating levels of activation, whilst increasing individuals' use of ascent behaviours. The results are consistent with the view that appraisals and behaviours should be targeted during cognitive behavioural therapy for bipolar disorder. It may be beneficial to target positive appraisals of activated mood in cognitive behavioural therapy for mania. Cognitive behavioural therapists may also wish to focus on identifying and targeting individuals' use of ascent behaviours to reduce highly activated states. © 2015 The British Psychological

  6. Cognitive Load Does Not Affect the Behavioral and Cognitive Foundations of Social Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieth, Laura; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The present study serves to test whether the cognitive mechanisms underlying social cooperation are affected by cognitive load. Participants interacted with trustworthy-looking and untrustworthy-looking partners in a sequential Prisoner's Dilemma Game. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated to stimulate expectations about the future behavior of the partners which were either violated or confirmed by the partners' cheating or cooperation during the game. In a source memory test, participants were required to recognize the partners and to classify them as cheaters or cooperators. A multinomial model was used to disentangle item memory, source memory and guessing processes. We found an expectancy-congruent bias toward guessing that trustworthy-looking partners were more likely to be associated with cooperation than untrustworthy-looking partners. Source memory was enhanced for cheating that violated the participants' positive expectations about trustworthy-looking partners. We were interested in whether or not this expectancy-violation effect-that helps to revise unjustified expectations about trustworthy-looking partners-depends on cognitive load induced via a secondary continuous reaction time task. Although this secondary task interfered with working memory processes in a validation study, both the expectancy-congruent guessing bias as well as the expectancy-violation effect were obtained with and without cognitive load. These findings support the hypothesis that the expectancy-violation effect is due to a simple mechanism that does not rely on demanding elaborative processes. We conclude that most cognitive mechanisms underlying social cooperation presumably operate automatically so that they remain unaffected by cognitive load.

  7. The effect of negative affect on cognition: Anxiety, not anger, impairs executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Tewell, Carl A; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these 2 affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in participants and examined the effects on executive function. We found that anger did not impair executive function relative to a neutral mood, whereas anxiety did. In addition, self-reports of induced anxiety, but not anger, predicted impairments in executive function. These results support functional models of affect and cognition, and highlight the need to consider differences between anxiety and anger when investigating the influence of negative affect on fundamental cognitive processes such as memory and executive function. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Cognitive Change across Cognitive-Behavioral and Light Therapy Treatments for Seasonal Affective Disorder: What Accounts for Clinical Status the Next Winter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Maggie; Rohan, Kelly J; Sitnikov, Lilya; Mahon, Jennifer N; Nillni, Yael I; Lindsey, Kathryn Tierney; Vacek, Pamela M

    2013-12-01

    Efficacious treatments for seasonal affective disorder include light therapy and a seasonal affective disorder-tailored form of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Using data from a parent clinical trial, these secondary analyses examined the relationship between cognitive change over treatment with cognitive-behavioral therapy, light therapy, or combination treatment and mood outcomes the next winter. Sixty-nine participants were randomly assigned to 6-weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy, light therapy, or combination treatment. Cognitive constructs (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes, negative automatic thoughts, and rumination) were assessed at pre- and post-treatment. Dysfunctional attitudes, negative automatic thoughts, and rumination improved over acute treatment, regardless of modality; however, in participants randomized to solo cognitive-behavioral therapy, a greater degree of improvement in dysfunctional attitudes and automatic thoughts was uniquely associated with less severe depressive symptoms the next winter. Change in maladaptive thoughts during acute treatment appears mechanistic of solo cognitive-behavioral therapy's enduring effects the next winter, but is simply a consequence of diminished depression in light therapy and combination treatment.

  9. Commentary: cognitive-affective mechanisms and processes in autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Martin A

    2003-03-01

    This commentary highlights some of the interesting points to emerge from the preceding papers about the self, social, and directive functions of autobiographical memory. Additionally some cognitive functions are also considered and especially the way in which autobiographical memory supports, constrains, and maintains the goals of the self. Directions for future research into the self, social, directive, and cognitive-affective functions and processes of autobiographical memory are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on future research into the function of autobiographical memory in representations of attachment.

  10. Drug addiction: An affective-cognitive disorder in need of a cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Diana, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Drug addiction is a compulsive behavioral abnormality. In spite of pharmacological treatments and psychosocial support to reduce or eliminate drug intake, addiction tends to persist over time. Preclinical and human observations have converged on the hypothesis that addiction represents the pathological deterioration of neural processes that normally serve affective and cognitive functioning. The major elements of persistent compulsive drug use are hypothesized to be structural, cellular and molecular that underlie enduring changes in several forebrain circuits that receive input from midbrain dopamine neurons and are involved in affective (e.g. ventral striatum) and cognitive (e.g. prefrontal cortex) mechanisms. Here we review recent progress in identifying crucial elements useful to understand the pathophysiology of the disease and its treatments. Manipulation of neuropeptides brain systems and pharmacological targeting of κ-opioid receptors and/or drug metabolism may hold beneficial effects at affective and cognitive level. Non-pharmacological, highly innovative approaches such as Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation may reveal unsuspected potential and promise to be the first neurobiology-based therapeutics in addiction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Somatic and cognitive-affective depressive symptoms among patients with heart disease: differences by sex and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Aparecida Marosti Dessotte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this study investigated the association of somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms with sex and age, among patients hospitalized with heart disease. METHOD: this study was a secondary analysis of two previous observational studies totaling 531 patients with heart disease, hospitalized from 2005 to 2011 in two public hospitals in Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms were assessed using the subscales of the Beck Depression Inventory - I (BDI-I. RESULTS: of 531 participants, 62.7% were male, with a mean age 57.3 years (SD= 13.0 for males and 56.2 years (SD= 12.1 for females. Analyses of variance showed an effect of sex (p<0.001 for somatic and p=0.005 for cognitive-affective symptoms, but no effect of age. Women presented with higher mean values than men in both BDI-I subscales: 7.1 (4.5 vs. 5.4 (4.3 for somatic, and 8.3 (7.9 vs. 6.7 (7.2 for cognitive-affective symptoms. There were no differences by age for somatic (p=0.84 or cognitive-affective symptoms (p=0.84. CONCLUSION: women hospitalized with heart disease had more somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms than men. We found no association of somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms with age. Future research for these patients could reveal whether these differences according to sex continue throughout the rehabilitation process.

  12. Transcranial Electrical Stimulation over Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Processing of Social Cognitive and Affective Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Conson

    Full Text Available Recent neurofunctional studies suggested that lateral prefrontal cortex is a domain-general cognitive control area modulating computation of social information. Neuropsychological evidence reported dissociations between cognitive and affective components of social cognition. Here, we tested whether performance on social cognitive and affective tasks can be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. To this aim, we compared the effects of tDCS on explicit recognition of emotional facial expressions (affective task, and on one cognitive task assessing the ability to adopt another person's visual perspective. In a randomized, cross-over design, male and female healthy participants performed the two experimental tasks after bi-hemispheric tDCS (sham, left anodal/right cathodal, and right anodal/left cathodal applied over DLPFC. Results showed that only in male participants explicit recognition of fearful facial expressions was significantly faster after anodal right/cathodal left stimulation with respect to anodal left/cathodal right and sham stimulations. In the visual perspective taking task, instead, anodal right/cathodal left stimulation negatively affected both male and female participants' tendency to adopt another's point of view. These findings demonstrated that concurrent facilitation of right and inhibition of left lateral prefrontal cortex can speed-up males' responses to threatening faces whereas it interferes with the ability to adopt another's viewpoint independently from gender. Thus, stimulation of cognitive control areas can lead to different effects on social cognitive skills depending on the affective vs. cognitive nature of the task, and on the gender-related differences in neural organization of emotion processing.

  13. Factors affecting aging cognitive function among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, JeeWon; Kang, Se-Won; Schlenk, Elizabeth A

    2017-08-01

    The study purpose was to determine factors affecting aging cognitive function of 3,645 community-dwelling older adults in Korea. The Hasegawa Dementia Scale assessed aging cognitive function, blood analyses and anthropometrics assessed cardio-metabolic risk factors, and the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form Korean Version assessed depressive symptoms. Participants with poor aging cognitive function were more likely to be in the late age group (≥75 y) and currently smoking and have a medical history of stroke, high body mass index, and high level of depressive symptoms; they were also less likely to engage in regular meals and physical activities. Regular meals and physical activities may be primary factors for clinical assessment to identify older adults at risk for aging cognitive function. With aging, depressive symptoms and other unhealthy lifestyle behaviours should be managed to prevent cognitive function disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Affect, accessibility of material in memory, and behavior: a cognitive loop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isen, A M; Shalker, T E; Clark, M; Karp, L

    1978-01-01

    Two studies investigated the effect of good mood on cognitive processes. In the first study, conducted in a shopping mall, a positive feeling state was induced by giving subjects a free gift, and good mood, thus induced, was found to improve subjects' evaluations of the performance and service records of products they owned. In the second study, in which affect was induced by having subjects win or lose a computer game in a laboratory setting, subjects who had won the game were found to be better able to recall positive material in memory. The results of the two studies are discussed in terms of the effect that feelings have on accessibility of cognitions. In addition, the nature of affect and the relationship between good mood and behavior (such as helping) are discussed in terms of this proposed cognitive process.

  15. The Turner Syndrome: Cognitive Deficits, Affective Discrimination, and Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Elizabeth; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study attemped to link cognitive and social problems seen in girls with Turner syndrome by assessing the girls' ability to process affective cues. Seventeen 9- to 17-year-old girls diagnosed with Turner syndrome were compared to a matched control group on a task which required interpretation of affective intention from facial expression.…

  16. Hedonic orientation moderates the association between cognitive control and affect reactivity to daily hassles in adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipker, Kathrin; Wrzus, Cornelia; Rauers, Antje; Riediger, Michaela

    2017-04-01

    People often seek to regulate their affective reactions when confronted with hassles. Hassle reactivity is lower for people with higher cognitive control, presumably because of better affect regulation. Many adolescents, however, show higher hassle reactivity than children, despite better cognitive control. The present study aims to understand whether motivational differences when seeking to regulate affective experiences moderate the association between cognitive control and hassle reactivity in adolescence. We hypothesized that higher cognitive control is related to lower hassle reactivity only for adolescents with a strong hedonic orientation, that is, for adolescents who seek to maintain or enhance positive or to dampen negative affect. We investigated 149 boys' (age range: 10-20 years) hedonic orientation and affect reactivity toward daily hassles during 2 weeks of experience sampling. Higher cognitive control, assessed with a working memory battery in the laboratory, was associated with stronger hassle reactivity in individuals with low hedonic orientation. The more hedonic-oriented individuals were, the lower was their hassle reactivity, but only in combination with high cognitive control. Our findings illustrate that higher cognitive control is not always related to lower hassle reactivity. Rather, when daily hassles compromise affect balance, hedonic orientation is equally important to understand affect reactivity in adolescent boys. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Does Chronic Unpredictable Stress during Adolescence Affect Spatial Cognition in Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaby, Lauren E; Sheriff, Michael J; Hirrlinger, Amy M; Lim, James; Fetherston, Thomas B; Braithwaite, Victoria A

    2015-01-01

    Spatial abilities allow animals to retain and cognitively manipulate information about their spatial environment and are dependent upon neural structures that mature during adolescence. Exposure to stress in adolescence is thought to disrupt neural maturation, possibly compromising cognitive processes later in life. We examined whether exposure to chronic unpredictable stress in adolescence affects spatial ability in late adulthood. We evaluated spatial learning, reference and working memory, as well as long-term retention of visuospatial cues using a radial arm water maze. We found that stress in adolescence decreased the rate of improvement in spatial learning in adulthood. However, we found no overall performance impairments in adult reference memory, working memory, or retention caused by adolescent-stress. Together, these findings suggest that adolescent-stress may alter the strategy used to solve spatial challenges, resulting in performance that is more consistent but is not refined by incorporating available spatial information. Interestingly, we also found that adolescent-stressed rats showed a shorter latency to begin the water maze task when re-exposed to the maze after an overnight delay compared with control rats. This suggests that adolescent exposure to reoccurring stressors may prepare animals for subsequent reoccurring challenges. Overall, our results show that stress in adolescence does not affect all cognitive processes, but may affect cognition in a context-dependent manner.

  18. Spiking Phineas Gage: a neurocomputational theory of cognitive-affective integration in decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagar, Brandon M; Thagard, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a neurological theory of how cognitive information and emotional information are integrated in the nucleus accumbens during effective decision making. They describe how the nucleus accumbens acts as a gateway to integrate cognitive information from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus with emotional information from the amygdala. The authors have modeled this integration by a network of spiking artificial neurons organized into separate areas and used this computational model to simulate 2 kinds of cognitive-affective integration. The model simulates successful performance by people with normal cognitive-affective integration. The model also simulates the historical case of Phineas Gage as well as subsequent patients whose ability to make decisions became impeded by damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

  19. Embodied Cognition and the Direct Induction of Affect as a Compliment to Cognitive Behavioural Therapy †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Tania; Lohr, Christina; Jahn, Beverly; Hauke, Gernot

    2018-01-01

    We make the case for the possible integration of affect experience induced via embodiment techniques with CBT for the treatment of emotional disorders in clinical settings. Theoretically we propose a possible integration of cognitive behavioural theory, neuroscience, embodied cognition and important processes of client change outcomes such as the therapeutic alliance to enhance client outcomes. We draw from evidence of bidirectional effects between embodiment modes of bottom-up (sensory-motor simulations giving rise to important basis of knowledge) and top-down (abstract mental representations of knowledge) processes such as CBT in psychotherapy. The paper first describes the dominance and success of CBT for the treatment of a wide range of clinical disorders. Some limitations of CBT, particularly for depression are also outlined. There is a growing body of evidence for the added value of experiential affect-focused interventions combined with CBT. Evidence for the embodied model of cognition and emotion is reviewed. Advantages of embodiment is highlighted as a complimentary process model to deepen the intensity and valence of affective experience. It is suggested that an integrated embodiment approach with CBT enhances outcomes across a wide range of emotional disorders. A description of our embodiment method integrated with CBT for inducing affective experience, emotional regulation, acceptance of unwanted emotions and emotional mastery is given. Finally, the paper highlights the importance of the therapeutic alliance as a critical component of the change process. The paper ends with a case study highlighting some clinical strategies that may aid the therapist to integrate embodiment techniques in CBT that can further explore in future research on affective experience in CBT for a wider range of clinical disorders. PMID:29495377

  20. Cognitive load does not affect the behavioral and cognitive foundations of social cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mieth

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study serves to test whether the cognitive mechanisms underlying social cooperation are affected by cognitive load. Participants interacted with trustworthy-looking and untrustworthy-looking partners in a sequential Prisoner’s Dilemma Game. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated to stimulate expectations about the future behavior of the partners which were either violated or confirmed by the partners’ cheating or cooperation during the game. In a source memory test, participants were required to recognize the partners and to classify them as cheaters or cooperators. A multinomial model was used to disentangle item memory, source memory and guessing processes. We found an expectancy-congruent bias towards guessing that trustworthy-looking partners were more likely to be associated with cooperation than untrustworthy-looking partners. Source memory was enhanced for cheating that violated the participants’ positive expectations about trustworthy-looking partners. We were interested in whether or not this expectancy-violation effect—that helps to revise unjustified expectations about trustworthy-looking partners—depends on cognitive load induced via a secondary continuous reaction time task. Although this secondary task interfered with working memory processes in a validation study, both the expectancy-congruent guessing bias as well as the expectancy-violation effect were obtained with and without cognitive load. These findings support the hypothesis that the expectancy-violation effect is due to a simple mechanism that does not rely on demanding elaborative processes. We conclude that most cognitive mechanisms underlying social cooperation presumably operate automatically so that they remain unaffected by cognitive load.□

  1. Cognitive Impairments in Fibromyalgia Syndrome: Associations With Positive and Negative Affect, Alexithymia, Pain Catastrophizing and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Sánchez, Carmen M; Reyes Del Paso, Gustavo A; Duschek, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic condition characterized by widespread pain accompanied by symptoms like depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance and fatigue. In addition, affected patients frequently report cognitive disruption such as forgetfulness, concentration difficulties or mental slowness. Though cognitive deficits in FMS have been confirmed in various studies, not much is known about the mechanisms involved in their origin. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of affect-related variables to cognitive impairments in FMS. For this purpose, 67 female FMS patients and 32 healthy control subjects completed a battery of cognitive tests measuring processing speed, attention, visuospatial and verbal memory, cognitive flexibility and planning abilities. In addition, participants completed self-report questionnaires pertaining to positive and negative affect, alexithymia, pain catastrophizing and self-esteem. Clinical characteristics including pain severity, symptoms of depression and anxiety, insomnia and fatigue were also assessed. FMS patients showed markedly poorer performance than healthy controls in all of the cognitive domains assessed, in addition to greater levels of depression, anxiety, negative affect, alexithymia and pain catastrophizing, and lower self-esteem and positive affect. In exploratory correlation analysis in the FMS sample, lower cognitive performance was associated with higher pain severity, depression, anxiety, negative affect, alexithymia and pain catastrophizing, as well as lower self-esteem and positive affect. However, in regression analyses, pain, self-esteem, alexithymia, and pain catastrophizing explained the largest portion of the variance in performance. While interference effects of clinical pain in cognition have been previously described, the present findings suggest that affective factors also substantially contribute to the genesis of cognitive impairments. They support the notion that affective disturbances

  2. The power of emotional valence—from cognitive to affective processes in reading

    OpenAIRE

    Altmann, Ulrike; Bohrn, Isabel C.; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2012-01-01

    The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1) the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM), and (2) the ne...

  3. CNVs conferring risk of autism or schizophrenia affect cognition in controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansson, Hreinn; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Steinberg, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    of cognitive function to demonstrate that control subjects carrying the CNVs perform at a level that is between that of schizophrenia patients and population controls. The CNVs do not all affect the same cognitive domains, hence the cognitive deficits that drive or accompany the pathogenesis vary from one CNV...... to another. Controls carrying the chromosome 15q11.2 deletion between breakpoints 1 and 2 (15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion) have a history of dyslexia and dyscalculia, even after adjusting for IQ in the analysis, and the CNV only confers modest effects on other cognitive traits. The 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion...

  4. Emotion, working memory task demands and individual differences predict behavior, cognitive effort and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin; Davidson, Nicole A; Dahl, Chelsea F; Blass, Sara; Yung, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether positive and negative affect motivates verbal and spatial working memory processes, respectively, which have implications for the expenditure of mental effort. We argue that when emotion promotes cognitive tendencies that are goal incompatible with task demands, greater cognitive effort is required to perform well. We sought to investigate whether this increase in cognitive effort impairs behavioural control over a broad domain of self-control tasks. Moreover, we predicted that individuals with higher behavioural inhibition system (BIS) sensitivities would report more negative affect within the goal incompatible conditions because such individuals report higher negative affect during cognitive challenge. Positive or negative affective states were induced followed by completing a verbal or spatial 2-back working memory task. All participants then completed one of three self-control tasks. Overall, we observed that conditions of emotion and working memory incompatibility (positive/spatial and negative/verbal) performed worse on the self-control tasks, and within the incompatible conditions individuals with higher BIS sensitivities reported more negative affect at the end of the study. The combination of findings suggests that emotion and working memory compatibility reduces cognitive effort and impairs behavioural control.

  5. Impaired affective and cognitive theory of mind and behavioural change in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hulst, Egberdina-Józefa; Bak, Thomas H; Abrahams, Sharon

    2015-11-01

    Executive and behavioural changes are well-recognised in classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), indicating a subclinical behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) in some patients. Social cognitive deficits in ALS have been recently described and an impairment was identified on a simple Theory of Mind (ToM) test, which assesses the judgement of the preference of another through direction of eye gaze. The present study further delineated this deficit, by distinguishing between Affective and Cognitive subcomponents, and determining the relationship to behavioural change, levels of empathy and self-awareness. The Cognitive-Affective Judgement of Preference Test was administered to 33 patients with ALS and 26 controls. Furthermore, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and detailed behavioural assessment, with measures of empathy and awareness, were included. Patients with ALS showed a significant impairment in Affective ToM only when compared with healthy controls, with a deficit in 36% of patients; 12% showed an isolated Affective ToM deficit while 24% showed more generic ToM dysfunction. A Cognitive ToM deficit was found in 27% of patients, with 3% showing an isolated Cognitive ToM deficit. The patients with ALS showed reduced empathy (Fantasy scale) and increased behavioural dysfunction with high levels of apathy. In addition, patients with either an Affective and/or Cognitive ToM deficit exhibited poor self-awareness of their performance and abnormalities on verbal fluency, while those with an Affective ToM deficit also displayed higher levels of apathy and a naming deficit. Dysfunctional ToM is a prominent feature of the cognitive profile of ALS. This specific difficulty in identifying and distinguishing the feelings and thoughts of another from a self-perspective may underpin the social behavioural abnormalities present in some patients with ALS, manifest as apathy and loss of awareness. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  6. Distinct neural substrates of affective and cognitive theory of mind impairment in semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejanin, Alexandre; Chételat, Gaël; Laisney, Mickael; Pélerin, Alice; Landeau, Brigitte; Merck, Catherine; Belliard, Serge; de La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2017-06-01

    Using structural MRI, we investigated the brain substrates of both affective and cognitive theory of mind (ToM) in 19 patients with semantic dementia. We also ran intrinsic connectivity analyses to identify the networks to which the substrates belong and whether they are functionally disturbed in semantic dementia. In line with previous studies, we observed a ToM impairment in patients with semantic dementia even when semantic memory was regressed out. Our results also highlighted different neural bases according to the nature (affective or cognitive) of the representations being inferred. The affective ToM deficit was associated with atrophy in the amygdala, suggesting the involvement of emotion-processing deficits in this impairment. By contrast, cognitive ToM performances were correlated with the volume of medial prefrontal and parietal regions, as well as the right frontal operculum. Intrinsic connectivity analyses revealed decreased functional connectivity, mainly between midline cortical regions and temporal regions. They also showed that left medial temporal regions were functionally isolated, a further possible hindrance to normal social cognitive functioning in semantic dementia. Overall, this study addressed for the first time the neuroanatomical substrates of both cognitive and affective ToM disruption in semantic dementia, highlighting disturbed connectivity within the networks that sustain these abilities.

  7. Imagination in human social cognition, autism, and psychotic-affective conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard; Leach, Emma; Dinsdale, Natalie; Mokkonen, Mikael; Hurd, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Complex human social cognition has evolved in concert with risks for psychiatric disorders. Recently, autism and psychotic-affective conditions (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression) have been posited as psychological 'opposites' with regard to social-cognitive phenotypes. Imagination, considered as 'forming new ideas, mental images, or concepts', represents a central facet of human social evolution and cognition. Previous studies have documented reduced imagination in autism, and increased imagination in association with psychotic-affective conditions, yet these sets of findings have yet to be considered together, or evaluated in the context of the diametric model. We first review studies of the components, manifestations, and neural correlates of imagination in autism and psychotic-affective conditions. Next, we use data on dimensional autism in healthy populations to test the hypotheses that: (1) imagination represents the facet of autism that best accounts for its strongly male-biased sex ratio, and (2) higher genetic risk of schizophrenia is associated with higher imagination, in accordance with the predictions of the diametric model. The first hypothesis was supported by a systematic review and meta-analysis showing that Imagination exhibits the strongest male bias of all Autism Quotient (AQ) subscales, in non-clinical populations. The second hypothesis was supported, for males, by associations between schizophrenia genetic risk scores, derived from a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and the AQ Imagination subscale. Considered together, these findings indicate that imagination, especially social imagination as embodied in the default mode human brain network, mediates risk and diametric dimensional phenotypes of autism and psychotic-affective conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cognitive and affective benefits of combination therapy with galantamine plus cognitive rehabilitation for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuchi, Ryo; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Matsuzono, Kosuke; Takao, Yoshiki; Wakutani, Yosuke; Sato, Kota; Kono, Syoichiro; Ohta, Yasuyuki; Deguchi, Kentaro; Yamashita, Toru; Abe, Koji

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a galantamine only therapy and a combination therapy with galantamine plus ambulatory cognitive rehabilitation for Alzheimer's disease patients. For this retrospective cohort study, we enrolled 86 patients with Alzheimer's disease, dividing them into two groups - a galantamine only group (group G, n = 45) and a combination with galantamine plus ambulatory rehabilitation group (group G + R, n = 41). The present cognitive rehabilitation included a set of physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech therapy for 1-2 h once or twice a week. We compared the Mini-Mental State Examination and Frontal Assessment Battery for cognitive assessment, and Geriatric Depression Scale, Apathy Scale, and Abe's Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia score for affective assessment in two groups over 6 months. The baseline Mini-Mental State Examination score was 20.2 and 18.7 in groups G and G + R, respectively. Other baseline data (Frontal Assessment Battery, Geriatric Depression Scale, Apathy Scale, and Abe's Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia) were not different between the two groups. Although group G kept all the scores stable until 6 months of the treatment, the Apathy Scale score showed a significant improvement in group G + R as early as 3 months, followed by the Mini-Mental State Examination and Frontal Assessment Battery improvements at 6 months (*P = 0.04 and *P = 0.02, respectively). The Geriatric Depression Scale and Abe's Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia did not show any changes. The combination therapy of galantamine plus ambulatory cognitive rehabilitation showed a superior benefit both on cognitive and affective functions than galantamine only therapy in Alzheimer's disease patients. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Cognitive and Affective Correlates of Temperament in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Pluck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD patients display low novelty seeking scores on the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ, which may reflect the low dopamine function that characterises the disease. People with PD also display raised harm avoidance scores. Due to these and other observations, a “parkinsonian personality” has been suggested. However, little is known about how these features relate to cognitive and affective disorders, which are also common in PD. We examined links between TPQ scores and performance on an attentional orienting task in a sample of 20 people with PD. In addition, associations between TPQ and depression and anxiety scores were explored. It was found that novelty seeking scores were significantly correlated with a reaction time measure of attentional orienting to visual novelty. Harm avoidance scores were significantly correlated with anxiety, but not depression scores. These findings extend our understanding of how temperament interacts with cognitive and affective features of the disorder.

  10. Emotions, trust, and perceived risk: affective and cognitive routes to flood preparedness behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, Teun

    2011-10-01

    Despite the prognoses of the effects of global warming (e.g., rising sea levels, increasing river discharges), few international studies have addressed how flood preparedness should be stimulated among private citizens. This article aims to predict Dutch citizens' flood preparedness intentions by testing a path model, including previous flood hazard experiences, trust in public flood protection, and flood risk perceptions (both affective and cognitive components). Data were collected through questionnaire surveys in two coastal communities (n= 169, n= 244) and in one river area community (n= 658). Causal relations were tested by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). Overall, the results indicate that both cognitive and affective mechanisms influence citizens' preparedness intentions. First, a higher level of trust reduces citizens' perceptions of flood likelihood, which in turn hampers their flood preparedness intentions (cognitive route). Second, trust also lessens the amount of dread evoked by flood risk, which in turn impedes flood preparedness intentions (affective route). Moreover, the affective route showed that levels of dread were especially influenced by citizens' negative and positive emotions related to their previous flood hazard experiences. Negative emotions most often reflected fear and powerlessness, while positive emotions most frequently reflected feelings of solidarity. The results are consistent with the affect heuristic and the historical context of Dutch flood risk management. The great challenge for flood risk management is the accommodation of both cognitive and affective mechanisms in risk communications, especially when most people lack an emotional basis stemming from previous flood hazard events. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Zander, Thorsten O.; van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus

    2015-01-01

    What can we learn from spontaneously occurring brain and other physiological signals about an individual’s cognitive and affective state and how can we make use of this information? One line of research that is actively involved with this question is Passive Brain-Computer-Interfaces (BCI). To date

  12. The cognitive/affective distinction of job insecurity: Validation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We administered a short version of the measure of job insecurity originally devised by De Witte (2000), which distinguishes between cognitive and affective job insecurity. Data on job satisfaction, commitment, psychological ill-health and emotional exhaustion were also gathered from employees in a variety of South African ...

  13. Adolescents' aggressive and prosocial behaviors: links with social information processing, negative emotionality, moral affect, and moral cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Deborah J; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine whether moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases independently predicted adolescents' prosocial and aggressive behavior in adolescence. A total of 148 adolescents completed self-report measures of prosocial and aggressive behavior, moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases. Although in general all 3 factors (emotional, moral, and social cognitive) were correlated with adolescent social behavior, the most consistent independent predictors of adolescent social behavior were moral affect and cognition. These findings have important implications for intervention and suggest that programs that promote adolescent perspective taking, moral reasoning, and moral affect are needed to reduce aggressive behavior and promote prosocial behavior.

  14. Exercise holds immediate benefits for affect and cognition in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Candice L; Mata, Jutta; Carstensen, Laura L

    2013-06-01

    Physical activity is associated with improved affective experience and enhanced cognitive processing. Potential age differences in the degree of benefit, however, are poorly understood because most studies examine either younger or older adults. The present study examined age differences in cognitive performance and affective experience immediately following a single bout of moderate exercise. Participants (144 community members aged 19 to 93) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions: (a) exercise (15 min of moderate intensity stationary cycling) or (b) control (15 min completing ratings of neutral IAPS images). Before and after the manipulation, participants completed tests of working memory and momentary affect experience was measured. Results suggest that exercise is associated with increased levels of high-arousal positive affect (HAP) and decreased levels of low-arousal positive affect (LAP) relative to control condition. Age moderated the effects of exercise on LAP, such that younger age was associated with a drop in reported LAP postexercise, whereas the effects of exercise on HAP were consistent across age. Exercise also led to faster RTs on a working memory task than the control condition across age. Self-reported negative affect was unchanged. Overall, findings suggest that exercise may hold important benefits for both affective experience and cognitive performance regardless of age. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Performance pressure and caffeine both affect cognitive performance, but likely through independent mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boere, J.J.; Fellinger, L.; Huizinga, D.J.H.; Wong, S.F.; Bijleveld, E.H.

    2016-01-01

    A prevalent combination in daily life, performance pressure and caffeine intake have both been shown to impact people's cognitive performance. Here, we examined the possibility that pressure and caffeine affect cognitive performance via a shared pathway. In an experiment, participants performed a

  16. Social-cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: generalization of effects of the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölwer, Wolfgang; Frommann, Nicole

    2011-09-01

    In the last decade, several social cognitive remediation programs have been developed for use in schizophrenia. Though existing evidence indicates that such programs can improve social cognition, which is essential for successful social functioning, it remains unclear whether the improvements generalize to social cognitive domains not primarily addressed by the intervention and whether the improved test performance transfers into everyday social functioning. The present study investigated whether, beyond its known effects on facial affect recognition, the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR) has effects on prosodic affect recognition, theory of mind (ToM) performance, social competence in a role-play task, and more general social and occupational functioning. Thirty-eight inpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of treatment with the TAR--primarily targeted at facial affect recognition-or Cognitive Remediation Training (CRT)--primarily targeted at neurocognition. Intention-to-treat analyses found significantly larger pre-post improvements with TAR than with CRT in prosodic affect recognition, ToM, and social competence and a trend effect in global social functioning. However, the effects on ToM and social competence were no longer significant in the smaller group of patients who completed treatment according to protocol. Results suggest that TAR effects generalize to other social cognitive domains not primarily addressed. TAR may also enhance social skills and social functioning, although this has to be confirmed. Results are discussed with regard to the need to improve functional outcome in schizophrenia against the background of current evidence from other social cognitive remediation approaches.

  17. Does chronic exposure to mobile phones affect cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Mamta; Khaliq, Farah; Panwar, Aprajita; Vaney, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Summary Mobile phones form an integral part of our modern lifestyle. Following the drastic rise in mobile phone use in recent years, it has become important to study its potential public health impact. Amongst the various mobile phone health hazards, the most alarming is the possible effect on the brain. The aim of the present study was to explore whether chronic exposure to mobile phones affects cognition. Ninety subjects aged 17–25 years with normal hearing were recruited for the study and divided into three groups according to their duration of mobile phone use. No significant differences in N100, P200, N200, P300 latencies or N2-P300 amplitude were observed. Our results suggest that chronic mobile phone exposure does not have detrimental effects on cognition. PMID:27027894

  18. The power of emotional valence – From cognitive to affective processes in reading

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrike eAltmann; Ulrike eAltmann; Isabel C Bohrn; Isabel C Bohrn; Oliver eLubrich; Oliver eLubrich; Winfried eMenninghaus; Winfried eMenninghaus; Arthur M Jacobs; Arthur M Jacobs; Arthur M Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1) the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM), and (2) the ne...

  19. Unintended Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Consequences of Group Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Wayne A.

    2012-01-01

    Pedagogical strategies can be thought of as a set of stimuli placed in students' environment to influence their cognition, affect, and behavior. The design of strategies such as group assignments and a comprehensive understanding of their consequences for students should then include an analysis of all three of these elements and the…

  20. Affective and Cognitive Responses to Insects and Other Arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz-Reaves, Amanda R.

    2017-01-01

    Insects are the most abundant and diverse group of animals on Earth. Though as a group they do far more ecological good than harm, previous studies have shown that human attitudes toward insects are mainly negative. Attitudes have affective (emotions) and cognitive (beliefs, mental representations) components that interact to influence behavior.…

  1. Improvement in cognitive and affective theory of mind with observation and imitation treatment in subjects with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Pino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the main objective of this study is to consider Theory of Mind (ToM, i.e. the ability to perceive other people in terms of thinking, believing and emotions, as a target for effective rehabilitative intervention, using Emotion and ToM Imitation Training (ETIT, aimed at improving social cognition and social functioning in schizophrenia. ToM impairment is a key feature of schizophrenia. According to recent literature, ToM is a multidimensional process requiring at least two components: cognitive and affective. Cognitive ToM seems to be a prerequisite for affective ToM, which requires intact empathic ability. Method: seven patients with schizophrenia completed ETIT treatment and were compared to 7 patients who participated in Problem Solving Training (PST. The participants were assessed at pre and post treatment regarding measures of cognitive (Advanced Theory of Mind Task and Social Situation Test and affective (Emotion Attribution Task and Eyes Task ToM and also empathy (Empathy Quotient. Results: our results showed that when compared to the control group, ETIT participants improved in three social cognition components evaluated (cognitive and affective ToM and empathy. Improvement in cognitive and affective ToM was found within the ETIT group pre and post treatment. Conclusions: Action observation and imitation could be important goals for future “low cost” rehabilitation treatment in several disorders in which the deficit of social cognition is considered as “core” to the disease. This represents a new perspective in the rehabilitation field.

  2. Sex-Specific Effect of Recalled Parenting on Affective and Cognitive Empathy in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Minna T; Brewer, Gayle; Bethell, Emily J

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the influence of parenting on the development of children's empathy. However, few studies have considered the impact of parents on empathy in adulthood, specific components of empathy, or the importance of parent and child biological sex. In the present study, 226 participants (71 men) completed online versions of the Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker et al. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1-10 1979), Empathy Quotient (Baron-Cohen and Wheelwright Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 163-175 2004), and Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10, 85 1980). Paternal care and overprotection influenced affective empathy in men, whilst maternal overprotection predicted affective empathy in women. Further, maternal care related to cognitive empathy in men, whilst none of the parental care variables related to cognitive empathy in women. Findings are discussed in relation to sex differences in childhood parenting experiences on adult cognitive and affective empathy.

  3. Cognitions as mediators in the relationship between self-compassion and affect

    OpenAIRE

    Arimitsu, Kohki; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that self-compassion is related to numerous facets of mental health, but the role of cognitions in this relationship remains unknown. To examine the mediating role of cognitions in the relationship between self-compassion and anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction when controlling for self-esteem in Japanese people, we conducted two studies. Study 1 (N = 231) examined the relationship between self-compassion and affect by modeling negative automatic thoughts as a ...

  4. Emotional modulation of control dilemmas: the role of positive affect, reward, and dopamine in cognitive stability and flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goschke, Thomas; Bolte, Annette

    2014-09-01

    Goal-directed action in changing environments requires a dynamic balance between complementary control modes, which serve antagonistic adaptive functions (e.g., to shield goals from competing responses and distracting information vs. to flexibly switch between goals and behavioral dispositions in response to significant changes). Too rigid goal shielding promotes stability but incurs a cost in terms of perseveration and reduced flexibility, whereas too weak goal shielding promotes flexibility but incurs a cost in terms of increased distractibility. While research on cognitive control has long been conducted relatively independently from the study of emotion and motivation, it is becoming increasingly clear that positive affect and reward play a central role in modulating cognitive control. In particular, evidence from the past decade suggests that positive affect not only influences the contents of cognitive processes, but also modulates the balance between complementary modes of cognitive control. In this article we review studies from the past decade that examined effects of induced positive affect on the balance between cognitive stability and flexibility with a focus on set switching and working memory maintenance and updating. Moreover, we review recent evidence indicating that task-irrelevant positive affect and performance-contingent rewards exert different and sometimes opposite effects on cognitive control modes, suggesting dissociations between emotional and motivational effects of positive affect. Finally, we critically review evidence for the popular hypothesis that effects of positive affect may be mediated by dopaminergic modulations of neural processing in prefrontal and striatal brain circuits, and we refine this "dopamine hypothesis of positive affect" by specifying distinct mechanisms by which dopamine may mediate effects of positive affect and reward on cognitive control. We conclude with a discussion of limitations of current research, point to

  5. Neural systems supporting cognitive-affective interactions in adolescence: The role of puberty and implications for affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile D. Ladouceur

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from longitudinal studies suggests that adolescence may represent a period of vulnerability that, in the context of adverse events, could contribute to developmental trajectories toward behavioral and emotional health problems, including affective disorders. Adolescence is also a sensitive period for the development of neural systems supporting cognitive-affective processes, which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders such as anxiety and mood disorders. In particular, the onset of puberty brings about a cascade of physical, hormonal, psychological, and social changes that contribute in complex ways to the development of these systems. This article provides a brief overview of neuroimaging research pertaining to the development of cognitive-affective processes in adolescence. It also includes a brief review of evidence from animal and human neuroimaging studies suggesting that sex steroids influence the connectivity between prefrontal cortical and subcortical limbic regions in ways that contribute to increased reactivity to emotionally salient stimuli. We integrate these findings in the context of a developmental affective neuroscience framework suggesting that the impact of rising levels of sex steroids during puberty on fronto-limbic connectivity may be even greater in the context of protracted development of prefrontal cortical regions in adolescence. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for future research aimed at identifying neurodevelopmental markers of risk for future onset of affective disorders.

  6. Positive affect improves working memory: implications for controlled cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hwajin; Yang, Sujin; Isen, Alice M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of positive affect on working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM). Given that WM involves both storage and controlled processing and that STM primarily involves storage processing, we hypothesised that if positive affect facilitates controlled processing, it should improve WM more than STM. The results demonstrated that positive affect, compared with neutral affect, significantly enhanced WM, as measured by the operation span task. The influence of positive affect on STM, however, was weaker. These results suggest that positive affect enhances WM, a task that involves controlled processing, not just storage processing. Additional analyses of recall and processing times and accuracy further suggest that improved WM under positive affect is not attributable to motivational differences, but results instead from improved controlled cognitive processing.

  7. Cognitions as mediators in the relationship between self-compassion and affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimitsu, Kohki; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that self-compassion is related to numerous facets of mental health, but the role of cognitions in this relationship remains unknown. To examine the mediating role of cognitions in the relationship between self-compassion and anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction when controlling for self-esteem in Japanese people, we conducted two studies. Study 1 (N = 231) examined the relationship between self-compassion and affect by modeling negative automatic thoughts as a mediator; Study 2 (N = 233) tested whether positive and negative automatic thoughts meditate this relationship. Results suggested that both self-compassion and self-esteem increased positive automatic thoughts and decreased trait anxiety, whereas only self-esteem increased life satisfaction and decreased depression directly. Positive automatic thoughts increased life satisfaction and decreased depression and trait anxiety, and positive automatic thoughts mediated the relationship between self-compassion and negative affect. These findings suggest that both positive and negative automatic thoughts mediate the relationship between self-compassion and affect in Japanese people. PMID:25395717

  8. Effects of self-schema elaboration on affective and cognitive reactions to self-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L E; Stahlberg, D; Dauenheimer, D

    2000-02-01

    The basic assumption of the integrative self-schema model (ISSM; L.-E. Petersen, 1994; L.-E. Petersen, D. Stahlberg, & D. Dauenheimer, 1996; D. Stahlberg, L.-E. Petersen, & D. Dauenheimer, 1994, 1999) is that self-schema elaboration (schematic vs. aschematic) affects reactions to self-relevant information. This assumption is based on the idea that schematic dimensions occupy a more central position in the cognitive system than aschematic dimensions. In the first study, this basic prediction could be clearly confirmed: The results showed that schematic dimensions possessed stronger cognitive associations with other self-relevant cognitions as well as a higher resistance to change than aschematic dimensions did. In the second study, the main assumptions of the ISSM concerning the affective and cognitive reactions to self-relevant feedback were tested: The ISSM proposes that, on schematic dimensions, reactions to self-relevant feedback will most likely follow principles of self-consistency theory, whereas on aschematic dimensions positive feedback should elicit the most positive reactions that self-enhancement theory would predict. The experimental results clearly confirmed the hypotheses derived from the ISSM for affective reactions. Cognitive reactions, however, were in line with self-consistency principles and were not modified by the elaboration of the self-schema dimension involved.

  9. Interoception beyond homeostasis: affect, cognition and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiris, Manos; Critchley, Hugo

    2016-11-19

    Interoception refers to the sensing of the internal state of one's body. Interoception is distinct from the processing of sensory information concerning external (non-self) stimuli (e.g. vision, hearing, touch and smell) and is the afferent axis to internal (autonomic and hormonal) physiological control. However, the impact of interoception extends beyond homeostatic/allostatic reflexes: it is proposed to be fundamental to motivation, emotion (affective feelings and behaviours), social cognition and self-awareness. This view is supported by a growing body of experimental evidence that links peripheral physiological states to mental processes. Within this framework, the representation of self is constructed from early development through continuous integrative representation of biological data from the body, to form the basis for those aspects of conscious awareness grounded on the subjective sense of being a unique individual. This theme issue of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B draws together state-of-the-art knowledge concerning theoretical, experimental and clinical facets of interoception with the emphasis on cognitive and affective neuroscience. The multidisciplinary and cross-disciplinary perspectives represented in this theme issue disseminate and entrench knowledge about interoception across the scientific community and provide a reference for the conceptualization and further study of interoception across behavioural sciences. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Affective problems and decline in cognitive state in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, A; Patel, U; Rusted, J; Richards, M; Gaysina, D

    2018-05-24

    Evidence suggests that affective problems, such as depression and anxiety, increase risk for late-life dementia. However, the extent to which affective problems influence cognitive decline, even many years prior to clinical diagnosis of dementia, is not clear. The present study systematically reviews and synthesises the evidence for the association between affective problems and decline in cognitive state (i.e., decline in non-specific cognitive function) in older adults. An electronic search of PubMed, PsycInfo, Cochrane, and ScienceDirect was conducted to identify studies of the association between depression and anxiety separately and decline in cognitive state. Key inclusion criteria were prospective, longitudinal designs with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment using the STROBE checklist were conducted independently by two raters. A total of 34 studies (n = 71 244) met eligibility criteria, with 32 studies measuring depression (n = 68 793), and five measuring anxiety (n = 4698). A multi-level meta-analysis revealed that depression assessed as a binary predictor (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.05-1.76, p = 0.02) or a continuous predictor (B = -0.008, 95% CI -0.015 to -0.002, p = 0.012; OR 0.992, 95% CI 0.985-0.998) was significantly associated with decline in cognitive state. The number of anxiety studies was insufficient for meta-analysis, and they are described in a narrative review. Results of the present study improve current understanding of the temporal nature of the association between affective problems and decline in cognitive state. They also suggest that cognitive function may need to be monitored closely in individuals with affective disorders, as these individuals may be at particular risk of greater cognitive decline.

  11. The Integration of Negative Affect, Pain, and Cognitive Control in the Cingulate Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackman, Alexander J.; Salomons, Tim V.; Slagter, Heleen A.; Fox, Andrew S.; Winter, Jameel J.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Preface It has been argued that emotion, pain, and cognitive control are functionally segregated in distinct subdivisions of the cingulate cortex. But recent observations encourage a fundamentally different view. Imaging studies indicate that negative affect, pain, and cognitive control activate an overlapping region of dorsal cingulate, the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC). Anatomical studies reveal that aMCC constitutes a hub where information about reinforcers can be linked to motor centers responsible for expressing affect and executing goal-directed behavior. Computational modeling and other kinds of evidence suggest that this intimacy reflects control processes that are common to all three domains. These observations compel a reconsideration of dorsal cingulate’s contribution to negative affect and pain. PMID:21331082

  12. Brand Loyalty: Impact of Cognitive and Affective Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Mourad TOUZANI; Azza TEMESSEK

    2009-01-01

    Studies on brand loyalty typically focus on the behavioural side of brand loyalty or on the attitudinal side. Rare are the studies that examine simultaneously both components of brand loyalty. The present study was performed to describe the conjoint contribution of cognitive and affective variables in the formation of brand loyalty. A questionnaire was administered to 400 shampoo users. A confirmatory analysis was performed to test the conceptual model presented. The results provide a better ...

  13. Affective symptoms and cognitive functions in the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Elberling, Tina V; Hørding, Merete

    2007-01-01

    of cognitive deficits) had decreased significantly, with further normalisation 1-year after treatment initiation. In conclusion, patients had subjective reports of cognitive deficits in the toxic phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis but comprehensive neuropsychological testing revealed no cognitive impairment......In the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis patients often have subjective cognitive complaints. Continuing controversy exists about the nature of these symptoms and whether they persist after treatment. This prospective study included 31 consecutively referred, newly diagnosed, and untreated....... No significant differences between the patient and the control group on neuropsychological test performances were found. Thyroid levels did not correlate with the neuropsychological test performances or psychiatric ratings. After reaching euthyroidism the level of affective symptoms (including reports...

  14. Modeling individuals’ cognitive and affective responses in spatial learning behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Q.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Janssens, D.; Wets, G.; Lo, H.P.; Leung, Stephen C.H.; Tan, Susanna M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Activity-based analysis has slowly shifted gear from analysis of daily activity patterns to analysis and modeling of dynamic activity-travel patterns. In this paper, we describe a dynamic model that is concerned with simulating cognitive and affective responses in spatial learning behavior for a

  15. Factors affecting cognitive function according to gender in community-dwelling elderly individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwon Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study aimed to identify the factors affecting the cognitive function of elderly people in a community by gender. METHODS We obtained 4,878 secondary data of people aged ≥65 years in 2016 at a dementia prevention center in Gyeyang-gu, Incheon. Data were obtained through Mini-Mental Status Examination optimized for screening dementia and a questionnaire. The data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, and hierarchical regression. RESULTS There were significant differences in cognitive function according to gender, and the differences were significant even when age was controlled, but gender differences disappeared when education was controlled. Age, education, social activities, number of comorbid diseases, and alcohol drinking affected cognitive function through interaction with gender, but interaction with gender disappeared when education was controlled. Regression analysis showed that depression, cohabitant, social activities etc., had a significant impact on both men and women under controlled education and age. In men, the effect of social activities was greater than that of women, and hyperlipidemia had the effect only in women. CONCLUSIONS The differences in gender-related cognitive functions were due to differences in gender education period. The period of education is considered to have a great influence on cognitive function in relation to the economic level, occupation, and social activity.

  16. [Cognitive and affective theory of mind in Lewy body dementia: A preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, C; Vogt, N; Cretin, B; Philippi, N; Jung, B; Phillipps, C; Blanc, F

    2015-04-01

    'Theory of Mind' refers to the ability to attribute mental states, thoughts (cognitive component) or feelings (affective component), to others. This function has been studied in many neurodegenerative diseases; however, to our knowledge no studies investigating theory of mind in dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) have been published. The aim of our study was to search theory of mind deficits in patients with DLB. Seven patients with DLB (DLB group), at the stage of mild dementia or mild cognitive impairments, and seven healthy elderly adults (control group) were included in the study. After a global cognitive assessment, we used the Faux Pas Recognition test to assess the cognitive component of theory of mind, and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test for the assessment of affective component. We found a significant difference between the two groups for the Faux Pas test with an average score of 35.6 for the DLB group and 48.3 for the control group (P=0.04). Scores were particularly low in the DLB group for the last question of the test concerning empathy (42.9% versus 85%, P=0.01). There was not a significant difference between the two groups for the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (P=0.077). This preliminary study showed early impairments of theory of mind in the DLB. The cognitive component seems more affected than the affective component in this pathology. This pattern is consistent with the pattern found in Parkinson's disease, but differs from other neurodegenerative diseases as Alzheimer's disease or frontotemporal lobe dementia. These patterns may help to differentiate DLB from these diseases. Further study is needed to confirm these results and to compare with other dementias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Daily diary study of personality disorder traits: Momentary affect and cognitive appraisals in response to stressful events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnecke, Amber M; Miller, Michelle L; South, Susan C

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in emotional expression and emotion regulation are core features of many personality disorders (PDs); yet, we know relatively little about how individuals with PDs affectively respond to stressful situations. The present study seeks to fill this gap in the literature by examining how PD traits are associated with emotional responses to subjective daily stressors, while accounting for cognition and type of stressor experienced (interpersonal vs. noninterpersonal). PD features were measured with the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-2 (SNAP-2) diagnostic scores. Participants (N = 77) completed a 1-week experience sampling procedure that measured affect and cognition related to a current stressor 5 times per day. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine whether and how baseline PD features, momentary cognitions, and type of stressor predicted level of affect. Results demonstrated that paranoid, borderline, and avoidant PD traits predicted negative affect beyond what could be accounted for by cognitions and type of stressor. No PD traits predicted positive affect after accounting for the effects of cognitive appraisals and type of stressor. Findings have implications for validating the role of affect in PDs and understanding how individuals with PDs react in the presence of daily hassles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Extending brain-training to the affective domain: increasing cognitive and affective executive control through emotional working memory training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schweizer

    Full Text Available So-called 'brain-training' programs are a huge commercial success. However, empirical evidence regarding their effectiveness and generalizability remains equivocal. This study investigated whether brain-training (working memory [WM] training improves cognitive functions beyond the training task (transfer effects, especially regarding the control of emotional material since it constitutes much of the information we process daily. Forty-five participants received WM training using either emotional or neutral material, or an undemanding control task. WM training, regardless of training material, led to transfer gains on another WM task and in fluid intelligence. However, only brain-training with emotional material yielded transferable gains to improved control over affective information on an emotional Stroop task. The data support the reality of transferable benefits of demanding WM training and suggest that transferable gains across to affective contexts require training with material congruent to those contexts. These findings constitute preliminary evidence that intensive cognitively demanding brain-training can improve not only our abstract problem-solving capacity, but also ameliorate cognitive control processes (e.g. decision-making in our daily emotive environments.

  19. The impact of positive affect on health cognitions and behaviours: a meta-analysis of the experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David S; Bertenshaw, Emma J; Sheeran, Paschal

    2015-01-01

    Several reviews suggest that positive affect is associated with improved longevity, fewer physical symptoms, and biological indicators of good health. It is possible that positive affect could influence these outcomes by promoting healthful cognitions and behaviours. The present review identified conceptual pathways from positive affect to health cognitions and behaviour, and used random effects meta-analysis to quantify the impact of positive affect inductions (versus neutral affect conditions) on these outcomes. Literature searches located 54 independent tests that could be included in the review. Across all studies, the findings revealed no reliable effects on intentions (d+ = -.12, 95% CI = -.32 to .08, k = 15) or behaviour (d+ = .15, 95% CI = -.03 to .33, k = 23). There were four reliable effects involving specific cognitions and behaviours, but little clear evidence for generalised benefits or adverse effects of positive emotions on health-related cognitions or actions. Conclusions must be cautious given the paucity of tests available for analysis. The review offers suggestions about research designs that might profitably be deployed in future studies, and calls for additional tests of the impact of discrete positive emotions on health cognitions and behaviour.

  20. Cyberbullying Among Adolescent Bystanders: Role of Affective Versus Cognitive Empathy in Increasing Prosocial Cyberbystander Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlińska, Julia; Szuster, Anna; Winiewski, Mikołaj

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if affective (vicarious sharing of emotions) and cognitive empathy (mental perspective taking) induction may stimulate adolescent online bystanders’ intervention in cyberbullying cases. The role of reporting the abuse is crucial because it is a form of active support to the victim, initiated by children, to stop the bullying. The effectiveness of empathy activation in decreasing negative cyberbystander reinforcing behavior has been proved in previous studies. The effects of affective and cognitive empathy activation on positive cyberbystander behavior, defined as reporting the bullying online, were explored in two follow-up studies N = 271 and N = 265. The influence of experiencing cyberbullying as perpetrator, victim, and as determined by gender on prosocial cyberbystander behavior was also controlled. The results indicate that only cognitive empathy activation increases the likelihood of intervening bystander behavior. Neither affective empathy induction, previous experience of cyberperpetration, cybervictimization, nor gender affected the engagement in prosocial bystander behavior. The conclusion of the research is that a program consequently activating more reflective cognitive empathy induction can contribute toward the establishment of healthier behavioral patterns among bystanders to cyberbullying, increasing the probability of their reporting the cyberbullying acts. PMID:29899715

  1. Cyberbullying Among Adolescent Bystanders: Role of Affective Versus Cognitive Empathy in Increasing Prosocial Cyberbystander Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Barlińska

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate if affective (vicarious sharing of emotions and cognitive empathy (mental perspective taking induction may stimulate adolescent online bystanders’ intervention in cyberbullying cases. The role of reporting the abuse is crucial because it is a form of active support to the victim, initiated by children, to stop the bullying. The effectiveness of empathy activation in decreasing negative cyberbystander reinforcing behavior has been proved in previous studies. The effects of affective and cognitive empathy activation on positive cyberbystander behavior, defined as reporting the bullying online, were explored in two follow-up studies N = 271 and N = 265. The influence of experiencing cyberbullying as perpetrator, victim, and as determined by gender on prosocial cyberbystander behavior was also controlled. The results indicate that only cognitive empathy activation increases the likelihood of intervening bystander behavior. Neither affective empathy induction, previous experience of cyberperpetration, cybervictimization, nor gender affected the engagement in prosocial bystander behavior. The conclusion of the research is that a program consequently activating more reflective cognitive empathy induction can contribute toward the establishment of healthier behavioral patterns among bystanders to cyberbullying, increasing the probability of their reporting the cyberbullying acts.

  2. Clinical and cognitive factors affecting psychosocial functioning in remitted patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantakopoulos, G; Ioannidi, N; Typaldou, M; Sakkas, D; Oulis, P

    2016-01-01

    Impaired interpersonal, social, and occupational functioning is very often observed in patients with bipolar disorder, not only at the acute stages of the illness but in remission as well. This finding raises the question of multiple factors that might affect psychosocial functioning in bipolar patients, such as residual subsyndromal symptoms and neuropsychological deficits. Social cognition impairment, especially impaired Theory of Mind (ToM), might also play an important role in bipolar patients' every-day functioning, similarly to what was found in patients with schizophrenia. The present study aimed to investigate the potential effect of clinical and cognitive factors on the psychosocial functioning of patients with bipolar disorder during remission, assessing ToM along with a broad range of basic cognitive functions. Forty-nine patients with bipolar disorder type I in remission and 53 healthy participants were assessed in general intelligence, working memory, attention, speed processing, verbal learning and memory, and executive functions using a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. The Faux Pas Recognition Test was used to assess ToM. The two groups were matched for gender, age and education level. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) were also administered to the patients. Every-day functioning was assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). In order to examine the contribution of many factors in psychosocial functioning, we used hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Bipolar patients presented significant impairment compared to healthy participants in all the basic cognitive functions tested with the exception of verbal memory. Moreover, patients had significant poorer performance than healthy controls in overall psyand cognitive ToM but not in affective ToM as measured by Faux Pas. Psychosocial functioning in patient group was

  3. Successful neuropsychological rehabilitation in a patient with Cerebellar Cognitive Affective Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffieux, N; Colombo, F; Gentaz, E; Annoni, J-M; Chouiter, L; Roulin Hefti, S; Ruffieux, A; Bihl, T

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this case study was to describe the neuropsychological rehabilitation of a 16-year-old patient who presented a Cerebellar Cognitive Affective Syndrome (CCAS) following a bilateral cerebellar hemorrhage. The patient presented severe and diffuse cognitive deficits, massive behavioral disorders, and emotion regulation difficulties. The cognitive rehabilitation was performed in the chronic phase (one year after the onset of the hemorrhage) using a transdisciplinary neurobehavioral approach based on the patient's favorite interest (soccer). A significant behavioral and cognitive improvement was observed. The patient became progressively independent in all activities of daily living and was discharged home. The Functional Independence Measure at discharge was 124/126 (vs. 37/126 at entry). The patient was able to complete his schooling despite the mild cognitive and behavioral sequelae. This first description of the use of neurobehavioral therapy in a case of chronic CCAS suggests that (a) major clinical improvement can occur more than one year after the onset of the CCAS, showing the importance of long-term and intensive neurorehabilitation; and (b) when the cerebellum cannot properly play its regulator role in cognition, neuropsychological intervention through a behavioral and cognitive approach can be of great help by acting as an external modulator to help the patient regain control over himself.

  4. Maternal Iron Nutriture as a Critical Modulator of FASD Risk in Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Kaylee K.; Saini, Nipun; Kling, Pamela J.; Smith, Susan M.

    2018-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy places the fetus at risk for permanent physical, cognitive, and behavioral impairments, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). However, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) outcomes vary widely, and growing evidence suggests that maternal nutrition is a modifying factor. Certain nutrients, such as iron, may modulate FASD outcomes. Untreated gestational iron deficiency (ID) causes persistent neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring that affect many of the same domains damaged by PAE. Although chronic alcohol consumption enhances iron uptake and elevates liver iron stores in adult alcoholics, alcohol-abusing premenopausal women often have low iron reserves due to menstruation, childbirth, and poor diet. Recent investigations show that low iron reserves in during pregnancy are strongly associated with a worsening of several hallmark features in FASD including reduced growth and impaired associative learning. This review discusses recent clinical and animal model findings that maternal ID worsens fetal outcomes in response to PAE. It also discusses underlying mechanisms by which PAE disrupts maternal and fetal iron homeostasis. We suggest that alcohol-exposed, ID pregnancies contribute to the severe end of the FASD spectrum. PMID:29017023

  5. Alteration of affective Theory of Mind in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Michele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2013-03-01

    The concept of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) concerns a population of older individuals at high risk of developing probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). Impairments of the cognitive component of Theory of Mind (ToM), that is the inference about other people's beliefs, have been well documented in AD; on the contrary, controversial findings have been reported on the affective component of ToM (inference about other's feelings), a process mainly based on medial portions of the prefrontal cortex. The current study aimed at evaluating the affective component of ToM in aMCI subjects. Twenty aMCI subjects and 20 age-matched healthy controls (HC) underwent a standard neuropsychological assessment and the assessment of affective ToM with the full 36-item version of reading the mind in the eyes (RME). Although aMCI subjects had formal impaired performances only in memory tasks, HC outperformed aMCI subjects in several cognitive tasks, including also the RME (mean RME scores 21.7 ± 3.0 vs. 17.0 ± 3.8%; 60.3% of correct answers vs. 47.2%). The lower RME performance of aMCI patients provides the first empirical evidence that aMCI may be associated with difficulties in tasks of affective ToM, in accordance with recent findings of early difficulties of aMCI patients in other processes that are mainly dependent on the medial prefrontal cortex, such as reversal learning and decision making under ambiguity. Findings of the current study need further empirical confirmation in larger samples of aMCI patients and also the investigation of other MCI subtypes is needed. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Positive affect and cognitive decline: a 12-year follow-up of the Maastricht Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Lotte; van Boxtel, Martin; Köhler, Sebastian; van Os, Jim

    2017-12-01

    In cross-sectional studies, positive affect (PA) has been associated with higher levels of cognitive functioning. This study examined whether positive affect (PA) is associated with change in cognitive function over 12 years in an adult population sample. Participants (n = 258), aged 40 to 82 years, were drawn from a subsample of the Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS) and assessed at baseline, 6 years and 12 years. PA was measured at baseline with a Dutch translation of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). PA scores and associations with cognitive decline were tested in random-effects models. Controlling for demographics and depressive symptoms, there was no significant association with PA scores and decline in memory (χ 2  = 1.52; df = 2; P = 0.47), executive functions (χ 2  = 0.99; df = 2; P = 0.61), and information processing speed (χ 2  = 0.52; df = 2; P = 0.77) at 6- and 12-year follow-up. PA did not predict cognitive change over time. These findings question the extent of protective effects of PA on cognitive aging in adulthood, and are discussed in terms of age range and types of measures used for PA and cognition. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Is there an association between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in patients with affective disorders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne M; Kessing, Lars V; Munkholm, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    .01) but there were no differences between patient groups (P > 0.1). We found no correlation between subjectively experienced and objectively measured cognitive dysfunction in BD (P = 0.7), and a non-significant trend towards a correlation in UD (P = 0.06), which disappeared when controlling for gender (P = 0......Background: Patients with affective disorders experience cognitive dysfunction in addition to their affective symptoms. The relationship between subjectively experienced and objectively measured cognitive function is controversial with several studies reporting no correlation between subjective...... and objective deficits. Aims: To investigate whether there is a correlation between subjectively reported and objectively measured cognitive function in patients with affective disorders, and whether subjective complaints predict objectively measured dysfunction. Methods: The study included 45 participants; 15...

  8. Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and affective psychoses: implications for DSM-V criteria and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre; Yücel, Murat; Pantelis, Christos

    2010-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the diagnostic criteria of schizophrenia should include specific reference to cognitive impairments characterizing the disorder. Arguments in support of this assertion contend that such inclusion would not only serve to increase the awareness of cognitive deficits in affected patients, among both clinicians and researchers alike, but also increase the "point of rarity" between schizophrenia and mood disorders. The aim of the current article is to examine this latter assertion in light of the recent opinion piece provided by Keefe and Fenton (Keefe RSE, Fenton WS. How should DSM-V criteria for schizophrenia include cognitive impairment? Schizophr Bull. 2007;33:912-920). Through literature review, we explore the issue of whether cognitive deficits do in fact differentiate the major psychoses. The overall results of this inquiry suggest that inclusion of cognitive impairment criteria in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) (DSM-V) would not provide a major advancement in discriminating schizophrenia from bipolar disorder and affective psychoses. Therefore, while cognitive impairment should be included in DSM-V, it should not dictate diagnostic specificity--at least not until more comprehensive evidence-based reviews of the current diagnostic system have been undertaken. Based on this evidence, we consider several alternatives for the DSM-V definition of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, including (1) the inclusion of cognitive impairment as a specifier and (2) the definition of cognitive impairment as a dimension within a hybrid categorical-dimensional system. Given the state of current evidence, these possibilities appear to represent the most parsimonious approaches to the inclusion of cognitive deficits in the diagnostic criteria of schizophrenia and, potentially, of mood disorders.

  9. Mild cognitive dysfunction does not affect diabetes mellitus control in minority elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Priya; Golden, Sherita H; Teresi, Jeanne; Palmas, Walter; Weinstock, Ruth S; Shea, Steven; Manly, Jennifer J; Luchsinger, Jose A

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cognitive dysfunction have poorer metabolic control of glycosylated hemoglobin, systolic blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than those without cognitive dysfunction. Prospective cohort study. A minority cohort in New York City previously recruited for a trial of telemedicine. Persons aged 73.0 ± 3.0 (N = 613; 69.5% female; 82.5% Hispanic, 15.5% non-Hispanic black). Participants were classified with executive or memory dysfunction based on standardized score cutoffs (<16th percentile) for the Color Trails Test and Selective Reminding Test. Linear mixed models were used to compare repeated measures of the metabolic measures and evaluate the rates of change in individuals with and without dysfunction. Of the 613 participants, 331 (54%) had executive dysfunction, 202 (33%) had memory dysfunction, and 96 (16%) had both. Over a median of 2 years, participants with executive or memory dysfunction did not exhibit significantly poorer metabolic control than those without executive function or memory type cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive dysfunction in the mild range did not seem to affect diabetes mellitus control parameters in this multiethnic cohort of older adults with diabetes mellitus, although it cannot be excluded that cognitive impairment was overcome through assistance from formal or informal caregivers. It is possible that more-severe cognitive dysfunction could affect control. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Emotion Risk-Factor in Patients with Cardiac Diseases: The Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies, Positive Affect and Negative Affect (A Case-Control Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahremand, Mostafa; Alikhani, Mostafa; Zakiei, Ali; Janjani, Parisa; Aghei, Abbas

    2015-05-17

    Application of psychological interventions is essential in classic treatments for patient with cardiac diseases. The present study compared cognitive emotion regulation strategies, positive affect, and negative affect for cardiac patients with healthy subjects. This study was a case-control study. Fifty subjects were selected using convenient sampling method from cardiac (coronary artery disease) patients presenting in Imam Ali medical center of Kermanshah, Iran in the spring 2013. Fifty subjects accompanied the patients to the medical center, selected as control group, did not have any history of cardiac diseases. For collecting data, the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire and positive and negative affect scales were used. For data analysis, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) Was applied using the SPSS statistical software (ver. 19.0). In all cognitive emotion regulation strategies, there was a significant difference between the two groups. A significant difference was also detected regarding positive affect between the two groups, but no significant difference was found regarding negative affect. We found as a result that, having poor emotion regulation strategies is a risk factor for developing heart diseases.

  11. Emotion Risk-Factor in Patients With Cardiac Diseases: The Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies, Positive Affect and Negative Affect (A Case-Control Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahremand, Mostafa; Alikhani, Mostafa; Zakiei, Ali; Janjani, Parisa; Aghaei, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Application of psychological interventions is essential in classic treatments for patient with cardiac diseases. The present study compared cognitive emotion regulation strategies, positive affect, and negative affect for cardiac patients with healthy subjects. This study was a case-control study. Fifty subjects were selected using convenient sampling method from cardiac (coronary artery disease) patients presenting in Imam Ali medical center of Kermanshah, Iran in the spring 2013. Fifty subjects accompanied the patients to the medical center, selected as control group, did not have any history of cardiac diseases. For collecting data, the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire and positive and negative affect scales were used. For data analysis, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied using the SPSS statistical software (ver. 19.0). In all cognitive emotion regulation strategies, there was a significant difference between the two groups. A significant difference was also detected regarding positive affect between the two groups, but no significant difference was found regarding negative affect. We found as a result that, having poor emotion regulation strategies is a risk factor for developing heart diseases. PMID:26234976

  12. Can video games affect children's cognitive and non-cognitive skills?

    OpenAIRE

    Agne Suziedelyte

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether there is a causal relationship between video game playing and children's cognitive and non-cognitive skills. According to the literature, video games have a potential to improve children's cognitive abilities. Video games may also positively a ect such non-cognitive skills as the ability to sustain attention and pro-social behavior. On the other hand, there are concerns that video games can teach children to behave aggressively. The Child Develo...

  13. Evaluating ambivalence: social-cognitive and affective brain regions associated with ambivalent decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohlen, Hannah U; van Harreveld, Frenk; Rotteveel, Mark; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-07-01

    Ambivalence is a state of inconsistency that is often experienced as affectively aversive. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the role of cognitive and social-affective processes in the experience of ambivalence and coping with its negative consequences. We examined participants' brain activity during the dichotomous evaluation (pro vs contra) of pretested ambivalent (e.g. alcohol), positive (e.g. happiness) and negative (e.g. genocide) word stimuli. We manipulated evaluation relevance by varying the probability of evaluation consequences, under the hypothesis that ambivalence is experienced as more negative when outcomes are relevant. When making ambivalent evaluations, more activity was found in the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, the temporal parietal junction (TPJ) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus, for both high and low evaluation relevance. After statistically conservative corrections, activity in the TPJ and PCC/precuneus was negatively correlated with experienced ambivalence after scanning, as measured by Priester and Petty's felt ambivalence scale (1996). The findings show that cognitive and social-affective brain areas are involved in the experience of ambivalence. However, these networks are differently associated with subsequent reduction of ambivalence, thus highlighting the importance of understanding both cognitive and affective processes involved in ambivalent decision-making. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The influence of affective and cognitive arguments on message judgement and attitude change: The moderating effects of meta-bases and structural bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keer, Mario; van den Putte, Bas; Neijens, Peter; de Wit, John

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether the efficacy of affective vs. cognitive persuasive messages was moderated by (1) individuals' subjective assessments of whether their attitudes were based on affect or cognition (i.e. meta-bases) and (2) the degree individuals' attitudes were correlated with affect and cognition (i.e. structural bases). Participants (N = 97) were randomly exposed to a message containing either affective or cognitive arguments discouraging binge drinking. The results demonstrated that meta-bases and not structural bases moderated the influence of argument type on message judgement. Affective (cognitive) messages were judged more positively when individuals' meta-bases were more affective (cognitive). In contrast, structural bases and not meta-bases moderated the influence of argument type on attitude and intention change following exposure to the message. Surprisingly, change was greater among individuals who read a message that mismatched their structural attitude base. Affective messages were more effective as attitudes were more cognition-based, and vice versa. Thus, although individuals prefer messages that match their meta-base, attitude and intention change regarding binge drinking are best established by mismatching their structural base.

  15. Cerebellar Cognitive Affective Syndrome Presented as Severe Borderline Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Pesic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of findings confirm the significance of cerebellum in affecting regulation and early learning. Most consistent findings refer to association of congenital vermis anomalies with deficits in nonmotor functions of cerebellum. In this paper we presented a young woman who was treated since sixteen years of age for polysubstance abuse, affective instability, and self-harming who was later diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. Since the neurological and neuropsychological reports pointed to signs of cerebellar dysfunction and dysexecutive syndrome, we performed magnetic resonance imaging of brain which demonstrated partially developed vermis and rhombencephalosynapsis. These findings match the description of cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome and show an overlap with clinical manifestations of borderline personality disorder.

  16. The effects of affective and cognitive empathy on adolescents' behavior and outcomes in conflicts with mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lissa, Caspar J; Hawk, Skyler T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2017-06-01

    The current study investigated whether manipulations of affective and cognitive empathy have differential effects on observed behavior and self-reported outcomes in adolescent-mother conflict discussions. We further examined how these situational empathy inductions interact with preexisting empathic dispositions. To promote ecological validity, we conducted home visits to study conflict discussions about real disagreements in adolescent-mother relationships. We explored the roles of sex, age, and maternal support and power as covariates and moderators. Results indicated that the affective empathy manipulation had no significant effects on behavior, although a trend in the hypothesized direction suggested that affective empathy might promote active problem solving. The cognitive empathy manipulation led to lower conflict escalation and promoted other-oriented listening for adolescents low in dispositional cognitive empathy. State-trait interactions indicated that the empathy manipulations had significant effects on self-reported outcomes for adolescents lower in dispositional empathic concern. For these adolescents, both manipulations promoted outcome satisfaction, but only the cognitive manipulation promoted perceived fairness. This suggests that cognitive empathy, in particular, allows adolescents to distance themselves from the emotional heat of a conflict and listen to mothers' point of view, leading to outcomes perceived as both satisfying and fair. These findings are relevant for interventions and clinicians because they demonstrate unique effects of promoting affective versus cognitive empathy. Because even these minimal manipulations promoted significant effects on observed behavior and self-reported outcomes, particularly for low-empathy adolescents, stronger structural interventions are likely to have marked benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural plasticity of the social brain: Differential change after socio-affective and cognitive mental training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valk, Sofie L; Bernhardt, Boris C; Trautwein, Fynn-Mathis; Böckler, Anne; Kanske, Philipp; Guizard, Nicolas; Collins, D Louis; Singer, Tania

    2017-10-01

    Although neuroscientific research has revealed experience-dependent brain changes across the life span in sensory, motor, and cognitive domains, plasticity relating to social capacities remains largely unknown. To investigate whether the targeted mental training of different cognitive and social skills can induce specific changes in brain morphology, we collected longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data throughout a 9-month mental training intervention from a large sample of adults between 20 and 55 years of age. By means of various daily mental exercises and weekly instructed group sessions, training protocols specifically addressed three functional domains: (i) mindfulness-based attention and interoception, (ii) socio-affective skills (compassion, dealing with difficult emotions, and prosocial motivation), and (iii) socio-cognitive skills (cognitive perspective-taking on self and others and metacognition). MRI-based cortical thickness analyses, contrasting the different training modules against each other, indicated spatially diverging changes in cortical morphology. Training of present-moment focused attention mostly led to increases in cortical thickness in prefrontal regions, socio-affective training induced plasticity in frontoinsular regions, and socio-cognitive training included change in inferior frontal and lateral temporal cortices. Module-specific structural brain changes correlated with training-induced behavioral improvements in the same individuals in domain-specific measures of attention, compassion, and cognitive perspective-taking, respectively, and overlapped with task-relevant functional networks. Our longitudinal findings indicate structural plasticity in well-known socio-affective and socio-cognitive brain networks in healthy adults based on targeted short daily mental practices. These findings could promote the development of evidence-based mental training interventions in clinical, educational, and corporate settings aimed at

  18. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for seasonal affective disorder : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, Joke; Schroevers, Maya; Panjer, Vera; Geerts, Erwin; Meesters, Ybe

    2014-01-01

    Background: The best available treatment for seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is light therapy. Yet, this treatment does not prevent recurrence of depression in subsequent seasons. The aim of the study is to gain preliminary insight in the efficacy of Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) in

  19. Brain Signal Variability Differentially Affects Cognitive Flexibility and Cognitive Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster-Genç, Diana J N; Ueltzhöffer, Kai; Fiebach, Christian J

    2016-04-06

    Recent research yielded the intriguing conclusion that, in healthy adults, higher levels of variability in neuronal processes are beneficial for cognitive functioning. Beneficial effects of variability in neuronal processing can also be inferred from neurocomputational theories of working memory, albeit this holds only for tasks requiring cognitive flexibility. However, cognitive stability, i.e., the ability to maintain a task goal in the face of irrelevant distractors, should suffer under high levels of brain signal variability. To directly test this prediction, we studied both behavioral and brain signal variability during cognitive flexibility (i.e., task switching) and cognitive stability (i.e., distractor inhibition) in a sample of healthy human subjects and developed an efficient and easy-to-implement analysis approach to assess BOLD-signal variability in event-related fMRI task paradigms. Results show a general positive effect of neural variability on task performance as assessed by accuracy measures. However, higher levels of BOLD-signal variability in the left inferior frontal junction area result in reduced error rate costs during task switching and thus facilitate cognitive flexibility. In contrast, variability in the same area has a detrimental effect on cognitive stability, as shown in a negative effect of variability on response time costs during distractor inhibition. This pattern was mirrored at the behavioral level, with higher behavioral variability predicting better task switching but worse distractor inhibition performance. Our data extend previous results on brain signal variability by showing a differential effect of brain signal variability that depends on task context, in line with predictions from computational theories. Recent neuroscientific research showed that the human brain signal is intrinsically variable and suggested that this variability improves performance. Computational models of prefrontal neural networks predict differential

  20. Advancing the Assessment of Personality Pathology With the Cognitive-Affective Processing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Nelson, Sharon M

    2015-01-01

    The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) is a dynamic and expansive model of personality proposed by Mischel and Shoda (1995) that incorporates dispositional and processing frameworks by considering the interaction of the individual and the situation, and the patterns of variation that result. These patterns of cognition, affect, and behavior are generally defined through the use of if … then statements, and provide a rich understanding of the individual across varying levels of assessment. In this article, we describe the CAPS model and articulate ways in which it can be applied to conceptualizing and assessing personality pathology. We suggest that the CAPS model is an ideal framework that integrates a number of current theories of personality pathology, and simultaneously overcomes a number of limits that have been empirically identified in the past.

  1. Brand Loyalty: Impact of Cognitive and Affective Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad TOUZANI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on brand loyalty typically focus on the behavioural side ofbrand loyalty or on the attitudinal side. Rare are the studies that examinesimultaneously both components of brand loyalty. The present study wasperformed to describe the conjoint contribution of cognitive and affectivevariables in the formation of brand loyalty. A questionnaire was administered to400 shampoo users. A confirmatory analysis was performed to test theconceptual model presented. The results provide a better knowledge about therole played by each factor in brand loyalty formation and emphasises the majorrole played by affective factors.

  2. A Clinical Research Study of Cognitive Dysfunction and Affective Impairment after Isolated Brainstem Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiujuan; Lu, Zuneng; Wang, Yan; Huang, Lifang; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Hong; Xiao, Zheman

    2017-01-01

    Although the function of the cerebellum in neurocognition has been well-documented, the similar role of the brainstem has yet to be fully elucidated. This clinical research study aimed to combine data relating to neuropsychological assessments and P300 to explore cognitive dysfunction and affective impairment following brainstem stroke. Thirty-four patients with isolated brainstem stroke and twenty-six healthy controls were recruited; for each patient, we collated data pertaining to the P300, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-III), Montreal Cognitive Assessment Chinese version (MoCA), trail-making test (TMT), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Digit Spans (DS), Stroop test, Self Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). Significance was analyzed using an independent T-test or the Mann-Whitney U-test. Correlation was analyzed using Pearson's correlation analysis or Spearman's correlation analysis. Collectively, data revealed that brainstem stroke caused mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and that visuospatial, attention, linguistic, and emotional disturbances may occur after isolated brainstem stroke. Cognitive decline was linked to P300 latency, ACE-III, and MoCA; P300 latency was correlated with ACE-III. Patients with right brainstem lesions were more likely to suffer memory decline. The present study provides initial data relating to the role of the brainstem in neurocognition, and will be useful for further understanding of vascular cognitive and affective impairment. PMID:29311895

  3. A Clinical Research Study of Cognitive Dysfunction and Affective Impairment after Isolated Brainstem Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Fu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the function of the cerebellum in neurocognition has been well-documented, the similar role of the brainstem has yet to be fully elucidated. This clinical research study aimed to combine data relating to neuropsychological assessments and P300 to explore cognitive dysfunction and affective impairment following brainstem stroke. Thirty-four patients with isolated brainstem stroke and twenty-six healthy controls were recruited; for each patient, we collated data pertaining to the P300, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-III, Montreal Cognitive Assessment Chinese version (MoCA, trail-making test (TMT, Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Digit Spans (DS, Stroop test, Self Rating Depression Scale (SDS, and Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS. Significance was analyzed using an independent T-test or the Mann-Whitney U-test. Correlation was analyzed using Pearson's correlation analysis or Spearman's correlation analysis. Collectively, data revealed that brainstem stroke caused mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and that visuospatial, attention, linguistic, and emotional disturbances may occur after isolated brainstem stroke. Cognitive decline was linked to P300 latency, ACE-III, and MoCA; P300 latency was correlated with ACE-III. Patients with right brainstem lesions were more likely to suffer memory decline. The present study provides initial data relating to the role of the brainstem in neurocognition, and will be useful for further understanding of vascular cognitive and affective impairment.

  4. Cognitive, affective, and conative theory of mind (ToM) in children with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Maureen; Simic, Nevena; Bigler, Erin D; Abildskov, Tracy; Agostino, Alba; Taylor, H Gerry; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2013-07-01

    We studied three forms of dyadic communication involving theory of mind (ToM) in 82 children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 61 children with orthopedic injury (OI): Cognitive (concerned with false belief), Affective (concerned with expressing socially deceptive facial expressions), and Conative (concerned with influencing another's thoughts or feelings). We analyzed the pattern of brain lesions in the TBI group and conducted voxel-based morphometry for all participants in five large-scale functional brain networks, and related lesion and volumetric data to ToM outcomes. Children with TBI exhibited difficulty with Cognitive, Affective, and Conative ToM. The perturbation threshold for Cognitive ToM is higher than that for Affective and Conative ToM, in that Severe TBI disturbs Cognitive ToM but even Mild-Moderate TBI disrupt Affective and Conative ToM. Childhood TBI was associated with damage to all five large-scale brain networks. Lesions in the Mirror Neuron Empathy network predicted lower Conative ToM involving ironic criticism and empathic praise. Conative ToM was significantly and positively related to the package of Default Mode, Central Executive, and Mirror Neuron Empathy networks and, more specifically, to two hubs of the Default Mode Network, the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex and the hippocampal formation, including entorhinal cortex and parahippocampal cortex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping: associations with working memory, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety/depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Charissa; Thigpen, Jennifer E; Dunn, Madeleine J; Watson, Kelly; Potts, Jennifer; Reising, Michelle M; Robinson, Kristen E; Rodriguez, Erin M; Roubinov, Danielle; Luecken, Linda; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relations of measures of cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping with working memory abilities, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in young adults (N=124). Results indicate significant relations between working memory abilities and reports of secondary control coping and between reports of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal. Associations were also found between measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal and positive and negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Further, the findings suggest that reports of cognitive reappraisal may be more strongly predictive of positive affect whereas secondary control coping may be more strongly predictive of negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Overall, the results suggest that current measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal capture related but distinct constructs and suggest that the assessment of working memory may be more strongly related to secondary control coping in predicting individual differences in distress.

  6. Cognitive biases can affect moral intuitions about cognitive enhancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caviola, L.; Mannino, A.; Savulescu, J.; Faulmüller, N.

    2014-01-01

    Research into cognitive biases that impair human judgment has mostly been applied to the area of economic decision-making. Ethical decision-making has been comparatively neglected. Since ethical decisions often involve very high individual as well as collective stakes, analyzing how cognitive biases

  7. Performance pressure and caffeine both affect cognitive performance, but likely through independent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boere, Julia J; Fellinger, Lizz; Huizinga, Duncan J H; Wong, Sebastiaan F; Bijleveld, Erik

    2016-02-01

    A prevalent combination in daily life, performance pressure and caffeine intake have both been shown to impact people's cognitive performance. Here, we examined the possibility that pressure and caffeine affect cognitive performance via a shared pathway. In an experiment, participants performed a modular arithmetic task. Performance pressure and caffeine intake were orthogonally manipulated. Findings indicated that pressure and caffeine both negatively impacted performance. However, (a) pressure vs. caffeine affected performance on different trial types, and (b) there was no hint of an interactive effect. So, though the evidence is indirect, findings suggest that pressure and caffeine shape performance via distinct mechanisms, rather than a shared one. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cognitive/affective and somatic/affective symptoms of depression in patients with heart disease and their association with cardiovascular prognosis : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azevedo, R. de Miranda; Roest, A. M.; Hoen, P. W.; de Jonge, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Several prospective longitudinal studies have suggested that somatic/affective depressive symptoms, but not cognitive/affective depressive symptoms, are related to prognosis in patients with heart disease, but findings have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the

  9. Predictors of affect following treatment decision-making for prostate cancer: conversations, cognitive processing, and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Kysa M; Meyerowitz, Beth E; Giedzinska-Simons, Antoinette; Gross, Mitchell; Agus, David B

    2009-05-01

    Research suggests that cancer patients who are more involved in treatment decision-making (TDM) report better quality of life following treatment. This study examines the association and possible mechanisms between prostate cancer patient's discussions about TDM and affect following treatment. We predicted that the length of time patients spent discussing treatment options with social networks and physicians prior to treatment would predict emotional adjustment after treatment. We further predicted that cognitive processing, coping, and patient understanding of treatment options would mediate this association. Fifty-seven patients completed questionnaires prior to treatment and at 1 and 6 months following treatment completion. Findings from the present study suggest that discussing treatment options with others, prior to beginning treatment for prostate cancer, significantly contributed to improvements in affect 1 and 6 months following treatment. Residualized regression analyses indicated that discussing treatment options with patient's social networks predicted a decrease in negative affect 1 and 6 months following treatment, while discussions with physicians predicted an increase in positive affect 1 month following treatment. Patients who spent more time discussing treatment options with family and friends also reported greater pre-treatment social support and emotional expression. Mediation analyses indicated that these coping strategies facilitated cognitive processing (as measured by a decrease in intrusive thoughts) and that cognitive processing predicted improvement in affect. Greater time spent talking with family and friends about treatment options may provide opportunities for patients to cope with their cancer diagnosis and facilitate cognitive processing, which may improve patient distress over time. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cross-cultural aging in cognitive and affective components of subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethtel, Olivia; Chen, Yiwei

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined age and cultural differences in cognitive and affective components of subjective well-being. A sample of 188 American and Chinese young and older adults completed surveys measuring self-life satisfaction, perceived family's life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. Across cultures, older adults reported lower negative affect than did young adults. Americans reported higher self-life satisfaction, perceived family's life satisfaction, and positive affect than did Chinese. In addition, perceived family's life satisfaction was more related to self-life satisfaction for Chinese than for Americans. Findings are discussed in light of socioemotional selectivity theory and theories on culture and self-construal. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Affective-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Woolfolk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of an individually administered form of cognitive behavioral treatment for fibromyalgia. In an additive design, 76 patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia were randomly assigned to either the experimental treatment (affective-cognitive behavioral therapy, 10 individual sessions, one per week administered concurrently with treatment-as-usual or to an unaugmented treatment-as-usual condition. Statistical analysis conducted at the end of treatment (3 months after the baseline assessment and at a followup (9 months after the baseline assessment indicated that the patients receiving the experimental treatment reported less pain and overall better functioning than control patients, both at posttreatment and at followup. The implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  12. Virtual driving and risk taking: do racing games increase risk-taking cognitions, affect, and behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Guter, Stephanie; Frey, Dieter

    2007-03-01

    Research has consistently shown that aggressive video console and PC games elicit aggressive cognitions, affect, and behaviors. Despite the increasing popularity of racing (driving) games, nothing is known about the psychological impact of this genre. This study investigated whether playing racing games affects cognitions, affect, and behaviors that can promote risk taking in actual road traffic situations. In Study 1, the authors found that the frequency of playing racing games was positively associated with competitive driving, obtrusive driving, and car accidents; a negative association with cautious driving was observed. To determine cause and effect, in Study 2, the authors manipulated whether participants played 1 of 3 racing games or 1 of 3 neutral games. Participants who played a racing game subsequently reported a higher accessibility of cognitions and affect positively associated with risk taking than did participants who played a neutral game. Finally, on a more behavioral level, in Study 3, the authors found that men who played a racing game subsequently took higher risks in computer-simulated critical road traffic situations than did men who played a neutral game. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Ghayour Najafabadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n=9 and nonfasting (n=8 groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan. Digit span test (DST and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p<0.05. Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p<0.05. Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p<0.05. Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p<0.05. The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes.

  14. Sleeping with technology: cognitive, affective, and technology usage predictors of sleep problems among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Larry; Carrier, Louis M; Miller, Aimee; Rokkum, Jeffrey; Ruiz, Abraham

    2016-03-01

    Sleep problems related to technology affect college students through several potential mechanisms including displacement of sleep due to technology use, executive functioning abilities, and the impact of emotional states related to stress and anxiety about technology availability. In the present study, cognitive and affective factors that influence technology usage were examined for their impact upon sleep problems. More than 700 US college students completed an online questionnaire addressing technology usage, anxiety/dependence, executive functioning, nighttime phone usage, bedtime phone location, and sleep problems. A path model controlling for background variables was tested using the data. The results showed that executive dysfunction directly predicted sleep problems as well as affected sleep problems through nighttime awakenings. In addition, anxiety/dependence increased daily smartphone usage and also increased nighttime awakenings, which, in turn, affected sleep problems. Thus, both the affective and cognitive factors that influence technology usage affected sleep problems. Copyright © 2016 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Network-oriented modeling addressing complexity of cognitive, affective and social interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Treur, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new approach that can be applied to complex, integrated individual and social human processes. It provides an alternative means of addressing complexity, better suited for its purpose than and effectively complementing traditional strategies involving isolation and separation assumptions. Network-oriented modeling allows high-level cognitive, affective and social models in the form of (cyclic) graphs to be constructed, which can be automatically transformed into executable simulation models. The modeling format used makes it easy to take into account theories and findings about complex cognitive and social processes, which often involve dynamics based on interrelating cycles. Accordingly, it makes it possible to address complex phenomena such as the integration of emotions within cognitive processes of all kinds, of internal simulations of the mental processes of others, and of social phenomena such as shared understandings and collective actions. A variety of sample models – including ...

  16. Affective and cognitive theory of mind abilities in youth with borderline personality disorder or major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Sarah-Ann; Hulbert, Carol A; Jackson, Henry J; Chanen, Andrew M

    2017-09-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) is an important social cognitive ability that has been investigated in BPD, with inconsistent findings indicating impaired, comparable, and enhanced ToM in BPD. This study aimed to clarify and extend previous findings by investigating affective and cognitive ToM abilities in youth early in the course of BPD, by including a clinical comparison group of youth with major depressive disorder (MDD). Female participants aged 15-24 years diagnosed with BPD (n = 41) or MDD (n = 37) completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and Happé's Cartoon Task, measures of affective and cognitive dimensions of ToM, respectively. The BPD group performed significantly worse than the MDD group on the affective ToM task, even after controlling for age, intelligence and depressive symptoms. Results for cognitive ToM were not significantly different. Finding of poorer performance on a measure of affective ToM, in BPD youth, relative to youth with MDD early in the course of BPD suggest a developmental failure of sociocognitive abilities needed for mentalising and which are theorised as giving rise to core features of BPD. Future research should employ more naturalistic paradigms to study social cognition and should assess individuals even earlier in the course of BPD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Neural responses to affective and cognitive theory of mind in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjoo; Kyeong, Sunghyon; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Park, Bumhee; Oh, Maeng-Keun; Chun, Ji Won; Park, Hae-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Jin; Song, Dong-Ho

    2016-05-16

    Children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are characterized by an impaired Theory of Mind (ToM). Recent evidence suggested that two aspects of ToM (cognitive ToM versus affective ToM) are differentially impaired in individuals with ASD. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of cognitive and affective ToM in children and adolescents with ASD compared to typically developing children (TDCs). Twelve children and adolescents with ASD and 12 age, IQ matched TDCs participated in this functional MRI study. The ToM task involved the attribution of cognitive and affective mental states to a cartoon character based on verbal and eye-gaze cues. In cognitive ToM tasks, ASD participants recruited the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and superior temporal gyrus (STG) to a greater extent than did TDCs. In affective ToM tasks, both ASD and TDC participants showed more activation in the insula and other subcortical regions than in cognitive ToM tasks. Correlational analysis revealed that greater activation of the mPFC/ACC regions was associated with less symptom severity in ASD patients. In sum, our study suggests that the recruitment of additional prefrontal resources can compensate for the successful behavioral performance in the ToM task in ASD participants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of current physical activity on affective response to exercise: physical and social-cognitive mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Renee E; Kwan, Bethany M; Bryan, Angela D

    2013-01-01

    Affective responses during exercise are often important determinants of exercise initiation and maintenance. Current physical activity may be one individual difference that is associated with the degree to which individuals have positive (or negative) affective experiences during exercise. The objective of this study was to explore physical and cognitive explanations of the relationship between current activity status (more versus less active) and affective response during a 30-minute bout of moderate-intensity exercise. Participants reported their current level of physical activity, exercise self-efficacy and affect during a 30-minute bout of moderate-intensity exercise. More active individuals experienced higher levels of positive affect and tranquillity and lower levels of negative affect and fatigue during exercise. Multivariate models for each affective state indicated separate processes through which physical activity may be associated with changes in affect during exercise. These models indicate that affect experienced during physical activity is related to the current activity level and these relationships can be partially explained by the physical and cognitive factors explored in this study. Recommendations for future research to elucidate whether positive affective response to physical activity improves as a function of becoming more active over time are discussed.

  19. Pushing the Limits: Cognitive, Affective, & Neural Plasticity Revealed by an Intensive Multifaceted Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael David Mrazek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific understanding of how much the adult brain can be shaped by experience requires examination of how multiple influences combine to elicit cognitive, affective, and neural plasticity. Using an intensive multifaceted intervention, we discovered that substantial and enduring improvements can occur in parallel across multiple cognitive and neuroimaging measures in healthy young adults. The intervention elicited substantial improvements in physical health, working memory, standardized test performance, mood, self-esteem, self-efficacy, mindfulness, and life satisfaction. Improvements in mindfulness were associated with increased degree centrality of the insula, greater functional connectivity between insula and somatosensory cortex, and reduced functional connectivity between posterior cingulate cortex and somatosensory cortex. Improvements in working memory and reading comprehension were associated with increased degree centrality of a region within the middle temporal gyrus that was extensively and predominately integrated with the executive control network. The scope and magnitude of the observed improvements represent the most extensive demonstration to date of the considerable human capacity for change. These findings point to higher limits for rapid and concurrent cognitive, affective, and neural plasticity than is widely assumed.

  20. How does MBCT for depression work? studying cognitive and affective mediation pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Batink

    Full Text Available Mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT is a non-pharmacological intervention to reduce current symptoms and to prevent recurrence of major depressive disorder. At present, it is not well understood which underlying mechanisms during MBCT are associated with its efficacy. The current study (n = 130 was designed to examine the roles of mindfulness skills, rumination, worry and affect, and the interplay between those factors, in the mechanisms of change in MBCT for residual depressive symptoms. An exploratory but systematic approach was chosen using Sobel-Goodman mediation analyses to identify mediators on the pathway from MBCT to reduction in depressive symptoms. We replicated earlier findings that therapeutic effects of MBCT are mediated by changes in mindfulness skills and worry. Second, results showed that changes in momentary positive and negative affect significantly mediated the efficacy of MBCT, and also mediated the effect of worry on depressive symptoms. Third, within the group of patients with a prior history of ≤ 2 episodes of MDD, predominantly changes in cognitive and to a lesser extent affective processes mediated the effect of MBCT. However, within the group of patients with a prior history of ≥ 3 episodes of MDD, only changes in affect were significant mediators for the effect of MBCT.[corrected] Nederlands Trial Register NTR1084.

  1. Interaction between Task Oriented and Affective Information Processing in Cognitive Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haazebroek, Pascal; van Dantzig, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard

    There is an increasing interest in endowing robots with emotions. Robot control however is still often very task oriented. We present a cognitive architecture that allows the combination of and interaction between task representations and affective information processing. Our model is validated by comparing simulation results with empirical data from experimental psychology.

  2. Sound as Affective Design Feature in Multimedia Learning--Benefits and Drawbacks from a Cognitive Load Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königschulte, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The study presented in this paper investigates the potential effects of including non-speech audio such as sound effects into multimedia-based instruction taking into account Sweller's cognitive load theory (Sweller, 2005) and applied frameworks such as the cognitive theory of multimedia learning (Mayer, 2005) and the cognitive affective theory of…

  3. Examining direct and indirect pathways to health behaviour: the influence of cognitive and affective probability beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to extricate the influence of rational (e.g., 'I think …') and intuitive (e.g., 'I feel …') probability beliefs in the behavioural decision-making process regarding skin cancer prevention practices. Structural equation modelling was used in two longitudinal surveys (sun protection during winter sports [N = 491]; sun protection during summer [N = 277]) to examine direct and indirect behavioural effects of affective and cognitive likelihood (i.e. unmediated or mediated by intention), controlled for attitude, social influence and self-efficacy. Affective likelihood was directly related to sun protection in both studies, whereas no direct effects were found for cognitive likelihood. After accounting for past sun protective behaviour, affective likelihood was only directly related to sun protection in Study 1. No support was found for the indirect effects of affective and cognitive likelihood through intention. The findings underscore the importance of feelings of (cancer) risk in the decision-making process and should be acknowledged by health behaviour theories and risk communication practices. Suggestions for future research are discussed.

  4. The Effect of Negative Affect on Cognition: Anxiety, Not Anger, Impairs Executive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Grant S.; Moons, Wesley G.; Tewell, Carl A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these two affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in parti...

  5. Social-Cognitive Factors Affecting Clients' Career and Life Satisfaction after Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Marijke; Sels, Luc

    2010-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting clients' career and life satisfaction in the first 6 months after having participated in career counseling. In particular, we tested a large subset of the recent social-cognitive model of work satisfaction of Lent and Brown using a longitudinal data set of 195 former counseling clients. Our results showed that…

  6. The ethics of sham surgery on research subjects with cognitive impairments that affect decision-making capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Miller, Frank

    2010-09-01

    Populations recruited to participate in sham surgery clinical trials sometimes include patients with cognitive impairments that affect decision-making capacity. In this commentary we examine arguments for and against including these patients in sham surgery clinical trials. We argue that patients with cognitive impairments that affect decision-making capacity should not be excluded from a sham surgery clinical trial if there are scientific reasons for including them in the study and basic ethical requirements for clinical research are met. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Self-talk and affective problems in college students: valence of thinking and cognitive content specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Estévez, Ana; Landín, Covadonga; Martínez, Yolanda; Cardeñoso, Olga; Villardón, Lourdes; Villa, Aurelio

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a Self-Talk Inventory for young adults. This inventory consisted of two scales. The Negative Self-Talk Scale included three categories of self-talk (depressive, anxious, and angry thoughts) and the Positive Self-Talk Scale, three categories (minimization, positive orientation, and coping self-instructions). Participants were 982 undergraduate students (Mean age = 20.35 years, SD = 2.16). They completed the self-talk scales together with the following scales to measure symptoms of affective disorders: the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI-T). Factor analyses confirmed the hypothesized structure for the Self-Talk Inventory. The relations between self-talk and symptoms of affective disorders (depression, anxiety, and anger) were also evaluated. In general, states-of-mind -SOM- ratios and negative cognitions showed a greater association with psychological symptoms than did positive cognitions. Results concerning the cognitive characteristics of depression, anxiety, and anger were mixed and partially supported the cognitive content specificity theory.

  8. Concurrent and Prospective Effects of Psychopathic Traits on Affective and Cognitive Empathy in a Community Sample of Late Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, Bart H. J.; de Wied, Minet Annette; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A deficit in affective rather than cognitive empathy is thought to be central to psychopathic traits. However, empirical evidence for empathy deficits in adolescents with psychopathic traits is limited. We investigated the concurrent and prospective effects of psychopathic traits on affective and cognitive trait empathy in late…

  9. Taekwondo Fighting in Training Does Not Simulate the Affective and Cognitive Demands of Competition: Implications for Behavior and Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Michael A; Renshaw, Ian; Headrick, Jonathon; Martin, David T; Farrow, Damian

    2018-01-01

    Enhancing practice design is critical to facilitate transfer of learning. Considerable research has focused on the role of perceptual information in practice simulation, yet has neglected how affect and cognition are shaped by practice environments and whether this influences the fidelity of behavior (Headrick et al., 2015). This study filled this gap by examining the fidelity of individual (cognition, affect, and actions) and interpersonal behavior of 10 highly skilled Australian Taekwondo athletes fighting in training compared to competition. Interpersonal behavior was assessed by tracking location coordinates to analyze distance-time coordination tendencies of the fighter-fighter system. Individual actions were assessed through notational analysis and approximate entropy calculations of coordinate data to quantify the (un)predictability of movement displacement. Affect and cognition were assessed with mixed-methods that included perceptual scales measuring anxiety, arousal, and mental effort, and post-fight video-facilitated confrontational interviews to explore how affect and cognitions might differ. Quantitative differences were assessed with mixed models and dependent t -tests. Results reveal that individual and interpersonal behavior differed between training and competition. In training, individuals attacked less ( d = 0.81, p training, fighters had lower anxiety ( d = -1.26, p interpersonal behavior, with larger interpersonal distances generated by the fighter-fighter system in training ( d = 0.80, p training environment, such as reductions in pressure, arousal, and mental challenge. Findings highlight the specificity of performer-environment interactions. Fighting in training affords reduced affective and cognitive demands and a decrease in action fidelity compared to competition. In addition to sampling information, representative practice needs to consider modeling the cognitions and affect of competition to enhance transfer.

  10. Effects of acute systemic inflammation on the interplay between sad mood and affective cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Sven; Brinkhoff, Alexandra; Lueg, Larissa; Roderigo, Till; Kribben, Andreas; Wilde, Benjamin; Witzke, Oliver; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred; Elsenbruch, Sigrid

    2017-12-11

    Experimental endotoxemia is a translational model to study inflammatory mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders including depression. Disturbed affective cognition constitutes a core aspect in depression, but has never been studied in the context of inflammation. We combined experimental endotoxemia with an established experimental mood induction procedure to assess the interaction between acute inflammation and sad mood and their effects on affective cognition. In this randomized cross-over study, N = 15 healthy males received endotoxin (0.8 ng/kg lipopolysaccharide iv) on one study day and placebo an otherwise identical study day. The affective Go/Nogo task was conducted after experimental induction of neutral and sad mood. Inflammatory markers were assessed hourly. Endotoxin application induced a transient systemic inflammation, characterized by increased leukocyte counts, TNF-alpha and interleukin-6 plasma concentrations (all p sadness ratings, with highest ratings when sad mood was induced during inflammation (p sad vs. neutral mood) × 2 (sad vs. happy Go/Nogo target words) factorial design, we observed a significant target × endotoxin condition interaction (p sad targets during endotoxemia. Additionally, we found a valence × mood interaction (p sad targets in sad mood. In summary, acute inflammation and sad mood are risk factors for disturbed affective cognition. The results may reflect a mood-congruency effect, with prolonged and sustained processing of mood-congruent information during acute inflammation, which may contribute to depression risk.

  11. The power of emotional valence—from cognitive to affective processes in reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Ulrike; Bohrn, Isabel C.; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2012-01-01

    The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1) the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM), and (2) the neural substrate of liking negatively valenced narratives. A set of 80 short narratives was compiled, ranging from neutral to negative emotional valence. For each story mean rating values on valence and liking were obtained from a group of 32 participants in a prestudy, and later included as parametric regressors in the fMRI analysis. Another group of 24 participants passively read the narratives in a three Tesla MRI scanner. Results revealed a stronger engagement of affective ToM-related brain areas with increasingly negative story valence. Stories that were unpleasant, but simultaneously liked, engaged the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which might reflect the moral exploration of the story content. Further analysis showed that the more the mPFC becomes engaged during the reading of negatively valenced stories, the more coactivation can be observed in other brain areas related to the neural processing of affective ToM and empathy. PMID:22754519

  12. The power of emotional valence-from cognitive to affective processes in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Ulrike; Bohrn, Isabel C; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2012-01-01

    The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1) the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM), and (2) the neural substrate of liking negatively valenced narratives. A set of 80 short narratives was compiled, ranging from neutral to negative emotional valence. For each story mean rating values on valence and liking were obtained from a group of 32 participants in a prestudy, and later included as parametric regressors in the fMRI analysis. Another group of 24 participants passively read the narratives in a three Tesla MRI scanner. Results revealed a stronger engagement of affective ToM-related brain areas with increasingly negative story valence. Stories that were unpleasant, but simultaneously liked, engaged the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which might reflect the moral exploration of the story content. Further analysis showed that the more the mPFC becomes engaged during the reading of negatively valenced stories, the more coactivation can be observed in other brain areas related to the neural processing of affective ToM and empathy.

  13. Psychometric properties of the Greek TCI-R and its clinical correlates: schizotypy and the self-regulation of affective and cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumaki, Stella G; Karagiannopoulou, Leda; Rózsa, Sándor; Zouraraki, Chrysoula; Karamaouna, Penny; Cloninger, C Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background. The revised Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) measures Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality. The average effects of individual temperament and character traits have been associated with schizotypy and with impaired regulation of affect and cognition. We extended prior research by testing predictions about the association of specific multidimensional configurations of temperament and character traits on schizotypy, affect balance, and self-perceived cognitive functioning. Method. A well-educated sample of native Greeks (N = 483), completed a new Greek translation of the TCI-R, as well as the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), the Positive/Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ). The factor structure of the TCI-R was examined with exploratory and confirmatory tests. Associations between reported measures were examined with correlational and regression analyses. Results. The TCI-R had good psychometric properties as expected from studies in other countries. As predicted, specific configurations of temperament and character were associated with schizotypy, negative affect balance, and cognitive lapses. The "Borderline/Explosive temperament" (high Novelty Seeking, high Harm Avoidance, low Reward Dependence), "Schizotypal/Disorganized character" (low Self-directedness, low Cooperativeness, high Self-transcendence), and "Low Ego Strength/Fragile" profile (high Harm Avoidance, low Persistence, low Self-Directedness) were each strongly associated with higher stereotypy, negative affect balance (low positive affect and high negative affect), and subjective cognitive lapses compared to their contrast groups. Discussion. Multidimensional TCI profiles are strongly related to individual differences in schizotypy and self-reported regulation of affect and cognition. The Greek translation of the TCI-R is psychometrically sound and useful for clinical assessment and research.

  14. Affect and cognition in attitude formation towards familiar and unfamiliar attitude objects: the case of nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, van R.I.

    2015-01-01

    Together, the chapters in this thesis show that although the default is to rely on affect, in attitude formation toward unfamiliar attitude objects, people are able to draw on cognitive inferences provided that there are enough cues available (e.g. product context, high Need for Cognition, or being

  15. How Need for Cognition Affects the Formation of Performance Expectancies at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with low Need for Cognition (NFC) have been found to process information using a peripheral route compared to individuals higher in NFC. These differences affect the formation of performance expectancies. Based on previous work demonstrating that the formation of performance expectancies can be understood as an information processing…

  16. Introduction to using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state (Editorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Brouwer, A.M.; Zander, T.O.

    2015-01-01

    The central question of this Frontiers Research Topic is: What can we learn from brain and other physiological signals about an individual's cognitive and affective state and how can we use this information? This question reflects three important issues which are addressed by the 22 articles in this

  17. Nutritional survey of neoplasm patients receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinli; Zhu Shengtao

    2001-01-01

    Objective: In order to know the nutriture of neoplasm patients receiving radiotherapy and give nutritional guidance properly, the authors make the following survey. Methods: A dietary survey of twenty-four-hour retrospective method was used; The patients' activity was recorded and their twenty-four hours caloric consumption was calculated. Results: Of all the patients, the intake of protein is more than recommended, percentage of calorific proportion is about 15%-19% of gross caloric. A larger portion of patients' caloric intake, especially female patients, is lower than caloric consumption. Among all the patients, the intake of vegetables is not enough; The consumption of milk and milky products is lower; it is common and serious that neoplasm patients receiving radiotherapy have vitamine and mineral's scarcity. Conclusions: Nutriture of neoplasm patients is not optimistic, it is imperative to improve their nutriture

  18. Mechanisms for Promoting the Development of Cognitive, Social and Affective Graduate Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kember, David; Hong, Celina; Yau, Vickie W. K.; Ho, Shun Amaly

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to help universities promote graduate attributes by investigating mechanisms for promoting the development of cognitive, social and affective attributes which could impact upon all undergraduate students. Small group interviews were conducted with 90 final year students at a university in Hong Kong. Interview transcripts…

  19. Affective and cognitive mechanisms of risky decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimp, Kristy G; Mitchell, Marci R; Beas, B Sofia; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry

    2015-01-01

    The ability to make advantageous decisions under circumstances in which there is a risk of adverse consequences is an important component of adaptive behavior; however, extremes in risk taking (either high or low) can be maladaptive and are characteristic of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. To better understand the contributions of various affective and cognitive factors to risky decision making, cohorts of male Long-Evans rats were trained in a "Risky Decision making Task" (RDT), in which they made discrete trial choices between a small, "safe" food reward and a large, "risky" food reward accompanied by varying probabilities of footshock. Experiment 1 evaluated the relative contributions of the affective stimuli (i.e., punishment vs. reward) to RDT performance by parametrically varying the magnitudes of the footshock and large reward. Varying the shock magnitude had a significant impact on choice of the large, "risky" reward, such that greater magnitudes were associated with reduced choice of the large reward. In contrast, varying the large, "risky" reward magnitude had minimal influence on reward choice. Experiment 2 compared individual variability in RDT performance with performance in an attentional set shifting task (assessing cognitive flexibility), a delayed response task (assessing working memory), and a delay discounting task (assessing impulsive choice). Rats characterized as risk averse in the RDT made more perseverative errors on the set shifting task than did their risk taking counterparts, whereas RDT performance was not related to working memory abilities or impulsive choice. In addition, rats that showed greater delay discounting (greater impulsive choice) showed corresponding poorer performance in the working memory task. Together, these results suggest that reward-related decision making under risk of punishment is more strongly influenced by the punishment than by the reward, and that risky and impulsive decision making are associated with

  20. Questioning the link between Self-Expressed Attitudes and Repurchasing Behavior: Relations Between Cognitive, Affective and Action Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guven Ordun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In psychology attitude is defined as favorable or unfavorable evaluations towards a person, group, object or event. Attitudes are formed by past and present experiences and are expected to change as a function of experience. Three components of the attitude defined as cognitive (what we know about the subject, affective (how we feel towards the subject and behavioral (intention to behave towards the subject. Our behavior is defined as a complex combination of beliefs, feelings, capabilities and norms. The majority of consumer behavior literature examined the main antecedents of purchase behavior. Attitudes are described as one of the most important determinant of the behavior. There are several methods and techniques to assess attitude; the most used one is the self-report paper and pencil measures. Brand loyalty is another important concept related with repetitive purchasing behavior. While cognitive loyalty is related with the information, affective loyalty is related with feelings. Behavioral loyalty is described as the past behaviors or experiences. Some of our behaviors are determined by the cognitive component of the attitude while others may be directed by the affective part. Main focus of the research is to find out whether there is a level of compliance between cognitive, affective and behavioral attitude of consumers. 1000 forms are distributed in order to identify the attitudes and purchasing behaviors of consumers 783 forms are evaluated

  1. A meta-analysis of the published research on the affective, cognitive, and behavioral effects of corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Elizabeth Oddone; Violato, Claudio

    2004-05-01

    The present study is a meta-analysis of the published research on the effects of corporal punishment on affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. The authors included 70 studies published between 1961 and 2000 and involving 47,751 people. Most of the studies were published between 1990 and 2000 (i.e., 53 or 68%) and were conducted in the United States (65 or 83.3%). Each of the dependent variables was coded, and effect sizes (ds) were computed. Average unweighted and weighted ds for each of the outcome variables were .35 and .20 for affective outcomes, .33 and .06 for cognitive outcomes, and .25 and .21 for behavioral outcomes, respectively. The analyses suggested small negative behavioral and emotional effects of corporal punishment and almost no effect of such punishment on cognition. Analyses of several potentially moderating variables, such as gender or socioeconomic status, and the frequency or age of first experience of corporal punishment, the relationship of the person administering the discipline, and the technique of the discipline all had no affect on effect size outcome. There was insufficient data about a number of the moderator variables to conduct meaningful analyses. The results of the present meta-analysis suggest that exposure to corporal punishment does not substantially increase the risk to youth of developing affective, cognitive, or behavioral pathologies.

  2. Questioning the Link between Self-Expressed Attitudes and Repurchasing Behavior: Relations Between Cognitive, Affective and Action Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guven Ordun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In psychology attitude is defined as favorable or unfavorable evaluations towards a person, group, object or event. Attitudes are formed by past and present experiences and are expected to change as a function of experience. Three components of the attitude defined as cognitive (what we know about the subject, affective (how we feel towards the subject and behavioral (intention to behave towards the subject. Our behavior is defined as a complex combination of beliefs, feelings, capabilities and norms. The majority of consumer behavior literature examined the main antecedents of purchase behavior. Attitudes are described as one of the most important determinant of the behavior. There are several methods and techniques to assess attitude; the most used one is the self-report paper and pencil measures. Brand loyalty is another important concept related with repetitive purchasing behavior. While cognitive loyalty is related with the information, affective loyalty is related with feelings. Behavioral loyalty is described as the past behaviors or experiences. Some of our behaviors are determined by the cognitive component of the attitude while others may be directed by the affective part. Main focus of the research is to find out whether there is a level of compliance between cognitive, affective and behavioral attitude of consumers. 1000 forms are distributed in order to identify the attitudes and purchasing behaviors of consumers 783 forms are evaluated

  3. Cognitive and Affective Uses of a Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Facebook Support Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kimberly K

    2014-09-01

    There are currently many disease-specific groups on Facebook in which patients may take an active part (Greene, Choudhry, Kilabuk, & Shrank, 2011). Although uses and gratifications of patient-disease groups have begun to be identified for chronic diseases, rare diseases have been omitted, even though they collectively affect roughly 30 million people in the United States and 350 million people worldwide. This study is a content analysis of one Facebook rare disease patient group, the Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS) Awareness group. All wall posts were recorded and content analyzed for cognitive and affective categories and subcategories between October 9, 2011 (date of site origin), and May 1, 2012. Analysis of cognitive needs indicated TOS patients used the site more to share information about their own TOS symptoms and journey with diagnosis than to seek information. Analysis of affective needs found patients were more likely to use the site to give support and encouragement to others than to express concerns and complaints. The complaints they did express were primarily related to their frustration with the general medical community's perceived inability to diagnose and understand their disease or to question a specific doctor's diagnosis/recommendation. Results point to needs specific to TOS patients that uses and gratifications research can help clarify.

  4. Psychometric properties of the Greek TCI-R and its clinical correlates: schizotypy and the self-regulation of affective and cognitive functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella G. Giakoumaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The revised Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R measures Cloninger’s psychobiological model of personality. The average effects of individual temperament and character traits have been associated with schizotypy and with impaired regulation of affect and cognition. We extended prior research by testing predictions about the association of specific multidimensional configurations of temperament and character traits on schizotypy, affect balance, and self-perceived cognitive functioning. Method. A well-educated sample of native Greeks (N = 483, completed a new Greek translation of the TCI-R, as well as the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, the Positive/Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ. The factor structure of the TCI-R was examined with exploratory and confirmatory tests. Associations between reported measures were examined with correlational and regression analyses. Results. The TCI-R had good psychometric properties as expected from studies in other countries. As predicted, specific configurations of temperament and character were associated with schizotypy, negative affect balance, and cognitive lapses. The “Borderline/Explosive temperament” (high Novelty Seeking, high Harm Avoidance, low Reward Dependence, “Schizotypal/Disorganized character” (low Self-directedness, low Cooperativeness, high Self-transcendence, and “Low Ego Strength/Fragile” profile (high Harm Avoidance, low Persistence, low Self-Directedness were each strongly associated with higher stereotypy, negative affect balance (low positive affect and high negative affect, and subjective cognitive lapses compared to their contrast groups. Discussion. Multidimensional TCI profiles are strongly related to individual differences in schizotypy and self-reported regulation of affect and cognition. The Greek translation of the TCI-R is psychometrically sound and useful for clinical assessment and

  5. Performance Assessment in CTE: Focusing on the Cognitive, Psychomotor ...and Affective Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washer, Bart; Cochran, Lori

    2012-01-01

    When a student is performing in the psychomotor domain, the authors believe the student is also performing in the cognitive domain (sequencing steps, evaluating the situation) and in the affective domain (appreciating a job well done, quality control, safety). As Dabney Doty, former instructor at the University of Central Missouri, stated, "There…

  6. Neuropsychological correlates of cognitive, emotional-affective and auto-activation apathy in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Roberta; Turchetta, Chiara Stella; Caruso, Giulia; Fadda, Lucia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Augusto Giovanni

    2018-01-31

    Apathy symptoms include different dimensions: cognitive (C), emotional-affective (E-Aff) and auto-activation; they have been related to dysfunctions of the dorsolateral, orbito-basal prefrontal cortex and the subcortical frontal connections to the basal ganglia, respectively. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), an association has been found between apathy severity and both executive deficits and atrophy of the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex; however, it is not clear whether these associations concern only the cognitive aspects of apathy. Furthermore, whether there is an association in AD between E-aff apathy and theory of mind (ToM),the cognitive functions subsumed by the orbito-basal prefrontal cortex, has not been investigated. Aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between C, E-Aff and auto-activation apathy and performance on tasks investigating executive and ToM cognitive functions in AD. For this purpose, 20 AD patients with apathy and 20 matched controls were submitted to an executive and ToM neuropsychological assessment. Apathy was assessed with a weekly diary (ApD) created specifically to assist caregivers in quantifying the C, E-Aff and auto-activation symptomatology of apathy. Correlational analyses showed that AD patients' scores on the Modified Card Sorting Test (MCST) and Emotion Attribution tasks were correlated with most ApD scores. However, regression analyses showed that C diary scores were predicted by MCST performance, E-Aff diary scores by performance on the E-Attribution task and ApD scores measuring auto-activation apathy were predicted by both the MCST and the Emotion Attribution scores. These results confirm the co-occurrence of apathy and executive-function deficits in AD and suggest a specific association between AD patients' executive deficits and the cognitive component of apathy. Furthermore, they document, for the first time, an association between poor performance on tests assessing ToM abilities and the emotional-affective

  7. Investigating the Neural Correlates of Emotion–Cognition Interaction Using an Affective Stroop Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora M. Raschle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The human brain has the capacity to integrate various sources of information and continuously adapts our behavior according to situational needs in order to allow a healthy functioning. Emotion–cognition interactions are a key example for such integrative processing. However, the neuronal correlates investigating the effects of emotion on cognition remain to be explored and replication studies are needed. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated an involvement of emotion and cognition related brain structures including parietal and prefrontal cortices and limbic brain regions. Here, we employed whole brain event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during an affective number Stroop task and aimed at replicating previous findings using an adaptation of an existing task design in 30 healthy young adults. The Stroop task is an indicator of cognitive control and enables the quantification of interference in relation to variations in cognitive load. By the use of emotional primes (negative/neutral prior to Stroop task performance, an emotional variation is added as well. Behavioral in-scanner data showed that negative primes delayed and disrupted cognitive processing. Trials with high cognitive demand furthermore negatively influenced cognitive control mechanisms. Neuronally, the emotional primes consistently activated emotion-related brain regions (e.g., amygdala, insula, and prefrontal brain regions while Stroop task performance lead to activations in cognition networks of the brain (prefrontal cortices, superior temporal lobe, and insula. When assessing the effect of emotion on cognition, increased cognitive demand led to decreases in neural activation in response to emotional stimuli (negative > neutral within prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and insular cortex. Overall, these results suggest that emotional primes significantly impact cognitive performance and increasing cognitive demand leads to reduced neuronal activation in

  8. Organizational identification and the communication of identity: Effects of message characteristics on cognitive and affective identification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, M.A.; Beukeboom, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental study (N= 321) that tests how the cognitive and affective component of organizational identification (OI) can be affected by peripheral characteristics of organizational communication. Results show that adding cues in emails that signal organizational identity,

  9. The Adolescent HIV Disclosure Cognition and Affect Scale: Preliminary Reliability and Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeli, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Globally, there are 2 million HIV-positive 10-19-year-olds. One challenge for this population is sharing their HIV status with others (onward HIV disclosure). There are no multi-item, multidimensional scales of HIV disclosure cognitions and affect for young people living with HIV. An 18-item measure of HIV disclosure cognition and affect was developed, administered to 65 adolescents living with HIV (aged 12-16 years). Data were explored using principal component analysis and preliminary construct and criterion validity assessed. Three factors were revealed: negative disclosure attitudes and feelings, self-efficacy, and positive disclosure attitudes and feelings. The full scale and its subscales were internally consistent. The total score showed statistically significant positive relationships with HIV disclosure in the past 6 months, HIV disclosure intention and self-perception. Preliminary evidence of the measure's good psychometric properties suggests it may be helpful in future clinical and research work. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Creative Option Generation in Everyday Life Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, T Sophie; Schmalenberger, Katja M; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Mojzisch, Andreas; Kaiser, Stefan; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Which factors influence a human being's ability to develop new perspectives and be creative? This ability is pivotal for any context in which new cognitions are required, such as innovative endeavors in science and art, or psychotherapeutic settings. In this article, we seek to bring together two research programs investigating the generation of creative options: On the one hand, research on option generation in the decision-making literature and, on the other hand, cognitive and clinical creativity research. Previous decision-making research has largely neglected the topic of generating creative options. Experiments typically provided participants with a clear set of options to choose from, but everyday life situations are less structured and allow countless ways to react. Before choosing an option, agents have to self-generate a set of options to choose from. Such option generation processes have only recently moved to the center of attention. The present study examines the creative quality of self-generated options in daily life situations. A student sample (N = 48) generated options for action in 70 briefly described everyday life scenarios. We rated the quality of the options on three dimensions of creativity- originality, feasibility, and divergence -and linked these qualities to option generation fluency (speed and number of generated options), situational features like the familiarity and the affective valence of the situation in which the options were generated, and trait measures of cognitive performance. We found that when situations were familiar to the participant, greater negative affective valence of the situation was associated with more originality and divergence of generated options. We also found that a higher option generation fluency was associated with a greater maximal originality of options. We complete our article with a joint research agenda for researchers in the decision-making field focusing on option generation and, on the other hand

  11. Abstraction of an Affective-Cognitive Decision Making Model Based on Simulated Behaviour and Perception Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpanskykh, Alexei; Treur, Jan

    Employing rich internal agent models of actors in large-scale socio-technical systems often results in scalability issues. The problem addressed in this paper is how to improve computational properties of a complex internal agent model, while preserving its behavioral properties. The problem is addressed for the case of an existing affective-cognitive decision making model instantiated for an emergency scenario. For this internal decision model an abstracted behavioral agent model is obtained, which ensures a substantial increase of the computational efficiency at the cost of approximately 1% behavioural error. The abstraction technique used can be applied to a wide range of internal agent models with loops, for example, involving mutual affective-cognitive interactions.

  12. Stroke and TIA survivors’ cognitive beliefs and affective responses regarding treatment and future stroke risk differentially predict medication adherence and categorised stroke risk

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, L. Alison; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Abrams, Jessica; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive beliefs and affective responses to illness and treatment are known to independently predict health behaviours. The purpose of the current study is to assess the relative importance of four psychological domains – specifically, affective illness, cognitive illness, affective treatment and cognitive treatment – for predicting stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) survivors’ adherence to stroke prevention medications as well as their objective, categorised stroke risk. We assessed...

  13. Affective and cognitive theory of mind in borderline personality disorder: The role of comorbid depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabihzadeh, Abbas; Maleki, Gheysar; Richman, Mara J; Hatami, AmirJalal; Alimardani, Zahedeh; Heidari, Mostafa

    2017-11-01

    Disturbed interpersonal relationships and misreading of others' intentions are core symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Despite these impairments, some studies have found an enhanced theory of mind (ToM) in BPD patients. Taking this into consideration, the current study attempts to further understand these discrepancies by separating ToM into two domains: affective and cognitive. Moreover, the study considered the role of comorbid symptoms of depression in these patients. Subjects were 21 patients with BPD, 23 patients with BPD and comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD), and 25 healthy controls (HC). ToM was measured with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and the Faux Pas Task, which assessed the affective and cognitive aspects of ToM, respectively. In addition, all participants were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results showed that in both BPD groups (i.e., BPD without MDD and BPD with MDD) affective ToM scores were higher than in the HC group; however, in the cognitive ToM, the HC group performed better than the both BPD groups. Also, overall the BPD group with MDD had decreased ToM skills. Finally, BPD groups received greater scores on the BDI as compared to the HC group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Affective empathy, cognitive empathy and social attention in children at high risk of criminal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zonneveld, Lisette; Platje, Evelien; de Sonneville, Leo; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna

    2017-08-01

    Empathy deficits are hypothesized to underlie impairments in social interaction exhibited by those who engage in antisocial behaviour. Social attention is an essential precursor to empathy; however, no studies have yet examined social attention in relation to cognitive and affective empathy in those exhibiting antisocial behaviour. Participants were 8- to 12-year-old children at high risk of developing criminal behaviour (N = 114, 80.7% boys) and typically developing controls (N = 43, 72.1% boys). The high-risk children were recruited through an ongoing early identification and intervention project of the city of Amsterdam, focusing on the underage siblings or children of delinquents and those failing primary school. Video clips with neutral and emotional content (fear, happiness and pain) were shown, while heart rate (HR), skin conductance level (SCL) and skin conductance responses (SCRs) were recorded to measure affective empathy. Answers to questions about emotions in the clips were coded to measure cognitive empathy. Eye-tracking was used to evaluate visual scanning patterns towards social relevant cues (eyes and face) in the clips. The high-risk group did not differ from the control group in social attention and cognitive empathy, but showed reduced HR to pain and fear, and reduced SCL and SCRs to pain. Children at high risk of developing criminal behaviour show impaired affective empathy but unimpaired social attention and cognitive empathy. The implications for early identification and intervention studies with antisocial children are discussed. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  15. A Randomized Controlled Comparison of Integrative Cognitive-Affective Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy-Enhanced for Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Smith, Tracey L.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this investigation was to compare a new psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa, Integrative Cognitive-Affective Therapy (ICAT), with an established treatment, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy-Enhanced (CBT-E). Method Eighty adults with symptoms of bulimia nervosa were randomized to ICAT or CBT-E for 21 sessions over 19 weeks. Bulimic symptoms, measured by the Eating Disorder Examination, were assessed at baseline, end of treatment, and 4-month follow-up. Treatment outcome, as measured by binge eating frequency, purging frequency, global eating disorder severity, emotion regulation, self-oriented cognition, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem, was determined using generalized estimating equations, logistic regression, and a general linear model (intent-to-treat). Results Both treatments were associated with significant improvement in bulimic symptoms as well as all measures of outcome, and no statistically significant differences were observed between the two conditions at end of treatment or follow-up. Intent-to-treat abstinence rates for ICAT (37.5% at end of treatment, 32.5% at follow-up) and CBT-E (22.5% at both end of treatment and follow-up) were not significantly different. Conclusions ICAT was associated with significant improvements in bulimic and associated symptoms that did not differ from those obtained with CBT-E. This initial randomized controlled trial of a new individual psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa suggests that targeting emotion and self-oriented cognition in the context of nutritional rehabilitation may be efficacious and worthy of further study. PMID:23701891

  16. Dim light at night interacts with intermittent hypoxia to alter cognitive and affective responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Taryn G; Weil, Zachary M; Magalang, Ulysses J; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and dim light at night (dLAN) have both been independently associated with alterations in mood and cognition. We aimed to determine whether dLAN would interact with intermittent hypoxia (IH), a condition characteristic of OSA, to alter the behavioral, cognitive, and affective responses. Adult male mice were housed in either standard lighting conditions (14:10-h light-dark cycle; 150 lux:0 lux) or dLAN (150 lux:5 lux). Mice were then exposed to IH (15 cycles/h, 8 h/day, FiO2 nadir of 5%) for 3 wk, then tested in assays of affective and cognitive responses; brains were collected for dendritic morphology and PCR analysis. Exposure to dLAN and IH increased anxiety-like behaviors, as assessed in the open field, elevated plus maze, and the light/dark box. dLAN and IH increased depressive-like behaviors in the forced swim test. IH impaired learning and memory performance in the passive avoidance task; however, no differences were observed in spatial working memory, as assessed by y-maze or object recognition. IH combined with dLAN decreased cell body area in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. Overall, IH decreased apical spine density in the CA3, whereas dLAN decreased spine density in the CA1 of the hippocampus. TNF-α gene expression was not altered by IH or lighting condition, whereas VEGF expression was increased by dLAN. The combination of IH and dLAN provokes negative effects on hippocampal dendritic morphology, affect, and cognition, suggesting that limiting nighttime exposure to light in combination with other established treatments may be of benefit to patients with OSA.

  17. Physical activity in the school setting: cognitive performance is not affected by three different types of acute exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Chin A Paw, Mai; Singh, Amika

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediatepositive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, thetype of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents isnot fully understood. Therefore, this controlled

  18. The Role of Cognitive and Affective Empathy in Spouses' Support Interactions: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhofstadt, Lesley; Devoldre, Inge; Buysse, Ann; Stevens, Michael; Hinnekens, Céline; Ickes, William; Davis, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined how support providers’ empathic dispositions (dispositional perspective taking, empathic concern, and personal distress) as well as their situational empathic reactions (interaction-based perspective taking, empathic concern, and personal distress) relate to the provision of spousal support during observed support interactions. Forty-five committed couples provided questionnaire data and participated in two ten-minute social support interactions designed to assess behaviors when partners are offering and soliciting social support. A video-review task was used to assess situational forms of perspective taking (e.g., empathic accuracy), empathic concern and personal distress. Data were analyzed by means of the multi-level Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Results revealed that providers scoring higher on affective empathy (i.e., dispositional empathic concern), provided lower levels of negative support. In addition, for male partners, scoring higher on cognitive empathy (i.e., situational perspective taking) was related to lower levels of negative support provision. For both partners, higher scores on cognitive empathy (i.e., situational perspective taking) correlated with more instrumental support provision. Male providers scoring higher on affective empathy (i.e., situational personal distress) provided higher levels of instrumental support. Dispositional perspective taking was related to higher scores on emotional support provision for male providers. The current study furthers our insight into the empathy-support link, by revealing differential effects (a) for men and women, (b) of both cognitive and affective empathy, and (c) of dispositional as well as situational empathy, on different types of support provision. PMID:26910769

  19. Temperament Dimensions in Preschool Children: Links with Cognitive and Affective Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; D'Alessandro, Marta; Cerutti, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: The present cross-sectional study investigated the question of whether 6 different temperament dimensions (inhibition to novelty, social orientation, motor activity, positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and attention) influenced cognitive and affective theory of mind (ToM) in 168 children (86 three/four-year-olds and 82…

  20. Cognition-Based and Affect-Based Trust as Mediators of Leader Behavior Influences on Team Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S. K.; Peng, Ann Chunyan

    2011-01-01

    We develop a model in which cognitive and affective trust in the leader mediate the relationship between leader behavior and team psychological states that, in turn, drive team performance. The model is tested on a sample of 191 financial services teams in Hong Kong and the U.S. Servant leadership influenced team performance through affect-based…

  1. Getting to the Root of Disparities: Social Cognition and the Affective Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Schenk, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Bias, prejudice, cultural insensitivity, and eroding levels of empathy all affect the health and well being of patients and families and manifest or accelerate social disparities of health. For caregivers, educational offerings and activities targeting the affective domain can positively influence the development of greater empathy and improved social cognition. As difficult as it is to develop effective teaching methods for this domain, new strides in virtual reality technology and new research on implicit bias can provide the professional development educator with options in designing educational offerings that can help. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(10):443-445. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Individual Learner Differences In Web-based Learning Environments: From Cognitive, Affective and Social-cultural Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KOC

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Individual Learner DifferencesIn Web-based Learning Environments:From Cognitive, Affective and Social-cultural Perspectives Mustafa KOCPh.D Candidate Instructional TechnologyUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbana, IL - USA ABSTRACT Throughout the paper, the issues of individual differences in web-based learning, also known as online instruction, online training or distance education were examined and implications for designing distance education were discussed. Although the main purpose was to identify differences in learners’ characteristics such as cognitive, affective, physiological and social factors that affect learning in a web-enhanced environment, the questions of how the web could be used to reinforce learning, what kinds of development ideas, theories and models are currently being used to design and deliver online instruction, and finally what evidence for the effectiveness of using World Wide Web (WWW for learning and instruction has been reported, were also analyzed to extend theoretical and epistemogical understanding of web-based learning.

  3. Stroke and TIA survivors’ cognitive beliefs and affective responses regarding treatment and future stroke risk differentially predict medication adherence and categorised stroke risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L. Alison; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Abrams, Jessica; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive beliefs and affective responses to illness and treatment are known to independently predict health behaviours. The purpose of the current study is to assess the relative importance of four psychological domains – specifically, affective illness, cognitive illness, affective treatment and cognitive treatment – for predicting stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) survivors’ adherence to stroke prevention medications as well as their objective, categorised stroke risk. We assessed these domains among stroke/TIA survivors (n = 600), and conducted correlation and regression analyses with concurrent and prospective outcomes to determine the relative importance of each cognitive and affective domain for adherence and stroke risk. As hypothesised, patients’ affective treatment responses explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month adherence reports (8 and 5%, respectively, of the variance in adherence, compared to 1–3% explained by other domains). Counter to hypotheses, patients’ cognitive illness beliefs explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month objective categorised stroke risk (3 and 2%, respectively, compared to 0–1% explained by other domains). Results indicate that domain type (i.e. cognitive and affective) and domain referent (illness and treatment) may be differentially important for providers to assess when treating patients for stroke/TIA. More research is required to further distinguish between these domains and their relative importance for stroke prevention. PMID:25220292

  4. Stroke and TIA survivors' cognitive beliefs and affective responses regarding treatment and future stroke risk differentially predict medication adherence and categorised stroke risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L Alison; Diefenbach, Michael A; Abrams, Jessica; Horowitz, Carol R

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive beliefs and affective responses to illness and treatment are known to independently predict health behaviours. The purpose of the current study is to assess the relative importance of four psychological domains - specifically, affective illness, cognitive illness, affective treatment and cognitive treatment - for predicting stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) survivors' adherence to stroke prevention medications as well as their objective, categorised stroke risk. We assessed these domains among stroke/TIA survivors (n = 600), and conducted correlation and regression analyses with concurrent and prospective outcomes to determine the relative importance of each cognitive and affective domain for adherence and stroke risk. As hypothesised, patients' affective treatment responses explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month adherence reports (8 and 5%, respectively, of the variance in adherence, compared to 1-3% explained by other domains). Counter to hypotheses, patients' cognitive illness beliefs explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month objective categorised stroke risk (3 and 2%, respectively, compared to 0-1% explained by other domains). Results indicate that domain type (i.e. cognitive and affective) and domain referent (illness and treatment) may be differentially important for providers to assess when treating patients for stroke/TIA. More research is required to further distinguish between these domains and their relative importance for stroke prevention.

  5. The Role of Cognitive and Affective Factors in Measures of L2 Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabihi, Reza

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the direct and/or indirect effects of some cognitive (working memory capacity) and affective (writing anxiety and writing self-efficacy) variables on the complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF) of second language (L2) learners' writings. To achieve this goal, 232 upper-intermediate English learners performed an automated…

  6. Importance of Cognitive and Affective Processes when Working with a Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Trbižan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Why and how to measure human emotions when working and learning with a computer? Are machines (computers, robots implementing such binary records, where there is a simulation of cognitive phenomena and their processes, or do they actually reflect, therefore, able to think?Purpose: Show the importance of cognitive and affective processes of computer and ICT usage, both in learning and in daily work tasks.Method: Comparative method, where scientific findings were compared and based on these conclusions were drawn.Results: An individual has an active role and the use of ICT enables, through the processes of reflection and exchanges of views, for an individual to resolve problems and consequently is able to achieve excellent results at both the personal (educational level and in business. In learning and working with computers, individuals needinternal motivation. Internal motivation can be increased with positive affective processes that also positively influence cognitive processes.Organization:Knowledge of generational characteristics is currently becoming a competitive advantage of organizations. Younger generations are growing up with computers and both teachers and managers have to beaware and accommodate their teaching and business processes to the requirements of ICT.Society: In the 21st century we live in a knowledge society that is unconditionally connected and dependent on the development of information technology. Digital literacy is an everyday concept that society also is aware of and training programmes are being offered on computer literacy for all generations.Originality: The paper presents a concise synthesis of research and authors points of views recorded over the last 25 years and these are combined with our own conclusions based on observations.Limitations/Future Research:The fundamental limitation is that this is a comparative research study that compares the views and conclusions of different authors

  7. Is the Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy measuring two or five dimensions? Evidence in a French sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszkowski, Nils; Brunet-Gouet, Eric; Roux, Paul; Robieux, Léonore; Malézieux, Antoine; Boujut, Emilie; Zenasni, Franck

    2017-09-01

    Although many instruments measure empathy, most of them focus on specific facets (e.g., Spreng et al., 2009) or specific contexts (e.g. Wang et al., 2003) of empathy. For this reason, the Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE; Reniers et al., 2011) was recently built to grasp the general construct of empathy through its Affective-Cognitive duality, although not providing clear-cut results about the bidimensionality of the scale. In this study, Confirmatory Factor Analyses were conducted on the responses of 418 adults on the French QCAE (backtranslated for this study). A total of 8 models were tested - including the models of the original investigation. The 5-correlated factors model had the best fit, and the pattern of correlations between the factors did not support the Cognitive-Affective distinction. The QCAE is discussed as showing signs of psychometrical robustness, but also as a tool that is more 5-dimensional than bidimensional. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cognitive and affective theory of mind in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, Camille; Noblet, Vincent; Phillipps, Clélie; Cretin, Benjamin; Vogt, Natacha; Philippi, Nathalie; Kemp, Jennifer; de Petigny, Xavier; Bilger, Mathias; Demuynck, Catherine; Martin-Hunyadi, Catherine; Armspach, Jean-Paul; Blanc, Frédéric

    2016-03-16

    Theory of mind (ToM) refers to the ability to attribute mental states, thoughts (cognitive component) or feelings (affective component) to others. This function has been studied in many neurodegenerative diseases; however, to our knowledge, no studies investigating ToM in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) have been published. The aim of our study was to assess ToM in patients with DLB and to search for neural correlates of potential deficits. Thirty-three patients with DLB (DLB group) and 15 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD group), all in the early stage of the disease, as well as 16 healthy elderly control subjects (HC group), were included in the study. After a global cognitive assessment, we used the Faux Pas Recognition (FPR) test, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME) test and Ekman's Facial Emotion Recognition test to assess cognitive and affective components of ToM. Patients underwent cerebral 3-T magnetic resonance imaging, and atrophy of grey matter was analysed using voxel-based morphometry. We performed a one-sample t test to investigate the correlation between each ToM score and grey matter volume and a two-sample t test to compare patients with DLB impaired with those non-impaired for each test. The DLB group performed significantly worse than the HC group on the FPR test (P = 0.033) and the RME test (P = 0.015). There was no significant difference between the AD group and the HC group or between the DLB group and the AD group. Some brain regions were associated with ToM impairments. The prefrontal cortex, with the inferior frontal cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex, was the main region, but we also found correlations with the temporoparietal junction, the precuneus, the fusiform gyrus and the insula. This study is the first one to show early impairments of ToM in DLB. The two cognitive and affective components both appear to be affected in this disease. Among patients with ToM difficulties, we found atrophy in brain regions classically

  9. Does neurocognitive function affect cognitive bias toward an emotional stimulus? Association between general attentional ability and attentional bias toward threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko eHakamata

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although poorer cognitive performance has been found to be associated with anxiety, it remains unclear whether neurocognitive function affects biased cognitive processing toward emotional information. We investigated whether general cognitive function evaluated with a standard neuropsychological test predicts biased cognition, focusing on attentional bias toward threat.Methods: One hundred and five healthy young adults completed a dot-probe task measuring attentional bias and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS measuring general cognitive function, which consists of five domains: immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, and delayed memory. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the relationships between attentional bias and cognitive function. Results: The attentional domain was the best predictor of attentional bias toward threat (β = -0.26, p = 0.006. Within the attentional domain, digit symbol coding was negatively correlated with attentional bias (r = -0.28, p = 0.005.Conclusions: The present study provides the first evidence that general attentional ability, which was assessed with a standard neuropsychological test, affects attentional bias toward threatening information. Individual cognitive profiles might be important for the measurement and modification of cognitive biases.

  10. Microblogging for Class: An Analysis of Affective, Cognitive, Personal Integrative, and Social Integrative Gratifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gant, Camilla; Hadley, Patrick D.

    2014-01-01

    This study shows that undergraduate students can gratify cognitive, affective, social integrative, and personal integrative needs microblogging via a learning management system discussion tool. Moreover, the researchers find that microblogging about news regarding mass media events and issues via Blackboard heightened engagement, expanded…

  11. Coping with Challenge and Hindrance Stressors in Teams: Behavioral, Cognitive, and Affective Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Matthew J.; Ellis, Aleksander P. J.; Stein, Jordan H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize the challenge-hindrance framework to examine the discrete and combined effects of different environmental stressors on behavioral, cognitive, and affective outcomes at the team level. Results from 83 teams working on a command and control simulation indicated that the introduction of a challenge stressor…

  12. The indirect effect of emotion dysregulation in terms of negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adrienne L; McLeish, Alison C

    2016-02-01

    Although negative affect is associated with a number of smoking-related cognitive processes, the mechanisms underlying these associations have yet to be examined. The current study sought to examine the indirect effect of emotion regulation difficulties in terms of the association between negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes (internal barriers to cessation, negative affect reduction smoking motives, negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies). Participants were 126 daily cigarette smokers (70.4% male, Mage=36.5years, SD=13.0; 69.8% Caucasian) who smoked an average of 18.5 (SD=8.7) cigarettes per day and reported moderate nicotine dependence. Formal mediation analyses were conducted using PROCESS to examine the indirect effect of negative affect on internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives and outcome expectancies through emotion regulation difficulties. After accounting for the effects of gender, daily smoking rate, and anxiety sensitivity, negative affect was indirectly related to internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives through emotion regulation difficulties. There was no significant indirect effect for negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies. These findings suggest that greater negative affect is associated with a desire to smoke to reduce this negative affect and perceptions that quitting smoking will be difficult due to negative emotions because of greater difficulties managing these negative emotions. Thus, emotion regulation difficulties may be an important target for smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Does neurocognitive function affect cognitive bias toward an emotional stimulus? Association between general attentional ability and attentional bias toward threat

    OpenAIRE

    Hakamata, Yuko; Matsui, Mie; Tagaya, Hirokuni

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although poorer cognitive performance has been found to be associated with anxiety, it remains unclear whether neurocognitive function affects biased cognitive processing toward emotional information. We investigated whether general cognitive function evaluated with a standard neuropsychological test predicts biased cognition, focusing on attentional bias toward threat. Methods: One hundred and five healthy young adults completed a dot-probe task measuring attentional bias and ...

  14. The power of emotional valence – From cognitive to affective processes in reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eAltmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1 the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM, and (2 the neural substrate of liking negatively valenced narratives. A set of 80 short narratives was compiled, ranging from neutral to negative emotional valence. For each story mean rating values on valence and liking were obtained from a group of 32 participants in a prestudy, and later included as parametric regressors in the fMRI analysis. Another group of 24 participants passively read the narratives in a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Results revealed a stronger engagement of affective ToM-related brain areas with increasingly negative story valence. Stories that were unpleasant, but simulatiously liked, selectively engaged the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, which might reflect the moral exploration of the story content. Further analysis showed that the more the mPFC becomes engaged during the reading of negatively valenced stories, the more coactivation can be observed in other brain areas related to the neural processing of affective ToM and empathy.

  15. Sleep quality affects cognitive functioning in returning combat veterans beyond combat exposure, PTSD, and mild TBI history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Sarah L; Morissette, Sandra B; Rowland, Jared A; Dolan, Sara L

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how sleep quality affects cognitive functioning in returning combat veterans after accounting for effects of combat exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) history. This was a cross-sectional assessment study evaluating combat exposure, PTSD, mTBI history, sleep quality, and neuropsychological functioning. One hundred and nine eligible male Iraq/Afghanistan combat veterans completed an assessment consisting of a structured clinical interview, neuropsychological battery, and self-report measures. Using partial least squares structural equation modeling, combat experiences and mTBI history were not directly associated with sleep quality. PTSD was directly associated with sleep quality, which contributed to deficits in neuropsychological functioning independently of and in addition to combat experiences, PTSD, and mTBI history. Combat experiences and PTSD were differentially associated with motor speed. Sleep affected cognitive function independently of combat experiences, PTSD, and mTBI history. Sleep quality also contributed to cognitive deficits beyond effects of PTSD. An evaluation of sleep quality may be a useful point of clinical intervention in combat veterans with cognitive complaints. Improving sleep quality could alleviate cognitive complaints, improving veterans' ability to engage in treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Could cash and good parenting affect child cognitive development? A cross-sectional study in South Africa and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherr, Lorraine; Macedo, Ana; Tomlinson, Mark; Skeen, Sarah; Cluver, Lucie Dale

    2017-05-12

    Social protection interventions, including cash grants and care provision have been shown to effectively reduce some negative impacts of the HIV epidemic on adolescents and families. Less is known about the role of social protection on younger HIV affected populations. This study explored the impact of cash grants on children's cognitive development. Additionally, we examined whether combined cash and care (operationalised as good parenting) was associated with improved cognitive outcomes. The sample included 854 children, aged 5 - 15, participating in community-based organisation (CBO) programmes for children affected by HIV in South Africa and Malawi. Data on child cognitive functioning were gathered by a combination of caregiver report and observer administered tests. Primary caregivers also reported on the economic situation of the family, cash receipt into the home, child and household HIV status. Parenting was measured on a 10 item scale with good parenting defined as a score of 8 or above. About half of families received cash (55%, n = 473), only 6% (n = 51) reported good parenting above the cut-off point but no cash, 18% (n = 151) received combined cash support and reported good parenting, and 21% (n = 179) had neither. Findings show that cash receipt was associated with enhanced child cognitive outcomes in a number of domains including verbal working memory, general cognitive functioning, and learning. Furthermore, cash plus good parenting provided an additive effect. Child HIV status had a moderating effect on the association between cash or/plus good parenting and cognitive outcomes. The association between cash and good parenting and child cognitive outcomes remained significant among both HIV positive and negative children, but overall the HIV negative group benefited more. This study shows the importance of cash transfers and good parenting on cognitive development of young children living in HIV affected environments. Our data clearly

  17. Is It More Feeling or Thinking? The Influence of Affective and Cognitive Attitude on Adolescents' Intention to Engage in Binge Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, Elroy; Zebregs, Simon; Hendriks, Hanneke; Van Den Putte, Bas

    2018-04-25

    Previous work has revealed that interventions aiming to reduce adolescent binge drinking commonly focus on cognitive attitudes, but are insufficiently effective in changing binge-drinking intentions. The focus on these cognitive attitudes might be the reason for this insufficient success. That is, other work has revealed that affective attitudes have a stronger influence on binge-drinking intention than cognitive attitudes. However, this relation has so far only been found among traditional college students and pre-vocational school students, therewith neglecting another important population at risk, namely vocational community college students. This study examines whether affective attitudes are also significantly stronger influencers of binge-drinking intentions among vocational community college students. Using a sample of 298 vocational community college students (M age  = 17.63), the current study shows that affective attitudes were more strongly related to vocational community college students' intention to engage in binge drinking than cognitive attitudes. This finding indicates that the effectiveness of interventions targeting adolescent binge drinking can be improved by incorporating content elements concerning affective attitudes.

  18. Feeling and thinking of others: affective and cognitive empathy and emotion comprehension in prosocial/hostile preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belacchi, Carmen; Farina, Eleonora

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the affective and cognitive components of empathy in relation to both emotion comprehension and prosocial/hostile behaviors in preschoolers. A total of 219 children (54% boys; aged between 3 and 6: mean age 4.10) and 20 teachers (two for each class: group A and group B) took part in this research. Pupils' empathy and hostile/prosocial roles were assessed by teacher reports [Belacchi and Farina, 2010] and children's emotion comprehension by a nonverbal test [Test of Emotion Comprehension: Pons and Harris, 2000; adapted by Albanese and Molina; 2008]. As expected, the results showed a significant influence of gender, with girls being more empathic than boys, according to all of the teachers' perception. Contrary to our expectations, no systematic age influence emerged. Regarding the relations of children's emotion comprehension with both empathy measures and their prosocial/hostile attitudes, we have found: (1) a low significant relation with the total empathy measure, according to all the teachers, but with the cognitive empathy only according to teachers B; (2) a robust negative relationship of both affective and cognitive empathy with Hostile roles and with Outsider role, contrary to a positive correlation of only affective empathy with Prosocial roles. No relationships emerged between empathy measures and Victim role. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Association Between Callous-Unemotional Traits, Externalizing Problems, and Gender in Predicting Cognitive and Affective Morality Judgments in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, Iro; Cima, Maaike; Meesters, Cor

    2016-09-01

    Morality deficits have been linked to callous-unemotional traits and externalizing problems in response to moral dilemmas, but these associations are still obscure in response to antisocial acts in adolescence. Limited evidence on young boys suggested that callous-unemotional traits and externalizing problems were associated with affective but not cognitive morality judgments. The present study investigated these associations in a community sample of 277 adolescents (M age  = 15.35, 64 % females). Adolescents with high callous-unemotional traits showed deficits in affective but not cognitive morality, indicating that they can identify the appropriate moral emotions in others, but experience deviant moral emotions when imagining themselves committing antisocial acts. Externalizing problems and male gender were also strongly related to deficits in affective morality, but they had smaller associations with deficits in cognitive morality too. Implications for treatment and the justice system are discussed.

  20. Cognitive and affective components of challenge and threat states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijen, Carla; Jones, Marc V; McCarthy, Paul J; Sheffield, David; Allen, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    We explored the cognitive and affective components of the Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes (TCTSA) using a cross-sectional design. One hundred and seventy-seven collegiate athletes indicated how they typically approached an important competition on measures of self-efficacy, perceived control, achievement goals, emotional states and interpretation of emotional states. Participants also indicated to what extent they typically perceived the important competition as a challenge and/or a threat. The results suggest that a perception of challenge was not predicted by any of the cognitive components. A perception of threat was positively predicted by avoidance goals and negatively predicted by self-efficacy and approach goals. Both challenge and threat had a positive relationship with anxiety. Practical implications of this study are that an avoidance orientation appeared to be related to potentially negative constructs such as anxiety, threat and dejection. The findings may suggest that practitioners and researchers should focus on reducing an avoidance orientation, however the results should be treated with caution in applied settings, as this study did not examine how the combination of constructs exactly influences sport performance. The results provided partial support for the TCTSA with stronger support for proposed relationships with threat rather than challenge states.

  1. Cerebral Blood Flow and Amyloid-β Interact to Affect Memory Performance in Cognitively Normal Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Bangen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral blood flow (CBF alterations and amyloid-β (Aβ accumulation have been independently linked to cognitive deficits in older adults at risk for dementia. Less is known about how CBF and Aβ may interact to affect cognition in cognitively normal older adults. Therefore, we examined potential statistical interactions between CBF and Aβ status in regions typically affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD within a sample of older adults from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI study. Sixty-two cognitively normal participants (mean age = 72 years underwent neuroimaging and memory testing. Arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify CBF and florbetapir PET amyloid imaging was used to measure Aβ deposition. Aβ status (i.e., positivity versus negativity was determined based on established cutoffs (Landau et al., 2013. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test was used to assess memory. Linear regression models adjusted for age, education, and sex, demonstrated significant interactions between CBF and Aβ status on memory performance. Among Aβ positive older adults, there were significant negative associations between higher CBF in hippocampus, posterior cingulate, and precuneus and poorer memory performance. In contrast, among Aβ negative older adults, there were no significant associations between CBF and cognition. Our findings extend previous CBF studies of dementia risk by reporting interactions between Aβ status and CBF on memory performance in a sample of well-characterized, cognitively normal older adults. Results suggest that differential CBF-cognition associations can be identified in healthy, asymptomatic Aβ positive older adults relative to Aβ negative individuals. Associations between higherCBF and poorer memory among Aβ positive older adults may reflect a cellular and/or vascular compensatory response to pathologic processes whereby higher CBF is needed to maintain normal memory

  2. Neural Cognition and Affective Computing on Cyber Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuang; Zhou, Xuan; Xue, Ke; Wan, Xiqiong; Yang, Zhenyi; Xu, Duo; Ivanović, Mirjana; Yu, Xueer

    2015-01-01

    Characterized by its customary symbol system and simple and vivid expression patterns, cyber language acts as not only a tool for convenient communication but also a carrier of abundant emotions and causes high attention in public opinion analysis, internet marketing, service feedback monitoring, and social emergency management. Based on our multidisciplinary research, this paper presents a classification of the emotional symbols in cyber language, analyzes the cognitive characteristics of different symbols, and puts forward a mechanism model to show the dominant neural activities in that process. Through the comparative study of Chinese, English, and Spanish, which are used by the largest population in the world, this paper discusses the expressive patterns of emotions in international cyber languages and proposes an intelligent method for affective computing on cyber language in a unified PAD (Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance) emotional space.

  3. Neural Cognition and Affective Computing on Cyber Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterized by its customary symbol system and simple and vivid expression patterns, cyber language acts as not only a tool for convenient communication but also a carrier of abundant emotions and causes high attention in public opinion analysis, internet marketing, service feedback monitoring, and social emergency management. Based on our multidisciplinary research, this paper presents a classification of the emotional symbols in cyber language, analyzes the cognitive characteristics of different symbols, and puts forward a mechanism model to show the dominant neural activities in that process. Through the comparative study of Chinese, English, and Spanish, which are used by the largest population in the world, this paper discusses the expressive patterns of emotions in international cyber languages and proposes an intelligent method for affective computing on cyber language in a unified PAD (Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance emotional space.

  4. [Perception of social support in the aspect of a cognitive style of patients with affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poradowska-Trzos, Magdalena; Dudek, Dominika; Rogoz, Monika; Zieba, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    According to Aaron Beck, dysfunctional thinking patterns appear also in euthymic patients, after withdrawal of acute diseases symptoms. Patients have a disordered, negative image of themselves, of their future and the surrounding world. It has been shown that a way a man perceives possessed social support has a basic meaning for him. The purpose of the research was to analyze the relationship between perceived social support and the patient's cognitive style. The study group consisted of euthymic outpatients diagnosed with recurrent depressive disorder (UID) or bipolar affective disorder (BID). Assessment of a cognitive style was made according to the Rosenberg Scale, Hopelessness Scale HS-20 and Automatique Thoughts Questionnaire ATQ 30, assessment of the amount of received support - according to Cohen's ISEL. The presented study revealed that, in both groups of patients, a thinking style is disturbed and that there is a link between a cognitive style and the perception of the level of received support. The link was stronger in the group of patients with unipolar affective disorder. In both groups, correlations concerning emotional support were the highest.

  5. Problem Behaviours of Kindergartners: The Affects of Children's Cognitive Ability, Creativity, and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Sung-Ae; Kim, Seong Hyun; Kim, HyunJin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the affects of cognitive ability, creativity, and self-esteem on kindergartners' problem behaviour. Participants were 203 children (mean age = 65.8 months) attending kindergartens in Korea. Data collection used the Korean version of Child Behaviour Checklist, the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, the Torrance Test of…

  6. Cognitive decline affects diabetic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perzyński Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: DM provokes peripheral complications and changes in central nervous system. Central changes in the course of diabetes mellitus (DM include changes in brain tissue structure, electrophysiological abnormalities but also disturbances in neurotransmission leading to cognitive decline.

  7. Neural bases of different cognitive strategies for facial affect processing in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, Eric; Salgado-Pineda, Pilar; Delaveau, Pauline; Hariri, Ahmad R; Blin, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    To examine the neural basis and dynamics of facial affect processing in schizophrenic patients as compared to healthy controls. Fourteen schizophrenic patients and fourteen matched controls performed a facial affect identification task during fMRI acquisition. The emotional task included an intuitive emotional condition (matching emotional faces) and a more cognitively demanding condition (labeling emotional faces). Individual analysis for each emotional condition, and second-level t-tests examining both within-, and between-group differences, were carried out using a random effects approach. Psychophysiological interactions (PPI) were tested for variations in functional connectivity between amygdala and other brain regions as a function of changes in experimental conditions (labeling versus matching). During the labeling condition, both groups engaged similar networks. During the matching condition, schizophrenics failed to activate regions of the limbic system implicated in the automatic processing of emotions. PPI revealed an inverse functional connectivity between prefrontal regions and the left amygdala in healthy volunteers but there was no such change in patients. Furthermore, during the matching condition, and compared to controls, patients showed decreased activation of regions involved in holistic face processing (fusiform gyrus) and increased activation of regions associated with feature analysis (inferior parietal cortex, left middle temporal lobe, right precuneus). Our findings suggest that schizophrenic patients invariably adopt a cognitive approach when identifying facial affect. The distributed neocortical network observed during the intuitive condition indicates that patients may resort to feature-based, rather than configuration-based, processing and may constitute a compensatory strategy for limbic dysfunction.

  8. Affective and Cognitive Empathy as Mediators of Gender Differences in Cyber and Traditional Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Cigdem; Erdur-Baker, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in bullying behavior among adolescents have been observed, but the reasons for the discrepancy in males' and females' bullying experiences has been the focus of few studies. This study examined the role of the cognitive and affective empathy in explaining gender differences in bullying through multiple mediation analysis. The…

  9. Does Self-Efficacy Affect Cognitive Performance in Persons with Clinically Isolated Syndrome and Early Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Joseph Jongen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In persons with multiple sclerosis (MS a lowered self-efficacy negatively affects physical activities. Against this background we studied the relationship between self-efficacy and cognitive performance in the early stages of MS. Thirty-three patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS and early Relapsing Remitting MS (eRRMS were assessed for self-efficacy (MSSES-18, cognition (CDR System, fatigue (MFIS-5, depressive symptoms (BDI, disease impact (MSIS-29, and disability (EDSS. Correlative analyses were performed between self-efficacy and cognitive scores, and stepwise regression analyses identified predictors of cognition and self-efficacy. Good correlations existed between total self-efficacy and Power of Attention (r= 0.65; P< 0.001, Reaction Time Variability (r= 0.57; P< 0.001, and Speed of Memory (r= 0.53; P< 0.01, and between control self-efficacy and Reaction Time Variability (r= 0.55; P< 0.01. Total self-efficacy predicted 40% of Power of Attention, 34% of Reaction Time Variability, and 40% of Speed of Memory variabilities. Disease impact predicted 65% of total self-efficacy and 58% of control self-efficacy variabilities. The findings may suggest that in persons with CIS and eRRMS self-efficacy may positively affect cognitive performance and that prevention of disease activity may preserve self-efficacy.

  10. Cognitive and affective reactions to success and failure: The quality of feedback as the determinant of self-verifying and self-enhancing motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodroža Bojana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to ascertain what the dominant self motivation is like - selfverifying or self-enhancing? - in a situation when a person is faced with a negative evaluation of a central personality characteristic. Previous research suggested that affective reactions should follow the pattern predicted by self-enhancement theory by which all individuals would react with positive affect to positive evaluation and with negative affect to negative evaluation. On the other side, cognitive reactions are expected to follow the pattern predicted by self-verification theory which suggests that information consistent with the self-concept should be the most convincing (i.e. cognitive reactions should be influenced by interaction of feedback and self-esteem. Ninety female respondents were given a false favorable or extremely unfavorable feedback about their achievement on an intelligence test, after which their cognitive and affective reactions were measured. The results revealed that the respondents demonstrated a self-enhancing motivation both in the affective and the cognitive domain, i.e., regardless of their level of self-esteem, those who had failed experienced more negative affect, rated test more unfavorably, assessed it as less accurate, and claimed they had invested less effort to solve the test, than those who were successful. The research imposes conclusion that cognitive reactions to failure are not conditioned only by the degree of negativity or positivity of global self-views, but also by the quality/intensity of unfavorable feedback. This conclusion provides important methodological implications for future research in this area.

  11. Motor, affective and cognitive empathy in adolescence : Interrelations between facial electromyography and self-reported trait and state measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, Wim; de Wied, Minet; van Boxtel, Anton; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M.; Branje, Susan J. T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined interrelations of trait and state empathy in an adolescent sample. Self-reported affective trait empathy and cognitive trait empathy were assessed during a home visit. During a test session at the university, motor empathy (facial electromyography), and self-reported affective

  12. Construal level as a moderator of the role of affective and cognitive attitudes in the prediction of health-risk behavioural intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Pilar; Caballero, Amparo; Muñoz, Dolores; González-Iraizoz, Marta; Fernández, Itziar

    2014-12-01

    In two preliminary control checks it was shown that affective attitudes presented greater abstraction than cognitive attitudes. Three further studies explored how construal level moderated the role of affective and cognitive attitudes in predicting one health-promoting behaviour (exercising) and two risk behaviours (sleep debt and binge drinking). There was a stronger influence of affective attitudes both when participants were in abstract (vs. concrete) mindsets induced by a priming task in Studies 1a and 1b, and when behavioural intentions were formed for the distant (vs. near) future in Study 2. In the case of concrete mindsets, the results were inconclusive; the interaction between construal level and cognitive attitudes was only marginally significant in Study 1b. The present research supports the assertion that in abstract mindsets (vs. concrete mindsets) people use more affective attitudes to construe their behavioural intentions. Practical implications for health promotion are discussed in the framework of construal-level theory. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Cognitive and Affective Empathy, Personal Belief in a Just World, and Bullying Among Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pérez, Belén; Hanoch, Yaniv; Holt, Kayleigh; Gummerum, Michaela

    2015-07-03

    Bullying extracts a heavy toll on offenders and prison staff alike. Studying what factors may affect bullying is extremely important as this may help to minimize bullying in prison. Although there is research on the relationship between lack of empathy and positive attitude toward bullying, previous research has overlooked that age may influence this relationship. In fact, previous research has shown that there are changes in empathy across the life span. Therefore, we examined whether having a positive attitude toward bullying in offenders was predicted by age, mediated by cognitive/affective empathy. Another important factor in the prediction of positive attitudes toward bullying may be the belief in a just world, as having a weak belief is related to more aggressive outbursts. Given that there is scarce research in the topic, we examined the relationship between having a positive attitude toward bullying and personal belief in a just world. To that aim, 123 sentenced adult male prisoners, selected from a Category C prison in the United Kingdom completed different questionnaires to assess their levels of cognitive and affective empathy, positive attitude toward bullying, and personal belief in a just world. As expected, age predicted a positive attitude toward bullying, mediated by affective empathy. However, we did not find a positive relationship between a positive attitude toward bullying and a personal belief in a just world. The results are discussed in terms of their application in possible intervention programs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Diving too Deep: How Cognitive Absorption and Group Learning Behavior Affect Individual Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Magni, Massimo; Paolino, Chiara; Cappetta, Rossella; Proserpio, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Since organizations and educational institutions are moving toward a training approach which emphasizes the active involvement of participants, there is growing interest in understanding how individual engagement in the training experience affects practicing managers’ individual learning. We identify cognitive absorption as the construct that better describes the state of full engagement and immersion that new approaches in management training require of learners. While some research has emph...

  15. Longitudinal association of delta activity at sleep onset with cognitive and affective function in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Makoto; Beaudreau, Sherry A; Gould, Christine E; Hantke, Nathan C; Cotto, Isabelle; Jordan, Josh T; Hirst, Rayna B; O'Hara, Ruth

    2016-10-01

    This investigation sought to determine whether delta activity at sleep onset (DASO) in the sleep electroencephalography of older adults represents normal variation or is associated with clinical pathology. To this end, we examined its longitudinal associations with cognitive and affective function in older adults without dementia. Participants were 153 community-dwelling older adults without dementia. We evaluated polysomnography (PSG), cognitive performance, and affective function at four time points: baseline, 12, 24, and 36 months. All participants completed PSG and measures of global cognition, delayed verbal memory, information processing speed, attention, inhibition, verbal naming, visuospatial ability, and measures of anxiety and depression. DASO was defined as sequences of rhythmic anterior delta activity on PSG in the transition from awake to sleep during the baseline assessment (Figure ). At the baseline, 83 women and 70 men, mean age 71.3 ± 0.6 years participated and 19.6% of participants exhibited DASO. Age, years of education, gender, and body mass index did not differ according to DASO status. Linear mixed modeling showed that the presence of DASO was actually associated with lower levels of anxiety and depression. Further, participants with DASO, versus those without DASO, exhibited a trend towards better cognitive performance over time, although none of these associations reached statistical significance. Whereas DASO was associated with better affective function, no significant association was found between DASO and cognitive change over time. These longitudinal findings support the view that the presence of DASO in healthy older adults represents normal variation rather than pathological aging. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Creative Option Generation in Every Day Life Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sophie Schweizer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Which factors influence a human being’s ability to develop new perspectives and be creative? This ability is pivotal for any context in which new cognitions are required, such as innovative endeavors in science and art, or psychotherapeutic settings. In this article we seek to bring together two research programs investigating the generation of creative options: On the one hand, research on option generation in the decision-making literature and, on the other hand, cognitive and clinical creativity research. Previous decision-making research has largely neglected the topic of generating creative options. Experiments typically provided participants with a clear set of options to choose from, but everyday life situations are less structured and allow countless ways to react. Before choosing an option, agents have to self-generate a set of options to choose from. Such option generation processes have only recently moved to the center of attention. The present study examines the creative quality of self-generated options in daily life situations. A student sample (N = 48 generated options for action in 70 shortly described everyday life scenarios. We rated the quality of the options on three dimensions of creativity- originality, feasibility, and divergence - and linked these qualities to option generation fluency (speed and number of generated options, situational features like the familiarity and the affective valence of the situation in which the options were generated, and trait measures of cognitive performance. We found that when situations were familiar to the participant, greater negative affective valence of the situation was associated with more originality and divergence of generated options. We also found that a higher option generation fluency was associated with a greater maximal originality of options. We complete our article with a joint research agenda for researchers in the decision-making field focusing on option generation and

  17. Uncovering the Neural Bases of Cognitive and Affective Empathy Deficits in Alzheimer's Disease and the Behavioral-Variant of Frontotemporal Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermody, Nadene; Wong, Stephanie; Ahmed, Rebekah; Piguet, Olivier; Hodges, John R; Irish, Muireann

    2016-05-30

    Loss of empathy is a core presenting feature of the behavioral-variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), resulting in socioemotional difficulties and behavioral transgressions. In contrast, interpersonal functioning remains relatively intact in Alzheimer's disease (AD), despite marked cognitive decline. The neural substrates mediating these patterns of loss and sparing in social functioning remain unclear, yet are relevant for our understanding of the social brain. We investigated cognitive versus affective aspects of empathy using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) in 25 AD and 24 bvFTD patients and contrasted their performance with 22 age- and education-matched controls. Cognitive empathy was comparably compromised in AD and bvFTD, whereas affective empathy was impaired exclusively in bvFTD. While controlling for overall cognitive dysfunction ameliorated perspective-taking deficits in AD, empathy loss persisted across cognitive and affective domains in bvFTD. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed divergent neural substrates of empathy loss in each patient group. Perspective-taking deficits correlated with predominantly left-sided temporoparietal atrophy in AD, whereas widespread bilateral frontoinsular, temporal, parietal, and occipital atrophy was implicated in bvFTD. Reduced empathic concern in bvFTD was associated with atrophy in the left orbitofrontal, inferior frontal, and insular cortices, and the bilateral mid-cingulate gyrus. Our findings suggest that social cognitive deficits in AD arise largely as a consequence of global cognitive dysfunction, rather than a loss of empathy per se. In contrast, loss of empathy in bvFTD reflects the deterioration of a distributed network of frontoinsular and temporal structures that appear crucial for monitoring and processing social information.

  18. Cognitive and affective reasons to expatriate and work adjustment of expatriate academics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Despite the apparent increasing internationalization of the academic world, research on expatriate academics has remained negligible compared to the literature on business expatriates, which has increased rapidly in recent years. This is regrettable, since it is not obvious to what extent research...... findings regarding business expatriates also are applicable to expatriate academics. To examine cognitive and affective reasons to expatriate and work adjustment, a questionnaire was directed electronically towards expatriate academics from 60 countries employed in 35 universities in 5 northern European...... countries. Results indicated that one of the affective reasons to expatriate, refugee reasons (life change/escape), has a clear negative influence on both job adjustment and time to proficiency. However, none of the other studied reasons for expatriate academics to go abroad had any association...

  19. Communication‐related affective, behavioral, and cognitive reactions in speakers with spasmodic dysphonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanryckeghem, Martine

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the self‐perceived affective, behavioral, and cognitive reactions associated with communication of speakers with spasmodic dysphonia as a function of employment status. Study Design Prospective cross‐sectional investigation Methods 148 Participants with spasmodic dysphonia (SD) completed an adapted version of the Behavior Assessment Battery (BAB‐Voice), a multidimensional assessment of self‐perceived reactions to communication. The BAB‐Voice consisted of four subtests: the Speech Situation Checklist for A) Emotional Reaction (SSC‐ER) and B) Speech Disruption (SSC‐SD), C) the Behavior Checklist (BCL), and D) the Communication Attitude Test for Adults (BigCAT). Participants were assigned to groups based on employment status (working versus retired). Results Descriptive comparison of the BAB‐Voice in speakers with SD to previously published non‐dysphonic speaker data revealed substantially higher scores associated with SD across all four subtests. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) revealed no significantly different BAB‐Voice subtest scores as a function of SD group status (working vs. retired). Conclusions BAB‐Voice scores revealed that speakers with SD experienced substantial impact of their voice disorder on communication attitude, coping behaviors, and affective reactions in speaking situations as reflected in their high BAB scores. These impacts do not appear to be influenced by work status, as speakers with SD who were employed or retired experienced similar levels of affective and behavioral reactions in various speaking situations and cognitive responses. These findings are consistent with previously published pilot data. The specificity of items assessed by means of the BAB‐Voice may inform the clinician of valid patient‐centered treatment goals which target the impairment extended beyond the physiological dimension. Level of Evidence 2b PMID:29299525

  20. Communication-related affective, behavioral, and cognitive reactions in speakers with spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Christopher R; Vanryckeghem, Martine

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the self-perceived affective, behavioral, and cognitive reactions associated with communication of speakers with spasmodic dysphonia as a function of employment status. Prospective cross-sectional investigation. 148 Participants with spasmodic dysphonia (SD) completed an adapted version of the Behavior Assessment Battery (BAB-Voice), a multidimensional assessment of self-perceived reactions to communication. The BAB-Voice consisted of four subtests: the Speech Situation Checklist for A) Emotional Reaction (SSC-ER) and B) Speech Disruption (SSC-SD), C) the Behavior Checklist (BCL), and D) the Communication Attitude Test for Adults (BigCAT). Participants were assigned to groups based on employment status (working versus retired). Descriptive comparison of the BAB-Voice in speakers with SD to previously published non-dysphonic speaker data revealed substantially higher scores associated with SD across all four subtests. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) revealed no significantly different BAB-Voice subtest scores as a function of SD group status (working vs. retired). BAB-Voice scores revealed that speakers with SD experienced substantial impact of their voice disorder on communication attitude, coping behaviors, and affective reactions in speaking situations as reflected in their high BAB scores. These impacts do not appear to be influenced by work status, as speakers with SD who were employed or retired experienced similar levels of affective and behavioral reactions in various speaking situations and cognitive responses. These findings are consistent with previously published pilot data. The specificity of items assessed by means of the BAB-Voice may inform the clinician of valid patient-centered treatment goals which target the impairment extended beyond the physiological dimension. 2b.

  1. Cognitive characteristics affecting rational decision making style

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Decision making is one of the most important and frequent tasks among managers and employees in an organization. Knowledge about more stable cognitive characteristics underlying decision making styles has been requested. This study aimed to examine the relationship between rational decision making style, cognitive style, self efficacy and locus of control. Possible interaction effects in relation to gender were also analyzed. 186 employees at the Ministry of Defence were surveyed...

  2. Changes in the influence of affect and cognition over time on consumer attitude formation toward nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, van Roxanne I.; Fischer, Arnout R.H.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Insights into how consumer attitudes toward nanotechnology are formed and develop are crucial for understanding and anticipating possible barriers in consumer acceptance of nanotechnology applications. In this study, the influence of affect and cognition on overall opinion is investigated

  3. Placebo Sleep Affects Cognitive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…

  4. Common and unique associations of adolescents' affective and cognitive empathy development with conflict behavior towards parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lissa, Caspar J.; Hawk, Skyler T.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, Wim H J

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents' development of two empathy dimensions, affective empathic concern and cognitive perspective taking, may be associated with shifts towards more constructive behaviors in conflict with parents. This six-year longitudinal study (ages 13-18) used multivariate latent growth curve modeling to

  5. A randomized controlled comparison of integrative cognitive-affective therapy (ICAT) and enhanced cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT-E) for bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonderlich, S A; Peterson, C B; Crosby, R D; Smith, T L; Klein, M H; Mitchell, J E; Crow, S J

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare a new psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa (BN), integrative cognitive-affective therapy (ICAT), with an established treatment, 'enhanced' cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT-E). Eighty adults with symptoms of BN were randomized to ICAT or CBT-E for 21 sessions over 19 weeks. Bulimic symptoms, measured by the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE), were assessed at baseline, at the end of treatment (EOT) and at the 4-month follow-up. Treatment outcome, measured by binge eating frequency, purging frequency, global eating disorder severity, emotion regulation, self-oriented cognition, depression, anxiety and self-esteem, was determined using generalized estimating equations (GEEs), logistic regression and a general linear model (intent-to-treat). Both treatments were associated with significant improvement in bulimic symptoms and in all measures of outcome, and no statistically significant differences were observed between the two conditions at EOT or follow-up. Intent-to-treat abstinence rates for ICAT (37.5% at EOT, 32.5% at follow-up) and CBT-E (22.5% at both EOT and follow-up) were not significantly different. ICAT was associated with significant improvements in bulimic and associated symptoms that did not differ from those obtained with CBT-E. This initial randomized controlled trial of a new individual psychotherapy for BN suggests that targeting emotion and self-oriented cognition in the context of nutritional rehabilitation may be efficacious and worthy of further study.

  6. What is the most important factor affecting the cognitive function of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients: a single center study

    OpenAIRE

    LI Xiang; LI Yan-peng; WU Hui-juan; ZHANG Lin; ZHAO Zheng-qing; PENG Hua; ZHAO Zhong-xin

    2013-01-01

    Objective Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) usually complain of daytime hypersomnia and decrease in cognitive function, which affects the quality of their work and life. The reason why the cognitive function of OSAS patients decreased remains controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impairment and the main influencing factors of cognitive function in OSAS. Methods There were totally 50 OSAS patients (OSAS group) and 25 volunteers (control group) included i...

  7. Examination on Validity of Mothers' Parenting Skills Scale: The Relationship among Scale for Mother's Cognitive and Affective Attitudes on Adolescent and Mother's parenting Attitude toward Adolescent Child

    OpenAIRE

    渡邉, 賢二; 平石, 賢二; WATANABE, Kenji; HIRAISHI, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of parenting skills scale, and the relationship among the parenting skills scale and scale for mother's cognitive and affective attitudes on adolescent and mother's parenting attitude toward adolescent child. 3 subscales of the parenting skills were positively related to "positive cognition and affection" and negatively related to "negative cognition and affection." They were negatively related to "sense of uncertainly" and positively rela...

  8. Somatic-Affective, But Not Cognitive-Depressive Symptoms are Associated With Reduced Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Elisabetta; Messerotti Benvenuti, Simone; Lopriore, Vincenzo; Aratari, Jenny; Palomba, Daniela

    Depression has been associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). However, to date, whether somatic-affective and cognitive-depressive symptoms differently contribute to poor HRQoL and behavioral functional capacity in patients with CHF has yet to be investigated. To examine the differential influence of somatic-affective vs cognitive-depressive symptoms on HRQoL and behavioral functional capacity in CHF patients. Overall, 55 patients with CHF completed a psychologic evaluation, including the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory for HRQoL, depressive, and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The patients completed the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire and the 6-minute walk test for behavioral functional capacity. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict HRQoL and behavioral functional capacity from Beck Depression Inventory-II and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Somatic-affective depressive symptoms were associated with physical (β = 0.37, p = 0.005) and emotional (β = 0.39, p = 0.008) Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire subscale scores. Likewise, somatic-affective depressive symptoms predicted Instrumental Activities of Daily Livings Scores (β = 0.43, p = 0.004) and distance ambulated during the 6-minute walk test (β = -0.36, p = 0.029). By contrast, cognitive-depressive symptoms and anxiety were unrelated to HRQoL and behavioral functional capacity (all p > 0.05). These findings showed that somatic-affective depressive symptoms, but not cognitive-depressive symptoms and anxiety, are associated with poor HRQoL and behavioral functional capacity independent of age, clinical functional status, and medical comorbidities. This study suggests that patients with CHF with somatic-affective rather than cognitive-depressive symptoms or anxiety may be at greater risk of poor HRQoL and

  9. Social cognition intervention in schizophrenia: Description of the training of affect recognition program - Indian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonse, Umesh; Behere, Rishikesh V; Frommann, Nicole; Sharma, Psvn

    2018-01-01

    Social cognition refers to mental operations involved in processing of social cues and includes the domains of emotion processing, Theory of Mind (ToM), social perception, social knowledge and attributional bias. Significant deficits in ToM, emotion perception and social perception have been demonstrated in schizophrenia which can have an impact on socio-occupational functioning. Intervention modules for social cognition have demonstrated moderate effect sizes for improving emotion identification and discrimination. We describe the Indian version of the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR) program and a pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of administering this intervention program in the Indian population. We also discuss the cultural sensibilities in adopting an intervention program for the Indian setting. To the best of our knowledge this is the first intervention program for social cognition for use in persons with schizophrenia in India. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Common and unique associations of adolescents' affective and cognitive empathy development with conflict behavior towards parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lissa, Caspar J.; Hawk, Skyler T.; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    Adolescents' development of two empathy dimensions, affective empathic concern and cognitive perspective taking, may be associated with shifts towards more constructive behaviors in conflict with parents. This six-year longitudinal study (ages 13–18) used multivariate latent growth curve modeling to

  11. Common and Unique Associations of Adolescents' Affective and Cognitive Empathy Development with Conflict Behavior towards Parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lissa, C.J.; Hawk, S.T.; Branje, S.J.T.; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents' development of two empathy dimensions, affective empathic concern and cognitive perspective taking, may be associated with shifts towards more constructive behaviors in conflict with parents. This six-year longitudinal study (ages 13–18) used multivariate latent growth curve modeling to

  12. Affective symptoms as predictors of Alzheimer's disease in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a 10-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, I.H.G.B.; Visser, P.J.; Aalten, P.; Kester, A.; Jolles, J.; Verhey, F.R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Affective symptoms are common in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but there is disagreement whether these symptoms are predictive for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the predictive accuracy of affective symptoms for AD during a follow-up study in subjects with MCI,

  13. Intraindividual variability in cognitive performance in three groups of older adults: cross-domain links to physical status and self-perceived affect and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Esther; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hunter, Michael; Moll, Alex; Hultsch, David F

    2002-11-01

    Intraindividual variability of physical status and affect/beliefs as well as their relations with cognition were examined in 3 groups of older adults: healthy elderly, individuals with a nonneurological health-related disturbance (arthritis) and people with neurological compromise (dementia). The findings showed that greater inconsistency in physical performance was observed in groups characterized by central nervous system dysfunction. By contrast, fluctuations in affect appeared to reflect other more transient sources, such as pain. In general, increased inconsistency in non-cognitive domains was associated with poorer cognitive function. There were cross-domain links between inconsistency in physical functioning and fluctuations in cognitive performance, although the nature of the links depended largely upon the neurological status of the individuals. Considered together, the result indicated that measures of cognitive as well as physical variability are important behavioral markers of neurological integrity.

  14. Does prior psychotherapy experience affect the course of cognitive-behavioural group therapy for social anxiety disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsignore, Aba

    2008-08-01

    To examine whether and how different patterns of psychotherapy history (no prior therapy, successful therapy experience, and unsuccessful therapy experience) affect the outcome of future treatment among patients undergoing cognitive-behavioural group therapy for social anxiety disorder. Fifty-seven patients with varying histories of psychotherapy participating in cognitive-behavioural group treatment for social anxiety disorder were included in the study. Symptom severity (including anxiety, depression, self-efficacy, and global symptom severity) was assessed at pre- and posttreatment. A therapist-rated measure of patient therapy engagement was included as a process variable. First-time therapy patients showed more favourable pretreatment variables and achieved greater benefit from group therapy. Among patients with unsuccessful therapy experience, substantial gains were attained by those who were able to actively engage in the therapy process. Patients rating previous therapies as successful could benefit the least and tended to stagnate. Possible explanations for group differences and clinical implications are discussed. Prior psychotherapy experience affects the course of cognitive-behavioural group therapy in patients with social phobias. While patients with negative therapy experience may need extensive support in being and remaining actively engaged, those rating previous therapies as successful should be assessed very carefully and may benefit from a major focus on relational aspects.

  15. The Ups and Downs of Cognitive Function: Neuroticism and Negative Affect Drive Performance Inconsistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Elizabeth; Stawski, Robert S; Sliwinski, Martin J; Smyth, Joshua M; MacDonald, Stuart W S

    2018-03-26

    Response time inconsistency (RTI)-or trial-to-trial variability in speeded performance-is increasingly recognized as an indicator of transient lapses of attention, cognitive health status, and central nervous system integrity, as well as a potential early indicator of normal and pathological cognitive aging (Hultsch, Strauss, Hunter, & MacDonald, 2008; MacDonald, Li, & Bäckman, 2009). Comparatively, little research has examined personality predictors of RTI across adulthood. We evaluated the association between the personality trait neuroticism and RTI in a community-dwelling sample of 317 adults between the ages of 19 to 83 and tested for two indirect pathways through negative affect (NA) and cognitive interference (CI). The personality trait neuroticism predicted greater RTI independent of mean response time performance and demographic covariates; the results were age-invariant. Furthermore, NA (but not CI) accounted for this association and moderated mediation model results indicated that older adults were more vulnerable to the adverse effects of NA. Neuroticism predicts greater response time inconsistency irrespective of mean performance and this effect is driven largely by heightened negative emotionality that may be particularly detrimental for older adults.

  16. Brain signal variability differentially affects cognitive flexibility and cognitive stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armbruster-Genç, D.J.N.; Ültzhöffer, K.; Fiebach, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research yielded the intriguing conclusion that, in healthy adults, higher levels of variability in neuronal processes are beneficial for cognitive functioning. Beneficial effects of variability in neuronal processing can also be inferred from neurocomputational theories of working memory,

  17. Subjective Well-Being and Adaptation to Life Events: A Meta-Analysis on Differences Between Cognitive and Affective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Maike; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Eid, Michael; Lucas, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that major life events can have short- and long-term effects on subjective well-being (SWB). The present meta-analysis examines (a) whether life events have different effects on cognitive and affective well-being and (b) how the rate of adaptation varies across different life events. Longitudinal data from 188 publications (313 samples, N = 65,911) were integrated to describe the reaction and adaptation to four family events (marriage, divorce, bereavement, child birth) and four work events (unemployment, reemployment, retirement, relocation/migration). The findings show that life events have very different effects on affective and cognitive well-being, and that for most events the effects of life events on cognitive well-being are stronger and more consistent across samples. Different life events differ in their effects on SWB, but these effects are not a function of the alleged desirability of events. The results are discussed with respect to their theoretical implications, and recommendations for future studies on adaptation are given. PMID:22059843

  18. A functional MiR-124 binding-site polymorphism in IQGAP1 affects human cognitive performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Yang

    Full Text Available As a product of the unique evolution of the human brain, human cognitive performance is largely a collection of heritable traits. Rather surprisingly, to date there have been no reported cases to highlight genes that underwent adaptive evolution in humans and which carry polymorphisms that have a marked effect on cognitive performance. IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1, a scaffold protein, affects learning and memory in a dose-dependent manner. Its expression is regulated by miR-124 through the binding sites in the 3'UTR, where a SNP (rs1042538 exists in the core-binding motif. Here we showed that this SNP can influence the miR-target interaction both in vitro and in vivo. Individuals carrying the derived T alleles have higher IQGAP1 expression in the brain as compared to the ancestral A allele carriers. We observed a significant and male-specific association between rs1042538 and tactile performances in two independent cohorts. Males with the derived allele displayed higher tactual performances as compared to those with the ancestral allele. Furthermore, we found a highly diverged allele-frequency distribution of rs1042538 among world human populations, likely caused by natural selection and/or recent population expansion. These results suggest that current human populations still carry sequence variations that affect cognitive performances and that these genetic variants may likely have been subject to comparatively recent natural selection.

  19. Error framing effects on performance: cognitive, motivational, and affective pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele-Johnson, Debra; Kalinoski, Zachary T

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose was to examine whether positive error framing, that is, making errors salient and cuing individuals to see errors as useful, can benefit learning when task exploration is constrained. Recent research has demonstrated the benefits of a newer approach to training, that is, error management training, that includes the opportunity to actively explore the task and framing errors as beneficial to learning complex tasks (Keith & Frese, 2008). Other research has highlighted the important role of errors in on-the-job learning in complex domains (Hutchins, 1995). Participants (N = 168) from a large undergraduate university performed a class scheduling task. Results provided support for a hypothesized path model in which error framing influenced cognitive, motivational, and affective factors which in turn differentially affected performance quantity and quality. Within this model, error framing had significant direct effects on metacognition and self-efficacy. Our results suggest that positive error framing can have beneficial effects even when tasks cannot be structured to support extensive exploration. Whereas future research can expand our understanding of error framing effects on outcomes, results from the current study suggest that positive error framing can facilitate learning from errors in real-time performance of tasks.

  20. An Investigation of Relationships among Instructor Immediacy and Affective and Cognitive Learning in the Online Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jason D.

    2004-01-01

    A significant body of literature has supported the assertion that communication in the classroom is central to the learning process. Prosocial behaviors, such as nonverbal and verbal immediacy, have been found to promote affective and cognitive learning in traditional instructional settings. This study examined the relationships among instructor…

  1. Using Emotion as Information in Future-Oriented Cognition: Individual Differences in the Context of State Negative Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquín, Brett; Boyle, Chloe C.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Stanton, Annette L.

    2016-01-01

    Predictions about the future are susceptible to mood-congruent influences of emotional state. However, recent work suggests individuals also differ in the degree to which they incorporate emotion into cognition. This study examined the role of such individual differences in the context of state negative emotion. We examined whether trait tendencies to use negative or positive emotion as information affect individuals' predictions of what will happen in the future (likelihood estimation) and how events will feel (affective forecasting), and whether trait influences depend on emotional state. Participants (N=119) reported on tendencies to use emotion as information (“following feelings”), underwent an emotion induction (negative versus neutral), and made likelihood estimates and affective forecasts for future events. Views of the future were predicted by both emotional state and individual differences in following feelings. Whereas following negative feelings affected most future-oriented cognition across emotional states, following positive feelings specifically buffered individuals' views of the future in the negative emotion condition, and specifically for positive future events, a category of future-event prediction especially important in psychological health. Individual differences may confer predisposition toward optimistic or pessimistic expectations of the future in the context of acute negative emotion, with implications for adaptive and maladaptive functioning. PMID:27041783

  2. The role of cognitive and affective defense mechanisms in reducing children’s susceptibility to advertising effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.; Buijzen, M.; Valkenburg, P.

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop and test a model of children’s advertising defenses. In this model two paths to reduced advertising susceptibility (i.e., advertised brand attitude) were hypothesized: a cognitive and an affective path. The secondary aim was to compare these paths for two

  3. Linking Affective Commitment, Career Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Amanda M.; Dahling, Jason J.; Garcia, Pablo A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a model based on the satisfaction model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) that links college students' affective commitment to their major (the emotional identification that students feel toward their area of study) with career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and career outcome expectations. Results indicate that CDSE…

  4. Cognitive and Socio-Affective Outcomes of Project-Based Learning: Perceptions of Greek Second Chance School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrouba, Konstantina; Karageorgou, Elissavet

    2013-01-01

    The present questionnaire-based study was conducted in 2010 in order to examine 677 Greek Second Chance School (SCS) students' perceptions about the cognitive and socio-affective outcomes of project-based learning. Data elaboration, statistical and factor analysis showed that the participants found that project-based learning offered a second…

  5. Past racial discrimination exacerbates the effects of racial exclusion on negative affect, perceived control, and alcohol-risk cognitions among Black young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Molloy, Brianne K; Lambert, Sharon F

    2017-06-01

    Racial discrimination is associated with alcohol use and risky sex cognitions and behaviors, which are risk factors for negative health outcomes, including human immunodeficiency virus infection. The current study investigated the causal impact of racial discrimination on alcohol and sexual-risk cognitions while exploring potential mediators that might help explain this relation: negative affect, perceived control, and meaningful existence. We also examined if past discrimination impacts the strength of (moderates) these effects. Participants were 287 Black/African American young adults aged 18-25. They were randomly assigned to be excluded or included by White peers via the game Cyberball. Racial exclusion (vs. inclusion) predicted greater: perceived racial discrimination, negative affect, alcohol use willingness, and reduced perceived control and meaningful existence. Furthermore, excluded participants who experienced more past racial discrimination reported the lowest perceived control, and greatest negative affect and alcohol-risk cognitions. The findings suggest that past racial discrimination exacerbates the harmful health effects of immediate experiences of discrimination.

  6. Working memory load affects repetitive behaviour but not cognitive flexibility in adolescent autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Nicole; Chmielewski, Witold X; Beste, Christian; Roessner, Veit

    2017-03-16

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with repetitive and stereotyped behaviour, suggesting that cognitive flexibility may be deficient in ASD. A central, yet not examined aspect to understand possible deficits in flexible behaviour in ASD relates (i) to the role of working memory and (ii) to neurophysiological mechanisms underlying behavioural modulations. We analysed behavioural and neurophysiological (EEG) correlates of cognitive flexibility using a task-switching paradigm with and without working memory load in adolescents with ASD and typically developing controls (TD). Adolescents with ASD versus TD show similar performance in task switching with no memory load, indicating that 'pure' cognitive flexibility is not in deficit in adolescent ASD. However performance during task repetition decreases with increasing memory load. Neurophysiological data reflect the pattern of behavioural effects, showing modulations in P2 and P3 event-related potentials. Working memory demands affect repetitive behaviour while processes of cognitive flexibility are unaffected. Effects emerge due to deficits in preparatory attentional processes and deficits in task rule activation, organisation and implementation of task sets when repetitive behaviour is concerned. It may be speculated that the habitual response mode in ASD (i.e. repetitive behaviour) is particularly vulnerable to additional demands on executive control processes.

  7. Differentiating Motivational from Affective Influence of Performance-contingent Reward on Cognitive Control: The Wanting Component Enhances Both Proactive and Reactive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillou, Anne-Clémence; Giersch, Anne; Hoonakker, Marc; Capa, Rémi L; Bonnefond, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Positive affect strongly modulates goal-directed behaviors and cognitive control mechanisms. It often results from the presence of a pleasant stimulus in the environment, whether that stimulus appears unpredictably or as a consequence of a particular behavior. The influence of positive affect linked to a random pleasant stimulus differs from the influence of positive affect resulting from performance-contingent pleasant stimuli. However, the mechanisms by which the performance contingency of pleasant stimuli modulates the influence of positive affect on cognitive control mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these differentiated effects are the consequence of the activation of the motivational "wanting" component specifically under performance contingency conditions. To that end, we directly compared the effects on cognitive control of pleasant stimuli (a monetary reward) attributed in a performance contingent manner, and of random pleasant stimuli (positive picture) not related to performance, during an AX-CPT task. Both proactive and reactive modes of control were increased specifically by performance contingency, as reflected by faster reaction times and larger amplitude of the CNV and P3a components. Our findings advance our understanding of the respective effects of affect and motivation, which is of special interest regarding alterations of emotion-motivation interaction found in several psychopathological disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Taki

    Full Text Available Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  9. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-12-08

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  10. Human likeness: cognitive and affective factors affecting adoption of robot-assisted learning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hosun; Kwon, Ohbyung; Lee, Namyeon

    2016-07-01

    With advances in robot technology, interest in robotic e-learning systems has increased. In some laboratories, experiments are being conducted with humanoid robots as artificial tutors because of their likeness to humans, the rich possibilities of using this type of media, and the multimodal interaction capabilities of these robots. The robot-assisted learning system, a special type of e-learning system, aims to increase the learner's concentration, pleasure, and learning performance dramatically. However, very few empirical studies have examined the effect on learning performance of incorporating humanoid robot technology into e-learning systems or people's willingness to accept or adopt robot-assisted learning systems. In particular, human likeness, the essential characteristic of humanoid robots as compared with conventional e-learning systems, has not been discussed in a theoretical context. Hence, the purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model to explain the process of adoption of robot-assisted learning systems. In the proposed model, human likeness is conceptualized as a combination of media richness, multimodal interaction capabilities, and para-social relationships; these factors are considered as possible determinants of the degree to which human cognition and affection are related to the adoption of robot-assisted learning systems.

  11. Understanding the Cognitive and Affective Mechanisms that Underlie Proxy Risk Perceptions among Caregivers of Asthmatic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepperd, James A; Lipsey, Nikolette P; Pachur, Thorsten; Waters, Erika A

    2018-07-01

    Medical decisions made on behalf of another person-particularly those made by adult caregivers for their minor children-are often informed by the decision maker's beliefs about the treatment's risks and benefits. However, we know little about the cognitive and affective mechanisms influencing such "proxy" risk perceptions and about how proxy risk perceptions are related to prominent judgment phenomena. Adult caregivers of minor children with asthma ( N = 132) completed an online, cross-sectional survey assessing 1) cognitions and affects that form the basis of the availability, representativeness, and affect heuristics; 2) endorsement of the absent-exempt and the better-than-average effect; and 3) proxy perceived risk and unrealistic comparative optimism of an asthma exacerbation. We used the Pediatric Asthma Control and Communication Instrument (PACCI) to assess asthma severity. Respondents with higher scores on availability, representativeness, and negative affect indicated higher proxy risk perceptions and (for representativeness only) lower unrealistic optimism, irrespective of asthma severity. Conversely, respondents who showed a stronger display of the better-than-average effect indicated lower proxy risk perceptions but did not differ in unrealistic optimism. The absent-exempt effect was unrelated to proxy risk perceptions and unrealistic optimism. Heuristic judgment processes appear to contribute to caregivers' proxy risk perceptions of their child's asthma exacerbation risk. Moreover, the display of other, possibly erroneous, judgment phenomena is associated with lower caregiver risk perceptions. Designing interventions that target these mechanisms may help caregivers work with their children to reduce exacerbation risk.

  12. Two-day fasting evokes stress, but does not affect mood, brain activity, cognitive, psychomotor, and motor performance in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Sujeta, Artūras

    2018-02-15

    The physiological, cognitive state, and motor behavior changes that occur during acute fasting are not completely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the effect of 2-day total fasting on evoked stress, mood, brain activity, and cognitive, psychomotor, and motor function in overweight women. Eleven overweight women (body mass index above 25kg/m 2 ) aged 20-30 years were tested under two conditions allocated randomly: 2-day zero-calorie diet with water provided ad libitum and 2-day usual diet. One week before the experiment, aerobic fitness was evaluated. Subjective stress ratings in relation to the diet, autonomic function, prefrontal cortex activity, cognitive performance, psychomotor coordination, and grip strength were evaluated before and after each diet. The study demonstrated that fasting decreased log-transformed high-frequency (HF) power, without affecting heart rate. The relative maximum oxygen uptake was negatively correlated with subjective stress rating and changes in log-transformed HF. Fasting did not affect mood, brain activity, and cognitive, motor, and psychomotor performance. Thus, 2-day total fasting evoked moderate stress with a shift of the autonomic nervous system balance toward sympathetic activity in overweight women. Better aerobic endurance is likely to facilitate the capacity for dealing with acute fasting. Regardless of the evoked stress, cognitive state and motor behavior remained intact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 15q11.2 CNV affects cognitive, structural and functional correlates of dyslexia and dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfarsson, M O; Walters, G B; Gustafsson, O; Steinberg, S; Silva, A; Doyle, O M; Brammer, M; Gudbjartsson, D F; Arnarsdottir, S; Jonsdottir, G A; Gisladottir, R S; Bjornsdottir, G; Helgason, H; Ellingsen, L M; Halldorsson, J G; Saemundsen, E; Stefansdottir, B; Jonsson, L; Eiriksdottir, V K; Eiriksdottir, G R; Johannesdottir, G H; Unnsteinsdottir, U; Jonsdottir, B; Magnusdottir, B B; Sulem, P; Thorsteinsdottir, U; Sigurdsson, E; Brandeis, D; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Stefansson, H; Stefansson, K

    2017-04-25

    Several copy number variants have been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and these variants have been shown to also influence cognitive abilities in carriers unaffected by psychiatric disorders. Previously, we associated the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion with specific learning disabilities and a larger corpus callosum. Here we investigate, in a much larger sample, the effect of the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion on cognitive, structural and functional correlates of dyslexia and dyscalculia. We report that the deletion confers greatest risk of the combined phenotype of dyslexia and dyscalculia. We also show that the deletion associates with a smaller left fusiform gyrus. Moreover, tailored functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments using phonological lexical decision and multiplication verification tasks demonstrate altered activation in the left fusiform and the left angular gyri in carriers. Thus, by using convergent evidence from neuropsychological testing, and structural and functional neuroimaging, we show that the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion affects cognitive, structural and functional correlates of both dyslexia and dyscalculia.

  14. The Moderating Role of Anxiety in the Associations of Callous-Unemotional Traits with Self-Report and Laboratory Measures of Affective and Cognitive Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Rachel E; Frick, Paul J; Golmaryami, Farrah N; Marsee, Monica A

    2017-04-01

    In a sample of detained male adolescents (n = 107; Mean age = 15.50; SD = 1.30), we tested whether anxiety moderated the association of CU traits with self-report and computerized measures of affective (emotional reactivity) and cognitive (affective facial recognition and Theory of Mind [ToM]) empathy. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that CU traits were negatively associated with self-reports of affective empathy and this association was not moderated by level of anxiety. Significant interactions revealed that CU traits were negatively associated with cognitive empathy (self-report) only at high levels of anxiety, whereas CU traits were positively associated with cognitive empathy on the ToM task only at low levels of anxiety. CU traits were also associated with greater fear recognition accuracy at low levels of anxiety. Implications for understanding and treating different variants of CU traits (i.e., primary and secondary) are discussed.

  15. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Cognition and Mood in Recently Postmenopausal Women: Findings from the Randomized, Controlled KEEPS-Cognitive and Affective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey E Gleason

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT reportedly increases the risk of cognitive decline in women over age 65 y. It is unknown whether similar risks exist for recently postmenopausal women, and whether MHT affects mood in younger women. The ancillary Cognitive and Affective Study (KEEPS-Cog of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS examined the effects of up to 4 y of MHT on cognition and mood in recently postmenopausal women.KEEPS, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, was conducted at nine US academic centers. Of the 727 women enrolled in KEEPS, 693 (95.3% participated in the ancillary KEEPS-Cog, with 220 women randomized to receive 4 y of 0.45 mg/d oral conjugated equine estrogens (o-CEE plus 200 mg/d micronized progesterone (m-P for the first 12 d of each month, 211 women randomized to receive 50 μg/d transdermal estradiol (t-E2 plus 200 mg/d m-P for the first 12 d of each month, and 262 women randomized to receive placebo pills and patches. Primary outcomes included the Modified Mini-Mental State examination; four cognitive factors: verbal learning/memory, auditory attention/working memory, visual attention/executive function, and speeded language/mental flexibility; and a mood measure, the Profile of Mood States (POMS. MHT effects were analyzed using linear mixed-effects (LME models, which make full use of all available data from each participant, including those with missing data. Data from those with and without full data were compared to assess for potential biases resulting from missing observations. For statistically significant results, we calculated effect sizes (ESs to evaluate the magnitude of changes. On average, participants were 52.6 y old, and 1.4 y past their last menstrual period. By month 48, 169 (24.4% and 158 (22.8% of the 693 women who consented for ancillary KEEPS-Cog were lost to follow-up for cognitive assessment (3MS and cognitive factors and mood evaluations (POMS, respectively

  16. A randomized trial of a cognitive-behavioral therapy and hypnosis intervention on positive and negative affect during breast cancer radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Schnur, Julie B.; David, Daniel; Kangas, Maria; Green, Sheryl; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer radiotherapy can be an emotionally difficult experience. Despite this, few studies have examined the effectiveness of psychological interventions to reduce negative affect, and none to date have explicitly examined interventions to improve positive affect among breast cancer radiotherapy patients. The present study examined the effectiveness of a multimodal psychotherapeutic approach, combining cognitive-behavioral therapy and hypnosis (CBTH), to reduce negative affect and incre...

  17. Affect, Behavior, Cognition, and Desire in the Big Five: An Analysis of Item Content and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Joshua; Revelle, William

    2015-01-01

    Personality psychology is concerned with affect (A), behavior (B), cognition (C) and desire (D), and personality traits have been defined conceptually as abstractions used to either explain or summarize coherent ABC (and sometimes D) patterns over time and space. However, this conceptual definition of traits has not been reflected in their operationalization, possibly resulting in theoretical and practical limitations to current trait inventories. Thus, the goal of this project was to determine the affective, behavioral, cognitive and desire (ABCD) components of Big-Five personality traits. The first study assessed the ABCD content of items measuring Big-Five traits in order to determine the ABCD composition of traits and identify items measuring relatively high amounts of only one ABCD content. The second study examined the correlational structure of scales constructed from items assessing ABCD content via a large, web-based study. An assessment of Big-Five traits that delineates ABCD components of each trait is presented, and the discussion focuses on how this assessment builds upon current approaches of assessing personality. PMID:26279606

  18. Varieties of Cognitive Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William A.

    1974-01-01

    The author examines how students in three countries use four styles of cognitive integration (affective balance, affective-evaluative consistency, centralization, and image comparability) within the cognitive domains of nations, acquaintances, self-roles, and family relations. (DE)

  19. Digital Immigrant Teacher Perceptions of Social Media as It Influences the Affective and Cognitive Development of Students: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert Warren

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study is to describe how digital immigrant teachers perceive the influence of social media on the affective and cognitive development of students at three high schools in Alabama. As the prevalence of social technologies is increasing, educators must understand how it is affecting students in…

  20. Modeling Organizational Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secchi, Davide; Cowley, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    This article offers an alternative perspective on organizational cognition based on e-cognition whereby appeal to systemic cognition replaces the traditional computational model of the mind that is still extremely popular in organizational research. It uses information processing, not to explore...... inner processes, but as the basis for pursuing organizational matters. To develop a theory of organizational cognition, the current work presents an agent-based simulation model based on the case of how individual perception of scientific value is affected by and affects organizational intelligence...... units' (e.g., research groups', departmental) framing of the notorious impact factor. Results show that organizational cognition cannot be described without an intermediate meso scale - called here social organizing - that both filters and enables the many kinds of socially enabled perception, action...

  1. The effects of customised food advergames on children’s affective, cognitive, and conative responses

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Shelly

    2017-01-01

    The practice of promoting food to children via advergames is a highly topical issue which attracts much concern due to the low nutritional value of the promoted foods. This thesis examines the effects of customised food advergames on children’s affective, cognitive and conative responses. It also investigates the role persuasion knowledge and prior brand usage have in children’s interaction with advergames. In particular, whether children’s persuasion knowledge acts as a barrier to those resp...

  2. How does context affect intimate relationships? linking external stress and cognitive processes within marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Lisa A; Karney, Benjamin R

    2004-02-01

    Stressors external to the marriage frequently affect the way spouses evaluate their marital quality. To date, however, understanding of the interplay between external stress and internal relationship processes has been limited in two ways. First, research has generally examined only the short-term consequences of stress. Second, the mechanisms through which external stressors influence relationship outcomes are unclear. This study addressed both limitations by examining relationship cognitions that may mediate the effects of external stress throughout 4 years of marriage. Analyses confirmed that stressful experiences were associated with the trajectory of marital quality overtime. Furthermore, both the content and the organization of spouses' specific relationship cognitions mediated this effect. That is, stress negatively influenced the nature of spouses' marital perceptions as well as the way spouses interpreted and processed those perceptions. These findings draw attention to ways that the context of relationships shapes and constrains relationship processes.

  3. Misremembering Past Affect Predicts Adolescents’ Future Affective Experience during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaze, Melissa M.; Levine, Linda J.; Schneider, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Increasing physical activity among adolescents is a public health priority. Because people are motivated to engage in activities that make them feel good, this study examined predictors of adolescents’ feelings during exercise. Method During the first semester of the school year, we assessed sixth grade students’ (N = 136) cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise. Participants also reported their affect during a cardiovascular fitness test, and recalled their affect during the fitness test later that semester. During the second semester, the same participants rated their affect during a moderate-intensity exercise task. Results Affect reported during the moderate-intensity exercise task was predicted by cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise, and by misremembering affect during the fitness test as more positive than it actually was. This memory bias mediated the association between appraising exercise as important and experiencing a positive change in affect during the moderate-intensity exercise task. Conclusion These findings highlight the roles of both cognitive appraisals and memory as factors that may influence affect during exercise. Future work should explore whether affect during exercise can be modified by targeting appraisals and memories related to exercise experiences. PMID:28494196

  4. Misremembering Past Affect Predicts Adolescents' Future Affective Experience During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaze, Melissa M; Levine, Linda J; Schneider, Margaret

    2017-09-01

    Increasing physical activity among adolescents is a public health priority. Because people are motivated to engage in activities that make them feel good, this study examined predictors of adolescents' feelings during exercise. During the 1st semester of the school year, we assessed 6th-grade students' (N = 136) cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise. Participants also reported their affect during a cardiovascular fitness test and recalled their affect during the fitness test later that semester. During the 2nd semester, the same participants rated their affect during a moderate-intensity exercise task. Affect reported during the moderate-intensity exercise task was predicted by cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise and by misremembering affect during the fitness test as more positive than it actually was. This memory bias mediated the association between appraising exercise as important and experiencing a positive change in affect during the moderate-intensity exercise task. These findings highlight the roles of both cognitive appraisals and memory as factors that may influence affect during exercise. Future work should explore whether affect during exercise can be modified by targeting appraisals and memories related to exercise experiences.

  5. Cognitive function affects trainability for physical performance in exercise intervention among older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Kazuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Anan, Yuya; Suzuki, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Although much evidence supports the hypothesis that cognitive function and physical function are interrelated, it is unclear whether cognitive decline with mild cognitive impairment influences trainability of physical performance in exercise intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cognitive function at baseline and change in physical performance after exercise intervention in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Forty-four older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment based on the Peterson criteria (mean age 74.8 years) consented to and completed a 6-month twice weekly exercise intervention. The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was used as a measure of physical performance. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Trail Making Test Part B, Geriatric Depression Scale, baseline muscle strength of knee extension, and attendance rate of intervention, were measured as factors for predicting trainability. In the correlation analysis, the change in TUG showed modest correlations with attendance rate in the exercise program (r = -0.354, P = 0.027) and MMSE at baseline (r = -0.321, P = 0.034). A multiple regression analysis revealed that change in TUG was independently associated with attendance rate (β = -0.322, P = 0.026) and MMSE score (β = -0.295, P = 0.041), controlling for age and gender. General cognitive function was associated with improvements in physical performance after exercise intervention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Further research is needed to examine the effects of exercise programs designed to address cognitive obstacles in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

  6. Team Regulation in a Simulated Medical Emergency: An In-Depth Analysis of Cognitive, Metacognitive, and Affective Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Melissa C.; Azevedo, Roger; Sun, Ning-Zi; Griscom, Sophia E.; Stead, Victoria; Crelinsten, Linda; Wiseman, Jeffrey; Maniatis, Thomas; Lachapelle, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the nature of cognitive, metacognitive, and affective processes among a medical team experiencing difficulty managing a challenging simulated medical emergency case by conducting in-depth analysis of process data. Medical residents participated in a simulation exercise designed to help trainees to develop medical expertise,…

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Sexually Exploited, War-Affected Congolese Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; McMullen, John; Shannon, Ciaran; Rafferty, Harry; Black, Alastair

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) delivered by nonclinical facilitators in reducing posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety and conduct problems and increasing prosocial behavior in a group of war-affected, sexually exploited girls in a single-blind, parallel-design, randomized,…

  8. On the interdependence of cognition and emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.

    2007-01-01

    Affect and cognition have long been treated as independent entities, but in the current review we suggest that affect and cognition are in fact highly interdependent. We open the article by discussing three classic views for the independence of affect. These are (i) the affective independence hypothesis, that emotion is processed independently from cognition, (ii) the affective primacy hypothesis, that evaluative processing precedes semantic processing, and (iii) the affective automaticity hy...

  9. All the way up?, All the way down?: From cognitive science to cognitive Curriculum; what about the affective component?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes de Oca Rodríguez, Raúl

    2004-06-01

    into account two areas in ESL/EFL simultaneously: the cognitive and the affective, since the latter seems to be overlooked nowadays and more emphasis is being given to cognitive elements like learning strategies. In the conclusion, the author insists on giving the development of eventual school or high school programs on self- esteem the same status as the designing of future learning strategies programs or the teaching / training of learning strategies in relation to subjects like English.

  10. Cognitive Factors Affecting Free Recall, Cued Recall, and Recognition Tasks in Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Yamagishi; Takuya Sato; Atsushi Sato; Toru Imamura

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims: Our aim was to identify cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Subjects: We recruited 349 consecutive AD patients who attended a memory clinic. Methods: Each patient was assessed using the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) and the extended 3-word recall test. In this task, each patient was asked to freely recall 3 previously presented words. If patients could not recall 1 or more of the ...

  11. The gambler's fallacy is associated with weak affective decision making but strong cognitive ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Xue

    Full Text Available Humans demonstrate an inherent bias towards making maladaptive decisions, as shown by a phenomenon known as the gambler's fallacy (GF. The GF has been traditionally considered as a heuristic bias supported by the fast and automatic intuition system, which can be overcome by the reasoning system. The present study examined an intriguing hypothesis, based on emerging evidence from neuroscience research, that the GF might be attributed to a weak affective but strong cognitive decision making mechanism. With data from a large sample of college students, we found that individuals' use of the GF strategy was positively correlated with their general intelligence and executive function, such as working memory and conflict resolution, but negatively correlated with their affective decision making capacities, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task. Our result provides a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying the GF, which highlights the significant role of affective mechanisms in adaptive decision-making.

  12. Cognitive and affective empathy among adolescent siblings of children with a physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perenc, Lidia; Pęczkowski, Ryszard

    2018-01-01

    This study is a continuation of research on possible psychosocial benefits resulting from exposure to sibling with disability present in the family system. The issue seems to be especially important in Poland because of growing number of children with a disability and inconsistent results of previously performed studies. The main aim of this study was to examine the differences in the intensity of cognitive and affective empathy in adolescents who either have or do not have siblings with physical disability. The authors hypothesized that the increased exposure to individual with disability should result in positive attitude towards such people and this tendency should be manifested in elevated empathy and compassion. The study was carried out between September and November 2016. To meet the goals set to the study, a sample of 292 students from public middle and high schools were assessed using self-report demographic questionnaire and measure of empathy (IRI). The participants were between 13 and 19 years old. Among them 128 had a disabled sibling (Group T) and 164 constituted a comparative group (Group C). Interpretation of results is based on descriptive statistics. Participants having a disabled sibling showed significantly higher scores related both to cognitive and affective empathy. Some significant differences were also noted in relation to participants' gender and age. Exposure to individuals with physical disability in family context may facilitate development of positive psychosocial traits including elevated empathy and compassion in nondisabled siblings. Data analysis also showed significantly greater empathic and altruistic tendencies in females that in males. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Simulating motivated cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, William B.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort to develop a sophisticated computer model of human behavior is described. A computer framework of motivated cognition was developed. Motivated cognition focuses on the motivations or affects that provide the context and drive in human cognition and decision making. A conceptual architecture of the human decision-making approach from the perspective of information processing in the human brain is developed in diagrammatic form. A preliminary version of such a diagram is presented. This architecture is then used as a vehicle for successfully constructing a computer program simulation Dweck and Leggett's findings that relate how an individual's implicit theories orient them toward particular goals, with resultant cognitions, affects, and behavior.

  14. Differential effects of acute and regular physical exercise on cognition and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, M E; Davis, F C; Vantieghem, M R; Whalen, P J; Bucci, D J

    2012-07-26

    The effects of regular exercise versus a single bout of exercise on cognition, anxiety, and mood were systematically examined in healthy, sedentary young adults who were genotyped to determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allelic status (i.e., Val-Val or Val66Met polymorphism). Participants were evaluated on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and a battery of mental health surveys before and after engaging in either (a) a 4-week exercise program, with exercise on the final test day, (b) a 4-week exercise program, without exercise on the final test day, (c) a single bout of exercise on the final test day, or (d) remaining sedentary between test days. Exercise enhanced object recognition memory and produced a beneficial decrease in perceived stress, but only in participants who exercised for 4 weeks including the final day of testing. In contrast, a single bout of exercise did not affect recognition memory and resulted in increased perceived stress levels. An additional novel finding was that the improvements on the NOR task were observed exclusively in participants who were homozygous for the BDNF Val allele, indicating that altered activity-dependent release of BDNF in Met allele carriers may attenuate the cognitive benefits of exercise. Importantly, exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with changes in mood/anxiety, suggesting that separate neural systems mediate these effects. These data in humans mirror recent data from our group in rodents. Taken together, these current findings provide new insights into the behavioral and neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of physical exercise on memory and mental health in humans. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sleep restriction and cognitive load affect performance on a simulated marksmanship task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carl D; Cooper, Adam D; Merullo, Donna J; Cohen, Bruce S; Heaton, Kristin J; Claro, Pedro J; Smith, Tracey

    2017-11-24

    Sleep restriction degrades cognitive and motor performance, which can adversely impact job performance and increase the risk of accidents. Military personnel are prone to operating under sleep restriction, and previous work suggests that military marksmanship may be negatively affected under such conditions. Results of these studies, however, are mixed and have often incorporated additional stressors (e.g. energy restriction) beyond sleep restriction. Moreover, few studies have investigated how the degree of difficulty of a marksmanship task impacts performance following sleep restriction. The purpose of the current experiment was to study the effects of sleep restriction on marksmanship while minimizing the potential influence of other forms of stress. A friend-foe discrimination challenge with greater or lesser degrees of complexity (high versus low load) was used as the primary marksmanship task. Active duty Soldiers were recruited, and allowed 2 h of sleep every 24 h over a 72-h testing period. Marksmanship tasks, cognitive assessment metrics and the NASA-Task Load Index were administered daily. Results indicated that reaction times to shoot foe targets and signal friendly targets slowed over time. In addition, the ability to correctly discriminate between friend and foe targets significantly decreased in the high-cognitive-load condition over time despite shot accuracy remaining stable. The NASA-Task Load Index revealed that, although marksmanship performance degraded, participants believed their performance did not change over time. These results further characterize the consequences of sleep restriction on marksmanship performance and the perception of performance, and reinforce the importance of adequate sleep among service members when feasible. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Differential Effects of Acute and Regular Physical Exercise on Cognition and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Michael E.; Davis, F. Caroline; VanTieghem, Michelle R.; Whalen, Paul J.; Bucci, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of regular exercise versus a single bout of exercise on cognition, anxiety, and mood were systematically examined in healthy, sedentary young adults who were genotyped to determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allelic status (i.e., Val-Val or Val66Met polymorphism). Participants were evaluated on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and a battery of mental health surveys before and after engaging in either a) a four-week exercise program, with exercise on the final test day, b) a four-week exercise program, without exercise on the final test day, c) a single bout of exercise on the final test day, or d) remaining sedentary between test days. Exercise enhanced object recognition memory and produced a beneficial decrease in perceived stress, but only in participants who exercised for four weeks including the final day of testing. In contrast, a single bout of exercise did not affect recognition memory and resulted in increased perceived stress levels. An additional novel finding was that the improvements on the NOR task were observed exclusively in participants who were homozygous for the BDNF Val allele, indicating that altered activity-dependent release of BDNF in Met allele carriers may attenuate the cognitive benefits of exercise. Importantly, exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with changes in mood/anxiety, suggesting that separate neural systems mediate these effects. These data in humans mirror recent data from our group in rodents. Taken together, these current findings provide new insights into the behavioral and neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of physical exercise on memory and mental health in humans. PMID:22554780

  17. Dynamic Synchronization of Teacher-Students Affection in Affective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei

    2011-01-01

    Based on Bower's affective network theory, the article links the dynamic analysis of affective factors in affective instruction, and presents affective instruction strategic of dynamic synchronization between teacher and students to implement the best ideal mood that promotes students' cognition and affection together. In the process of teaching,…

  18. Affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and social attention in children at high risk of criminal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Van Goozen, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Empathy deficits are hypothesized to underlie impairments in social interaction\\ud exhibited by those who engage in antisocial behaviour. Social attention is an essential precursor to\\ud empathy; however, no studies have yet examined social attention in relation to cognitive and affective\\ud empathy in those exhibiting antisocial behaviour. Methods: Participants were 8-12 year-old children\\ud at high risk of developing criminal behaviour (N=114, 80.7% boys) and typically developin...

  19. An Investigation into Emotional Intelligence, Foreign Language Anxiety and Empathy through a Cognitive-Affective Course in an EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhani, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence, as concerned with how an individual recognizes and regulates his or her emotions, has been in limelight quite recently. The present study seeks to fill a small gap in the literature on emotional intelligence, together with foreign language anxiety and empathy. To this end, short literary readings are used in a cognitive-affective reading-based course to see how emotional intelligence, foreign language anxiety and empathy are affected. Mayer, Salovey and Caruso (2002 Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT, Cooper's (1996/1997 EQ-Map, Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope's (1986 Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Test (FLCAS and Caruso and Mayer's (1998 Multi-Dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale (MDEES were administered to 70 Iranian EFL undergraduate students in a pretest posttest quasi-experimental design. MANOVA and ANCOVA were conducted. The results revealed that the cognitive-affective reading-based course in which literary readings were used significantly improved the subjects' emotional intelligence scores from the MSCEIT measure as well as empathy (MDEES scores, but significantly decreased their foreign language anxiety (FLCAS scores. The pedagogical implications for learners, teachers, educators and materials developers are presented.

  20. Testing the cognitive catalyst model of rumination with explicit and implicit cognitive content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, Christopher C; Roberts, John E

    2018-06-01

    The cognitive catalyst model posits that rumination and negative cognitive content, such as negative schema, interact to predict depressive affect. Past research has found support for this model using explicit measures of negative cognitive content such as self-report measures of trait self-esteem and dysfunctional attitudes. The present study tested whether these findings would extend to implicit measures of negative cognitive content such as implicit self-esteem, and whether effects would depend on initial mood state and history of depression. Sixty-one undergraduate students selected on the basis of depression history (27 previously depressed; 34 never depressed) completed explicit and implicit measures of negative cognitive content prior to random assignment to a rumination induction followed by a distraction induction or vice versa. Dysphoric affect was measured both before and after these inductions. Analyses revealed that explicit measures, but not implicit measures, interacted with rumination to predict change in dysphoric affect, and these interactions were further moderated by baseline levels of dysphoria. Limitations include the small nonclinical sample and use of a self-report measure of depression history. These findings suggest that rumination amplifies the association between explicit negative cognitive content and depressive affect primarily among people who are already experiencing sad mood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cognitive, Affective Problems and Renal Cross Ectopy in a Patient with 48,XXYY/47,XYY Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Resim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter syndrome is the most common sex chromosome abnormality (SCA in infertile patients and 47,XXY genomic configuration constitutes most of the cases. However, additional Xs and/or Y such as 48,XXYY, 48,XXXY, and 47,XYY can occur less frequently than 47,XXY. Those configurations were considered as variants of Klinefelter syndrome. In this report, we present an infertile man with tall stature and decreased testicular volume. Semen analysis and hormonal evaluation supported the diagnosis of nonobstructive azoospermia. Genetic investigation demonstrated an abnormal male karyotype with two X chromosomes and two Y chromosomes consistent with 48,XXYY(17/47,XYY (13. Additionally, the patient expressed cognitive and affective problems which were documented by psychomotor retardation and borderline intelligence measured by an IQ value between 70 and 80. Systemic evaluation also revealed cross ectopy and malrotation of the right kidney in the patient. The couple was referred to microtesticular sperm extraction (micro-TESE/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of combination of XYY and XXYY syndromes associated with cognitive, affective dysfunction and renal malrotation.

  2. Maladaptive Schemas and Affective Control in Students with Learning Disability: Benefits of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Vaisi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study intended to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on moderating maladaptive schemas and affective control in students suffering from learning disabilities. Methods: This experimental research was conducted using pretest-posttest and a control group. The population included all the female students who  were studying in the Koohdasht's middle schools (academic year: 2012-2013. The sample included 40 female students suffering from learning disabilities who had been randomly selected out of Koohdasht's middle school students after identification and a structured clinical interview and  they were put into experimental  and control groups (20 students each group. For data collection, Affective Control Scale and Young Schema Questionnaire were used. Results: The results of multivariate covariance analysis showed that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy has significantly decreased maladaptive schemas, depression, anxiety, and anger in subjects (P<0.001. Discussion: This finding represents important implications regarding education and mental health improvement in exceptional students. Therefore, it is recommended to use this  therapeutic  package in schools and clinics as a supplement to other therapies in order to decrease negative emotions and to prevent formation of maladaptive schemas in these students.

  3. TMS Affects Moral Judgment, Showing the Role of DLPFC and TPJ in Cognitive and Emotional Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danique eJeurissen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making involves a complex interplay of emotional responses and reasoning processes. In this study, we use TMS to explore the neurobiological substrates of moral decisions in humans. To examining the effects of TMS on the outcome of a moral-decision, we compare the decision outcome of moral-personal and moral-impersonal dilemmas to each other and examine the differential effects of applying TMS over the right DLPFC or right TPJ. In this comparison, we find that the TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during the decision process, affects the outcome of the moral-personal judgment, while TMS-induced disruption of TPJ affects only moral-impersonal conditions. In other words, we find a double-dissociation between DLPFC and TPJ in the outcome of a moral decision. Furthermore, we find that TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during non-moral, moral-impersonal, and moral-personal decisions lead to lower ratings of regret about the decision. Our results are in line with the dual-process theory and suggest a role for both the emotional response and cognitive reasoning process in moral judgment. Both the emotional and cognitive processes were shown to be involved in the decision outcome.

  4. TMS affects moral judgment, showing the role of DLPFC and TPJ in cognitive and emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurissen, Danique; Sack, Alexander T; Roebroeck, Alard; Russ, Brian E; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making involves a complex interplay of emotional responses and reasoning processes. In this study, we use TMS to explore the neurobiological substrates of moral decisions in humans. To examining the effects of TMS on the outcome of a moral-decision, we compare the decision outcome of moral-personal and moral-impersonal dilemmas to each other and examine the differential effects of applying TMS over the right DLPFC or right TPJ. In this comparison, we find that the TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during the decision process, affects the outcome of the moral-personal judgment, while TMS-induced disruption of TPJ affects only moral-impersonal conditions. In other words, we find a double-dissociation between DLPFC and TPJ in the outcome of a moral decision. Furthermore, we find that TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during non-moral, moral-impersonal, and moral-personal decisions lead to lower ratings of regret about the decision. Our results are in line with the dual-process theory and suggest a role for both the emotional response and cognitive reasoning process in moral judgment. Both the emotional and cognitive processes were shown to be involved in the decision outcome.

  5. St8sia2 deficiency plus juvenile cannabis exposure in mice synergistically affect higher cognition in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantra, Martesa; Kröcher, Tim; Papiol, Sergi; Winkler, Daniela; Röckle, Iris; Jatho, Jasmin; Burkhardt, Hannelore; Ronnenberg, Anja; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Hildebrandt, Herbert

    2014-12-15

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and its functionally linked polysialyltransferases, ST8SIA2 and ST8SIA4, are crucial for synaptic plasticity. Variations in encoding genes have been associated with mental illness. Since cannabinoids can alter NCAM polysialylation, we hypothesized that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) might act as environmental 'second hit' regarding cognition of St8sia2(-/-) mice. These mice show per se minor behavioral abnormalities, consisting of reduced anxiety and mild cognitive deficits. Chronic Δ9-THC treatment of juvenile male wildtype mice (St8sia2(+/+)) (7mg/kg every other day over 3 weeks) did not appreciably affect cognition. St8sia2(-/-) mice, however, displayed a synergistic negative consequence of Δ9-THC on learning/memory, accompanied by polysialic acid-free NCAM-180 reduction in hippocampus and polysialic acid increase in dentate outer molecular layer. These synergistic effects became obvious only months after the last Δ9-THC. We conclude that juvenile cannabis exposure may cause delayed but lasting damage on cognition in subjects genetically predisposed to altered NCAM polysialylation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognitive function affects trainability for physical performance in exercise intervention among older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uemura K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kazuki Uemura,1,3 Hiroyuki Shimada,1 Hyuma Makizako,1,3 Takehiko Doi,1 Daisuke Yoshida,1 Kota Tsutsumimoto,1 Yuya Anan,1 Takao Suzuki21Section for Health Promotion, Department for Research and Development to Support Independent Life of Elderly, Center for Gerontology and Social Science, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 2Research Institute, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, 3Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Although much evidence supports the hypothesis that cognitive function and physical function are interrelated, it is unclear whether cognitive decline with mild cognitive impairment influences trainability of physical performance in exercise intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cognitive function at baseline and change in physical performance after exercise intervention in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.Methods: Forty-four older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment based on the Peterson criteria (mean age 74.8 years consented to and completed a 6-month twice weekly exercise intervention. The Timed Up and Go (TUG test was used as a measure of physical performance. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Trail Making Test Part B, Geriatric Depression Scale, baseline muscle strength of knee extension, and attendance rate of intervention, were measured as factors for predicting trainability.Results: In the correlation analysis, the change in TUG showed modest correlations with attendance rate in the exercise program (r = -0.354, P = 0.027 and MMSE at baseline (r = -0.321, P = 0.034. A multiple regression analysis revealed that change in TUG was independently associated with attendance rate (ß = -0.322, P = 0.026 and MMSE score (ß = -0.295, P = 0.041, controlling for age and gender.Conclusion: General cognitive function was associated with improvements in physical performance after exercise intervention in

  7. Cognitive function in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Maj Vinberg; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2006-01-01

    . Cognitive performance of 203 High-Risk and Low-Risk twins was compared. RESULTS: Healthy twins discordant for unipolar disorder showed lower performance on almost all measures of cognitive function: selective and sustained attention, executive function, language processing and working and declarative memory...... impairment found seemed to be related to genetic liability, as the MZ High-Risk twins showed significant impairment on selective and sustained attention, executive function, language processing and working and declarative memory, whereas the DZ High-Risk twins presented with significantly lower scores only......, and also after adjustment for demographic variables, subclinical symptoms and minor psychopathology. Healthy twins discordant for bipolar disorder showed lower performance on tests measuring episodic and working memory, also after adjustment for the above-mentioned covariables. The discrete cognitive...

  8. Cultural factors affecting the differential performance of Israeli and Palestinian children on the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josman, Naomi; Abdallah, Taisir M; Engel-Yeger, Batya

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive performance is essential for children's functioning and may also predict school readiness. The suitability of Western standardized assessments for cognitive performance among children from different cultures needs to be elaborated. This study referred to the existence of differences in cognitive performance between and within children from the middle-east-Israeli and Palestinian on the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA), by elucidating cultural effects on the construct validity of the LOTCA using factor analysis. Participants included 101 Israeli and 125 Palestinian children from kindergarten, first and second grade who underwent the LOTCA. Factor analysis revealed four factors underlying items on the LOTCA, explaining the differences found between Israeli and Palestinian children in most of LOTCA subtests. Culture may affect the construct validity of the LOTCA and may explain the difference in performance between both cultural groups. LOTCA's validity as well as the validity of other instruments on which norms and decisions regarding the child's development and performance are made should be further evaluated among children from different cultural backgrounds. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Daily stressors and emotional reactivity in individuals with mild cognitive impairment and cognitively healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickenbach, Elizabeth Hahn; Condeelis, Kristen L; Haley, William E

    2015-06-01

    Daily experiences of stress are common and have been associated with worse affect among older adults. People with mild cognitive impairment (PWMCI) have measurable memory deficits in between normal cognition and dementia and have been identified as having greater psychological distress than cognitively healthy older adults (CHOAs). Little is known about whether daily stressors contribute to distress among PWMCI. We hypothesized that compared with CHOAs, PWMCI would have higher daily negative affect and lower daily positive affect, report greater numbers and severity of daily stressors, and experience greater emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Fifteen clinically diagnosed PWMCI and 25 CHOAs completed daily reports of stressors, stressor severity, and positive and negative affect over an 8-day period. PWMCI reported higher daily negative affect, lower daily positive affect, and higher numbers and greater severity of memory stressors but did not differ from CHOAs in numbers or severity of general stressors. Cognitive status was a moderator of the daily stress-affect relationship. Days with greater numbers and severity of general daily stressors were associated with higher negative affect only for PWMCI. The numbers and severity of memory stressors were not associated with negative affect. In addition, more severe general daily stressors and memory stressors were associated with lower positive affect for all participants. Results suggest that PWMCI are less resilient in the face of daily stress than are CHOAs in terms of negative affect, perhaps because of declines in reserve capacity. The study presents a promising approach to understanding stress and coping in predementia states of cognition. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Factors Affecting Cognitive Function in Older Adults: A Turkish Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Akdag, Beyza; Telci, Emine Aslan; Cavlak, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the influential factors of cognitive function in older adults. Methods: In this study, 377 older adults (mean age: 74.71 ± 6.15 years) were examined. The Hodkinson Abbreviated Mental Test (HAMT) was used to describe cognitive function of the individuals. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL-4) survey tool was used to measure the quality of life. Possible influential factors of cognitive function w...

  11. An Integrative Process Approach on Judgment and Decision Making: The Impact of Arousal, Affect, Motivation, and Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roets, Arne; Van Hiel, Alain

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to integrate the findings from various research traditions on human judgment and decision making, focusing on four process variables: arousal, affect, motivation, and cognitive capacity/ability. We advocate a broad perspective referred to as the integrative process approach (IPA) of decision making, in which these process…

  12. The Gambler’s Fallacy Is Associated with Weak Affective Decision Making but Strong Cognitive Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Gui; He, Qinghua; Lei, Xuemei; Chen, Chunhui; Liu, Yuyun; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Dong, Qi; Bechara, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Humans demonstrate an inherent bias towards making maladaptive decisions, as shown by a phenomenon known as the gambler's fallacy (GF). The GF has been traditionally considered as a heuristic bias supported by the fast and automatic intuition system, which can be overcome by the reasoning system. The present study examined an intriguing hypothesis, based on emerging evidence from neuroscience research, that the GF might be attributed to a weak affective but strong cognitive decision making me...

  13. Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…

  14. Ovarian sex hormones modulate compulsive, affective and cognitive functions in a non-induced mouse model of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup Mitra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a lack of understanding how surgical menopause can influence obsessions, compulsions and associated affective and cognitive functions in female OCD patients. Early menopause in women due to surgical removal of ovaries not only causes dramatic hormonal changes, but also may induce affective and cognitive disorders. Here, we tested if surgical removal of ovaries (ovariectomy, OVX, which mimics surgical menopause in humans, would result in exacerbation of compulsive, affective and cognitive behaviors in mice strains that exhibit a spontaneous compulsive-like phenotype. Female mice from compulsive-like BIG, non-compulsive SMALL and randomly-bred Control strains were subjected to OVX or sham-surgery. After seven days animals were tested for nest building and marble burying to measure compulsive-like behavior. The elevated plus maze and open field tests measured anxiety-like behaviors, while memory was assessed by the novel object recognition. Acute OVX resulted in exacerbation of compulsive-like and anxiety-like behaviors in compulsive-like BIG mice. No significant effects of OVX were observed for the non-compulsive SMALL and Control strains. Object recognition memory was impaired in compulsive-like BIG female mice compared to the Control mice, without an effect of OVX on the BIG mice. We also tested whether 17 β-estradiol (E2 or progesterone (P4 could reverse the effects of OVX. E2, but not P4, attenuated the compulsive-like behaviors in compulsive-like BIG OVX female mice. The actions of the sex steroids on anxiety-like behaviors in OVX females were strain and behavioral test dependent. Altogether, our results indicate that already existing compulsions can be worsened during acute ovarian deprivation concomitant with exacerbation of affective behaviors and responses to hormonal intervention in OVX female mice can be influenced by genetic background.

  15. Cognitive "babyness": developmental differences in the power of young children's supernatural thinking to influence positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periss, Virginia; Blasi, Carlos Hernández; Bjorklund, David F

    2012-09-01

    Perceptions of maturational status may play an important role in facilitating caretaking and resources toward children expressing them. Previous work has revealed evidence that cues of cognitive immaturity foster positive perceptions in adults toward young children at a time during their lives when they are most dependent on adult care. In the current series of studies, the authors investigated when during development these biases emerge. They tested American and Spanish adolescents ranging from 10 to 17 years of age. Each participant rated a series of vignettes presenting different expressions of immature and mature thinking attributed to young children. Results revealed that older adolescents performed similarly to adults tested in previous studies (D. F. Bjorklund, C. Hernández Blasi, & V. A. Periss, 2010), rating positively expressions of supernatural thinking (e.g., animism) compared with other forms of immature cognition labeled as natural (e.g., overestimation). Both male and female participants 14 years and older favored children expressing the immature supernatural cognition on traits reflecting positive affect (e.g., endearing, likeable), while associating greater negative affect (e.g., sneaky, impatient with) with children expressing immature natural cognition. However, younger adolescents consistently rated all forms of immature thinking less positively than mature thinking, suggesting that a positive bias for some forms of immature thinking develops during adolescence. Based on an evolutionary developmental framework, the authors suggest that supernatural thinking may have a unique role in humans, fostering positive perceptions of young children in older adolescents (and adults) as they prepare themselves for the possible role of parenthood. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Communicative-Based Curriculum Innovations between Theory and Practice: Implications for EFL Curriculum Development and Student Cognitive and Affective Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawer, Saad

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the influence of teacher conceptualisations of communicative language teaching on their actual classroom practice and student cognitive and affective change. The qualitative paradigm underpinned this research at the levels of ontology (multiple teacher realities), epistemology (interaction with, rather than…

  17. Exploring Students' Behavioural Patterns during Online Peer Assessment from the Affective, Cognitive, and Metacognitive Perspectives: A Progressive Sequential Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Hou, Huei-Tse

    2015-01-01

    Previous research regarding peer assessment has investigated the relationships between peer feedback and learners' performance. However, few studies investigate in-depth learning processes during technology-assisted peer assessment activities, particularly from affective, cognitive, and metacognitive perspectives. This study conducts a series of…

  18. Uncovering the neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive, affective and conative theory of mind in paediatric traumatic brain injury: a neural systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Nicholas P; Catroppa, Cathy; Beare, Richard; Silk, Timothy J; Hearps, Stephen J; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Yeates, Keith O; Anderson, Vicki A

    2017-09-01

    Deficits in theory of mind (ToM) are common after neurological insult acquired in the first and second decade of life, however the contribution of large-scale neural networks to ToM deficits in children with brain injury is unclear. Using paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a model, this study investigated the sub-acute effect of paediatric traumatic brain injury on grey-matter volume of three large-scale, domain-general brain networks (the Default Mode Network, DMN; the Central Executive Network, CEN; and the Salience Network, SN), as well as two domain-specific neural networks implicated in social-affective processes (the Cerebro-Cerebellar Mentalizing Network, CCMN and the Mirror Neuron/Empathy Network, MNEN). We also evaluated prospective structure-function relationships between these large-scale neural networks and cognitive, affective and conative ToM. 3D T1- weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences were acquired sub-acutely in 137 children [TBI: n = 103; typically developing (TD) children: n = 34]. All children were assessed on measures of ToM at 24-months post-injury. Children with severe TBI showed sub-acute volumetric reductions in the CCMN, SN, MNEN, CEN and DMN, as well as reduced grey-matter volumes of several hub regions of these neural networks. Volumetric reductions in the CCMN and several of its hub regions, including the cerebellum, predicted poorer cognitive ToM. In contrast, poorer affective and conative ToM were predicted by volumetric reductions in the SN and MNEN, respectively. Overall, results suggest that cognitive, affective and conative ToM may be prospectively predicted by individual differences in structure of different neural systems-the CCMN, SN and MNEN, respectively. The prospective relationship between cerebellar volume and cognitive ToM outcomes is a novel finding in our paediatric brain injury sample and suggests that the cerebellum may play a role in the neural networks important for ToM. These findings are

  19. Maladaptive Schemas and Affective Control in Students with Learning Disability: Benefits of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrollah Vaisi; Mohammad Rostami; Zohreh Zangooei; Mohammad-Ali Khaksar-Beldachi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study intended to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on moderating maladaptive schemas and affective control in students suffering from learning disabilities. Methods: This experimental research was conducted using pretest-posttest and a control group. The population included all the female students who  were studying in the Koohdasht's middle schools (academic year: 2012-2013). The sample included 40 female students suffering from learn...

  20. Case Report: Evaluation strategies and cognitive intervention: the case of a monovular twin child affected by selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Micaela; Cerniglia, Luca

    2018-01-01

    The present work describes the assessment process, evaluation strategies, and cognitive intervention on a 9 years old child with selective mutism (SM), a monovular twin of a child also affected by mutism. Currently, the cognitive behavioral multimodal treatment seems the most effective therapeutic approach for children diagnosed with selective mutism (Capobianco & Cerniglia, 2018). The illustrated case confirms the role of biological factors involved in mutacic disorder but also highlights the importance of environmental influences in the maintenance of the disorder with respect to relational and contextual dynamics (e.g. complicity between sisters, family relationships). The article discusses furthermore the importance of an early diagnosis as a predictor of positive treatment outcomes.

  1. GxE Interactions Between FOXO Genotypes and Tea Drinking Significantly Affect Cognitive Disability at Advanced Ages in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Logistic regression analysis based on data from 822 Han Chinese oldest old aged 92+ demonstrated that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 and tea drinking at around age 60 or at present time were significantly associated with lower risk of cognitive disability...... at advanced ages. Associations between tea drinking and reduced cognitive disability were much stronger among carriers of the genotypes of FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 compared with noncarriers, and it was reconfirmed by analysis of three-way interactions across FOXO genotypes, tea drinking at around...... age 60, and at present time. Based on prior findings from animal and human cell models, we postulate that intake of tea compounds may activate FOXO gene expression, which in turn may positively affect cognitive function in the oldest old population. Our empirical findings imply that the health...

  2. Why so fast? : An investigation of the cognitive and affective processes underlying successful and failing development of reading fluency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeguers, M.H.T.

    2017-01-01

    The studies in this thesis aimed to improve our understanding of cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the development of reading fluency, both in Dutch typical and dyslexic readers. In typical readers we investigated the timing of orthography-phonology integration. Time course analyses of

  3. Social Marketing in Malaysia: Cognitive, Affective, and Normative Mediators of the TAK NAK Antismoking Advertising Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonkyong Beth; Fong, Geoffrey T; Dewhirst, Timothy; Kennedy, Ryan D; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Awang, Rahmat; Omar, Maizurah

    2015-01-01

    Antismoking mass media campaigns are known to be effective as part of comprehensive tobacco control programs in high-income countries, but such campaigns are relatively new in low- and middle-income countries and there is a need for strong evaluation studies from these regions. This study examines Malaysia's first national antismoking campaign, TAK NAK. The data are from the International Tobacco Control Malaysia Survey, which is an ongoing cohort survey of a nationally representative sample of adult smokers (18 years and older; N = 2,006). The outcome variable was quit intentions of adult smokers, and the authors assessed the extent to which quit intentions may have been strengthened by exposure to the antismoking campaign. The authors also tested whether the impact of the campaign on quit intentions was related to cognitive mechanisms (increasing thoughts about the harm of smoking), affective mechanisms (increasing fear from the campaign), and perceived social norms (increasing perceived social disapproval about smoking). Mediational regression analyses revealed that thoughts about the harm of smoking, fear arousal, and social norms against smoking mediated the relation between TAK NAK impact and quit intentions. Effective campaigns should prompt smokers to engage in both cognitive and affective processes and encourage consideration of social norms about smoking in their society.

  4. How does coconut oil affect cognitive performance in alzheimer patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Rubia Ortí, José Enrique; Sánchez Álvarez, Carmen; Selvi Sabater, Pablo; Bueno Cayo, Alma María; Sancho Castillo, Sandra; Rochina, Mariano Julián; Hu Yang, Iván

    2017-03-30

    Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative dementia in developed world. This fact, coupled with the lack cure, makes new no pharmacological therapeutic strategies such as nutrient management to investigate. In this regard, it stresses the possible influence of coconut oil as alternative energy source capable of stopping the progressively neuronal death that occurs in this disease. Objectives: To assess the cognitive impact of coconut oil in Alzheimer’s patients, and specifically in orientation, language-building, fixing, calculation-concentration and memory areas. Methods: Prospective, longitudinal, qualitative, analytical and experimental study through a clinical trial where 44 patients with Alzheimer’s in region of Ribera (Valencia), of which half was selected to receive during 21 days, 40 ml coconut oil daily divided between breakfast (20 ml) and food (20 ml). Before and after administration of the oil, they were evaluated through cognitive test Mini-Mental State Examination to determine possible changes. Results: It was observed in patients who received coconut oil, that cognitive improvement after completion of the intervention, statistically significant improved in the orientation and language-construction areas. Conclusions: Coconut oil appears to improve cognitive abilities of Alzheimer’s patients, with different intensity depending on the cognitive area.

  5. Hooked on a feeling: Affective anti-smoking messages are more effective than cognitive messages at changing implicit evaluations of smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Tucker Smith

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Because implicit evaluations are thought to underlie many aspects of behavior, researchers have started looking for ways to change them. We examine whether and when persuasive messages alter strongly-held implicit evaluations of smoking. In smokers, an affective anti-smoking message led to more negative implicit evaluations on four different implicit measures as compared to a cognitive anti-smoking message which seemed to backfire. Additional analyses suggested that the observed effects were mediated by the feelings and emotions raised by the messages. In non-smokers, both the affective and cognitive message engendered slightly more negative implicit evaluations. We conclude that persuasive messages change implicit evaluations in a way that depends on properties of the message and of the participant. Thus, our data open new avenues for research directed at tailoring persuasive messages to change implicit evaluations.

  6. Hooked on a feeling: affective anti-smoking messages are more effective than cognitive messages at changing implicit evaluations of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Colin Tucker; De Houwer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Because implicit evaluations are thought to underlie many aspects of behavior, researchers have started looking for ways to change them. We examine whether and when persuasive messages alter strongly held implicit evaluations of smoking. In smokers, an affective anti-smoking message led to more negative implicit evaluations on four different implicit measures as compared to a cognitive anti-smoking message which seemed to backfire. Additional analyses suggested that the observed effects were mediated by the feelings and emotions raised by the messages. In non-smokers, both the affective and cognitive message engendered slightly more negative implicit evaluations. We conclude that persuasive messages change implicit evaluations in a way that depends on properties of the message and of the participant. Thus, our data open new avenues for research directed at tailoring persuasive messages to change implicit evaluations.

  7. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Depressed Affect among Epileptics: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gay R.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated a program where cognitive-behavioral methods were utilized in a structured learning format with clinically depressed epileptics (N=13). Results indicated that cognitive behavioral interventions result in significant decreases in depression and increases in related areas of psychosocial functioning that are maintained over time. (LLL)

  8. Factors affecting vegetable preference in adolescents: stages of change and social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Taejung; Lee, Kyung-Hea

    2017-08-01

    Despite the importance of consuming sufficient amounts of vegetables, daily vegetable intake among adolescents in Korea is lower than the current dietary recommendation. The objective of this study was to examine determinants affecting vegetable preference in order to suggest a stage-tailored education strategy that can promote vegetable consumption in adolescents. Adolescents (n = 400, aged 16-17 years) from two high schools participated in a cross-sectional study. Survey variables were vegetable preference, the social cognitive theory (SCT) and stages of change (SOC) constructs. Based on vegetable preference, subjects were classified into two groups: a low-preference group (LPG) and a high-preference group (HPG). SOC was subdivided into pre-action and action/maintenance stages. To compare SCT components and SOC related to vegetable preference, chi-squared and t-tests, along with stepwise multiple-regression analysis, were applied. In the LPG, a similar number of subjects were classified into each stage. Significant differences in self-efficacy, affective attitudes, and vegetable accessibility at home and school were detected among the stages. Subjects in the HPG were mainly at the maintenance stage (81%), and there were significant differences among the stages regarding self-efficacy, affective attitudes, and parenting practice. In the predictions of vegetable preference, self-efficacy and parenting practice had a significant effect in the "pre-action" stage. In the action/maintenance stage, outcome expectation, affective attitudes, and vegetable accessibility at school had significant predictive value. In predicting the vegetable preference for all subjects, 42.8% of the predictive variance was accounted for by affective attitudes, self-efficacy, and vegetable accessibility at school. The study revealed that different determinants affect adolescent vegetable preference in each stage. Self-efficacy and affective attitudes are important determinants affecting

  9. Examining intrinsic versus extrinsic exercise goals: cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Standage, Martyn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-04-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT), this study had two purposes: (a) examine the associations between intrinsic (relative to extrinsic) exercise goal content and cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes; and (b) test the mediating role of psychological need satisfaction in the Exercise Goal Content --> Outcomes relationship. Using a sample of 410 adults, hierarchical regression analysis showed relative intrinsic goal content to positively predict physical self-worth, self-reported exercise behavior, psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction and negatively predict exercise anxiety. Except for exercise behavior, the predictive utility of relative intrinsic goal content on the dependent variables of interest remained significant after controlling for participants' relative self-determined exercise motivation. Structural equation modeling analyses showed psychological need satisfaction to partially mediate the effect of relative intrinsic goal content on the outcome variables. Our findings support further investigation of exercise goals commensurate with the goal content perspective advanced in SDT.

  10. Cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Takashi; Sato, Takuya; Sato, Atsushi; Imamura, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to identify cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recruited 349 consecutive AD patients who attended a memory clinic. Each patient was assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) and the extended 3-word recall test. In this task, each patient was asked to freely recall 3 previously presented words. If patients could not recall 1 or more of the target words, the examiner cued their recall by providing the category of the target word and then provided a forced-choice recognition of the target word with 2 distracters. The patients were divided into groups according to the results of the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for repeated measures was carried out to evaluate the net effects of cognitive factors on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks after controlling for the effects of age and recent memory deficit. Performance on the ADAS Orientation task was found to be related to performance on the free and cued recall tasks, performance on the ADAS Following Commands task was found to be related to performance on the cued recall task, and performance on the ADAS Ideational Praxis task was found to be related to performance on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. The extended 3-word recall test reflects deficits in a wider range of memory and other cognitive processes, including memory retention after interference, divided attention, and executive functions, compared with word-list recall tasks. The characteristics of the extended 3-word recall test may be advantageous for evaluating patients' memory impairments in daily living.

  11. Affective and cognitive behavior in the alpha-galactosidase A deficient mouse model of Fabry disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Hofmann

    Full Text Available Fabry disease is an X-linked inherited lysosomal storage disorder with intracellular accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3 due to α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A deficiency. Fabry patients frequently report of anxiety, depression, and impaired cognitive function. We characterized affective and cognitive phenotype of male mice with α-Gal A deficiency (Fabry KO and compared results with those of age-matched male wildtype (WT littermates. Young (3 months and old (≥ 18 months mice were tested in the naïve state and after i.pl. injection of complete Freund`s adjuvant (CFA as an inflammatory pain model. We used the elevated plus maze (EPM, the light-dark box (LDB and the open field test (OF to investigate anxiety-like behavior. The forced swim test (FST and Morris water maze (MWM were applied to assess depressive-like and learning behavior. The EPM test revealed no intergroup difference for anxiety-like behavior in naïve young and old Fabry KO mice compared to WT littermates, except for longer time spent in open arms of the EPM for young WT mice compared to young Fabry KO mice (p<0.05. After CFA injection, young Fabry KO mice showed increased anxiety-like behavior compared to young WT littermates (p<0.05 and naïve young Fabry KO mice (p<0.05 in the EPM as reflected by shorter time spent in EPM open arms. There were no relevant differences in the LDB and the OF test, except for longer time spent in the center zone of the OF by young WT mice compared to young Fabry KO mice (p<0.05. Complementary to this, depression-like and learning behavior were not different between genotypes and age-groups, except for the expectedly lower memory performance in older age-groups compared to young mice. Our results indicate that genetic influences on affective and cognitive symptoms in FD may be of subordinate relevance, drawing attention to potential influences of environmental and epigenetic factors.

  12. Neurocognitive poetics: methods and models for investigating the neuronal and cognitive-affective bases of literature reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Arthur M

    2015-01-01

    A long tradition of research including classical rhetoric, esthetics and poetics theory, formalism and structuralism, as well as current perspectives in (neuro)cognitive poetics has investigated structural and functional aspects of literature reception. Despite a wealth of literature published in specialized journals like Poetics, however, still little is known about how the brain processes and creates literary and poetic texts. Still, such stimulus material might be suited better than other genres for demonstrating the complexities with which our brain constructs the world in and around us, because it unifies thought and language, music and imagery in a clear, manageable way, most often with play, pleasure, and emotion (Schrott and Jacobs, 2011). In this paper, I discuss methods and models for investigating the neuronal and cognitive-affective bases of literary reading together with pertinent results from studies on poetics, text processing, emotion, or neuroaesthetics, and outline current challenges and future perspectives.

  13. The relationship between cognitive processing of affective verbal material and the basic personality structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlić Ana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive processing of affective verbal material and the basic personality structure. For the purposes of research a new experiment was created, where affective priming was measured in a lexical decision task. The term affective priming stands for facilitation in recognition of the stimuli that comes after the presentation of stimuli of the same valence. In this experiment, two words were presented on a screen in front of the subject (stimuli-prime and stimuli-target. Those two words were of the same or different affective valence, and the subject's were instructed to respond whether the second word on the screen had a meaning or not. The basic personality structure was defined by the 'Big five' model and the Disintegration model and measured by NEO PI-R and Delta 10 questionnaires. The results of the affective priming experiment indicated a strong effect of positive facilitation and much weaker effect off negative facilitation. Two significant functions were extracted by quasicanonical correlation analysis. The first function showed correlation between the effect of positive facilitation and all of the subscales of Neuroticism, Extraversion and Conscientiousness (NEO PI-R, as well as all sub dimensions of Disintegration (DELTA 10. The second one indicated to a correlation between the negative facilitation effect and some subscales of Neuroticism, Extraversion and Agreeableness (NEO PI-R, as well as all subscales of Disintegration (DELTA 10.

  14. The Mediator Roles of Life Satisfaction and Self-Esteem between the Affective Components of Psychological Well-Being and the Cognitive Symptoms of Problematic Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senol-Durak, Emre; Durak, Mithat

    2011-01-01

    The factors associated with cognitions about problematic Internet use have been empirically tested in various studies. The aim of the present study was to examine the mediator roles of both life satisfaction and self-esteem between affective components of subjective well-being and cognitions about problematic Internet use. For this purpose, the…

  15. A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics, and invariance in personality structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischel, W; Shoda, Y

    1995-04-01

    A theory was proposed to reconcile paradoxical findings on the invariance of personality and the variability of behavior across situations. For this purpose, individuals were assumed to differ in (a) the accessibility of cognitive-affective mediating units (such as encodings, expectancies and beliefs, affects, and goals) and (b) the organization of relationships through which these units interact with each other and with psychological features of situations. The theory accounts for individual differences in predictable patterns of variability across situations (e.g., if A then she X, but if B then she Y), as well as for overall average levels of behavior, as essential expressions or behavioral signatures of the same underlying personality system. Situations, personality dispositions, dynamics, and structure were reconceptualized from this perspective.

  16. Cognitive and affective dimensions of difficulties in emotional functioning in somatoform disorders and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijke, Annemiek; van der Hart, Onno; van Son, Maarten; Bühring, Martina; van der Heijden, Peter; Ford, Julian D

    2013-01-01

    To study difficulties in emotional functioning in two mental disorders that have been associated with difficulties in identifying and modulating emotions: borderline personality disorder (BPD) and somatoform disorder (SoD). In 472 psychiatric inpatients, difficulties in emotional functioning were measured using the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire. Profiles of difficulties in emotional functioning were identified, suggesting that patients diagnosed with BPD with or without SoD were more likely to report difficulty identifying emotions and less likely to report reduced ability to fantasize or 'pensée opératoire' (externally oriented thinking) than patients diagnosed with SoD only and patients with mixed anxiety and affective disorders. SoD patients were more likely to report reduced ability to phantasize or pensée opératoire than difficulty identifying emotions. Patients with mixed anxiety and affective disorders were more likely to report reduced ability to experience emotions than patients diagnosed with BPD and/or SoD. By using a finer-grained perspective on difficulties in emotional functioning some evidence was found for the existence of cognitive-emotional profiles that may provide more clinically relevant information than alexithymia as just a unitary construct. Further research on cognitive-emotional profiles of difficulties in emotional functioning is needed to advance the understanding, diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The Relationship between Second-Order False Belief and Display Rules Reasoning: The Integration of Cognitive and Affective Social Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Mika; Seki, Yoshimi

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relation between cognitive and affective social understanding, Japanese 4- to 8-year-olds received tasks of first- and second-order false beliefs and prosocial and self-presentational display rules. From 6 to 8 years, children comprehended display rules, as well as second-order false belief, using social pressures justifications…

  18. Long-term treatment effect of trauma-affected refugees with flexible cognitive behavioural therapy and antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhmann, Caecilie Böck; Nordentoft, Merete; Ekstroem, Morten; Carlsson, Jessica; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2018-04-04

    Few studies exist on the long-term effect of treatment of trauma-affected refugees. The purpose of this study was to estimate the long-term treatment effects of cognitive behavioural therapy and antidepressants (sertraline and mianserin) in trauma-affected refugees. Follow-ups were conducted 6 and 18 months after a randomised controlled clinical trial. The included patients were refugees with war-related traumatic experiences, PTSD and without psychotic disorders. We found a small improvement over time in PTSD, depression and anxiety symptoms and level of functioning, but the improvement was not associated with any specific treatment. Personality change after catastrophic experiences and life events influenced the symptom level at all follow-ups while depression at completion of treatment was associated with a steeper decline in symptom load at the follow-ups. In spite of the limited decline in symptom scores and treatment effects immediately after treatment, the condition of the treated trauma-affected refugees was significantly improved 6 and 18 months after treatment although the improvement was small. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. How social cognition deficits affect psychopathology: A neuroscientific approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrić Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans are substantially a social species. Effective mental treatment cannot be obtained without addressing social behavior. Social cognition refers to the mental processes underlying social interactions, which allow individuals to make sense of the other peoples' behavior, to decipher emotions on their faces, and to draw conclusions about their intentions. The core domains of this multifaceted concept are theory of mind, social cue perception, attributional style and emotion perception/ processing. The amygdala, orbital frontal cortex and temporal cortex areas are typically activated during the processing of information within social-emotional context. The aforementioned brain areas are recognized as the major components of the so-called 'social brain'- specialized for the social interactions in humans. Adequate perceiving and processing of the social information is essential for an effective social functioning, which becomes obvious when it goes awry. Various psychiatric disorders are characterized by social cognitive deficits, among which schizophrenias, depression-anxiety and autism spectrum disorders were most broadly studied to date. Growing evidence suggest that these deficits underlie poor functional outcomes in patients with mental health impairments and have an important role in the initiation and maintenance of the disorders' symptoms. One of the most important goals of social neuroscience research is to provide a treatment intervention that will improve patients' social cognitive skills and the functional outcome. All together, the present review aims to provide a contemporary overview of the concept of social cognition, to outline its relation to psychopathology, and to discuss the implications for clinical practice and treatment.

  20. The effect of embodied emotive states on cognitive categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Tom F; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2010-12-01

    Research has uncovered that positive affect broadens cognitive categorization. The motivational dimensional model, however, posits that positive affect is not a unitary construct with only one cognitive consequence. Instead, this model puts forth that there are different positive affects varying in approach motivational intensity. According to this model, only positive affects lower in motivational intensity should broaden cognitive processes, whereas positive affects higher in motivational intensity should narrow cognitive processes. Consistent with these predictions, high approach positive affect has been shown to narrow attention, whereas low approach positive affect has been shown to broaden it (Gable & Harmon-Jones, 2008). High approach positive affect, therefore, might narrow categorization. Two experiments investigated this possibility by having participants respond to cognitive categorization tasks in 3 body postures designed to elicit different levels of approach motivation: reclining backward, which should evoke low approach motivation; sitting upright, which should evoke moderate approach motivation; and leaning forward, which should evoke high approach motivation. Participants smiled while in each posture in order to experience positive affect. Experiment 1 provided initial support for the idea that high approach positive affect narrows categorization and low approach positive affect broadens categorization. Experiment 2 replicated these findings with improved smiling instructions. These results extend previous work by showing that the motivational model's predictions hold for basic attentional processes as well as higher level cognitive processes such as categorization.

  1. Cognitive Processing about Classroom-Relevant Contexts: Teachers' Attention to and Utilization of Girls' Body Size, Ethnicity, Attractiveness, and Facial Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shirley S.; Treat, Teresa A.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines 2 aspects of cognitive processing in person perception--attention and decision making--in classroom-relevant contexts. Teachers completed 2 implicit, performance-based tasks that characterized attention to and utilization of 4 student characteristics of interest: ethnicity, facial affect, body size, and attractiveness. Stimuli…

  2. Reciprocal modulation of cognitive and emotional aspects in pianistic performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia K Kodama Higuchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High level piano performance requires complex integration of perceptual, motor, cognitive and emotive skills. Observations in psychology and neuroscience studies have suggested reciprocal inhibitory modulation of the cognition by emotion and emotion by cognition. However, it is still unclear how cognitive states may influence the pianistic performance. The aim of the present study is to verify the influence of cognitive and affective attention in the piano performances. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Nine pianists were instructed to play the same piece of music, firstly focusing only on cognitive aspects of musical structure (cognitive performances, and secondly, paying attention solely on affective aspects (affective performances. Audio files from pianistic performances were examined using a computational model that retrieves nine specific musical features (descriptors--loudness, articulation, brightness, harmonic complexity, event detection, key clarity, mode detection, pulse clarity and repetition. In addition, the number of volunteers' errors in the recording sessions was counted. Comments from pianists about their thoughts during performances were also evaluated. The analyses of audio files throughout musical descriptors indicated that the affective performances have more: agogics, legatos, pianos phrasing, and less perception of event density when compared to the cognitive ones. Error analysis demonstrated that volunteers misplayed more left hand notes in the cognitive performances than in the affective ones. Volunteers also played more wrong notes in affective than in cognitive performances. These results correspond to the volunteers' comments that in the affective performances, the cognitive aspects of piano execution are inhibited, whereas in the cognitive performances, the expressiveness is inhibited. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the present results indicate that attention to the emotional aspects of performance enhances expressiveness

  3. Reciprocal modulation of cognitive and emotional aspects in pianistic performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Marcia K Kodama; Fornari, José; Del Ben, Cristina M; Graeff, Frederico G; Leite, João Pereira

    2011-01-01

    High level piano performance requires complex integration of perceptual, motor, cognitive and emotive skills. Observations in psychology and neuroscience studies have suggested reciprocal inhibitory modulation of the cognition by emotion and emotion by cognition. However, it is still unclear how cognitive states may influence the pianistic performance. The aim of the present study is to verify the influence of cognitive and affective attention in the piano performances. Nine pianists were instructed to play the same piece of music, firstly focusing only on cognitive aspects of musical structure (cognitive performances), and secondly, paying attention solely on affective aspects (affective performances). Audio files from pianistic performances were examined using a computational model that retrieves nine specific musical features (descriptors)--loudness, articulation, brightness, harmonic complexity, event detection, key clarity, mode detection, pulse clarity and repetition. In addition, the number of volunteers' errors in the recording sessions was counted. Comments from pianists about their thoughts during performances were also evaluated. The analyses of audio files throughout musical descriptors indicated that the affective performances have more: agogics, legatos, pianos phrasing, and less perception of event density when compared to the cognitive ones. Error analysis demonstrated that volunteers misplayed more left hand notes in the cognitive performances than in the affective ones. Volunteers also played more wrong notes in affective than in cognitive performances. These results correspond to the volunteers' comments that in the affective performances, the cognitive aspects of piano execution are inhibited, whereas in the cognitive performances, the expressiveness is inhibited. Therefore, the present results indicate that attention to the emotional aspects of performance enhances expressiveness, but constrains cognitive and motor skills in the piano execution

  4. Fixing the Problem With Empathy: Development and Validation of the Affective and Cognitive Measure of Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R

    2016-04-01

    Low empathy is a criterion for most externalizing disorders, and empathy training is a regular component of treatment for aggressive people, from school bullies to sex offenders. However, recent meta-analytic evidence suggests that current measures of empathy explain only 1% of the variance in aggressive behavior. A new assessment of empathy was developed to more fully represent the empathy construct and better predict important outcomes--particularly aggressive behavior and externalizing psychopathology. Across three independent samples (N = 210-708), the 36-item Affective and Cognitive measure of Empathy (ACME) was internally consistent, structurally reliable, and invariant across sex. The ACME bore significant associations to important outcomes, which were incremental relative to other measures of empathy and generalizable across sex. Importantly, the affective scales of the ACME-particularly a new "Affective Dissonance" scale--yielded moderate to strong associations with aggressive behavior and externalizing disorders. The ACME is a short, reliable, and useful measure of empathy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Cognitive performance of Göttingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Klein, Anders Bue; Ettrup, Anders

    2013-01-01

    by both diets relative to a standard minipig diet high in carbohydrate, low in fat and sugar. The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin......Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate....../sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired...

  6. The effects of self-report cognitive failures and cognitive load on antisaccade performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick eBerggren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals reporting high levels of distractibility in everyday life show impaired performance in standard laboratory tasks measuring selective attention and inhibitory processes. Similarly, increasing cognitive load leads to more errors/distraction in a variety of cognitive tasks. How these two factors interact is currently unclear; highly distractible individuals may be affected more when their cognitive resources are taxed, or load may linearly affect performance for all individuals. We investigated the relationship between self-reported levels of cognitive failuresin daily life and performance in the antisaccade task, a widely used tool examining attentional control. Levels of concurrent cognitive demand were manipulated using a secondary auditory discrimination task. We found that both levels of self-reported cognitive failures and task load increased antisaccade latencies while having no effect on prosaccade eye-movements. However individuals rating themselves as suffering few daily life distractions showed a comparable load cost to those who experience many. These findings suggest that the likelihood of distraction is governed by the addition of both internal susceptibility and the external current load placed on working memory.

  7. Tutoring and Mentoring: An A.R.C. Model for Future Teachers: Affective, Reflexive and Cognitive Orientation to Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    With a specific focus on tutoring among future teachers this article proposes a model of self-regulated learning. The focus on different mechanisms inherent to the tutoring relationship will consider Affective impacts or motivation, Reflexive or metacognitive and Cognitive resolutions. The ARC combination proposes that personal skills will be…

  8. Cognition-emotion dysinteraction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticevic, Alan; Corlett, Philip R

    2012-01-01

    Evolving theories of schizophrenia emphasize a "disconnection" in distributed fronto-striatal-limbic neural systems, which may give rise to breakdowns in cognition and emotional function. We discuss these diverse domains of function from the perspective of disrupted neural circuits involved in "cold" cognitive vs. "hot" affective operations and the interplay between these processes. We focus on three research areas that highlight cognition-emotion dysinteractions in schizophrenia: First, we discuss the role of cognitive deficits in the "maintenance" of emotional information. We review recent evidence suggesting that motivational abnormalities in schizophrenia may in part arise due to a disrupted ability to "maintain" affective information over time. Here, dysfunction in a prototypical "cold" cognitive operation may result in "affective" deficits in schizophrenia. Second, we discuss abnormalities in the detection and ascription of salience, manifest as excessive processing of non-emotional stimuli and inappropriate distractibility. We review emerging evidence suggesting deficits in some, but not other, specific emotional processes in schizophrenia - namely an intact ability to perceive emotion "in-the-moment" but poor prospective valuation of stimuli and heightened reactivity to stimuli that ought to be filtered. Third, we discuss abnormalities in learning mechanisms that may give rise to delusions, the fixed, false, and often emotionally charged beliefs that accompany psychosis. We highlight the role of affect in aberrant belief formation, mostly ignored by current theoretical models. Together, we attempt to provide a consilient overview for how breakdowns in neural systems underlying affect and cognition in psychosis interact across symptom domains. We conclude with a brief treatment of the neurobiology of schizophrenia and the need to close our explanatory gap between cellular-level hypotheses and complex behavioral symptoms observed in this illness.

  9. Affect during incremental exercise: The role of inhibitory cognition, autonomic cardiac function, and cerebral oxygenation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weslley Quirino Alves da Silva

    Full Text Available Pleasure is a key factor for physical activity behavior in sedentary individuals. Inhibitory cognitive control may play an important role in pleasure perception while exercising, especially at high intensities. In addition, separate work suggests that autonomic regulation and cerebral hemodynamics influence the affective and cognitive responses during exercise.We investigated the effects of exercise intensity on affect, inhibitory control, cardiac autonomic function, and prefrontal cortex (PFC oxygenation.Thirty-seven sedentary young adults performed two experimental conditions (exercise and control in separate sessions in a repeated-measures design. In the exercise condition, participants performed a maximum graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer as we continuously measured oxygen consumption, heart rate variability (HRV, and PFC oxygenation. At each of 8 intensity levels we also measured inhibitory control (Stroop test, associative and dissociative thoughts (ADT, and affective/pleasure ratings. In the control condition, participants sat motionless on a cycle ergometer without active pedaling, and we collected the same measures at the same points in time as the exercise condition. We evaluated the main effects and interactions of exercise condition and intensity level for each measure using two-way repeated measures ANOVAs. Additionally, we evaluated the relationship between affect and inhibitory control, ADT, HRV, and PFC oxygenation using Pearson's correlation coefficients.For exercise intensities below and at the ventilatory threshold (VT, participants reported feeling neutral, with preservation of inhibitory control, while intensities above the VT were associated with displeasure (p<0.001, decreased inhibitory control and HRV (p<0.001, and increased PFC oxygenation (p<0.001. At the highest exercise intensity, pleasure was correlated with the low-frequency index of HRV (r = -0.34; p<0.05 and the low-frequency/high-frequency HRV ratio (r

  10. Cognitive performance after ischaemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela R. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment after stroke affects the patient recovery process. Therefore, the identification of factors associated with cognitive outcomes is important since it allows risk profiles of stroke survivors to be determined. OBJECTIVE: To assess cognitive outcome of stroke outpatients and investigate associations among clinical and demographic variables, vascular risk factors, depression symptoms and functional ability; and to describe the neuropsychological profile of these patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional design study was conducted. Subjects who suffered a first-ever ischaemic stroke 6 to 10 months prior to data collection underwent neuropsychological assessment and screening for depressive symptoms and functional ability. The outcome "cognitive performance" was analyzed considering two groups: "cognitive impairment" and "no cognitive impairment". RESULTS: There was a statistically significant association between cognitive impairment and female gender, age, stroke severity and functional ability. Regarding neuropsychological profile, the cognitive impairment group exhibited more generalized deficits in attention, visuospatial organization, verbal functions and verbal memory domains compared to the community control group. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of cognitive impairment among patients was high, especially in women, older participants, individuals with more severe stroke, and greater impairment in functional ability. Multiple cognitive domains are affected and this may hamper recovery and negatively impact independence and quality of life after stroke.

  11. Cognitive Elements in Clinical Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, Bruce C.; Cantwell, Robert; Bourke, Sid; Fleming, Mark; Smith, Bruce; Joseph, K. S.; Dunphy, Stacey L

    2010-01-01

    Physician cognition, metacognition and affect may have an impact upon the quality of clinical reasoning. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between measures of physician metacognition and affect and patient outcomes in obstetric practice. Reflective coping (RC), proactive coping, need for cognition (NFC), tolerance for…

  12. Social cognition is not associated with cognitive reserve in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrencic, Louise M; Kurylowicz, Lisa; Valenzuela, Michael J; Churches, Owen F; Keage, Hannah A D

    2016-01-01

    Social and general cognitive abilities decline in late life. Those with high cognitive reserve display better general cognitive performance in old age; however, it is unknown whether this is also the case for social cognition. A total of 115 healthy older adults, aged 60-85 years (m = 44, f = 71) were assessed using The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT-R; social cognition), the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ; cognitive reserve), and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI-II; general cognitive ability). The LEQ did not predict performance on any TASIT-R subtest: Emotion Evaluation Test (β = -.097, p = .325), Social Inference - Minimal (β = -.004, p = .972), or Social Inference - Enriched (β = -.016, p = .878). Sensitivity analyses using two alternative cognitive reserve measures, years of education and the National Adult Reading Test, supported these effects. Cognitive reserve was strongly related to WASI-II performance. Unlike general cognitive ability, social cognition appears unaffected by cognitive reserve. Findings contribute to the emerging understanding that cognitive reserve differentially affects individual cognitive domains, which has implications for the theoretical understanding of cognitive reserve and its brain correlates. Cognitive measures unbiased by cognitive reserve may serve as best indicators of brain health, free of compensatory mechanisms.

  13. The perseverative worry bout: A review of cognitive, affective and motivational factors that contribute to worry perseveration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Graham C L; Meeten, F

    2016-12-01

    This paper reviews the cognitive, affective and attentional factors that contribute to individual perseverative worry bouts. We describe how automatic biases in attentional and interpretational processes contribute to threat detection and to the inclusion of negative intrusive thoughts into the worry stream typical of the "what if …?" thinking style of pathological worriers. The review also describes processes occurring downstream from these perceptual biases that also facilitate perseveration, including cognitive biases in beliefs about the nature of the worry process, the automatic deployment of strict goal-directed responses for dealing with the threat, the role of negative mood in facilitating effortful forms of information processing (i.e. systematic information processing styles), and in providing negative information for evaluating the success of the worry bout. We also consider the clinical implications of this model for an integrated intervention programme for pathological worrying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Short-term exposure to mobile phone base station signals does not affect cognitive functioning or physiological measures in individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltiti, Stacy; Wallace, Denise; Ridgewell, Anna; Zougkou, Konstantina; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Fox, Elaine

    2009-10-01

    Individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields often report cognitive impairments that they believe are due to exposure to mobile phone technology. Previous research in this area has revealed mixed results, however, with the majority of research only testing control individuals. Two studies using control and self-reported sensitive participants found inconsistent effects of mobile phone base stations on cognitive functioning. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether short-term (50 min) exposure at 10 mW/m(2) to typical Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station signals affects attention, memory, and physiological endpoints in sensitive and control participants. Data from 44 sensitive and 44 matched-control participants who performed the digit symbol substitution task (DSST), digit span task (DS), and a mental arithmetic task (MA), while being exposed to GSM, UMTS, and sham signals under double-blind conditions were analyzed. Overall, cognitive functioning was not affected by short-term exposure to either GSM or UMTS signals in the current study. Nor did exposure affect the physiological measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP), heart rate (HR), and skin conductance (SC) that were taken while participants performed the cognitive tasks.

  15. 50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nicole D; Craik, Fergus I M

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this Introduction to the Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences special issue on "50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory" are to provide a brief overview of cognitive aging research prior to 1965 and to highlight significant developments in cognitive aging theory over the last 50 years. Historical and recent theories of cognitive aging were reviewed, with a particular focus on those not directly covered by the articles included in this special issue. Prior to 1965, cognitive aging research was predominantly descriptive, identifying what aspects of intellectual functioning are affected in older compared with younger adults. Since the mid-1960s, there has been an increasing interest in how and why specific components of cognitive domains are differentially affected in aging and a growing focus on cognitive aging neuroscience. Significant advances have taken place in our theoretical understanding of how and why certain components of cognitive functioning are or are not affected by aging. We also know much more now than we did 50 years ago about the underlying neural mechanisms of these changes. The next 50 years undoubtedly will bring new theories, as well as new tools (e.g., neuroimaging advances, neuromodulation, and technology), that will further our understanding of cognitive aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effects of sleep deprivation on cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S

    2010-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is commonplace in modern society, but its far-reaching effects on cognitive performance are only beginning to be understood from a scientific perspective. While there is broad consensus that insufficient sleep leads to a general slowing of response speed and increased variability in performance, particularly for simple measures of alertness, attention and vigilance, there is much less agreement about the effects of sleep deprivation on many higher level cognitive capacities, including perception, memory and executive functions. Central to this debate has been the question of whether sleep deprivation affects nearly all cognitive capacities in a global manner through degraded alertness and attention, or whether sleep loss specifically impairs some aspects of cognition more than others. Neuroimaging evidence has implicated the prefrontal cortex as a brain region that may be particularly susceptible to the effects of sleep loss, but perplexingly, executive function tasks that putatively measure prefrontal functioning have yielded inconsistent findings within the context of sleep deprivation. Whereas many convergent and rule-based reasoning, decision making and planning tasks are relatively unaffected by sleep loss, more creative, divergent and innovative aspects of cognition do appear to be degraded by lack of sleep. Emerging evidence suggests that some aspects of higher level cognitive capacities remain degraded by sleep deprivation despite restoration of alertness and vigilance with stimulant countermeasures, suggesting that sleep loss may affect specific cognitive systems above and beyond the effects produced by global cognitive declines or impaired attentional processes. Finally, the role of emotion as a critical facet of cognition has received increasing attention in recent years and mounting evidence suggests that sleep deprivation may particularly affect cognitive systems that rely on emotional data. Thus, the extent to which sleep deprivation

  17. [Mentalization and theory of mind in borderline personality organization: exploring the differences between affective and cognitive aspects of social cognition in emotional pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, Dominika; Marszał, Monika

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the problem of explaining emotional pathology (levels of personality organization) using the concepts of theory of mind (ToM) and mentalization. Although these terms are used interchangeably to describe the "ability to interpret the behavior of others in terms of mental states," they do not have identical status in emotional disorders. ToM refers to a "cold" knowledge, whereas mentalization requires the activation of relational and emotional representations, as well as processing of emotional experience (whether reflection or defense). The aim of the study was to compare the cognitive (ToM) and affective (mentalization) aspects of "understanding the behavior of others in terms of mental states" in the clinical group--consisting of patients with borderline personality organization (N = 30); and the control group (N = 30). The Borderline Personality Inventory was used as a diagnostic questionnaire for the organization of personality, the Strange Stories Test was employed to measure ToM, and the Mental States Task instrument measured mentalization. With respect to mentalization, different patterns of results were obtained: the activation of overwhelming mental states and primitive defenses in the clinical group; as well as the inhibition of the recognition of mental content by defenses, such as denial and suppression of emotions, in the control group. No differences were observed in ToM between groups. In explaining the personality organization levels, only the affective, and not the cognitive, aspects of "understanding the behavior of others in terms of mental states" are significant. People with borderline personality organization, as well as healthy individuals, use "cold" knowledge about internal states. However, the activation of relational and emotional representations triggers different mental states in both groups.

  18. Green Tea Consumption Affects Cognitive Dysfunction in the Elderly: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Ide

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is known to have various health benefits for humans. However, the effect of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction remains to be clinically verified. We conducted a clinical study to investigate the effects of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction. Twelve elderly nursing home residents with cognitive dysfunction (Mini-Mental State Examination Japanese version (MMSE-J score: <28 participated in the study (2 men, 10 women; mean age, 88 years. The participants consumed green tea powder 2 g/day for 3 months. After three months of green tea consumption, the participants’ MMSE-J scores were significantly improved (before, 15.3 ± 7.7; after, 17.0 ± 8.2; p = 0.03. This result suggests that green tea consumption may be effective in improving cognitive function or reducing the progression of cognitive dysfunction; however, long-term large-scale controlled studies are needed to further clarify the effect.

  19. How Do Cognitive Function and Knowledge Affect Heart Failure Self-Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Lee, Christopher S.; Riegel, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive patient education, few heart failure (HF) patients master self-care. Impaired cognitive function may explain why patient education is ineffective. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used to explore how knowledge and cognitive function influence HF self-care. A total of 41 adults with HF participated in interviews…

  20. Cognitive approaches to emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatley, Keith; Johnson-Laird, P N

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive approaches offer clear links between how emotions are thought about in everyday life and how they are investigated psychologically. Cognitive researchers have focused on how emotions are caused when events or other people affect concerns and on how emotions influence processes such as reasoning, memory, and attention. Three representative cognitive theories of emotion continue to develop productively: the action-readiness theory, the core-affect theory, and the communicative theory. Some principles are common to them and divergences can be resolved by future research. Recent explanations have included how emotions structure social relationships, how they function in psychological illnesses, and how they are central to music and fiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cognitive constraints increase estimation biases: Cognitive load and delay in judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Allred, Sarah; Crawford, L. Elizabeth; Duffy, Sean; Smith, John

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that memory for simple stimuli can be biased by information about the category of which the stimulus is a member. These biases have been interpreted as optimally integrating noisy sensory information with category information. A separate literature has demonstrated that cognitive load can lead to biases in social cognition. Here we link the two, asking whether delay (Experiment 1) and cognitive load (Experiment 2) affect the extent to which observers' memories f...

  2. Social cognition disorders in military police officers affected by posttraumatic stress disorder after the attack of An-Nasiriyah in Iraq 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Monica; Giusti, Laura; Albanese, Anna; Mariano, Melania; Pino, Maria Chiara; Roncone, Rita

    2012-07-30

    Emotional numbness in individuals affected by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be a result of the depletion of emotional capacities. The ability to process emotions in a social context is a part of social cognition, which is still an under-explored topic in PTSD. The present study investigated deficits in social cognition, such as emotion recognition and theory of mind, and their relationship to emotional numbing in 35 military police officers who were in Iraq in April 2006 during a terrorist attack in An-Nasiriyah. Our results indicated that individuals suffering from PTSD showed deficits in social cognition when compared with healthy subjects. These disorders seemed to involve emotional numbing rather than clinical symptoms such as anxiety and depression. Future research directions are suggested to improve the measurement of emotional functioning in PTSD. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. The Interaction of Cognition and Affect: The Issue of Free Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Fred A.

    In determining whether an increase in student cognitions in the content area of international trade is correlated with an attitudinal change toward policy issues surrounding that subject, a microeconomics principles class at Riverside City College was used to test the hypothesis that a change in the cognitive component will cause a change in the…

  4. Short-term changes in affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of body image after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gail A; Hudson, Danae L; Whisenhunt, Brooke L; Stone, Megan; Heinberg, Leslie J; Crowther, Janis H

    2018-04-01

    Many bariatric surgery candidates report body image concerns before surgery. Research has reported post-surgical improvements in body satisfaction, which may be associated with weight loss. However, research has failed to comprehensively examine changes in affective, behavioral, and cognitive body image. This research examined (1) short-term changes in affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of body image from pre-surgery to 1- and 6-months after bariatric surgery, and (2) the association between percent weight loss and these changes. Participants were recruited from a private hospital in the midwestern United States. Eighty-eight females (original N = 123; lost to follow-up: n = 15 at 1-month and n = 20 at 6-months post-surgery) completed a questionnaire battery, including the Body Attitudes Questionnaire, Body Checking Questionnaire, Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire, and Body Shape Questionnaire, and weights were obtained from patients' medical records before and at 1- and 6-months post-surgery. Results indicated significant decreases in body dissatisfaction, feelings of fatness, and body image avoidance at 1- and 6-months after bariatric surgery, with the greatest magnitude of change occurring for body image avoidance. Change in feelings of fatness was significantly correlated with percent weight loss at 6-months, but not 1-month, post-surgery. These findings highlight the importance of examining short-term changes in body image from a multidimensional perspective in the effort to improve postsurgical outcomes. Unique contributions include the findings regarding the behavioral component of body image, as body image avoidance emerges as a particularly salient concern that changes over time among bariatric surgery candidates. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Corrugator Activity Confirms Immediate Negative Affect in Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha eTopolinski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The emotion of surprise entails a complex of immediate responses, such as cognitive interruption, attention allocation to, and more systematic processing of the surprising stimulus. All these processes serve the ultimate function to increase processing depth and thus cognitively master the surprising stimulus. The present account introduces phasic negative affect as the underlying mechanism responsible for these consequences. Surprising stimuli are schema-discrepant and thus entail cognitive disfluency, which elicits immediate negative affect. This affect in turn works like a phasic cognitive tuning switching the current processing mode from more automatic and heuristic to more systematic and reflective processing. Directly testing the initial elicitation of negative affect by suprising events, the present experiment presented high and low surprising neutral trivia statements to N = 28 participants while assessing their spontaneous facial expressions via facial electromyography. High compared to low suprising trivia elicited higher corrugator activity, indicative of negative affect and mental effort, while leaving zygomaticus (positive affect and frontalis (cultural surprise expression activity unaffected. Future research shall investigate the mediating role of negative affect in eliciting surprise-related outcomes.

  6. Optimism and spontaneous self-affirmation are associated with lower likelihood of cognitive impairment and greater positive affect among cancer survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Jennifer M.; Klein, William M. P.; Ferrer, Rebecca A.; Kent, Erin E.; Harris, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Optimism and self-affirmation promote adaptive coping, goal achievement, and better health. Purpose To examine the associations of optimism and spontaneous self-affirmation (SSA) with physical, mental, and cognitive health and information seeking among cancer survivors. Methods Cancer survivors (n=326) completed the Health Information National Trends Survey 2013, a national survey of U.S. adults. Participants reported optimism, SSA, cognitive and physical impairment, affect, health status, and information seeking. Results Participants higher in optimism reported better health on nearly all indices examined, even when controlling for SSA. Participants higher in SSA reported lower likelihood of cognitive impairment, greater happiness and hopefulness, and greater likelihood of cancer information seeking. SSA remained significantly associated with greater hopefulness and cancer information seeking when controlling for optimism. Conclusions Optimism and SSA may be associated with beneficial health-related outcomes among cancer survivors. Given the demonstrated malleability of self-affirmation, these findings represent important avenues for future research. PMID:26497697

  7. Optimism and Spontaneous Self-affirmation are Associated with Lower Likelihood of Cognitive Impairment and Greater Positive Affect among Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Jennifer M; Klein, William M P; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Kent, Erin E; Harris, Peter R

    2016-04-01

    Optimism and self-affirmation promote adaptive coping, goal achievement, and better health. The aim of this study is to examine the associations of optimism and spontaneous self-affirmation (SSA) with physical, mental, and cognitive health and information seeking among cancer survivors. Cancer survivors (n = 326) completed the Health Information National Trends Survey 2013, a national survey of US adults. Participants reported optimism, SSA, cognitive and physical impairment, affect, health status, and information seeking. Participants higher in optimism reported better health on nearly all indices examined, even when controlling for SSA. Participants higher in SSA reported lower likelihood of cognitive impairment, greater happiness and hopefulness, and greater likelihood of cancer information seeking. SSA remained significantly associated with greater hopefulness and cancer information seeking when controlling for optimism. Optimism and SSA may be associated with beneficial health-related outcomes among cancer survivors. Given the demonstrated malleability of self-affirmation, these findings represent important avenues for future research.

  8. Affective and cognitive processes and the development and maintenance of anxiety and its disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, P.J.M.; Silverman, W.K.; Treffers, P.D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a selective review of research related to cognitive hypotheses and models of childhood anxiety. The cognitive behavioral approach and the information processing approach to childhood anxiety are explored. Cognitive developmental aspects of anxiety-related cognition, the typical patterns of

  9. Stress and Cognition: A Cognitive Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Lyle E., Jr.; Yaroush, Rita A.

    2003-01-01

    Research in cognitive psychology has made a significant contribution to our understanding of how acute and chronic stress affect performance. It has done so by identifying some of the factors that contribute to operator error and by suggesting how operators might be trained to respond more effectively in a variety of circumstances. The major purpose of this paper was to review the literature of cognitive psychology as it relates to these questions and issues. Based on the existence of earlier reviews (e.g., Hamilton, & Warburton, 1979; Hockey, 1983) the following investigation was limited to the last 15 years (1988-2002) and restricted to a review of the primary peer-reviewed literature. The results of this examination revealed that while cognitive psychology has contributed in a substantive way to our understanding of stress impact on various cognitive processes, it has also left many questions unanswered. Concerns about how we define and use the term stress and the gaps that remain in our knowledge about the specific effects of stressors on cognitive processes are discussed in the text.

  10. Cognitive Factors Affecting Free Recall, Cued Recall, and Recognition Tasks in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamagishi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Our aim was to identify cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Subjects: We recruited 349 consecutive AD patients who attended a memory clinic. Methods: Each patient was assessed using the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS and the extended 3-word recall test. In this task, each patient was asked to freely recall 3 previously presented words. If patients could not recall 1 or more of the target words, the examiner cued their recall by providing the category of the target word and then provided a forced-choice recognition of the target word with 2 distracters. The patients were divided into groups according to the results of the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for repeated measures was carried out to evaluate the net effects of cognitive factors on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks after controlling for the effects of age and recent memory deficit. Results: Performance on the ADAS Orientation task was found to be related to performance on the free and cued recall tasks, performance on the ADAS Following Commands task was found to be related to performance on the cued recall task, and performance on the ADAS Ideational Praxis task was found to be related to performance on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. Conclusion: The extended 3-word recall test reflects deficits in a wider range of memory and other cognitive processes, including memory retention after interference, divided attention, and executive functions, compared with word-list recall tasks. The characteristics of the extended 3-word recall test may be advantageous for evaluating patients’ memory impairments in daily living.

  11. Development of an Instrument to Measure Perceived Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Learning in Traditional and Virtual Classroom Higher Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, Alfred P.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Baker, Jason D.; Grooms, Linda D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a self-report instrument that can be used to measure learning in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. The study underwent three phases, each with its own data collection and analysis. Phase I featured the development, testing, and factor analysis of an 80-item instrument that…

  12. Short-term testosterone manipulations do not affect cognition or motor function but differentially modulate emotions in young and older male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian; Maguire-Herring, Vanessa; Rose, Christian M; Gore, Heather E; Ferrigno, Stephen; Novak, Melinda A; Lacreuse, Agnès

    2014-11-01

    Human aging is characterized by declines in cognition and fine motor function as well as improved emotional regulation. In men, declining levels of testosterone (T) with age have been implicated in the development of these age-related changes. However, studies examining the effects of T replacement on cognition, emotion and fine motor function in older men have not provided consistent results. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are excellent models for human cognitive aging and may provide novel insights on this issue. We tested 10 aged intact male rhesus monkeys (mean age=19, range 15-25) on a battery of cognitive, motor and emotional tasks at baseline and under low or high T experimental conditions. Their performance was compared to that of 6 young males previously tested in the same paradigm (Lacreuse et al., 2009; Lacreuse et al., 2010). Following a 4-week baseline testing period, monkeys were treated with a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (Depot Lupron, 200 μg/kg) to suppress endogenous T and were tested on the task battery under a 4-week high T condition (injection of Lupron+T enanthate, 20 mg/kg, n=8) or 4-week low T condition (injection of Lupron+oil vehicle, n=8) before crossing over to the opposite treatment. The cognitive tasks consisted of the Delayed Non-Matching-to-Sample (DNMS), the Delayed Response (DR), and the Delayed Recognition Span Test (spatial-DRST). The emotional tasks included an object Approach-Avoidance task and a task in which monkeys were played videos of unfamiliar conspecifics in different emotional context (Social Playbacks). The fine motor task was the Lifesaver task that required monkeys to remove a Lifesaver candy from rods of different complexity. T manipulations did not significantly affect visual recognition memory, working memory, reference memory or fine motor function at any age. In the Approach-Avoidance task, older monkeys, but not younger monkeys, spent more time in proximity of novel objects in the high T condition

  13. Short-Term Limb Immobilization Affects Cognitive Motor Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Lucette; Meugnot, Aurore

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of a brief period of limb immobilization on the cognitive level of action control. A splint placed on the participants' left hand was used as a means of immobilization. We used a hand mental rotation task to investigate the immobilization-induced effects on motor imagery performance (Experiments 1 and 2) and a number mental…

  14. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miendlarzewska, Ewa A; Trost, Wiebke J

    2013-01-01

    Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development.

  15. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Aurelia Miendlarzewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development.

  16. Does vitamin C deficiency affect cognitive development and function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(-/-) mice...... and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age......-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies....

  17. Cognitive neuropsychology of alexithymia: implications for personality typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermond, Bob; Vorst, Harrie C M; Moormann, Peter P

    2006-05-01

    We examine the cognitive neuroscience of the five components of the alexithymia syndrome, and propose a classification of alexithymia types based on psychobiological traits. Literature review. The following neural structures have been shown to be prominent in emotional function: right and left hemisphere, corpus callosum, anterior commissure, anterior cingulate, prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and insular cortex. The specific relevance of these structures to alexithymia is discussed. The following conclusions and/or propositions are presented: The right hemisphere produces a global, nonverbal overview of emotional information; the left hemisphere seems dedicated to analysing emotions and higher explicit emotional cognitions. Both orbitoprefrontal cortices are important in affective aspects of alexithymia, while right temporal cortex is involved in cognitive aspects. Two subparts of anterior cingulate fulfil functions in the affective and cognitive dimensions of alexithymia. The amygdalae are involved in both cognitive and affective aspects. All structures mentioned can modulate one another. The role of interhemispheric information transfer via the corpus callosum and the anterior commissure is also discussed. The evidence that that cognitive processing of emotional information inhibits affective processing of such information is discussed in terms of its implications for a theory of alexithymia subtypes.

  18. New product, familiar taste: Effects of slogans on cognitive and affective responses to an unknown food product among food neophobics and neophilics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Leufkens, Jean-Marie; van Hoof, Joris Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Food neophobia is considered a potential barrier for the introduction of new food products. This study investigated how advertising slogans could influence cognitive and affective responses to a new product in food neophobics and food neophilics. An unknown dairy product was used to examine the

  19. Hyper-modulation of brain networks by the amygdala among women with Borderline Personality Disorder: Network signatures of affective interference during cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloff, Paul H; Abraham, Kristy; Ramaseshan, Karthik; Burgess, Ashley; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

    2017-05-01

    Emotion dysregulation is a core characteristic of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), and is often attributed to an imbalance in fronto-limbic network function. Hyperarousal of amygdala, especially in response to negative affective stimuli, results in affective interference with cognitive processing of executive functions. Clinical consequences include the impulsive-aggression, suicidal and self-injurious behaviors which characterize BPD. Dysfunctional interactions between amygdala and its network targets have not been well characterized during cognitive task performance. Using psychophysiological interaction analysis (PPI), we mapped network profiles of amygdala interaction with key regulatory regions during a Go No-Go task, modified to use negative, positive and neutral Ekman faces as targets. Fifty-six female subjects, 31 BPD and 25 healthy controls (HC), completed the affectively valenced Go No-Go task during fMRI scanning. In the negative affective condition, the amygdala exerted greater modulation of its targets in BPD compared to HC subjects in Rt. OFC, Rt. dACC, Rt. Parietal cortex, Rt. Basal Ganglia, and Rt. dlPFC. Across the spectrum of affective contrasts, hypermodulation in BPD subjects observed the following ordering: Negative > Neutral > Positive contrast. The amygdala seed exerted modulatory effects on specific target regions important in processing response inhibition and motor impulsiveness. The vulnerability of BPD subjects to affective interference with impulse control may be due to specific network dysfunction related to amygdala hyper-arousal and its effects on prefrontal regulatory regions such as the OFC and dACC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognitive and social cognitive predictors of change in objective versus subjective quality-of-life in rehabilitation for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Matthew M; Bronfeld, Melanie; Rose, Jennifer

    2012-12-30

    A small but growing body of work has studied the role of cognitive skills in predicting response to integrated programs of rehabilitation in schizophrenia. No studies however, have directly compared the roles and interrelationships of cognition, social cognition and other disease factors in predicting improvements in the separate domains of objective quality-of-life (QOL) and subjective satisfaction with life (SWL) in response to rehabilitation in schizophrenia. Forty-four outpatients with schizophrenia were administered measures of cognition, social cognition, and symptoms at entry to a psychosocial and cognitive rehabilitation program. Change in objective QOL and subjective SWL before and after treatment were measured as outcome variables. Cognitive measures of verbal memory and social cognitive measures of facial affect recognition were linked to improvements in objective QOL, while verbal memory and crystallized verbal skill was linked to improvements in SWL. Facial affect recognition partially mediated the relationship between verbal memory and improvements in objective QOL. The implications of these findings for understanding interrelationships between cognition and social cognition and their role in predicting change in different domains of outcome as a function of behavioral treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Negative symptoms, emotion and cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, E; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J-M; Adida, M

    2015-12-01

    For a long time, treatment of schizophrenia has been essentially focussed on positive symptoms managing. Yet, even if these symptoms are the most noticeable, negative symptoms are more enduring, resistant to pharmacological treatment and associated with a worse prognosis. In the two last decades, attention has shift towards cognitive deficit, as this deficit is most robustly associated to functional outcome. But it appears that the modest improvement in cognition, obtained in schizophrenia through pharmacological treatment or, more purposely, by cognitive enhancement therapy, has only lead to limited amelioration of functional outcome. Authors have claimed that pure cognitive processes, such as those evaluated and trained in lots of these programs, may be too distant from real-life conditions, as the latter are largely based on social interactions. Consequently, the field of social cognition, at the interface of cognition and emotion, has emerged. In a first part of this article we examined the links, in schizophrenia, between negative symptoms, cognition and emotions from a therapeutic standpoint. Nonetheless, investigation of emotion in schizophrenia may also hold relevant premises for understanding the physiopathology of this disorder. In a second part, we propose to illustrate this research by relying on the heuristic value of an elementary marker of social cognition, facial affect recognition. Facial affect recognition has been repeatedly reported to be impaired in schizophrenia and some authors have argued that this deficit could constitute an endophenotype of the illness. We here examined how facial affect processing has been used to explore broader emotion dysfunction in schizophrenia, through behavioural and imaging studies. In particular, fMRI paradigms using facial affect have shown particular patterns of amygdala engagement in schizophrenia, suggesting an intact potential to elicit the limbic system which may however not be advantageous. Finally, we

  2. Entrepreneurs` Cognitive and Decision Making Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Motvaseli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore the relation between decision-making styles which are measured by the General decision-making style (GDMS test and information processing styles which are often termed cognitive styles and are, in this study, measured by Cognitive Style Inventory. The authors directed a survey research on 162 Iranian students. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to measure the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles. The authors found that cognitive styles have a positive impact on decision-making styles. In spite of the abundant research on factors that affect decision-making styles, few researches have tested the relationship between cognitive styles and decision-making styles. This study examines the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles in Iran. This study, like most research paper studies, cannot easily be generalized. Furthermore, the results of this study could be affected by economic conditions.

  3. Negative affect varying in motivational intensity influences scope of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threadgill, A Hunter; Gable, Philip A

    2018-04-06

    Emotions influence cognitive processes involved in memory. While some research has suggested that cognitive scope is determined by affective valence, recent models of emotion-cognition interactions suggest that motivational intensity, rather than valence, influences these processes. The present research was designed to clarify how negative affects differing in motivational intensity impact memory for centrally or peripherally presented information. Experiments 1 & 2 found that, relative to a neutral condition, high intensity negative affect (anger) enhances memory for centrally presented information. Experiment 3 replicated this effect using another high intensity negative affect (threat). Experiment 4 extended this by finding that, relative to a neutral condition, low intensity negative affect (sadness) enhanced memory for peripherally presented information. Finally, in Experiment 5, the effects of sadness and threat on scope of memory were directly compared, finding that threat narrowed scope of memory, while sadness broadened scope of memory. Together, these results provide additional support for the motivational dimensional model of cognitive scope, in that high intensity emotions narrow cognitive scope, while low intensity emotions broaden cognitive scope.

  4. Cognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics of mothers with anxiety disorders in the context of child anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Cathy; Apetroaia, Adela; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Parental emotional distress, particularly high maternal anxiety, is one of the most consistent predictors of child anxiety treatment outcome. In order to identify the cognitive, affective, and behavioral parenting characteristics of mothers of children with anxiety disorders who themselves have an anxiety disorder, we assessed the expectations, appraisals, and behaviors of 88 mothers of anxious children (44 mothers who were not anxious [NONANX] and 44 mothers with a current anxiety disorder [ANX]) when interacting with their 7-12-year-old children. There were no observed differences in anxiety and avoidance among children of ANX and NONANX mothers, but, compared with NONANX mothers, ANX mothers held more negative expectations, and they differed on observations of intrusiveness, expressed anxiety, warmth, and the quality of the relationship. Associations were moderated by the degree to which children expressed anxiety during the tasks. Maternal-reported negative emotions during the task significantly mediated the association between maternal anxiety status and the observed quality of the relationship. These findings suggest that maternal anxiety disorder is associated with reduced tolerance of children's negative emotions. This may interfere with the maintenance of a positive, supportive mother-child interaction under conditions of stress and, as such, this may impede optimum treatment outcomes. The findings identify potential cognitive, affective, and behavioral targets to improve treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders in the context of a current maternal anxiety disorder. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Cognitive assessment of older people

    OpenAIRE

    Young, John; Meagher, David; MacLullich, Alasdair J

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed Cognitive assessment involves examination of higher cortical functions, particularly memory, attention, orientation, language, executive function (planning activities), and praxis (sequencing of activities). This article will focus on cognitive assessment of older people (those aged over about 65 years) in the context of possible dementia, delirium, and depression. These are common and serious clinical syndromes affecting older people, and accurate cognit...

  6. What is the most important factor affecting the cognitive function of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients: a single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS usually complain of daytime hypersomnia and decrease in cognitive function, which affects the quality of their work and life. The reason why the cognitive function of OSAS patients decreased remains controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impairment and the main influencing factors of cognitive function in OSAS. Methods There were totally 50 OSAS patients (OSAS group and 25 volunteers (control group included in our study. All of them were monitored by polysomnography (PSG and tested by Continuous Performance Test (CPT, n-back test and Stroop Color?Word Test (CWT to evaluate their sleep condition and cognitive function. Results No significant difference was found between the two groups in total sleep time and sleep efficiency (P > 0.05, for all. Compared with control group, OSAS group had significant increased time of non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep stage Ⅰ and stage Ⅱ, significant decreased time of stage Ⅲ (P 0.05, for all, while had significant connection with AI and NREM Ⅲ (P < 0.05, for all. The rate of OSAS patients who underwent nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP treatment was very low, only 8% (4/50. Conclusion The abnormality of OSAS patients' sleep structure is characterized with sleep fragmentation and decrease of NREM Ⅲ, which may be the main factors of cognitive impairment. Exploration of treatment methods targeted on regulating the effected hormones and receptors is meaningful.

  7. Sex, Drugs, and Cognition: Effects of Marijuana†

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Beth M.; Rizzo, Matthew; Block, Robert I.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; O'Leary, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the knowledge that many drugs affect men and women differently, few studies exploring the effects of marijuana use on cognition have included women. Findings from both animal and human studies suggest marijuana may have more marked effects in women. This study examined sex differences in the acute effects of marijuana on cognition in 70 (n= 35 male, 35 female) occasional users of marijuana. Tasks were chosen to tap a wide variety of cognitive domains affected by sex and/or marijuana i...

  8. Affective and cognitive effects of global deletion of alpha3-containing gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorelli, Roberto; Rudolph, Uwe; Straub, Carolin J; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K

    2008-09-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors characterized by the presence of the alpha3 subunit are the major GABAA receptor subtype expressed in brain stem monoaminergic nuclei. These alpha3-GABAA receptors are therefore in a unique position to regulate monoaminergic functions. To characterize the functional properties of alpha3-GABAA receptors, we present a preliminary assessment of the expression of affective and cognitive behaviour in male mice with a targeted deletion of the Gabra3 gene encoding the alpha3 subunit [alpha3 knockout (KO) mice] on a C57BL/6Jx129X1/SvJ F1 hybrid genetic background. The alpha3 KO mice did not exhibit any gross change of anxiety-like behaviour or spontaneous locomotor behaviour. In the Porsolt forced swim test for potential antidepressant activity, alpha3 KO mice exhibited reduced floating and enhanced swimming behaviour relative to wild-type controls. Performance on a two-choice sucrose preference test, however, revealed no evidence for an increase in sucrose preference in the alpha3 KO mice that would have substantiated a potential phenotype for depression-related behaviour. In contrast, a suggestion of an enhanced negative contrast effect was revealed in a one-bottle sucrose consumption test across different sucrose concentrations. These affective phenotypes were accompanied by alterations in the balance between conditioned responding to the discrete conditioned stimulus and to the context, and a suggestion of faster extinction, in the Pavlovian conditioned freezing paradigm. Spatial learning in the water maze reference memory test, however, was largely unchanged in the alpha3 KO mice, except for a trend of preservation during reversal learning. The novel phenotypes following global deletion of the GABAA receptor alpha3 subunit identified here provided relevant insights, in addition to our earlier study, into the potential behavioural relevance of this specific receptor subtypes in the modulation of both affective and cognitive

  9. Cognition-Emotion Dysinteraction in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eAnticevic

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Evolving theories of schizophrenia emphasize a ‘disconnection’ in distributed fronto-striatal-limbic neural systems, which may give rise to breakdowns in cognition and emotional function. We discuss these diverse domains of function from the perspective of disrupted neural circuits involved in ‘cold’ cognitive vs. ‘hot’ affective operations and the interplay between these processes. We focus on three research areas that highlight cognition-emotion dysinteractions in schizophrenia: First, we discuss the role of cognitive deficits in the ‘maintenance’ of emotional information. We review recent evidence suggesting that motivational abnormalities in schizophrenia may in part arise due to a disrupted ability to ‘maintain’ affective information over time. Here, dysfunction in a prototypical ‘cold’ cognitive operation may result in ‘affective’ deficits in schizophrenia. Second, we discuss abnormalities in the detection and ascription of salience, manifest as excessive processing of non-emotional stimuli and inappropriate distractibility. We review emerging evidence suggesting deficits in some, but not other, specific emotional processes in schizophrenia – namely an intact ability to perceive emotion ‘in the moment’ but poor prospective valuation of stimuli and heightened reactivity to stimuli that ought to be filtered. Third, we discuss abnormalities in learning mechanisms that may give rise to delusions, the fixed, false and often emotionally charged beliefs that accompany psychosis. We discuss the role of affect in aberrant belief formation, mostly ignored by current theoretical models. Together, we attempt to provide a consilient overview for how breakdowns in neural systems underlying affect and cognition in psychosis interact across symptom domains. We conclude with a brief treatment of the neurobiology of schizophrenia and the need to close our explanatory gap between cellular-level hypotheses and complex

  10. Cognitive and tactile factors affecting human haptic performance in later life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Kalisch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vision and haptics are the key modalities by which humans perceive objects and interact with their environment in a target-oriented manner. Both modalities share higher-order neural resources and the mechanisms required for object exploration. Compared to vision, the understanding of haptic information processing is still rudimentary. Although it is known that haptic performance, similar to many other skills, decreases in old age, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. It is yet to be determined to what extent this decrease is related to the age-related loss of tactile acuity or cognitive capacity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the haptic performance of 81 older adults by means of a cross-modal object recognition test. Additionally, we assessed the subjects' tactile acuity with an apparatus-based two-point discrimination paradigm, and their cognitive performance by means of the non-verbal Raven-Standard-Progressive matrices test. As expected, there was a significant age-related decline in performance on all 3 tests. With the exception of tactile acuity, this decline was found to be more distinct in female subjects. Correlation analyses revealed a strong relationship between haptic and cognitive performance for all subjects. Tactile performance, on the contrary, was only significantly correlated with male subjects' haptic performance. CONCLUSIONS: Haptic object recognition is a demanding task in old age, especially when it comes to the exploration of complex, unfamiliar objects. Our data support a disproportionately higher impact of cognition on haptic performance as compared to the impact of tactile acuity. Our findings are in agreement with studies reporting an increase in co-variation between individual sensory performance and general cognitive functioning in old age.

  11. Cognitive infocommunications (CogInfoCom)

    CERN Document Server

    Baranyi, Péter; Sallai, Gyula

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the theoretical foundations of cognitive infocommunications (CogInfoCom), and provides a survey on state-of-the-art solutions and applications within the field. The book covers aspects of cognitive infocommunications in the research fields of affective computing, BCI, future internet, HCI, HRI, sensory substitution, and virtual/augmented interactions. The book focuses on describing the merging between humans and information and communications technology (ICT) at the level of cognitive capabilities with an approach towards developing future cognitive ICT.   · Provides a comprehensive overview of cognitive infocommunications   · Covers theoretical and practical aspects of cognitive infocommunications   · Discusses applications employing various aspects of infocommunication.

  12. Apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 frequency in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Jørgensen, O S

    1999-01-01

    -Bråne-Steen Dementia Rating Scale, and the Global Deterioration Scale. RESULTS: The frequency of APOE-epsilon 4 allele was approximately the same in unipolar patients (.189) and in bipolar patients (.167). Although patients showed more cognitive impairment than controls, no significant overall difference was found...... was found with gender, age at onset, the number of affective episodes, the presence of psychotic features, or the prevalence of familial affective disorder. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that cognitive impairment in affective disorder can be attributed to pathways other than the APOE genotype.......BACKGROUND: The epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE) as well as affective disorder have been found to be associated with Alzheimer's disease, but it is unclear whether cognitive impairment in affective disorder or subtypes of affective disorder is mediated by the epsilon 4 allele of APOE...

  13. Cognitive and functional impairment in patients suffering from stroke: the importance of cognitive assessment for Occupational Therapy intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa de Oliveira Ferro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: Stroke (CVA can generate motor, sensory and cognitive development deficits, affecting the individual’s performance in daily activities. Changes in any cognitive area can affect the individual’s occupational engagement. Objective: To evaluate the cognitive and functional capacity in patients suffering from stroke, showing the importance of cognitive assessment for occupational therapy intervention. Method: A comparative study with cross-sectional sampling of 44 subjects aged 30-80 years, both sexes. The subjects were divided in three groups: Adult: 11 individuals affected by stroke, 30-59 years old; Elderly: 10 individuals affected by stroke, 60-80 years old; Control: 23 normal subjects, 30-80 years old. Tests applied: MMSE, Clock Test, Test of tracks A and B, and functional capacity (BOMFAQ. Results: Cognitive changes were identified in the Adult and Elderly groups. The Adult group showed poorer performance on the Clock test (visuospatial and executive functions compared with the Control group. The Adult and Elderly groups presented worse performance in the Track A test (attention compared with the Control group. In the Track B test (visual attention, graphomotor skills, and mental flexibility, applied with absolute numbers, no significant differences were observed between the Adult and Elderly groups and the Control group, but cognitive impairment was perceived when the test was applied with categories. The Adult group showed higher prevalence of moderate/severe impairment in the carrying out of daily activities. Conclusion: As a rule, individuals suffering from stroke, in addition to having impaired functional capacity, present cognitive impairments that can negatively impact the performance of daily tasks, whether they are occupational, leisure or self-care activities. Accordingly, we observed the need to evaluate cognitive rehabilitation for better targeting and quality of life improvement.

  14. Educational Objectives and the Learning Domains: A New Formulation [And] Summary: Pierce-Gray Classification Model for the Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Charles E.; Pierce, Walter D.

    This paper examines and summarizes the "Pierce-Gray Classification Model for the Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Domains," a model developed for the classification of educational objectives. The classification system was developed to provide a framework that teachers could use as a guide when developing specific instructional objectives for…

  15. Theories of willpower affect sustained learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric M; Walton, Gregory M; Dweck, Carol S; Job, Veronika; Trzesniewski, Kali H; McClure, Samuel M

    2012-01-01

    Building cognitive abilities often requires sustained engagement with effortful tasks. We demonstrate that beliefs about willpower-whether willpower is viewed as a limited or non-limited resource-impact sustained learning on a strenuous mental task. As predicted, beliefs about willpower did not affect accuracy or improvement during the initial phases of learning; however, participants who were led to view willpower as non-limited showed greater sustained learning over the full duration of the task. These findings highlight the interactive nature of motivational and cognitive processes: motivational factors can substantially affect people's ability to recruit their cognitive resources to sustain learning over time.

  16. Daily cognitive appraisals, daily affect, and long-term depressive symptoms: the role of self-esteem and self-concept clarity in the stress process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Flynn, Sharon C; Pomaki, Georgia; Delongis, Anita; Biesanz, Jeremy C; Puterman, Eli

    2011-02-01

    The current study investigated how self-esteem and self-concept clarity are implicated in the stress process both in the short and long term. Initial and 2-year follow-up interviews were completed by 178 participants from stepfamily unions. In twice-daily structured diaries over 7 days, participants reported their main family stressor, cognitive appraisals (perceived stressor threat and stressor controllability), and negative affect. Results of multilevel modeling indicated that high self-esteem ameliorated the effect of daily negative cognitive appraisals on daily negative affect. Self-concept clarity also buffered the effect of low self-self-esteem on depressive symptoms 2 years later. Our findings point to the vulnerability of those having low self-esteem or low self-concept clarity in terms of both short- and long-term adaptation to stress. They indicate the need for the consideration of such individual differences in designing stress management interventions.

  17. Depressive Symptoms Affect Working Memory in Healthy Older Adult Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Villanea, Monica; Liebmann, Edward; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Montenegro-Montenegro, Esteban; Johnson, David K

    2015-10-01

    Low and middle income nations will experience an unprecedented growth of the elderly population and subsequent increase in age-related neurological disorders. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of all-types of neurological disorders with serious mental health complications will increase with life expectancy across the globe. One-in- ten individuals over 75 has at least moderate cognitive impairment. Prevalence of cognitive impairment doubles every 5 years thereafter. Latin America's population of older adult's 65 years and older is growing rapidly, yet little is known about cognitive aging among healthy older Latinos. Clinically significant depressive symptomatology is common among community-dwelling older adults and is associated with deficits across multiple cognitive domains, however much of the literature has not modeled the unique effects of depression distinct from negative and low positive affect. Our objective was to understand how mental health affects cognitive health in healthy aging Latinos. The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relative effects of Negative Affect, Positive Affect and Geriatric Depression on Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, Processing Speed, and Working Memory in healthy aging Latinos. Data was collected from a sample of healthy community dwelling older adults living in San Jose, Costa Rica. Modeling of latent variables attenuated error and improved measurement reliability of cognition, affect, and depression variables. Costa Ricans enjoy a notoriety for being much happier than US citizens and are renowned as one of the happiest nations in the world in global surveys. This was born out in these data. Costa Rican affective profiles differed substantively from US profiles. Levels of negative affect and depression were similar to US samples, but their levels of positive affect were much higher. Cognitive performance of these Costa Rican older adults was similar to US

  18. Affective and cognitive prefrontal cortex projections to the lateral habenula in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eVadovičová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Anterior insula (AI and dorsal ACC (dACC are known to process information about pain, loss, adversities, bad, harmful or suboptimal choices and consequences that threaten survival or well-being. Also pregenual ACC (pgACC is linked to loss and pain, being activated by sad thoughts and regrets. Lateral habenula (LHb is stimulated by predicted and received pain, discomfort, aversive outcome, loss. Its chronic stimulation makes us feel worse/low and gradually stops us choosing and moving for the suboptimal or punished choices, by direct and indirect (via rostromedial tegmental nucleus RMTg inhibition of DRN and VTA/SNc. The response selectivity of LHb neurons suggests their cortical input from affective and cognitive evaluative regions that make expectations about bad, unpleasant or suboptimal outcomes. Based on these facts we predicted direct dACC, pgACC and AI projections to LHb, which form part of an adversity processing circuit that learns to avoid bad outcomes by suppressing dopamine and serotonin signal. To test this connectivity we used Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI. We found dACC, pgACC, AI and caudolateral OFC projections to LHb. We predicted no corticohabenular projections from the reward processing regions: medial OFC (mOFC and ventral ACC (vACC because both respond most strongly to good, high valued stimuli and outcomes, inducing dopamine and serotonin release. This lack of LHb projections was confirmed for vACC and likely for mOFC. The surprising findings were the corticohabenular projections from the cognitive prefrontal cortex regions, known for flexible reasoning, planning and combining whatever information are relevant for reaching current goals. We propose that the prefrontohabenular projections provide a teaching signal for value-based choice behaviour, to learn to deselect, avoid or inhibit the potentially harmful, low valued or wrong choices, goals, strategies, predictions and ways of doing things, to prevent bad or suboptimal

  19. No pain, no gain: the affective valence of congruency conditions changes following a successful response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouppe, N.; Braem, S.; de Houwer, J.; Silvetti, M.; Verguts, T.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Notebaert, W.

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive control theory of Botvinick, Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 356-366 (2007) integrates cognitive and affective control processes by emphasizing the aversive nature of cognitive conflict. Using an affective priming paradigm, we replicate earlier results showing that

  20. Does unconscious information affect cognitive activity?: a study using experimental priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippova, Margarita G

    2011-05-01

    In a series of three experiments the influence that information unrecognised by the subjects has on the effectiveness of occurring cognitive activity is studied. With this aim 3 types of stimulus were compared which for one reason or another were not afforded sufficient attention, namely: unconscious meanings of polysemantic information, stimuli presented at the subliminal level, and intentionally ignored distractors. All the listed types of stimuli are united in that the subjects were not able to give an account of them, i.e., these stimuli were not processed attentively. It is assumed that each of the types of stimuli studied is in actuality perceived, which can be judged by the impact they have on occurring cognitive activity. The purpose of the present research is the comparison of this impact: apart from the determination of the impact of unperceived stimuli on the information directly associated with them (priming-effect registration), also identified is the presence/absence of an overall interference effect rendered by the unperceived stimuli on the performance of occurring cognitive activity. To this end, each experiment had a control condition the aim of which was the creation of the possibility for the subjects to perceive stimuli unnoticed under experimental conditions. An experimental priming paradigm was used in combination with image-classification and lexical-decision tasks. The results of the experiments conducted demonstrate that all types of stimuli 'slipping the attention' are assimilated, but their effect on occurring cognitive activity is varied. Thus, subliminally presented information aids, and distractors, on the contrary, hinder the solution of tasks associated with them, whereas unperceived meanings of polysemantic information hinder not only the solution of the tasks directly associated with them, but also the performance of any other cognitive activity for which they serve as a context. The effect of subliminal stimuli on occurring

  1. Dietary Sodium/Potassium Intake Does Not Affect Cognitive Function or Brain Imaging Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Kristen L; Fried, Linda; Jovanovich, Anna; Ix, Joachim; Yaffe, Kristine; You, Zhiying; Chonchol, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Dietary sodium may influence cognitive function through its effects on cerebrovascular function and cerebral blood flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dietary sodium intake with cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults. We also evaluated the associations of dietary potassium and sodium:potassium intake with cognitive decline, and associations of these nutrients with micro- and macro-structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices. In all, 1,194 participants in the Health Aging and Body Composition study with measurements of dietary sodium intake (food frequency questionnaire [FFQ]) and change in the modified Mini Mental State Exam (3MS) were included. The age of participants was 74 ± 3 years with a mean dietary sodium intake of 2,677 ± 1,060 mg/day. During follow-up (6.9 ± 0.1 years), 340 (28%) had a clinically significant decline in 3MS score (≥1.5 SD of mean decline). After adjustment, dietary sodium intake was not associated with odds of cognitive decline (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.50-1.84 per doubling of sodium). Similarly, potassium was not associated with cognitive decline; however, higher sodium:potassium intake was associated with increased odds of cognitive decline (OR 2.02 [95% CI 1.01-4.03] per unit increase). Neither sodium or potassium alone nor sodium:potassium were associated with micro- or macro-structural brain MRI indices. These results are limited by the use of FFQ. In community-dwelling older adults, higher sodium:potassium, but not sodium or potassium intake alone, was associated with decline in cognitive function, with no associations observed with micro- and macro-structural brain MRI indices. These findings do not support reduction dietary sodium/increased potassium intake to prevent cognitive decline with aging. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Cognitive aspect of diagnostic errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Dong Haur; Tan, Nigel C K

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic errors can result in tangible harm to patients. Despite our advances in medicine, the mental processes required to make a diagnosis exhibits shortcomings, causing diagnostic errors. Cognitive factors are found to be an important cause of diagnostic errors. With new understanding from psychology and social sciences, clinical medicine is now beginning to appreciate that our clinical reasoning can take the form of analytical reasoning or heuristics. Different factors like cognitive biases and affective influences can also impel unwary clinicians to make diagnostic errors. Various strategies have been proposed to reduce the effect of cognitive biases and affective influences when clinicians make diagnoses; however evidence for the efficacy of these methods is still sparse. This paper aims to introduce the reader to the cognitive aspect of diagnostic errors, in the hope that clinicians can use this knowledge to improve diagnostic accuracy and patient outcomes.

  3. Distinct neural correlates of emotional and cognitive empathy in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Raeanne C; Dev, Sheena I; Jeste, Dilip V; Dziobek, Isabel; Eyler, Lisa T

    2015-04-30

    Empathy is thought to be a mechanism underlying prosocial behavior across the lifespan, yet little is known about how levels of empathy relate to individual differences in brain functioning among older adults. In this exploratory study, we examined the neural correlates of affective and cognitive empathy in older adults. Thirty older adults (M=79 years) underwent fMRI scanning and neuropsychological testing and completed a test of affective and cognitive empathy. Brain response during processing of cognitive and emotional stimuli was measured by fMRI in a priori and task-related regions and was correlated with levels of empathy. Older adults with higher levels of affective empathy showed more deactivation in the amygdala and insula during a working memory task, whereas those with higher cognitive empathy showed greater insula activation during a response inhibition task. Our preliminary findings suggest that brain systems linked to emotional and social processing respond differently among older adults with more or less affective and cognitive empathy. That these relationships can be seen both during affective and non-emotional tasks of "cold" cognitive abilities suggests that empathy may impact social behavior through both emotional and cognitive mechanisms. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2012-01-01

    Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents…

  5. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine Dalsgaard; Mortensen, E L; Schmidt, L

    2011-01-01

    Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes.......Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes....

  6. The poverty of embodied cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldinger, Stephen D; Papesh, Megan H; Barnhart, Anthony S; Hansen, Whitney A; Hout, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, there has been rapidly growing interest in embodied cognition, a multifaceted theoretical proposition that (1) cognitive processes are influenced by the body, (2) cognition exists in the service of action, (3) cognition is situated in the environment, and (4) cognition may occur without internal representations. Many proponents view embodied cognition as the next great paradigm shift for cognitive science. In this article, we critically examine the core ideas from embodied cognition, taking a "thought exercise" approach. We first note that the basic principles from embodiment theory are either unacceptably vague (e.g., the premise that perception is influenced by the body) or they offer nothing new (e.g., cognition evolved to optimize survival, emotions affect cognition, perception-action couplings are important). We next suggest that, for the vast majority of classic findings in cognitive science, embodied cognition offers no scientifically valuable insight. In most cases, the theory has no logical connections to the phenomena, other than some trivially true ideas. Beyond classic laboratory findings, embodiment theory is also unable to adequately address the basic experiences of cognitive life.

  7. Theories of willpower affect sustained learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Miller

    Full Text Available Building cognitive abilities often requires sustained engagement with effortful tasks. We demonstrate that beliefs about willpower-whether willpower is viewed as a limited or non-limited resource-impact sustained learning on a strenuous mental task. As predicted, beliefs about willpower did not affect accuracy or improvement during the initial phases of learning; however, participants who were led to view willpower as non-limited showed greater sustained learning over the full duration of the task. These findings highlight the interactive nature of motivational and cognitive processes: motivational factors can substantially affect people's ability to recruit their cognitive resources to sustain learning over time.

  8. On the Primacy of Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Reasserts view that there can be emotional or affective arousal without prior cognitive appraisal. Criticizes Lazarus's rejection of this view on the grounds that it presents no empirical evidence, is based on an arbitrary definition of emotion, and obliterates all distinctions between cognition, sensation, and perception. (CMG)

  9. Cognitive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because chemicals can adversely affect cognitive function in humans, considerable effort has been made to characterize their effects using animal models. Information from such models will be necessary to: evaluate whether chemicals identified as potentially neurotoxic by screenin...

  10. Explicit and implicit cognition: a preliminary test of a dual-process theory of cognitive vulnerability to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffel, Gerald J; Abramson, Lyn Y; Brazy, Paige C; Shah, James Y; Teachman, Bethany A; Nosek, Brian A

    2007-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to test a dual-process theory of cognitive vulnerability to depression. According to this theory, implicit and explicit cognitive processes have differential effects on depressive reactions to stressful life events. Implicit processes are hypothesized to be critical in determining an individual's immediate affective reaction to stress whereas explicit cognitions are thought to be more involved in long-term depressive reactions. Consistent with hypotheses, the results of study 1 (cross-sectional; N=237) showed that implicit, but not explicit, cognitions predicted immediate affective reactions to a lab stressor. Study 2 (longitudinal; N=251) also supported the dual-process model of cognitive vulnerability to depression. Results showed that both the implicit and explicit measures interacted with life stress to predict prospective changes in depressive symptoms, respectively. However, when both implicit and explicit predictors were entered into a regression equation simultaneously, only the explicit measure interacted with stress to remain a unique predictor of depressive symptoms over the five-week prospective interval.

  11. Attachment Style Predicts Affect, Cognitive Appraisals, and Social Functioning in Daily Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara eSheinbaum

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for one week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants’ momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the Attachment Style Interview and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.

  12. Evidence for the triadic model of adolescent brain development: Cognitive load and task-relevance of emotion differentially affect adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven C. Mueller

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In adults, cognitive control is supported by several brain regions including the limbic system and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC when processing emotional information. However, in adolescents, some theories hypothesize a neurobiological imbalance proposing heightened sensitivity to affective material in the amygdala and striatum within a cognitive control context. Yet, direct neurobiological evidence is scarce. Twenty-four adolescents (12–16 and 28 adults (25–35 completed an emotional n-back working memory task in response to happy, angry, and neutral faces during fMRI. Importantly, participants either paid attention to the emotion (task-relevant condition or judged the gender (task-irrelevant condition. Behaviorally, for both groups, when happy faces were task-relevant, performance improved relative to when they were task-irrelevant, while performance decrements were seen for angry faces. In the dlPFC, angry faces elicited more activation in adults during low relative to high cognitive load (2-back vs. 0-back. By contrast, happy faces elicited more activation in the amygdala in adolescents when they were task-relevant. Happy faces also generally increased nucleus accumbens activity (regardless of relevance in adolescents relative to adults. Together, the findings are consistent with neurobiological models of adolescent brain development and identify neurodevelopmental differences in cognitive control emotion interactions.

  13. Explaining female offending and prosocial behavior: the role of empathy and cognitive distortions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Langen, M.A.M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Van Vugt, E.S.; Wissink, I.B.; Asscher, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was threefold: to examine (1) the relation between both cognitive and affective empathy and prosocial behavior; (2) the relation between both cognitive and affective empathy and offending; and (3) the role of cognitive distortions in the relation between cognitive

  14. Cognitive-emotional reactivation during deep transcranial magnetic stimulation over the prefrontal cortex of depressive patients affects antidepressant outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isserles, Moshe; Rosenberg, Oded; Dannon, Pinchas; Levkovitz, Yechiel; Kotler, Moshe; Deutsch, Frederic; Lerer, Bernard; Zangen, Abraham

    2011-02-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) enables non-surgical activation of specific brain areas. TMS over the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is emerging as a significant tool that can augment or replace non/partially effective antidepressant medications. Deep TMS (DTMS) utilizes newly developed coils that enable effective stimulation of deeper cortical layers involved in the pathophysiology of depression. We aimed to assess the H1-DTMS coil as an add-on to antidepressants in treating patients with major depression. We also intended to evaluate whether the antidepressant outcome of DTMS treatment is affected by a cognitive-emotional procedure performed during stimulation. 57 patients were enrolled in the study that included 4 weeks of daily 20 Hz stimulation sessions and additional 4 weekly sessions as a short maintenance phase. Two subgroups of patients received either positive or negative cognitive-emotional reactivation along with the stimulation sessions. 21 of 46 patients (46%) who received at least 10 stimulation sessions achieved response (improvement of ≥ 50% in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS)) and 13 of them (28%) achieved remission (HDRS-24 ≤ 10) by the end of the daily treatment phase. Improvements were smaller in the negatively reactivated group and Beck Depression Inventory scores were not significantly improved in this group. DTMS over the PFC proved to be safe and effective in augmenting antidepressant medications. Negative cognitive-emotional reactivation can disrupt the therapeutic effect of DTMS. A large sham controlled study is required to further establish the effectiveness of DTMS as an augmentation treatment and the role of cognitive reactivation during stimulation. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rethinking the cognitive revolution from a neural perspective: how overuse/misuse of the term 'cognition' and the neglect of affective controls in behavioral neuroscience could be delaying progress in understanding the BrainMind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Howard Casey; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    Words such as cognition, motivation and emotion powerfully guide theory development and the overall aims and goals of behavioral neuroscience research. Once such concepts are accepted generally as natural aspects of the brain, their influence can be pervasive and long lasting. Importantly, the choice of conceptual terms used to describe and study mental/neural functions can also constrain research by forcing the results into seemingly useful 'conceptual' categories that have no discrete reality in the brain. Since the popularly named 'cognitive revolution' in psychological science came to fruition in the early 1970s, the term cognitive or cognition has been perhaps the most widely used conceptual term in behavioral neuroscience. These terms, similar to other conceptual terms, have potential value if utilized appropriately. We argue that recently the term cognition has been both overused and misused. This has led to problems in developing a usable shared definition for the term and to promotion of possible misdirections in research within behavioral neuroscience. In addition, we argue that cognitive-guided research influenced primarily by top-down (cortical toward subcortical) perspectives without concurrent non-cognitive modes of bottom-up developmental thinking, could hinder progress in the search for new treatments and medications for psychiatric illnesses and neurobehavioral disorders. Overall, linkages of animal research insights to human psychology may be better served by bottom-up (subcortical to cortical) affective and motivational 'state-control' perspectives, simply because the lower networks of the brain are foundational for the construction of higher 'information-processing' aspects of mind. Moving forward, rapidly expanding new techniques and creative methods in neuroscience along with more accurate brain concepts, may help guide the development of new therapeutics and hopefully more accurate ways to describe and explain brain-behavior relationships

  16. Experimental investigation of cognitive and affective empathy in borderline personality disorder: Effects of ambiguity in multimodal social information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedtfeld, Inga

    2017-07-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by affective instability and interpersonal problems. In the context of social interaction, impairments in empathy are proposed to result in inadequate social behavior. In contrast to findings of reduced cognitive empathy, some authors suggested enhanced emotional empathy in BPD. It was investigated whether ambiguity leads to decreased cognitive or emotional empathy in BPD. Thirty-four patients with BPD and thirty-two healthy controls were presented with video clips, which were presented through prosody, facial expression, and speech content. Experimental conditions were designed to induce ambiguity by presenting neutral valence in one of these communication channels. Subjects were asked to indicate the actors' emotional valence, their decision confidence, and their own emotional state. BPD patients showed increased emotional empathy when neutral stories comprised nonverbally expressed emotions. In contrast, when all channels were emotional, patients showed lower emotional empathy than healthy controls. Regarding cognitive empathy, there were no significant differences between BPD patients and healthy control subjects in recognition accuracy, but reduced decision confidence in BPD. These results suggest that patients with BPD show altered emotional empathy, experiencing higher rates of emotional contagion when emotions are expressed nonverbally. The latter may contribute to misunderstandings and inadequate social behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for persistent pain: does adherence after treatment affect outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Charlotte; Williams, Amanda C de C; Potts, Henry W W

    2009-02-01

    It is a tenet of cognitive behavioral treatment of persistent pain problems that ex-patients should adhere to treatment methods over the longer term, in order to maintain and to extend treatment gains. However, no research has quantified the causal influence of adherence on short-term outcome in this field. The aims of this study are to assess determinants of adherence to treatment recommendations in several domains, and to examine the extent to which cognitive and behavioral adherence predicts better outcome of cognitive behavioral treatment for persistent pain. Longitudinal data from a sample of 2345 persistent pain patients who attended a multicomponent treatment programme were subjected to structural equation modeling. Adherence emerged as a mediating factor linking post-treatment and follow-up treatment outcome, but contributed only 3% unique variance to follow-up outcomes. Combined end-of-treatment outcomes and adherence factors accounted for 72% of the variance in outcome at one-month follow-up. Notwithstanding shortcomings in the measurement of adherence, these findings question the emphasis normally given to adherence in the maintenance of behavioral and cognitive change, and clinical implications are discussed.

  18. Early Social Cognition in Three Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Tara; Moll, Henrike; Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Liszkowski, Ulf; Behne, Tanya; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The influence of culture on cognitive development is well established for school age and older children. But almost nothing is known about how different parenting and socialization practices in different cultures affect infants' and young children's earliest emerging cognitive and social-cognitive skills. In the current monograph, we report a…

  19. Interplay of Cognitive Efficiency, Cognitive Ability and Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Piks

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current body of research often focuses on the problem of cognitive decline through ageing. People adapt to these changes of cognitive resources by using brain reserve. An overview of results of different studies on how cognitive abilities of older adults decline highlights high variability of conclusions and sometimes contradiction but it has been shown older adults can be as good as or even better than younger participants in specific domains. Among others, personal meaningfulness of a situation and closeness to the researcher can be strong factors when assessing cognitive abilities and the aim of this paper was to research how these effect cognitive efficiency. In the pilot study we eliminated the factor of laboratory setting and checked how cognitive efficiency and abilities change in relation to motivation. Forty-eight participants, divided into two age groups, were asked to pass a proverb interpretation test. The results showed that participant’s subjective view on the researcher, perceived closeness, correlated with the adequacy in proverb interpretation. Both groups scored higher on adequacy of interpretation when they perceived to be close to the researcher. The younger adults outperformed the older but those in the older adults’ group, who felt to be close to the researcher scored as well as younger adults who didn’t perceived to be close to the researcher. This motivational reserve might play a role in assessing cognitive abilities and pathologies that affect the outcome of neuropsychological tests.

  20. Affective-cognitive consistency of attitude as a moderator of the job satisfaction-performance relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deléne Visser

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Past research has often shown that job satisfaction and job performance are uncorrelated. The current study was an attempt to clarify the relationship by examining the role of affective-cognitive consistency (ACC to test whether attitudinal consistency affects the strength of the relationship. A secondary objective was to assess whether modified versions of the Overall Job Satisfaction Scale (OJS and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ, administered to 166 full-time employees from a variety of companies, may be regarded as affective and cognitive measures of job satisfaction respectively. This view was supported by means of exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic results. Overall job satisfaction was measured by a composite of the modified OJS and MSQ, and job performance was rated on a 10-point scale by the employees’ supervisors. Respondents’ scores on the modified OJS and MSQ were then used to form groups that were high or low in ACC. For employees who displayed high ACC regarding their job satisfaction attitudes, medium to large positive correlations between the job satisfaction measures and performance were obtained. In contrast, non-significant correlations were recorded for the low ACC groups. The hypothesis that ACC is a significant moderator of the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance was therefore supported. Opsomming Vorige navorsing het dikwels getoon dat werktevredenheid en werkprestasie nie korreleer nie. Dié ondersoek was ’n poging om lig te werp op hierdie verwantskap deur die rol van affektiewe-kognitiewe konsekwentheid (AKK te ondersoek ten einde te toets of houdingkonsekwentheid die sterkte van die verwantskap beïnvloed. ’n Sekondêre doelwit was om te bepaal of gewysigde weergawes van die Overall Job Satisfaction Scale (OJS en die Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ, toegepas op 166 voltydse werknemers van ’n verskeidenheid ondernemings, as affektiewe en kognitiewe metings

  1. Neuroanatomic changes and their association with cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Kleiman, Alexandra; Schulz, Jörg B.; Schneider, Frank; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Reetz, Kathrin

    2011-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an acquired syndrome characterised by cognitive decline not affecting activities of daily living. Using a quantitative meta-analytic approach, we aimed to identify consistent neuroanatomic correlates of MCI and how they are related to cognitive dysfunction. The meta-analysis enrols 22 studies, involving 917 MCI (848 amnestic MCI) patients and 809 healthy controls. Only studies investigating local changes in grey matter and reporting whole-brain results in st...

  2. Specificity of Cognitive Vulnerability in Fear and Sad Affect: Anxiety Sensitivity, Looming Cognitive Style and Hopelessness in Emotion Reactivity and Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Clark, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive models of the pathogenesis of anxiety and depressive disorders identify looming cognitive style (LCS) and anxiety sensitivity (AS) as vulnerability factors specifically related to anxiety disorders, whereas hopelessness (HS) is considered more applicable to depression. Given...... their dimensional perspective most cognitive models of psychopathology may also be extended to explain normal emotional responses. To investigate the effect of cognitive vulnerability on the reactivity and regulation of negative emotion, 183 undergraduates were assigned to watch a sad or fearful movie clip. Then......, all participants retrieved positive memories in an expressive writing task. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that LCS was uniquely associated with greater fear reactivity. AS and HS were significant predictors of greater fear and sadness after a down-regulation task, respectively...

  3. Cognitive Function | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because chemicals can adversely affect cognitive function in humans, considerable effort has been made to characterize their effects using animal models. Information from such models will be necessary to: evaluate whether chemicals identified as potentially neurotoxic by screening methods actually do affect cognitive function; identify and characterize the mechanisms or pathways by which effects at these targets lead to cognitive dysfunction; address issues of susceptibility and variability, which require understanding the compensations and interactions that only a whole organism can engage; and improve our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of cognitive function.This chapter has several purposes. First, it provides working definitions of cognitive functions, such as learning, memory and attention, in terms frequently used by behavioral toxicologists. It is important to have a common vocabulary to assess methods used in this area of research. Second, it presents an overview of some of the procedures commonly used in behavioral toxicology to assess the effects of chemicals on cognitive function in animals. It should be noted that this overview is not intended to be comprehensive or complete, but is intended to illustrate specific points by discussing examples. Finally, this chapter discusses some critical experimental and conceptual variables that are important for studies on chemical-induced cognitive dysfunction, and touches on the potential p

  4. Disentangling cognition and emotion in older adults: the role of cognitive control and mental health in emotional conflict adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantke, Nathan C; Gyurak, Anett; Van Moorleghem, Katie; Waring, Jill D; Adamson, Maheen M; O'Hara, Ruth; Beaudreau, Sherry A

    2017-08-01

    Recent research suggests cognition has a bidirectional relationship with emotional processing in older adults, yet the relationship is still poorly understood. We aimed to examine a potential relationship between late-life cognitive function, mental health symptoms, and emotional conflict adaptation. We hypothesized that worse cognitive control abilities would be associated with poorer emotional conflict adaptation. We further hypothesized that a higher severity of mental health symptoms would be associated with poorer emotional conflict adaptation. Participants included 83 cognitively normal community-dwelling older adults who completed a targeted mental health and cognitive battery, and emotion and gender conflict-adaptation tasks. Consistent with our hypothesis, poorer performance on components of cognitive control, specifically attention and working memory, was associated with poorer emotional conflict adaptation. This association with attention and working memory was not observed in the non-affective-based gender conflict adaptation task. Mental health symptoms did not predict emotional conflict adaptation, nor did performance on other cognitive measures. Our findings suggest that emotion conflict adaptation is disrupted in older individuals who have poorer attention and working memory. Components of cognitive control may therefore be an important potential source of inter-individual differences in late-life emotion regulation and cognitive affective deficits. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The effects of reward and punishment in violent video games on aggressive affect, cognition, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnagey, Nicholas L; Anderson, Craig A

    2005-11-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of rewarding and punishing violent actions in video games on later aggression-related variables. Participants played one of three versions of the same race-car video game: (a) a version in which all violence was rewarded, (b) a version in which all violence was punished, and (c) a nonviolent version. Participants were then measured for aggressive affect (Experiment 1), aggressive cognition (Experiment 2), and aggressive behavior (Experiment 3). Rewarding violent game actions increased hostile emotion, aggressive thinking, and aggressive behavior. Punishing violent actions increased hostile emotion, but did not increase aggressive thinking or aggressive behavior. Results suggest that games that reward violent actions can increase aggressive behavior by increasing aggressive thinking.

  6. A randomized trial of a cognitive-behavioral therapy and hypnosis intervention on positive and negative affect during breast cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnur, Julie B; David, Daniel; Kangas, Maria; Green, Sheryl; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Montgomery, Guy H

    2009-04-01

    Breast cancer radiotherapy can be an emotionally difficult experience. Despite this, few studies have examined the effectiveness of psychological interventions to reduce negative affect, and none to date have explicitly examined interventions to improve positive affect among breast cancer radiotherapy patients. The present study examined the effectiveness of a multimodal psychotherapeutic approach, combining cognitive-behavioral therapy and hypnosis (CBTH), to reduce negative affect and increase positive affect in 40 women undergoing breast cancer radiotherapy. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either CBTH or standard care. Participants completed weekly self-report measures of positive and negative affect. Repeated and univariate analyses of variance revealed that the CBTH approach reduced levels of negative affect [F(1, 38)=13.49; p=.0007, omega(2)=.56], and increased levels of positive affect [F(1, 38)=9.67; p=.0035, omega(2)=.48], during the course of radiotherapy. Additionally, relative to the control group, the CBTH group demonstrated significantly more intense positive affect [F(1, 38)=7.09; p=.0113, d=.71] and significantly less intense negative affect [F(1, 38)=10.30; p=.0027, d=.90] during radiotherapy. The CBTH group also had a significantly higher frequency of days where positive affect was greater than negative affect (85% of days assessed for the CBTH group versus 43% of the Control group) [F(1, 38)=18.16; p=.0001, d=1.16]. Therefore, the CBTH intervention has the potential to improve the affective experience of women undergoing breast cancer radiotherapy.

  7. Bipolar Disorder and Cognitive Dysfunction: A Complex Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Danti, Sabrina; Carlesi, Cecilia; Cammisuli, Davide Maria; Di Fiorino, Mario

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this article was to describe the current evidence regarding phenomenon of cognitive functioning and dementia in bipolar disorder (BD). Cochrane Library and PubMed searches were conducted for relevant articles, chapters, and books published before 2016. Search terms used included "bipolar disorder," "cognitive dysfunction," and "dementia." At the end of the selection process, 159 studies were included in our qualitative synthesis. As result, cognitive impairments in BD have been previously considered as infrequent and limited to the affective episodes. Nowadays, there is evidence of stable and lasting cognitive dysfunctions in all phases of BD, including remission phase, particularly in the following domains: attention, memory, and executive functions. The cause of cognitive impairment in BD raises the question if it subtends a neurodevelopmental or a neurodegenerative process. Impaired cognitive functioning associated with BD may contribute significantly to functional disability, in addition to the distorted affective component usually emphasized.

  8. Cognitive Management: Theory and Practice in the Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Nikulina, I.E.; Khomenko, I.V.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of modern management cognitive management is considered as one of the innovative trends. Management activities in cognitive management are carried out through tools affecting human cognitive capabilities. The subject field of cognitive management is the process of managing organizational knowledge, which is possible in the information society and is most effective in a social environment.

  9. Education amplifies brain atrophy effect on cognitive decline: implications for cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Dan; Gavett, Brandon; Fletcher, Evan; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; DeCarli, Charles; Reed, Bruce

    2018-08-01

    Level of education is often regarded as a proxy for cognitive reserve in older adults. This implies that brain degeneration has a smaller effect on cognitive decline in those with more education, but this has not been directly tested in previous research. We examined how education, quantitative magnetic resonance imaging-based measurement of brain degeneration, and their interaction affect cognitive decline in diverse older adults spanning the spectrum from normal cognition to dementia. Gray matter atrophy was strongly related to cognitive decline. While education was not related to cognitive decline, brain atrophy had a stronger effect on cognitive decline in those with more education. Importantly, high education was associated with slower decline in individuals with lesser atrophy but with faster decline in those with greater atrophy. This moderation effect was observed in Hispanics (who had high heterogeneity of education) but not in African-Americans or Caucasians. These results suggest that education is an indicator of cognitive reserve in individuals with low levels of brain degeneration, but the protective effect of higher education is rapidly depleted as brain degeneration progresses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive and affective empathy in children with conduct problems: additive and interactive effects of callous-unemotional traits and autism spectrum disorders symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalich, Dave S; Dadds, Mark R; Hawes, David J

    2014-11-30

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) symptoms are characterized by problems in empathy; however, these behavioral features are rarely examined together in children with conduct problems. This study investigated additive and interactive effects of CU traits and ASD symptoms in relation to cognitive and affective empathy in a non-ASD clinic-referred sample. Participants were 134 children aged 3 to 9 years (M=5.60; 79% boys) with oppositional defiant/conduct disorder, and their parents. Clinicians, teachers, and parents reported on dimensions of child behavior, and parental reports of family dysfunction and direct observations of parental warmth/responsiveness assessed quality of family relationships. Results from multiple regression analysis showed that, over and above the effects of child conduct problem severity and quality of family relationships, both ASD symptoms and CU traits were uniquely associated with deficits in cognitive empathy. Moreover, CU traits demonstrated an independent association with affective empathy, and this relationship was moderated by ASD symptoms. That is, there was a stronger negative association between CU traits and affective empathy at higher versus lower levels of ASD symptoms. These findings suggest including both CU traits and ASD-related social impairments in models delineating the atypical development of empathy in children with conduct problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. tDCS over the left prefrontal cortex enhances cognitive control for positive affective stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Raedt, Rudi; Brunoni, Andre R; Campanhã, Camila; Baeken, Chris; Remue, Jonathan; Boggio, Paulo S

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulation technique with promising results for enhancing cognitive information processes. So far, however, research has mainly focused on the effects of tDCS on cognitive control operations for non-emotional material. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects on cognitive control considering negative versus positive material. For this sham-controlled, within-subjects study, we selected a homogeneous sample of twenty-five healthy participants. By using behavioral measures and event related potentials (ERP) as indexes, we aimed to investigate whether a single session of anodal tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) would have specific effects in enhancing cognitive control for positive and negative valenced stimuli. After tDCS over the left DLPFC (and not sham control stimulation), we observed more negative N450 amplitudes along with faster reaction times when inhibiting a habitual response to happy compared to sad facial expressions. Gender did not influence the effects of tDCS on cognitive control for emotional information. In line with the Valence Theory of side-lateralized activity, this stimulation protocol might have led to a left dominant (relative to right) prefrontal cortical activity, resulting in augmented cognitive control specifically for positive relative to negative stimuli. To verify that tDCS induces effects that are in line with all aspects of the well known Valence Theory, future research should investigate the effects of tDCS over the left vs. right DLPFC on cognitive control for emotional information.

  12. COMT val108/158 met genotype affects neural but not cognitive processing in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Nancy A; Need, Anna C; LaBar, Kevin S; Waters-Metenier, Sheena; Cirulli, Elizabeth T; Kragel, James; Goldstein, David B; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    The relationship between cognition and a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methlytransferase (COMT) gene, val108/158met, is one of debate in the literature. Furthermore, based on the dopaminergic differences associated with the COMT val108/158met genotype, neural differences during cognition may be present, regardless of genotypic differences in cognitive performance. To investigate these issues the current study aimed to 1) examine the effects of COMT genotype using a large sample of healthy individuals (n = 496-1218) and multiple cognitive measures, and using a subset of the sample (n = 22), 2) examine whether COMT genotype effects medial temporal lobe (MTL) and frontal activity during successful relational memory processing, and 3) investigate group differences in functional connectivity associated with successful relational memory processing. Results revealed no significant group difference in cognitive performance between COMT genotypes in any of the 19 cognitive measures. However, in the subset sample, COMT val homozygotes exhibited significantly decreased MTL and increased prefrontal activity during both successful relational encoding and retrieval, and reduced connectivity between these regions compared with met homozygotes. Taken together, the results suggest that although the COMT val108/158met genotype has no effect on cognitive behavioral measures in healthy individuals, it is associated with differences in neural process underlying cognitive output.

  13. Evidence for the triadic model of adolescent brain development: Cognitive load and task-relevance of emotion differentially affect adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sven C; Cromheeke, Sofie; Siugzdaite, Roma; Nicolas Boehler, C

    2017-08-01

    In adults, cognitive control is supported by several brain regions including the limbic system and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) when processing emotional information. However, in adolescents, some theories hypothesize a neurobiological imbalance proposing heightened sensitivity to affective material in the amygdala and striatum within a cognitive control context. Yet, direct neurobiological evidence is scarce. Twenty-four adolescents (12-16) and 28 adults (25-35) completed an emotional n-back working memory task in response to happy, angry, and neutral faces during fMRI. Importantly, participants either paid attention to the emotion (task-relevant condition) or judged the gender (task-irrelevant condition). Behaviorally, for both groups, when happy faces were task-relevant, performance improved relative to when they were task-irrelevant, while performance decrements were seen for angry faces. In the dlPFC, angry faces elicited more activation in adults during low relative to high cognitive load (2-back vs. 0-back). By contrast, happy faces elicited more activation in the amygdala in adolescents when they were task-relevant. Happy faces also generally increased nucleus accumbens activity (regardless of relevance) in adolescents relative to adults. Together, the findings are consistent with neurobiological models of adolescent brain development and identify neurodevelopmental differences in cognitive control emotion interactions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Maladaptive Five Factor Model personality traits associated with Borderline Personality Disorder indirectly affect susceptibility to suicide ideation through increased anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Greg J; Smith, Caitlin E; Capron, Dan W; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N; Wingate, LaRicka R

    2016-12-30

    The current study investigated the relationship between maladaptive Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, and suicide ideation in a sample of 131 undergraduate students who were selected based on their scores on a screening questionnaire regarding Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) symptoms. Those who endorsed elevated BPD symptoms in a pre-screen analyses completed at the beginning of each semester were oversampled in comparison to those with low or moderate symptoms. Indirect effect (mediation) results indicated that the maladaptive personality traits of anxious/uncertainty, dysregulated anger, self-disturbance, behavioral dysregulation, dissociative tendencies, distrust, manipulativeness, oppositional, and rashness had indirect effects on suicide ideation through anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. All of these personality traits correlated to suicide ideation as well. The maladaptive personality traits of despondence, affective dysregulation, and fragility were positive correlates of suicide ideation and predicted suicide ideation when all traits were entered in one linear regression model, but were not indirectly related through anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. The implication for targeting anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns in evidence-based practices for reducing suicide risk in those with BPD is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cognitive impairment in anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Volel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are an important biomedical problem due to the high prevalence and significant negative impact on the quality of life and the course of concomitant somatic and neurological diseases. Cognitive impairment (CI is one of the most intensively studied aspects of pathological anxiety. Impairments in attention, executive functions, memory, cognitive deficit, as well as abnormal cognitions and metacognitions are identified in anxiety disorders. Moreover, the treatment of the latter with the most frequently used drugs (antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, tranquilizers does not lead to a significant improvement in cognitive functions, and often contributes to their worsening. In this connection, in addition to psychotherapy, cognitive function-improving agents play a large role in treating anxiety diseases associated with cognitive dysfunction. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb 761, Tanakan® that positively affects cognitive functions, especially in the domains of memory, concentration and attention deserves special attention.

  16. Ketogenic diets and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phinney SD

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Impaired physical performance is a common but not obligate result of a low carbohydrate diet. Lessons from traditional Inuit culture indicate that time for adaptation, optimized sodium and potassium nutriture, and constraint of protein to 15-25 % of daily energy expenditure allow unimpaired endurance performance despite nutritional ketosis.

  17. Cognitive and affective determinants of decisions to attend a group psychosocial support program for women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Linda D; Booth, Roger J; Schlatter, Melanie; Ziginskas, Danute; Harman, John E; Benson, Stephen R C

    2005-01-01

    This prospective study assesses the roles of illness beliefs, emotion regulation factors, and sociodemographic characteristics in decisions to participate in a group support program for women recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Women recruited during clinic visits 2 to 4 weeks after diagnosis completed measures of affective and cognitive factors identified by Leventhal's Common-Sense Model of illness self-regulation: cancer-related distress, avoidance tendencies, beliefs that the breast cancer was caused by stress and altered immunity, and personal control beliefs. Measures of general anxiety and depression, social support, and demographic characteristics were also completed; prognostic status information was obtained from medical records. All women were encouraged to participate in a free, 12-week program offering coping skills training and group support. Participation was recorded by program staff. Of the 110 women, 54 (49%) participated in the group support program and 56 (51%) did not. Logistic regression analyses revealed that participation was predicted by stronger beliefs that the cancer was caused by altered immunity, higher cancer-related distress, lower avoidance tendencies, and younger age. Participation in the group psychosocial support program appeared to be guided by cognitive and affective factors identified by the Common-Sense Model. Psychosocial support programs and informational materials promoting their use may attract more participants if they are tailored to focus on resolving cancer-related distress rather than on general anxiety or depression, appeal to those with high avoidance tendencies, address the role of immune function in cancer progression, and meet the needs of older participants.

  18. The role of motivation and metacognition on the development of cognitive and affective responses in physical education les-sons: A self-determination approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Karagiannidis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the role of motivation and metacognition in the formation of cognitive and affective outcomes from participation in physical education lessons within the framework of self-determination theory. A sample of 630 adolescents (M age = 14.06, SD = .29 participated in the study. Participants completed questionnaires including measures of perceived autonomy support in PE, autonomous motivation in PE, metacognitive processes in PE, enjoyment, boredom in PE and intention for leisure-time physical activity. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that perceptions of autonomy supportive motivational climate significantly predicted enjoyment, boredom and intentions towards leisure-time physical activity. In addition autonomous motivation and metacognition significantly predicted enjoyment, boredom and intentions, whereas controlling motivation was a significant predictor of boredom. Multiple mediation modeling indicated that perceptions of autonomy supporting climate on these responses was mediated mainly by autonomous motivation and metacognition. The findings of the present study provide valuable information on the mediating role of autonomous motivation and metacognition on the effects of autonomy supportive motivational climate on students’ cognitive and affective responses during physical education lessons.

  19. tDCS over the left prefrontal cortex enhances cognitive control for positive affective stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt

    Full Text Available Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS is a neuromodulation technique with promising results for enhancing cognitive information processes. So far, however, research has mainly focused on the effects of tDCS on cognitive control operations for non-emotional material. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects on cognitive control considering negative versus positive material. For this sham-controlled, within-subjects study, we selected a homogeneous sample of twenty-five healthy participants. By using behavioral measures and event related potentials (ERP as indexes, we aimed to investigate whether a single session of anodal tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC would have specific effects in enhancing cognitive control for positive and negative valenced stimuli. After tDCS over the left DLPFC (and not sham control stimulation, we observed more negative N450 amplitudes along with faster reaction times when inhibiting a habitual response to happy compared to sad facial expressions. Gender did not influence the effects of tDCS on cognitive control for emotional information. In line with the Valence Theory of side-lateralized activity, this stimulation protocol might have led to a left dominant (relative to right prefrontal cortical activity, resulting in augmented cognitive control specifically for positive relative to negative stimuli. To verify that tDCS induces effects that are in line with all aspects of the well known Valence Theory, future research should investigate the effects of tDCS over the left vs. right DLPFC on cognitive control for emotional information.

  20. The effects of exercise under hypoxia on cognitive function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichi Ando

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that cognitive function improves during a single bout of moderate exercise. In contrast, exercise under hypoxia may compromise the availability of oxygen. Given that brain function and tissue integrity are dependent on a continuous and sufficient oxygen supply, exercise under hypoxia may impair cognitive function. However, it remains unclear how exercise under hypoxia affects cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise under different levels of hypoxia on cognitive function. Twelve participants performed a cognitive task at rest and during exercise at various fractions of inspired oxygen (FIO2: 0.209, 0.18, and 0.15. Exercise intensity corresponded to 60% of peak oxygen uptake under normoxia. The participants performed a Go/No-Go task requiring executive control. Cognitive function was evaluated using the speed of response (reaction time and response accuracy. We monitored pulse oximetric saturation (SpO2 and cerebral oxygenation to assess oxygen availability. SpO2 and cerebral oxygenation progressively decreased during exercise as the FIO2 level decreased. Nevertheless, the reaction time in the Go-trial significantly decreased during moderate exercise. Hypoxia did not affect reaction time. Neither exercise nor difference in FIO2 level affected response accuracy. An additional experiment indicated that cognitive function was not altered without exercise. These results suggest that the improvement in cognitive function is attributable to exercise, and that hypoxia has no effects on cognitive function at least under the present experimental condition. Exercise-cognition interaction should be further investigated under various environmental and exercise conditions.

  1. Learning Technologies: Affective and Social Issues in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ann; Issroff, Kim

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with "affective" issues in learning technologies in a collaborative context. Traditionally in learning there has been a division between cognition and affect: where cognition is concerned with skills and processes such as thinking and problem-solving and affect with emotional areas such as motivation, attitudes, feelings.…

  2. Case Report: Evaluation strategies and cognitive intervention: the case of a monovular twin child affected by selective mutism [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela Capobianco

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the assessment process, evaluation strategies, and cognitive intervention on a 9 years old child with selective mutism (SM, a monovular twin of a child also affected by mutism. Currently, the cognitive behavioral multimodal treatment seems the most effective therapeutic approach for children diagnosed with selective mutism (Capobianco & Cerniglia, 2018. The illustrated case confirms the role of biological factors involved in mutacic disorder but also highlights the importance of environmental influences in the maintenance of the disorder with respect to relational and contextual dynamics (e.g. complicity between sisters, family relationships. The article discusses furthermore the importance of an early diagnosis as a predictor of positive treatment outcomes.

  3. Affective privilege: Asymmetric interference by emotional distracters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal eReeck

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous theories posit that affectively salient stimuli are privileged in their capacity to capture attention and disrupt ongoing cognition. Two underlying assumptions in this theoretical position are that the potency of affective stimuli transcends task boundaries (i.e., emotional distracters do not have to belong to a current task-set to disrupt processing and that there is an asymmetry between emotional and cognitive processing (i.e., emotional distracters disrupt cognitive processing, but not vice versa. These assumptions have remained largely untested, as common experimental probes of emotion-cognition interaction rarely manipulate task-relevance and only examine one side of the presumed asymmetry of interference. To test these propositions directly, a face-word Stroop protocol was adapted to independently manipulate (a the congruency between target and distracter stimulus features, (b the affective salience of distracter features, and (c the task-relevance of emotional compared to non-emotional target features. A three-way interaction revealed interdependent effects of distracter relevance, congruence, and affective salience. Compared to task-irrelevant distracters, task-relevant congruent distracters facilitated performance and task-relevant incongruent distracters impaired performance, but the latter effect depended on the nature of the target feature and task. Specifically, task-irrelevant emotional distracters resulted in equivalent performance costs as task-relevant non-emotional distracters, whereas task-irrelevant non-emotional distracters did not produce performance costs comparable to those generated by task-relevant emotional distracters. These results document asymmetric cross-task interference effects for affectively salient stimuli, supporting the notion of affective prioritization in human information processing.

  4. Does bilingualism contribute to cognitive reserve? Cognitive and neural perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Tranel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive reserve refers to how individuals actively utilize neural resources to cope with neuropathology to maintain cognitive functioning. The present review aims to critically examine the literature addressing the relationship between bilingualism and cognitive reserve to elucidate whether bilingualism delays the onset of cognitive and behavioral manifestations of dementia. Potential neural mechanisms behind this relationship are discussed. PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched (through January 2014) for original research articles in English or Spanish languages. The following search strings were used as keywords for study retrieval: "bilingual AND reserve," "reserve AND neural mechanisms," and "reserve AND multilingualism." Growing scientific evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve and delays the onset of Alzheimer's disease symptoms, allowing bilingual individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease to live an independent and richer life for a longer time than their monolingual counterparts. Lifelong bilingualism is related to more efficient use of brain resources that help individuals maintain cognitive functioning in the presence of neuropathology. We propose multiple putative neural mechanisms through which lifelong bilinguals cope with neuropathology. The roles of immigration status, education, age of onset, proficiency, and frequency of language use on the relationship between cognitive reserve and bilingualism are considered. Implications of these results for preventive practices and future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Does Bilingualism Contribute to Cognitive Reserve? Cognitive and Neural Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Tranel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cognitive reserve refers to how individuals actively utilize neural resources to cope with neuropathology in order to maintain cognitive functioning. The present review aims to critically examine the literature addressing the relationship between bilingualism and cognitive reserve in order to elucidate whether bilingualism delays the onset of cognitive and behavioral manifestations of dementia. Potential neural mechanisms behind this relationship are discussed. Method Pubmed and PsychINFO databases were searched (through January 2014) for original research articles in English or Spanish languages. The following search strings were employed as keywords for study retrieval: ‘bilingual AND reserve’, ‘reserve AND neural mechanisms’, and ‘reserve AND multilingualism’. Results Growing scientific evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve and delays the onset of Alzheimer's disease symptoms, allowing bilingual individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease to live an independent and richer life for a longer time than their monolingual counterparts. Lifelong bilingualism is related to more efficient use of brain resources that help individuals maintain cognitive functioning in the presence of neuropathology. We propose multiple putative neural mechanisms through which lifelong bilinguals cope with neuropathology. The roles of immigration status, education, age of onset, proficiency and frequency of language use on the relationship between cognitive reserve and bilingualism are considered. Conclusions Implications of these results for preventive practices and future research are discussed. PMID:24933492

  6. Affect and mathematical problem solving a new perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Verna

    1989-01-01

    Research on cognitive aspects of mathematical problem solving has made great progress in recent years, but the relationship of affective factors to problem-solving performance has been a neglected research area. The purpose of Affect and Mathematical Problem Solving: A New Perspective is to show how the theories and methods of cognitive science can be extended to include the role of affect in mathematical problem solving. The book presents Mandler's theory of emotion and explores its implications for the learning and teaching of mathematical problem solving. Also, leading researchers from mathematics, education, and psychology report how they have integrated affect into their own cognitive research. The studies focus on metacognitive processes, aesthetic influences on expert problem solvers, teacher decision-making, technology and teaching problem solving, and beliefs about mathematics. The results suggest how emotional factors like anxiety, frustration, joy, and satisfaction can help or hinder performance in...

  7. Cognitions in bipolar affective disorder and unipolar depression: imagining suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Susie A; Deeprose, Catherine; Goodwin, Guy M; Holmes, Emily A

    2011-01-01

    Bipolar disorder has the highest rate of suicide of all the psychiatric disorders. In unipolar depression, individuals report vivid, affect-laden images of suicide or the aftermath of death (flashforwards to suicide) during suicidal ideation but this phenomenon has not been explored in bipolar disorder. Therefore the authors investigated and compared imagery and verbal thoughts related to past suicidality in individuals with bipolar disorder (n = 20) and unipolar depression (n = 20). The study used a quasi-experimental comparative design. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used to confirm diagnoses. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered through questionnaire measures (e.g., mood and trait imagery use). Individual interviews assessed suicidal cognitions in the form of (i) mental images and (ii) verbal thoughts. All participants reported imagining flashforwards to suicide. Both groups reported greater preoccupation with these suicide-related images than with verbal thoughts about suicide. However, compared to the unipolar group, the bipolar group were significantly more preoccupied with flashforward imagery, rated this imagery as more compelling, and were more than twice as likely to report that the images made them want to take action to complete suicide. In addition, the bipolar group reported a greater trait propensity to use mental imagery in general. Suicidal ideation needs to be better characterized, and mental imagery of suicide has been a neglected but potentially critical feature of suicidal ideation, particularly in bipolar disorder. Our findings suggest that flashforward imagery warrants further investigation for formal universal clinical assessment procedures. © 2011 John Wiley and Sons A/S.

  8. Analysis of affective disorders in patients with vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Zakharchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The outpatient records of 147 patients followed up for diagnosed vascular dementia were analyzed to assess the relationship between affective disorders and severe cognitive impairments. It was found that 7% of the examinees had a history of depressive states. Estimating the development time for vascular dementia could divide the patients into 2 groups: 1 60% of the patients in whom cognitive impairments began to determine its clinical picture just within the first 2 years after identification of affective disorders and 2 40%, in whom cognitive impairments occurred 10—20 years later. In both groups, mental disorders occurred at an equal age in the presence of depressive disorders; in Group 1, vascular dementia developed nearly twice as often as that in Group 2. At the same time, the occurrence of cognitive impairments in Group 1 patients just in the early disease stages is indicative of the organic genesis of affective disorders, as confirmed by the moderately rapid progression of psychopathological symptoms, such as sharpening of personality traits, increased rigidity of psychic processes, emotional lability, variations in affective symptomatology, inadequate remissions, and the presence of neurological symptoms. Another type of a ratio of depressive to severe cognitive disorders was found in the elderly persons in Group 2. The long existence of affective disorders without signs of cognitive diminution leads one to say that they have recurrent depressive disorder with further addition of a comorbid vascular process. These patients showed a fairly high severity of affective pathology that was responsible for more frequent admissions, as well as a phase course with relatively pure remissions without any clear intellectual-mnestic reduction and a predominance of hysterical character traits.

  9. An Exploration of Students' Science Learning Interest Related to Their Cognitive Anxiety, Cognitive Load, Self-Confidence and Learning Progress Using Inquiry-Based Learning with an iPad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Tai, Kai-Hsin; Tsai, Chi-Ruei

    2017-01-01

    Based on the cognitive-affective theory, the present study designed a science inquiry learning model, "predict-observe-explain" (POE), and implemented it in an app called "WhyWhy" to examine the effectiveness of students' science inquiry learning practice. To understand how POE can affect the cognitive-affective learning…

  10. National Economic Development Status May Affect the Association between Central Adiposity and Cognition in Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Maharani

    Full Text Available Obesity is becoming a global problem, rather than one found only in developed countries. Although recent studies have suggested a detrimental effect of obesity on cognition, studies of the relationship between obesity and cognition among older adults have been limited to developed countries. We aimed to examine the associations between central obesity, as measured by waist circumference, and cognition level in adults aged 50 years and older in England and Indonesia.We used linear regression models to analyse these associations and multiple imputation to manage missing data. The 2006 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing Wave 3 is the source of data from England, while data from Indonesia is sourced from the 2007 Indonesian Family Life Survey Wave 4.Centrally obese respondents had lower cognition levels than non-centrally obese respondents in England. In contrast, central adiposity had a statistically significant positive association with cognition in Indonesia. Higher levels of education and higher economic status were associated with higher cognitive ability, while age was associated with lower cognition in both countries. Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations and smoking behaviour, both linked to higher risk of obesity, were negatively associated with cognitive ability among older adults in England, but they had no statistically significant association with cognition among Indonesians.The contradictory findings on obesity and cognition in England and Indonesia not only create a puzzle, but they may also have different policy implications in these countries. Reducing the prevalence of obesity may be the main focus in England and other developed countries to maintain older adults' cognition. However, Indonesia and other developing countries should place more emphasis on education, in addition to continued efforts to tackle the double burden of malnutrition, in order to prevent cognitive impairment among older adults.

  11. Perfectionism and negative/positive affect associations: the role of cognitive emotion regulation and perceived distress/coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Juliana; Soares, Maria João; Pereira, Ana T; Macedo, António

    2017-01-01

    To explore 1) if perfectionism, perceived distress/coping, and cognitive emotion regulation (CER) are associated with and predictive of negative/positive affect (NA/PA); and 2) if CER and perceived distress/coping are associated with perfectionism and if they mediate the perfectionism-NA/PA associations. There is a distinction between maladaptive and adaptive perfectionism in its association with NA/PA. CER and perceived distress/coping may mediate the maladaptive/adaptive perfectionism and NA/PA associations. 344 students (68.4% girls) completed the Hewitt & Flett and the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scales, the Composite Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Profile of Mood States, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. NA predictors were maladaptive/adaptive perfectionism, maladaptive CER and perceived distress (positively), positive reappraisal and planning, and perceived coping (negatively). PA predictors were maladaptive/adaptive perfectionism and perceived distress (negatively), positive reappraisal and planning, positive refocusing and perceived coping (positively). The association between maladaptive perfectionism and NA was mediated by maladaptive CER/low adaptive CER, perceived distress/low coping. Maladaptive perfectionism and low PA association was mediated by perceived distress. High PA was determined by low maladaptive perfectionism and this association was mediated by adaptive REC and coping. Adaptive perfectionism and NA association was mediated by maladaptive CER and perceived distress. CER and perceived distress/coping are associated and mediate the perfectionism-NA/PA associations.

  12. Ketogenic diets and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phinney Stephen D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Impaired physical performance is a common but not obligate result of a low carbohydrate diet. Lessons from traditional Inuit culture indicate that time for adaptation, optimized sodium and potassium nutriture, and constraint of protein to 15–25 % of daily energy expenditure allow unimpaired endurance performance despite nutritional ketosis.

  13. Contact-Free Cognitive Load Recognition Based on Eye Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive overload not only affects the physical and mental diseases, but also affects the work efficiency and safety. Hence, the research of measuring cognitive load has been an important part of cognitive load theory. In this paper, we proposed a method to identify the state of cognitive load by using eye movement data in a noncontact manner. We designed a visual experiment to elicit human’s cognitive load as high and low state in two light intense environments and recorded the eye movement data in this whole process. Twelve salient features of the eye movement were selected by using statistic test. Algorithms for processing some features are proposed for increasing the recognition rate. Finally we used the support vector machine (SVM to classify high and low cognitive load. The experimental results show that the method can achieve 90.25% accuracy in light controlled condition.

  14. Effects of the Physical Environment on Cognitive Load and Learning: Towards a New Model of Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hwan-Hee; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Paas, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Although the theoretical framework of cognitive load theory has acknowledged a role for the learning environment, the specific characteristics of the physical learning environment that could affect cognitive load have never been considered, neither theoretically nor empirically. In this article, we argue that the physical learning environment, and…

  15. Change in Depression Symptomatology and Cognitive Function in Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Inge; McGue, Matt; Tan, Qihua

    2016-01-01

    of correlated traits. Here, we have applied twin modeling approaches to shed light on the genetic correlation between both level and change of depression symptomatology and cognitive functioning, and to further explore the bidirectionality of any such correlation using assessments of both phenotypes at two......A complex interrelation exists between change in depression symptomatology and cognitive decline. Studies indicate either that depression is a direct risk factor for cognitive change over time, or vice versa. Longitudinal twin studies provide the possibility to unravel cause and effect......-sectional heritability estimates of approximately 60% for general cognitive abilities and 30% for affective depressive symptoms. There was a considerable decline in the mean cognitive performance over 10 years, whereas the mean affective depression symptoms score was stable and with no genetic contribution to any...

  16. Classroom-based physical activity breaks and children’s attention: cognitive engagement works!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Schmidt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Classroom-based physical activity breaks are postulated to positively impact children’s attention during their school day. However, empirical evidence for this claim is scarce and the role of cognitive engagement in enhancing children’s attentional performance is unexplored in studies on physical activity breaks. The aim of the present study was therefore to disentangle the separate and/or combined effects of physical exertion and cognitive engagement induced by physical activity breaks on primary school children’s attention. In addition, the role of children’s affective reactions to acute interventions at school was investigated. Using a 2 × 2 between-subjects experimental design, 92 children between the ages of 11 and 12 years (M = 11.77, SD = 0.41 were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: (1 combo group (physical activity with high cognitive demands, (2 cognition group (sedentary with high cognitive demands, (3 physical group (physical activity with low cognitive demands, and (4 control group (sedentary with low cognitive demands. Attention and affect were measured before and immediately after a 10-minute intervention. ANCOVAs revealed that whereas physical exertion had no effect on any measure of children’s attentional performance, cognitive engagement was the crucial factor leading to increased focused attention and enhanced processing speed. Mediational analyses showed that changes in positive affect during the interventions mediated the effect between cognitive engagement and focused attention as well as between cognitive engagement and processing speed. These surprising results are discussed in the light of theories predicting both facilitating and deteriorative effects of positive affect on cognitive performance.

  17. A representation of place attachment: A study of spatial cognition in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilters, Jurgis; Zarina, Liga; Raita, Liva

    2017-04-01

    Perception of geographical space is reflected in place attachment, i.e., a multidimensional cognitive-affective link between humans and their spatial environment. Place attachment balances emotions, conception of proximity. It is both social and spatial cognitive structure. Place attachment has an impact on people's actions, which in turn reversibly affect the environment in which people live. Place attachment provides emotional regulation for humans linking local - neighborhood-scale and country and world-scale environments. In Latvia a large-scale spatial cognition study has been conducted within participatory research project „Telpas pavasaris" ("Spatial Spring") by foundation Viegli. In the study 1523 respondents reported their associations characterizing certain type of places (e.g., safe place, dangerous place, far place, close place, dear place). The answers were analyzed according to several cognitive-affective categories including modes of experience, emotional valence, geographical distance, and perceptual modality. The current results indicate that socio-cognitive and affective information are primary in respect to purely spatial information (referring to spatial objects or regions and their relations). However, different types of geographical places and spatial objects (natural or artefactual) have to be distinguished and are significant to a different degree. Our results are important for environmental and urban planning because they show the ways how socio-cognitive and affective knowledge shapes the spatial cognition of geographic environment.

  18. Cognitive deficits in marijuana users: effects on motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive behavioral therapy treatment outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonovich, Efrat; Brooks, Adam C; Nunes, Edward V; Hasin, Deborah S

    2008-01-01

    Clinical variables that affect treatment outcome for marijuana dependent individuals are not yet well understood, including the effects of cognitive functioning. To address this, level of cognitive functioning and treatment outcome were investigated. Twenty marijuana-dependent outpatients were administered a neuropsychological battery at treatment entry. All patients received 12 weekly individual sessions of combined motivational enhancement therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. The Wilcoxon Exact Test was used to compare cognitive functioning test scores between completers and dropouts, and the Fisher Exact Test was used to compare proportion of negative urines between those with higher and lower scores on the cognitive tests. Marijuana abstinence was unrelated to cognitive functioning. However, dropouts scored significantly lower than completers on measures of abstract reasoning and processing accuracy, providing initial evidence that cognitive functioning plays a role in treatment retention of adult marijuana dependent patients. If supported by further studies, the findings may help inform the development of interventions tailored for cognitively impaired marijuana dependent patients. PMID:18329188

  19. Emotional engagements predict and enhance social cognition in young chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Kim A; Bakeman, Roger; Boysen, Sarah T; Leavens, David A

    2014-09-01

    Social cognition in infancy is evident in coordinated triadic engagements, that is, infants attending jointly with social partners and objects. Current evolutionary theories of primate social cognition tend to highlight species differences in cognition based on human-unique cooperative motives. We consider a developmental model in which engagement experiences produce differential outcomes. We conducted a 10-year-long study in which two groups of laboratory-raised chimpanzee infants were given quantifiably different engagement experiences. Joint attention, cooperativeness, affect, and different levels of cognition were measured in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees, and compared to outcomes derived from a normative human database. We found that joint attention skills significantly improved across development for all infants, but by 12 months, the humans significantly surpassed the chimpanzees. We found that cooperativeness was stable in the humans, but by 12 months, the chimpanzee group given enriched engagement experiences significantly surpassed the humans. Past engagement experiences and concurrent affect were significant unique predictors of both joint attention and cooperativeness in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees. When engagement experiences and concurrent affect were statistically controlled, joint attention and cooperation were not associated. We explain differential social cognition outcomes in terms of the significant influences of previous engagement experiences and affect, in addition to cognition. Our study highlights developmental processes that underpin the emergence of social cognition in support of evolutionary continuity. © 2014 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Low selenium and reduced cognitive function in a cohort elderly study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianchao Bian; Sujuan Gao; Qiliang Qin; Zhongjie Yun; Yuan Liu; Shuliang Song; Chuanjiao Liu; Xiaohong Luo; Jie Gao; Chaoke Liang

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive function in the elderly is affected by various environmental,social,and individual factors.Studies show that chemical trace elements are closely related to cognitive function.As a protective factor,selenium promotes cognition in the elderly.However,study results into the effects of selenium on cognition have varied.By eliminating unstable environmental and other related factors,the present study selected elderly individuals from rural areas of the Shandong province to verify whether low selenium exposure is a risk factor for decreased cognitive function.Results demonstrated that age,sex,education,occupation,hypertension,stroke,and body selenium levels were factors affecting cognitive function in the elderly,and that selenium was an important protective factor.Moreover,results supported the hypothesis that a lifelong low selenium level is associated with low cognitive function.

  1. Culture Prefigures Cognition in Pan/Homo Bonobos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article questions traditional approaches to the study of primate cognition. Because of a widespread assumption that cognition in non-human primates is genetically encoded, these approaches neglect how profoundly apes’ cultural rearing experiences affect test results. We describe how three advanced cognitive abilities – imitation, theory of mind and language – emerged in bonobos maturing in a Pan/Homo culture.

  2. Season-independent cognitive deficits in seasonal affective disorder and their relation to depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjordt, Liv Vadskjær; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Ozenne, Brice

    2017-01-01

    Modalities Test (SDMT) and the Simple Reaction Time (SRT) twice; in summer and in winter. Compared to controls, SAD individuals showed significant season-independent impairments in tasks measuring working memory (LNS), cognitive processing speed (SDMT) and motor speed (SRT). In SAD individuals, cognitive...... processing speed was significantly negatively associated with the seasonal change in SAD depressive symptoms. We present novel evidence that in SAD individuals, working memory, cognitive processing- and motor speed is not only impaired in the winter but also in the summer. This suggests that certain...

  3. The experience sampling method: Investigating students' affective experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Jayson M.; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Shemwell, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Improving non-cognitive outcomes such as attitudes, efficacy, and persistence in physics courses is an important goal of physics education. This investigation implemented an in-the-moment surveying technique called the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) [1] to measure students' affective experience in physics. Measurements included: self-efficacy, cognitive efficiency, activation, intrinsic motivation, and affect. Data are presented that show contrasts in students' experiences (e.g., in physics vs. non-physics courses).

  4. Uncertainty and Cognitive Control

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    Faisal eMushtaq

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A growing trend of neuroimaging, behavioural and computational research has investigated the topic of outcome uncertainty in decision-making. Although evidence to date indicates that humans are very effective in learning to adapt to uncertain situations, the nature of the specific cognitive processes involved in the adaptation to uncertainty are still a matter of debate. In this article, we reviewed evidence suggesting that cognitive control processes are at the heart of uncertainty in decision-making contexts. Available evidence suggests that: (1 There is a strong conceptual overlap between the constructs of uncertainty and cognitive control; (2 There is a remarkable overlap between the neural networks associated with uncertainty and the brain networks subserving cognitive control; (3 The perception and estimation of uncertainty might play a key role in monitoring processes and the evaluation of the need for control; (4 Potential interactions between uncertainty and cognitive control might play a significant role in several affective disorders.

  5. Exploring the dynamics of collective cognition using a computational model of cognitive dissonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Paul R.; Sycara, Katia; Richardson, Darren P.

    2013-05-01

    The socially-distributed nature of cognitive processing in a variety of organizational settings means that there is increasing scientific interest in the factors that affect collective cognition. In military coalitions, for example, there is a need to understand how factors such as communication network topology, trust, cultural differences and the potential for miscommunication affects the ability of distributed teams to generate high quality plans, to formulate effective decisions and to develop shared situation awareness. The current paper presents a computational model and associated simulation capability for performing in silico experimental analyses of collective sensemaking. This model can be used in combination with the results of human experimental studies in order to improve our understanding of the factors that influence collective sensemaking processes.

  6. Towards Sensor-Free Affect Detection in Cognitive Tutor Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ryan S. J. d.; Gowda, Sujith M.; Wixon, Michael; Kalka, Jessica; Wagner, Angela Z.; Salvi, Aatish; Aleven, Vincent; Kusbit, Gail W.; Ocumpaugh, Jaclyn; Rossi, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the usefulness of affect detection for educational software has become clear. Accurate detection of student affect can support a wide range of interventions with the potential to improve student affect, increase engagement, and improve learning. In addition, accurate detection of student affect could play an essential role in…

  7. The emotional fundamentals of personality and the higher affective polarities of mind. Comment on "Personality from a cognitive-biological perspective" by Y. Neuman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak; Davis, Ken

    2014-12-01

    In brain-based personality theory, two things seem certain: i) the evolved functional organization of our subcortical affective mind, and ii) the diverse potentials for developmental programming of our high cognitive minds (i.e., our initially empty - tabula rasa like - neocortical spaces are largely developmentally programed to manifest higher mental abilities). In considering these two global aspects of brain-mind functions, we can be confident that primal subcortical functions (e.g., the capacity for raw emotions/affects, evident in all vertebrate species) evolved. Indeed, ancient creatures such as lamprey eels, with whom we shared ancestry 560 million years ago, still posses most neural systems that are homologous to those that constitute our own primal affective capacities [1]. Considering that primal emotional affects arise from such systems, there appears to be some remarkable continuity in our primal mental origins. The neural foundations of human emotional feelings, long neglected by academic psychology (for lack of empirical accessibility), may contain the rudimentary neuro-affective substrates of personality [2].

  8. How and why affective and reactive virtual agents will bring new insights on social cognitive disorders in schizophrenia? An illustration with a virtual card game paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eOker

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, many studies have shown that schizophrenia is associated with severe social cognitive impairments affecting key components, such as the recognition of emotions, theory of mind, attributional style and metacognition. Most studies investigated each construct separately, precluding analysis of the interactive and immersive nature of real-life situation. Specialized batteries of tests are under investigation to assess social cognition which is thought now as a link between neurocognitive disorders and impaired functioning. However, this link accounts for a limited part of the variance of real life functioning. To fill this gap, advances in virtual reality and affective computing have made it possible to carry out experimental investigations of naturalistic social cognition, in controlled conditions, with good reproducibility. This approach is illustrated with the description of a new paradigm based on an original virtual card game in which subjects interpret emotional displays from a female virtual agent, and decipher her helping intentions. Independent variables concerning emotional expression in terms of valence and intensity were manipulated. We show how several useful dependant variables, ranging from classic experimental psychology data to metacognition or subjective experiences records, may be extracted from a single experiment. Methodological issues about the immersion into a simulated intersubjective situation are considered. The example of this new flexible experimental setting with regards to the many constructs recognized in social neurosciences, constitutes a rationale for focusing on this potential intermediate link between standardized tests and real life functioning, and also for using it as an innovative media for cognitive remediation.

  9. How and why affective and reactive virtual agents will bring new insights on social cognitive disorders in schizophrenia? An illustration with a virtual card game paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oker, Ali; Prigent, Elise; Courgeon, Matthieu; Eyharabide, Victoria; Urbach, Mathieu; Bazin, Nadine; Amorim, Michel-Ange; Passerieux, Christine; Martin, Jean-Claude; Brunet-Gouet, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, many studies have shown that schizophrenia is associated with severe social cognitive impairments affecting key components, such as the recognition of emotions, theory of mind, attributional style, and metacognition. Most studies investigated each construct separately, precluding analysis of the interactive and immersive nature of real-life situation. Specialized batteries of tests are under investigation to assess social cognition, which is thought now as a link between neurocognitive disorders and impaired functioning. However, this link accounts for a limited part of the variance of real-life functioning. To fill this gap, advances in virtual reality and affective computing have made it possible to carry out experimental investigations of naturalistic social cognition, in controlled conditions, with good reproducibility. This approach is illustrated with the description of a new paradigm based on an original virtual card game in which subjects interpret emotional displays from a female virtual agent, and decipher her helping intentions. Independent variables concerning emotional expression in terms of valence and intensity were manipulated. We show how several useful dependant variables, ranging from classic experimental psychology data to metacognition or subjective experiences records, may be extracted from a single experiment. Methodological issues about the immersion into a simulated intersubjective situation are considered. The example of this new flexible experimental setting, with regards to the many constructs recognized in social neurosciences, constitutes a rationale for focusing on this potential intermediate link between standardized tests and real-life functioning, and also for using it as an innovative media for cognitive remediation.

  10. Course and cognitive outcome in major affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    analyses conducted without survival models and without paying attention to diagnostic instability or the individual heterogeneity of the course of episodes. Totally, these drawbacks and pitfalls affect the results of previous studies in unpredictable ways and make it hazardous to draw conclusions about...... as an expression of an affective episode. On average, a progressive course with increasing risk of recurrence with every new episode was found for unipolar and bipolar affective disorders. Initially, the two types of disorders followed markedly different courses, but later in the course of the illness the risk...... a progressive course of episodes. Initially in the course of affective disorders, socio-demographic variables such as gender, age at onset, and marital status and co-morbidity with alcoholism acted as risk factors for further recurrence. Later, however, particularly variables related to the previous course...

  11. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised accurately detects cognitive decline in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeti, Faye; Tan, Adrian Y K; Cummins, Gemma A; Collins, Lucy M; Guzman, Natalie Valle; Mason, Sarah L; Barker, Roger A

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive features, which begin before manifestation of the motor features, are an integral part of Huntington's disease and profoundly affect quality of life. A number of neuropsychological batteries have been used to assess this aspect of the condition, many of which are difficult to administer and time consuming, especially in advanced disease. We, therefore, investigated a simple and practical way to monitor cognition using the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) in 126 manifest Huntington's disease patients, 28 premanifest gene carriers and 21 controls. Using this test, we demonstrated a selective decrease in phonemic, but not semantic, fluency in premanifest participants Cognitive decl